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Sample records for high absorption cross-section

  1. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  2. High-resolution absorption cross sections of C$_{2}$H$_{6}$ at elevated temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Infrared absorption cross sections near 3.3 $\\mu$m have been obtained for ethane, C$_{2}$H$_{6}$. These were acquired at elevated temperatures (up to 773 K) using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and tube furnace with a resolution of 0.005 cm$^{-1}$. The integrated absorption was calibrated using composite infrared spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These new measurements are the first high-resolution infrared C$_{2}$H$_{6}$ cross sections at elevate...

  3. VUV-absorption cross section of CO2 at high temperatures and impact on exoplanet atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Venot, Olivia; Bénilan, Yves; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Hébrard, Eric; Larcher, Gwenaelle; Schwell, Martin; Dobrijevic, Michel; Selsis, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) absorption cross sections are an essential ingredient of photochemical atmosphere models. Exoplanet searches have unveiled a large population of short-period objects with hot atmospheres, very different from what we find in our solar system. Transiting exoplanets whose atmospheres can now be studied by transit spectroscopy receive extremely strong UV fluxes and have typical temperatures ranging from 400 to 2500 K. At these temperatures, UV photolysis cross section data are severely lacking. Our goal is to provide high-temperature absorption cross sections and their temperature dependency for important atmospheric compounds. This study is dedicated to CO2, which is observed and photodissociated in exoplanet atmospheres. We performed these measurements for the 115 - 200 nm range at 300, 410, 480, and 550 K. In the 195 - 230 nm range, we worked at seven temperatures between 465 and 800 K. We found that the absorption cross section of CO2 is very sensitive to temperature, especially above 160 nm....

  4. VUV-absorption cross section of CO2 at high temperatures and impact on exoplanet atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venot Olivia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV absorption cross sections are an essential ingredient of photochemical atmosphere models. Exoplanet searches have unveiled a large population of short-period objects with hot atmospheres, very different from what we find in our solar system. Transiting exoplanets whose atmospheres can now be studied by transit spectroscopy receive extremely strong UV fluxes and have typical temperatures ranging from 400 to 2500 K. At these temperatures, UV photolysis cross section data are severely lacking. Our goal is to provide high-temperature absorption cross sections and their temperature dependency for important atmospheric compounds. This study is dedicated to CO2, which is observed and photodissociated in exoplanet atmospheres. We performed these measurements for the 115 - 200 nm range at 300, 410, 480, and 550 K. In the 195 - 230 nm range, we worked at seven temperatures between 465 and 800 K. We found that the absorption cross section of CO2 is very sensitive to temperature, especially above 160 nm. Within the studied range of temperature, the CO2 cross section can vary by more than two orders of magnitude. This, in particular, makes the absorption of CO2 significant up to wavelengths as high as 230 nm, while it is negligible above 200 nm at 300 K. To investigate the influence of these new data on the photochemistry of exoplanets, we implemented the measured cross section into a 1D photochemical model. The model predicts that accounting for this temperature dependency of CO2 cross section can affect the computed abundances of NH3, CO2, and CO by one order of magnitude in the atmospheres of hot Jupiter and hot Neptune.

  5. High-resolution absorption cross sections of C$_{2}$H$_{6}$ at elevated temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, Robert J; Dulick, Michael; Bernath, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    Infrared absorption cross sections near 3.3 $\\mu$m have been obtained for ethane, C$_{2}$H$_{6}$. These were acquired at elevated temperatures (up to 773 K) using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and tube furnace with a resolution of 0.005 cm$^{-1}$. The integrated absorption was calibrated using composite infrared spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These new measurements are the first high-resolution infrared C$_{2}$H$_{6}$ cross sections at elevated temperatures.

  6. Absorption cross-section measurements of methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol at high temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Alrefae, Majed

    2014-09-01

    Mid-IR absorption cross-sections are measured for methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol over 2800-3400 cm-1 (2.9-3.6 μm) spectral region. Measurements are carried out using a Fourier-Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with temperatures ranging 296-1100 K and pressures near atmospheric. As temperature increases, the peak cross-sections decrease but the wings of the bands increase as higher rotational lines appear. Integrated band intensity is also calculated over the measured spectral region and is found to be a very weak function of temperature. The absorption cross-sections of the relatively small fuels studied here show dependence on the bath gas. This effect is investigated by studying the variation of absorption cross-sections at 3.392 μm using a HeNe laser in mixtures of fuel and nitrogen, argon, or helium. Mixtures of fuel with He have the highest value of absorption cross-sections followed by Ar and N2. Molecules with narrow absorption lines, such as methane and methanol, show strong dependence on bath gas than molecules with relatively broader absorption features i.e. ethane and ethylene. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Absorption cross-section measurements of methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrefae, Majed; Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Farooq, Aamir

    2014-09-01

    Mid-IR absorption cross-sections are measured for methane, ethane, ethylene and methanol over 2800-3400 cm-1 (2.9-3.6 μm) spectral region. Measurements are carried out using a Fourier-Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer with temperatures ranging 296-1100 K and pressures near atmospheric. As temperature increases, the peak cross-sections decrease but the wings of the bands increase as higher rotational lines appear. Integrated band intensity is also calculated over the measured spectral region and is found to be a very weak function of temperature. The absorption cross-sections of the relatively small fuels studied here show dependence on the bath gas. This effect is investigated by studying the variation of absorption cross-sections at 3.392 μm using a HeNe laser in mixtures of fuel and nitrogen, argon, or helium. Mixtures of fuel with He have the highest value of absorption cross-sections followed by Ar and N2. Molecules with narrow absorption lines, such as methane and methanol, show strong dependence on bath gas than molecules with relatively broader absorption features i.e. ethane and ethylene.

  8. EMPIRICAL LINE LISTS AND ABSORPTION CROSS SECTIONS FOR METHANE AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, R. J.; Bernath, P. F.; Dulick, M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, 4541 Hampton Boulevard, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Bailey, J., E-mail: rhargrea@odu.edu [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2015-11-01

    Hot methane is found in many “cool” sub-stellar astronomical sources including brown dwarfs and exoplanets, as well as in combustion environments on Earth. We report on the first high-resolution laboratory absorption spectra of hot methane at temperatures up to 1200 K. Our observations are compared to the latest theoretical spectral predictions and recent brown dwarf spectra. The expectation that millions of weak absorption lines combine to form a continuum, not seen at room temperature, is confirmed. Our high-resolution transmittance spectra account for both the emission and absorption of methane at elevated temperatures. From these spectra, we obtain an empirical line list and continuum that is able to account for the absorption of methane in high temperature environments at both high and low resolution. Great advances have recently been made in the theoretical prediction of hot methane, and our experimental measurements highlight the progress made and the problems that still remain.

  9. Empirical line lists and absorption cross sections for methane at high temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, Robert J; Bailey, Jeremy; Dulick, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hot methane is found in many "cool" sub-stellar astronomical sources including brown dwarfs and exoplanets, as well as in combustion environments on Earth. We report on the first high-resolution laboratory absorption spectra of hot methane at temperatures up to 1200 K. Our observations are compared to the latest theoretical spectral predictions and recent brown dwarf spectra. The expectation that millions of weak absorption lines combine to form a continuum, not seen at room temperature, is confirmed. Our high-resolution transmittance spectra account for both the emission and absorption of methane at elevated temperatures. From these spectra, we obtain an empirical line list and continuum that is able to account for the absorption of methane in high temperature environments at both high and low resolution. Great advances have recently been made in the theoretical prediction of hot methane, and our experimental measurements highlight the progress made and the problems that still remain.

  10. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.h.friese@uit.no; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  11. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Daniel H.; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  12. Investigation of the formaldehyde differential absorption cross section at high and low spectral resolution in the simulation chamber SAPHIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Brauers

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The results from a simulation chamber study on the formaldehyde (HCHO absorption cross section in the UV spectral region are presented. We performed 4 experiments at ambient HCHO concentrations with simultaneous measurements of two DOAS instruments in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Jülich. The two instruments differ in their spectral resolution, one working at 0.2 nm (broad-band, BB-DOAS, the other at 2.7 pm (high-resolution, HR-DOAS. Both instruments use dedicated multi reflection cells to achieve long light path lengths of 960 m and 2240 m, respectively, inside the chamber. During two experiments HCHO was injected into the clean chamber by thermolysis of well defined amounts of para-formaldehyde reaching mixing rations of 30 ppbV at maximum. The HCHO concentration calculated from the injection and the chamber volume agrees with the BB-DOAS measured value when the absorption cross section of Meller and Moortgat (2000 and the temperature coefficient of Cantrell (1990 were used for data evaluation. In two further experiments we produced HCHO in-situ from the ozone + ethene reaction which was intended to provide an independent way of HCHO calibration through the measurements of ozone and ethene. However, we found an unexpected deviation from the current understanding of the ozone + ethene reaction when CO was added to suppress possible oxidation of ethene by OH radicals. The reaction of the Criegee intermediate with CO could be 240 times slower than currently assumed. Based on the BB-DOAS measurements we could deduce a high-resolution cross section for HCHO which was not measured directly so far.

  13. QSO ABSORPTION SYSTEMS DETECTED IN Ne VIII: HIGH-METALLICITY CLOUDS WITH A LARGE EFFECTIVE CROSS SECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiring, J. D.; Tripp, T. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Werk, J. K.; Prochaska, J. X. [University of California Observatories-Lick Observatory, UC Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Howk, J. C. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Jenkins, E. B. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lehner, N.; Sembach, K. R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    Using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ultraviolet spectra of the z{sub em} = 0.9754 quasar PG1148+549 obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope, we study the physical conditions and abundances of Ne VIII+O VI absorption line systems at z{sub abs} = 0.68381, 0.70152, 0.72478. In addition to Ne VIII and O VI, absorption lines from multiple ionization stages of oxygen (O II, O III, O IV) are detected and are well aligned with the more highly ionized species. We show that these absorbers are multiphase systems including hot gas (T Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 5.7} K) that produces Ne VIII and O VI, and the gas metallicity of the cool phase ranges from Z = 0.3 Z{sub Sun} to supersolar. The cool ( Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4} K) phases have densities n{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3} and small sizes (<4 kpc); these cool clouds are likely to expand and dissipate, and the Ne VIII may be within a transition layer between the cool gas and a surrounding, much hotter medium. The Ne VIII redshift density, dN/dz{approx}7{sup +7}{sub -3}, requires a large number of these clouds for every L > 0.1 L* galaxy and a large effective absorption cross section ({approx}> 100 kpc), and indeed, we find a star-forming {approx}L {sup *} galaxy at the redshift of the z{sub abs} = 0.72478 system, at an impact parameter of 217 kpc. Multiphase absorbers like these Ne VIII systems are likely to be an important reservoir of baryons and metals in the circumgalactic media of galaxies.

  14. High-precision Measurement of the 238U(n,γ) Cross Section with the Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) at n_TOF, CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, T; Billowes, J; Ware, T; Cano-Ott, D; Mendoza, E; Massimi, C; Mingrone, F; Gunsing, F; Berthoumieux, E; Lampoudis, C; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Giubrone, G; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Korschinek, G; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Meaze, M; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mirea, M; Mondelaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Pignatari, M; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Žugec, P

    2014-01-01

    The neutron capture cross section of U-238 is fundamental to the design and operation of current reactors and future fast nuclear reactors, and thus must be measured to a high level of accuracy. An experiment has been performed at the CERN n TOF facility using a 4 pi Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) to measure the capture cross section in the resolved resonance region between 1 eV and 25 keV. A preliminary analysis of the TAC data is presented with particular emphasis to the experimental background in this energy region of interest.

  15. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-03-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  16. Er{sup 3+} ions doped tellurite glasses with high thermal stability, elasticity, absorption intensity, emission cross section and their optical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousef, El Sayed, E-mail: omn_yousef2000@yahoo.com [Physics Dep., Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9003, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Physics Dep., Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut (Egypt)

    2013-06-05

    Highlights: ► Present glasses have high thermal stability. ► The glass sample C has the effective emission cross section bandwidth (64 nm). It has large stimulated emission cross-section (0.89 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}). ► The optical gain coefficient to the population inversion of the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} level is 8.87 cm{sup −1}. -- Abstract: Three samples of tellurite glasses within system 46TeO{sub 2}⋅15ZnO⋅9.0P{sub 2}O{sub 5}⋅30LiNbO{sub 3} doped with xEr{sub 2}O{sub 3} ions (where x = 4000, 8000 and 10,000 ppm) have been prepared by using the conventional melt-quenching method. These glasses have high thermal stability proved by using differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements. Elastic properties of the glasses were investigated by measuring both longitudinal and shear velocities using the pulse-echo overlap technique at 5 MHz. Elastic moduli such as: longitudinal (λ), shear (μ), Bulk (B) and Young’s (Y) increased with the Er{sup 3+} concentration in the prepared glasses matrix. The optical properties of the glasses were estimated by measuring UV–vis-NIR spectroscopy. The Judd–Ofelt parameters, Ω{sub t} (t = 2, 4, 6) of Er{sup 3+} were evaluated from optical absorption spectra. The oscillator strength type transition probabilities, spectroscopic quality factors, branching ratio and radiative lifetimes of several excited states of Er{sup 3+} have been predicted using intensity Judd–Ofelt parameters. Gain cross-section for the Er{sup 3+} laser transition {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} → {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} was obtained. The results show 46TeO{sub 2}⋅15ZnO⋅9.0P{sub 2}O{sub 5}⋅30LiNbO{sub 3}⋅10,000 ppm Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass has the effective emission cross section bandwidth (64 nm) and large stimulated emission cross-section (0.89 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2}). The thermal stability, elastic and spectroscopic properties indicate that this glass doped with Er{sup 3+} is a promising candidate for optical applications and may be suitable

  17. Ozone absorption cross section measurements in the Wulf bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stuart M.; Hupalo, Peter; Mauersberger, Konrad

    1993-08-01

    A tandem dual-beam spectrometer has been developed to determine ozone absorption cross sections for 13 selected wavelengths between 750 and 975 nm at room temperature. The increasingly pronounced structure in this region may interfere with atmospheric trace gas transitions that are useful for remote sensing and complicate the measurement of aerosols. Ozone concentrations were determined by absorption at the common HeNe laser transition near 632.8 nm using the absolute cross section reported previously. The overall accuracy of these room temperature measurements is generally better than 2 percent. A synoptic near-IR spectrum scaled to these measurements is employed for comparison with results of previous studies.

  18. Carbonyl Sulfide Isotopologues: Ultraviolet Absorption Cross Sections and Stratospheric Photolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielache, Sebastian Oscar; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Eskebjerg, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of the main and substituted carbonyl sulfide isotopologues were calculated using wavepacket dynamics. The calculated absorption cross section of 16O12C32S is in very good agreement with the accepted experimental spectrum between 190 and 250 nm. Relative to 16O......12C32S, isotopic substitution shows a significant enhancement of the cross section for 16O13C32S, a significant reduction for 18O12C32S and 17O12C32S and almost no change for the sulfur isotopologues 16O12C33S, 16O12C34S, and 16O12C36S. The analysis of the initial wavepackets shows that these changes...

  19. Estimation of the Human Absorption Cross Section Via Reverberation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinböck, Gerhard; Pedersen, Troels; Fleury, Bernard Henri;

    2016-01-01

    Since the presence of persons affects the reverberation time observed for in-room channels, the absorption cross section of a person can be estimated from measurements via Sabine's and Eyring's models for the reverberation time. We propose an estimator relying on the more accurate model by Eyring...... and compare the obtained results to those of Sabine's model. We find that the absorption by persons is large enough to be measured with a wideband channel sounder and that estimates of the human absorption cross section differ for the two models. The obtained values are comparable to values reported...... in the literature. We also suggest the use of controlled environments with low average absorption coefficients to obtain more reliable estimates. The obtained values can be used to predict the change of reverberation time with persons in the propagation environment. This allows prediction of channel characteristics...

  20. Quasinormal modes, stability analysis and absorption cross section for 4-dimensional topological Lifshitz black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Central de Chile, Escuela de Ingenieria Civil en Obras Civiles, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Santiago (Chile); Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago (Chile); Moncada, Felipe; Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Temuco (Chile)

    2012-12-15

    We study scalar perturbations in the background of a topological Lifshitz black hole in four dimensions. We compute analytically the quasinormal modes and from these modes we show that topological Lifshitz black hole is stable. On the other hand, we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients and the absorption cross section and we show that there is a range of modes with high angular momentum which contributes to the absorption cross section in the low frequency limit. Furthermore, in this limit, we show that the absorption cross section decreases if the scalar field mass increases, for a real scalar field mass. (orig.)

  1. Mid-IR Absorption Cross-Section Measurements of Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Alrefae, Majed Abdullah

    2013-05-01

    Laser diagnostics are fast-response, non-intrusive and species-specific tools perfectly applicable for studying combustion processes. Quantitative measurements of species concentration and temperature require spectroscopic data to be well-known at combustion-relevant conditions. Absorption cross-section is an important spectroscopic quantity and has direct relation to the species concentration. In this work, the absorption cross-sections of basic hydrocarbons are measured using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, tunable Difference Frequency Generation laser and fixed wavelength helium-neon laser. The studied species are methane, methanol, acetylene, ethylene, ethane, ethanol, propylene, propane, 1-butene, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer is used for the measurements of the absorption cross-sections and the integrated band intensities of the 13 hydrocarbons. The spectral region of the spectra is 2800 – 3400 cm-1 (2.9 – 3.6 μm) and the temperature range is 673 – 1100 K. These valuable data provide huge opportunities to select interference-free wavelengths for measuring time-histories of a specific species in a shock tube or other combustion systems. Such measurements can allow developing/improving chemical kinetics mechanisms by experimentally determining reaction rates. The Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) laser is a narrow line-width, tunable laser in the 3.35 – 3.53 μm wavelength region which contains strong absorption features for most hydrocarbons due to the fundamental C-H vibrating stretch. The absorption cross-sections of propylene are measured at seven different wavelengths using the DFG laser. The temperature range is 296 – 460 K which is reached using a Reflex Cell. The DFG laser is very attractive for kinetic studies in the shock tube because of its fast time response and the potential possibility of making species-specific measurements. The Fixed wavelength

  2. High spectral resolution ozone absorption cross-sections – Part 1: Measurements, data analysis and comparison with previous measurements around 293 K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gorshelev

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the methodology of taking broadband relative and absolute measurements of ozone cross-sections including uncertainty budget, experimental set-ups, and methods for data analysis. We report on new ozone absorption cross-section measurements in the solar spectral region using a combination of Fourier transform and echelle spectrometers. The new cross-sections cover the spectral range 213–1100 nm at a spectral resolution of 0.02–0.06 nm in the UV-vis and 0.12–0.24 nm in the IR at eleven temperatures from 193 to 293 K in steps of 10 K. The absolute accuracy is better than three percent for most parts of the spectral region and wavelength calibration accuracy is better than 0.005 nm. The new room temperature cross-sections data are compared in detail with previously available literature data. The temperature dependence of our cross-sections is described in a companion paper.

  3. Thermal neutron absorption cross section and clay mineral content for Miocene Carpathian samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woznicka

    2000-12-01

    A correlation between the thermal neutron absorption cross section and the clay volume for samples from the chosen geological region is discussed. A comparison of the calculated and measured absorption cross sections as a function of clay volume allows an estimate to be made on the presence of highly absorbing impurities in clays. From the example presented, it was deduced that 105 ppm of B or 25 ppm of Gd in the clay minerals in the samples tested would be sufficient to explain the difference between the experimental and calculated cross sections.

  4. Record Multiphoton Absorption Cross-Sections by Dendrimer Organometalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Peter V; Watson, Laurance A; Barlow, Adam; Wang, Genmiao; Cifuentes, Marie P; Humphrey, Mark G

    2016-02-12

    Large increases in molecular two-photon absorption, the onset of measurable molecular three-photon absorption, and record molecular four-photon absorption in organic π-delocalizable frameworks are achieved by incorporation of bis(diphosphine)ruthenium units with alkynyl linkages. The resultant ruthenium alkynyl-containing dendrimers exhibit strong multiphoton absorption activity through the biological and telecommunications windows in the near-infrared region. The ligated ruthenium units significantly enhance solubility and introduce fully reversible redox switchability to the optical properties. Increasing the ruthenium content leads to substantial increases in multiphoton absorption properties without any loss of optical transparency. This significant improvement in multiphoton absorption performance by incorporation of the organometallic units into the organic π-framework is maintained when the relevant parameters are scaled by molecular weights or number of delocalizable π-electrons. The four-photon absorption cross-section of the most metal-rich dendrimer is an order of magnitude greater than the previous record value.

  5. UV absorption cross-sections of phenol and naphthalene at temperatures up to 500 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosch, Helge; Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Egsgaard, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections and their temperature dependency, especially in the UV spectral range, of organic compounds such as phenol and naphthalene are of great interest in atmospheric research and high temperature processes. Due to the challenges of producing premixed gases of known concentration......, it is difficult to determine absorption cross-sections in experiments, especially at higher temperatures. In this paper, a gas flow of nitrogen with a stable but unknown concentration of phenol or naphthalene is produced, and their UV absorption spectra between 195 and 350 nm have been measured at higher....... Consequently, the absorption cross-sections for phenol and naphthalene at room temperature, 423 K, 573 K and 773 K in the range of 195-360 nm are presented in this study....

  6. Determining the thermal neutron absorption cross section of rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreft, A.; Dydejczyk, A.; Gyurcsak, J.

    1984-07-01

    A new simple rapid and cost effective method of determining the thermal neutron absorption cross section of rocks is proposed. It uses samples of about 2 kg and a measuring set-up consisting of paraffin block, Pu-Be neutron source emitting roughly 5 x 10/sup 5/ n/s, BF/sub 3/ proportional counter and conventional counting equipment. The method has been tested with a set of 49 artificial samples and 95% confidence intervals of about 0.27 m/sup -1/ have been estimated for 2 x 300 s counting times. Measurements carried out for several basalt samples have been compared with results obtained by a pulsed neutron technique.

  7. High resolution absolute absorption cross sections of the B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' transition of the CH2OO biradical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Elizabeth S; Kapnas, Kara M; Jou, YiTien; Kalinowski, Jarosław; Feng, David; Gerber, R Benny; Murray, Craig

    2015-12-28

    Carbonyl oxides, or Criegee intermediates, are formed from the gas phase ozonolysis of alkenes and play a pivotal role in night-time and urban area atmospheric chemistry. Significant discrepancies exist among measurements of the strong B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' electronic transition of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH2OO in the visible/near-UV. We report room temperature spectra of the B ̃(1)A'-X ̃(1)A' electronic absorption band of CH2OO acquired at higher resolution using both single-pass broadband absorption and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The new absorption spectra confirm the vibrational structure on the red edge of the band that is absent from ionization depletion measurements. The absolute absorption cross sections over the 362-470 nm range are in good agreement with those reported by Ting et al. Broadband absorption spectra recorded over the temperature range of 276-357 K were identical within their mutual uncertainties, confirming that the vibrational structure is not due to hot bands.

  8. UV-absorption cross sections of a series of monocyclic aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Barbara; Stutz, Jochen; Platt, Ulrich

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are of increasing importance as components of urban volatile organic compounds. Besides gas-chromatographic techniques, the detection of aromatic hydrocarbons by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) is a promising alternative technique. The absolute calibration of DOAS-instruments is straightforward: Only the absorption cross sections of the species of interest and the instrument function are required. In this work we present measurements of high-resolution gas phase UV-absorption cross section spectra of benzene (C 6H 6), toluene (C 7H 8), p-, m-, o-xylene (C 8H 10), phenol (C 6H 5OH), benzaldehyde (C 7H 6O) and the cresol isomers (C 7H 8O), p-, m- and o-cresol in the wavelength interval between 230 and 290 nm. The spectral resolution is 0.11 nm (FWHM), except for o- and m-cresol, where the resolution is 0.32 nm (FWHM). These spectra can be used to calibrate DOAS-instruments. From these absorption cross sections typical detection limits for the atmospheric measurements with Long-Path-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy are calculated to be in the range of a few ppt (phenol), to a few 10 ppt (cresol, benzaldehyde, benzene, p-xylene), up to 200 ppt ( o-xylene). The attainability of these detection limits is demonstrated by measurements of atmospheric phenol and benzaldehyde.

  9. Total Cross Sections at High Energies An update

    CERN Document Server

    Fazal-e-Aleem, M; Alam, Saeed; Qadee-Afzal, M

    2002-01-01

    Current and Future measurements for the total cross sections at E-811, PP2PP, CSM, FELIX and TOTEM have been analyzed using various models. In the light of this study an attempt has been made to focus on the behavior of total cross section at very high energies.

  10. Scattered light and accuracy of the cross-section measurements of weak absorptions: Gas and liquid phase UV absorption cross sections of CH3CFCl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, A.; Braun, W.; Kurylo, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of CH3CFCl2(HCFC-141b) were determined in the gas phase (190-260 nm) and liquid phase (230-260 mm) at 298 K. The liquid phase absorption cross sections were then converted into accurate gas phase values using a previously described procedure. It has been demonstrated that scattered light from the shorter-wavelength region (as little as several parts per thousand) can seriously compromise the absorption cross-section measurement, particularly at longer wavelengths where cross sections are low, and can be a source of discrepancies in the cross sections of weakly absorbing halocarbons reported in the literature. A modeling procedure was developed to assess the effect of scattered light on the measured absorption cross section in our experiments, thereby permitting appropriate corrections to be made on the experimental values. Modeled and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Experimental results from this study were compared with other available determinations and provide accurate input for calculating the atmospheric lifetime of HCFC-141b.

  11. Absolute absorption cross-section and photolysis rate of I2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. C. Plane

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Following recent observations of molecular iodine (I2 in the coastal marine boundary layer (MBL (Saiz-Lopez and Plane, 2004, it has become important to determine the absolute absorption cross-section of I2 at reasonably high resolution, and also to evaluate the rate of photolysis of the molecule in the lower atmosphere. The absolute absorption cross-section (σ of gaseous I2 at room temperature and pressure (295 K, 760 Torr was therefore measured between 182 and 750 nm using a Fourier Transform spectrometer at a resolution of 4 cm−1 (0.1 nm at λ=500 nm. The maximum absorption cross-section in the visible region was observed at λ=533.0 nm to be σ=(4.84±0.60×10−18cm2 molecule−1. The spectrum is available as supplementary material accompanying this paper. The photo-dissociation rate constant (J of gaseous I2 was also measured directly in a solar simulator, yielding J(I2=0.12±0.03 s−1 for the lower troposphere. This agrees well with the value of 0.15±0.03 s−1 calculated using the measured absorption cross-section, terrestrial solar flux for clear sky conditions and assuming a photo-dissociation yield of unity. A two-stream radiation transfer model was then used to determine the variation in photolysis rate with solar zenith angle (SZA, from which an analytic expression is derived for use in atmospheric models. Photolysis appears to be the dominant loss process for I2 during daytime, and hence an important source of iodine atoms in the lower atmosphere.

  12. Cross section to multiplicity ratios at very high energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, M.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Stodolsky, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2014-06-27

    Recent data from the LHC makes it possible to examine an old speculation that at very high energy the total multiplicity and the cross section in elementary particle interactions vary in parallel with energy. Using fits incorporating the new data, it appears that the ratios of the total, elastic, and inelastic cross sections to the average multiplicity N can in fact approach constants at very high energy. The approach to the limit is however quite slow for the total and inelastic cross sections and is not yet reached at LHC energies. The elastic ratio σ{sup el}/N at 7 TeV, however, is not far from its asymptotic value.

  13. Quantitative comparisons of absorption cross-section spectra and integrated intensities of HFC-143a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bris, Karine; Graham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The integrated absorption cross-sections of HFC-143a (CH3CF3) differ substantially in the literature. This leads to an important uncertainty on the value of the radiative efficiency of this molecule. The ambiguity on the absorption cross-sections of HFC-143a is highlighted by the existence of two significantly different datasets in the HITRAN database. To solve the issue, we performed high-resolution Fourier transform infrared laboratory measurements of HFC-13a and compared the spectra with the two HITRAN datasets and with the data from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The experimental methods and data analysis techniques are examined and typical sources of errors are discussed. The integrated intensities of the main bands are compared to other literature values. It was found that the integrated absorption cross-section values in the highest range - around 13.8 ×10-17 cm .molecule-1 in the 570-1500 cm-1 spectral band - show the most consistency between authors.

  14. Luminescence decay and the absorption cross section of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berciaud, Stéphane; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim

    2008-08-15

    The absorption cross section of highly luminescent individual single-walled carbon nanotubes is determined using time-resolved and cw luminescence spectroscopy. A mean value of approximately 1 x 10(-17) cm2 per carbon atom is obtained for (6,5) tubes excited at their second optical transition, and corroborated by single tube photothermal absorption measurements. Biexponential luminescence decays are systematically observed, with short and long lifetimes around 45 and 250 ps. This behavior is attributed to the band edge exciton fine structure with a dark level lying a few meV below a bright one.

  15. Segregation during crystal growth from melt and absorption cross section determination by optical absorption method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG QingLi; YIN ShaoTang; SUN DunLu; WAN SongMing

    2008-01-01

    Segregation during crystal growth from melt under two conditions is studied by using crystal mass, which can be measured easily, as an independent variable, and a method to determine the effective segregation coefficient and absorption cross section of optical dopant is given. When the segregated solute disperses into the whole or just a part of melt homogenously, the concentration Cs in solid interface will change by different formulas. If the crystal growth interface is conical and segregated solute disperses into melt in total or part, the solute concentration at r=2/3R, where r is the distance from the growth cross section center and R the crystal radius, is independent on the shape of the crystal growth interface, and its variation at r=2/3R can be regarded as the result from crystal growth in flat interface. With Cs variation formula in solid and absorption cross section σ for optical dopant, the absorption coefficients along the crystal growth direction can be calculated, and the corresponding experimental value can be obtained through the crystal optical absorption spectra. By minimizing the half sum, whose independent variables are k, △W or σ, of the difference square between the calculated and experimental absorp-tion coefficients from one or more absorption peaks along the crystal growth di-rection, k and σ, or k and △W, can be determined at the same time through the Levenberg-Marquardt iteration method. Finally, the effective segregation coefficient k, △W and absorption cross sections of Nd:GGG were determined, the results fitted by two formula gave more closed effective segregation coefficient, and the value △W also indicates that the segregated dopant had nearly dispersed into the whole melt. Experimental results show that the method to determine effective segregation coefficient k, △W and absorption cross sections σ is convenient and reliable, and the two segregation formulas can describe the segregation during the crystal growth from

  16. Segregation during crystal growth from melt and absorption cross section determination by optical absorption method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Segregation during crystal growth from melt under two conditions is studied by using crystal mass,which can be measured easily,as an independent variable,and a method to determine the effective segregation coefficient and absorption cross section of optical dopant is given.When the segregated solute disperses into the whole or just a part of melt homogenously,the concentration CS in solid interface will change by different formulas.If the crystal growth interface is conical and segregated solute disperses into melt in total or part,the solute concentration at r=2/3R,where r is the distance from the growth cross section center and R the crystal radius,is independent on the shape of the crystal growth interface,and its variation at r=2/3R can be regarded as the result from crystal growth in flat interface.With CS variation formula in solid and absorption cross section σ for optical dopant,the absorption coefficients along the crystal growth direction can be calculated,and the corresponding experimental value can be obtained through the crystal optical absorption spectra.By minimizing the half sum,whose independent variables are k,ΔW or σ,of the difference square between the calculated and experimental absorp-tion coefficients from one or more absorption peaks along the crystal growth di-rection,k and σ,or k and ΔW,can be determined at the same time through the Levenberg-Marquardt iteration method.Finally,the effective segregation coefficient k,ΔW and absorption cross sections of Nd:GGG were determined,the results fitted by two formula gave more closed effective segregation coefficient,and the value ΔW also indicates that the segregated dopant had nearly dispersed into the whole melt.Experimental results show that the method to determine effective segregation coefficient k,ΔW and absorption cross sections σ is convenient and reliable,and the two segregation formulas can describe the segregation during the crystal growth from melt relatively commendably.

  17. Absorption Cross Section of Static Einstein-Maxwell Dilation Axion Black Hole for Scalar Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chang-Qing; JING Ji-Liang

    2007-01-01

    The absorption cross section of the static Einstein-Maxwell dilaton axion (EMDA) black hole for scalar particles is investigated.It is shown that the ratio of the absorption cross section of the EMDA black hole to that of the Schwarzschild black hole decreases as the absolute value of the dilaton increases,and it becomes zero as the dilaton tends to its extremal value.It is also shown that the absorption cross section decreases as both the v and the absolute value of the dilaton increase,and it decreases as the mass of the particle decreases.

  18. Absorption Cross Section of Einstein-Maxwell Dilation Axion Black Hole for Dirac Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The absorption cross section of the Einstein-Maxwell Dilaton Axion (EMDA) black hole for Dirac particles is investigated. It is shown that the absorption cross section decreases as both the v and the absolute value of the dilaton increase, but it increases as the mass of the particle increases. It is also shown that the absorption cross section for the masslcss Dirac particles is 1/8 of the area of the horizon, which may be an universal property for minimally coupled massless Dirac particles.

  19. Comment on "Giant absorption cross section of ultracold neutrons in Gadolinium"

    OpenAIRE

    Felber, J.; Gaehler, R.; Golub, R.

    2000-01-01

    Rauch et al (PRL 83, 4955, 1999) have compared their measurements of the Gd cross section for Ultra-cold neutrons with an exptrapolation of the cross section for thermal neutrons and interpreted the discrepancy in terms of coherence properties of the neutron. We show the extrapolation used is based on a misunderstanding and that coherence properties play no role in absorption.

  20. Effect of Pressure Broadening on Molecular Absorption Cross Sections in Exoplanetary Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Hedges, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of exoplanets are leading to unprecedented constraints on their atmospheric compositions. However, molecular abundances derived from spectra are degenerate with the absorption cross sections which form critical input data in atmospheric models. Therefore, it is important to quantify the uncertainties in molecular cross sections to reliably estimate the uncertainties in derived molecular abundances. However, converting line lists into cross sections via line broadening involves a series of prescriptions for which the uncertainties are not well understood. We investigate and quantify the effects of various factors involved in line broadening in exoplanetary atmospheres - the profile evaluation width, pressure versus thermal broadening, broadening agent, spectral resolution, and completeness of broadening parameters - on molecular absorption cross sections. We use H$_2$O as a case study as it has the most complete absorption line data. For low resolution spectra (R$\\lesssim$100) for re...

  1. Measurements of the mass absorption cross section of atmospheric soot particles using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, S.; Birmili, W.; Weinhold, K.; Müller, K.; Spindler, G.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-11-01

    Soot particles are a major absorber of shortwave radiation in the atmosphere. The mass absorption cross section is an essential quantity to describe this light absorption process. This work presents new experimental data on the mass absorption cross section of soot particles in the troposphere over Central Europe. Mass absorption cross sections were derived as the ratio between the light absorption coefficient determined by multiangle absorption photometry (MAAP) and the soot mass concentration determined by Raman spectroscopy. The Raman method is sensitive to graphitic structures present in the particle samples and was calibrated in the laboratory using Printex®90 model particles. Mass absorption cross sections were determined for a number of seven observation sites, ranging between 3.9 and 7.4 m2 g-1depending on measurement site and observational period. The highest values were found in a continentally aged air mass in winter, where soot particles were assumed to be mainly internally mixed. Our values are in the lower range of previously reported values, possibly due to instrumental differences to the former photometer and mass measurements. Overall, a value of 5.3m2 g-1from orthogonal regression over all samples is considered to be representative for the soot mass absorption cross section in the troposphere over Central Europe.

  2. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elaine Schulte

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  3. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Elaine [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  4. Absorption cross section for the 5νOH stretch of acetic acid and peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begashaw, I. G.; Collingwood, M.; Bililign, S.

    2009-12-01

    We report measurements of the absorption cross sections for the vibrational O-H stretch (5νOH) overtone transitions in glacial acetic acid and peracetic acid. The photochemistry that results from overtone excitation has been shown to lead to OH radical production in molecules containing O-H (HNO3, H2O2). In addition the overtone excitation has been observed to result in light initiated chemical reaction. A Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) instrument comprising of an Nd:YAG pumped dye laser and 620nm high reflectivity mirrors (R=99.995%) was used to measure the cross sections. The dye laser wavelength was calibrated using water vapor spectrum and the HITRAN 2008 database. The instrument’s minimum detectable absorption is αmin =4.5 *10-9cm-1 Hz-1/2 at 2σ noise level near the peak of the absorption feature. This measurement is the first for acetic acid at this excitation level. Preliminary results for acetic acid show the peak occurs near 615nm. Procedures for separating the monomer and dimer contribution will be presented. We would like to acknowledge support from NSF award #0803016 and NOAA-EPP award #NA06OAR4810187.

  5. O2 absorption cross sections /187-225 nm/ from stratospheric solar flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Mentall, J. E.

    1982-10-01

    The absorption cross sections of molecular oxygen are calculated in the wavelength range from 187 to 230 nm from solar flux measurements obtained within the stratosphere. Within the Herzberg continuum wavelength region the molecular oxygen cross sections are found to be about 30% smaller than the laboratory results of Shardanand and Rao (1977) from 200 to 210 nm and about 50% smaller than those of Hasson and Nicholls (1971). At wavelengths longer than 210 nm the cross sections agree with those of Shardanand and Rao. The effective absorption cross sections of O2 in the Schumann-Runge band region from 187 to 200 nm are calculated and compared to the empirical fit given by Allen and Frederick (1982). The calculated cross sections indicate that the transmissivity of the atmosphere may be underestimated by the use of the Allen and Frederic cross sections between 195 and 200 nm. The ozone column content between 30 and 40 km and the relative ozone cross sections are determined from the same solar flux data set.

  6. Absolute UV absorption cross sections of dimethyl substituted Criegee intermediate (CH3)2COO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-Pin; Chang, Chun-Hung; Takahashi, Kaito; Lin, Jim-Min, Jr.

    2016-06-01

    The absolute absorption cross sections of (CH3)2COO under a jet-cooled condition were measured via laser depletion to be (1.32 ± 0.10) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 at 308 nm and (9.6 ± 0.8) × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1 at 352 nm. The peak UV cross section is estimated to be (1.75 ± 0.14) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 at 330 nm, according to the UV spectrum of (CH3)2COO (Huang et al., 2015) scaled to the absolute cross section at 308 nm.

  7. New and improved infrared absorption cross sections for chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.

    2016-06-01

    The most widely used hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) commercially since the 1930s has been chloro-difluoromethane, or HCFC-22, which has the undesirable effect of depleting stratospheric ozone. As this molecule is currently being phased out under the Montreal Protocol, monitoring its concentration profiles using infrared sounders crucially requires accurate laboratory spectroscopic data. This work describes new high-resolution infrared absorption cross sections of chlorodifluoromethane over the spectral range 730-1380 cm-1, determined from spectra recorded using a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (Bruker IFS 125HR) and a 26 cm pathlength cell. Spectra of chlorodifluoromethane/dry synthetic air mixtures were recorded at resolutions between 0.01 and 0.03 cm-1 (calculated as 0.9/MOPD; MOPD denotes the maximum optical path difference) over a range of temperatures and pressures (7.5-762 Torr and 191-295 K) appropriate for atmospheric conditions. This new cross-section dataset improves upon the one currently available in the HITRAN (HIgh-resolution TRANsmission) and GEISA (Gestion et Etude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmosphériques) databases; in particular it provides coverage over a wider range of pressures and temperatures, has more accurate wavenumber scales, more consistent integrated band intensities, improved signal-to-noise, is free of channel fringing, and additionally covers the ν2 and ν7 bands.

  8. Experimental study on the temperature dependence of ultraviolet absorption cross-sections of sulfur dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The photoabsorption cross-sections of sulfur dioxide were measured in the spectral regions of 200-230 nm and 275 315 nm at 298-415 K,using a grating monochromator with a resolution of 0.2 nm.The discrete absorption cross-section is directly correlated with the number of quantum excited from the base state.The absorption cross-sections at the peaks of discrete bands decreased linearly with the increase of temperature,which corresponded to the decrease in the population of vibrational and rotational transitions from the base level to higher excitation levels.The absorption cross-section peaks decreased linearly when the temperature increased from 298 to 415 K,with relative drops of 74.0% and 75.8% at 200-230 nm and 275-315 nm,respectively.Another distinctive feature of sulfur dioxide absorption spectra in the above two spectral regions was the quasiperiodic structure of the absorption peaks,whose equal wavelength intervals were 1.53 nm and 1.95 nm,respectively.Red and blue shifts were not found at the absorption peak positions.

  9. Improved measurement of the neutron absorption cross section for very low velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroffenegger, J.; Fierlinger, P.; Hollering, A.; Geltenbort, P.; Lauer, T.; Rauch, H.; Zechlau, T.

    2016-01-01

    The absorption cross section of natural Gd and isotopic enriched 157Gd for ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) as a function of the velocity has been measured within a time-of-flight-experiment. Particular attention is paid to small velocities in the region of a few m/s. This is intended to determine the validity of the 1 / v-law governing absorption cross sections in this region and the resulting divergence at v = 0. The experiment does not show any significant violation of 1 / v for v > 3 m /s.

  10. Improved measurement of the neutron absorption cross section for very low velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schroffenegger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The absorption cross section of natural Gd and isotopic enriched 157Gd for ultra-cold neutrons (UCN as a function of the velocity has been measured within a time-of-flight-experiment. Particular attention is paid to small velocities in the region of a few m/s. This is intended to determine the validity of the 1/v-law governing absorption cross sections in this region and the resulting divergence at v=0. The experiment does not show any significant violation of 1/v for v>3 m/s.

  11. Improved measurement of the neutron absorption cross section for very low velocities

    OpenAIRE

    J. Schroffenegger; Fierlinger, P.; Hollering, A.; Geltenbort, P; Lauer, T.(Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, Technische Universität München, Garching, D-85748, Germany); Rauch, H.; Zechlau, T.

    2016-01-01

    The absorption cross section of natural Gd and isotopic enriched 157 Gd for ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) as a function of the velocity has been measured within a time-of-flight-experiment. Particular attention is paid to small velocities in the region of a few m/s. This is intended to determine the validity of the 1/v -law governing absorption cross sections in this region and the resulting divergence at v=0 . The experiment does not show any significant violation of 1/v for v>3 m/s .

  12. Aggregation induced enhanced emission of conjugated dendrimers with a large intrinsic two-photon absorption cross-section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Bin; Zhang, Jibo; Fang, Honghua; Ma, Suqian; Chen, Qidai; Sun, Hongbo; Im, Chan; Tian, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    Organic nonlinear optical materials combining high luminescence quantum yields and large two-photon absorption cross-sections are attractive for both fundamental research and practical applications, such as up-converted lasers and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Herein, we reported a series of

  13. New and improved infrared absorption cross sections for dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Harrison

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite its widespread commercial use throughout the twentieth century, primarily in the refrigeration industry, dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12 is now known to have the undesirable effect of depleting stratospheric ozone. As this long-lived molecule slowly degrades in the atmosphere, monitoring its vertical concentration profile using infrared sounders on satellite platforms crucially requires accurate laboratory spectroscopic data. This work describes new high-resolution infrared absorption cross sections of dichlorodifluoromethane over the spectral range 800–1270 cm−1, determined from spectra recorded using a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (Bruker IFS 125HR and a 26 cm-pathlength cell. Spectra of dichlorodifluoromethane/dry synthetic air mixtures were recorded at resolutions between 0.01 and 0.03 cm−1 (calculated as 0.9/MOPD; MOPD = maximum optical path difference over a range of temperatures and pressures (7.5–761 Torr and 190–294 K appropriate for atmospheric conditions. This new cross-section dataset improves upon the one currently available in the HITRAN and GEISA databases.

  14. Cross section calculations of astrophysical interest. [for theories of absorption and emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerjuoy, E.

    1974-01-01

    Cross sections are discussed for rotational excitation associated with theories of absorption and emission lines from molecules in space with emphasis on H2CO, CO, and OH by collisions with neutral particles such H, H2, and He. The sensitivity of the Thaddeus equation for the H2CO calculation is examined.

  15. Could the New Absorption Cross Section of J/psi Change the Aspect of Nuclear Absorption Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The enlarged new absorption cross section of J/psi by pion and rho mesons were put into the hadron and string cascade model, JPCIAE, and the J/psi suppression factors in p-A, O-U, S-U and Pb-Pb minimum bias collisions at 200 AGeV/c were calculated with nuclear absorption mechanism only. The results seem to indicate that, with new enlarged cross section it is still hard to change the aspect that nuclear absorption itself could not easily account for the J/psi anomalous suppression in Pb-Pb collisions.

  16. Vacuum-UV spectroscopy of interstellar ice analogs. II. Absorption cross-sections of nonpolar ice molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Diaz, G. A.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Chen, Y.-J.; Yih, T.-S.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Dust grains in cold circumstellar regions and dark-cloud interiors at 10-20 K are covered by ice mantles. A nonthermal desorption mechanism is invoked to explain the presence of gas-phase molecules in these environments, such as the photodesorption induced by irradiation of ice due to secondary ultraviolet photons. To quantify the effects of ice photoprocessing, an estimate of the photon absorption in ice mantles is required. In a recent work, we reported the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) absorption cross sections of nonpolar molecules in the solid phase. Aims: The aim was to estimate the VUV-absorption cross sections of nonpolar molecular ice components, including CH4, CO2, N2, and O2. Methods: The column densities of the ice samples deposited at 8 K were measured in situ by infrared spectroscopy in transmittance. VUV spectra of the ice samples were collected in the 120-160 nm (10.33-7.74 eV) range using a commercial microwave-discharged hydrogen flow lamp. Results: We found that, as expected, solid N2 has the lowest VUV-absorption cross section, which about three orders of magnitude lower than that of other species such as O2, which is also homonuclear. Methane (CH4) ice presents a high absorption near Ly-α (121.6 nm) and does not absorb below 148 nm. Estimating the ice absorption cross sections is essential for models of ice photoprocessing and allows estimating the ice photodesorption rates as the number of photodesorbed molecules per absorbed photon in the ice. Data can be found at http://ghosst.osug.fr/

  17. Scattering and absorption differential cross sections for double photon Compton scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Sandhu; M B Saddi; B Singh; B S Ghumman

    2001-10-01

    The scattering and absorption differential cross sections for nonlinear QED process such as double photon Compton scattering have been measured as a function of independent final photon energy. The incident gamma photons are of 0.662 MeV in energy as produced by an 8 Ci137Cs radioactive source and thin aluminum foils are used as scatterer. The two simultaneously emitted photons in this process are detected in coincidence using two NaI(T1) scintillation detectors and a slow-fast coincidence set-up of 30 nsec resolving time. The measured values of scattering and absorption differential cross sections agree with theory within experimental estimated error.

  18. Absorption Cross-section and Decay Rate of Rotating Linear Dilaton Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Sakalli, I

    2016-01-01

    We analytically study the scalar perturbation of non-asymptotically flat (NAF) rotating linear dilaton black holes (RLDBHs) in 4-dimensions. We show that both radial and angular wave equations can be solved in terms of the hypergeometric functions. The exact greybody factor (GF), the absorption cross-section (ACS), and the decay rate (DR) for the massless scalar waves are computed for these black holes (BHs). The results obtained for ACS and DR are discussed through graphs.

  19. Absorption cross-section and decay rate of rotating linear dilaton black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalli, I.; Aslan, O. A.

    2016-02-01

    We analytically study the scalar perturbation of non-asymptotically flat (NAF) rotating linear dilaton black holes (RLDBHs) in 4-dimensions. We show that both radial and angular wave equations can be solved in terms of the hypergeometric functions. The exact greybody factor (GF), the absorption cross-section (ACS), and the decay rate (DR) for the massless scalar waves are computed for these black holes (BHs). The results obtained for ACS and DR are discussed through graphs.

  20. Accurate measurements of ozone absorption cross-sections in the Hartley band

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Ozone plays a crucial role in tropospheric chemistry, is the third largest contributor to greenhouse radiative forcing after carbon dioxide and methane and also a toxic air pollutant affecting human health and agriculture. Long-term measurements of tropospheric ozone have been performed globally for more than 30 years with UV photometers, all relying on the absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have re-determined this cross-section and report a value of 11...

  1. Accurate laser measurements of ozone absorption cross-sections in the Hartley band

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Ozone plays a crucial role in tropospheric chemistry, is the third largest contributor to greenhouse radiative forcing after carbon dioxide and methane and also a toxic air pollutant affecting human health and agriculture. Long-term measurements of tropospheric ozone have been performed globally for more than 30 years with UV photometers, all relying on the absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have re-determined this cross-section and rep...

  2. UV absorption cross-sections of selected sulfur-containing compounds at temperatures up to 500°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosch, Helge; Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    2015-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the ultraviolet absorption cross-sections of three different sulfur containing compounds, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon disulfide (CS2) and carbonyl sulfide (OCS), are presented between 200nm and 360nm at a resolution of 0.018nm. The absorption cross-sections for each...

  3. Comments on high-energy total cross sections in QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giordano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss how hadronic total cross sections at high energy depend on the details of QCD, namely on the number of colours Nc and the quark masses. We find that while a “Froissart”-type behaviour σtot∼Blog2⁡s is rather general, relying only on the presence of higher-spin stable particles in the spectrum, the value of B depends quite strongly on the quark masses. Moreover, we argue that B is of order O(Nc0 at large Nc, and we discuss a bound for B which does not become singular in the Nf=2 chiral limit, unlike the Froissart–Łukaszuk–Martin bound.

  4. Parametric Study of the Absorption Cross-Section for a Moderately Conducting Thin Cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurton, Kristan Peter

    A system has been developed to measure the absorption cross section of a single carbon fiber at 35 GHz as a function of length, orientation, and diameter. Typical lengths considered ranged from 1 to 20 mm, and diameters ranged from 3 to 8 um. The results were compared with the modified integral equation calculations of Waterman and Pedersen that describe the scattering and absorption behavior for a wire of finite length and conductivity. Good agreement was found for all lengths, orientations, and diameters studied.

  5. Parametric study of the absorption cross section for a moderately conducting thin cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurton, Kristan P.; Bruce, Charles W.

    1995-05-01

    A system has been developed to measure the absorption cross section for a single carbon fiber at 35 GHz as a function of length, orientation, and diameter. Typical lengths of the fibers considered ranged from 1 to 20 mm, and diameters ranged from 3 to 8 mu m. The results were compared with the modified integral equation calculations of Waterman and Pedersen that describe the scattering and absorption behavior for a wire of finite length and conductivity. Good agreement was found for all lengths, orientations, and diameters studied.

  6. Determination of absorption cross-section of Si nanocrystals by two independent methods based on either absorption or luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenta, J., E-mail: jan.valenta@mff.cuni.cz; Greben, M. [Department of Chemical Physics and Optics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Remeš, Z. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnická 10, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Gutsch, S.; Hiller, D.; Zacharias, M. [Faculty of Engineering, IMTEK, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-01-11

    Absorption cross-section (ACS) of silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) is determined via two completely independent approaches: (i) Excitation-intensity-dependent photoluminescence (PL) kinetics under modulated (long square pulses) pumping and (ii) absorbance measured by the photothermal deflection spectroscopy combined with morphology information obtained by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. This unique comparison reveals consistent ACS values around 10{sup −15} cm{sup 2} for violet excitation of SiNCs of about 3–5 nm in diameter and this value is comparable to most of direct band-gap semiconductor nanocrystals; however, it decreases steeply towards longer wavelengths. Moreover, we analyze the PL-modulation technique in detail and propose an improved experimental procedure which enables simpler implementation of this method to determine ACS of various (nano)materials in both solid and liquid states.

  7. Improved Neutron Capture Cross Section Measurements with the n_TOF Total Absorption Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mendoza, E; Perkowski, J; Andriamonje, S; Carrapico, C; Moinul, M; Vannini, G; Quesada, J M; Harrisopulos, S; Milazzo, P M; Berthier, B; Lozano, M; Krticka, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Nolte, R; Chiaveri, E; Saarmento, H; Jericha, E; Ferrari, A; Massimi, C; Giubrone, G; Avrigeanu, V; Martinez, T; Guerrero, C; Andrzejewski, J; Karadimos, D; Mengoni, A; Ganesan, S; Vlachoudis, V; Becares, V; Cortes, G; Variale, V; Losito, H; Calvino, F; Kappeler, F; Gunsing, F; Gramegna, F; Colonna, N; Marrone, S; Pavlik, A; Berthoumieux, E; Paradela, C; Mastinu, P F; Vaz, P; Tassan-Got, L; Kadi, Y; Tarrio, D; Cano-Ott, D; Brugger, M; Wallner, A; Audouin, L; Fernandez-Ordonez, M; Becvar, F; Goncalves, I F; Cerutti, F; Ventura, A; Mosconi, M; Tagliente, G; Duran, I; Casado, A; Ioannides, K; Weiss, C; Mirea, M; Gomez-Hornillos, M B; Vlastou, R; Calviani, M; Lederer, C; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Marganiec, J; Vidriales, J J; Lebbos, E; Leeb, H; Heil, M; Dillmann, I; Tain, J L; Belloni, F

    2011-01-01

    The n\\_TOF collaboration operates a Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) {[}1] for measuring neutron capture cross-sections of low-mass and/or radioactive samples. The results obtained with the TAC have led to a substantial improvement of the capture cross sections of (237)Np and (240)Pu {[}2]. The experience acquired during the first measurements has allowed us to optimize the performance of the TAC and to improve the capture signal to background ratio, thus opening the way to more complex and demanding measurements on rare radioactive materials. The new design has been reached by a series of detailed Monte Carlo simulations of complete experiments and dedicated test measurements. The new capture setup will be presented and the main achievements highlighted.

  8. Absorption cross section determination of biogenic C5-aldehydes in the actinic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Beatriz; Jiménez, Elena; Ballesteros, Bernabé; Albaladejo, José

    2008-03-01

    UV absorption cross sections ( σλ) for 3-methylbutanal, trans-2-methyl-2-butenal, and 3-methyl-2-butenal have been determined between 255 and 390 nm and as a function of temperature (273-305 K). A D 2 lamp and a 0.5 m spectrograph coupled to a charged-couple device were employed in these measurements. σλ values were found to be independent of temperature in the range studied. The cross section data reported in this Letter were used to provide estimates of the photolysis rate coefficients ( Ji) for these compounds as a function of altitude in the troposphere. Photolysis and OH reaction both appear to be important in determining the atmospheric fate of these compounds.

  9. Differential, elastic integral and moment transfer cross sections for electron scattering from N2 at intermediate- and high-energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi De-Heng; Liu Yu-Fang; Sun Jin-Feng; Zhu Zun-Lue; Yang Xiang-Dong

    2005-01-01

    A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom, with the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule taken into consideration, is firstly employed to calculate the differential cross sections, elastic integral cross sections, and moment transfer cross sections for electron scattering from molecular nitrogen over the energy range 300-1000eV by using additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. The bondedatom concept is used in the study of the complex optical model potential composed of static, exchange, correlation polarization and absorption contributions. The calculated quantitative molecular differential cross sections, elastic integral cross sections, and moment transfer cross sections are compared with the experimental and theoretical ones wherever available, and they are found to be in good agreement with each other. It is shown that the additivity rule model together with the complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom is completely suitable for the calculations of differential cross section, elastic integral cross section and moment transfer cross section over the intermediate- and high-energy ranges.

  10. Absorption cross-sections of ozone in the ultraviolet and visible spectral regions: Status report 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphal, Johannes; Staehelin, Johannes; Tamminen, Johanna; Braathen, Geir; De Backer, Marie-Renée; Bais, Alkiviadis; Balis, Dimitris; Barbe, Alain; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Birk, Manfred; Burkholder, James B.; Chance, Kelly; von Clarmann, Thomas; Cox, Anthony; Degenstein, Doug; Evans, Robert; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Flittner, David; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Gorshelev, Viktor; Gratien, Aline; Hare, Edward; Janssen, Christof; Kyrölä, Erkki; McElroy, Thomas; McPeters, Richard; Pastel, Maud; Petersen, Michael; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Picquet-Varrault, Benedicte; Pitts, Michael; Labow, Gordon; Rotger-Languereau, Maud; Leblanc, Thierry; Lerot, Christophe; Liu, Xiong; Moussay, Philippe; Redondas, Alberto; Van Roozendael, Michel; Sander, Stanley P.; Schneider, Matthias; Serdyuchenko, Anna; Veefkind, Pepijn; Viallon, Joële; Viatte, Camille; Wagner, Georg; Weber, Mark; Wielgosz, Robert I.; Zehner, Claus

    2016-09-01

    The activity "Absorption Cross-Sections of Ozone" (ACSO) started in 2008 as a joint initiative of the International Ozone Commission (IO3C), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the IGACO ("Integrated Global Atmospheric Chemistry Observations") O3/UV subgroup to study, evaluate, and recommend the most suitable ozone absorption cross-section laboratory data to be used in atmospheric ozone measurements. The evaluation was basically restricted to ozone absorption cross-sections in the UV range with particular focus on the Huggins band. Up until now, the data of Bass and Paur published in 1985 (BP, 1985) are still officially recommended for such measurements. During the last decade it became obvious that BP (1985) cross-section data have deficits for use in advanced space-borne ozone measurements. At the same time, it was recognized that the origin of systematic differences in ground-based measurements of ozone required further investigation, in particular whether the BP (1985) cross-section data might contribute to these differences. In ACSO, different sets of laboratory ozone absorption cross-section data (including their dependence on temperature) of the group of Reims (France) (Brion et al., 1993, 1998, 1992, 1995, abbreviated as BDM, 1995) and those of Serdyuchenko et al. (2014), and Gorshelev et al. (2014), (abbreviated as SER, 2014) were examined for use in atmospheric ozone measurements in the Huggins band. In conclusion, ACSO recommends: The spectroscopic data of BP (1985) should no longer be used for retrieval of atmospheric ozone measurements. For retrieval of ground-based instruments of total ozone and ozone profile measurements by the Umkehr method performed by Brewer and Dobson instruments data of SER (2014) are recommended to be used. When SER (2014) is used, the difference between total ozone measurements of Brewer and Dobson instruments are very small and the difference between Dobson measurements at AD and CD wavelength pairs are diminished

  11. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-section measurements of 1-butene (1-C4H8) in VUV and IR

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2013-01-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) absorption cross-section measurements of 1-butene (1-C4H8; CH2=CHCH2CH3; Butylene) are reported over the temperature range of 296-529K. The VUV measurements are performed between 115 and 205nm using synchrotron radiation as a tunable VUV light source. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is employed to measure absorption cross-section and band strengths in the IR region between 1.54 and 25μm (~6500-400cm-1). The measured room-temperature VUV and IR absorption cross-sections are compared with available literature data and are found to be in good agreement. The oscillator strength for the electronic transition (A1A\\'→X1A\\') around 150-205nm is determined to be 0.32±0.01.The gas temperature has a strong effect on both VUV and IR spectra. Measurements made in the VUV region show that the peak value of the band cross-section decreases and the background continuum increases with increasing gas temperature. This behavior is due to a change in the rotational and vibrational population distribution of 1-butene molecule. Similar changes in rotational population are observed in the IR spectra. Moreover, variation of the IR spectra with temperature is used to measure the enthalpy difference between syn and skew conformations of 1-butene and is found to be 0.24±0.03. kcal/mol, which is in excellent agreement with values reported in the literature. The measurements reported in this work will provide the much-needed spectroscopic information for the development of high-temperature quantitative diagnostics in combustion applications and validation of atmospheric chemistry models of extra-solar planets. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Ab initio many-body calculations of the 4He photo-absorption cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, Micah D; Johnson, Calvin W; Jurgenson, Eric D; Navratil, Petr

    2013-01-01

    A major goal of nuclear theory is to make quantitative calculations of low-energy nuclear observables starting from microscopic internucleon forces. Computationally, this is complicated by the large model spaces needed to reach convergence in many-body approaches, such as the no-core shell model (NCSM). In recent years, the similarity renormalization group (SRG) has provided a powerful and versatile means to soften interactions for ab initio structure calculations, thus leading to convergence within smaller model spaces. Here we compute the 4He total photo absorption cross section and study, for the first time, the consistency of the SRG approach in a continuum observable.

  13. Shape dependency of the extinction and absorption cross sections of dust aerosols modeled as randomly oriented spheroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wagner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present computational results on the shape dependency of the extinction and absorption cross sections of dustlike aerosol particles that were modeled as randomly oriented spheroids. Shape dependent variations in the extinction cross sections are largest in the size regime that is governed by the interference structure. Elongated spheroids best fitted measured extinction spectra of re-dispersed Saharan dust samples. For dust particles smaller than 1.5 μm in diameter and low absorption potential, shape effects on the absorption cross sections are very small.

  14. Theoretical study relating the two-photon absorption cross section to the susceptibility controlling four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, J.; Mcilrath, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    A theory that it is necessary to extract a two-photon absorption cross section from a mixing signal is developed. The dependence of the cross section on the third-order susceptibility is shown and both the mixing signal and reference signal dependences on the susceptibility are given. Techniques to process the measured value of the susceptibility and relate it to the cross section are developed and limits of validity are established. Finally, a comparison is made between the expression for the cross section presently reported and values given elsewhere.

  15. High-mass dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Ahn, S H; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Bashkirov, V; Basile, M; Bauerdick, L A T; Bednarek, B; Behrens, U; Bell, M; Bellagamba, L; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bodmann, B; Bokel, C; Boogert, S; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Breitweg, J; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Cartiglia, N; Catterall, C D; Chapin, D; Chekanov, S; Chiochia, V; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cirio, R; Cloth, P; Coldewey, C; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; Crittenden, J; Cross, R; D'Agostini, Giulio; Dagan, S; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; Dannheim, D; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Deshpande, Abhay A; Desler, K; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Engelen, J; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fox-Murphy, A; Fricke, U; Fusayasu, T; Gabareen, A; Galea, R; Gallo, E; García, G; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Göbel, F; Goers, S; Golubkov, Yu A; Goncalo, R; González, O; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Graciani, R; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hanlon, S; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G F; Hayes, M E; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Helbich, M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hillert, S; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Hughes, V W; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Jelen, K; Jeoung, H Y; Jones, T W; Kananov, S; Kappes, A; Karshon, U; Katkov, I I; Katz, U F; Kcira, D; Kerger, R; Khein, L A; Kim, C L; Kim, J Y; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klimek, K; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korotkova, N A; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D A; Kreisel, A; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Labes, H; Lammers, S; Lane, J B; Lee, J H; Lee, S B; Lee, S W; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levi, G; Levman, G M; Levy, A; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lopez-Duran Viani, A; Lukina, O Yu; Lupi, A; Ma, K J; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Markun, P; Martens, J; Martin, J F; Martínez, M; Maselli, S; Massam, Thomas; Mastroberardino, A; Matsushita, T; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; McCubbin, N A; Mellado, B; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, A; Milite, M; Miller, D B; Mindur, B; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Moritz, M; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Nania, R; Nigro, A; Nishimura, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Ochs, A; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Paganis, S; Palmonari, F; Parenti, A; Park, I H; Park, S K; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Peroni, C; Pesci, A; Petrucci, M C; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Raach, H; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, I; Reeder, D D; Renner, R; Repond, J; Rigby, M; Robins, S; Rodrigues, E; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Ruske, O; Ruspa, M; Sabetfakhri, A; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Sar, G; Saull, P R B; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schnurbusch, H; Sciulli, F; Scott, J; Selonke, F; Shche, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smalska, B; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Solomin, A N; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Saint-Laurent, M G; Staiano, A; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Surrow, B; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tandler, J; Tapper, A D; Tapper, R J; Tassi, E; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Tuning, N; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Umemori, K; Vázquez, M; Velthuis, J J; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Walker, R; Weber, A; Wessoleck, H; West, B J; Whitmore, J J; Wichmann, R; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Wölfle, S; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Za, L; Zakrzewski, J A; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, S A; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J

    2002-01-01

    Dijet differential cross sections for the reaction e+p -> e+ + jet + jet + X in the photoproduction regime have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 42.7 pb**{-1}. The cross sections are given for photon-proton centre-of-mass energies in the range 134 e+ Z0 X} < 5.9 pb. Upper limits on the photoproduction of new heavy resonances decaying into two jets are also presented for masses in the range between 60 GeV and 155 GeV.

  16. Accurate laser measurements of ozone absorption cross-sections in the Hartley band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Viallon

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozone plays a crucial role in tropospheric chemistry, is the third largest contributor to greenhouse radiative forcing after carbon dioxide and methane and also a toxic air pollutant affecting human health and agriculture. Long-term measurements of tropospheric ozone have been performed globally for more than 30 years with UV photometers, all relying on the absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have re-determined this cross-section and report a value of 11.27 × 10−18 cm2 molecule−1 with an expanded relative uncertainty of 0.84 %. This is lower than the conventional value currently in use and measured by Hearn in 1961 with a relative difference of 1.8%, with the consequence that historically reported ozone concentrations should be increased by 1.8%. In order to perform the new measurements of cross sections with reduced uncertainties, a system to generate pure ozone in the gas phase together with an optical system based on a UV laser with lines in the Hartley band, including accurate path length measurement of the absorption cell and a careful evaluation of possible impurities in the ozone sample by mass spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy was setup. This resulted in new measurements of absolute values of ozone absorption cross sections of 9.48 × 10−18, 10.44 × 10−18, and 11.07 × 10−18 cm2 molecule−1, with relative expanded uncertainties better than 0.6%, for the wavelengths (in vacuum of 244.062, 248.32, and 257.34 nm respectively. The cross-section at the 253.65 nm line of mercury was determined by comparisons using a Standard Reference Photometer equipped with a mercury lamp as the light source. The newly reported value should be used in the future to obtain the most accurate measurements of ozone concentration, which are in closer agreement with non UV photometry based methods such as the gas phase titration of ozone with nitrogen monoxide.

  17. Accurate measurements of ozone absorption cross-sections in the Hartley band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, J.; Lee, S.; Moussay, P.; Tworek, K.; Petersen, M.; Wielgosz, R. I.

    2015-03-01

    Ozone plays a crucial role in tropospheric chemistry, is the third largest contributor to greenhouse radiative forcing after carbon dioxide and methane and also a toxic air pollutant affecting human health and agriculture. Long-term measurements of tropospheric ozone have been performed globally for more than 30 years with UV photometers, all relying on the absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have re-determined this cross-section and report a value of 11.27 x 10-18 cm2 molecule-1 with an expanded relative uncertainty of 0.86% (coverage factor k= 2). This is lower than the conventional value currently in use and measured by Hearn (1961) with a relative difference of 1.8%, with the consequence that historically reported ozone concentrations should be increased by 1.8%. In order to perform the new measurements of cross-sections with reduced uncertainties, a system was set up to generate pure ozone in the gas phase together with an optical system based on a UV laser with lines in the Hartley band, including accurate path length measurement of the absorption cell and a careful evaluation of possible impurities in the ozone sample by mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This resulted in new measurements of absolute values of ozone absorption cross-sections of 9.48 x 10-18, 10.44 x 10-18 and 11.07 x 10-18 cm2 molecule-1, with relative expanded uncertainties better than 0.7%, for the wavelengths (in vacuum) of 244.06, 248.32, and 257.34 nm respectively. The cross-section at the 253.65 nm line of mercury was determined by comparisons using a Standard Reference Photometer equipped with a mercury lamp as the light source. The newly reported value should be used in the future to obtain the most accurate measurements of ozone concentration, which are in closer agreement with non-UV-photometry based methods such as the gas phase titration of ozone with nitrogen monoxide.

  18. Accurate laser measurements of ozone absorption cross-sections in the Hartley band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, J.; Lee, S.; Moussay, P.; Tworek, K.; Petersen, M.; Wielgosz, R. I.

    2014-08-01

    Ozone plays a crucial role in tropospheric chemistry, is the third largest contributor to greenhouse radiative forcing after carbon dioxide and methane and also a toxic air pollutant affecting human health and agriculture. Long-term measurements of tropospheric ozone have been performed globally for more than 30 years with UV photometers, all relying on the absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have re-determined this cross-section and report a value of 11.27 × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1 with an expanded relative uncertainty of 0.84 %. This is lower than the conventional value currently in use and measured by Hearn in 1961 with a relative difference of 1.8%, with the consequence that historically reported ozone concentrations should be increased by 1.8%. In order to perform the new measurements of cross sections with reduced uncertainties, a system to generate pure ozone in the gas phase together with an optical system based on a UV laser with lines in the Hartley band, including accurate path length measurement of the absorption cell and a careful evaluation of possible impurities in the ozone sample by mass spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy was setup. This resulted in new measurements of absolute values of ozone absorption cross sections of 9.48 × 10-18, 10.44 × 10-18, and 11.07 × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1, with relative expanded uncertainties better than 0.6%, for the wavelengths (in vacuum) of 244.062, 248.32, and 257.34 nm respectively. The cross-section at the 253.65 nm line of mercury was determined by comparisons using a Standard Reference Photometer equipped with a mercury lamp as the light source. The newly reported value should be used in the future to obtain the most accurate measurements of ozone concentration, which are in closer agreement with non UV photometry based methods such as the gas phase titration of ozone with nitrogen monoxide.

  19. Measurements of the absorption cross section of (13)CHO(13)CHO at visible wavelengths and application to DOAS retrievals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Natasha R; Waxman, Eleanor M; Coburn, Sean C; Koenig, Theodore K; Thalman, Ryan; Dommen, Josef; Hannigan, James W; Tyndall, Geoffrey S; Volkamer, Rainer

    2015-05-14

    The trace gas glyoxal (CHOCHO) forms from the atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons and is a precursor to secondary organic aerosol. We have measured the absorption cross section of disubstituted (13)CHO(13)CHO ((13)C glyoxal) at moderately high (1 cm(-1)) optical resolution between 21 280 and 23 260 cm(-1) (430-470 nm). The isotopic shifts in the position of absorption features were found to be largest near 455 nm (Δν = 14 cm(-1); Δλ = 0.29 nm), whereas no significant shifts were observed near 440 nm (Δν < 0.5 cm(-1); Δλ < 0.01 nm). These shifts are used to investigate the selective detection of (12)C glyoxal (natural isotope abundance) and (13)C glyoxal by in situ cavity enhanced differential optical absorption spectroscopy (CE-DOAS) in a series of sensitivity tests using synthetic spectra, and laboratory measurements of mixtures containing (12)C and (13)C glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide, and other interfering absorbers. We find the changes in apparent spectral band shapes remain significant at the moderately high optical resolution typical of CE-DOAS (0.55 nm fwhm). CE-DOAS allows for the selective online detection of both isotopes with detection limits of ∼200 pptv (1 pptv = 10(-12) volume mixing ratio), and sensitivity toward total glyoxal of few pptv. The (13)C absorption cross section is available for download from the Supporting Information.

  20. Sulphur Dioxide: High Resolution Ultra-Violet Photoabsorption Cross Section Measurements at 200K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackie, D.; Blackwell-Whitehead, R.; Stark, G.; Pickering, J. C.; Rufus, J.; Thorne, A.; Smith, P. L.

    2007-12-01

    Sulphur Dioxide plays an important role not only within the Earth's atmosphere but also within the complex chemistry of both the upper atmosphere of Venus and the volcanically active Jovian moon Io. The lack of high resolution laboratory studies has prevented the full, accurate determination of absorption cross sections which are the basis for reliable photochemical models. High resolution laboratory measurements of SO2 are essential to resolve the complex SO2 spectrum and yield accurate photoabsorption cross sections. Using the Imperial College UV Fourier Transform Spectrometer new high resolution (λ/δλ ~ 450,000) measurements have been recorded over a range of temperatures and pressures. As part of an on-going series of measurements, current laboratory work focused on photoabsorption cross sections of SO2 at 200K across the wavelength range 220 → 325 nm. These measurements not only compliment previous room temperature measurements obtained at Imperial College in the 190 → 220 nm and 220 → 328 nm ranges (Stark et al., JGR Planets 104, 16, 585 (1999) and Rufus et al.,( JGR Planets 108, 2, 5 (2003)), but also coincide with the wavelength regions being recorded by the Venus Express mission through the UV-IR spectrometer SPICAV (ESA-SCI(2001)6). Our new measurements will allow accurate analysis of the chemical processes in the upper atmosphere of Venus. These absorption cross section measurements are the first to be acquired at this resolution, temperature and pressure. Results will be presented. This work was supported in part by NASA Grant NNG05GA03G, PPARC (UK), and the Leverhulme Trust.

  1. Pressure-dependent water absorption cross sections for exoplanets and other atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Emma J.; Hill, C.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Dudaryonok, Anna S.; Lavrentieva, Nina N.

    2017-01-01

    Many atmospheres (cool stars, brown dwarfs, giant planets, extrasolar planets) are predominately composed of molecular hydrogen and helium. H216O is one of the best measured molecules in extrasolar planetary atmospheres to date and a major compound in the atmospheres of brown-dwarfs and oxygen-rich cool stars, yet the scope of experimental and theoretical studies on the pressure broadening of water vapour lines by collision with hydrogen and helium remains limited. Theoretical H2- and He-broadening parameters of water vapour lines (rotational quantum number J up to 50) are obtained for temperatures in the range 300-2000 K. Two approaches for calculation of line widths were used: (i) the averaged energy difference method and (ii) the empirical expression for J ‧ J ″ -dependence. Voigt profiles based on these widths and the BT2 line list are used to generate high resolution (Δ ν ˜ = 0.01cm-1) pressure broadened cross sections for a fixed range of temperatures and pressures between 300 and 2000 K and 0.001-10 bar. An interpolation procedure which can be used to determine cross sections at intermediate temperature and pressure is described. Pressure broadening parameters and cross sections are presented in new ExoMol format.

  2. First-principles calculation of multiphoton absorption cross section of α-quartz under femtosecond laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dong; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Feng; Qu, Liangti; Lu, Yongfeng

    2016-05-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory-based first-principles calculations have been used to study the ionization process and electron excitation. The results show that the number of excited electrons follows the power law σ k I k at peak intensities of I key role. The multiphoton absorption cross section of α-quartz σ k is further calculated to be 3.54 × 1011 cm-3 ps-1 (cm2/TW)6. Using the plasma model, the theoretical results of the damage threshold fluences are consistent with the experimental data, which validates the calculated value of multiphoton absorption cross section. By employing the calculated cross section value in the plasma model, the damage threshold fluences are theoretically estimated, being consistent with the experimental data, which validates the calculated value of multiphoton absorption cross section. The preliminary multiscale model shows great potential in the simulation of laser processing.

  3. Vacuum-UV spectroscopy of interstellar ice analogs. I. Absorption cross-sections of polar-ice molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz-Diaz, G A; Chen, Y -J; Yih, T -S

    2014-01-01

    The VUV absorption cross sections of most molecular solids present in interstellar ice mantles with the exception of H2O, NH3, and CO2 have not been reported yet. Models of ice photoprocessing depend on the VUV absorption cross section of the ice to estimate the penetration depth and radiation dose, and in the past, gas phase cross section values were used as an approximation. We aim to estimate the VUV absorption cross section of molecular ice components. Pure ices composed of CO, H2O, CH3OH, NH3, or H2S were deposited at 8 K. The column density of the ice samples was measured in situ by infrared spectroscopy in transmittance. VUV spectra of the ice samples were collected in the 120-160 nm (10.33-7.74 eV) range using a commercial microwave-discharged hydrogen flow lamp. We provide VUV absorption cross sections of the reported molecular ices. Our results agree with those previously reported for H2O and NH3 ices. Vacuum-UV absorption cross section of CH3OH, CO, and H2S in solid phase are reported for the first...

  4. High-resolution photoabsorption cross section measurements of sulfur dioxide between 198 nm and 325 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Glenn; Smith, Peter; Blackie, Douglas; Blackwell-Whitehead, Richard; Pickering, Juliet; Rufus, James; Thorne, Anne

    Accurate photoabsorption cross section data at a range of temperatures are required for the incorporation of sulfur dioxide into atmospheric photochemical models. In addition to its role in the terrestrial atmosphere, sulfur dioxide is observed in significant concentrations in the atmospheres of Venus and Io. Our laboratory measurement program focuses on the very congested SO2 spectrum in the ultraviolet. Using the Imperial College UV Fourier transform spectrometer, we have recorded high-resolution (resolving power (λ/∆λ) = 450,000) absorption spectra in the 198 to 325 nm region over a range of temperatures from 160 K to 295 K. This high resolving power allows resolutions approaching those required to fully resolve the Doppler profile of SO2 in the UV. We have reported absolute photoabsorption cross sections at 295 K [Stark et al., JGR Planets 104, 16585 (1999); Rufus et al. JGR Planets 108, doi:10.1029/2002JE001931,(2003)]. Further measurements, at 160 K in the 198 to 200 nm region and at 195 K in the 220 to 325 nm region, have been recorded and analyzed. We present an overview of our new measured cross sections at temperatures and pressures comparable to those found in planetary atmospheres. This work was supported in part by NASA Grant NNG05GA03G, PPARC (UK), and the Leverhulme Trust.

  5. Vacuum-UV spectroscopy of interstellar ice analogs. I. Absorption cross-sections of polar-ice molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Diaz, G. A.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Chen, Y.-J.; Yih, T.-S.

    2014-02-01

    Context. The vacuum-UV (VUV) absorption cross sections of most molecular solids present in interstellar ice mantles with the exception of H2O, NH3, and CO2 have not been reported yet. Models of ice photoprocessing depend on the VUV absorption cross section of the ice to estimate the penetration depth and radiation dose, and in the past, gas phase cross section values were used as an approximation. Aims: We aim to estimate the VUV absorption cross section of molecular ice components. Methods: Pure ices composed of CO, H2O, CH3OH, NH3, or H2S were deposited at 8 K. The column density of the ice samples was measured in situ by infrared spectroscopy in transmittance. VUV spectra of the ice samples were collected in the 120-160 nm (10.33-7.74 eV) range using a commercial microwave-discharged hydrogen flow lamp. Results: We provide VUV absorption cross sections of the reported molecular ices. Our results agree with those previously reported for H2O and NH3 ices. Vacuum-UV absorption cross section of CH3OH, CO, and H2S in solid phase are reported for the first time. H2S presents the highest absorption in the 120-160 nm range. Conclusions: Our method allows fast and readily available VUV spectroscopy of ices without the need to use a synchrotron beamline. We found that the ice absorption cross sections can be very different from the gas-phase values, and therefore, our data will significantly improve models that simulate the VUV photoprocessing and photodesorption of ice mantles. Photodesorption rates of pure ices, expressed in molecules per absorbed photon, can be derived from our data. Data can be found at http://ghosst.osug.fr/

  6. Absorption and scattering cross-section extinction values of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaing, May; Gebear-Eigzabher, Bellsabel; Roa, Azael; Marcano, Aristides; Radu, Daniela; Lai, Cheng-Yu

    2016-08-01

    We determine the extinction values of silver nanoparticles as a function of their diameter for three different wavelengths (405 nm, 532 nm, and 671 nm) from the values of absorbance and their photothermal lens response. We show that for particles of small diameters (extinction grows as the cube of the diameter for all three wavelengths. For larger particles the extinction determined from absorbance exhibits a sixth order dependence on the diameters for 532 nm and 671 nm. This kind of behavior is typical of scattering processes that should dominate for large particles. For 405 nm the plasmonic resonant absorption dominates over scattering making difficult the observation of the sixth order dependence even for particles larger than 50 nm. The absorption cross-section measured by the photothermal method does not show the sixth order dependence. It depends on the cube of the particle's diameter for all nanoparticles confirming the scattering free character of this absorption technique and validating the results of the absorbance experiment.

  7. Absorption cross section of building materials at mm wavelength in a reverberation chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, D.; Delfini, A.; Pastore, R.; Marchetti, M.; Diana, R.; Gradoni, G.

    2017-02-01

    The reverberation chamber (RC) method is used to estimate the average absorption cross section of building materials at mm wave frequencies. Analysed samples include concrete, travertine and bricks of different types. The investigation is carried out in the frequency range between 50 GHz and 68 GHz, which is of interest in the next generation of mobile telecommunication system. A cylindrical cavity is transformed into a RC through the use of a mechanical model stirrer. The chamber field is statistically homogeneous and depolarized; therefore it can be used to probe the average response of the sample under test. In particular, through a differential measure of the average quality factor (average insertion loss) it is possible estimate the fraction of power absorbed by the sample under test. Several cube-shape samples have been characterized and compared. Obtained results show that analysed samples have remarkably different levels of the electromagnetic wave absorption, depending on both material density and chemical composition. The absorption of pure water is used as a baseline to determine the dynamic range of the measurement.

  8. Infrared absorption cross section, radiative forcing, and GWP of four hydrofluoro(poly)ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, G.; Nielsen, C. J.; Powell, D. L.; Stordal, F.

    Quantitative infrared cross-sections of the unbranched hydrofluoro(poly)ethers CHF 2OCHF 2, CHF 2OCF 2OCHF 2 and CHF 2OCF 2CF 2OCHF 2 have been obtained at 298 K in the region 25-4000 cm -1. Radiative forcing calculations have been performed for these compounds and for CHF 2OCF 2OCF 2CF 2OCHF 2, and the values found per molecule are high compared to those of other CFCs and CFC replacements. Atmospheric lifetimes, calculated on the basis of experimental reaction rates with OH radicals, and global warming potentials are presented for all four compounds.

  9. Absolute cross sections for charge capture from Rydberg targets by slow highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaola, B.D.; Huang, M.; Winecki, S.; Stoeckli, M.P.; Kanai, Y. [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Lundeen, S.R.; Fehrenbach, C.W.; Arko, S.A. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A crossed beam experiment has been used to measure absolute charge capture cross sections in collisions of slow highly charged xenon ions with laser excited Rydberg atoms. The cross sections were measured for scaled projectile velocities {ital nv}{sub {ital p}} from 1.0 to 6.0, for projectile charges of 8, 16, 32, and 40, where {ital n} is the principal quantum number of the target electron. Experimental cross sections are compared with predictions of classical models.

  10. An Evaluation of Mass Absorption Cross-Section for Optical Carbon Analysis on Teflon Filter Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presler-Jur, Paige; Doraiswamy, Prakash; Hammond, Oki; Rice, Joann

    2017-04-05

    Black carbon (BC) or elemental carbon (EC) is a by-product of incomplete fuel combustion, and contributes adversely to human health, visibility, and climate impacts. Previous studies have examined non-destructive techniques for particle light attenuation measurements on Teflon(®) filters to estimate BC. The incorporation of an inline Magee Scientific OT21 Transmissometer into the MTL AH-225 robotic weighing system provides the opportunity to perform optical transmission measurements on Teflon(®) filters at the same time as the gravimetric mass measurement. In this study, we characterize the performance of the inline OT21, and apply it to determine the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of PM2.5 BC across the U.S. We analyzed 5393 archived Teflon(®) filters from the Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) collected during 2010-2011 and determined MAC by comparing light attenuation on Teflon(®) filters to corresponding thermal EC on quartz-fiber filters. Results demonstrated the importance of the initial transmission (I0) value used in light attenuation calculations. While light transmission varied greatly within filter lots, the average I0 of filter blanks during from the sampling period provided an estimate for archived filters. For newly collected samples, it is recommended that filter-specific I0 measurements be made (i.e., same filter before sample collection). The estimated MAC ranged from 6.9 to 9.4 m(2)/g that varied by region and season across the U.S., indicating that using a default value may lead to under- or over-estimated BC concentrations. An analysis of the chemical composition of these samples indicated good correlation with EC for samples with higher EC content as a fraction of total PM2.5 mass, while the presence of light scattering species such as crustal elements impacted the correlation affecting the MAC estimate. Overall, the method is demonstrated to be a quick, cost-effective approach to estimate BC from archived and newly sampled Teflon

  11. Temperature dependent O3 absorption cross sections for GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2: I. Re-analysis of Flight Model Data and Retrieval Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehade, Wissam; Weber, Mark; Gorshelev, Victor; Serdyuchenko, Anna; Burrows, John P.

    For a long term coverage of global O3 measurements from SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imag-ing Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY), GOME1, and GOME2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), high quality absorption cross section spectra is a pre-requisite. Laboratory measurements of cross section spectra of O3 (at 203K, 223K, 243K, 273K and 293K) were performed using CATGAS (Calibration Apparatus for Trace Gas Absorption Spec-troscopy) under representative in-flight conditions with SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 spectrom-eters to obviate the need of an instrumental slit function correction. For the data acquired from the CATGAS campaigns, a re-analysis is carried out to improve the overestimation in the total O3 retrieval by SCIAMACHY and GOME2 using the flight model (FM) reference data from SCIAMACHY and GOME2, respectively, with respect to GOME1. The reanalysis attempts to re-evaluate the concatenation of ozone optical density measurements obtained from CATGAS measurements and applying new ways to absolutely calibrate the cross-.sections using absolute reference cross-section data at reference wavelengths, Finally, a satellite retrieval error analy-sis will be performed to validate the updated satellite reference cross-sections. The updated reference data can be used for combining the data from the three instruments (plus the two upcoming GOME-2) generating a consisting long-term dataset of total ozone.

  12. Halo Gas Cross Sections And Covering Fractions of MgII Absorption Selected Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzak, G G; Steidel, C C; Murphy, M T

    2007-01-01

    We examine halo gas cross sections and covering fractions, f_c, of intermediate redshift MgII absorption selected galaxies. We computed statistical absorber halo radii, R_x, using current values of dN/dz and Schechter luminosity function parameters, and have compared these values to the distribution of impact parameters and luminosities from a sample of 37 galaxies. For equivalent widths W_r(2796) > 0.3 Ang, we find 43 R_x and several non-absorbing galaxies lie at D ~ 0.6 for our sample. Moreover, the data suggest halo radii of MgII absorbing galaxies do not follow a luminosity scaling with beta in the range of 0.2-0.28, if f_c= 1 as previously reported. However, provided f_c~0.6, we find that halo radii can remain consistent with a Holmberg-like luminosity relation with beta > 0.2 and R* = R_x/sqrt(f_c)= 110 kpc. No luminosity scaling (beta=0) is also consistent with the observed distribution of impact parameters if f_c < 0.37. The data support a scenario in which gaseous halos are patchy and likely hav...

  13. New and improved infra-red absorption cross sections and ACE-FTS retrievals of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.; Boone, Christopher D.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is one of the species regulated by the Montreal Protocol on account of its ability to deplete stratospheric ozone. As such, the inconsistency between observations of its abundance and estimated sources and sinks is an important problem requiring urgent attention (Carpenter et al., 2014) [5]. Satellite remote-sensing has a role to play, particularly limb sounders which can provide vertical profiles into the stratosphere and therefore validate stratospheric loss rates in atmospheric models. This work is in two parts. The first describes new and improved high-resolution infra-red absorption cross sections of carbon tetrachloride/dry synthetic air over the spectral range 700-860 cm-1 for a range of temperatures and pressures (7.5-760 Torr and 208-296 K) appropriate for atmospheric conditions. This new cross-section dataset improves upon the one currently available in the HITRAN and GEISA databases. The second describes a new, preliminary ACE-FTS carbon tetrachloride retrieval that improves upon the v3.0/v3.5 data products, which are biased high by up to 20-30% relative to ground measurements. Making use of the new spectroscopic data, this retrieval also improves the microwindow selection, contains additional interfering species, and utilises a new instrumental lineshape; it will form the basis for the upcoming v4.0 CCl4 data product.

  14. Gas-phase absorption cross sections of 24 monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the UV and IR spectral ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzkorn, Thomas; Klotz, Björn; Sørensen, Søren; Patroescu, Iulia V.; Barnes, Ian; Becker, Karl H.; Platt, Ulrich

    Absorption cross sections of 24 volatile and non-volatile derivatives of benzene in the ultraviolet (UV) and the infrared (IR) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum have been determined using a 1080 l quartz cell. For the UV a 0.5 m Czerny-Turner spectrometer coupled with a photodiode array detector (spectral resolution 0.15 nm) was used. IR spectra were recorded with an FT-IR spectrometer (Bruker IFS-88, spectral resolution 1 cm -1). Absolute absorption cross sections and the instrument function are given for the UV, while for the IR, absorption cross sections and integrated band intensities are reported. The study focused primarily on the atmospherically relevant methylated benzenes (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, ethylbenzene, styrene) and their ring retaining oxidation products (benzaldehyde, o-tolualdehyde, m-tolualdehyde, p-tolualdehyde, phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, 2,3-dimethylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 2,5-dimethylphenol, 2,6-dimethylphenol, 3,4-dimethylphenol, 3,5-dimethylphenol, 2,4,6-trimethylphenol and ( E,Z)- and ( E,E)-2,4-hexadienedial). The UV absorption cross sections reported here can be used for the evaluation of DOAS spectra (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) for measurements of the above compounds in the atmosphere and in reaction chambers, while the IR absorption cross sections will primarily be useful in laboratory studies on atmospheric chemistry, where FT-IR spectrometry is an important tool.

  15. Parameter-free calculation of charge-changing cross sections at high energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y.; Horiuchi, W.; Terashima, S.; Kanungo, R.; Ameil, F.; Atkinson, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Dillmann, I.; Estradé, A.; Evdokimov, A.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Guastalla, G.; Janik, R.; Knoebel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Marta, M.; Mostazo, M.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, J.; Tanihata, I.; Vargas, J.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2016-07-01

    Charge-changing cross sections at high energies are expected to provide useful information on nuclear charge radii. No reliable theory to calculate the cross section has yet been available. We develop a formula using Glauber and eikonal approximations and test its validity with recent new data on carbon isotopes measured at around 900 A MeV. We first confirm that our theory reproduces the cross sections of 12,13,14C+12C consistently with the known charge radii. Next we show that the cross sections of C-1912 on a proton target are all well reproduced provided the role of neutrons is accounted for. We also discuss the energy dependence of the charge-changing cross sections.

  16. Stabilization of Mass Absorption Cross Section of Elemental Carbon for Filter-Based Absorption Photometer by Heated Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y.; Sahu, L.; Takegawa, N.; Miyazaki, Y.; Han, S.; Moteki, N.; Hu, M.; Kim Oanh, N.; Kim, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Accurate measurements of elemental carbon (EC) or black carbon on a long-term basis are important for the studies of impacts of EC on climate and human health. In principle, mass concentrations of EC (MEC) can be estimated by the measurement of light absorption coefficient by EC. Filter-based methods, which quantify the absorption coefficient (kabs) from the change in transmission through a filter loaded with particles, have been widely used to measure MEC because of the ease of the operation. However, in practice, reliable determination of MEC has been very difficult because of the large variability in the mass absorption cross sections (Cabs), which is a conversion factor from kabs to MEC. Coating of EC by volatile compounds and co-existence of light-scattering particles greatly contributes to the variability of Cabs. In order to overcome this difficulty, volatile aerosol components were removed before collection of EC particles on filters by heating an inlet section to 400°C. The heated inlet vaporized almost completely sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and organics without any detectable loss of EC. Simultaneous measurements of kabs by two types photometers (Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) and Continuous Soot Monitoring System (COSMOS)) together with MEC by the EC-OC analyzer were made to determine Cabs at 6 different locations in Asia (Japan, Korea, China, and Thailand) in different seasons. The Cabs was stable to be 10.5±0.7 m2 g-1 at the wavelength of 565 nm for EC strongly impacted by emissions from vehicles and biomass burning. The stability of the Cabs for different EC sources and under the different physical and chemical conditions provides a firm basis for its use in estimating MEC in fine mode with an accuracy of about 10%.

  17. A Comprehensive Catalogue of Absorption Cross-Sections of Halocarbons and Related Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Keith P.; Hodnebrog, O.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Myhre, G.; Marston, G.; Nielsen, C. J.; Wallington, T. J.

    2014-06-01

    The collation and applications of a comprehensive database of infrared cross-sections of 200 halocarbons and related molecules is described. The first phase of this research was published by Hodnebrog et al. (Reviews of Geophysics, 2013, doi:10.1002/rog.20013) in which cross-sections were drawn from a wide range of laboratory studies in the published literature and, when these were not available, from ab initio calculations. The criteria for selection of particular cross-section data sets will be described. The primary purpose of the database is for use in the calculation of radiative forcing and climate metrics such as the Global Warming Potential, and illustrations of their usage will be given. The work on the database is intended to be an ongoing exercise and the plan is to revise and expand the database as new data become available.

  18. Highly charged ion impact on uracil: Cross sections measurements and scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, A. N.; Kasthurirangan, S.; Champion, C.; Rivarola, R. D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2014-04-01

    Absolute total ionization cross sections (TCS) of uracil in collisions with highly charge C, O and F ions are measured. The scaling properties of cross sections are obtained as a function of projectile charge state and energy. The measurements are compared with the CDW-EIS, CB1 and CTMC calculations. The absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS) of secondary electron emission from uracil in collisions with bare MeV energy C and O ions are also measured. Large enhancement in forward emission is observed.

  19. Rocket Radiation Handbook, Volume 2. Model Equations for Photon Emission Rates and Absorption Cross-Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    cm2) (Refs. 7 and 9) (9Cross-Section, a(10- 16 cm 2) First Second At ~ Atom or Fuchtbauer., Molecule Joos and Zemansky Kunze Din kelac ke r Hg He 15.0...G. and M. W. Zemansky , Resonance Radiation and ExcitedI4 Atoms, Cambridge, 1934. 10. Herzberg, G., Infrared and Raman Spectra, Van Nostrand, 1945. 11

  20. Absolute Differential Cross Sections for Elastic Scattering of Electrons from CO at Intermediate and High Energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI De-Heng; LIU Yu-Fang; SUN Jin-Feng; YANG Xiang-Dong; ZHU Zun-Lue

    2005-01-01

    @@ The additivity rule model together with the complex optical model potential correlated by the concept of bonded atoms, which considers the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule, is firstly employed to calculate the absolute differential cross sections for electrons scattered by carbon monoxide at intermediate and high energies at the Hartree-Fock level. A comparison of elastic differential cross section results, obtained by using the correlated complex optical model potential, with the available experimental data,shows a significant improvement over the uncorrelated ones. The differential cross sections obtained by using the correlated complex optical model potential are in very good agreement with the experimental data. It is shown that the additivity rule model together with the correlated complex optical model potential is suitable for the calculations of the absolute differential cross sections of e-CO scattering.

  1. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  2. Vacuum-UV spectroscopy of interstellar ice analogs. II. Absorption cross-sections of nonpolar ice molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz-Diaz, G A; Chen, Y -J; Yih, T -S

    2014-01-01

    Dust grains in cold circumstellar regions and dark-cloud interiors at 10-20 K are covered by ice mantles. A nonthermal desorption mechanism is invoked to explain the presence of gas-phase molecules in these environments, such as the photodesorption induced by irradiation of ice due to secondary ultraviolet photons. To quantify the effects of ice photoprocessing, an estimate of the photon absorption in ice mantles is required. In a recent work, we reported the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) absorption cross sections of nonpolar molecules in the solid phase. The aim was to estimate the VUV-absorption cross sections of nonpolar molecular ice components, including CH4, CO2, N2, and O2. The column densities of the ice samples deposited at 8 K were measured in situ by infrared spectroscopy in transmittance. VUV spectra of the ice samples were collected in the 120-160 nm (10.33-7.74 eV) range using a commercial microwave-discharged hydrogen flow lamp. We found that, as expected, solid N2 has the lowest VUV-absorption cros...

  3. How fast is the growth of Total Cross Section at High Energies?

    CERN Document Server

    Fazal-e-Aleem, M; Sohail-Afzal, Tahir; Ayub-Faridi, M; Qadee-Afzal, M

    2003-01-01

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Colliders have special agenda for the measurements of the total cross sections at high energies giving us an opportunity to touch cosmic ray energies. Recent analyses of the cosmic ray data together with earlier experimental measurements at ISR and SPS gives us an insight about the behaviour of this important parameter at asymptotic energies. We will study the growth of total cross section at high energies in the light of various theoretical approaches with special reference to measurements at RHIC and LHC.

  4. How Fast Is the Growth of Total Cross Section at High Energies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleem, F.; Rashid, Haris; Tahir, Sohail Afzal; Faridi, M. Ayub; Afzal, Qadeer, M.

    2003-07-01

    Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Colliders have special agenda for the measurements of the total cross sections at high energies giving us an opportunity to touch cosmic ray energies. Recent analyses of the cosmic ray data together with earlier experimental measurements at ISR and SPS gives us an insight about the behaviour of this important parameter at asymptotic energies. We will study the growth of total cross section at high energies in the light of various theoretical approaches with special reference to measurements at RHIC and LHC.

  5. The High-Energy Behavior of Photon, Neutrino and Proton Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Arguelles, Carlos A; Will, Logan; Kroll, Mike; Reno, Mary Hall

    2015-01-01

    By combining the color dipole model of the nucleon with the assumption that cross sections behave asymptotically as $\\ln^2(s)$, we are able to describe the data for photon, neutrino and hadron interactions with protons at all energies, $s$ is the center-of-mass energy of the interacting particles. Specifically, we extrapolate the perturbative QCD calculations into the regime of small fractional parton momenta $x$ using a color dipole description of the proton target that guarantees an asymptotic $\\ln^2(s)$ behavior of all cross sections. The ambiguity of introducing a parametrization associated with the dipole approximation is mitigated by the requirement that the saturation of the small-$x$ structure functions produces $\\ln^2(s)$-behaved asymptotic cross sections, in agreement with the data. The same formalism allows us to calculate the cross section for the hadronic pair production of charm particles. The results, in particular those for the high-energy neutrino and charm cross sections, are relevant for ev...

  6. Photolysis rate coefficients in the upper atmosphere: Effect of line by line calculations of the O{sub 2} absorption cross section in the Schumann-Runge bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Rafael P. [INFIQC, Centro Laser de Ciencias Moleculares, Departamento de Fisico Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000, Cordoba (Argentina); Palancar, Gustavo G. [INFIQC, Centro Laser de Ciencias Moleculares, Departamento de Fisico Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000, Cordoba (Argentina)]. E-mail: palancar@fcq.unc.edu.ar; Madronich, Sasha [Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1850 Table mesa Drive, Boulder, CO, 80303 (United States); Toselli, Beatriz M. [INFIQC, Centro Laser de Ciencias Moleculares, Departamento de Fisico Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000, Cordoba (Argentina)]. E-mail: tosellib@fcq.unc.edu.ar

    2007-03-15

    A line by line (LBL) method to calculate highly resolved O{sub 2} absorption cross sections in the Schumann-Runge (SR) bands region was developed and integrated in the widely used Tropospheric Ultraviolet Visible (TUV) model to calculate accurate photolysis rate coefficients (J values) in the upper atmosphere at both small and large solar zenith angles (SZA). In order to obtain the O{sub 2} cross section between 49,000 and 57,000cm{sup -1}, an algorithm which considers the position, strength, and half width of each spectral line was used. Every transition was calculated by using the HIgh-resolution TRANsmission molecular absorption database (HITRAN) and a Voigt profile. The temperature dependence of both the strength and the half widths was considered within the range of temperatures characteristic of the US standard atmosphere, although the results show a very good agreement also at 79K. The cross section calculation was carried out on a 0.5cm{sup -1} grid and the contributions from all the lines lying at +/-500cm{sup -1} were considered for every wavelength. Both the SR and the Herzberg continuums were included. By coupling the LBL method to the TUV model, full radiative transfer calculations that compute J values including Rayleigh scattering at high altitudes and large SZA can now be done. Thus, the J values calculations were performed for altitudes from 0 to 120km and for SZA up to 89{sup o}. The results show, in the J{sub O{sub 2}} case, differences of more than +/-10% (e.g. at 96km and 30{sup o}) when compared against the last version of the TUV model (4.4), which uses the Koppers and Murtagh parameterization for the O{sub 2} cross section. Consequently, the J values of species with cross sections overlapping the SR band region show variable differences at lower altitudes. Although many species have been analyzed, the results for only four of them (O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, HNO{sub 3}, CFC12) are presented. Due to the fact that the HNO{sub 3} absorption cross

  7. On the photochemistry of IONO2: absorption cross section (240-370 nm) and photolysis product yields at 248 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, D M; Ashworth, S H; Plane, J M C

    2007-11-01

    The absolute absorption cross section of IONO(2) was measured by the pulsed photolysis at 193 nm of a NO(2)/CF(3)I mixture, followed by time-resolved Fourier transform spectroscopy in the near-UV. The resulting cross section at a temperature of 296 K over the wavelength range from 240 to 370 nm is given by log(10)(sigma(IONO(2))/cm(2) molecule(-1)) = 170.4 - 3.773 lambda + 2.965 x 10(-2)lambda(2)- 1.139 x 10(-4)lambda(3) + 2.144 x 10(-7)lambda(4)- 1.587 x 10(-10)lambda(5), where lambda is in nm; the cross section, with 2sigma uncertainty, ranges from (6.5 +/- 1.9) x 10(-18) cm(2) at 240 nm to (5 +/- 3) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 350 nm, and is significantly lower than a previous measurement [J. C. Mössinger, D. M. Rowley and R. A. Cox, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2002, 2, 227]. The photolysis quantum yields for IO and NO(3) production at 248 nm were measured using laser induced fluorescence of IO at 445 nm, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy of NO(3) at 662 nm, yielding phi(IO) iodine oxides, but the formation and subsequent photolysis of IONO(2) is very inefficient as an ozone-depleting cycle.

  8. Hadron-hadron total cross sections and soft high-energy scattering on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, M

    2011-01-01

    The nonperturbative approach to soft high-energy hadron-hadron scattering, based on the analytic continuation of Euclidean Wilson-loop correlation functions, makes possible the investigation of the problem of the asymptotic energy dependence of hadron-hadron total cross sections by means of lattice calculations. In this contribution we compare the lattice numerical results to analytic results obtained with various nonperturbative techniques. We also discuss the possibility to obtain indications of the rise of hadron-hadron total cross sections with energy directly from the lattice data.

  9. Total Cross-sections at very high energies: from protons to photons

    CERN Document Server

    Godbole, R M; Pancheri, G; Srivastava, Y N

    2010-01-01

    A model for both proton and photon total cross-sections is presented and compared with data. The model is based on the eikonal representation, with QCD mini-jets to drive the rise and soft gluon kt-resummation into the Infrared region to tame the excessive rise due to low-x perturbative gluons. We discuss the effects of a singular but integrable expression for the Infrared gluon spectrum on the high energy behaviour of the total cross-section expected in this model.

  10. Quantifying uncertainties in the high-energy neutrino cross-section

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Cooper-Sarkar; P Mertsch; S Sarkar

    2012-11-01

    The predictions for high-energy neutrino and antineutrino deep inelastic scattering cross-sections are compared within the conventional DGLAP formalism of next-to-leading order QCD, using the latest parton distribution functions (PDF) such as CT10, HERAPDF1.5 and MSTW08 and taking account of PDF uncertainties. From this, a benchmark cross-section and uncertainty are derived which is consistent with the results obtained earlier using the ZEUS-S PDFs. The use of this is advocated for analysing data from neutrino telescopes, in order to facilitate comparison between their results.

  11. Characterization of Cross-Sectioned Gallium Nitride High-Electron-Mobility Transistors with In Situ Biasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, A. M.; Brown, J. L.; Moore, E. A.; Hoelscher, J. A.; Heller, E. R.; Dorsey, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) were characterized in cross-section by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) during in situ biasing. The HEMTs used in this study were specially designed to maintain full and representative transistor functionality after cross-sectioning perpendicular to the gate width dimension to expose the active channel from source to drain. A cross-sectioning procedure was established that produces samples with high-quality surfaces and minimal degradation in initial transistor performance. A detailed description of the cross-sectioning procedure is provided. Samples were characterized by KPFM, effectively mapping the surface potential of the device in two-dimensional cross-section, including under metallization layers (i.e., gate, field plates, and ohmic contacts). Under the gate and field plate layers are where electric field, temperature, and temperature gradients are all most commonly predicted to have peak values, and where degradation and failure are most likely, and so this is where direct measurements are most critical. In this work, the surface potential of the operating device was mapped in cross-section by KPFM. Charge redistribution was observed during and after biasing, and the surface potential was seen to decay with time back to the prebias condition. This work is a first step toward directly mapping and localizing the steady-state and transient charge distribution due to point defects (traps) before, during, and after device operation, including normally inaccessible regions such as under metallization layers. Such measurements have not previously been demonstrated for GaN HEMT technology.

  12. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections of ozone in the Wulf-Chappuis band at 759-768 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enami, Shinichi; Ueda, Junya; Nakano, Yukio; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2004-03-01

    Absorption cross sections of ozone in the Wulf-Chappuis band at 759-768 nm have been determined using cavity ring-down spectroscopy at 215-298 K. Precise measurements at 762.07 and 764.47 nm revealed a slight temperature dependence of the absorption cross sections: ?(762.07 nm, 298 K) = (2.86 ± 0.04) × 10-22 cm2 molecule-1; ?(762.07 nm, 215 K) = (2.62 ± 0.04) × 10-22; ?(764.47 nm, 296 K) = (2.70 ± 0.03) × 10-22; and ?(764.47 nm, 214 K) = (2.44 ± 0.03) × 10-22. Results at 762.07 nm are indistinguishable within the experimental uncertainties from those reported by [1994]. Results from the present work facilitate a more accurate retrieval of atmospheric temperature, cloud height, and cloud coverage data from satellite measurements of absorption by O2 in the A band around 761 nm.

  13. Off-Resonant Two-Photon Absorption Cross-Section Enhancement of an Organic Chromophore on Gold Nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalan, Sean T.; Vella, Jarrett H.; Yang, Timothy K.; Dalton, Matthew J.; Haley, Joy E.; Cooper, Thomas M.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Tan, Loon-Seng; Murphy, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Surface-plasmon-initiated interference effects of polyelectrolyte-coated gold nanorods on the two-photon absorption of an organic chromophore were investigated. With polyelectrolyte bearing gold nanorods of 2,4,6 and 8 layers, the role of the plasmonic fields as function of distance on such effects was examined. An unusual distance dependence was found: enhancements in the two-photon cross-section were at a minimum at an intermediate distance, then rose again at a further distance. The observed values of enhancement were compared to theoretical predictions using finite element analysis and showed good agreementdue to constructive and destructive interference effects. PMID:23687561

  14. Evaluation of the use of five laboratory determined ozone absorption cross sections in brewer and dobson retrieval algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Redondas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary ground-based instruments used to report total column ozone (TOC are Brewer and Dobson Spectrophotometers, in separate networks. These instruments make measurements of the UV irradiances, and through a well-defined process a TOC value is produced. Inherent in the algorithm is the use of a laboratory determined cross-section data set. We used five ozone cross section data sets: three Bass and Paur, Daumont, Malicet and Brion (DMB and a new Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP, University of Bremen, set. The three Bass and Paur (1985 sets are: quadratic temperature coefficients from IGACO web page (IGQ4, the Brewer network operational calibration set (BOp, and the set used by Bernhard et al. (2005, in the reanalysis of the Dobson absorption coefficient values (B05. The ozone absorption coefficients for Brewer and Dobson are then calculated using the normal Brewer operative method which is essentially the same as used on Dobson. Considering the standard TOC algorithm for the Brewer instruments and comparing to the Brewer standard operational calibration data set, using the slit functions for the individual instruments: we find the UIP data set changes the calculated TOC by −0.5%, the DBM data set changes the calculate TOC by −3.2%, and the IGQ4 data set at −45 °C changes the calculated TOC by +1.3%. Considering the standard algorithm for the Dobson instruments, and comparing to results using the official 1992 ozone absorption coefficients values and the single set of slit functions defined for all Dobson instruments, the calculated TOC changes by +1%, with little variation depending on which data set is used We applied the changes to the European Dobson and Brewer reference instruments during the Izaña 2012 Absolute Calibration Campaign. The application of a common Langley calibration and the IUP cross section the differences between Brewer and Dobson vanish whereas using Bass and Paur and DBM produce differences of 1.5% and 2

  15. High resolution mid-infrared cross-sections for peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN vapour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Allen

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Absorption spectra of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, CH3C(OOONO2 vapour at room temperature (295 K have been measured in the mid-infrared range, 550–2200 cm−1 (18.2–3.33 µm, using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer at instrument resolutions of 0.25 and 0.03 cm−1 (unapodised. Both cross-section data and integrated absorption intensities for the five principal bands in the PAN spectra in this spectral range have been derived from fourteen separate PAN transmission spectra measurements. Band intensities and band centre absorptivities are also reported for four weaker PAN absorption bands in the mid infrared for the first time. These observations are the highest spectral resolution measurements of PAN bands recorded in the infrared to date. For three of the five strongest bands, the absolute integrated absorption intensities are in excellent agreement with previous studies. A 4.8% lower integrated intensity was found for the 1741 cm−1 νas (NO2 PAN absorption band, possibly as a result of the removal in this work of spectra affected by subtle acetone contamination, while a 10.6% higher intensity was determined for the 1163 cm−1 ν (C-O absorption band. No direct effects of spectral resolution were observed. The improved accuracy of these absorption cross-sections will allow more accurate investigations of PAN using infrared spectroscopy, particularly for remote sensing of PAN in the atmosphere.

  16. The UV-visible absorption cross-sections of IONO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Mössinger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The UV-visible absorption spectrum of gaseous IONO2 has been measured over the wavelength range 245--415 nm using the technique of laser photolysis with time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. IONO2 was produced in situ in the gas phase by laser flash photolysis of NO2/CF3I/N2 mixtures. Post flash spectra were deconvolved to remove contributions to the observed absorption from other reactant and product species. The resulting spectrum attributed to IONO2 consists of several overlapping broad absorption bands. Assuming a quantum yield of unity for IONO2 photolysis, model calculations show that during sunlit hours at noon, 53° N, the first order solar photolysis rate coefficient (J value for IONO2 is 4.0 x 10-2 s-1.

  17. The UV-visible absorption cross-sections of IONO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Cox

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The UV-visible absorption spectrum of gaseous IONO2 has been measured over the wavelength range 245--415 nm using the technique of laser photolysis with time-resolved UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. IONO2 was produced in situ in the gas phase by laser flash photolysis of NO2/CF3I/N2 mixtures. Post-flash spectra were deconvolved to remove contributions to the observed absorption from other reactant and product species. The resulting spectrum attributed to IONO2 consists of several overlapping broad absorption bands. Assuming a quantum yield of unity for IONO2 photolysis, model calculations show that during sunlit hours at noon, 53° N, the first order solar photolysis rate coefficient (J value for IONO2 is 4.6 x 10-2 s-1.

  18. High serum ferritin levels increase the risk of hyperuricemia: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Xu, Chengfu; Xu, Lei; Yu, Chaohui; Miao, Min; Xie, Jianhong; Li, Youming

    2014-01-01

    To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of serum ferritin levels with hyperuricemia. A cross-sectional and subsequently prospective study was performed among the employees of Zhenhai Refining and Chemical Company, Ningbo, China. In a cross-sectional study, the association between serum ferritin levels and the prevalence of hyperuricemia was analyzed. Subjects who were free of hyperuricemia at baseline were followed up annually to explore the prospective association between serum ferritin levels and hyperuricemia incidence. Of the 10,074 subjects enrolled at baseline, 1,731 (17.18%) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of hyperuricemia. Subjects with hyperuricemia presented significantly higher serum ferritin levels, and the levels were positively correlated with the prevalence of hyperuricemia. During a total of 22,367 person-years of follow-up, 502 subjects developed hyperuricemia. The overall incidence of hyperuricemia for 1,000 person-years of follow-up was 22.4, ranging from 17.6 in subjects with baseline serum ferritin levels in the first quintile to 19.2, 21.7, 23.9, and 30.7 in subjects in quintiles 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively (p for trend serum ferritin levels were positively associated with the risk of incident hyperuricemia. Our cross-sectional and longitudinal results indicate that high serum ferritin levels increase the risk of hyperuricemia.

  19. Absorption enhancement by matching the cross-section of plasmonic nanowires to the field structure of tightly focused beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normatov, Alexander; Spektor, Boris; Leviatan, Yehuda; Shamir, Joseph

    2011-04-25

    Nanostructured materials, designed for enhanced light absorption, are receiving increased scientific and technological interest. In this paper we propose a physical criterion for designing the cross-sectional shape of plasmonic nanowires for improved absorption of a given tightly focused illumination. The idea is to design a shape which increases the matching between the nanowire plasmon resonance field and the incident field. As examples, we design nanowire shapes for two illumination cases: a tightly focused plane wave and a tightly focused beam containing a line singularity. We show that properly shaped and positioned silver nanowires that occupy a relatively small portion of the beam-waist area can absorb up to 65% of the total power of the incident beam.

  20. Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K in the wavelength region 185-240 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, K.; Parkinson, W. H.; Freeman, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of progress of work on absorption cross section measurements of ozone at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K in the wavelength region 185-240 nm. In this wavelength region, the penetration of solar radiation into the Earth's atmosphere is controlled by O2 and O3. The transmitted radiation is available to dissociate trace species such as halocarbons and nitrous oxide. We have recently measured absolute absorption cross sections of O3 in the wavelength region 240-350 nm (Freeman et al., 1985; Yoshino et al., 1988). We apply these proven techniques to the determination of the absorption cross section of O3 at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K throughout the wavelength region 185-240 nm. A paper titled 'Absolute Absorption Cross Section Measurements of Ozone in the Wavelength Region 185-254 nm and the Temperature Dependence' has been submitted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research.

  1. Photodissociation in the atmosphere of Mars - Impact of high resolution, temperature-dependent CO2 cross-section measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Allen, M.; Nair, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the impact of high resolution, temperature-dependent CO2 cross-section measurements, reported by Lewis and Carver (1983), on calculations of photodissociation rate coefficients in the Martian atmosphere. We find that the adoption of 50 A intervals for the purpose of computational efficiency results in errors in the calculated values for photodissociation of CO2, H2O, and O2 which are generally not above 10 percent, but as large as 20 percent in some instances. These are acceptably small errors, especially considering the uncertainties introduced by the large temperature dependence of the CO2 cross section. The inclusion of temperature-dependent CO2 cross sections is shown to lead to a decrease in the diurnally averaged rate of CO2 photodissociation as large as 33 percent at some altitudes, and increases of as much as 950 percent and 80 percent in the photodissociation rate coefficients of H2O and O2, respectively. The actual magnitude of the changes depends on the assumptions used to model the CO2 absorption spectrum at temperatures lower than the available measurements, and at wavelengths longward of 1970 A.

  2. On the optimization of the isotopic neutron source method for measuring the thermal neutron absorption cross section: advantages and disadvantages of BF3 and 3He counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolewski, A; Ciechanowski, M; Dydejczyk, A; Kreft, A

    2008-04-01

    The effect of the detector characteristics on the performance of an isotopic neutron source device for measuring thermal neutron absorption cross section (Sigma) has been examined by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Three specific experimental arrangements, alternately with BF(3) counters and (3)He counters of the same sizes, have been modelled using the MCNP-4C code. Results of Monte Carlo calculations show that devices with BF(3) counters are more sensitive to Sigma, but high-pressure (3)He counters offer faster assays.

  3. High Precision Measurement of the differential W and Z boson cross-sections

    CERN Document Server

    Gasnikova, Ksenia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z/gamma bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at center-of-mass energies of 7. The measurements are performed for W+, W- and Z/gamma bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the Z/gamma* mass. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on Parton Distribution functions, in particular the strange density are found. Z cross sections are also measured at a center-of-mass energies of 8TeV and 13TeV, and cross-section ratios to the top-quark pair production have been derived. This ratio measurement leads to a cancellation of several systematic effects and allows therefore for a high precision comparison to the theory predictions.

  4. High Prevalence of Undernutrition among Elderly People in Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Molla Mesele Wassie

    2014-01-01

    "Background: Nutritional status of elderly is an important determinant of their health and quality of life. Elderly people are more vulnerable for nutritional insults as compared to adults. Undernutrition among elderly people is becoming significantly high regardless of the progress on health care system. This study was aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of under nutrition among elderly people in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross-sectional st...

  5. High transverse momentum dijet cross section measurements in photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossanov, Aziz

    2013-06-15

    The measurement of high transverse momentum differential dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA in the {gamma}p center-of-mass energy 10115.0 GeV and pseudorapidities in the range of -0.5<{eta}{sub 1st,2nd}<2.5 are required. In order to suppress background and be able to compare the cross sections with reliable and safe pQCD NLO predictions an invariant mass of the two leading jets M{sub 12}>40.0 GeV is required. Single differential dijet cross sections are measured, including cross sections in the direct and resolved photon enhanced regions. In order to study the contribution of partons interacting in the hard process, which are sensitive to the jet pseudorapidities, three different topologies of jets pseudorapidities are investigated. Single differential cross sections as a function of proton momentum fraction, taken by the interacting parton, x{sub P}, the fraction of photon momentum, x{sub {gamma}}, the angle between the incoming and outgoing partons in the hard scatter, vertical stroke cos {theta}{sup *} vertical stroke are presented. Additionally, the cross sections as a function of the invariant mass of dijets, M{sub 12}, anti {eta}=({eta}{sub 1st}+{eta}{sub 2nd})/2, anti P{sub T}=(P{sub T,1st}+P{sub T,2nd})/2 and P{sub T,1st} are also presented. The data are compared to predictions from the Pythia event generator, based on the LO matrix elements and parton showers, and to the NLO QCD calculations corrected for hadronization effects.

  6. High resolution measurement of neutron inelastic scattering cross-sections for 23Na

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouki, C.; Archier, P.; Borcea, C.; De Saint Jean, C.; Drohé, J. C.; Kopecky, S.; Moens, A.; Nankov, N.; Negret, A.; Noguère, G.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Stanoiu, M.

    2012-04-01

    The neutron inelastic scattering cross-section of 23Na has been measured in response to the relevant request of the OECD-NEA High Priority Request List, which requires a target uncertainty of 4% in the energy range up to 1.35 MeV for the development of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The measurement was performed at the GELINA facility with the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS), featuring eight high purity germanium detectors. The setup is installed at a 200 m flight path from the neutron source and provides high resolution measurements using the (n,n'γ)-technique. The sample was an 80 mm diameter metallic sodium disk prepared at IRMM. Transitions up to the seventh excited state were observed and the differential gamma cross-sections at 110° and 150° were measured, showing mostly isotropic gamma emission. From these the gamma production, level and inelastic cross-sections were determined for neutron energies up to 3838.9 keV. The results agree well with the existing data and the evaluated nuclear data libraries in the low energies, and provide new experimental points in the little studied region above 2 MeV. Following a detailed review of the methodology used for the gamma efficiency calibrations and flux normalization of GAINS data, an estimated total uncertainty of 2.2% was achieved for the inelastic cross-section integrals over the energy ranges 0.498-1.35 MeV and 1.35-2.23 MeV, meeting the required targets.

  7. Entangled two photon absorption cross section on the 808 nm region for the common dyes Zinc tetraphenylporphyrin and Rhodamine B

    CERN Document Server

    Villabona-Monsalve, Juan P; Portela, Mayerlin Nuñez; Valencia, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    We report the measurement of the entangled two photon absorption cross section, $\\sigma_E$, at 808 nm on organic chromophores in solution in a low photon flux regime. We performed measurements on Zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP) in Toluene and Rhodamine B (RhB) in Methanol. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first time that $\\sigma_E$ is measured for RhB. Additionally, we report a systematic study of the dependence of $\\sigma_E$ on the molecular concentration for both molecular systems. In contrast to previous experiments, our measurements are based on detecting the pairs of photons that are transmitted by the molecular system. By using a coincidence count circuit it was possible to improve the signal to noise ratio. This type of work is important for the development of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques using entangled photons.

  8. Modification to the Klein-Nishina cross section for Ge electrons at high statistics limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T.F.

    1995-11-03

    Modification factors for the Klein-Nishina cross-sections for gamma-ray with energies between 50 keV and 250 keV incident on Ge electrons have been obtained at the high statistics limit. In this limit, the Ge electrons can then be treated as they are obtained from the self-consistent augmented plane wave calculations, without considering the orientation of crystal lattice with respect to incident photons. The kinematics corrections (i.e. outgoing momenta), on the other hand, have to be taken into account on an event by event basis. Even so, the computing time has been reduced dramatically since the relativistic calculation of the modifications to the Klein-Nishina cross sections is the most tedious one. The modification factors are almost linear with respect to incident photon energy in the interesting energy range with respect to a given photon outgoing angle.

  9. Quantitative infrared absorption cross-sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, C. S.; Blake, T. A.; Guenther, A. B.; Sams, R. L.; Johnson, T. J.

    2014-04-01

    Isoprene (C5H8, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is one of the primary contributors to annual global VOC emissions. Produced by vegetation as well as anthropogenic sources, the OH- and O3-initiated oxidations of isoprene are a major source of atmospheric oxygenated organics. Few quantitative infrared studies have been reported for isoprene, however, limiting the ability to quantify isoprene emissions via stand-off infrared or in situ detection. We thus report absorption coefficients and integrated band intensities for isoprene in the 600-6500 cm-1 region. The pressure-broadened (1 atmosphere N2) spectra were recorded at 278, 298 and 323 K in a 19.94 cm path length cell at 0.112 cm-1 resolution, using a Bruker 66v FTIR. Composite spectra are derived from a minimum of seven isoprene sample pressures at each temperature and the number densities are normalized to 296 K and 1 atmosphere.

  10. Quantitative infrared absorption cross-sections of isoprene for atmospheric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Brauer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Isoprene (C5H8, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene is a volatile organic compound (VOC that is one of the primary contributors to annual global VOC emissions. Produced by vegetation as well as anthropogenic sources, the OH- and O3-initiated oxidations of isoprene are a major source of atmospheric oxygenated organics. Few quantitative infrared studies have been reported for isoprene, however, limiting the ability to quantify isoprene emissions via stand-off infrared or in situ detection. We thus report absorption coefficients and integrated band intensities for isoprene in the 600–6500 cm−1 region. The pressure-broadened (1 atmosphere N2 spectra were recorded at 278, 298 and 323 K in a 19.94 cm path length cell at 0.112 cm−1 resolution, using a Bruker 66v FTIR. Composite spectra are derived from a minimum of seven isoprene sample pressures at each temperature and the number densities are normalized to 296 K and 1 atmosphere.

  11. Apparent PS II absorption cross-section and estimation of mean PAR in optically thin and dense suspensions of Chlorella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klughammer, Christof; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical prediction of effective mean PAR in optically dense samples is complicated by various optical effects, including light scattering and reflections. Direct information on the mean rate of photon absorption by PS II is provided by the kinetics of the fluorescence rise induced upon onset of strong actinic illumination (O-I1 rise). A recently introduced kinetic multi-color PAM fluorometer was applied to study the relationship between initial slope and cell density in the relatively simple model system of suspensions of Chlorella. Use of a curve fitting routine was made which was originally developed for assessment of the wavelength-dependent absorption cross-section of PS II, σ II(λ), in dilute suspensions. The model underlying analysis of the O-I1 rise kinetics is outlined and data on the relationship between fitted values of σ II(λ) and PAR in dilute samples are presented. With increasing cell density, lowering of apparent cross-section, (λ), with respect to σ II(λ), relates to a decrease of effective mean PAR, (λ), relative to incident PAR(λ). When ML and AL are applied in the same direction, the decline of (λ)/σ II(λ) with increasing optical density is less steep than that of the theoretically predicted (λ)/PAR(λ). It approaches a value of 0.5 when the same colors of ML and AL are used, in agreement with theory. These observations open the way for estimating mean PAR in optically dense samples via measurements of (λ)/σ II(λ)).

  12. High Precision Measurement of the differential vector boson cross-sections with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Armbruster, Aaron James; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of W and Z/gamma bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at center-of-mass energies of 7. The measurements are performed for W+, W- and Z/gamma bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the Z/gamma* mass. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on Parton Distribution functions, in particular the strange density are found. Z cross sections are also measured at center-of-mass energies of 8 eV and 13TeV, and cross-section ratios to the top-quark pair production have been derived. This ratio measurement leads to a cancellation of systematic effects and allows for a high precision comparison to the theory predictions. The cross section of single W events has also been measured precisely at center-of-mass energies of 8TeV and 13TeV and the W charge asymmetry has been determ...

  13. The application of reduced absorption cross section on the identification of the compounds with similar function-groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Zuo, Jian; Mu, Kai-jun; Zhang, Zhen-wei; Zhang, Liang-liang; Zhang, Lei-wei; Zhang, Cun-lin

    2013-08-01

    Terahertz spectroscopy is a powerful tool for materials investigation. The low frequency vibrations were usually investigated by means of absorption coefficient regardless of the refractive index. It leads to the disregard of some inherent low-frequency vibrational information of the chemical compounds. Moreover, due to the scattering inside the sample, there are some distortions of the absorption features, so that the absorption dependent material identification is not valid enough. Here, a statistical parameter named reduced absorption cross section (RACS) is introduced. This can not only help us investigate the molecular dynamics but also distinguish one chemical compound with another which has similar function-groups. Experiments are carried out on L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine and the different mass ratios of their mixtures as an example of the application of RACS. The results come out that the RACS spectrum of L-Tyrosine and L-Phenylalanine reserve the spectral fingerprint information of absorption spectrum. The log plot of RACSs of the two amino acids show power-law behavior σR(~ν) ~ (ν~α), and there is a linear relation between the wavenumber and the RACS in the double logarithmic plot. The exponents α, at the same time, are the slopes of the RACS curves in the double logarithmic plot. The big differences of the exponents α between the two amino acids and their mixtures can be seen visually from the slopes of the RACS curves. So we can use RACS analytical method to distinguish some complex compounds with similar function-groups and mixtures from another which has similar absorption peaks in THz region.

  14. Comparison of x-ray absorption spectra between water and ice: New ice data with low pre-edge absorption cross-section

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Sarp; Sellberg, Jonas A.; Segtnan, Vegard H.; Chen, Chen; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Nordlund, Dennis; Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Nilsson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The effect of crystal growth conditions on the O K-edge x-ray absorption spectra of ice is investigated through detailed analysis of the spectral features. The amount of ice defects is found to be minimized on hydrophobic surfaces, such as BaF2(111), with low concentration of nucleation centers. This is manifested through a reduction of the absorption cross-section at 535 eV, which is associated with distorted hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, a connection is made between the observed increase in ...

  15. Reduced mass absorption cross section of black carbon under an extremely polluted condition in southern suburb of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Hua, Y.; Jiang, J.; Zhao, B.; Xing, J.; Jiang, S.; Cai, R.; Hao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), as one of the most important climate-warming agent, has been the focus of extensive studies in recent years. Mass absorption cross section (MAC) is a key parameter to assess the radiative forcing by linking the mass concentration with the radiation effect. In this study, we conducted a two-month field campaign in Beijing, the capital city of China, in a October and November, a period that severe PM2.5 pollution occurred. PM2.5 offline samples were collected daily onto quartz fiber filters by a Partisol 2300 Speciation Sampler. Size-segregated aerosol samples of the size ranged from 0.056 - 10 µm with 11 bins were collected onto quartz fiber filters by a cascade impactor developed by National Chiao Tung University (NCTU). A DRI Model 2001 thermal/optical carbon analyzer were used to analyze the samples. The MAC of BC is measured by a thermal-optical carbon analyzer. In contrast to previous studies, we found that after "shadow effect" has been corrected, the MAC is reduced from 14 m2/g to 5 m2/g with the increase of BC concentrations. There was no significant correlation between MAC with secondary inorganic aerosols. Such unexpected reduction in MAC of BC is possibly associated with the microphysical property of BC modulated under serious pollution condition. The study of size-segregated species concentrations shows that the size distribution of BC is unimodal, with the peak around 0.56-1.8 µm. The results also show the proportion of BC larger than 0.56 µm is significant increased. Additionally, "soot superaggregate", as distinct from conventional sub-micron aggregates, was found in the bins of BC with size ranged from 1 to1.8 µm. Such high carbon aerosol proportion and large BC size distribution suggests that emissions from residential biomass burning is dominant during this episode. This study suggests that the optical property for BC from different emission sectors should be considered in the estimation of radiative forcing.

  16. In vivo estimation of pigment composition and optical absorption cross-section by spectroradiometry in four aquatic photosynthetic micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méléder, Vona; Laviale, Martin; Jesus, Bruno; Mouget, Jean Luc; Lavaud, Johann; Kazemipour, Farzaneh; Launeau, Patrick; Barillé, Laurent

    2013-12-05

    The objective of the present study was to estimate in vivo pigment composition and to retrieve absorption cross-section values, a(∗), of photosynthetic micro-organisms using a non-invasive technique of reflectance spectrometry. To test the methodology, organisms from different taxonomical groups and different pigment composition were used (Spirulina platensis a Cyanophyta, Porphyridium cruentum a Rhodophyta, Dunaliella tertiolecta a Chlorophyta and Entomoneis paludosa a Bacillariophyta) and photoacclimated to two different irradiance levels: 25 μmol photonm(-2)s(-1) (Low Light, LL) and 500 μmol photonm(-2)s(-1) (High Light, HL). Second derivative spectra from reflectance were used to identify pigment in vivo absorption bands that were linked to specific pigments detected by high performance liquid chromatography. Whereas some absorption bands such as those induced by Chlorophyll (Chl) a (416, 440, 625 and around 675 nm) were ubiquous, others were taxonomically specific (e.g. 636 nm for Chl c in E. paludosa) and/or photo-physiological dependent (e.g. 489 nm for zeaxanthin in the HL-acclimated S. platensis). The optical absorption cross-section, a(∗), was retrieved from reflectance data using a radiative transfer model previously developed for microphytobenthos. Despite the cellular Chl a decrease observed from LL to HL (up to 88% for S. platensis), the a(∗) increased, except for P. cruentum. This was attributed to a 'package effect' and to a greater absorption by photoprotective carotenoids that did not contribute to the energy transfer to the core Chl a.

  17. Spectroscopic properties of Nd-doped phosphate glass with a high emission cross section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛艳丽; 孙真荣; 蒋秀丽; 邓佩珍; 干福熹

    2002-01-01

    Neodymium doped phosphate glasses have been prepared by the semi-continuous melting technique. Their ab-sorption and emission spectra have been recorded at room temperature. The Judd-Ofelt theory has been applied to ewluate the stimulated emission cross sections of 4F3/2→4I11/2 transition for Nd3+. The higher stimulated emission cross section, 4.0×10-20cm2, is obtained. The fluorescence decays of the 4F3/2→411/2 transition of Nd3+ are mea-sured for the samples doped (0.7-10) wt% of Nd2O3 at room temperature. The concentration quenching of Nd-doped phosphate glass is mainly attributed to cross-relaxation and energy migration. The site-dependent properties of fluores-cence spectra and the fluorescence lifetime of the Nd3+-doped phosphate glass (with 2.2wt% Nd2O3) are studied using laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing techniques, and the site-to-site variations of optical properties are observed at low temperature.

  18. Pressure-dependent water absorption cross sections for exoplanets and other atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Emma J; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Tennyson, Jonathan; Dudaryonok, Anna S; Lavrentieva, Nina N

    2016-01-01

    Many atmospheres (cool stars, brown dwarfs, giant planets, extrasolar planets) are predominately composed of molecular hydrogen and helium. H$_2{}^{16}$O is one of the best measured molecules in extrasolar planetary atmospheres to date and a major compound in the atmospheres of brown-dwarfs and oxygen-rich cool stars, yet the scope of experimental and theoretical studies on the pressure broadening of water vapour lines by collision with hydrogen and helium remains limited. Theoretical H$_2$- and He-broadening parameters of water vapour lines (rotational quantum number $J$ up to 50) are obtained for temperatures in the range 300 - 2000 K. Two approaches for calculation of line widths were used: (i) the averaged energy difference method and (ii) the empirical expression for $J$\\p $J$\\pp-dependence. Voigt profiles based on these widths and the BT2 line list are used to generate high resolution ($\\Delta \\tilde{\

  19. A compact fast-neutron producing target for high resolution cross section measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flaska, M.

    2006-01-01

    A proper knowledge of neutron cross sections is very important for the operation safety of various nuclear facilities. Reducing uncertainties in the neutron cross sections can lead to an enhanced safety of present and future nuclear power systems. Accurate neutron cross sections also play a relevant

  20. Distribution of small plastic debris in cross-section and high strandline on Heungnam beach, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Nak Won; Hong, Sang Hee; Han, Gi Myung; Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jongmyoung; Song, Young Kyung; Jang, Mi; Shim, Won Joon

    2013-06-01

    The spatial distribution of small plastic debris on Heungnam beach in February 2011 was investigated. The abundances of small plastic debris over 2 mm in size along the high strandline and cross-sectional line of the beach were determined. The mean abundances of small plastics were 976 ± 405 particles/m2 at the high strandline in the upper tidal zone along the shoreline and 473 ± 866 particles/m2 at the cross-section perpendicular to the shoreline. Specifically, styrofoam (expanded polystyrene) spherules accounted for 90.7% of the total plastic abundance in the high strandline and 96.3% in the cross-section. The spatial distribution patterns of small plastic debris differed between the high strandline and cross-sectional line. The cross-sectional distribution of small plastic abundance differed among plastic types, indicating that representative sampling of small plastic debris on a beach is necessary.

  1. Synthesis, crystals of centrosymmetric triphenylamine chromophores bearing prodigious two-photon absorption cross-section and biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shichao; Xu, Shasha; Wang, Yiming; Tian, Xiaohe; Zhang, Yujin; Wang, Chuankui; Wu, Jieying; Yang, Jiaxiang; Tian, Yupeng

    2017-02-01

    Two centrosymmetric D-π-D type triphenylamine chromophores with long π-conjugated bridge and strong electron-donating moiety were designed, synthesized and fully characterized. The crystal analysis revealed that multiple Csbnd H ⋯ π interactions existed in two chromophores, which played a crucial role in generating molecular 1D chains and 2D layers structures. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the chromophores were systematically investigated with the aid of theoretical calculations. Two chromophores both exhibited intense and wide-dispersed one-photon/two-photon excited fluorescence, bear prodigious 2PA cross section (δ). Especially for Dye2, with ethyoxyl groups, displayed the strong 2PA activity, large cross-sections (δmax > 16,000 GM) and high NLO efficiency (δmax/MW > 16 GM/(g·mol)) in the range of 680-830 nm in DMF. In addition, one- and two-photon fluorescence microscopy images of HepG2 cells incubated with Dye2 were obtained and found that Dye2 could effectively uptake toward living cells and display a uniformly localized in cytosolic space.

  2. The High Energy γγ→γγ Scattering Cross Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOU Liang; ZHOU XianJian

    2002-01-01

    Contributions of fermion loops, W-boson loops and their sum to the high energy γγ -- γγ scatteringtotal cross sections (1 cosθ< cos30) are calculated by analytical expressions of γγ - γγ scattering amplitude. Thesecontributions may be observed in the future photon linear collider and may be uscd to test standard model. Thecontribution of fermions' loops is a half of that in R.K. Arphlus and M. Neuuman's paper (Phys. Rev. 80 (1950) 380;83 (1951) 776).

  3. Black carbon over Mexico: the effect of atmospheric transport on mixing state, mass absorption cross-section, and BC/CO ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Subramanian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A single particle soot photometer (SP2 was operated on the NCAR C-130 during the MIRAGE campaign (part of MILAGRO, sampling black carbon (BC over Mexico. The highest BC concentrations were measured over Mexico City (sometimes as much as 2 μg/m3 and over hill-fires to the south of the city. The age of plumes outside of Mexico City was determined using a combination of HYSPLIT trajectories, WRF-FLEXPART modeling and CMET balloon tracks. As expected, older, diluted air masses had lower BC concentrations. A comparison of carbon monoxide (CO and BC suggests a CO background of around 65 ppbv, and a background-corrected BC/COnet ratio of 2.89±0.89 (ng/m3-STP/ppbv (average ± standard deviation. This ratio is similar for fresh emissions over Mexico City, as well as for aged airmasses. Comparison of light absorption measured with a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP and the SP2 BC suggests a BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC of 10.9±2.1 m2/g at 660 nm (or 13.1 m2/g @ 550 nm, assuming MAC is inversely dependent on wavelength. This appears independent of aging and similar to the expected absorption cross-section for aged BC, but values, particularly in fresh emissions, could be biased high due to instrument artifacts. SP2-derived BC coating indicators show a prominent thinly-coated BC mode over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA, while older air masses show both thinly-coated and thickly-coated BC. Some 2-day-old plumes do not show a prominent thickly-coated BC mode, possibly due to preferential wet scavenging of the likely-hydrophilic thickly-coated BC.

  4. Black carbon over Mexico: The effect of atmospheric transport on mixing state, mass absorption cross-section, and BC/CO ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, R.; Kok, G. L.; Baumgardner, Darrel; Clarke, A. D.; Shinozuka, Y.; Campos, Teresa; Heizer, CG; Stephens, Britton; de Foy, B.; Voss, Paul B.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2010-01-13

    A single particle soot photometer (SP2) was operated on the NCAR C-130 during the MIRAGE campaign (part of MILAGRO), sampling black carbon (BC) over Mexico. The highest BC concentrations were measured over Mexico City (sometimes as much as 2 Fg/m34 ) and over hill fires to the south of the city. The age of plumes outside of Mexico City was determined using a combination of HYSPLIT trajectories, WRF-FLEXPART modeling and CMET balloon tracks. As expected, older, diluted air masses had lower BC concentrations. A comparison of carbon monoxide (CO) and BC suggests a CO background of around 65 ppbv, and a backgroundcorrected BC/COnet ratio of 2.89±0.89 (ng/m39 -STP)/ppbv (average ± standard deviation). This ratio is similar for fresh emissions over Mexico City, as well as for aged airmasses. Comparison of light absorption measured with a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) and the SP2 BC suggests a BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC) of 10.9±2.1 m212 /g at 660 nm (or 13.1 m213 /g @ 550 nm, assuming MAC is inversely dependent on wavelength). This appears independent of aging and similar to the expected absorption cross-section for aged BC, but values, particularly in fresh emissions, could be biased high due to instrument artifacts. SP2-derived BC coating indicators show a prominent thinly-coated BC mode over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), while older air masses show both thinly-coated and thickly-coated BC. Some 2-day-old plumes do not show a prominent thickly-coated BC mode, possibly due to preferential wet scavenging of the likely-hydrophilic thickly-coated BC.

  5. Black carbon over Mexico: the effect of atmospheric transport on mixing state, mass absorption cross-section, and BC/CO ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, R.; Kok, G. L.; Baumgardner, D.; Clarke, A.; Shinozuka, Y.; Campos, T. L.; Heizer, C. G.; Stephens, B. B.; de Foy, B.; Voss, P. B.; Zaveri, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    A single particle soot photometer (SP2) was operated on the NCAR C-130 during the MIRAGE campaign (part of MILAGRO), sampling black carbon (BC) over Mexico. The highest BC concentrations were measured over Mexico City (sometimes as much as 2 μg/m3) and over hill-fires to the south of the city. The age of plumes outside of Mexico City was determined using a combination of HYSPLIT trajectories, WRF-FLEXPART modeling and CMET balloon tracks. As expected, older, diluted air masses had lower BC concentrations. A comparison of carbon monoxide (CO) and BC suggests a CO background of around 65 ppbv, and a background-corrected BC/COnet ratio of 2.89±0.89 (ng/m3-STP)/ppbv (average ± standard deviation). This ratio is similar for fresh emissions over Mexico City, as well as for aged airmasses. Comparison of light absorption measured with a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) and the SP2 BC suggests a BC mass-normalized absorption cross-section (MAC) of 10.9±2.1 m2/g at 660 nm (or 13.1 m2/g @ 550 nm, assuming MAC is inversely dependent on wavelength). This appears independent of aging and similar to the expected absorption cross-section for aged BC, but values, particularly in fresh emissions, could be biased high due to instrument artifacts. SP2-derived BC coating indicators show a prominent thinly-coated BC mode over the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), while older air masses show both thinly-coated and thickly-coated BC. Some 2-day-old plumes do not show a prominent thickly-coated BC mode, possibly due to preferential wet scavenging of the likely-hydrophilic thickly-coated BC.

  6. Measurement of charged and neutral current e$^{-}$p deep inelastic scattering cross sections at high Q$^{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Derrick, Malcolm; Magill, S; Mikunas, D; Musgrave, B; Repond, J; Stanek, R; Talaga, R L; Zhang, H; Ayad, R; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruni, P; Cara Romeo, G; Castellini, G; Chiarini, M; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Corradi, M; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Iacobucci, G; Laurenti, G; Levi, G; Margotti, A; Massam, Thomas; Nania, R; Nemoz, C; Palmonari, F; Polini, A; Sartorelli, G; Timellini, R; Zamora-Garcia, Yu E; Zichichi, Antonino; Bargende, A; Crittenden, James Arthur; Desch, Klaus; Diekmann, B; Doeker, T; Eckert, M; Feld, L; Frey, A; Geerts, M; Geitz, G; Grothe, M; Haas, T; Hartmann, H; Haun, D; Heinloth, K; Hilger, E; Jakob, H P; Katz, U F; Mari, S M; Mass, A; Mengel, S; Mollen, J; Paul, E; Rembser, C; Schattevoy, R; Schramm, D; Stamm, J; Wedemeyer, R; Campbell-Robson, S; Cassidy, A; Dyce, N; Foster, B; George, S; Gilmore, R; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Llewellyn, T J; Morgado, C J S; Norman, D J P; O'Mara, J A; Tapper, R J; Wilson, S S; Yoshida, R; Rau, R R; Arneodo, M; Iannotti, L; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Bernstein, A M; Caldwell, A; Cartiglia, N; Parsons, J A; Ritz, S; Sciulli, F; Straub, P B; Wai, L; Yang, S; Zhu, Q; Borzemski, P; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Piotrzkowski, K; Zachara, M; Zawiejski, L; Adamczyk, L; Bednarek, B; Jelen, K; Kisielewska, D; Kowalski, T; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Suszycki, L; Zajac, J; Kotanski, Andrzej; Przybycien, M B; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Beier, H; Bienlein, J K; Coldewey, C; Deppe, O; Desler, K; Drews, G; Flasinski, M; Gilkinson, D J; Glasman, C; Göttlicher, P; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gutjahr, B; Hain, W; Hasell, D; Hessling, H; Hultschig, H; Iga, Y; Joos, P; Kasemann, M; Klanner, Robert; Koch, W; Köpke, L; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Labs, J; Ladage, A; Löhr, B; Loewe, M; Lüke, D; Manczak, O; Ng, J S T; Nickel, S; Notz, D; Ohrenberg, K; Roco, M T; Rohde, M; Roldán, J; Schneekloth, U; Schulz, W; Selonke, F; Stiliaris, E; Surrow, B; Voss, T; Westphal, D; Wolf, G; Youngman, C; Zhou, J F; Grabosch, H J; Kharchilava, A I; Leich, A; Mattingly, M C K; Meyer, A; Schlenstedt, S; Wulff, N; Barbagli, G; Pelfer, P G; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Maccarrone, G D; De Pasquale, S; Votano, L; Bamberger, Andreas; Eisenhardt, S; Freidhof, A; Söldner-Rembold, S; Schröder, J; Trefzger, T M; Brook, N H; Bussey, Peter J; Doyle, A T; Fleck, I; Saxon, D H; Utley, M L; Wilson, A S; Dannemann, A; Holm, U; Horstmann, D; Neumann, T; Sinkus, R; Wick, K; Badura, E; Burow, B D; Hagge, L; Lohrmann, E; Mainusch, J; Milewski, J; Nakahata, M; Pavel, N; Poelz, G; Schott, W; Zetsche, F; Bacon, Trevor C; Butterworth, Ian; Gallo, E; Harris, V L; Hung, B Y H; Long, K R; Miller, D B; Morawitz, P P O; Prinias, A; Sedgbeer, J K; Whitfield, A F; Mallik, U; McCliment, E; Wang, M Z; Wang, S M; Wu, J T; Zhang, Y; Cloth, P; Filges, D; An Shiz Hong; Hong, S M; Nam, S W; Park, S K; Suh, M H; Yon, S H; Imlay, R; Kartik, S; Kim, H J; McNeil, R R; Metcalf, W; Nadendla, V K; Barreiro, F; Cases, G; Graciani, R; Hernández, J M; Hervás, L; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Puga, J; Terrón, J; De Trocóniz, J F; Smith, G R; Corriveau, F; Hanna, D S; Hartmann, J; Hung, L W; Lim, J N; Matthews, C G; Patel, P M; Sinclair, L E; Stairs, D G; Saint-Laurent, M G; Ullmann, R T; Zacek, G; Bashkirov, V; Dolgoshein, B A; Stifutkin, A; Bashindzhagian, G L; Ermolov, P F; Gladilin, L K; Golubkov, Yu A; Kobrin, V D; Kuzmin, V A; Proskuryakov, A S; Savin, A A; Shcheglova, L M; Solomin, A N; Zotov, N P; Botje, M; Chlebana, F S; Dake, A P; Engelen, J; De Kamps, M; Kooijman, P M; Kruse, A; Tiecke, H G; Verkerke, W; Vreeswijk, M; Wiggers, L; De Wolf, E; Van Woudenberg, R; Acosta, D; Bylsma, B G; Durkin, L S; Honscheid, K; Li Chuan; Ling, T Y; McLean, K W; Murray, W N; Park, I H; Romanowsky, T A; Seidlein, R; Bailey, D S; Blair, G A; Byrne, A; Cashmore, Roger J; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Daniels, D C; Devenish, R C E; Harnew, N; Lancaster, M; Luffman, P; Lindemann, L; McFall, J D; Nath, C; Noyes, V A; Quadt, A; Uijterwaal, H; Walczak, R; Wilson, F F; Yip, T; Abbiendi, G; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; De Giorgi, M; Dosselli, U; Limentani, S; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Stanco, L; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Bulmahn, J; Butterworth, J M; Feild, R G; Oh, B Y; Whitmore, J; D'Agostini, Giulio; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Tassi, E; Hart, J C; McCubbin, N A; Prytz, K; Shah, T P; Short, T L; Barberis, E; Dubbs, T; Heusch, C A; Van Hook, M; Hubbard, B; Lockman, W; Rahn, J T; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Biltzinger, J; Seifert, R J; Walenta, Albert H; Zech, G; Abramowicz, H; Briskin, G M; Dagan, S; Levy, A; Hasegawa, T; Hazumi, M; Ishii, T; Kuze, M; Mine, S; Nagasawa, Y; Nakao, M; Susuki, I; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Chiba, M; Hamatsu, R; Hirose, T; Homma, K; Kitamura, S; Nakamitsu, Y; Yamauchi, K; Cirio, R; Costa, M; Ferrero, M I; Lamberti, L; Maselli, S; Peroni, C; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Dardo, M; Bailey, D C; Bandyopadhyay, D; Bénard, F; Brkic, M; Crombie, M B; Gingrich, D M; Hartner, G F; Joo, K K; Levman, G M; Martin, J F; Orr, R S; Sampson, C R; Teuscher, R; Catterall, C D; Jones, T W; Kaziewicz, P B; Lane, J B; Saunders, R L; Shulman, J; Blankenship, K; Kochocki, J A; Lu, B; Mo, L W; Bogusz, W; Charchula, K; Ciborowski, J; Gajewski, J; Grzelak, G; Kasprzak, M; Krzyzanowski, M; Muchorowski, K; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Tymieniecka, T; Wróblewski, A K; Zakrzewski, J A; Zarnecki, A F; Adamus, M; Eisenberg, Y; Karshon, U; Revel, D; Zer-Zion, D; Ali, I; Badgett, W F; Behrens, B H; Dasu, S; Fordham, C; Foudas, C; Goussiou, A; Loveless, R J; Reeder, D D; Silverstein, S; Smith, W H; Vaiciulis, A W; Wodarczyk, M; Tsurugai, T; Bhadra, S; Cardy, M L; Fagerstroem, C P; Frisken, W R; Furutani, K M; Khakzad, M; Schmidke, W B

    1995-01-01

    Deep inelastic e^-p scattering has been studied in both the charged-current (CC) and neutral-current (NC) reactions at momentum transfers squared, Q^2, between 400 GeV^2 and the kinematic limit of 87500 GeV^2 using the ZEUS detector at the HERA ep collider. The CC and NC total cross sections, the NC to CC cross section ratio, and the differential cross sections, d\\sigma/dQ^2 , are presented. For Q^2 \\simeq M_W^2, where M_W is the mass of the W boson, the CC and NC cross sections have comparable magnitudes, demonstrating the equal strengths of the weak and electromagnetic interactions at high Q^2. The Q^2 dependence of the CC cross section determines the mass term in the CC propagator to be M_{W} = 76 \\pm 16 \\pm 13~GeV.

  7. Estimation of thermal neutron absorption cross-section from K, U and Th concentrations for Miocene rocks from the Carpathian Piedmont in Poland using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loskiewicz, Jerzy E-mail: jerzy.loskiewicz@ifj.edu.pl; Swakon, Jan; Kulczykowska, Krystyna

    2000-06-01

    The radiometric K, U and Th concentrations and neutron absorption cross-section {sigma}{sub a} of rock samples obtained from coring are analysed. The cores are from well bores located in the Sucha-Jordanow region (Carpathian Mountains) and from gas producing Miocene formations in the Carpathian foothills. Correlation coefficients between the neutron absorption cross-section ({sigma}{sub a}) and K, U and Th concentrations are presented. Neural network representation of the function {sigma}{sub a}={integral}(K, U, Th) obtained for a region can later be used for {sigma}{sub a} estimation from spectrometric probe results in uncored wells.

  8. A rapid relativistic distorted wave approach for calculating cross sections for ionization of highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong Lin; Sampson, D.H. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA). Dept. of Astronomy)

    1990-10-22

    The rapid relativistic distorted wave method of Zhang et al for excitation, which uses the atomic structure data of Sampson et al, has been extended to ionization. In this approach the same Dirac-Fock-Slater potential evaluated using a single mean configuration is used in calculating the orbitals of all electrons bound and free. Values for the cross sections Q for ionization of various ions have been calculated and generally good agreement is obtained with other recent relativistic calculations. When results are expressed in terms of the reduced ionization cross section Q{sub R}, which is proportional to I{sup 2}Q, they are close to the non-relativistic Coulomb-Born-Exchange values of Moores et al for hydrogenic ions except for high Z and/or high energies. This suggests that fits of the Q{sub R} to simple functions of the impact electron energy in threshold units with coefficients that are quite slowly varying functions of an effective Z can probably be made. This would be convenient for plasma modeling applications. 24 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Rapid relativistic distorted-wave approach for calculating cross sections for ionization of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong Lin; Sampson, Douglas H.

    1990-11-01

    The rapid relativistic distorted-wave method of Zhang, Sampson, and Mohanty [Phys. Rev. A 40, 616 (1989)] for excitation, which uses the atomic-structure data of Sampson et al. [Phys. Rev. A 40, 604 (1989)], has been extended to ionization. In this approach the same Dirac-Fock-Slater potential evaluated using a single mean configuration is used in calculating the orbitals of all electrons bound and free. Values for the cross sections Q for ionization of various ions have been calculated, and generally good agreement is obtained with other recent relativistic calculations. When results are expressed in terms of the reduced ionization cross section QR, which is proportional to I2Q, they are close to the nonrelativistic Coulomb-Born-exchange values of Moores, Golden, and Sampson [J. Phys. B 13, 385 (1980)] for hydrogenic ions except for high Z and/or high energies. This suggests that fits of the QR to simple functions of the impact electron energy in threshold units with coefficients that are quite slowly varying functions of an effective Z can probably be made. This would be convenient for plasma-modeling applications.

  10. Hadronic total cross sections at high energy and the QCD spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    We show how to obtain the leading energy dependence of hadronic total cross sections, in the framework of the nonperturbative approach to soft high-energy scattering based on Wilson-loop correlation functions, if certain nontrivial analyticity assumptions are satisfied. The total cross sections turn out to be of "Froissart" type, $\\sigma_{\\rm tot}^{(hh)}(s) \\mathop\\sim B\\log^2 s$ for ${s \\to \\infty}$. We also discuss under which conditions the coefficient $B$ is universal, i.e., independent of the hadrons involved in the scattering process. In the most natural scenarios for universality, $B$ can be related to the stable spectrum of QCD, and is predicted to be $B_{\\rm th}\\simeq 0.22~{\\rm mb}$, in fair agreement with experimental results. If we consider, instead, the stable spectrum of the quenched (i.e., pure-gauge) theory, we obtain a quite larger value $B^{(Q)}_{\\rm th} \\ge 0.42~{\\rm mb}$, suggesting (quite surprisingly) large unquenching effects due to the sea quarks.

  11. Neutral current cross-section measurement at low 2 and high with the ZEUS detector at HERA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prabhdeep Kaur; on behalf of the ZEUS Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    The measurements of the reduced cross-sections for $e^{+} p$ deep inelastic scattering at high inelasticities for three different centre-of-mass energies, 318, 251 and 225 GeV have been extended to lower momentum transferred squared, 2. The analysis of satellite vertex events allows one to extend the cross-section measurement at high y down to 2 = 4.5 GeV2, substantially lower that the previously published cross-section measurement from which the longitudinal structure function, $F_{L}$, was extracted.

  12. Ho:YAG absorption cross sections from 1700 to 2200 nm at 83, 175, and 295 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David C; Envid, Victoria; Zembek, Jason

    2012-12-01

    We have obtained absorption spectroscopic cross sections as a function of wavelength for the laser material Ho:YAG at 295, 175, and 83 K, in the spectral range from 1700 to 2200 nm. The absorption range corresponds to (5)I8-(5)I7 transitions from the ground state to the first excited state amenable to direct pumping by laser diodes and Tm fiber lasers. The data allow a direct comparison of the absorption cross-section intensities and linewidths as temperature is lowered from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures. Universal absorption curves and numerical tables are presented for pump sources that are assumed to have a gaussian spectral lineshape, as a function of center wavelength, bandwidth, and optical density (doping density×penetration depth), at 295 and 83 K. Curves and tables are presented for both 295 and 83 K and may be used to optimize the pump absorption and laser efficiency.

  13. Toward Improving Atmospheric Models and Ozone Projections: Laboratory UV Absorption Cross Sections and Equilibrium Constant of ClOOCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmouth, D. M.; Klobas, J. E.; Anderson, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Thirty years have now passed since the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, and despite comprehensive international agreements being in place to phase out CFCs and halons, polar ozone losses generally remain severe. The relevant halogen compounds have very long atmospheric lifetimes, which ensures that seasonal polar ozone depletion will likely continue for decades to come. Changes in the climate system can further impact stratospheric ozone abundance through changes in the temperature and water vapor structure of the atmosphere and through the potential initiation of solar radiation management efforts. In many ways, the rate at which climate is changing must now be considered fast relative to the slow removal of halogens from the atmosphere. Photochemical models of Earth's atmosphere play a critical role in understanding and projecting ozone levels, but in order for these models to be accurate, they must be built on a foundation of accurate laboratory data. ClOOCl is the centerpiece of the catalytic cycle that accounts for more than 50% of the chlorine-catalyzed ozone loss in the Arctic and Antarctic stratosphere every spring, and so uncertainties in the ultraviolet cross sections of ClOOCl are particularly important. Additionally, the equilibrium constant of the dimerization reaction of ClO merits further study, as there are important discrepancies between in situ measurements and lab-based models, and the JPL-11 recommended equilibrium constant includes high error bars at atmospherically relevant temperatures (~75% at 200 K). Here we analyze available data for the ClOOCl ultraviolet cross sections and equilibrium constant and present new laboratory spectroscopic results.

  14. New high precision data on the differential cross sections of the pion-proton elastic scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseev I. G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The EPECUR collaboration presents new high precision data on the pion-proton elastic scattering in the second resonance region. The experiment EPECUR is placed on the universal beam channel of the accelerator ITEP. The setup features 0.1% beam pion momentum tagging system, 25 cm long liquid hydrogen target, placed in mylar container and beryllium outer shell, low material wire drift chambers and high performance DAQ. More than 3 billions of triggers have been collected. The data cover pion beam momentum range 0.8 - 1.3 GeV/c and 40-120 degrees center-of-mass scattering angle range for both positive and negative pions. The measured differential cross section has 2% statistical accuracy in 2 degrees angle and 5 MeV/c momentum intervals.

  15. Size dependence of the spontaneous emission rate and absorption cross section of CdSe and CdTe quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mello Donega, C.; Koole, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the size dependence of the band gap, of the spontaneous emission rate, and of the absorption cross section of quantum dots is systematically investigated over a wide size range, using colloidal CdSe and CdTe QDs as model systems (diameters ranging from 1.2 to 8 nm and from 2 to 9.5 nm

  16. Classical Calculations of Scattering Signatures from a Gravitational Singularity or the Scattering and Absorption Cross-Sections of a Black Hole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Felix C. Difilippo

    2012-09-01

    Within the context of general relativity theory we calculate, analytically, scattering signatures around a gravitational singularity: angular and time distributions of scattered massive objects and photons and the time and space modulation of Doppler effects. Additionally, the scattering and absorption cross sections for the gravitational interactions are calculated. The results of numerical simulations of the trajectories are compared with the analytical results.

  17. [Vibration, back pain and physical exercise in high-risk professionals: a cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, M; Prosperini, V; Falzano, P; Hendel, M; Raimondi, P

    2004-01-01

    Repeated loads and vibration stress in professional settings are relevant risk factors for back pain. Aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate: a) the prevalence of back pain in two high-risk professional samples (helicopter pilots and bus drivers); b) the association between physical/sports exercise and back pain subjective perception across age. Prevalence of back pain is 94% in helicopter pilots and 74% in bus drivers; prevalence of back pain significantly increases with age. The positive effect of regular physical/sports exercise on subjective back pain significantly decreases with age. Physical or sports exercise adapted to structural characteristic of patients can result effective in diminishing personal impairment in subjects at professional risk.

  18. Proton capture cross section of 7Be and the flux of high energy solar neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Filippone, B.W.; Elwyn, A. J.; Davids, C. N.; Koetke, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    The low energy cross section for the 7Be(p, γ)8B reaction has been measured by detecting the delayed α particles from the 8B beta decay. Detailed discussion is presented of the analysis of the radioactive 7Be target including the use of two independent methods to determine the 7Be areal density. The direct capture part of the cross section is subtracted from the total cross section to deduce resonance parameters for the 1+ first excited state in 8B. The zero-energy astrophysical S factor infe...

  19. Compton Scattering Cross Section on the Proton at High Momentum Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Danagoulian; V.H. Mamyan; M. Roedelbronn; K.A. Aniol; J.R.M. Annand; P.Y. Bertin; L. Bimbot; P. Bosted; J.R. Calarco; A. Camsonne; C.C. Chang; T.-H. Chang; J.-P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E. Chudakov; P. Degtyarenko; C.W. de Jager; A. Deur; D. Dutta; K. Egiyan; H. Gao; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; J. Gomez; D.J. Hamilton; J.-O. Hansen; D. Hayes; D.W. Higinbotham; W. Hinton; T. Horn; C. Howell; T. Hunyady; C.E. Hyde-Wright; X. Jiang; M.K. Jones; M. Khandaker; A. Ketikyan; V. Koubarovski; K. Kramer; G. Kumbartzki; G. Laveissiere; J. LeRose; R.A. Lindgren; D.J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; P. Moussiegt; S. Nanda; A.M. Nathan; D.M. Nikolenko; V. Nelyubin; B.E. Norum; K. Paschke; L. Pentchev; C.F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; R. Pomatsalyuk; V.A. Punjabi; I. Rachek; A. Radyushkin; B. Reitz; R. Roche; G. Ron; F. Sabatie; A. Saha; N. Savvinov; A. Shahinyan; Y. Shestakov; S. Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; P. Stoler; S. Tajima; V. Sulkosky; L. Todor; B. Vlahovic; L.B. Weinstein; K. Wang; B. Wojtsekhowski; H. Voskanyan; H. Xiang; X. Zheng; L. Zhu

    2007-01-29

    Cross-section values for Compton scattering on the proton were measured at 25 kinematic settings over the range s = 5-11 and -t = 2-7 GeV2 with statistical accuracy of a few percent. The scaling power for the s-dependence of the cross section at fixed center of mass angle was found to be 8.0 +/- 0.2, strongly inconsistent with the prediction of perturbative QCD. The observed cross section values are in fair agreement with the calculations using the handbag mechanism, in which the external photons couple to a single quark.

  20. Compton Scattering Cross Section on the Proton at High Momentum Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Danagoulian, A; Annand, J R M; Bertin, P Y; Bimbot, L; Bosted, P; Calarco, J R; Camsonne, A; Chang, C C; Chang, T H; Chen, J P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; De Jager, C W; Degtyarenko, P; Deur, A; Dutta, D; Egiyan, K; Gao, H; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, A; Glashausser, C; Gómez, J; Hamilton, D J; Hansen, J O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D W; Hinton, W; Horn, T; Howell, C; Hunyady, T; Hyde-Wright, C E; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; Ketikyan, A; Khandaker, M; Koubarovski, V; Krämer, K; Kumbartzki, G; Laveissière, G; Le Rose, J; Lindgren, R A; Mamyan, V H; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; McCormick, K; Meziani, Z E; Michaels, R; Moussiegt, P; Nanda, S; Nathan, A M; Nelyubin, V V; Nikolenko, D M; Norum, B E; Paschke, K; Pentchev, L; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Pomatsalyuk, R I; Punjabi, V A; Rachek, Igor A; Radyushkin, A; Reitz, B; Roché, R; Roedelbronn, M; Ron, G; Sabatie, F; Saha, A; Savvinov, N; Shahinyan, A; Shestakov, Yu V; Sirca, S; Slifer, K J; Solvignon, P; Stoler, P; Sulkosky, V; Tajima, S; Todor, L; Vlahovic, B; Voskanyan, H; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Xiang, H; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2007-01-01

    Cross-section values for Compton scattering on the proton were measured at 25 kinematic settings over the range s = 5-11 and -t = 2-7 GeV2 with statistical accuracy of a few percent. The scaling power for the s-dependence of the cross section at fixed center of mass angle was found to be 8.0 +/ 0.2, strongly inconsistent with the prediction of perturbative QCD. The observed cross-section values are in fair agreement with the calculations using the handbag mechanism, in which the external photons couple to a single quark.

  1. Nonperturbative Lattice Simulation of High Multiplicity Cross Section Bound in $\\phi^4_3$ on Beowulf Supercomputer

    CERN Document Server

    Charng, Y Y

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, we have investigated the possibility of large cross sections at large multiplicity in weakly coupled three dimensional $\\phi^4$ theory using Monte Carlo Simulation methods. We have built a Beowulf Supercomputer for this purpose. We use spectral function sum rules to derive a bound on the total cross section where the quantity determining the bound can be measured by Monte Carlo simulation in Euclidean space. We determine the critical threshold energy for large high multiplicity cross section according to the analysis of M.B. Volosion and E.N. Argyres, R.M.P. Kleiss, and C.G. Papadopoulos. We compare the simulation results with the perturbation results and see no evidence for large cross section in the range where tree diagram estimates suggest they should exist.

  2. Temperature dependent ozone absorption cross section spectra measured with the GOME-2 FM3 spectrometer and first application in satellite retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Chehade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2 Flight Model (FM absorption cross section spectra of ozone were measured under representative atmospheric conditions in the laboratory setup at temperatures between 203 K and 293 K in the wavelength range of 230–790 nm at a medium spectral resolution of 0.24 to 0.54 nm. Since the exact ozone amounts were unknown in the gas flow system used, the measured ozone cross sections were required to be scaled to absolute cross section units using published literature data. The Hartley, Huggins and Chappuis bands were recorded simultaneously and their temperature dependence is in good agreement with previous studies (strong temperature effect in the Huggins band and weak in the Hartley and Chappuis bands. The overall agreement of the GOME-2 FM cross sections with the literature data is well within 3%. The total ozone column retrieved from the GOME-2/MetOp-A satellite using the new cross section data is within 1% compared to the ozone amounts retrieved routinely from GOME-2.

  3. High-$E_{T}$ Inclusive Jet Cross Sections in Photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Breitweg, J; Krakauer, D A; Magill, S; Mikunas, D; Musgrave, B; Repond, J; Stanek, R; Talaga, R L; Yoshida, R; Zhang, H; Mattingly, M C K; Anselmo, F; Antonioli, P; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Cara Romeo, G; Castellini, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Corradi, M; De Pasquale, S; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Iacobucci, G; Laurenti, G; Levi, G; Margotti, A; Massam, Thomas; Nania, R; Palmonari, F; Pesci, A; Polini, A; Ricci, F; Sartorelli, G; Zamora-Garcia, Yu E; Zichichi, Antonino; Amelung, C; Bornheim, A; Brock, I C; Coboken, K; Crittenden, James Arthur; Deffner, R; Eckert, M; Grothe, M; Hartmann, H; Heinloth, K; Heinz, L; Hilger, E; Jakob, H P; Kappes, A; Katz, U F; Kerger, R; Paul, E; Pfeiffer, M; Stamm, J; Wedemeyer, R; Wieber, H; Bailey, D S; Campbell-Robson, S; Cottingham, W N; Foster, B; Hall-Wilton, R; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; McFall, J D; Piccioni, D; Roff, D G; Tapper, R J; Ayad, R; Capua, M; Garfagnini, A; Iannotti, L; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Kim, J Y; Lee, J H; Lim, I T; Pac, M Y; Caldwell, A; Cartiglia, N; Jing, Z; Liu, W; Mellado, B; Parsons, J A; Ritz, S; Sampson, S; Sciulli, F; Straub, P B; Zhu, Q; Borzemski, P; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Figiel, J; Klimek, K H; Przybycien, M B; Zawiejski, L; Adamczyk, L; Bednarek, B; Bukowy, M; Czermak, A; Jelen, K; Kisielewska, D; Kowalski, T; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Suszycki, L; Zajac, J; Dulinski, Z; Kotanski, Andrzej; Abbiendi, G; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Beier, H; Bienlein, J K; Cases, G; Desler, K; Drews, G; Fricke, U; Göbel, F; Göttlicher, P; Graciani, R; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hasell, D; Hebbel, K; Johnson, K F; Kasemann, M; Koch, W; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Lindemann, L; Löhr, B; Milewski, J; Monteiro, T; Ng, J S T; Notz, D; Park, I H; Pellegrino, A; Pelucchi, F; Piotrzkowski, K; Rohde, M; Roldán, J; Ryan, J J; Savin, A A; Schneekloth, U; Schwarzer, O; Selonke, F; Surrow, B; Tassi, E; Westphal, D; Wolf, G; Wollmer, U; Youngman, C; Zeuner, W; Burow, B D; Coldewey, C; Grabosch, H J; Meyer, A; Schlenstedt, S; Barbagli, G; Gallo, E; Pelfer, P G; Maccarrone, G D; Votano, L; Bamberger, Andreas; Eisenhardt, S; Markun, P; Trefzger, T M; Wölfle, S; Bromley, J T; Brook, N H; Bussey, Peter J; Doyle, A T; MacDonald, N; Saxon, D H; Sinclair, L E; Strickland, E; Waugh, R; Bohnet, I; Gendner, N; Holm, U; Meyer-Larsen, A; Salehi, H; Wick, K; Gladilin, L K; Horstmann, D; Kcira, D; Klanner, Robert; Lohrmann, E; Poelz, G; Schott, W; Zetsche, F; Bacon, Trevor C; Butterworth, Ian; Cole, J E; Howell, G; Lamberti, L; Long, K R; Miller, D B; Pavel, N; Prinias, A; Sedgbeer, J K; Sideris, Daniel A; Walker, R; Mallik, U; Wang, S M; Wu, J T; Cloth, P; Filges, D; Ishii, T; Kuze, M; Suzuki, I; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Hong, S J; Lee, S B; Nam, S W; Park, S K; Barreiro, F; Fernández, J P; García, G; Glasman, C; Hernández, J M; Hervás, L; Labarga, L; Martínez, M; Del Peso, J; Puga, J; Terrón, J; De Trocóniz, J F; Corriveau, F; Hanna, D S; Hartmann, J; Hung, L W; Murray, W N; Ochs, A; Riveline, M; Stairs, D G; Saint-Laurent, M G; Ullmann, R T; Tsurugai, T; Bashkirov, V; Dolgoshein, B A; Stifutkin, A

    1998-01-01

    Inclusive jet differential cross sections for the reaction e+ p --> e+ + jet + X with quasi-real photons have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA. These cross sections are given for the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy interval 134 21 GeV is consistent with an approximately linear variation with the cone radius R in the range between 0.5 and 1.0, and with NLO calculations.

  4. Status update on the NIFFTE high precision fission cross section measurement program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laptev, Alexander B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tovesson, Fredrik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burgett, Eric [GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECH; Greife, Uwe [COLORADO SCHOOL OF THE MINES; Grimes, Steven [OHIO UNIV; Heffner, Michael D [LLNL; Hertel, Nolan E [GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECH; Hill, Tony [IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY; Isenhower, Donald [ABILENE CHRISTIN UNIV; Klay, Jennifer L [CALIFORNIA POLYTECHNIC STATE UNIV; Kornilov, Nickolay [OHIO UNIV; Kudo, Ryuho [CALIFORNIA POLYTECHNIC STATE UNIV; Loveland, Walter [OREGON STATE UNIV; Massey, Thomas [OHIO UNIV; Mc Grath, Chris [IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY; Pickle, Nathan [ABILENE CHRISTIAN UNIV; Qu, Hai [ABILENE CHRISTIAN UNIV; Sharma, Sarvagya [ABILENE CHRISTIAN UNIV; Snyder, Lucas [COLORADO SCHOOL OF THE MINES; Thornton, Tyler [ABILENE CHRISTIAN UNIV; Towell, Rusty S [ABILENE CHRISTIAN UNIV; Watson, Shon [ABILENE CHRISTIAN UNIV

    2010-01-01

    The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) program has been underway for nearly two years. The program's mission is to measure fission cross sections of the primary fissionable and fissile materials ({sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 238}U) as well as the minor actinides across energies from approximately 50 keV up to 20 MeV with an absolute uncertainty of less than one percent while investigating energy ranges from below an eV to 600 MeV. This basic nuclear physics data is being reinvestigated to support the next generation power plants and a fast burner reactor program. Uncertainties in the fast, resolved and unresolved resonance regions in plutonium and other transuranics are extremely large, dominating safety margins in the next generation nuclear power plants and power plants of today. This basic nuclear data can be used to support all aspects of the nuciear renaissance. The measurement campaign is utilizing a Time Projection Chamber or TPC as the tool to measure these cross sections to these unprecedented levels. Unlike traditional fission cross section measurements using time-of-flight and a multiple fission foil configurations in which fission cross sections in relation to that of {sup 235}U are performed, the TPC project uses time-of-flight and hydrogen as the benchmark cross section. Using the switch to hydrogen, a simple, smooth cross section that can be used which removes the uncertainties associated with the resolved and unresolved resonances in {sup 235}U.

  5. Bistatic High Frequency Radar Ocean Surface Cross Section for an FMCW Source with an Antenna on a Floating Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first- and second-order bistatic high frequency radar cross sections of the ocean surface with an antenna on a floating platform are derived for a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW source. Based on previous work, the derivation begins with the general bistatic electric field in the frequency domain for the case of a floating antenna. Demodulation and range transformation are used to obtain the range information, distinguishing the process from that used for a pulsed radar. After Fourier-transforming the autocorrelation and comparing the result with the radar range equation, the radar cross sections are derived. The new first- and second-order antenna-motion-incorporated bistatic radar cross section models for an FMCW source are simulated and compared with those for a pulsed source. Results show that, for the same radar operating parameters, the first-order radar cross section for the FMCW waveform is a little lower than that for a pulsed source. The second-order radar cross section for the FMCW waveform reduces to that for the pulsed waveform when the scattering patch limit approaches infinity. The effect of platform motion on the radar cross sections for an FMCW waveform is investigated for a variety of sea states and operating frequencies and, in general, is found to be similar to that for a pulsed waveform.

  6. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  7. UV absorption cross sections of nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 between 210 and 350 K and the atmospheric implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Jackman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Absorption cross sections of nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 are reported at five atomic UV lines (184.95, 202.548, 206.200, 213.857, and 228.8 nm at temperatures in the range 210–350 K. In addition, UV absorption spectra of CCl4 are reported between 200–235 nm as a function of temperature (225–350 K. The results from this work are critically compared with results from earlier studies. For N2O, the present results are in good agreement with the current JPL recommendation enabling a reduction in the estimated uncertainty in the N2O atmospheric photolysis rate. For CCl4, the present cross section results are systematically greater than the current recommendation at the reduced temperatures most relevant to stratospheric photolysis. The new cross sections result in a 5–7% increase in the modeled CCl4 photolysis loss, and a slight decrease in the stratospheric lifetime, from 51 to 50 years, for present day conditions. The corresponding changes in modeled inorganic chlorine and ozone in the stratosphere are quite small. A CCl4 cross section parameterization for use in atmospheric model calculations is presented.

  8. UV absorption cross sections of nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 between 210 and 350 K and the atmospheric implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Jackman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Absorption cross sections of nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 are reported at five atomic UV lines (184.95, 202.548, 206.200, 213.857, and 228.8 nm at temperatures in the range 210–350 K. In addition, UV absorption spectra of CCl4 are reported between 200–235 nm as a function of temperature (225–350 K. The results from this work are critically compared with results from earlier studies. For N2O, the present results are in good agreement with the current JPL recommendation enabling a reduction in the estimated uncertainty in the N2O atmospheric photolysis rate. For CCl4, the present cross section results are systematically greater than the current recommendation at the reduced temperatures most relevant to stratospheric photolysis. The new cross sections result in a 5–7% increase in the modeled CCl4 photolysis loss, and a slight decrease in the stratospheric lifetime, from 51 to 50 years, for present day conditions. The corresponding changes in modeled inorganic chlorine and ozone in the stratosphere are quite small. A CCl4 cross section parameterization for use in atmospheric model calculations is presented.

  9. Study on target spallation reaction cross sections induced by high energy neutrons and heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Takashi [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center

    1996-03-01

    The target spallation reaction cross sections of neutrons and heavy ions which have not been observed are determined in this paper. The object of this work is to make clear the differences between the spallation reaction cross section of neutron and that of proton by comparing the obtained value of neutron with the known value of proton. To this end, the quasi monochromatic neutron field of 20{approx}50 MeV was developed in 4 cyclotrons, INS, CYRIC, TIARA and RIKEN. The nuclear spallation reaction cross sections of C, Al and Bi were measured in the above field and the distribution of nuclear spallation reaction products in Cu determined by C ion beam of HIMAC. {sup 12}C(n,2n){sup 11}C reaction cross section shows the maximum value of about 20 mb at near 40{approx}50 MeV and then the value gradually decreased to 10 mb. The cross sections of {sup 209}Bi(n,Xn) are shown. The distribution of {sup 61}Cu is lower at the entrance and higher in the depth. (S.Y.)

  10. Near-infrared-emitting squaraine dyes with high 2PA cross-sections for multiphoton fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyo-Yang; Yao, Sheng; Wang, Xuhua; Belfield, Kevin D

    2012-06-27

    Designed to achieve high two-photon absorptivity, new near-infrared (NIR) emitting squaraine dyes, (E)-2-(1-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-4-(1-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl)-2H-pyrrolium-2-ylidene)-3-oxocyclobut-1-enolate (1) and (Z)-2-(4-(dibutylamino)-2-hydroxyphenyl)-4-(4-(dibutyliminio)-2-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dienylidene)-3-oxocyclobut-1-enolate (2), were synthesized and characterized. Their linear photophysical properties were investigated via UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy in various solvents, while their nonlinear photophysical properties were investigated using a combination of two-photon induced fluorescence and open aperture z-scan methods. Squaraine 1 exhibited a high two-photon absorption (2PA) cross-section (δ2PA), ∼20 000 GM at 800 nm, and high photostability with the photochemical decomposition quantum yield one order of magnitude lower than Cy 5, a commercially available pentamethine cyanine NIR dye. The cytotoxicity of the squaraine dyes were evaluated in HCT 116 and COS 7 cell lines to assess the potential of these probes for biomedical imaging. The viability of both cell lines was maintained above 80% at dye concentrations up to 30 μM, indicating good biocompatibility of the probes. Finally, one-photon fluorescence microscopy (1PFM) and two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM) imaging was accomplished after incubation of micelle-encapsulated squaraine probes with HCT 116 and COS 7 cells, demonstrating their potential in 2PFM bioimaging.

  11. Aerobic fitness and somatic growth in adolescents: a cross sectional investigation in a high school context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, G P; Turci, M; Sforza, C

    2006-09-01

    A cross-sectional investigation to study the relations between aerobic fitness and somatic growth of Italian adolescents within a school context. The Léger and Lambert 20-m shuttle run test scores were used to estimate the oxygen uptake (VO2max) of 290 high school adolescent students aged 14-18 years. Descriptive statistics of body mass, standing height, body mass index (BMI) and of predicted VO2max were calculated within age and sex group. Body mass and standing height were significantly larger in males than in females, and significantly increased with age (P VO2max was significantly influenced by sex and age. The age-related decrement in VO2max was larger in females than in males (P = 0.001). Predicted VO2max was significantly related to BMI (males: r = -0.41; females: r = -0.336) and to body mass (females: r = -0.34; males: r = -0.352). A negative relationship between BMI and VO2max was found also in the overweight adolescents. In both sexes, aerobic fitness declined with age. The decline was particularly evident in females. Low-cost methods to detect the nutritional level and aerobic performance of adolescents should be encouraged at school.

  12. Lateral-torsional buckling of compressed and highly variable cross section beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, Ida; Pasquino, Mario

    2016-06-01

    In the critical state of a beam under central compression a flexural-torsional equilibrium shape becomes possible in addition to the fundamental straight equilibrium shape and the Euler bending. Particularly, torsional configuration takes place in all cases where the line of shear centres does not correspond with the line of centres of mass. This condition is obtained here about a z-axis highly variable section beam; with the assumptions that shear centres are aligned and line of centres is bound to not deform. For the purpose, let us evaluate an open thin wall C-cross section with flanges width and web height linearly variables along z-axis in order to have shear centres axis approximately aligned with gravity centres axis. Thus, differential equations that govern the problem are obtained. Because of the section variability, the numerical integration of differential equations that gives the true critical load is complex and lengthy. For this reason, it is given an energetic formulation of the problem by the theorem of minimum total potential energy (Ritz-Rayleigh method). It is expected an experimental validation that proposes the model studied.

  13. A Novel Algorithm Applied to Common Thermal-Optical Transmission Data for Determining Mass Absorption Cross Sections of Atmospheric Black Carbon: Applications to the Indian Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, A.; Sheesley, R. J.; Kirillova, E.; Gustafsson, O.

    2010-12-01

    High wintertime concentrations of black carbon aerosols (BCA) over South Asia and the Northern Indian Ocean are thought to have a large impact on the regional climate. Direct absorption of sunlight by BCAs causes heating of the atmosphere and cooling at the surface. To quantify such effects it is important to characterize a number of different properties of the aerosols. Here we present a novel application of the thermal-optical (OCEC) instrument in which the laser beam is used to obtain optical information about the aerosols. In particular, the novel algorithm accounts for non-carbon contributions to the light extinction. Combining these light extinction coefficients with the simultaneously constrained Elemental Carbon (EC) concentrations, the Mass Absorption Cross Section (MAC) is computed. Samples were collected during a continuous 14-month campaign Dec 2008 - Mar 2009 at Sinaghad in Western India and on Hanimaadhoo, the Northernmost Island in the Maldives. This data set suggests that the MAC of the BCAs are variable, sometimes by a factor of 3 compared to the mean. This observation adds to the complexity of calculating the radiative forcing for BCAs, reinforcing previous observations that parameters such as aerosol mixing state and sources need to be taken into account.

  14. High-energy Neutron-induced Fission Cross Sections of Natural Lead and Bismuth-209

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrio, D; Carrapico, C; Eleftheriadis, C; Leeb, H; Calvino, F; Herrera-Martinez, A; Savvidis, I; Vlachoudis, V; Haas, B; Koehler, P; Vannini, G; Oshima, M; Le Naour, C; Gramegna, F; Wiescher, M; Pigni, M T; Audouin, L; Mengoni, A; Quesada, J; Becvar, F; Plag, R; Cennini, P; Mosconi, M; Rauscher, T; Couture, A; Capote, R; Sarchiapone, L; Vlastou, R; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dillmann, I; Pavlopoulos, P; Karamanis, D; Krticka, M; Jericha, E; Ferrari, A; Martinez, T; Trubert, D; Oberhummer, H; Karadimos, D; Plompen, A; Isaev, S; Terlizzi, R; Cortes, G; Cox, J; Cano-Ott, D; Pretel, C; Colonna, N; Berthoumieux, E; Vaz, P; Heil, M; Lopes, I; Lampoudis, C; Walter, S; Calviani, M; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Embid-Segura, M; Stephan, C; Igashira, M; Papachristodoulou, C; Aerts, G; Tavora, L; Berthier, B; Rudolf, G; Andrzejewski, J; Villamarin, D; Ferreira-Marques, R; Tain, J L; O'Brien, S; Reifarth, R; Kadi, Y; Neves, F; Poch, A; Kerveno, M; Rubbia, C; Lazano, M; Dahlfors, M; Wisshak, K; Salgado, J; Dridi, W; Ventura, A; Andriamonje, S; Assimakopoulos, P; Santos, C; Voss, F; Ferrant, L; Patronis, N; Chiaveri, E; Guerrero, C; Perrot, L; Vicente, M C; Lindote, A; Praena, J; Baumann, P; Kappeler, F; Rullhusen, P; Furman, W; David, S; Marrone, S; Tassan-Got, L; Gunsig, F; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Pancin, J; Papadopoulos, C; Tagliente, G; Haight, R; Chepel, V; Kossionides, E; Badurek, G; Marganiec, J; Lukic, S; Pavlik, A; Goncalves, I; Duran, I; Alvarez, H; Abbondanno, U; Fujii, K; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Neutron Time-Of-Flight (n\\_TOF) facility is well suited to measure small neutron-induced fission cross sections, as those of subactinides. The cross section ratios of (nat)Pb and (209)Bi relative to (235)U and (238)U were measured using PPAC detectors. The fragment coincidence method allows to unambiguously identify the fission events. The present experiment provides the first results for neutron-induced fission up to 1 GeV for (nat)Pb and (209)Bi. A good agreement with previous experimental data below 200 MeV is shown. The comparison with proton-induced fission indicates that the limiting regime where neutron-induced and proton-induced fission reach equal cross section is close to 1 GeV.

  15. High-energy suppression of the Higgsstrahlung cross-section in the Minimal Composite Higgs Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hartling, Katy

    2012-01-01

    If the Higgs boson is composite, signs of this compositeness should appear via a formfactor-like suppression of Higgs scattering cross sections at momentum transfers above the compositeness scale. We explore this by computing the cross section for e+e- ---> ZH (Higgsstrahlung) in a warped five-dimensional gauge-Higgs unification model known as the Minimal Composite Higgs Model (MCHM). We observe that the Higgsstrahlung cross section in the MCHM is strongly suppressed compared to that in the Standard Model at center-of-mass energies above the scale of the first Kaluza-Klein excitations, due to cancellations among the contributions of successive Z boson Kaluza-Klein modes. We also show that the magnitude and sign of the coupling of the first Kaluza-Klein mode can be measured at a future electron-positron collider such as the proposed International Linear Collider or Compact Linear Collider.

  16. High prestress truss cable support principle and its application in large cross section coal roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jing-ming; HE Fu-lian; XIAO Xiao

    2007-01-01

    With the enlarge of cross section of roadway,the radius of plastic area and broken area increase.and the tensile stress and shear stress distributing in roof coal-rock layers relevantly increase,which induce support effect not obvious for ordinary bolt(cable).While bounding point and support structure of the truss cable is in vertex angle of roadway,and supplies coal-rock layers in bounding area with the horizontal and vertical pressure,SO it settles the support problems in large cross section coal roadway.From the point of view of mechanics,gave emphasis on the invalid mechanics of ordinary bolt(cable)in large cross section coal roadway and supported mechanics of prestress truss cable.The author successfully used this technique in Wuyang Mine.and had the huge economic efficiency and the social benefit.

  17. Theoretical X-ray production cross sections at incident photon energies across Li (i=1-3) absorption edges of Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Sanjiv

    2015-08-01

    The X-ray production (XRP) cross sections, σLk (k = l, η, α, β6, β1, β3, β4, β9,10, γ1,5, γ2,3) have been evaluated at incident photon energies across the Li(i=1-3) absorption edge energies of 35Br using theoretical data sets of different physical parameters, namely, the Li(i=1-3) sub-shell the X-ray emission rates based on the Dirac-Fock (DF) model, the fluorescence and Coster Kronig yields based on the Dirac-Hartree-Slater (DHS) model, and two sets of the photoionisation cross sections based on the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater (RHFS) model and the Dirac-Fock (DF) model, in order to highlight the importance of electron exchange effects at photon energies in vicinity of absorption edge energies.

  18. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} neutral current cross-sections with longitudinally polarised positrons with the ZEUS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Trevor P.

    2012-07-15

    The cross sections for neutral current (NC) deep inelastic scattering (DIS) in e{sup +}p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam are measured at high momentum transfer squared (Q{sup 2}>185 GeV{sup 2}) at the ZEUS detector at HERA. The HERA accelerator provides e{sup {+-}}p collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV, which allows the weak contribution to the NC process to be studied at high Q{sup 2}. The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 135.5 pb{sup -1} collected with the ZEUS detector in 2006 and 2007. The single differential NC cross sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy and the reduced cross section {sigma} are measured. The structure function xF{sub 3} is determined by combining the e{sup +}p NC reduced cross sections with the previously measured e{sup -}p measurements. The interference structure function xF{sub 3}{sup {gamma}Z} is extracted at Q{sup 2}=1500 GeV{sup 2}. The cross-section asymmetry between the positive and negative polarisation of the positron beam is measured and the parity violation effects of the electroweak interaction are observed. The predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics agree well with the measurements. (orig.)

  19. High caseload of childhood tuberculosis in hospitals on Java Island, Indonesia: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtig Anna-Karin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood tuberculosis (TB has been neglected in the fight against TB. Despite implementation of Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourse (DOTS program in public and private hospitals in Indonesia since 2000, the burden of childhood TB in hospitals was largely unknown. The goals of this study were to document the caseload and types of childhood TB in the 0-4 and 5-14 year age groups diagnosed in DOTS hospitals on Java Island, Indonesia. Methods Cross-sectional study of TB cases recorded in inpatient and outpatient registers of 32 hospitals. Cases were analyzed by hospital characteristics, age groups, and types of TB. The number of cases reported in the outpatient unit was compared with that recorded in the TB register. Results Of 5,877 TB cases in the inpatient unit and 15,694 in the outpatient unit, 11% (648 and 27% (4,173 respectively were children. Most of the childhood TB cases were under five years old (56% and 53% in the inpatient and outpatient clinics respectively. The proportion of smear positive TB was twice as high in the inpatient compared to the outpatient units (15.6% vs 8.1%. Extra-pulmonary TB accounted for 15% and 6% of TB cases in inpatient and outpatient clinics respectively. Among children recorded in hospitals only 1.6% were reported to the National TB Program. Conclusion In response to the high caseload and gross under-reporting of childhood TB cases, the National TB Program should give higher priority for childhood TB case management in designated DOTS hospitals. In addition, an international guidance on childhood TB recording and reporting and improved diagnostics and standardized classification is required

  20. High caseload of childhood tuberculosis in hospitals on Java Island, Indonesia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, Trisasi; Probandari, Ari; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Utarini, Adi

    2011-10-11

    Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been neglected in the fight against TB. Despite implementation of Directly Observed Treatment Shortcourse (DOTS) program in public and private hospitals in Indonesia since 2000, the burden of childhood TB in hospitals was largely unknown. The goals of this study were to document the caseload and types of childhood TB in the 0-4 and 5-14 year age groups diagnosed in DOTS hospitals on Java Island, Indonesia. Cross-sectional study of TB cases recorded in inpatient and outpatient registers of 32 hospitals. Cases were analyzed by hospital characteristics, age groups, and types of TB. The number of cases reported in the outpatient unit was compared with that recorded in the TB register. Of 5,877 TB cases in the inpatient unit and 15,694 in the outpatient unit, 11% (648) and 27% (4,173) respectively were children. Most of the childhood TB cases were under five years old (56% and 53% in the inpatient and outpatient clinics respectively). The proportion of smear positive TB was twice as high in the inpatient compared to the outpatient units (15.6% vs 8.1%). Extra-pulmonary TB accounted for 15% and 6% of TB cases in inpatient and outpatient clinics respectively. Among children recorded in hospitals only 1.6% were reported to the National TB Program. In response to the high caseload and gross under-reporting of childhood TB cases, the National TB Program should give higher priority for childhood TB case management in designated DOTS hospitals. In addition, an international guidance on childhood TB recording and reporting and improved diagnostics and standardized classification is required.

  1. Composite Beam Cross-Section Analysis by a Single High-Order Element Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couturier, Philippe; Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    An analysis procedure of general cross-section properties is presented. The formulation is based on the stress-strain states in the classic six equilibrium modes of a beam by considering a finite thickness slice modelled by a single layer of 3D finite elements. The theory is illustrated by applic...

  2. Measurement of neutral current e{sup {+-}}p cross sections at high Bjorken x with the ZEUS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science; Collaboration: ZEUS Collaboration; and others

    2013-12-15

    The neutral current e{sup {+-}}p cross section has been measured up to values of Bjorken x{approx_equal}1 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 187 pb{sup -1} of e{sup -}p and 142 pb{sup -1} of e{sup +}p collisions at {radical}(s)=318 GeV. Differential cross sections in x and Q{sup 2}, the exchanged boson virtuality, are presented for Q{sup 2}{>=}725 GeV{sup 2}. An improved reconstruction method and greatly increased amount of data allows a finer binning in the high-x region of the neutral current cross section and leads to a measurement with much improved precision compared to a similar earlier analysis. The measurements are compared to Standard Model expectations based on a variety of recent parton distribution functions.

  3. Measurement of neutral current e+/-p cross sections at high Bjorken x with the ZEUS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Aggarwal, R; Antonelli, S; Arslan, O; Aushev, V; Aushev, Y; Bachynska, O; Barakbaev, A N; Bartosik, N; Behnke, O; Behr, J; Behrens, U; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bloch, I; Bokhonov, V; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Brock, I; Brugnera, R; Bruni, A; Brzozowska, B; Bussey, P J; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Catterall, C D; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Agostini, G D; Dementiev, R K; Devenish, R C E; Dolinska, G; Drugakov, V; Dusini, S; Ferrando, J; Figiel, J; Foster, B; Gach, G; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Gizhko, A; Gladilin, L K; Gogota, O; Golubkov, Yu A; Grebenyuk, J; Gregor, I; Grzelak, G; Gueta, O; Guzik, M; Hain, W; Hartner, G; Hochman, D; Hori, R; Ibrahim, Z A; Iga, Y; Ishitsuka, M; Iudin, A; Januschek, F; Kadenko, I; Kananov, S; Kanno, T; Karshon, U; Kaur, M; Kaur, P; Khein, L A; Kisielewska, D; Klanner, R; Klein, U; Kondrashova, N; Kononenko, O; Korol, Ie; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Koetz, U; Kovalchuk, N; Kowalski, H; Kuprash, O; Kuze, M; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Libov, V; Limentani, S; Lisovyi, M; Lobodzinska, E; Lohmann, W; Loehr, B; Lohrmann, E; Longhin, A; Lontkovskyi, D; Lukina, O Yu; Maeda, J; Makarenko, I; Malka, J; Martin, J F; Mergelmeyer, S; Idris, F Mohamad; Mujkic, K; Myronenko, V; Nagano, K; Nigro, A; Nobe, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Olkiewicz, K; Onishchuk, Yu; Paul, E; Perlanski, W; Perrey, H; Pokrovskiy, N S; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M; Raval, A; Roloff, P; Rubinsky, I; Ruspa, M; Samojlov, V; Saxon, D H; Schioppa, M; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Schwartz, J; Shcheglova, L M; Shevchenko, R; Shkola, O; Singh, I; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Sola, V; Solano, A; Spiridonov, A; Stanco, L; Stefaniuk, N; Stern, A; Stewart, T P; Stopa, P; Sztuk-Dambietz, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tassi, E; Temiraliev, T; Tokushuku, K; Tomaszewska, J; Trofymov, A; Trusov, V; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Turkot, O; Tymieniecka, T; Verbytskyi, A; Viazlo, O; Walczak, R; Abdullah, W A T Wan; Wichmann, K; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Zakharchuk, N; Zarnecki, A F; Zawiejski, L; Zenaiev, O; Zhautykov, B O; Zhmak, N; Zotkin, D S

    2013-01-01

    The neutral current e+/-p cross section has been measured up to values of Bjorken x of approximately 1 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 187 inv. pb of e-p and 142 inv. pb of e+p collisions at sqrt(s) = 318GeV. Differential cross sections in x and Q2, the exchanged boson virtuality, are presented for Q2 geq 725GeV2. An improved reconstruction method and greatly increased amount of data allows a finer binning in the high-x region of the neutral current cross section and leads to a measurement with much improved precision compared to a similar earlier analysis. The measurements are compared to Standard Model expectations based on a variety of recent parton distribution functions.

  4. Photosensitizer-doped conjugated polymer nanoparticles with high cross-sections for one- and two-photon excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimland, Jennifer L; Wu, Changfeng; Ramoutar, Ria R; Brumaghim, Julia L; McNeill, Jason

    2011-04-01

    We report a novel nanoparticle that is promising for photodynamic therapy applications, which consists of a π-conjugated polymer doped with a singlet oxygen photosensitizer. The nanoparticles exhibit highly efficient collection of excitation light due to the large excitation cross-section of the polymer. A quantum efficiency of singlet oxygen production of 0.5 was determined. Extraordinarily large two-photon excitation cross-sections were determined, indicating promise for near infrared multiphoton photodynamic therapy. Gel electrophoresis of DNA after near-UV irradiation in the presence of nanoparticles indicated both purine base and backbone DNA damage.

  5. Development of an automated two-photon absorption cross section spectrometer%双光子吸收截面自动化测量系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈军乐; 周藩; 邵永红; 张新富; 仉华; 姜娜; 彭孝军; 肖义

    2013-01-01

    为快速精确测量双光子材料的吸收截面,研究制作了一套基于双光子诱导荧光法的自动化双光子吸收截面谱仪.该系统基于虚拟仪器平台,实现了功率实时反馈、步进电机同步控制、荧光光谱快速采集、线性分析和双光子吸收光谱分析等功能,是集功率反馈控制到光谱采集、处理为一体的软件自动化操作平台,是研究双光子吸收截面的实用工具.%Two-photon absorption cross section is an important property of organic two-photon fluorophores and is critical to the study of two-photon materials. In order to measure two-photon absorption cross section quickly and accurately, we developed an automated two-photon absorption spectrometer that is based on two-photon induced fluorescence method. The system can perform the functions of real-time feedback of power, stepper motor synchronous control, fast acquisition of fluorescence spectra, linear analysis and two-photon absorption spectroscopy analysis using a virtual instrument platform. The system has an integrated and automated software platform for power feedback control, spectra acquisition and data processing. It can function as an important tool in the study of two-photon absorption cross section of fluorophores

  6. Measurement of neutral current cross-sections at high Bjorken- with the ZEUS detector at HERA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Inderpal Singh; on behalf of the ZEUS Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    A new method is employed to measure the neutral current cross-section up to Bjorken values of 1 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 187 pb-1 of electron–proton collisions and 142 pb-1 of positron–proton collisions, at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. Cross-sections have been extracted for 2 > 575 GeV2. A much improved precision with respect to the previous ZEUS publication, which used only 16.7 pb-1 of electron–proton collisions and 65.1 pb-1 of positron–proton collisions, is achieved, owing to the large data sample and improved kinematic reconstruction methods. The measurement is well-described by different theory predictions.

  7. Total and elastic electron scattering cross sections from Xe at intermediate and high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, G [Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Pablos, J L de [Departamento de Fusion y Particulas Elementales, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F [Departamento de Fisica Atomica Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Williart, A [Departamento de Fisica de los Materiales, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2002-11-28

    Experimental total electron scattering cross sections from Xe in the energy range 300-5000 eV have been obtained with experimental errors of about 3%. The method was based on the measurement of the attenuation of a linear electron beam through a Xe gas cell in combination with an electron spectroscopy technique to analyse the energy of the transmitted electrons. Differential and integral elastic cross sections have been calculated using a scattering potential method which includes relativistic effects. The consistency of our theoretical and experimental results is also discussed in the paper. Finally, analytical formulae depending on two parameters, namely the number of target electrons and the atomic polarizability, are given to reproduce the experimental data for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in the energy range 500-10 000 eV.

  8. A Time Projection Chamber for High Accuracy and Precision Fission Cross-Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Hill; K. Jewell; M. Heffner; D. Carter; M. Cunningham; V. Riot; J. Ruz; S. Sangiorgio; B. Seilhan; L. Snyder; D. M. Asner; S. Stave; G. Tatishvili; L. Wood; R. G. Baker; J. L. Klay; R. Kudo; S. Barrett; J. King; M. Leonard; W. Loveland; L. Yao; C. Brune; S. Grimes; N. Kornilov; T. N. Massey; J. Bundgaard; D. L. Duke; U. Greife; U. Hager; E. Burgett; J. Deaven; V. Kleinrath; C. McGrath; B. Wendt; N. Hertel; D. Isenhower; N. Pickle; H. Qu; S. Sharma; R. T. Thornton; D. Tovwell; R. S. Towell; S.

    2014-09-01

    The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross-section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4p acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross-sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This paper provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance of the fissionTPC.

  9. t dependence of the slope of the high energy elastic pp cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Khoze, V A; Ryskin, M G

    2014-01-01

    We consider the main factors which cause the variation of the value of the local slope of the elastic pp cross section B(t)=d[\\ln(d\\sigma_el(pp)/dt]/dt with t. Namely, we discuss the role of the pion-loop insertion in the pomeron trajectory, the t-dependence of the pomeron-nucleon coupling and the role of the eikonalization of the proton-proton amplitude in both the one- and two-channel eikonal models.

  10. High accuracy tracking of 2D/3D curved line-structures by consecutive cross-section matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordmans, H.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    1998-01-01

    Curved 3D line-structures are found in domains such as angiography, cell biology and material science. This paper describes a new algorithm to track the line-structures with high subvoxel precision. Extra parameters determined for each cross-section are: local intensity, size, orientation and match

  11. From mobile ADCP to high-resolution SSC: a cross-section calibration tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Justin A.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment is a major cause of stream impairment, and improved sediment monitoring is a crucial need. Point samples of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) are often not enough to provide an understanding to answer critical questions in a changing environment. As technology has improved, there now exists the opportunity to obtain discrete measurements of SSC and flux while providing a spatial scale unmatched by any other device. Acoustic instruments are ubiquitous in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for making streamflow measurements but when calibrated with physical sediment samples, they may be used for sediment measurements as well. The acoustic backscatter measured by an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) has long been known to correlate well with suspended sediment, but until recently, it has mainly been qualitative in nature. This new method using acoustic surrogates has great potential to leverage the routine data collection to provide calibrated, quantitative measures of SSC which hold promise to be more accurate, complete, and cost efficient than other methods. This extended abstract presents a method for the measurement of high spatial and temporal resolution SSC using a down-looking, mobile ADCP from discrete cross-sections. The high-resolution scales of sediment data are a primary advantage and a vast improvement over other discrete methods for measuring SSC. Although acoustic surrogate technology using continuous, fixed-deployment ADCPs (side-looking) is proven, the same methods cannot be used with down-looking ADCPs due to the fact that the SSC and particle-size distribution variation in the vertical profile violates theory and complicates assumptions. A software tool was developed to assist in using acoustic backscatter from a down-looking, mobile ADCP as a surrogate for SSC. This tool has a simple graphical user interface that loads the data, assists in the calibration procedure, and provides data visualization and output options. This tool

  12. Absorption cross-sections of the C-h overtone of volatile organic compounds: 2 methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene), 1,3-butadiene, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cias, Pawel; Wang, Chuji; Dibble, Theodore S

    2007-02-01

    Many molecules or transient radicals have well-documented absorption cross-sections in the ultraviolet (UV) region, but their absorption cross-sections in the near-infrared (NIR) region are much less often known and are difficult to measure. We propose a method to determine the unknown NIR absorption cross-sections using the known absorption cross-sections in the UV region, in which single-path UV absorption spectroscopy and NIR continuous wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy (cw-CRDS) are employed in a cross-arm reaction chamber for simultaneous measurements. Without knowing the actual sample partial pressures (or concentrations), the NIR absorption cross-sections can be accurately determined through the two sets of measurements. The method is demonstrated by measuring the NIR absorption cross-section of the first overtone of the asymmetric C-H stretch of 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene) (3.24 (+/-0.16) x 10(-22) cm(2) molecule(-1)) at 1651.52 nm using the known value of the absorption cross-section at 220 nm. The diode laser wavelength was calibrated by atmospheric cavity ringdown spectra of CH(4), CO(2), and H(2)O. By comparison with sample pressure measurements, this method can also be used as a pressure calibration means for the reaction chamber, and this has been demonstrated with two additional measurements of the absorption cross-sections of 1,3-butadiene and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene (2.50 (+/- 0.08) x 10(-22) and 2.82 (+/-0.16) x 10(-22) cm(2) molecule(-1), respectively) at 1651.52 nm. The applicability of the method to determining absorption cross-sections using the simultaneous measurements of cw-CRDS and single-path absorption spectroscopy is discussed.

  13. Rotationally inelastic scattering in CH4+He, Ne, and Ar: State-to-state cross sections via direct infrared laser absorption in crossed supersonic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, William B.; Schiffman, Aram; Hutson, Jeremy M.; Nesbitt, David J.

    1996-09-01

    Absolute integral state-to-state cross sections are reported for rotationally inelastic scattering in crossed jets of CH4 with the rare gases He, Ne, Ar, at center of mass collision energies of 460±90, 350±70, and 300±60 cm-1, respectively. CH4 seeded in Ar buffer gas is cooled in a pulsed supersonic expansion into the three lowest rotational levels allowed by nuclear spin statistics corresponding to A(J=0), F(J=1), and E(J=2) symmetry. Rotational excitation occurs in single collisions with rare gas atoms from a second pulsed supersonic jet. The column integrated densities of CH4 in both initial and final scattering states are subsequently probed in the jet intersection region via direct absorption of light from a narrow bandwidth (0.0001 cm-1), single mode color center laser. Total inelastic cross sections for collisional loss out of the J=0, 1, and 2 methane states are determined in absolute units from the linear decrease of infrared absorption signals as a function of collider gas concentration. Tuning of the ir laser source also permits probing of the collisionally excited rotational states with quantum state and velocity resolution; column integrated scattering densities are measured for all energetically accessible final states and used to infer absolute inelastic cross sections for state-to-state energy transfer. The observed trends are in good qualitative agreement with quantum state resolved pressure broadening studies; however, the dependences of the rotationally inelastic cross sections on nuclear spin modification (i.e., J) and rotational inelasticity (i.e., ΔJ) is not well predicted by conventional angular momentum or energy gap models. More rigorous comparison with the quantum state-resolved scattering data is obtained from full close coupled scattering calculations on trial potential energy surfaces by Buck and co-workers [Chem. Phys. Lett. 98, 199 (1983); Mol. Phys. 55, 1233, 1255 (1985)] for each of the three CH4+rare gas systems. Agreement

  14. Temperature dependent emission and absorption cross section of Yb3+ doped yttrium lanthanum oxide (YLO) ceramic and its application in diode pumped amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Saumyabrata; Koerner, Joerg; Siebold, Mathias; Yang, Qiuhong; Ertel, Klaus; Mason, Paul D; Phillips, P Jonathan; Loeser, Markus; Zhang, Haojia; Lu, Shenzhou; Hein, Joachim; Schramm, Ulrich; Kaluza, Malte C; Collier, John L

    2013-07-01

    Temperature dependent absorption and emission cross-sections of 5 at% Yb(3+) doped yttrium lanthanum oxide (Yb:YLO) ceramic between 80K and 300 K are presented. In addition, we report on the first demonstration of ns pulse amplification in Yb:YLO ceramic. A pulse energy of 102 mJ was extracted from a multi-pass amplifier setup. The amplification bandwidth at room temperature confirms the potential of Yb:YLO ceramic for broad bandwidth amplification at cryogenic temperatures.

  15. Transmission measurement of photo-absorption cross section of aluminum in soft X-ray region of 50 to 250 eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kai; CUI Ming-Qi; ZHENG Lei

    2008-01-01

    The photo-absorption cross section of aluminum was obtained from the ratio of transmission of aluminum thin-films with different area densities from 50 to 250 eV with synchrotron radiation monochromatic beam.Two samples with different area densities were used to minimize the uncertainty caused by the sample surface oxidation and systematic factors of the X-ray source,beamline,and detector.The experimental results are in good agreement with the published data and FEFF program calculations in general.

  16. Violence, Psychological Features, and Substance Use in High School Students in Hatay: a Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    İnandı, Tacettin; Özer, Cahit; AKDEMİR, ASENA; AKOĞLU, SABAHAT; BABAYİĞİT, CENK; Sangün, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of substance use among high school students and to examine the relationship between substance use and violence and psychological features. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 23 high schools in Hatay in 2006 using a questionnaire consisted of General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results: A ...

  17. A High-Precision Measurement of the Left-Right Z Boson Cross-Section Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Abe, T; Adam, I; Akimoto, H; Aston, D; Baird, K G; Baltay, C; Band, H R; Barklow, Timothy L; Bauer, J M; Bellodi, G; Berger, R; Blaylock, G; Bogart, J R; Bower, G R; Brau, J E; Breidenbach, M; Bugg, W M; Burke, D; Burnett, T H; Burrows, P N; Calcaterra, A; Cassell, R; Chou, A; Cohn, H O; Coller, J A; Convery, M R; Cook, V; Cowan, R F; Crawford, G; Damerell, C J S; Daoudi, M; Dasu, S; De Groot, N; De Sangro, R; Dong, D N; Doser, Michael; Dubois, R; Erofeeva, I; Eschenburg, V; Etzion, E; Fahey, S; Falciai, D; Fernández, J P; Flood, K; Frey, R; Hart, E L; Hasuko, K; Hertzbach, S S; Huffer, M E; Huynh, X; Iwasaki, M; Jackson, D J; Jacques, P; Jaros, J A; Jiang, Z Y; Johnson, A S; Johnson, J R; Kajikawa, R; Kang, H J; Kalelkar, M S; Kofler, R R; Kroeger, R S; Langston, M; Leith, D W G S; Lia, V; Lin, C; Mancinelli, G; Manly, S L; Mantovani, G C; Markiewicz, T W; Maruyama, T; McKemey, A K; Messner, R; Moffeit, K C; Moore, T B; Morii, M; Müller, D; Murzin, V S; Narita, S; Nauenberg, U; Nesom, G; Oishi, N; Onoprienko, D V; Osborne, L S; Panvini, R S; Park, C H; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Plano, R J; Prepost, R; Prescott, C Y; Ratcliff, B N; Reidy, J; Reinertsen, P L; Rochester, L S; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Saxton, O H; Schalk, T L; Schumm, B A; Schwiening, J; Serbo, V V; Shapiro, G; Sinev, N B; Snyder, J A; Stängle, H; Stahl, A; Stamer, P E; Steiner, H; Su, D; Suekane, F; Sugiyama, A; Swartz, M; Taylor, F E; Thom, J; Usher, T; Vavra, J; Verdier, R; Wagner, D L; Waite, A P; Walston, S; Wang, J; Weidemann, A W; Weiss, E R; Whitaker, J S; Williams, S H; Willocq, S; Wilson, R J; Wisniewski, W J; Wittlin, J L; Woods, M; Wright, T R; Yamamoto, R K; Yashima, J; Yellin, S J; Young, C C; Yuta, H

    2000-01-01

    We present a measurement of the left-right cross-section asymmetry (ALR) for Z boson production by e+e- collisions. The measurement includes the final data taken with the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) during the period 1996-1998. Using a sample of 383,487 Z decays collected during the 1996-1998 runs we measure the pole-value of the asymmetry, ALR0, to be 0.15056+-0.00239 which is equivalent to an effective weak mixing angle of sin2th(eff) = 0.23107+-0.00030. Our result for the complete 1992-1998 dataset comprising 537 thousand Z decays is sin2th(eff) = 0.23097+-0.00027.

  18. Measurement of neutron production cross sections by high energy heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, H.; Kurosawa, T.; Iwase, H.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Nakao, N. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Uwamino, Y. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The double-differential cross section (DDX) of neutron production from thin C, Al, Cu, Pb targets bombarded by 135 MeV/nucleon C ion were measured using the RIKEN Ring Cyclotron of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan. The neutron energy spectra were obtained by using the time-of-flight method coupled with the {delta}E-E counter telescope system. The {delta}E counter of the NE102A plastic scintillator was used to discriminate charged particles from noncharged particles, neutrons and photons. The {delta} counter of the NE213 liquid scintillator was used to measure the neutron energy spectra. The experimental spectra were compared with the calculation using the HIC and the QMD codes. (author)

  19. Measurement of neutron production cross sections by high energy heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Hisaki; Kurosawa, T.; Iwase, H.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Nakao, N. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Uwamino, Y. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The double-differential cross section (DDX) of neutron production from thin C, Al, Cu, and Pb targets bombarded by 135 MeV/nucleon He, C, and Ne ions and by 95 MeV/nucleon Ar ion were measured using the RIKEN Ring Cyclotron of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Japan. The neutron energy spectra were obtained by using the time-of-flight method. The NE213 liquid scintillator was used for neutron detector (E counter), and the {delta}E counter of the NE102A plastic scintillator was used to discriminate charged particles from noncharged particles, neutrons and photons. The experimental spectra were compared with the calculation using the HIC and the QMD codes. (author)

  20. Average absorption cross-section of the human body measured at 1-12 GHz in a reverberant chamber: results of a human volunteer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flintoft, I. D.; Robinson, M. P.; Melia, G. C. R.; Marvin, A. C.; Dawson, J. F.

    2014-07-01

    The electromagnetic absorption cross-section (ACS) averaged over polarization and angle-of-incidence of 60 ungrounded adult subjects was measured at microwave frequencies of 1-12 GHz in a reverberation chamber. Average ACS is important in non-ionizing dosimetry and exposure studies, and is closely related to the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR). The average ACS was measured with a statistical uncertainty of less than 3% and high frequency resolution for individuals with a range of body shapes and sizes allowing the statistical distribution of WBSAR over a real population with individual internal and external morphologies to be determined. The average ACS of all subjects was found to vary from 0.15 to 0.4 m2 for an individual subject it falls with frequency over 1-6 GHz, and then rises slowly over the 6-12 GHz range in which few other studies have been conducted. Average ACS and WBSAR are then used as a surrogate for worst-case ACS/WBSAR, in order to study their variability across a real population compared to literature results from simulations using numerical phantoms with a limited range of anatomies. Correlations with body morphological parameters such as height, mass and waist circumference have been investigated: the strongest correlation is with body surface area (BSA) at all frequencies above 1 GHz, however direct proportionality to BSA is not established until above 5 GHz. When the average ACS is normalized to the BSA, the resulting absorption efficiency shows a negative correlation with the estimated thickness of subcutaneous body fat. Surrogate models and statistical analysis of the measurement data are presented and compared to similar models from the literature. The overall dispersion of measured average WBSAR of the sample of the UK population studied is consistent with the dispersion of simulated worst-case WBSAR across multiple numerical phantom families. The statistical results obtained allow the calibration of human exposure

  1. Average absorption cross-section of the human body measured at 1-12 GHz in a reverberant chamber: results of a human volunteer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flintoft, I D; Robinson, M P; Melia, G C R; Marvin, A C; Dawson, J F

    2014-07-07

    The electromagnetic absorption cross-section (ACS) averaged over polarization and angle-of-incidence of 60 ungrounded adult subjects was measured at microwave frequencies of 1-12 GHz in a reverberation chamber. Average ACS is important in non-ionizing dosimetry and exposure studies, and is closely related to the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR). The average ACS was measured with a statistical uncertainty of less than 3% and high frequency resolution for individuals with a range of body shapes and sizes allowing the statistical distribution of WBSAR over a real population with individual internal and external morphologies to be determined. The average ACS of all subjects was found to vary from 0.15 to 0.4 m(2); for an individual subject it falls with frequency over 1-6 GHz, and then rises slowly over the 6-12 GHz range in which few other studies have been conducted. Average ACS and WBSAR are then used as a surrogate for worst-case ACS/WBSAR, in order to study their variability across a real population compared to literature results from simulations using numerical phantoms with a limited range of anatomies. Correlations with body morphological parameters such as height, mass and waist circumference have been investigated: the strongest correlation is with body surface area (BSA) at all frequencies above 1 GHz, however direct proportionality to BSA is not established until above 5 GHz. When the average ACS is normalized to the BSA, the resulting absorption efficiency shows a negative correlation with the estimated thickness of subcutaneous body fat. Surrogate models and statistical analysis of the measurement data are presented and compared to similar models from the literature. The overall dispersion of measured average WBSAR of the sample of the UK population studied is consistent with the dispersion of simulated worst-case WBSAR across multiple numerical phantom families. The statistical results obtained allow the calibration of human

  2. The effect of high-resistance training on the strength and cross-sectional area of the human quadriceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A; Stokes, M; Round, J M; Edwards, R H

    1983-10-01

    Seventeen volunteers performed unilateral strength-training of the quadriceps with high-resistance, low-repetition, dynamic exercise, thrice weekly for an average of 5 weeks. Both before and after the training period, bilateral measurements were made of isometric quadriceps strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (by ultrasound scanning), and thigh circumference. There were no significant changes in the untrained thighs. The trained quadriceps increased their isometric strength by more than they changed their cross-sectional area (mean increments = 15% and 6% respectively). Quadriceps hypertrophy was underestimated by measurements of thigh circumference and could not be predicted from them. We conclude that studies of localized muscle growth require direct measurements of the size of the muscle(s) concerned. Nevertheless, these may still underestimate the improvements in strength produced by high-resistance training.

  3. Determination of the stimulated emission cross section of neodymium glasses by measurement of the absorption from the thermally populated /sup 4/I/sub 11/2/ levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageeva, L.E.; Brachovskaya, N.B.; Lunter, S.G.; Przhevuskii, A.K.; Tolstoi, M.N.

    1977-11-01

    The temperature dependence of the intensity of the absorption band corresponding to the /sup 4/I/sub 11/2/..-->../sup 4/F/sub 3/2/ transition was measured for the neodymium glasses GLS-3 (silicate) and GLS-24 (phosphate) in the range of 300-720/sup 0/K. The data were used to calculate the stimulated emission cross sections sigma/sub 0/=1.7 x 10/sup -20/ cm/sup 2/ (GLS-2, GLS-3) and sigma/sub 0/=3.3 x 10/sup -20/ cm/sup 2/ (GLS-21, -22, -23, -24). This investigation, together with a comparison with the results of measuring the cross section sigma/sub 0/ by other spectroscopic methods, suggested that the integrated intensity of the /sup 4/F/sub 3/2/..-->../sup 4/I/sub 11/2/ transition was practically unaffected by a considerable variation in the populations of the levels governing the fine structure. It was found by two independent methods that the absorption of Nd/sup 3 +/ ions at 1.06 ..mu.. at T=300/sup 0/K was 3 x 10/sup -4/ cm/sup -1/ (GLS-3) and 6 x 10/sup -4/ cm/sup -1/ (GLS-24).

  4. Theoretical X-ray production cross sections at incident photon energies across L{sub i} (i=1-3) absorption edges of Br

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puri, Sanjiv [Department of Basic & Applied Sciences, Punjabi University, Patiala-147002, Punjab, India. E-mail address: sanjivpurichd@yahoo.com (India)

    2015-08-28

    The X-ray production (XRP) cross sections, σ{sub Lk} (k = l, η, α, β{sub 6}, β{sub 1}, β{sub 3}, β{sub 4}, β{sub 9,10}, γ{sub 1,5}, γ{sub 2,3}) have been evaluated at incident photon energies across the L{sub i}(i=1-3) absorption edge energies of {sub 35}Br using theoretical data sets of different physical parameters, namely, the L{sub i}(i=1-3) sub-shell the X-ray emission rates based on the Dirac-Fock (DF) model, the fluorescence and Coster Kronig yields based on the Dirac-Hartree-Slater (DHS) model, and two sets of the photoionisation cross sections based on the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater (RHFS) model and the Dirac-Fock (DF) model, in order to highlight the importance of electron exchange effects at photon energies in vicinity of absorption edge energies.

  5. Porosity estimates on basaltic basement samples using the neutron absorption cross section (Σ): Implications for fluid flow and alteration of the oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, M. K.; Brewer, T. S.; Marvin, L. G.; Lee, S. V.

    2008-12-01

    Little information presently exists on the heterogeneity of hydrothermal alteration in the oceanic crust or the variability of the associated thermal, fluid, and chemical fluxes. Formation porosities are important controls on these fluxes and porosity measurements are routinely collected during wireline logging operations. These estimates on the formation porosity are measures of the moderating power of the formation in response to bombardment by neutrons. The neutron absorption macroscopic cross-section (Σ = σρ) is a representation of the ability of the rock to slow down neutrons, and as such can be used to invert the porosity of a sample. Boron, lithium and other trace elements are important controls on σ-values, and the distribution of these is influenced by secondary low-temperature alteration processes. Consequently, computed σ-values may be used to discriminate between various basalt types and to identify areas of secondary alteration. Critical in this analysis is the degree of alteration, since elements such as B and Li can dramatically affect the sigma value and leading to erroneous porosity values. We analysed over 150 'pool-samples' for S, Li, Be and B element concentrations to estimate their contribution to the measured neutron porosity. These chemical analyses allow the calculation of the model sigma values for individual samples. Using a range of variably altered samples recovered during IODP Expeditions 309 and 312 we provide bulk estimates of alteration within the drilled section using the measured neutron porosity. B concentration in Hole 1256D increases with depth, with sharp rises at 959 and 1139 mbsf. Elevated wireline neutron porosities cannot always be directly linked with high B content. However, our preliminary results imply that increased neutron porosity (~15) at depths below 1100 mbsf may reflect hydrothermal alteration rather than formation porosity. This interpretation is supported when compared with generally lower computed

  6. On the theoretical and experimental uncertainties in the extraction of the J/psi absorption cross section in cold nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rakotozafindrabe, A; Fleuret, F; Lansberg, J P

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the cold nuclear matter effects on $J/\\psi$ production, whose understanding is fundamental to study the quark-gluon plasma. Two of these effects are of particular relevance: the shadowing of the parton distributions and the nuclear absorption of the $c\\bar{c}$ pair. If $J/\\psi$'s are not produced {\\it via} a $2 \\to 1$ process as suggested by recent theoretical works, one has to modify accordingly the way to compute the nuclear shadowing. This naturally induces differences in the absorption cross-section fit to the data. A careful analysis of these differences however requires taking into account the experimental uncertainties and their correlations, as done in this work for $d$Au collisions at $\\sqrtsNN=200\\mathrm{GeV}$, using several shadowing parametrisations.

  7. Cross-sections of excited-state absorption at 800 nm in erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus; Ghisler, Ch.; Lüthy, W.; Weber, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Excited-state absorption (ESA) fromthe metastable levels 4I13/2 and 4I11/2 of erbium is measured in a fluorozirconate fiber in the wavelength range 780–840 nm. Using a pump- and probe-beam technique and choosing the pump wavelength such that the perturbation by pump ESA is minimized in the

  8. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  9. Accuracy of the thermal neutron absorption cross section measurements (based on examples of selected pulsed beam methods); Dokladnosc pomiarow przekroju czynnego absorpcji neutronow termicznych (na przykladzie wybranych metod impulsowych)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krynicka, E. [The H. Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    The problem of accuracy of the thermal neutron macroscopic absorption cross section determination is discussed on examples of selected measurement methods which use non-stationary neutron fields. The computer simulation method elaborated by the author is presented as a procedure for estimating the standard deviation of the measured absorption cross section. The computer simulation method presented can be easily utilized to estimate the accuracy of measurement of various physical magnitudes. (author) 46 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  10. Analysis of the low- and high-energy fusion cross sections: the case of 58Ni+54Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaei, R.

    2017-04-01

    The importance of the saturation effect of cold nuclear matter (NM) on describing the fusion hindrance phenomenon at extremely low incident energies is investigated for the medium-heavy mass system of 58Ni+54Fe. From the theoretical viewpoint, for considering the mentioned property during the fusion process one can use the double-folding (DF) model which is modified through the repulsive core effects as a basic heavy ion–ion potential. The theoretical calculations of the fusion cross sections are performed using the coupled-channel technique, including couplings to the low-lying {2}+ and {3}- states in target and projectile. It is shown that the corrective effects of the cold NM provide an appropriate description for the energy-dependent behavior of the measured fusion cross sections at extremely low incident energies. Moreover, we find that the calculated results of the astrophysical S factor and the logarithmic derivative based on the modified form of the DF model are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data at these energies. A discussion is also presented about the predictions of the present sudden approach for the behavior of the fusion cross sections at high incident energies. The obtained results reveal that this behavior depends on the nuclear structure of the reacting nuclei.

  11. Production and decay of element 114: high cross sections and the new nucleus 277Hs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dullmann, Ch.E.; Schadel, M.; Yakushev, A.; Turler, A.; Eberhardt, K.; Kratz, J.V.; Ackermann, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Block, M.; Bruchle, W.; Dvorak, J.; Essel, H.G.; Ellison, P.A.; Even, J.; Gates, J.M.; Gorshkov, A.; Graeger, R.; Gregorich, K.E.; Hartmann, W.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Hessberger, F.P.; Hild, D.; Hubner, A.; Jager, E.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Krier, J.; Kurz, N.; Lahiri, S.; Liebe, D.; Lommel, B.; Maiti, M.; Nitsche, H.; Omtvedt, J.P.; Parr, E.; Rudolph, D.; Runke, J.; Schausten, B.; Schimpf, E.; Semchenkov, A.; Steiner, J.; Thorle-Pospiech, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Wegrzecki, M.; Wiehl, N.

    2009-12-22

    The fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 244}Pu({sup 48}Ca,3-4n){sup 288,289}114 was studied at the new gas-filled recoil separator TASCA. Thirteen correlated decay chains were observed and assigned to the production and decay of {sup 288,289}114. At a compound nucleus excitation energy of E* = 39.8-43.9 MeV, the 4n evaporation channel cross section was 9.8{sub -3.1}{sup +3.9} pb. At E* = 36.1-39.5 MeV, that of the 3n evaporation channel was 8.0{sub -4.5}{sup +7.4} pb. In one of the 3n evaporation channel decay chains, a previously unobserved {alpha} branch in {sup 281}Ds was observed (probability to be of random origin from background: 0.1%). This {alpha} decay populated the new nucleus {sup 277}Hs, which decayed by spontaneous fission after a lifetime of 4.5 ms.

  12. Total (elastic plus inelastic) cross sections for positron-methane (helium) collisions at low, intermediate, and high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashok

    1987-06-01

    Theoretical calculations on the total (elastic plus inelastic) cross sections σt for positron (e+)-methane collisions are reported at 2-600 eV. We evaluate a complex optical potential (COP) for the e+-CH4 system and treat it exactly in a partial-wave analysis to obtain the S matrix. The real part is composed of an accurate repulsive static potential plus a parameter-free attractive correlation polarization potential. The imaginary part of the COP, Vabs(r), is derived semiempirically in order to reproduce the sharp rise in σt just above the positronium-formation threshold (EPs). This form of Vabs is a function of target charge density, static plus polarization potential, local kinetic energy of the projectile, Fermi momentum, and the mean excitation energy of the system. Our final e+-CH4 σt compare very well with measurements in the EPs-600-eV region. Below EPs, the present results are in good accord with close-coupling calculations of Jain and Thompson and the measurements of Charlton and co-workers. We also test this absorption potential for the e+-He system and find qualitative agreement with measurements. It is also possible from this model to extract approximate values of the Ps-formation cross sections in the ore gap.

  13. Continuous energy cross section library for MCNP/MCNPX based on JENDL high energy file 2007; FXJH7

    OpenAIRE

    佐々 敏信; 菅原 隆徳; 小迫 和明; 深堀 智生

    2008-01-01

    The latest JENDL High Energy File (JENDL/HE) was released in 2007 to respond the requirements of reaction data in high energy range up to several GeV to design accelerator facilities such as accelerator-driven systems and research complex like J-PARC. To apply the JENDL/HE-2007 file to the design study, the cross section library of FXJH7 series was constructed from the JENDL/HE file for the calculation using MCNP and MCNPX codes which are widely used in the field of nuclear reactors, fusion r...

  14. High-resolution in vivo imaging of the cross-sectional deformations of contracting embryonic heart loops using optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Männer, J.; Thrane, Lars; Norozi, K.

    2008-01-01

    tubes as concentric narrowing and widening of tubes of circular cross-section. We have visualized the cross-sectional deformations of contracting embryonic hearts in chick embryos (HH-stages 9-17) using real-time high-resolution optical coherence tomography. Cardiac contractions are detected from HH...

  15. Two-photon-absorption cross section of Nd3+ in yttrium aluminum garnet and yttrium lithium fluoride near 1.06 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, L. L.; Payne, Stephen A.

    1986-12-01

    We have measured the spectrally integrated two-photon-absorption (TPA) cross sections for the 4I9/2--> 4G7/2 transitions of Nd3+ and obtained values of 1.2×10-40 and 0.15×10-40 cm4 for Nd3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and yttrium lithium fluoride (YLF), respectively. These results are in satisfactory agreement with theoretical calculations based on the properties of Nd3+ free-ion wave functions. The difference between YAG and YLF, however, is not accounted for by the free-ion theory and suggests that the intermediate-state energies and wave functions are considerably host dependent. In addition, we conclude, based on our measurements, that rare-earth TPA will not contribute significantly to either losses or the nonlinear refractive index in typical laser media employing rare-earth ions.

  16. High performance parallel computing of large eddy simulation of the flow in a curved duct with square cross section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊洪明; 黄伟; 魏英杰

    2004-01-01

    Large eddy simulation(LES) cooperated with a high performance parallel computing method is applied to simulate the flow in a curved duct with square cross section in the paper. The method consists of parallel domain decomposition of grids, creation of virtual diagonal bordered matrix, assembling of boundary matrix,parallel LDLT decomposition, parallel solving of Poisson Equation, parallel estimation of convergence and so on. The parallel computing method can solve the problems that are difficult to solve using traditional serial computing. Furthermore, existing microcomputers can be fully used to resolve some large-scale problems of complex turbulent flow.

  17. Characterization of an INVS Model IV Neutron Counter for High Precision ($\\gamma,n$) Cross-Section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, C W; Karwowski, H J; Rich, G C; Tompkins, J R; Howell, C R

    2010-01-01

    A neutron counter designed for assay of radioactive materials has been adapted for beam experiments at TUNL. The cylindrical geometry and 64% maximum efficiency make it well suited for ($\\gamma,n$) cross-section measurements near the neutron emission threshold. A high precision characterization of the counter has been made using neutrons from several sources. Using a combination of measurements and simulations, the absolute detection efficiency of the neutron counter was determined to an accuracy of $\\pm$ 3% in the neutron energy range between 0.1 and 1 MeV. It is shown that this efficiency characterization is generally valid for a wide range of targets.

  18. Measurement of the High-Mass Drell-Yan Cross Section and Limits on Quark-Electron Compositeness Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Baarmand, M. M.; Babintsev, V. V.; Babukhadia, L.; Baden, A.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Belyaev, A.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Breedon, R.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Casilum, Z.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Coney, L.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Davis, K.; de, K.; del Signore, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Dudko, L. V.; Dugad, S. R.; Dyshkant, A.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M. K.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Gartung, P.; Gavrilov, V.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gibbard, B.; Gobbi, B.; Gómez, B.; Gómez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Gounder, K.; Goussiou, A.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Greenlee, H.; Grinstein, S.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Gupta, A.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Tong; Ito, A. S.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jesik, R.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Karmanov, D.; Karmgard, D.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klima, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Ko, W.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovsky, E. A.; Krane, J.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kuleshov, S.; Kulik, Y.; Kunori, S.; Landry, F.; Landsberg, G.; Lauer, B.; Leflat, A.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lucotte, A.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Magaña-Mendoza, L.; Manankov, V.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Markeloff, R.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; Mauritz, K. M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McDonald, J.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Miao, C.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; Mostafa, M.; da Motta, H.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Nemethy, P.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oliveira, E.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Para, A.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Pawlik, B.; Perkins, J.; Peters, M.; Piegaia, R.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roco, M.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shpakov, D.; Shupe, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smith, E.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sosebee, M.; Sotnikova, N.; Souza, M.; Steinbrück, G.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stichelbaut, F.; Stoker, D.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Thomas, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Vaniev, V.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Wu, Z.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yasuda, T.; Yepes, P.

    1999-06-01

    We present a measurement of the Drell-Yan cross section at high dielectron invariant mass using 120 pb -1 of data collected in pp¯ collisions at s = 1.8 TeV by the D0 Collaboration during 1992-1996. No deviation from standard model expectations is observed. We use the data to set limits on the quark-electron compositeness scale. The 95% confidence level lower limits on the compositeness scale vary between 3.3 and 6.1 TeV depending on the assumed form of the effective contact interaction.

  19. Impact of the γ _{ν }NN* Electrocoupling Parameters at High Photon Virtualities and Preliminary Cross Sections off the Neutron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothe, Ralf W.; Tian, Ye

    2016-10-01

    Meson-photoproduction measurements and their reaction-amplitude analyses can establish more sensitively, and in some cases in an almost model-independent way, nucleon excitations and non-resonant reaction amplitudes. However, to investigate the strong interaction from already explored—where meson-cloud degrees of freedom contribute substantially to the baryon structure—to still unexplored distance scales—where quark degrees of freedom dominate and the transition from dressed to current quarks occurs—we depend on experiments that allow us to measure observables that are probing this evolving non-perturbative QCD regime over its full range. Elastic and transition form factors are uniquely suited to trace this evolution by measuring elastic electron scattering and exclusive single-meson and double-pion electroproduction cross sections off the nucleon. These exclusive measurements will be extended to higher momentum transfers with the energy-upgraded CEBAF beam at JLab to study the quark degrees of freedom, where their strong interaction is responsible for the ground and excited nucleon state formations. After establishing unprecedented high-precision data, the imminent next challenge is a high-quality analysis to extract these relevant electrocoupling parameters for various resonances that can then be compared to state-of-the-art models and QCD-based calculations. The vast majority of the available exclusive electroproduction cross sections are off the proton. Hence flavor-dependent analyses of excited light-quark baryons are lacking experimental data off the neutron. The goal is to close this gap by providing exclusive {γ }_{ν }(n) → p+ {π }- reaction cross section off deuterium and to establish a kinematical final-state-interaction (FSI) correction factor (R) map that can be determined from the data set itself. The "e1e" Jefferson Lab CLAS data set, that is analyzed, includes both a hydrogen and deuterium target run period, which allows a combined

  20. Estimation of the breakup cross sections in $^6$He+$^{12}$C reaction within high-energy approximation and microscopic optical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Zemlyanaya, E V; Lukyanov, K V

    2010-01-01

    The breakup cross sections in the reaction $^6$He+$^{12}$C are calculated at about 40 MeV/nucleon using the high-energy approximation (HEA) and with the help of microscopic optical potentials (OP) of interaction with the target nucleus $^{12}$C of the projectile nucleus fragments $^4$He and 2n. Considering the di-neutron $h$=2n as a single particle the relative motion $h\\alpha$ wave function is estimated so that to explain both the separation energy of $h$ in $^6$He and the rms radius of the latter. The stripping and absorbtion total cross sections are calculated and their sum is compared with the total reaction cross section obtained within a double-folding microscopic OP for the $^6$He+$^{12}$C scattering. It is concluded that the breakup cross sections contribute in about 50% of the total reaction cross section.

  1. Measurements of Coulomb Cross Section for Production of Direct Electron-pairs by High Energy Ions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    QED predicts copious direct electron pair production by ultrarelativistic heavy nuclei in a high Z medium such as nuclear emulsion. First order QED calculations (combined screening and non-screening) for this process show that 1000@+32 electron pairs above 100~keV energy) should be emitted for a total |1|6O track length of 10.9~m in nuclear emulsion at 200~GeV/AMU. Emulsion exposures with oxygen (and other nuclei if available) at 60 and 200~GeV/AMU will be used to calibrate the energy dependent cross section @s~@j~(1n~E)|2|-|3, whose exponent depends on atomic screening. The oxygen tracks in the developed emulsions will be scanned with a microscope, and the number of direct electron pairs will be counted for individual tracks. The exposed stacks will contain sufficient emulsion (and CR39 plastic to check for possible interactions) that adequate path length will be available for exposures to @$>$~10|4~ions at each energy and ion species. \\\\ \\\\ If the absolute value of this cross section is confirmed as large a...

  2. Fission cross section calculations for 209Bi target nucleus based on fission reaction models in high energy regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of projects of new generation nuclear power plants requires the solving of material science and technological issues in developing of reactor materials. Melts of heavy metals (Pb, Bi and Pb-Bi due to their nuclear and thermophysical properties, are the candidate coolants for fast reactors and accelerator-driven systems (ADS. In this study, α, γ, p, n and 3He induced fission cross section calculations for 209Bi target nucleus at high-energy regions for (α,f, (γ,f, (p,f, (n,f and (3He,f reactions have been investigated using different fission reaction models. Mamdouh Table, Sierk, Rotating Liquid Drop and Fission Path models of theoretical fission barriers of TALYS 1.6 code have been used for the fission cross section calculations. The calculated results have been compared with the experimental data taken from the EXFOR database. TALYS 1.6 Sierk model calculations exhibit generally good agreement with the experimental measurements for all reactions used in this study.

  3. High-resolution measurements of the exited states (n,pn), (n,dn) C-12 cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillon, M.; Angelone, M.; Belloni, F.; Geerts, W.; Loreti, S.; Milocco, A.; Plompen, A. J. M.

    2017-09-01

    Measurements of C12 cross sections for the excited states (n,p0) up to (n,p4) and (n,d0), (n,d1) have been carried out. The Van de Graaff neutron generator of the EC-JRC-IRMM laboratory has been used for these measurements. A very thin tritiated target (263 μg/cm2) was employed with deuteron beams energies impinging on the target in the range 2.5-4.0 MeV. Neutrons in the range 18.9-20.7 MeV were produced with an intrinsic energy spread of 0.2-0.25% FWHM. With such narrow neutron energy spread, using a high energy resolution device such as a single crystal diamond detector, several peaks from the outgoing charged particles produced by the (n,pn), (n,dn) and also (n,α0) reactions appear in the pulse height spectrum. The peaks can be identified using the reaction Q-values. The diamond detector used for these measurements has shown an intrinsic energy resolution lower than 0.9% FWHM. The analysis of the peaks has permitted to derive the partial carbon reaction cross sections for several excited states. The results are presented in this paper with the associated uncertainties and they are compared with different versions of TENDL compilation when these data are available (e.g. versions 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2015) and also with experimental results available in the EXFOR database.

  4. Kinetics of the gas phase reaction OH+NO(+M)->HONO(+M) and the determination of the UV absorption cross sections of HONO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, P.; Bjergbakke, E.; Ratajczak, E.;

    1997-01-01

    The reaction OH + NO(+ M) --> HONO(+ M) with M = SF6 as a third body has been employed as a clean source for recording the near-ultraviolet absorption spectrum of HONO without interference from other absorbing species. The reaction was initiated by the pulse radiolysis of SF6/H2O/NO mixtures...... with total pressures in the range 10-1000 mbar at 298 K. The pressure dependence of the rate coefficient was studied by time-resolved UV and IR spectroscopy. By analysis of the fall-off curve we have derived a value for the limiting low pressure rate constant k(0)/[SF6] = (1.5 +/- 0.1) X 10(-30) cm(6......) molecule(-2) s(-1) at 298 K, using the values of k(infinity) = (3.3 +/- 0.3) X 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and F-cent = 0.81 reported by Tree and co-workers. The UV spectrum of HONO was recorded in the range 320-400 nm and an absolute absorption cross section of sigma = (5.02 +/- 0.76) X 10(-19) cm(2...

  5. Visualizing the Contributions of Virtual States to Two-Photon Absorption Cross Sections by Natural Transition Orbitals of Response Transition Density Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Kaushik D; Krylov, Anna I

    2017-07-20

    Observables such as two-photon absorption cross sections cannot be computed from the wave functions of initial and final states alone because of their nonlinear nature. Rather, they depend on the entire manifold of the excited states, which follows from the familiar sum-over-states expressions of second- and higher-order properties. Consequently, the interpretation of the computed nonlinear optical properties in terms of molecular orbitals is not straightforward and usually relies on approximate few-states models. Here, we show that the two-photon absorption (2PA) transitions can be visualized using response one-particle transition density matrices, which are defined as transition density matrices between the zero-order and first-order perturbed states. We also extend the concept of natural transition orbitals to 2PA transitions. We illustrate the utility of this new tool, which provides a rigorous black box alternative to traditional qualitative few-states analysis, by considering 2PA transitions in ethylene, trans-stilbene, and para-nitroaniline.

  6. Estimation of the mass absorption cross section of the organic carbon component of aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Barnard

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Data taken from the MCMA-2003 and the 2006 MILAGRO field campaigns are used to examine the absorption of solar radiation by the organic component of aerosols. Using irradiance data from a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR and an actinic flux spectroradiometer (SR, we derive aerosol single scattering albedo, π0,λ, as a function of wavelength, λ. We find that in the near-UV spectral range (250 to 400 nm π0,λ is much lower compared to π0,λ at 500 nm indicating enhanced absorption in the near-UV range. Absorption by elemental carbon, dust, or gas cannot account for this enhanced absorption leaving the organic part of the aerosol as the only possible absorber. We use data from a surface deployed Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS along with the inferred π0,λ to estimate the Mass Absorption Cross section (MAC for the organic carbon. We find that the MAC is about 10.5 m2/g at 300 nm and falls close to zero at about 500 nm; values that are roughly consistent with other estimates of organic carbon MAC. These MAC values can be considered as "radiatively correct" because when used in radiative transfer calculations the calculated irradiances/actinic fluxes match those measured at the wavelengths considered here. For an illustrative case study described here, we estimate that the light absorption by the "brown" (organic carbonaceous aerosol can add about 40% to the light absorption of black carbon in Mexico City. This contribution will vary depending on the relative abundance of organic carbon relative to black carbon. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that organic aerosol would slow down photochemistry by selectively scavenging the light reaching the ground at those wavelengths that drive photochemical reactions. Finally, satellite retrievals of trace gases that are used to infer emissions currently assume that the MAC of organic carbon is zero. For trace gases that are

  7. Calculation of diagonal section and cross-section bending capacity for strengthening RC structure using high-performance ferrocement laminate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shouping SHANG; Fangyuan ZHOU; Wei LIU

    2009-01-01

    Because there is a great demand of reinforce-ment and retrofitting of aged structures nationwide, as well as the rapid development of innovative building materials,the adoption of strengthening RC structures using new inorganic materials has become possible. High-performance ferrocement laminate (HPFL) is an effective method of strengthening concrete structure. High-performance ferrocement laminate is a new type of inorganic material with the advantages such as high strength, small contraction, good bonding properties, etc.This paper introduces the formula of cross-section bending capacity for strengthening concrete beams with HPEL. A comparative analysis of experimental data, as well as the calculation of diagonal section bearing capacity of concrete members, is given.

  8. Quark, Gluon, Odderon Contributions to Total Cross Section of Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering at High Energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Jia-Jin; LU Juan; CHENG Yan; ZHOU Li-Huan; ZHU Wen-Jun; MA Wei-Xing; GOU Qing-Quan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the quark-gluon structure of nucleon and the existence of Odderon in nucleon via gluon self-interaction, the elastic scattering of pp at high energies is studied. Our theoretical predictions reproduce experimental data perfectly. The contributions from individual terms of quark-quark, gluon-gluon interactions, quark-gluon interfer-ence and the Odderon terms to total cross section are analyzed. In addition to the leading quark-quark contribution, the Odderon contribution is quite important. In particular, the Odderon plays an essential role in fitting to data. Therefore, We may claim that the high energy lap and pp elastic scattering may be good processes to search for the Odderon, the three Reggeized gluon bound states.

  9. VALIDITY OF THE HIGH-TENSILE-STRENG TH BOLT FOR THE SOFT ROCK WITH LARGE CROSS SECTIONAL TUNNEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Hiroshi; Tamamura, Kouji; Uneda, Atsushi; Domon, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Kazuo

    This paper reports the experiential result about the applications of the high tensile strength bolts as a countermeasure for the displacement, considered about the denaturalization of the large cross sectional tunnel in mudstone layer. In Kanaya Tunnel of the New Tomei Expressway, the soft rock section appeared where we cannot restrain support denaturizi ng and internal displacement by materials of the standard design. Then fore, we adopted the high tensile strength bolts (748kN) replacing with of the standard design, and improved the support proof for stress. As the result, we got possible to control the displacement and execute the work safety and economi cally. We compared the analysis result (FEM) by the limited element method with the measure result on the spot, and inspected the supportability effect of the higt tensile strength bolts.

  10. Superconducting Quadrupoles for the ISR High Luminosity insertion Coil cross section

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    This picture shows a cut out section of an ISR High Luminosity (low beta) Quadrupole. One can clearly see the distribution of conductors and spacers which produces the wanted quadrupolar field. The spacers are made of pure copper and the central pole of stainless steel.The superconducting wire may be seen in photo 8008591X. See also pictures 7702690X, 8008591X, 7702698X.

  11. High precision measurement of the differential $W$ and $Z$ boson production cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sommer, Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the Drell-Yan production of $W$ and $Z/\\gamma^*$ bosons at the LHC provide a benchmark of our understanding of perturbative QCD and probe the proton structure in a unique way. The ATLAS collaboration has performed new high precision measurements at center-of-mass energies of 7 TeV. The measurements are performed for $W^+$, $W^-$ and $Z/\\gamma^*$ bosons integrated and as a function of the boson or lepton rapidity and the $Z/\\gamma^*$ mass. Unprecedented precision is reached and strong constraints on Parton Distribution functions, in particular the strange density are found. Slides for DIS 2017 in Birmingham

  12. The High Energy γγ→γγ Scattering Cross Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOULiang; ZHOUXian-Jian

    2002-01-01

    Contributions of fermion loops,W-boson loops and their sum to the high energy γγ→γγ scattering total cross sectios (|cos θ|

  13. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    CERN Document Server

    Cornet, F; Grau, A; Pancheri, G; Sciutto, S J

    2015-01-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultra-high energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air-showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  14. A Measurement of Inclusive Quasielastic Electron Cross Sections at X > 1 and High Q{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Petitjean

    2002-07-01

    Experiment E89-008 measured inclusive electron scattering cross sections from different nuclei in Hall C at Jefferson Laboratory. Cross sections on the low energy loss side of the quasi-elastic peak (x{sub Bj} > 1) are extracted for carbon, aluminum, iron and gold. The data cover four-momentum transfers squared of 0:97 to 5:73 GeV 2 =c 2 . The measured cross sections are compared to cross sections calculated using a microscopic spectral function. The cross section results are also analyzed in terms of the two scaling functions F (y) and f( psi ). For both the data is found to be independent of the momentum transfer (scaling of the first kind). For f( psi ) the data is in addition independent of the mass number A (scaling of the second kind) and thus exhibits superscaling properties.

  15. SuPer-Homogenization (SPH) Corrected Cross Section Generation for High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ramazan Sonat [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hummel, Andrew John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hiruta, Hikaru [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The deterministic full core simulators require homogenized group constants covering the operating and transient conditions over the entire lifetime. Traditionally, the homogenized group constants are generated using lattice physics code over an assembly or block in the case of prismatic high temperature reactors (HTR). For the case of strong absorbers that causes strong local depressions on the flux profile require special techniques during homogenization over a large volume. Fuel blocks with burnable poisons or control rod blocks are example of such cases. Over past several decades, there have been a tremendous number of studies performed for improving the accuracy of full-core calculations through the homogenization procedure. However, those studies were mostly performed for light water reactor (LWR) analyses, thus, may not be directly applicable to advanced thermal reactors such as HTRs. This report presents the application of SuPer-Homogenization correction method to a hypothetical HTR core.

  16. High prevalence of syphilis among demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutala Prosper

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis, a known major public health issue for soldiers during periods of conflict, is exacerbated in the Democratic Republic of Congo due to widespread sexual violence. However, there has been no previous study to determine the extent of this problem. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of syphilis among young demobilized soldiers. Methods Screening of syphilis using the rapid plasma reagin test and the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was conducted in three transit sites of soldier reintegration in 2005. The Fisher Exact probability test was used to compare results. Results The prevalence of syphilis was found to be 3.4%, with almost equal distribution in respect to sex, location. Conclusion Syphilis continues to be highly prevalent in demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo. Syphilis screening tests are recommended.

  17. Prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk Ghanaian newborns: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enweronu-Laryea Christabel C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital malaria is defined as malaria parasitaemia in the first week of life. The reported prevalence of congenital malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is variable (0 - 46%. Even though the clinical significance of congenital malaria parasitaemia is uncertain, anti-malarial drugs are empirically prescribed for sick newborns by frontline health care workers. Data on prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk newborns will inform appropriate drug use and timely referral of sick newborns. Methods Blood samples of untreated newborns less than 1 week of age at the time of referral to Korle Bu Teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana during the peak malaria seasons (April to July of 2008 and 2010 were examined for malaria parasites by, i Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears for parasite count and species identification, ii histidine-rich protein- and lactic dehydrogenase-based rapid diagnosis tests, or iii polymerase chain reaction amplification of the merozoite surface protein 2 gene, for identification of sub-microscopic parasitaemia. Other investigations were also done as clinically indicated. Results In 2008, nine cases of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia were diagnosed by microscopy in 405 (2.2% newborns. All the nine newborns had low parasite densities (≤50 per microlitre. In 2010, there was no case of parasitaemia by either microscopy or rapid diagnosis tests in 522 newborns; however, 56/467 (12% cases of P. falciparum were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion Congenital malaria is an uncommon cause of clinical illness in high-risk untreated newborns referred to a tertiary hospital in the first week of life. Empirical anti-malarial drug treatment for sick newborns without laboratory confirmation of parasitaemia is imprudent. Early referral of sick newborns to hospitals with resources and skills for appropriate care is recommended.

  18. A cross-sectional study of biotechnology awareness and teaching in European high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Hervé; Heinzmann, Dominik; Faso, Carmen; Stupak, Martin; Arga, Kazim Yalçin; Hoerzer, Helen; Laizet, Yech'an; Leduchowska, Paulina; Silva, Nádia; Simková, Klára

    2010-12-31

    Undoubtedly, biotechnology has a tremendous impact on our daily lives. As a result of this and in parallel to the advancement of knowledge in this field of applied research, consumer awareness of the potential benefits and risks of this technology has steadily increased, leading to a thorough investigation of the public perception of biotechnology in the past years. Indeed, it has become clear that it is in the general interest of science and especially of applied research to inform the public of its advances. A promising next step is to strengthen biotechnology communication in scholastic institutions. In this paper, we investigate the perception of biotechnology in a specific target group, namely high-school students in the 16-20-year-old age range. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey on a total of 1410 students in six European countries to investigate students' perception, concern, scientific knowledge, and awareness. Our data revealed some unexpected patterns of acceptance and concern about biotechnology. Knowledge analysis indicated that pupils lack specific knowledge about biotechnological applications and their interest in biotechnology appeared to be linked to knowledge. Analysis of specific questions about teaching practices at schools suggests that a better targeted choice in media as vehicles for information together with selected speakers could be instrumental in increasing students' interest in science and more specifically in biotechnology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cross section measurements of high-pT dilepton final-state processes using a global fitting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M. G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Aoki, M.; Apollinari, G.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Ashmanskas, W.; Attal, A.; Azfar, F.; Azzi-Bacchetta, P.; Azzurri, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Baroiant, S.; Bartsch, V.; Bauer, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Belforte, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Belloni, A.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Beringer, J.; Berry, T.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blocker, C.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bolla, G.; Bolshov, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brubaker, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Budroni, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Byrum, K. L.; Cabrera, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carillo, S.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carron, S.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chang, S. H.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, I.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Choudalakis, G.; Chuang, S. H.; Chung, K.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Ciljak, M.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clark, D.; Coca, M.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Cooper, B.; Copic, K.; Cordelli, M.; Cortiana, G.; Crescioli, F.; Almenar, C. Cuenca; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cully, J. C.; Cyr, D.; Daronco, S.; Datta, M.; D'Auria, S.; Davies, T.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dagenhart, D.; de Barbaro, P.; Dececco, S.; Deisher, A.; de Lentdecker, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Delli Paoli, F.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; de Pedis, D.; Derwent, P. F.; di Giovanni, G. P.; Dionisi, C.; di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; Dituro, P.; Dörr, C.; Donati, S.; Donega, M.; Dong, P.; Donini, J.; Dorigo, T.; Dube, S.; Efron, J.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Fedorko, I.; Fedorko, W. T.; Feild, R. G.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Foland, A.; Forrester, S.; Foster, G. W.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garcia, J. E.; Garberson, F.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Gay, C.; Gerberich, H.; Gerdes, D.; Giagu, S.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, K.; Gimmell, J. L.; Ginsburg, C.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldschmidt, N.; Goldstein, J.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gresele, A.; Griffiths, M.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grundler, U.; da Costa, J. Guimaraes; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, K.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hamilton, A.; Han, B.-Y.; Han, J. Y.; Handler, R.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harper, S.; Harr, R. F.; Harris, R. M.; Hartz, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hauser, J.; Heijboer, A.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, J.; Henderson, C.; Herndon, M.; Heuser, J.; Hidas, D.; Hill, C. S.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hocker, A.; Holloway, A.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.; Hsu, S.-C.; Huffman, B. T.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Huston, J.; Incandela, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ishizawa, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Iyutin, B.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeans, D.; Jensen, H.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, J. E.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kato, Y.; Kemp, Y.; Kephart, R.; Kerzel, U.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirsch, L.; Klimenko, S.; Klute, M.; Knuteson, B.; Ko, B. R.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kovalev, A.; Kraan, A. C.; Kraus, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kubo, T.; Kuhlmann, S. E.; Kuhr, T.; Kusakabe, Y.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lai, S.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lecompte, T.; Lee, J.; Lee, J.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, S. W.; Lefèvre, R.; Leonardo, N.; Leone, S.; Levy, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Lin, C.; Lin, C. S.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Liss, T. M.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, T.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Loreti, M.; Loverre, P.; Lu, R.-S.; Lucchesi, D.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lyons, L.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Lytken, E.; Mack, P.; MacQueen, D.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maki, T.; Maksimovic, P.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Margaroli, F.; Marginean, R.; Marino, C.; Marino, C. P.; Martin, A.; Martin, M.; Martin, V.; Martínez, M.; Maruyama, T.; Mastrandrea, P.; Masubuchi, T.; Matsunaga, H.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazini, R.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzemer, S.; Menzione, A.; Merkel, P.; Mesropian, C.; Messina, A.; Miao, T.; Miladinovic, N.; Miles, J.; Miller, R.; Mills, C.; Milnik, M.; Mitra, A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Miyamoto, A.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mohr, B.; Moore, R.; Morello, M.; Fernandez, P. Movilla; Mülmenstädt, J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Mumford, R.; Murat, P.; Nachtman, J.; Nagano, A.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Necula, V.; Neu, C.; Neubauer, M. S.; Nielsen, J.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Norniella, O.; Nurse, E.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Oldeman, R.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Papadimitriou, V.; Paramonov, A. A.; Parks, B.; Pashapour, S.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Pellett, D. E.; Penzo, A.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Piedra, J.; Pinera, L.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Portell, X.; Poukhov, O.; Pounder, N.; Prakoshyn, F.; Pronko, A.; Proudfoot, J.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Pursley, J.; Rademacker, J.; Rahaman, A.; Ranjan, N.; Rappoccio, S.; Reisert, B.; Rekovic, V.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Richter, S.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rogers, E.; Rolli, S.; Roser, R.; Rossi, M.; Rossin, R.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Saarikko, H.; Sabik, S.; Safonov, A.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Salamanna, G.; Saltó, O.; Saltzberg, D.; Sánchez, C.; Santi, L.; Sarkar, S.; Sartori, L.; Sato, K.; Savard, P.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Scheidle, T.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, M.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scott, A. L.; Scribano, A.; Scuri, F.; Sedov, A.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Sfyrla, A.; Shapiro, M. D.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Sherman, D.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shon, Y.; Shreyber, I.; Sidoti, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sisakyan, A.; Sjolin, J.; Slaughter, A. J.; Slaunwhite, J.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Snihur, R.; Soderberg, M.; Soha, A.; Somalwar, S.; Sorin, V.; Spalding, J.; Spinella, F.; Spreitzer, T.; Squillacioti, P.; Stanitzki, M.; Staveris-Polykalas, A.; St. Denis, R.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Stuart, D.; Suh, J. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Sun, H.; Suzuki, T.; Taffard, A.; Takashima, R.; Takeuchi, Y.; Takikawa, K.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, R.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Terashi, K.; Thom, J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Tipton, P.; Tiwari, V.; Tkaczyk, S.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Tourneur, S.; Trischuk, W.; Tsuchiya, R.; Tsuno, S.; Turini, N.; Ukegawa, F.; Unverhau, T.; Uozumi, S.; Usynin, D.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Remortel, N.; Varganov, A.; Vataga, E.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Veramendi, G.; Veszpremi, V.; Vidal, R.; Vila, I.; Vilar, R.; Vine, T.; Vollrath, I.; Volobouev, I.; Volpi, G.; Würthwein, F.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. G.; Wagner, R. L.; Wagner, J.; Wagner, W.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Waschke, S.; Waters, D.; Weinberger, M.; Wester, W. C., III; Whitehouse, B.; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A. B.; Wicklund, E.; Williams, G.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, C.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wynne, S. M.; Yagil, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamashita, T.; Yang, C.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Yao, W. M.; Yeh, G. P.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G. B.; Yu, I.; Yu, S. S.; Yun, J. C.; Zanello, L.; Zanetti, A.; Zaw, I.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, J.; Zucchelli, S.

    2008-07-01

    We present a new method for studying high-pT dilepton events (e±e∓, μ±μ∓, e±μ∓) and simultaneously extracting the production cross sections of p pmacr →t tmacr , p pmacr →W+W-, and p pmacr →Z0→τ+τ- at a center-of-mass energy of s=1.96TeV. We perform a likelihood fit to the dilepton data in a parameter space defined by the missing transverse energy and the number of jets in the event. Our results, which use 360pb-1 of data recorded with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, are σ(t tmacr )=8.5-2.2+2.7pb, σ(W+W-)=16.3-4.4+5.2pb, and σ(Z0→τ+τ-)=291-46+50pb.

  20. Measurement of the High-Mass Drell-Yan Cross Section and Limits on Quark-Electron Compositeness Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinstein, S.; Mostafa, M.; Piegaia, R. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alves, G.A.; Carvalho, W.; Maciel, A.K.; da Motta, H.; Oliveira, E.; Santoro, A. [LAFEX, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lima, J.G.; Oguri, V. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Gomez, B.; Hoeneisen, B.; Mooney, P.; Negret, J.P. [Universidad de los Andes, Bogota (Colombia); Ducros, Y. [DAPNIA/Service de Physique des Particules, CEA, Saclay (France); Beri, S.B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Kohli, J.M.; Singh, J.B. [Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Shivpuri, R.K. [Delhi University, Delhi (India); Acharya, B.S.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.R.; Gupta, A.; Krishnaswamy, M.R.; Mondal, N.K.; Narasimham, V.S.; Parua, N.; Shankar, H.C. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Park, Y.M. [Kyungsung University, Pusan (Korea); Choi, S.; Kim, S.K. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Castilla-Valdez, H.; Gonzalez Solis, J.L.; Hernandez-Montoya, R.; Magana-Mendoza, L.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A. [CINVESTAV, Mexico City (Mexico); Pawlik, B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Gavrilov, V.; Gershtein, Y.; Kuleshov, S. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russia); Belyaev, A.; Dudko, L.V.; Ermolov, P.; Karmanov, D.; Leflat, A.; Manankov, V.; Merkin, M.; Shabalina, E. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russia); Abramov, V.; Babintsev, V.V.; Bezzubov, V.A.; Bojko, N.I.; Burtovoi, V.S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Denisov, S.P.; Dyshkant, A.; Eroshin, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.N.; Galyaev, A.N.; Goncharov, P.I.; Gurzhiev, S.N.; Kostritskiy, A.V.; Kozelov, A.V.; Kozlovsky, E.A.; Mayorov, A.A. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russia); Babukhadia, L.; Davis, K.; Fein, D.; Forden, G.E.; Guida, J.A.; Johns, K.; Nang, F.; Narayanan, A.; Rutherfoord, J.; Shupe, M. [University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Aihara, H.; Barberis, E.; Clark, A.R.; and others

    1999-06-01

    We present a measurement of the Drell-Yan cross section at high dielectron invariant mass using 120 pb{sup {minus}1} of data collected in p{bar p} collisions at {radical} (s) =1.8 TeV by the D0 Collaboration during 1992{endash}1996. No deviation from standard model expectations is observed. We use the data to set limits on the quark-electron compositeness scale. The 95{percent} confidence level lower limits on the compositeness scale vary between 3.3 and 6.1thinspthinspTeV depending on the assumed form of the effective contact interaction. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Depression in late adolescence: a cross-sectional study in senior high schools in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magklara, Konstantina; Bellos, Stefanos; Niakas, Dimitrios; Stylianidis, Stelios; Kolaitis, Gerasimos; Mavreas, Venetsanos; Skapinakis, Petros

    2015-08-18

    Depression is a common mental health problem in adolescents worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence, comorbidity and sociodemographic and socioeconomic associations of depression and depressive symptoms, as well as the relevant health services use in a sample of adolescents in Greece. Five thousand six hundred fourteen adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R). The use of substances, such as alcohol, nicotine and cannabis, and several sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables have been also assessed. In our sample the prevalence rates were 5.67 % for the depressive episode according to ICD-10 and 17.43 % for a broader definition of depressive symptoms. 49.38 % of the adolescents with depressive episode had at least one comorbid anxiety disorder [OR: 7.76 (5.52-10.92)]. Only 17.08 % of the adolescents with depression have visited a doctor due to a psychological problem during the previous year. Anxiety disorders, substance use, female gender, older age, having one sibling, and divorce or separation of the parents were all associated with depression. In addition, the presence of financial difficulties in the family was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of both depression and depressive symptoms. Prevalence and comorbidity rates of depression among Greek adolescents are substantial. Only a small minority of depressed adolescents seek professional help. Significant associations with financial difficulties are reported.

  2. Status report on multigroup cross section generation code development for high-fidelity deterministic neutronics simulation system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W. S.; Lee, C. H. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2008-05-16

    Under the fast reactor simulation program launched in April 2007, development of an advanced multigroup cross section generation code was initiated in July 2007, in conjunction with the development of the high-fidelity deterministic neutron transport code UNIC. The general objectives are to simplify the existing multi-step schemes and to improve the resolved and unresolved resonance treatments. Based on the review results of current methods and the fact that they have been applied successfully to fast critical experiment analyses and fast reactor designs for last three decades, the methodologies of the ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2/SDX code system were selected as the starting set of methodologies for multigroup cross section generation for fast reactor analysis. As the first step for coupling with the UNIC code and use in a parallel computing environment, the MC{sup 2}-2 code was updated by modernizing the memory structure and replacing old data management package subroutines and functions with FORTRAN 90 based routines. Various modifications were also made in the ETOE-2 and MC{sup 2}-2 codes to process the ENDF/B-VII.0 data properly. Using the updated ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2 code system, the ENDF/B-VII.0 data was successfully processed for major heavy and intermediate nuclides employed in sodium-cooled fast reactors. Initial verification tests of the MC{sup 2}-2 libraries generated from ENDF/B-VII.0 data were performed by inter-comparison of twenty-one group infinite dilute total cross sections obtained from MC{sup 2}-2, VIM, and NJOY. For almost all nuclides considered, MC{sup 2}-2 cross sections agreed very well with those from VIM and NJOY. Preliminary validation tests of the ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries of MC{sup 2}-2 were also performed using a set of sixteen fast critical benchmark problems. The deterministic results based on MC{sup 2}-2/TWODANT calculations were in good agreement with MCNP solutions within {approx}0.25% {Delta}{rho}, except a few small LANL fast assemblies

  3. Floodplain Cross Section Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...

  4. High-resolution fission cross section of 231Pa. [0. 4 eV to 12 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plattard, S.; Auchampaugh, G. F.; Hill, N. W.; de Saussure, G.; Perez, R. B.; Harvey, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The /sup 231/Pa fission cross section was measured with high resolution at OREA from 0.1 to 12 MeV and between 0.4 eV and 10 keV. The data show evidence for fractionated vibrational structures in the threshold region of the fission cross section, and narrow fission resonances above 0.4 eV with an average fission width < GAMMA/sub f/ > = 8 ..mu..eV. 3 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Determination of the fission-neutron averaged cross sections of some high-energy threshold reactions of interest for reactor dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Arribere, M A; Ribeiro-Guevara, S; Korochinsky, S; Blostein, J J

    2003-01-01

    For three high threshold reactions, we have measured the cross sections averaged over a sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U fission neutron spectrum. The measured reactions, and corresponding averaged cross sections found, are: sup 1 sup 2 sup 7 I(n,2n) sup 1 sup 2 sup 6 I, (1.36+-0.12) mb; sup 9 sup 0 Zr(n,2n) sup 8 sup 9 sup m Zr, (13.86+-0.83) mu b; and sup 5 sup 8 Ni(n,d+np+pn) sup 5 sup 7 Co, (274+-15) mu b; all referred to the well known standard of (111+-3) mb for the sup 5 sup 8 Ni(n,p) sup 5 sup 8 sup m sup + sup g Co averaged cross section. The measured cross sections are of interest in nuclear engineering for the characterization of the fast neutron component in the energy distribution of reactor neutrons. (author)

  6. Filter-based measurements of UV-vis mass absorption cross sections of organic carbon aerosol from residential biomass combustion: Preliminary findings and sources of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Pervez, Shamsh; Chakrabarty, Rajan K.

    2016-10-01

    Combustion of solid biomass fuels is a major source of household energy in developing nations. Black (BC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols are the major PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm) pollutants co-emitted during burning of these fuels. While the optical nature of BC is well characterized, very little is known about the properties of light-absorbing OC (LAOC). Here, we report our preliminary findings on the mass-based optical properties of LAOC emitted from the combustion of four commonly used solid biomass fuels - fuel-wood, agricultural residue, dung-cake, and mixed - in traditional Indian cookstoves. As part of a pilot field study conducted in central India, PM2.5 samples were collected on Teflon filters and analyzed for their absorbance spectra in the 300-900 nm wavelengths at 1 nm resolution using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. The mean mass absorption cross-sections (MAC) of the emitted PM2.5 and OC, at 550 nm, were 0.8 and 0.2 m2 g-1, respectively, each with a factor of ~2.3 uncertainty. The mean absorption Ångström exponent (AǺE) values for PM2.5 were 3±1 between 350 and 550 nm, and 1.2±0.1 between 550 and 880 nm. In the 350-550 nm range, OC had an AǺE of 6.3±1.8. The emitted OC mass, which was on average 25 times of the BC mass, contributed over 50% of the aerosol absorbance at wavelengths smaller than 450 nm. The overall OC contribution to visible solar light (300-900 nm) absorption by the emitted particles was 26-45%. Our results highlight the need to comprehensively and accurately address: (i) the climatic impacts of light absorption by OC from cookstove emissions, and (ii) the uncertainties and biases associated with variability in biomass fuel types and combustion conditions, and filter-based measurement artifacts during determination of MAC values.

  7. High Intensity Physical Exercise and Pain in the Neck and Upper Limb among Slaughterhouse Workers: Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sundstrup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Slaughterhouse work involves a high degree of repetitive and forceful upper limb movements and thus implies an elevated risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. High intensity strength training effectively rehabilitates musculoskeletal disorders among sedentary employees, but less is known about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand/wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49–0.997, whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present study can be used as general reference of pain in the neck and upper extremity among slaughterhouse workers. Future studies should investigate the effect of high intensity physical exercise on neck and upper limb pain in slaughterhouse workers.

  8. Relationship Between the Parenting Styles and Students' Educational Performance Among Iranian Girl High School Students, A Cross- Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Parivash; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Direkvand-Moghadam, Azadeh; Hashemian, Ataollah

    2015-12-01

    Parenting styles are effective in the educational performance of their child. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the parenting styles and students' educational performance among Iranian girl high school students. In a cross-sectional survey, female students in high schools of Ilam (Iran) evaluated during the academic year 2014-15. Multistage cluster random sampling was used to select the participants. Data were collected by two demographic and Baumrind's parenting styles questionnaire. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was measured as an index of internal identicalness of the questionnaire to verify its reliability. A total 400 students were studied. The Mean±SD of the students' age were 14±1.08. The students' school grades were the first year of high school to pre-university course. The Mean±SD of parenting styles were 35.37±5.8, 34.69±6.34 and 19.17±6.64 for permissive parenting style, authoritarian parenting style and authoritative parenting styles, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the score of permissive parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.151), authoritarian parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.343) and authoritative parenting style (p=0. 001, r= 0.261) with the students' average score for studying. The results of this study demonstrate that parental influence plays an important role in students' educational performance.

  9. Constraining the N2O5 UV absorption cross-section from spectroscopic trace gas measurements in the tropical mid-stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritten, L.; Butz, A.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dorf, M.; Dhomse, S.; Hossaini, R.; Oelhaf, H.; Prados-Roman, C.; Wetzel, G.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2014-02-01

    The absorption cross-section of N2O5, σN2O5(λ, T), which is known from laboratory measurements with the uncertainty of a factor of 2 (Table 4-2 in JPL-2011, Sander et al., 2011), was investigated by balloon-borne observations of the relevant trace gases in the tropical mid-stratosphere. The method relies on the observation of the diurnal variation of NO2 supported by detailed photochemical modelling of NOy (NOx(= NO + NO2) + NO3 + 2N2O5 + ClONO2 + HO2NO2 +BrONO2 + HNO3) photochemistry. Simulations are initialised with O3 measured by direct sun observations, the NOy partitioning from MIPAS-B (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding-Balloon) observations in similar air masses at nighttime, and all other relevant species from simulations of the SLIMCAT chemical transport model (CTM). Best agreement between the simulated and observed diurnal increase of NO2 is found if the σN2O5(λ, T) is scaled by a factor of 1.6 ± 0.8 in the UV-C (200-260 nm) and by a factor of 0.9 ± 0.26 in the UV-B/A (260-350 nm), compared to current recommendations. In consequence, at 30 km altitude, the N2O5 lifetime against photolysis becomes a factor of 0.77 shorter at solar zenith angle (SZA) of 30° than using the recommended σN2O5 (λ, T), and stays more or less constant at SZAs of 60°. Our scaled N2O5 photolysis frequency slightly reduces the lifetime (0.2-0.6%) of ozone in the tropical mid- and upper stratosphere, but not to an extent to be important for global ozone.

  10. Atmospheric Chemistry of 1-Methoxy 2-Propyl Acetate: UV Absorption Cross Sections, Rate Coefficients, and Products of Its Reactions with OH Radicals and Cl Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogka, Antonia G; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Romanias, Manolis N; Bedjanian, Yuri; Idir, Mahmoud; Grosselin, Benoit; Daële, Véronique

    2016-11-17

    The rate coefficients for the reactions of OH and Cl with 1-methoxy 2-propyl acetate (MPA) in the gas phase were measured using absolute and relative methods. The kinetic study on the OH reaction was conducted in the temperature (263-373) K and pressure (1-760) Torr ranges using the pulsed laser photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence technique, a low pressure fast flow tube reactor-quadrupole mass spectrometer, and an atmospheric simulation chamber/GC-FID. The derived Arrhenius expression is kMPA+OH(T) = (2.01 ± 0.02) × 10(-12) exp[(588 ± 123/T)] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The absolute and relative rate coefficients for the reaction of Cl with MPA were measured at room temperature in the flow reactor and the atmospheric simulation chamber, which led to k(Cl+MPA) = (1.98 ± 0.31) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). GC-FID, GC-MS, and FT-IR techniques were used to investigate the reaction mechanism in the presence of NO. The products formed from the reaction of MPA with OH and their yields were methyl formate (80 ± 7.3%), acetic acid (50 ± 4.8%), and acetic anhydride (22 ± 2.4%), while for Cl reaction, the obtained yields were 60 ± 5.4, 41 ± 3.8, and 11 ± 1.2%, respectively, for the same products. The UV absorption cross section spectrum of MPA was determined in the wavelength range 210-370 nm. The study has shown no photolysis of MPA under atmospheric conditions. The obtained results are used to derive the atmospheric implication.

  11. Measurement of Absolute Excitation Cross Sections in Highly-Charged Ions Using Electron Energy Loss and Merged Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, A.; Smith, Steven J.; Lozano, J.

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis during this decade on understanding energy balance and phenomena observed in high electron temperature plasmas. The UV spectral return from FUSE, the X-ray spectral return from the HETG on Chandra and the LETGS 011 XMM-Newton are just beginning. Line emissions are almost entirely from highly-charged ions (HCIs) of C, N, 0, Ne, Mg, S, Si, Ca, and Fe. The Constellation-X mission will provide X-ray spectroscopy up to photon energies of 0.12 nm (10 keV) where primary line emitters will be HCIs. A variety of atomic parameters are required to model the stellar and solar plasma. These include cross sections for excitation, ionization, charge-exchange, X-ray emission, direct and indirect recombination, lifetimes and branching ratios, and dependences on l, m mixing by external E and B fields. In almost all cases the atomic quantities are calculated, and few comparisons to experiment have been carried out. Collision strengths and Einstein A-values are required to convert the observed spectral intensities to electron temperatures and densities in the stellar plasma. The JPL electron energy-loss and merged beam approach has been used to measure absolute collision strengths in a number of ions, with critical comparison made to the best available theories.

  12. Cross-sectional Anatomy of Ilium for Guiding Acetabular Component Placement Using High Hip Center Technique in Asian Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Lin Xiao; Jian-Lin Zuo; Peng Liu; Yan-Guo Qin; Xue-Zhou Li; Tong Liu; Zhong-Li Gao

    2015-01-01

    Background:Many clinical studies have been published involving the use of a high hip center (HHC),achieved good follow-up.However,there is a little anatomic guidance in the literature regarding the amount of bone stock available for initial implant coverage in this area of the ilium.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the thickness and width of the human ilium and related acetabular cup coverage for guiding acetabular component placement in HHC.Methods:A total of 120 normal hips in 60 cases of adult patients from lower extremities computer tomographic angiography Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data were chosen for the study.After importing the data to the mimics software,we chose the cross sections every 5-mm increments from the rotational center of the hip to the cephalic of the ilium according the body sagittal axis,then we measured the thickness and width of the ilium for each cross section in axial plane,calculated the cup coverage at each chosen section.Results:At the acetabular dome,the mean thickness and width of the ilium were 49.71 ± 4.88 mm and 38.92 ± 3.67 mm,respectively,whereas at 1 cm above the dome,decreased to 41.35 ± 5.13 and 31.13 ± 3.37 respectively,and 2 cm above the dome,decreased to 31.25 ± 4.04 and 26.65 ± 3.43,respectively.Acetabular cup averaged coverage for 40-,50-,and 60-mm hemispheric shells,was 100%,89%,and 44% at the acetabular dome,100%,43.7%,and 27.5% for 1 cm above the dome,and 37.5%,21.9%,and 14.2% for 2 cm above the dome.Conclusions:HHC reconstructions within l cm above the acetabular dome will be an acceptable and smaller diameter prosthesis would be better.

  13. Constraining the N2O5 UV absorption cross section from spectroscopic trace gas measurements in the tropical mid-stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritten, L.; Butz, A.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dorf, M.; Dhomse, S.; Hossaini, R.; Oelhaf, H.; Prados-Roman, C.; Wetzel, G.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2014-09-01

    The absorption cross section of N2O5, σN2O5(λ, T), which is known from laboratory measurements with the uncertainty of a factor of 2 (Table 4-2 in (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) JPL-2011; the spread in laboratory data, however, points to an uncertainty in the range of 25 to 30%, Sander et al., 2011), was investigated by balloon-borne observations of the relevant trace gases in the tropical mid-stratosphere. The method relies on the observation of the diurnal variation of NO2 by limb scanning DOAS (differential optical absorption spectroscopy) measurements (Weidner et al., 2005; Kritten et al., 2010), supported by detailed photochemical modelling of NOy (NOx(= NO + NO2) + NO3 + 2N2O5 + ClONO2 + HO2NO2 + BrONO2 + HNO3) photochemistry and a non-linear least square fitting of the model result to the NO2 observations. Simulations are initialised with O3 measured by direct sun observations, the NOy partitioning from MIPAS-B (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding - Balloon-borne version) observations in similar air masses at night-time, and all other relevant species from simulations of the SLIMCAT (Single Layer Isentropic Model of Chemistry And Transport) chemical transport model (CTM). Best agreement between the simulated and observed diurnal increase of NO2 is found if the σN2O5(λ, T) is scaled by a factor of 1.6 ± 0.8 in the UV-C (200-260 nm) and by a factor of 0.9 ± 0.26 in the UV-B/A (260-350 nm), compared to current recommendations. As a consequence, at 30 km altitude, the N2O5 lifetime against photolysis becomes a factor of 0.77 shorter at solar zenith angle (SZA) of 30° than using the recommended σN2O5(λ, T), and stays more or less constant at SZAs of 60°. Our scaled N2O5 photolysis frequency slightly reduces the lifetime (0.2-0.6%) of ozone in the tropical mid- and upper stratosphere, but not to an extent to be important for global ozone.

  14. High rates of burnout among maternal health staff at a referral hospital in Malawi: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meguid Tarek

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burnout among maternal healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa may have a negative effect on services provided and efforts to mitigate high maternal mortality rates. In Malawi, research on burnout is limited and no empirical research has been conducted specifically among maternal health staff. Therefore, the aims of the study were to examine the prevalence and degree of burnout reported by healthcare workers who provide antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal services in a district referral hospital in Malawi; and, to explore factors that may influence the level of burnout healthcare workers experience. Methods In the current cross-sectional study, levels of burnout among staff working in obstetrics and gynaecology at a referral hospital in Malawi were examined, in addition to individual and job characteristics that may be associated with burnout. Results In terms of the three dimensions of burnout, of the 101 participants, nearly three quarters (72% reported emotional exhaustion, over one third (43% reported depersonalization while almost three quarters (74% experienced reduced personal accomplishment. Conclusions Based on these findings, burnout appears to be common among participating maternal health staff and they experienced more burnout than their colleagues working in other medical settings and countries. Further research is needed to identify factors specific to Malawi that contribute to burnout in order to inform the development of prevention and treatment within the maternal health setting.

  15. Measurement of high-Q^2 deep inelastic scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised positron beam at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Chekanov, S; Abt, I; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Allfrey, P D; Antonelli, S; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Behrens, U; Bell, M A; Bellagamba, L; Bellan, P M; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bindi, M; Bloch, I; Bold, T; Bonato, A; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brownson, E; Brugnera, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Brzozowska, B; Brümmer, N; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Büttner, C; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cole, J E; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cottrell, A; Cui, Y; D'Agostini, G; Dal Corso, F; Danielson, T; De Pasquale, S; Del Peso, J; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Devenish, R C E; Dobur, D; Dolgoshein, B A; Dossanov, A; Doyle, A T; Dunne, W; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Everett, A; Fazio, S; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fry, C; Gabareen, A; Galas, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Gialas, I; Gil, M; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Goers, S; Gosau, T; Grabowska-Bold, I; Gregor, I; Grigorescu, G; Grzelak, G; Gutsche, O; Gwenlan, C; Göttlicher, P; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Heath, G P; Hilger, E; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Hori, R; Horn, C; Iacobucci, G; Ibrahim, Z A; Iga, Y; Jakob, H P; Jiménez, M; Jones, T W; Jüngst, M; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kaji, H; Kamaluddin, B; Kananov, S; Karshon, U; Karstens, F; Kataoka, M; Katkov, I I; Kcira, D; Keramidas, A; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kind, O M; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klanner, Robert; Koffeman, E; Kollar, D; Kooijman, P; Korcsak-Gorzo, K; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Kowalski, H; Kulinski, P; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Kötz, U; Labarga, L; Lee, A; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Lim, H; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, C; Liu, X; Lobodzinska, E; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lukasik, J; Lukina, O Yu; Luzniak, P; Löhr, B; Ma, K J; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Malka, J; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Mattingly, M C K; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S; Miglioranzi, S; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Morris, J D; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Namsoo, T; Nania, R; Nguyen, C N; Nicholass, D; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Noor, U; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Ota, O; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Ri, Y D; Rinaldi, L; Roberfroid, V; Robertson, A; Ron, E; Rosin, M; Rubinsky, I; Ruspa, M; Ryan, P; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Samson, U; Santamarta, R; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schleper, P; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schonberg, V; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Sciulli, F; Shcheglova, L M; Shimizu, S; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Stadie, H; Staiano, A; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stopa, P; Straub, P B; Stösslein, U; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutiak, J; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tapper, A D; Targett-Adams, C; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Theedt, T; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Uribe-Estrada, C; Vlasov, N N; Vázquez, M; Walczak, R; Walsh, R; Wan-Abdullah, W A T; Wang, M; Watt, G; Whitmore, J J; Whyte, J; Wichmann, K; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wing, M; Wlasenko, M; Wolf, G; Wolfe, H; Wrona, K; Yagues-Molina, A G; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zambrana, M; Zarnecki, A F; Zawiejski, L; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zhou, C; Zichichi, A; Zotkin, D S; Zotkin, S A

    2006-01-01

    The cross sections for charged and neutral current deep inelastic scattering in e^+p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam have been measured using the ZEUS detector at HERA. The results, based on data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 23.8 pb^1 at sqrt(s) = 318 GeV, are given for both e^+p charged current and neutral current deep inelastic scattering for both positive and negative values of the longitudinal polarisation of the positron beam. Single differential cross sections are presented for the kinematic region Q^2 > 200 GeV^2 . The measured cross sections are compared to the predictions of the Standard Model. A fit to the data yields sigma^CC (P_e = 1) = 7.4 +/- 3.9 (stat.) +/- 1.2 (syst.) pb, which is consistent within two standard deviations with the absence of right-handed charged currents in the Standard Model.

  16. Measurement of high-Q2 charged current cross sections in e-p deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Bashkirov, V; Basile, M; Bauerdick, L A T; Bednarek, B; Behrens, U; Bell, M; Bellagamba, L; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bodmann, B; Bokel, C; Boogert, S; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Brümmer, N; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Cartiglia, N; Catterall, C D; Chekanov, S; Chiochia, V; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cirio, R; Cloth, P; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; Crittenden, James Arthur; D'Agostini, Giulio; Dagan, S; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; Dannheim, D; De Pasquale, S; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Deshpande, Abhay A; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Engelen, J; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fox-Murphy, A; Fricke, U; Fusayasu, T; Gabareen, A; Galea, R; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Göbel, F; Goers, S; Golubkov, Yu A; Goncalo, R; González, O; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gutsche, O; Gwenlan, C; Göttlicher, P; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hanlon, S; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G F; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Helbich, M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hillert, S; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Hughes, V W; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Jelen, K; Jones, T W; Kananov, S; Kappes, A; Karshon, U; Katkov, I I; Katz, U F; Kcira, D; Kerger, R; Khein, L A; Kim, C L; Kim, J Y; Kim, Y K; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klimek, K; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korzhav, I A; Kotanski, A; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D A; Kreisel, A; Krumnack, N; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Kötz, U; Labarga, L; Labes, H; Lammers, S; Lane, J B; Lee, J H; Lee, S W; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levi, G; Levman, G M; Levy, A; Li, L; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, X; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lopez-Duran Viani, A; Lukina, O Yu; Lupi, A; Löhr, B; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Martínez, M; Maselli, S; Mastroberardino, A; Mat, T; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; Mc, G J; McCubbin, N A; Mellado, B; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, A; Milite, M; Miller, D B; Mindur, B; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Moritz, M; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Nania, R; Nigro, A; Nishimura, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Ochs, A; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Paganis, S; Palmonari, F; Parenti, A; Park, I H; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Pellmann, I A; Peroni, C; Pesci, A; Petrucci, M C; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Raach, H; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Redondo, I; Reeder, D D; Renner, R; Repond, J; Rigby, M; Robins, S; Rodrigues, E; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Ruske, O; Ruspa, M; Sabetfakhri, A; Sacchi, R; Saint-Laurent, M G; Salehi, H; Sartorelli, G; Saull, P R B; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schnurbusch, H; Sciulli, F; Scott, J; Selonke, F; Shcheglova, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smalska, B; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Staiano, A; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Surrow, B; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tandler, J; Tap, A D; Tapper, R J; Tassi, E; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Tuning, N; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Umemori, K; Velthuis, J J; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Vázquez, M; Walczak, R; Walker, R; Weber, A; Wes, H; West, B J; Whitmore, J J; Wichmann, R; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wills, H H; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zakrzewski, J A; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, S A

    2002-01-01

    Cross sections for e-p charged current deep inelastic scattering have been measured at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV with an integrated luminosity of 16.4 pb-1 using the ZEUS detector at HERA. Differential cross-sections d\\sigma/dQ2, d\\sigma/dx and d\\sigma/dy are presented for Q2>200 GeV2. In addition, d2\\sigma/dxdQ2 was measured in the kinematic range 280 GeV2 < Q2 < 30000 GeV2 and 0.015 < x < 0.42. The predictions of the Standard Model agree well with the measured cross sections. The mass of the W boson, determined from a fit to d\\sigma/dQ2, is MW=80.3 \\pm 2.1 (stat.) \\pm 1.2 (syst.) \\pm 1.0 (PDF) GeV.

  17. State-Selective Capture Cross Sections in Proton-Hydrogen and Proton-Helium Collisions at Intermediate and High Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkic, Dzevad

    1989-01-01

    Total cross sections are computed for electron capture from the ground states of H and He by fast protons using the Corrected first-Born (CB1) approximation. Particular emphasis is given to the formation of atomic hydrogen in excited states 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d and 4s for which experimental data are available. Detailed comparisons with the measurements are carried out, with the purpose of assessing the validity and utility of the CB1 method for prediction of state-selective cross sections.

  18. Isolation facilities for highly infectious diseases in Europe--a cross-sectional analysis in 16 countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schilling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Highly Infectious Diseases (HIDs are (i easily transmissible form person to person; (ii cause a life-threatening illness with no or few treatment options; and (iii pose a threat for both personnel and the public. Hence, even suspected HID cases should be managed in specialised facilities minimizing infection risks but allowing state-of-the-art critical care. Consensus statements on the operational management of isolation facilities have been published recently. The study presented was set up to compare the operational management, resources, and technical equipment among European isolation facilities. Due to differences in geography, population density, and national response plans it was hypothesized that adherence to recommendations will vary. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Until mid of 2010 the European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases conducted a cross-sectional analysis of isolation facilities in Europe, recruiting 48 isolation facilities in 16 countries. Three checklists were disseminated, assessing 44 items and 148 specific questions. The median feedback rate for specific questions was 97.9% (n = 47/48 (range: n = 7/48 (14.6% to n = 48/48 (100%. Although all facilities enrolled were nominated specialised facilities' serving countries or regions, their design, equipment and personnel management varied. Eighteen facilities fulfilled the definition of a High Level Isolation Unit'. In contrast, 24 facilities could not operate independently from their co-located hospital, and five could not ensure access to equipment essential for infection control. Data presented are not representative for the EU in general, as only 16/27 (59.3% of all Member States agreed to participate. Another limitation of this study is the time elapsed between data collection and publication; e.g. in Germany one additional facility opened in the meantime. CONCLUSION: There are disparities both within and between European countries regarding the design

  19. Recommended evaluation procedure for photonuclear cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa; Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In order to generate photonuclear cross section library for the necessary applications, data evaluation is combined with theoretical evaluation, since photonuclear cross sections measured cannot provide all necessary data. This report recommends a procedure consisting of four steps: (1) analysis of experimental data, (2) data evaluation, (3) theoretical evaluation and, if necessary, (4) modification of results. In the stage of analysis, data obtained by different measurements are reprocessed through the analysis of their discrepancies to a representative data set. In the data evaluation, photonuclear absorption cross sections are evaluated via giant dipole resonance and quasi-deutron mechanism. With photoabsorption cross sections from the data evaluation, theoretical evaluation is applied to determine various decay channel cross sections and emission spectra using equilibrium and preequilibrium mechanism. After this, the calculated results are compared with measured data, and in some cases the results are modified to better describe measurements. (author)

  20. Measurements of the Total Charge-Changing Cross Sections for Collisions of Fast Ions with Target Gas Using High Current Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covo, Michel Kireeff; Molvik, Arthur W.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Shnidman, Ariel; Vujic, Jasmina L.

    2009-04-13

    The sum of ionization and charge-exchange cross sections of several gas targets (H2, N2, He, Ne, Kr, Xe, Ar, and water vapor) impacted by 1MeV K+ beam are measured. In a high current ion beam, the self-electric field of the beam is high enough that ions produced from the gas ionization or charge exchange by the ion beam are quickly swept to the sides of accelerator. The flux of the expelled ions is measured by a retarding field analyzer. This allows accurate measuring of the total charge-changing cross sections (ionization plus charge exchange) of the beam interaction with gas. Cross sections for H2, He, and N2 are simulated using classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement.

  1. Factors Associated with Discussion of Disasters by Final Year High School Students: An International Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Alabdulkarim, Ali A Rahman

    2015-08-01

    Introduction The effect on behavioral change of educational programs developed to reduce the community's disaster informational vulnerability is not known. This study describes the relationship of disaster education, age, sex, and country-specific characteristics with students discussing disasters with friends and family, a measure of proactive behavioral change in disaster preparedness. Three thousand eight hundred twenty-nine final year high school students were enrolled in an international, multi-center prospective, cross-sectional study using a pre-validated written questionnaire. In order to obtain information from different educational systems, from countries with different risk of exposure to disasters, and from countries with varied economic development status, students from Bahrain, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Romania, and Timor-Leste were surveyed. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between the likelihood of discussing disasters with friends and family (dependent variable) and a series of independent variables (age, gender, participation in school lessons about disasters, existence of a national disaster educational program, ability to list pertinent example of disasters, country's economic group, and disaster risk index) captured by the questionnaire or available as published data. There was no statistically significant relationship between age, awareness of one's surroundings, planning for the future, and foreseeing consequences of events with discussions about potential hazards and risks with friends and/or family. The national educational budget did not have a statistically significant influence. Participants who lived in a low disaster risk and high income Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country were more likely to discuss disasters. While either school lessons or a national disaster education program had a unique, significant contribution to the model, neither had a better

  2. Is central obesity, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia associated with high-grade prostate cancer? A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawni Prabhat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The association of central obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia with higher grade advanced prostate cancer as determined by Gleason grading is not well understood. We evaluated the effect of central obesity waist hip ratio (WHR ≥ 0.9 and biochemical parameters associated with central obesity on Gleason grading in North Indian patients of prostate cancer presenting at advanced stages. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 nondiabetic patients having clinical stages III and IV prostate cancer. Gleason grading on core biopsy samples by histopathology was done and patients were divided in two groups-group1, Gleason score ≥8; group 2, Gleason score <8. WHR along with serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA, testosterone, insulin, and lipid profile was done in each patient. Results : The two groups are similar in Age (67.54 years; range (50-80 years. Group 1 men had statistically higher mean WHR (0.96 vs 0.90; P ≤ 0.001, higher mean triglyceride level (201.34 vs 150.52 mg/dL; P=0.0006, higher mean very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL (40.27 vs 30.10 mg/dL; P =0.0006, higher mean insulin (19.49 vs 15.04 μIU/mL; P = 0.0024, and lower mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels (32.39 vs 36.82 mg/dL; P = 0.034 than men in group 2. Serum levels of cholesterol, LDL, and testosterone did not show statistically significant differences between the two groups. Conclusions : This pilot study involving small number of patients indicates that central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia could be associated with high-grade prostate cancer.

  3. A study of nutritional status and high risk behavior of adolescents in Ahmedabad: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mital Prajapati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a distinct age group (10-19 yrs with complex needs because of physical and psychological development during puberty. Aim: To evaluate adolescents’ nutritional status and high risk behavior. Settings and design: A Cross Sectional study was conducted in West Zone of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, Gujarat. Methods & Material: 401 students (10-19years from 10 schools and colleges surveyed using pretested questionnaire about nutritional status and high risk behavior. To analyze nutritional status height, weight and BMI were taken and analyzed using WHO growth standards 2007. Statistical analysis: Qualitative data analysis done using Epi Info and WHO Anthro Plus softwares. Results: 47.4% (95% CI= 30.7% - 64.6% were stunted and 19.5% (95%CI=12.6% - 28.7% were overweight according to WHO growth standards 2007. Awareness about HIV/AIDS was 93.27% and main media of awareness was television(55.35%. 13.22% were sexually active and 35.85% used condoms during last sexual act. 22.56% have habit of masturbation. 25.19% students believe masturbation is bad habit. Only boys (15.9% had addiction and common was tobacco chewing (61.29%. No one was Intravenous Drug User. Mean age for menarche was 12.84 yrs. From them 60.93% have problems during menstruation. Most common problem was dysmenorrhea (58.7%. For discussing sexual health problems, 74.64% students prefer with friends. Conclusions: Adolescents have many health problems that need to be taken care of by effective interventions. Key message: Nationwide adolescent health data is inadequate. Focus must be given on analyzing adolescent health issues and to solve them.

  4. Measurement of high-Q^2 charged current cross sections in e^+p deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Bell, M; Bellagamba, L; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bloch, I; Bodmann, B; Bold, T; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chekanov, S; Chiochia, V; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cloth, P; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cottrell, A; D'Agostini, Giulio; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; Dannheim, D; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Deshpande, A A; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fricke, U; Fusayasu, T; Gabareen, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Gliga, S; Göbel, F; Goers, S; Golubkov, Yu A; Goncalo, R; González, O; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gutsche, O; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hamilton, J; Hanlon, S; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Hartner, G F; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Helbich, M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hillert, S; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Jones, T W; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kananov, S; Kappes, A; Karshon, U; Katkov, I I; Katz, U F; Kcira, D; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kim, Y K; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klimek, K; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korzhav--, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D A; Kram, G; Kreisel, A; Krumnack, N; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Labes, H; Lainesse, J; Lammers, S; Lee, J H; Lee, S W; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levman, G M; Levy, A; Li, L; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lukina, O Yu; Lupi, A; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; McCubbin, N A; Mellado, B; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, U; Milite, M; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Moritz, M; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Nania, R; Nguyen, C N; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Nishimura, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Paganis, S; Palmonari, F; Parenti, A; Park, I H; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Pesci, A; Petrucci, M C; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Robins, S; Rodrigues, E; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Sciulli, F; Scott, J; Selonke, F; Shcheglova, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stoesslein, U; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tandler, J; Tapper, A D; Tapper, R J; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Vázquez, M; Velthuis, J J; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Wang, M; Weber, A; Wessoleck, H; West, B J; Whitmore, J J; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wills, H H; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zawiejski, L; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, S A; De Wolf, E

    2003-01-01

    Cross sections for e^+p charged current deep inelastic scattering at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV have been determined with an integrated luminosity of 60.9pb^-1 collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The differential cross sections dsigma/dQ^2, dsigma/dx and dsigma/dy for Q^2>200 GeV^2 are presented. In addition, d^2sigma/dxdQ^2 has been measured in the kinematic range 280 GeV^2 < Q^2 < 17000 GeV^2 and 0.008 < x < 0.42. The predictions of the Standard Model agree well with the measured cross sections. The mass of the W boson propagator is determined to be M_W=78.9 +/- 2.0 (stat.) +/- 1.8 (syst.) +2.0 -1.8 (PDF) GeV from a fit to dsigma/dQ^2. The chiral structure of the Standard Model is also investigated in terms of the (1-y)^2 dependence of the the double-differential cross section. The structure-function F_2^CC has been extracted by combining the measurements presented here with previous ZEUS results from e^-p scattering, extending the measurement obtained in a neutrino-nucleus scatter...

  5. Measurement of cross sections of p(e,e'π+)n for near pion threshold and high-lying resonances at high Q2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kijun

    2012-04-01

    During the last decade, remarkable experimental data have been collacted in an extensive programs to study the excitation of nucleon resonance (N*) at Jefferson Laboratory through pionelectroproduction using polarized electron beam and unpolarized proton target. The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) is well suited for the study of a broad range of kinematics in the invariant mass W and photon virtuality Q2 with nearly complete angular coverage for the hadronic decays. Electron scattering allows us to probe the effective degrees of freedom in excited nucleon states from meson-baryon to dressed quarks in terms of varying the distance scale. The study of nucleon structure allows us to understand these effective degrees of freedom. In this proceeding, I present preliminary cross sections for single pion production in mass range of high-lying resonances as well as near the pion threshold. Analysis of Nπ+ cross sections together with Nπ0 and Nππ exclusive electroproduction data, will allow us for the first time to determine electrocouplings of several high-lying excited proton states (W ≥ 1.6 GeV) at photon virtualities that correspond to the transition toward the dominance of quark degrees of freedom. I also present preliminary result on the E0+ multipole near pion threshold at 2.0 GeV2 ≤ Q2 ≤ 4.5 GeV2 using exclusive Nπ+ electroproduction data.

  6. How do Indonesian youth perceive cigarette advertising? A cross-sectional study among Indonesian high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayi Suryo Prabandari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have reported an association between cigarette advertising and smoking behavior. Although this has been reported extensively in the West, it has been reported less in Southeast Asian countries that have not completely banned tobacco advertising promotion and sponsorship (TAPS. Indonesia is the only ASEAN country that has not ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, so TAPS regulation is limited. This study aimed to assess the association between youths’ perceptions of cigarette ads and smoking initiation. Design: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 2,115 high school students aged 13–18 years in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to gauge the perception of cigarette ads and initiation to smoking. We calculated the odds ratio (OR between the perception of cigarette ads and smoking initiation, adjusting for sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. The sociodemographic variables included in the final model were age and sex. Results: The final multivariate model showed an association between perception of tobacco ads encouraging youths to smoke and smoking initiation (OR 2.70 and current smoking (OR 7.63. Attitude toward TAPS was associated with smoking initiation (OR 1.51 and current smoking (OR 3.32. Exposure to cigarette ads had an association with smoking initiation only (OR 1.27 and did not have an association with current smoking. Having friends and family who smoked was associated with smoking initiation and current smoking in the final multivariate model. Smoking initiation and current smoking were also related to the susceptibility to smoke. Conclusions: This study revealed that cigarette ads were perceived as encouraging youths to smoke and that smoking status was consistently associated with perception of cigarette ads targeted at youths, attitude toward TAPS, and susceptibility as well as smoking friends and family. Regulations to ban TAPS

  7. Contribution of parental blood pressures to association between low birth weight and adult high blood pressure: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brian R; McConnachie, Alex; Noon, Joseph P; Webb, David J; Watt, Graham C M

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine the possibility that low birth weight is a feature of the inherited predisposition to high blood pressure. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Primary care medical centre in Edinburgh. Subjects: One offspring of 452 families (231 men and 221 women aged 16-26 years) in whom blood pressure, weight, and height were measured in 1986 and whose parents had blood pressure measured in 1979. Birth weights were obtained from case records (270 offspring) or by questionnaires sent to the mothers (182 offspring). Main outcome measures: Birth weight and adult systolic blood pressure in offspring in relation to parental blood pressure. Results: If parental blood pressures were not considered, a 1 kg decrease in birth weight was associated with a 2.24 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure of offspring (P=0.06) after correction for current weight and sex. However, parental blood pressures correlated positively with blood pressure of offspring, and higher maternal blood pressure was associated with lower birth weight (−3.03 g/mm Hg, Ppressures, a 1 kg decrease in birth weight was associated with only a 1.71 mm Hg increase in the systolic blood pressure of the offspring (P=0.15). Conclusions: Low birth weight is a feature of the inherited predisposition to hypertension, perhaps because it is associated with higher maternal blood pressure during pregnancy. Parental blood pressure may be an important confounding factor in the relation between low birth weight and subsequent hypertension. Key messages Hypertension has both inherited and environmental causes The relation between low birth weight and hypertension in later life may result from the mother’s nutritional environment during pregnancy This study found that mothers who have higher blood pressure in later life deliver babies with lower birth weight, who also develop higher blood pressure Hereditary factors therefore explain part of the relation between low birth weight and adult

  8. High Incidence of Neonatal Danger Signs and Its Implications for Postnatal Care in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiyo Okawa

    Full Text Available Reducing neonatal mortality is a major public health priority in sub-Saharan Africa. Numerous studies have examined the determinants of neonatal mortality, but few have explored neonatal danger signs which potentially cause morbidity. This study assessed danger signs observed in neonates at birth, determined the correlations of multiple danger signs and complications between neonates and their mothers, and identified factors associated with neonatal danger signs.A cross-sectional study was conducted in three sites across Ghana between July and September in 2013. Using two-stage random sampling, we recruited 1,500 pairs of neonates and their mothers who had given birth within the preceding two years. We collected data on their socio-demographic characteristics, utilization of maternal and neonatal health services, and experiences with neonatal danger signs and maternal complications. We calculated the correlations of multiple danger signs and complications between neonates and their mothers, and performed multiple logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with neonatal danger signs.More than 25% of the neonates were born with danger signs. At-birth danger signs in neonates were correlated with maternal delivery complications (r = 0.20, p < 0.001, and neonatal complications within the first six weeks of life (r = 0.19, p < 0.001. However, only 29.1% of neonates with danger signs received postnatal care in the first two days, and 52.4% at two weeks of life. In addition to maternal complications during delivery, maternal age less than 20 years, maternal education level lower than secondary school, and fewer than four antenatal care visits significantly predicted neonatal danger signs.Over a quarter of neonates are born with danger signs. Maternal factors can be used to predict neonatal health condition at birth. Management of maternal health and close medical attention to high-risk neonates are crucial to reduce neonatal morbidity

  9. Back Pain Prevalence and Its Associated Factors in Brazilian Athletes from Public High Schools: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Matias; de Avelar, Ivan Silveira; Lehnen, Georgia Cristina; Vieira, Marcus Fraga

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the prevalence of back pain have evaluated it in developed countries (Human Development Index--HDI > 0.808), and their conclusions may not hold for developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of back pain in representative Brazilian athletes from public high schools. This cross-sectional study was performed during the state phase of the 2015 Jogos dos Institutos Federais (JIF), or Federal Institutes Games, in Brazil (HDI = 0.744), and it enrolled 251 athletes, 173 males and 78 females (14-20 years old). The dependent variable was back pain, and the independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, hereditary, exercise-level, anthropometric, strength, behavioral, and postural factors. The prevalence ratio (PR) was calculated using multivariable analysis according to the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). The prevalence of back pain in the three months prior to the study was 43.7% (n = 104), and 26% of the athletes reported feeling back pain only once. Multivariable analysis showed that back pain was associated with demographic (sex), psychosocial (loneliness and loss of sleep in the previous year), hereditary (ethnicity, parental back pain), strength (lumbar and hand forces), anthropometric (body mass index), behavioral (sleeping time per night, reading and studying in bed, smoking habits in the previous month), and postural (sitting posture while writing, while on a bench, and while using a computer) variables. Participants who recorded higher levels of lumbar and manual forces reported a lower prevalence of back pain (PR 1.30). In conclusion, there is no association between exercise levels and back pain but there is an association between back pain and non-exercise related variables.

  10. Back Pain Prevalence and Its Associated Factors in Brazilian Athletes from Public High Schools: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Noll

    Full Text Available Most studies on the prevalence of back pain have evaluated it in developed countries (Human Development Index--HDI > 0.808, and their conclusions may not hold for developing countries. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of back pain in representative Brazilian athletes from public high schools. This cross-sectional study was performed during the state phase of the 2015 Jogos dos Institutos Federais (JIF, or Federal Institutes Games, in Brazil (HDI = 0.744, and it enrolled 251 athletes, 173 males and 78 females (14-20 years old. The dependent variable was back pain, and the independent variables were demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, hereditary, exercise-level, anthropometric, strength, behavioral, and postural factors. The prevalence ratio (PR was calculated using multivariable analysis according to the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05. The prevalence of back pain in the three months prior to the study was 43.7% (n = 104, and 26% of the athletes reported feeling back pain only once. Multivariable analysis showed that back pain was associated with demographic (sex, psychosocial (loneliness and loss of sleep in the previous year, hereditary (ethnicity, parental back pain, strength (lumbar and hand forces, anthropometric (body mass index, behavioral (sleeping time per night, reading and studying in bed, smoking habits in the previous month, and postural (sitting posture while writing, while on a bench, and while using a computer variables. Participants who recorded higher levels of lumbar and manual forces reported a lower prevalence of back pain (PR 1.30. In conclusion, there is no association between exercise levels and back pain but there is an association between back pain and non-exercise related variables.

  11. How do Indonesian youth perceive cigarette advertising? A cross-sectional study among Indonesian high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabandari, Yayi Suryo; Dewi, Arika

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported an association between cigarette advertising and smoking behavior. Although this has been reported extensively in the West, it has been reported less in Southeast Asian countries that have not completely banned tobacco advertising promotion and sponsorship (TAPS). Indonesia is the only ASEAN country that has not ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, so TAPS regulation is limited. This study aimed to assess the association between youths’ perceptions of cigarette ads and smoking initiation. Design We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 2,115 high school students aged 13–18 years in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to gauge the perception of cigarette ads and initiation to smoking. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) between the perception of cigarette ads and smoking initiation, adjusting for sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. The sociodemographic variables included in the final model were age and sex. Results The final multivariate model showed an association between perception of tobacco ads encouraging youths to smoke and smoking initiation (OR 2.70) and current smoking (OR 7.63). Attitude toward TAPS was associated with smoking initiation (OR 1.51) and current smoking (OR 3.32). Exposure to cigarette ads had an association with smoking initiation only (OR 1.27) and did not have an association with current smoking. Having friends and family who smoked was associated with smoking initiation and current smoking in the final multivariate model. Smoking initiation and current smoking were also related to the susceptibility to smoke. Conclusions This study revealed that cigarette ads were perceived as encouraging youths to smoke and that smoking status was consistently associated with perception of cigarette ads targeted at youths, attitude toward TAPS, and susceptibility as well as smoking friends and family. Regulations to ban TAPS, particularly

  12. Socioeconomic inequalities in general and psychological health among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in senior high schools in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zissi Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic health inequalities in adolescence are not consistently reported. This may be due to the measurement of self-reported general health, which probably fails to fully capture the psychological dimension of health, and the reliance on traditional socio-economic indicators, such as parental education or occupational status. The present study aimed at investigating this issue using simple questions to assess both the physical and psychological dimension of health and a broader set of socioeconomic indicators than previously used. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 5614 adolescents aged 16-18 years-old from 25 senior high schools in Greece. Self-reported general and psychological health were both measured by means of a simple Likert-type question. We assessed the following socio-economic variables: parents' education, parents' employment status, a subjective assessment of the financial difficulties experienced by the family and adolescents' own academic performance as a measure of the personal social position in the school setting. Results One out of ten (10% and one out of three (32% adolescents did not enjoy good general and psychological health respectively. For both health variables robust associations were found in adolescents who reported more financial difficulties in the family and had worse academic performance. The latter was associated with psychological health in a more linear way. Father's unemployment showed a non-significant trend for an association with worse psychological health in girls only. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities exist in this period of life but are more easily demonstrated with more subjective socioeconomic indicators, especially for the psychological dimension of health.

  13. European Collaboration for High-Resolution Measurements of Neutron Cross Sections between 1 MeV and 250 MeV

    CERN Multimedia

    Leal, L C; Kitis, G; Guber, K H; Yuasa nakagawa, K; Koehler, P E; Quaranta, A

    2002-01-01

    The experimental determination of neutron cross section data has always been of primary importance in Nuclear Physics. Many of the salient features of nuclear levels and densities can be determined from the resonant structure of such cross sections and of their decay scheme. An associated importance of precise neutron induced reaction cross sections has resulted from the worldwide interest in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) that has emerged at CERN and elsewhere. Many applications, such as accelerator-based transmutation of nuclear waste, energy amplification medical research, astrophysical applications and also fusion research require nuclear data that quantitatively and qualitatively go beyond the presently available traditional evaluation.\\\\ \\\\We consider a spallation driven TOF facility at the CERN-PS with an unprecedented neutron flux (1000 times the existing ones) in the broad energy range between 1 eV and 250 MeV and with very high energy resolution. The present concept for an intense neutron source m...

  14. Improved Empirical Parametrization of Fragmentation Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sümmerer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    A new version is proposed for the universal empirical formula, EPAX, which describes fragmentation cross sections in high-energy heavy-ion reactions. The new version, EPAX 3, can be shown to yield cross sections that are in better agreement with experimental data for the most neutron-rich fragments than the previous version. At the same time, the very good agreement of EPAX 2 with data on the neutron-deficient side has been largely maintained. Comparison with measured cross sections show that the bulk of the data is reproduced within a factor of about 2, for cross sections down to the pico-barn range.

  15. Absolute differential, elastic integrated and moment transfer cross sections for electron-OCS collisions at intermediate and high energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi De-Heng; Sun Jin-Feng; Zhu Zun-Lue; Ma Heng; Liu Yu-Fang; Yang Xiang-Dong

    2007-01-01

    A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom, which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds between atoms in a molecule, is firstly employed to calculate the absolute differential, elastic integrated and moment transfer cross sections for electron scattering by OCS over the incident energy range from 200 to 1000 eV using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. The calculated results are compared with those obtained by experiment and other theories wherever available, and good agreement is obtained over a wide energy range. It is shown that the additivity rule model together with the modified potential is completely suitable for calculating the absolute differential, elastic integrated and moment transfer cross sections of electron scattering by molecules such as OCS.

  16. Measurement of neutral current cross sections at high Bjorken-x with the ZEUS detector at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2006-07-15

    A new method is employed to measure the neutral current cross section up to Bjorken-x values of one with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 65.1 pb{sup -1} for e{sup +}p collisions and 16.7 pb{sup -1} for e{sup -}p collisions at {radical}(s)=318 GeV and 38.6 pb{sup -1} for e{sup +}p collisions at {radical}(s)=300 GeV. Cross sections have been extracted for Q{sup 2}{>=}648 GeV{sup 2} and are compared to predictions using different parton density functions. For the highest x bins, the data have a tendency to lie above the expectations using recent parton density function parametrizations. (orig.)

  17. Multiperipheral cross-sectional substructure of non-elastic proton interactions at high energies. [Below 20 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koltochnik, S.N.; Konovalenko, A.I.; Kuchin, I.A.

    1974-01-01

    A computation is made of the partial contributions of eight primary multiperipheral diagrams in a broad interval of momenta from 1 to 400 GeV/c. It was shown that the complete cross section of an inelastic pp-interaction at momenta of P/sub L/ greater than 20 GeV/c can be reproduced with regard to complete cross sections of peak ..pi pi.. and ..pi..N-interactions. There is a correspondence to both analysis data on reactions forming one to two mesons as well as to the results of multiperipheral bootstrap. The results are compared to data obtained by the method based on the integral Bethe-Salpeter equation. 7 illustrations, Bibliography: 9 titles.

  18. Measurement of High-$Q^{2}$ Neutral-Current $e^{+}p$ Deep Inelastic Scattering Cross-Sections at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Abramowicz, H; Acosta, D; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Ahn, S H; Amelung, C; An Shiz Hong; Anselmo, F; Antonioli, P; Arneodo, M; Bacon, Trevor C; Badgett, W F; Bailey, D C; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barbagli, G; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Barret, O; Bashindzhagian, G L; Bashkirov, V; Basile, M; Bauerdick, L A T; Bednarek, B; Behrens, U; Bellagamba, L; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bienlein, J K; Blaikley, H E; Bohnet, I; Bokel, C; Boogert, S; Bornheim, A; Borzemski, P; Boscherini, D; Botje, M; Breitweg, J; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Burgard, C; Burow, B D; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlin, R; Cartiglia, N; Cashmore, R J; Castellini, G; Catterall, C D; Chapin, D; Chekanov, S; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cirio, R; Cloth, P; Coboken, K; Coldewey, C; Cole, J E; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; Cottingham, W N; Crittenden, J; Cross, R; D'Agostini, G; Dagan, S; Dal Corso, F; Dardo, M; De Pasquale, S; Deffner, R; Deppe, O; Derrick, M; Deshpande, Abhay A; Desler, K; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dolgoshein, B A; Dondana, S; Dosselli, U; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Dulinski, Z; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eckert, M; Edmonds, J K; Eisenberg, Y; Eisenhardt, S; Engelen, J; Epperson, D E; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Fagerstroem, C P; Fernández, J P; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fox-Murphy, A; Fricke, U; Frisken, W R; Fusayasu, T; Gadaj, T; Galea, R; Gallo, E; García, G; Garfagnini, A; Gendner, N; Gialas, I; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Glasman, C; Göbel, F; Golubkov, Yu A; Göttlicher, P; Grabosch, H J; Graciani, R; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grzelak, G; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hanna, D S; Harnew, N; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartmann, J; Hartner, G F; Hasell, D; Hayes, M E; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Hebbel, K; Heinloth, K; Heinz, L; Hernández, J M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Homma, K; Hong, S J; Howell, G; Hughes, V W; Iacobucci, G; Iannotti, L; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Ishii, T; Jakob, H P; Jelen, K; Jeoung, H Y; Jing, Z; Johnson, K F; Jones, T W; Kananov, S; Kappes, A; Karshon, U; Kasemann, M; Katz, U F; Kcira, D; Kerger, R; Khakzad, M; Khein, L A; Kim, C L; Kim, J Y; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klanner, Robert; Klimek, K; Koch, W; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korotkova, N A; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowalski, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D; Kreisel, A; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Lamberti, L; Lane, J B; Laurenti, G; Lee, J H; Lee, S B; Lee, S W; Levi, G; Levman, G M; Levy, A; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Lindemann, L; Ling, T Y; Liu, W; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Long, K R; Lopez-Duran Viani, A; Lukina, O Yu; Ma, K J; Maccarrone, G; MacDonald, N; Magill, S; Mallik, U; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Markun, P; Martin, J F; Martínez, M; Maselli, S; Massam, Thomas; Mastroberardino, A; Matsushita, T; Mattingly, M C K; Mattingly, S E K; McCance, G J; McCubbin, N A; McFall, J D; Mellado, B; Menary, S; Meyer, A; Meyer-Larsen, A; Milewski, J; Milite, M; Miller, D B; Monaco, V; Mönig, K; Monteiro, T; Morandin, M; Moritz, M; Murray, W N; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Nam, S W; Nania, R; Nigro, A; Nishimura, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Noyes, V A; Nylander, P; Ochs, A; Oh, B Y; Okrasinski, J R; Olkiewicz, K; Orr, R S; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Palmonari, F; Park, I H; Park, S K; Parsons, J A; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pawlak, R; Pelfer, Pier Giovanni; Pellegrino, A; Pelucchi, F; Peroni, C; Pesci, A; Petrucci, M C; Pfeiffer, M; Piccioni, D; Piotrzkowski, K; Poelz, G; Polenz, S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Prinias, A; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Puga, J; Quadt, A; Raach, H; Raso, M; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, I; Reeder, D D; Repond, J; Ritz, S; Riveline, M; Rohde, M; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Ruske, O; Ruspa, M; Sabetfakhri, A; Sacchi, R; Sadrozinski, H F W; Salehi, H; Sampson, S; Sartorelli, G; Saull, P R B; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schechter, A; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schnurbusch, H; Schwarzer, O; Sciulli, F; Scott, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Seiden, A; Selonke, F; Shah, T P; Shcheglova, L M; Sideris, D; Sievers, M; Simmons, D; Sinclair, L E; Skillicorn, I O; Smalska, B; Smith, W H; Solano, A; Solomin, A N; Son, D; Saint-Laurent, M G; Staiano, A; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Stanek, R; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Straub, P B; Strickland, E; Stroili, R; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, I; Tandler, J; Tapper, A D; Tapper, R J; Tassi, E; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Toothacker, W S; Tsurugai, T; Tuning, N; Tymieniecka, T; Umemori, K; Vaiciulis, A W; Velthuis, J J; Verkerke, W; Voci, C; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Votano, L; Walczak, R; Walker, R; Wang, S M; Waters, D S; Waugh, R; Weber, A; Whitmore, J J; Wichmann, R; Wick, K; Wieber, H; Wiggers, L; Wildschek, T; Williams, D C; Wills, H H; Wing, M; Wodarczyk, M; Wolf, G; Wölfle, S; Wollmer, U; Wróblewski, A K; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zajac, J; Zakrzewski, J A; Zamora Garcia, Y; Zawiejski, L; Zetsche, F; Zeuner, W; Zhu, Q; Zichichi, Antonino; Zotkin, S A; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J; Van Sighem, A

    1999-01-01

    The e^+p neutral-current deep inelastic scattering differential cross-sections $d\\sigma/dQ^2$, for Q^2 > 400 GeV^2, $d\\sigma/dx$ and $d\\sigma/dy$, for Q^2 > 400, 2500 and 10000 GeV^2, have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The data sample of 47.7 pb^-1 was collected at a center-of-mass energy of 300 GeV. The cross-section, $d\\sigma/dQ^2$, falls by six orders of magnitude between Q^2 = 400 and 40000 GeV^2. The predictions of the Standard Model are in very good agreement with the data. Complementing the observations of time-like Z^0 contributions to fermion-antifermion annihilation, the data provide direct evidence for the presence of Z^0 exchange in the space-like region explored by deep inelastic scattering.

  19. Measurement of neutral current cross sections at high Bjorken-$x$ with the ZEUS detector at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Chekanov, S; Magill, S; Miglioranzi, S; Musgrave, B; Nicholass, D; Repond, J; Yoshida, R; Mattingly, M C K; Pavel, USAN; Yagues-Molina, A G; Antonelli, S; Antonioli, P; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Bindi, M; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Corradi, M; De Pasquale, S; Iacobucci, G; Margotti, A; Nania, R; Polini, A; Rinaldi, L; Sartorelli, G; Zichichi, A; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Bartsch, D; Brock, I; Goers, S; Hartmann, H; Hilger, E; Jakob, H P; Jüngst, M; Kind, O M; Paul, E; Rautenberg, J; Renner, R; Samson, U; Schonberg, V; Wang, M; Wlasenko, M; Brook, N H; Heath, G P; Morris, J D; Namsoo, T; Capua, M; Fazio, S; Mastroberardino, A; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Tassi, E; Kim, J Y; Ma, K J; Ibrahim, Z A; Kamaluddin, B; Wan-Abdullah, W A T; Ning, Y; Ren, Z; Sciulli, F; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Figiel, J; Galas, A; Gil, M; Olkiewicz, K; Stopa, P; Zaw, I; Adamczyk, L; Bold, T; Grabowska-Bold, I; Kisielewska, D; Lukasik, J; Przybycien, M B; Suszycki, L; Kotanski, A; Slominski, W; Adler, V; Behrens, U; Bloch, I; Bonato, A; Borras, K; Coppola, N; Fourletova, J; Geiser, A; Gladkov, D; Göttlicher, P; Gregor, I; Gutsche, O; Haas, T; Hain, W; Horn, C; Kahle, B; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Lim, H; Lobodzinska, E; Löhr, B; Mankel, R; Melzer--, I A; Pellmann; Montanari, A; Nguyen, C N; Notz, D; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Santamarta, R; Schneekloth, U; Spiridonov, A A; Stadie, H; Stösslein, U; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Theedt, T; Watt, G; Wolf, G; Wrona, K; Youngman, C; Zeuner, W; Schlenstedt, S; Barbagli, G; Gallo, E; Pelfer, P G; Bamberger, A; Dobur, D; Karstens, F; Vlasov, N N; Germany; Bussey, P J; Doyle, A T; Dunne, W; Ferrando, J; Saxon, D H; Skillicorn, I O; Gialas, I; Greece; Gosau, T; Holm, U; Klanner, Robert; Lohrmann, E; Salehi, H; Schleper, P; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Sztuk, J; Wichmann, K; Wick, K; Foudas, C; Fry, C; Long, K R; Tapper, A D; Kataoka, M; Matsumoto, T; Nagano, K; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Barakbaev, A N; Boos, E G; Dossanov, A; Pokrovskiy, N S; Zhautykov, B O; Son, D; De Favereau, J; Piotrzkowski, K; Barreiro, F; Glasman, C; Jiménez, M; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Ron, E; Terron, J; Zambrana, M; Corriveau, F; Liu, C; Walsh, R; Zhou, C; Tsurugai, T; Antonov, A; Dolgoshein, B A; Rubinsky, I; Sosnovtsev, V V; Stifutkin, A; Suchkov, S; Dementiev, R K; Ermolov, P F; Gladilin, L K; Katkov, I I; Khein, L A; Korzhavina, I A; Kuzmin, V A; Levchenko, B B; Lukina, O Yu; Proskuryakov, A S; Shcheglova, L M; Zotkin, D S; Zotkin, S A; Abt, I; Büttner, C; Caldwell, A; Kollar, D; Schmidke, W B; Sutiak, J; Grigorescu, G; Keramidas, A; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P; Pellegrino, A; Tiecke, H G; Vázquez, M; Wiggers, L; Brümmer, N; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Lee, A; Ling, T Y; Allfrey, P D; Bell, M A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cottrell, A; Devenish, R C E; Foster, B; Gwenlan, C; Korcsak-Gorzo, K; Patel, S; Roberfroid, V; Robertson, A; Straub, P B; Uribe-Estrada, C; Walczak, R; Bellan, P M; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Ciesielski, R; Dal Corso, F; Dusini, S; Garfagnini, A; Limentani, S; Longhin, A; Stanco, L; Turcato, M; Raval, A; Whitmore, J J; Iga, Y; D'Agostini, G; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Cole, J E; Hart, J C; Abramowicz, H; Gabareen, A; Ingbir, R; Kananov, S; Levy, A; Kuze, M; Hori, R; Kagawa, S; Shimizu, S; Tawara, T; Hamatsu, R; Kaji, H; Kitamura, S; Ri, Y D; Ferrero, M I; Monaco, V; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Arneodo, M; Ruspa, M; Fourletov, S; Martin, J F; Boutle, S K; Butterworth, J M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jones, T W; Loizides, J H; Sutton, M R; Targett-Adams, C; Wing, M; Brzozowska, B; Ciborowski, J; Grzelak, G; Kulinski, P; Luzniak, P; Malka, J; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Adamus, M; Plucinsky, P P; Eisenberg, Y; Giller, I; Hochman, D; Karshon, U; Rosin, M; Brownson, E; Danielson, T; Everett, A; Kcira, D; Reeder, D D; Ryan, P; Savin, A A; Smith, W H; Wolfe, H

    2007-01-01

    A new method is employed to measure the neutral current cross section up to Bjorken-$x$ values of one with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 65.1 $\\pbi$ for $e^+p$ collisions and 16.7 $\\pbi$ for $e^-p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=318$ $\\gev$ and 38.6 $\\pbi$ for $e^+p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=300$ $\\gev$. Cross sections have been extracted for $Q^2 \\ge 648$ $\\gev^{2}$ and are compared to predictions using different parton density functions. For the highest $x$ bins, the data have a tendency to lie above the expectations using recent parton density function parametrizations.

  20. Measurement of activation cross-sections for high-energy neutron-induced reactions of Bi and Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Muhammad; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Kwangsoo; Naik, Haladhara; Shahid, Muhammad; Lee, Manwoo

    2015-08-01

    The cross-sections for 209Bi(n, 4n)206Bi, 209Bi(n, 5n)205Bi, natPb(n, xn)204mPb, natPb(n, xn)203Pb, natPb(n, xn)202mPb,natPb(n, xn)201Pb, natPb(n, xn)200Pb, natPb(n, αxn)203Hg and natPb(n, p xn)202Tl reactions were determined at the Korean Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Korea in the neutron energy range of 15.2 to 37.2 MeV. The above cross-sections were obtained by using the activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The quasi-monoenergetic neutron used for the above reactions are based on the 9Be(p, n) reaction. Simulations of the spectral flux from the Be target were done using the MCNPX program. The cross-sections were estimated with the TALYS 1.6 code using the default parameter. The data from the present work and literature were compared with the data from the EAF-2010 and the TENDL-2013 libraries, and calculated values of TALYS 1.6 code. It shows that appropriate level density model, the γ-ray strength function, and the spin cut-off parameter are needed to obtain a good agreement between experimental data and theoretical values from TALYS 1.6 code.

  1. Lipodystrophy among HIV-infected children and adolescents on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses R Kamya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: With widespread use of antiretroviral therapy (ART and prolonged survival of HIV-infected children, toxicities like lipodystrophy are becoming more evident. Little is known about lipodystrophy in children in Uganda yet there is increased use of ART. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with fat redistribution and metabolic abnormalities among HIV-infected children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 364 HIV positive children aged between 2 and 18 years on ART were enrolled after consent and assent as appropriate. Sociodemographic, clinical and immunological data were collected and recorded in a questionnaire. Fat redistribution was assessed clinically for physical findings of lipohypertrophy and lipoatrophy. A fasting blood sample was taken for lipid profile and blood glucose analysis. Lipodystrophy was defined as presence of abnormal fat redistribution or metabolic abnormalities or both. The proportion of children with fat redistribution and metabolic abnormalities was calculated. We conducted multivariate analysis for factors associated with lipodystrophy among children with lipodystrophic features and those without. Results: The median age of the participants was eight years (range 2 to 18, with 43% of these aged ≥10 years and a male to female ratio of 1.1:1. Majority (65% had advanced HIV (WHO Stage III/IV at ART initiation with a mean duration on ART of 3.8 years (±1.2. The prevalence of fat redistribution and hyperlipidemia was 27.0% and 34.0%, respectively. None of the children had hyperglycaemia. Among the children with hyperlipidemia, 16.8% exhibited hypercholesterolemia and 83% had hypertriglyceridemia. Only 29% of children with fat redistribution had hyperlipidemia. We found significant association between fat redistribution and Tanner stages 2 to 5 OR=2.3 (95%CI 1.3 to 3.8, age≥5 years OR=3.9 (95%CI 1.5 to 9.9 and d4T

  2. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  3. A New High Energy Resolution Neutron Transmission Detector at the Gaerttner LINAC Center and Isotopic Molybdenum Total Cross Section Measurements in the keV-Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahran, Rian M.

    The Gaerttner LINAC Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute is home to a 60 MeV electron linear accelerator (LINAC) that is used as a pulsed neutron source for TOF nuclear data experiments. High energy resolution total cross section measurements for the stable molybdenum isotopes of Mo-95, Mo-96, Mo-98, and Mo-100 were performed with a newly developed modular neutron transmission detector positioned at a 100 m experimental flight station. This work is part of an effort to both improve existing neutron total cross section libraries and measurement capabilities at the Gaerttner LINAC Center in and above the resolved resonance energy region (from 5-620 keV). The overall design optimization process and qualification of the new high resolution detector is presented. Additionally, a new method to quantify the energy-dependent neutron and gamma-ray experimental background of the detector was developed. High resolution isotopic molybdenum total cross section data are of particular importance because stable Mo isotopes can be found in significant concentrations in a nuclear fuel cycle either as a high yield fission product or in alloyed form with applications in reactor piping, fuel cladding, and as an advanced nuclear fuel in the form of U-Mo. The measured total cross section energy range encompasses the resolved resonance region and extends into the unresolved resonance region for each molybdenum isotope. New high accuracy resonance parameters for Mo-95 were generated from fitting experimental data using the multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY in the resolved resonance region. In the unresolved resonance region, average resonance parameters and fits to the total cross section were obtained using the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model code FITACS which is embedded in SAMMY.

  4. Study of the OH and Cl-initiated oxidation, IR absorption cross-section, radiative forcing, and global warming potential of four C4-hydrofluoroethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyaro, Nathan; Sellevåg, Stig R; Nielsen, Claus J

    2004-11-01

    Infrared absorption cross-sections and OH and Cl reaction rate coefficients for four C4-hydrofluoroethers (CF3)2CHOCH3, CF3CH2OCH2CF3, CF3CF2CH2OCH3, and CHF2CF2CH2OCH3 are reported. Relative rate measurements at 298 K and 1013 hPa of OH and Cl reaction rate coefficients give k(OH+(CF3)2CHOCH3) = (1.27+/-0.13) x 10(-13), k(OH+CF3CH2OCH2CF3) = (1.51+/-0.24) x 10(-13), k(OH+CF3CF2CH2OCH3) = (6.42+/-0.33) x 10(-13), k(OH+CHF2CF2CH2OCH3) = (8.7 +/-0.5) x 10(-13), k(Cl+(CF3)2CHOCH3) = (8.4+/-1.3) x 10(-12), k(Cl+CF3CH2OCH2CF3) = (6.5+/-1.7) x 10(-13), k(Cl+CF3CF2CH2OCH3) = (4.0+/-0.8) x 10(-11), and k(Cl+CHF2CF2CH2OCH3) = (2.65+/-0.17) x 10(-11) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). The primary products of the OH and Cl reactions with the fluorinated ethers have been identified as esters, and OH and Cl reaction rate coefficients for one of these, CF3CH2OCHO, are reported: k(OH+CF3CH2OCHO) = (7.7+/-0.9) x 10(-14) and kCl+CF3CH2OCHO) = (6.3+/-1.9) x 10(-14) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) The rate coefficient for the Cl-atom reaction with CHF2CH2F is derived as k(Cl+CHF2CH2F) = (3.0+/-0.9) x 10(-14) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K. The error limits include 3sigma from the statistical data analyses as well as the errors in the rate coefficients of the reference compounds employed. The tropospheric lifetimes of the hydrofluoroethers are estimated to be short tauOH((CF3)2CHOCH3) approximately 100 days, tauOH(CF3CH2OCH2CF3) approximately 80 days, tauOH(CF3CF2CH2OCH3) approximately 20 days, and tauOH(CHF2CF2CH2OCH3) approximately 14 days, and their global warming potentials are small compared to CFC-11.

  5. Two-photon absorption cross sections within equation-of-motion coupled-cluster formalism using resolution-of-the-identity and Cholesky decomposition representations: Theory, implementation, and benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Kaushik D; Krylov, Anna I

    2015-02-14

    The equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) methods provide a robust description of electronically excited states and their properties. Here, we present a formalism for two-photon absorption (2PA) cross sections for the equation-of-motion for excitation energies CC with single and double substitutions (EOM-CC for electronically excited states with single and double substitutions) wave functions. Rather than the response theory formulation, we employ the expectation-value approach which is commonly used within EOM-CC, configuration interaction, and algebraic diagrammatic construction frameworks. In addition to canonical implementation, we also exploit resolution-of-the-identity (RI) and Cholesky decomposition (CD) for the electron-repulsion integrals to reduce memory requirements and to increase parallel efficiency. The new methods are benchmarked against the CCSD and CC3 response theories for several small molecules. We found that the expectation-value 2PA cross sections are within 5% from the quadratic response CCSD values. The RI and CD approximations lead to small errors relative to the canonical implementation (less than 4%) while affording computational savings. RI/CD successfully address the well-known issue of large basis set requirements for 2PA cross sections calculations. The capabilities of the new code are illustrated by calculations of the 2PA cross sections for model chromophores of the photoactive yellow and green fluorescent proteins.

  6. Two-photon absorption cross sections within equation-of-motion coupled-cluster formalism using resolution-of-the-identity and Cholesky decomposition representations: Theory, implementation, and benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Kaushik D.; Krylov, Anna I. [Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0482 (United States)

    2015-02-14

    The equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) methods provide a robust description of electronically excited states and their properties. Here, we present a formalism for two-photon absorption (2PA) cross sections for the equation-of-motion for excitation energies CC with single and double substitutions (EOM-CC for electronically excited states with single and double substitutions) wave functions. Rather than the response theory formulation, we employ the expectation-value approach which is commonly used within EOM-CC, configuration interaction, and algebraic diagrammatic construction frameworks. In addition to canonical implementation, we also exploit resolution-of-the-identity (RI) and Cholesky decomposition (CD) for the electron-repulsion integrals to reduce memory requirements and to increase parallel efficiency. The new methods are benchmarked against the CCSD and CC3 response theories for several small molecules. We found that the expectation-value 2PA cross sections are within 5% from the quadratic response CCSD values. The RI and CD approximations lead to small errors relative to the canonical implementation (less than 4%) while affording computational savings. RI/CD successfully address the well-known issue of large basis set requirements for 2PA cross sections calculations. The capabilities of the new code are illustrated by calculations of the 2PA cross sections for model chromophores of the photoactive yellow and green fluorescent proteins.

  7. Two-photon absorption cross sections within equation-of-motion coupled-cluster formalism using resolution-of-the-identity and Cholesky decomposition representations: Theory, implementation, and benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Kaushik D.; Krylov, Anna I.

    2015-02-01

    The equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) methods provide a robust description of electronically excited states and their properties. Here, we present a formalism for two-photon absorption (2PA) cross sections for the equation-of-motion for excitation energies CC with single and double substitutions (EOM-CC for electronically excited states with single and double substitutions) wave functions. Rather than the response theory formulation, we employ the expectation-value approach which is commonly used within EOM-CC, configuration interaction, and algebraic diagrammatic construction frameworks. In addition to canonical implementation, we also exploit resolution-of-the-identity (RI) and Cholesky decomposition (CD) for the electron-repulsion integrals to reduce memory requirements and to increase parallel efficiency. The new methods are benchmarked against the CCSD and CC3 response theories for several small molecules. We found that the expectation-value 2PA cross sections are within 5% from the quadratic response CCSD values. The RI and CD approximations lead to small errors relative to the canonical implementation (less than 4%) while affording computational savings. RI/CD successfully address the well-known issue of large basis set requirements for 2PA cross sections calculations. The capabilities of the new code are illustrated by calculations of the 2PA cross sections for model chromophores of the photoactive yellow and green fluorescent proteins.

  8. First Measurement of the Cross Section for the Production of Hadrons with High Transverse Momenta at COMPASS, and Developments for Particle Tracking in High-Rate Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Höppner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The first measurement of the luminosity for data from the muon-scattering program of the COMPASS experiment is presented. Based on this result, the cross section for the quasi-real photoproduction of charged hadrons with high transverse momenta in muon-deuteron scattering at a center-of-mass energy of 17.4 GeV is determined. Furthermore, the development of a new type of Time Projection Chamber (TPC), which employs GEM foils instead of proportional wires for gas amplification, and a novel, generic framework for track fitting in high-energy physics, called GENFIT, are presented.

  9. Intermediate and High-Frequency Acoustic Backscattering Cross Sections for Water-Ice Interfaces: I. Two-Component Profile Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    ensures the vanishing of 8coh’ unless the Snell angle (aox = aoy = 0) is chosen.] Note that this coherent-scatter cross section depends on the area...Bistatic at the Snell Angle (R T): L 0 6ioR)x = (1oT)x when oT = ’/2 = ( oR - i/2); ) when =(R +R )sin Snell (A.2-14a) R)y = oT)y whe oT + oR) s oT

  10. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  11. Measurement of Neutral and Charged Current Cross Sections in Electron-Proton Collisions at High $Q^{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Bernardi, G.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burkhardt, H.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Carli, T.; Caron, S.; Chabert, E.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Ghazarian, S.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Jansen, D.M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyian, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Riess, S.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.I.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sievers, P.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solochenko, V.; Solovev, Y.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Chernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassilev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    The inclusive e^-p single and double differential cross sections for neutral and charged current processes are measured with the H1 detector at HERA, in the range of four-momentum transfer squared Q^2 between 150 and 30000 GeV^2, and Bjorken x between 0.002 and 0.65. The data were taken in 1998 and 1999 with a centre-of-mass energy of 320 GeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 16.4 pb^(-1). The data are compared with recent measurements of the inclusive neutral and charged current e^+p cross sections. For Q^2>1000 GeV^2 clear evidence is observed for an asymmetry between e^+p and e^-p neutral current scattering and the generalised structure function xF_3 is extracted for the first time at HERA. A fit to the charged current data is used to extract a value for the W boson propagator mass. The data are found to be in good agreement with Standard Model predictions.

  12. New Arsenic Cross Section Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-04

    This report presents calculations for the new arsenic cross section. Cross sections for 73,74,75 As above the resonance range were calculated with a newly developed Hauser-Feshbach code, CoH3.

  13. Measurement of the neutron capture cross section of the fissile isotope $^{235}$U with the CERN n_TOF Total Absorption Calorimeter and a fission tagging based on micromegas detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mendoza, E; Cano-Ott, D; Guerrero, C; Berthoumieux, E; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Becvár, F; Belloni, F; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kawano, T; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Korschinek, G; Krticka, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lampoudis, C; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Massimi, C; Meaze, M; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondelaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Pignatari, M; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Stetcu, I; Sabaté, M; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiss, C; Wright, T; Zugec, P

    2014-01-01

    Actual and future nuclear technologies require more accurate nuclear data on the (n, $\\gamma$) cross sections and $\\alpha$-ratios of fissile isotopes. Their measurement presents several difficulties, mainly related to the strong fission $\\gamma$-ray background competing with the weaker $\\gamma$-ray cascades used as the experimental signature of the (n, $\\gamma$) process. A specific setup has been used at the CERN n_TOF facility in 2012 for the measurement of the (n,$\\gamma$ ) cross section and $\\alpha$- ratios of fissile isotopes and used for the case of the $^{235}$U isotope. The setup consists in a set of micromegas fission detectors surrounding $^{235}$U samples and placed inside the segmented BaF$_2$ Total Absorption Calorimeter.

  14. Measurement of the Neutron Capture Cross Section of the Fissile Isotope 235U with the CERN n_TOF Total Absorption Calorimeter and a Fission Tagging Based on Micromegas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Balibrea, J; Cano-Ott, D; Guerrero, C; Berthoumieux, E; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kawano, T; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Korschinek, G; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lampoudis, C; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Massimi, C; Meaze, M; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondelaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Pignatari, M; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Stetcu, I; Sabaté, M; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T J; Žugec, P

    Current and future nuclear technologies require more accurate nuclear data on (n,γ) cross sections and the α-ratios of fissile isotopes. Their measurement presents several difficulties, mainly related to the strong fission γ-ray background competing with the weaker γ-ray cascades used as the experimental signature of the (n,γ) process. A specific setup was used at the CERN n_TOF facility in 2012 for the measurement of the (n,γ) cross section and α-ratios of fissile isotopes and used for the case of the 235U isotope. The setup consists of a set of micromegas fission detectors surrounding the 235U samples all placed inside a segmented BaF2 Total Absorption Calorimeter.

  15. High occurrence of food insecurity among urban Afghan refugees in Pakdasht, Iran 2008: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Morteza; Abdollahi, Zahra; Sheikholeslam, Robabeh; Kalantari, Nasser; Kavehi, Ziba; Neyestani, Tirang R

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate food security and its association with anthropometric measures among Afghan refugees living in Pakdasht, one of the main harbors of Afghan refugees in the neighborhood of Tehran. A total of 414 registered Afghan refugee households were recruited in a cross-sectional study. About 88% of households were food insecure. Unemployment and socioeconomic status were the major determinants of food insecurity among the refugee households. While about 58% of women were overweight/obese, the prevalence of underweight and wasting were remarkable in children (11.0% and 12.7%, respectively), indicating a recent malnutrition. Government and organizations working for refugees must focus their activities on empowering Afghan refugees.

  16. Correlates of cannabis use among high school students in Shamva District, Zimbabwe: A descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivandire, Charmaine T; January, James

    2016-06-01

    We set out to determine the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors that influence cannabis use in young people aged 13 to 19 years in Shamva District, Zimbabwe. A descriptive cross-sectional study focusing on the correlates of cannabis use was conducted among 311 school-going adolescents who were selected using multistage sampling. Eight percent of the students in our sample reported current use of cannabis. Associations were found between cannabis use and alcohol consumption (P cannabis and having family members, friends, and parents who have used cannabis (P cannabis. There is need for identification of these risky behaviours among students, and ecological frameworks and holistic approaches in health promotion programming should be fostered in an effort to increase awareness of the potential harmful effects of cannabis use on adolescents' health and life outcomes.

  17. A Theoretical Study of Photoabsorption Cross Sections of Na2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-Hua; GAO Xiang; HAN Xiao-Ying; LI Jia-Ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the framework of quantum defect theory, we calculate photoabsorption cross sections of Na2+. Based on our calculations, there is an absorption window in the photoabsorption cross sections of Na2+, and more than one bump above the absorption window. The calculated photoabsorption cross sections provide an explanation for the abnormal bump in the experimental measurements of Hudson, which is a long-standing experimental puzzle.

  18. Measurement of the high-mass Drell--Yan differential cross-section in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Bittner, Bernhard; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This Letter reports a measurement of the high-mass Drell-Yan differential cross-section in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV at the LHC. Based on an integrated luminosity of 4.9 /fb, the differential cross-section in the Z/gamma* to e+e- channel is measured with the ATLAS detector as a function of the invariant mass, Mee, in the range 116 25 GeV and pseudorapidity eta < 2.5. A comparison is made to various event generators and to the predictions of perturbative QCD calculations at next-to-next-to-leading order.

  19. Differential Cross Sections for High-Lying Vibrational Excitations(v = O→v' =1, 2,..., 9, 10) of e-H2 Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yang-Yang; FENG Hao; SUN Wei-Guo; WANG Bin

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical investigation on the differential cross section (DCS) from low-energy electron scattering of high-lying vibrational excited 112 molecules is reported. The body-frame vibrational close-coupling (BFVCC) approach is used to solve the scattering equations. Quantum scattering potentials include static, exchange, and polarization contributions based on ab initio calculations. By including the contributions of 9 partial waves (Ne=9), 18 Morse vibrational states (Nv = 18), and 16 molecular symmetries (A=0, 1,..., 7), the calculated DCSs have good agreement with available experimental measurements and theoretical studies, and show that high angular momenta and good vibrational wavefunctions are necessary to better describe the scattering physics of electron-molecule vibrational excitation collisions.

  20. First measurement of the cross section for the production of hadrons with high transverse momenta at COMPASS, and developments for particle tracking in high-rate experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppner, Christian C.

    2012-01-31

    In this dissertation, the first measurement of the luminosity for data from the COMPASS experiment is presented. The result is obtained by the direct measurement of the beam flux and the correction of all inefficiencies and dead times of the measurement. The normalized data set consists of about 30% of the COMPASS data recorded in 2004 and the effective integrated luminosity is 142.4 pb{sup -1} {+-} 10%, which is verified by the determination of the structure function F{sub 2} of the nucleon and its comparison to literature. Based on this result, the cross section for the quasi-real photoproduction of charged hadrons with high transverse momenta in muon-deuteron scattering at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=17.4 GeV is determined. The measurement of a hadron-production cross section in a thick solid-state target is quite challenging in comparison to collider measurements of such processes. The issue of secondary hadronic interactions in the target material is carefully studied and taken into account. The cross section is presented in bins of the pseudo-rapidity of the hadrons and separated by hadron charge. The results are discussed and compared to recent calculations of next-to-leading order perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics. This comparison serves as a test of the applicability of such calculations to the production of hadrons with high transverse momenta at COMPASS energies. The second part of this dissertation describes new developments for charged-particle tracking in high-rate experiments. The design of a new type of Time Projection Chamber (TPC), which employs GEM foils instead of proportional wires for gas amplification, is discussed. This technology opens up the possibility of using TPCs in experiments with trigger rates beyond about 1 kHz. Several important contributions to the GEM-TPC project are presented. Furthermore, a generic framework for track fitting in high-energy physics, called GENFIT, is introduced. This novel software is being used

  1. Measurement of the Cross Section for High-$p_T$ Hadron Production in Scattering of 160 GeV/c Muons off Nucleons

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C; Alexakhin, V Yu; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Antonov, A A; Austregesilo, A; Badelek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Bedfer, Y; Bernhard, J; Bertini, R; Bettinelli, M; Bicker, K; Bieling, J; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Burtin, E; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Dalla Torre, S; Das, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Dhara, L; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dünnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Elia, C; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hoheneschedu, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Grabmüller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Gushterski, R; Guskov, A; Guthörl, T; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Hess, C; Hinterberger, F; Horikawa, N; Höppner, Ch; d'Hose, N; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, O; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jary, V; Jasinski, P; Joosten, R; Kabuss, E; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koblitz, S; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Königsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Korzenev, A; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Krämer, M; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kuhn, R; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Lauser, L; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Liska, T; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Mann, A; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu V; Moinester, M A; Morreale, A; Mutter, A; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Negrini, T; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Nowak, W -D; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Ostrick, M; Padee, A; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Perevalova, E; Pesaro, G; Peshekhonov, D V; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Rajotte, J -F; Ramos, S; Rapatsky, V; Reicherz, G; Richter, A; Rocco, E; Rondio, E; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schlüter, T; Schmidt, K; Schmitt, L; Schönning, K; Schopferer, S; Schott, M; Schröder, W; Shevchenko, O Yu; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sissakian, A N; Slunecka, M; Smirnov, G I; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Steiger, L; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Ter Wolbeek, J; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Tkatchev, L G; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Vandenbroucke, M; Virius, M; Vlassov, N V; Wang, L; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Ziembicki, M; Zhuravlev, N; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    The cross section for production of charged hadrons with high transverse momenta in scattering of 160 GeV/c muons off nucleons at low photon virtualities has been measured at the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The results, which cover transverse momenta from 1.1 to 3.6 GeV/c, are compared to a next-to-leading order perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (NLO pQCD) calculation in order to evaluate the applicability of pQCD to this process in the kinematic domain of the experiment. The shape of the calculated differential cross section as a function of transverse momentum is found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, but the normalization is underestimated by NLO pQCD. This discrepancy may point towards the relevance of terms beyond NLO in the pQCD framework. The dependence of the cross section on the pseudo-rapidity and on the charge of the hadrons is also discussed.

  2. Diffractive, inelastic and total cross sections in high energy pp, pA and γ*A reactions with the dipole formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ster, Andras [MTA Wigner FK, RMI, H-1525 Budapest 114, POBox 49 (Hungary)

    2015-04-10

    The Lund Monte Carlo model DIPSY has recently been extended to ions to study elastic, inelastic and diffractive processes in high energy collisions between electrons, protons and nuclei. In this BFKL-based dipole formalism of parton interactions fluctuations are naturally included and adding them to the pomeron ladder substantially determine the diffractive excitation cross sections of the processes. Starting from √(s{sub NN})=200 GeV and √(s{sub γ*N})=100 GeV we provide results for pp, pA and γ*A total, inelastic and diffractive cross sections that are shown and discussed in case of pp, pO, pCu, pPb and γ*Au reactions. We find good agreement with pp and pPb data. We find that the diffractive cross sections are relatively small compared to the total ones but with increasing collision energies they grow faster than the elastic or the inelastic ones. We make a comparison to calculations obtained by the more conventional method of the Glauber Model MC, too.

  3. High level of awareness but poor practices regarding dengue fever control: A cross-sectional study from North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanivel Chinnakali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delhi, the capital of India, has suffered many outbreaks of dengue in recent past and despite the obvious magnitude of problem, very scarce evidence exists that documents the knowledge, awareness and practices of the people regarding dengue. Aim: To assess the knowledge and practices related to control of dengue fever and to assess the differences in knowledge and practices based on sex and literacy. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among persons visiting a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi. A systematic sampling procedure was adopted and a pretested questionnaire was used. Results: A total of 215 individuals were interviewed. Majority of the respondents (96.3% had heard about dengue. The important sources of information were television (54.9% and newspaper/magazines (51.7%. Around 89% of the study participants considered dengue as "serious problem." Nearly 86% participants were aware of the spread of dengue by mosquitoes while 73% were aware of one of the correct breeding sites of Aedes mosquito. Mosquito mats/liquidators were used by 61% of respondents, coils by 56% and repellant creams by 22%. Conclusion: The awareness regarding dengue and mosquito control measures was satisfactory to an extent. Programs should focus that this knowledge gets translated into practice.

  4. Measurement of differential cross sections via p(e,e^'&+circ;)n for studying high-lying resonances at high Q^2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kijun; Burkert, Volker

    2012-10-01

    An extensive experimental programs has been carried out at Jefferson Laboratory to study the excitation resonances using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). Pion electroproduction on protons is sensitive to the resonance excitation and allows us to explore its internal structure. The CLAS is well suited for the study of a broad range of kinematics in the invariant mass W and photon virtuality Q^2 with nearly complete angular coverage for the hadronic decays. Electron scattering allows us to probe the effective degrees of freedom in excited nucleon states from meson-baryon cloud to dressed quarks in terms of varying distance scale. In this talk, we report the differential cross-sections for exclusive single charged pion electroproduction from proton targets. The kinematic range covers Q^2 from 1.7;GeV^2 to 4.5;GeV^2 and W from 1.6;GeV to 2.0;GeV. Separated structure functions are also presented and compared with the present calculations and previous measurements. This work, along with an upcoming analysis of same kinematics from exclusive p0̂ and p&+circ;&-circ; electroproduction will allow the determination of electro-couplings of several high-lying excited proton states, for the first time, at photon virtualities that correspond to transition toward dominance of quark degrees of freedom.

  5. Probe into Design of Novel Variable Cross-section Double Cavity Noise Absorption Structure%新型变截面双空腔吸声结构设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕忠达; 陈涛; 邱贤锋

    2012-01-01

    In order to change current situations of serious pollution of traffic noise, this paper deigns a novel variable cross-section double cavity noise absorption structure, which is composed of five parts, i. e. metal acoustic panel, front variable cross-section cavity, middle absorption insulating layer, rear cavity and back sound insulating board. Based on measurement test for acoustic absorption factors in reverberation room, all acoustic absorption factors of this noise absorption structure at medium and low frequency range of 250 ~ 1 000 Hz are over 0. 65, and overall noise reduction coefficients are more than 0.60 with remarkable improvement in comparison with conventional noise absorption structure.%为改变高速公路交通噪声的严重污染现状,设计一种新型变截面双空腔吸声结构,其是由金属吸声板、前部变截面空腔、中间吸声隔层、后部空腔、背部隔声板5大部分构成.由混响室吸声系数的测定试验可知,该吸声结构在250~1 000 Hz中低频段的吸声系数均在0.65以上,总体降噪系数均大于0.60,较传统吸声结构,其吸声降噪效果有显著提升.

  6. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  7. Prospects for measuring the differential high p{sub T} b-jet cross section with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grybel, Kai Karsten

    2011-01-21

    Currently, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva accelerates protons up to an energy of 3.5 TeV resulting in collisions of a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=7 TeV. To study the production of b-quarks in proton-proton collisions is part of the physics program of the ATLAS experiment, which is one of the experiments at the LHC. The b-quarks produced in the hard scattering of the protons are measured as jets in the ATLAS detector. The aim of this PhD thesis is to study prospects of a differential p{sub T} b-jet cross section measurement in the jet p{sub T} range of p{sub Tjet} > 30 GeV. This study is based on simulated Monte Carlo (MC) data assuming a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=10 TeV. The trigger selection is based on a combination of single jet triggers considering the different prescale factors of the different jet triggers. The MC data samples contain signal b-jets and background jets from other QCD physics processes in the proton-proton collision. In order to identify the b-jets and to reject background jets, b-tagging algorithms based on the on average longer lifetime of particles containing a b-quark compared to other hadrons, which decay before reaching the detector, are used. Since the b-tagging performance is not uniform over the jet p{sub T} region considered, different b-tagging efficiency scenarios are studied. The jet p{sub T} independent b-tagging efficiency scenarios of {epsilon}{sub Tag}=0.5 and {epsilon}{sub Tag}=0.6 as well as an optimized b-tagging efficiency scenario in order to minimize the statistical uncertainty of the measurement in each jet p{sub T} bin are presented. An unfolding algorithm is applied to the measured b-jet spectrum in order to correct for detector effects due to the measuring process. The expected systematic uncertainties for different jet p{sub T} regions are studied and an estimate for the evolvement of the statistical uncertainties as a function of the integrated luminosity is given. Once an

  8. The electronic structure and the O 1s x-ray absorption cross section of the perovskite-derived compound SrNbO{sub 3.4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, H.; Schuppler, S.; Kuntscher, C.A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, INFP, PO Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2000-02-28

    We present the results of self-consistent LMTO-ASA band structure calculations for SrNbO{sub 3.4} based on the LDA. Eight bands per spin cut the Fermi surface. In accordance with experiment, we obtain a low density of states at the Fermi level, rising steeply with increasing energy. This explains qualitatively the low susceptibility found in this material. Similar to the simple perovskite structure SrNbO{sub 3}, the conduction band complex is separated from the 5.6 eV wide valence band region by a gap of 1.7 eV. The spatial charge distribution shows that the bonding between the niobium and the oxygen atoms within the two-dimensional octahedral network is of primarily ionic character. A band complex of width 3.45 eV found at 17 eV below E{sub F} is due to the O 2s states. The reasonable agreement between our calculated XAS cross sections for different light polarizations with recent experimental results suggest that an LDA treatment of this class of substances is appropriate, whereas Coulomb correlations play a minor role. (author)

  9. High impact of sleeping problems on quality of life in transgender individuals: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Matthias K.; Liedl, Anita; Fuss, Johannes; Nieder, Timo; Briken, Peer; Stalla, Günter K.; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Studies in the general population suggest that determinants of QoL are often sex-dependent. Sex-dependent analyses of QoL in transgender populations have not been performed so far. Aim To identify sex-specific and potentially modifiable determinants of QoL in transgender patients Methods In this cross-sectional multicentre study including 82 transwomen (TW) and 72 transmen (TM) at different treatment stages, we investigated potential determinants for QoL focusing on the impact of mood (BDI, STAI-X), sleep quality (PSQI), chronic pain (GPQ), body image (FBeK) and social support (SSS). Main outcome measure Health-related quality of life measured with the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36). Results The age-adjusted SF-36 total score and its subscales did not significantly differ between TM and TW. Using a multivariate regression analysis approach, we identified common but also sex-dependent determinants for QoL (Adjusted R2 = 0.228; 0.650 respectively). Accounting for general characteristics such as age, BMI and treatment status, sleep quality according to the PSQI was an independent and strong determinant of QoL in both sexes (β = -0.451, p = 0.003 TM; β = -0.320; p = 0.0029 TW). Chronic pain was a significant independent predictor of QoL in TM (β = -0.298; p = 0.042) but not in TW. In contrast, anxiety (β = -0.451; ptransgender individuals. PMID:28199359

  10. Dual absorptive model and np elastic scattering at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem

    1980-06-01

    The most recent measurements of the angular distribution and total cross-sections in np elastic scattering at high energies from 70 to 400 GeV/c have been fitted by using the dual absorptive model. Comparison has also been made with the Kane-Siedl model and the simple Regge pole model.

  11. Measurement of high-Q(2) neutral current deep inelastic e(-) p scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised electron beam at HERA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cindolo, F.; Corradi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A.; Antonelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bindi, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; De Pasquale, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H. P.; Juengst, M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Samson, U.; Schoenberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wlasenko, M.; Brook, N. H.; Heath, G. P.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Kamaluddin, B.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Olkiewicz, K.; Pawlik, B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bold, T.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Kisielewska, D.; Lukasik, J.; Przybycien, M.; Suszycki, L.; Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Blohm, C.; Bonato, A.; Borras, K.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Fourletova, J.; Geiser, A.; Goettlicher, P.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Huettmann, A.; Januschek, F.; Kahle, B.; Katkov, I. I.; Klein, U.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loehr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Montanari, A.; Namsoo, T.; Notz, D.; Parenti, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Schneekloth, U.; Spiridonov, A.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Theedt, T.; Ukleja, J.; Wolf, G.; Wrona, K.; Molina, A. G. Yagues; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Drugakov, V.; Lohmann, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Dobur, D.; Karstens, F.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Dunne, W.; Forrest, M.; Rosin, M.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Papageorgiu, K.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Perrey, H.; Schleper, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sztuk, J.; Stadie, H.; Turcato, M.; Foudas, C.; Fry, C.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Aushev, V.; Bachynska, O.; Borodin, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kozulia, A.; Libov, V.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Sorokin, Iu.; Verbytskyi, A.; Volynets, O.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; Jimenez, M.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Ron, E.; Soares, M.; Terron, J.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Zambrana, M.; Corriveau, F.; Schwartz, J.; Walsh, R.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Reisert, B.; Schmidke, W. B.; Grigorescu, G.; Keramidas, A.; Kooijman, P.; Pellegrino, A.; Tiecke, H.; Vazquez, M.; Bruemmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Lee, A.; Ling, T. Y.; Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Ferrando, J.; Foster, B.; Gwenlan, C.; Horton, K.; Oliver, K.; Robertson, A.; Walczak, R.; Bertolin, A.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Bellan, P.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Oh, B. Y.; Raval, A.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cole, J. E.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Stern, A.; Kuze, M.; Maeda, J.; Hori, R.; Kagawa, S.; Okazaki, N.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Stewart, T. P.; Boutle, S. K.; Butterworth, J. M.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Wing, M.; Brzozowska, B.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kulinski, P.; Luzniak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Perlanski, W.; Tymieniecka, T.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Ukleja, A.; Eisenberg, Y.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Brownson, E.; Reeder, D. D.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Wolfe, H.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Noor, U.; Standage, J.; Whyte, J.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of the neutral current cross sections for deep inelastic scattering in e(-) p collisions at HERA with a longitudinally polarised electron beam are presented. The single-differential cross-sections d sigma/dQ(2), d sigma/dx and d sigma/dy and the double-differential cross sections in Q(2

  12. Measurement of high-Q(2) neutral current deep inelastic e(+) p scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarized positron beam at HERA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartosik, N.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bokhonov, V.; Bold, T.; Bondarenko, K.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Bruemmer, N.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Bylsma, B.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Chekanov, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; D'Agostini, G.; Dal Corso, F.; Del Peso, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; De Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dobur, D.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dolinska, G.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Fazio, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Foster, B.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gialas, I.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Goettlicher, P.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Hilger, E.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Huettmann, A.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jakob, H. -P.; Januschek, F.; Jones, T. W.; Juengst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kotanski, A.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Lee, A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Loehr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Mastroberardino, A.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Miglioranzi, S.; Idris, F. Mohamad; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Mujkic, K.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Nigro, A.; Ning, Y.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Plucinski, P.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polini, A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycien, M.; Raval, A.; Reeder, D. D.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y. D.; Robertson, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Samson, U.; Sartorelli, G.; Savin, A. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoenberg, V.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Slominski, W.; Smith, W. H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Son, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stopa, P.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A. D.; Tassi, E.; Terron, J.; Theedt, T.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Trusov, V.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Tymieniecka, T.; Vazquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N. N.; Walczak, R.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Whitmore, J. J.; Wichmann, K.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Yaguees-Molina, A. G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Zabiegalov, O.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zichichi, A.; Zolkapli, Z.; Zotkin, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of neutral current cross sections for deep inelastic scattering in e(+)p collisions at HERA with a longitudinally polarized positron beam are presented. The single-differential cross-sections d sigma=dQ(2), d sigma=dx and d sigma=dy and the reduced cross section (sigma) over tilde are m

  13. High resolution imaging in cross-section of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor using super-higher-order nonlinear dielectric microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinone, N.; Yamasue, K.; Honda, K.; Cho, Y.

    2013-11-01

    Scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy (SNDM) can evaluate carrier or charge distribution in semiconductor devices. High sensitivity to capacitance variation enables SNDM to measure the super-high-order (higher than 3rd) derivative of local capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics directly under the tip (dnC/dVn,n = 3, 4, ...). We demonstrate improvement of carrier density resolution by measurement of dnC/dVn,n = 1, 2, 3, 4 (super-higher-order method) in the cross-sectional observation of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor.

  14. Theoretical calculation of the triple differential cross sections of the 2p orbital of argon in a coplanar highly asymmetric (e, 2e) reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛自明; 周雅君; 吕志伟; 王治文

    2002-01-01

    The triple differential cross sections of the 2p electron of argon in a coplanar highly asymmetric geometry have beencalculated with the modified distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) and the target Hartree-Fock approximationmethods. The damping polarization of the semi-classical short-range potentials and the Mee factor are included in thedistorting potentials of the modified DWBA. Theoretical results are compared with a recent experiment. The dynamicmechanism of inner shell ionization in a coplanar highly asymmetric geometry (e, 2e) reaction are also discussed.

  15. Path forward for dosimetry cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Peters, C.D. [Sandia Staffing Alliance, Albuquerque, NM 87110 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the 1980's the dosimetry community embraced the need for a high fidelity quantification of uncertainty in nuclear data used for dosimetry applications. This led to the adoption of energy-dependent covariance matrices as the accepted manner of quantifying the uncertainty data. The trend for the dosimetry community to require high fidelity treatment of uncertainty estimates has continued to the current time where requirements on nuclear data are codified in standards such as ASTM E 1018. This paper surveys the current state of the dosimetry cross sections and investigates the quality of the current dosimetry cross section evaluations by examining calculated-to-experimental ratios in neutron benchmark fields. In recent years more nuclear-related technical areas are placing an emphasis on uncertainty quantification. With the availability of model-based cross sections and covariance matrices produced by nuclear data codes, some nuclear-related communities are considering the role these covariance matrices should play. While funding within the dosimetry community for cross section evaluations has been very meager, other areas, such as the solar-related astrophysics community and the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, have been supporting research in the area of neutron cross sections. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the ENDF/B library which has been the mainstay for the reactor dosimetry community. Given the new trends in cross section evaluations, this paper explores the path forward for the US nuclear reactor dosimetry community and its use of the ENDF/B cross-sections. The major concern is maintenance of the sufficiency and accuracy of the uncertainty estimate when used for dosimetry applications. The two major areas of deficiency in the proposed ENDF/B approach are: 1) the use of unrelated covariance matrices in ENDF/B evaluations and 2) the lack of 'due consideration' of

  16. The total charm cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, R

    2007-09-14

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  17. A Cross-Sectional Study on Selected Correlates of High risk Sexual Behavior in Polish Migrants Resident in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganczak, Maria; Czubińska, Grażyna; Korzeń, Marcin; Szych, Zbigniew

    2017-04-14

    Objective: To assess the correlates of the high risk sexual behaviors of Polish migrants in the United Kingdom (UK) after 2004, and to compare such behaviors before/after immigration. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted through the use of a Computer-assisted web interviewing surveying technique with the use of a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Among 408 respondents (56.9% women), with a median age of 32 years, significantly more admitted to having unprotected sexual contact with a casual partner while in the UK (p sexual behavior among Polish migrants, and to introduce interventions to promote an awareness of HIV sero-status.

  18. High Pressure Pneumatic Forming of Ti-3Al-2.5V Titanium Tubes in a Square Cross-Sectional Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new high strain rate forming process for titanium alloys is presented and named High Pressure Pneumatic Forming (HPPF, which might be applicable to form certain tubular components with irregular cross sections with high efficiency, both with respect to energy cost and time consumption. HPPF experiments were performed on Ti-3Al-2.5V titanium alloy tubes using a square cross-sectional die with a small corner radius. The effects of forming of pressure and temperature on the corner filling were investigated and the thickness distributions after the HPPF processes at various pressure levels are discussed. At the same time, the stress state, strain and strain rate distribution during the HPPF process were numerically analyzed by the finite element method. Microstructure evolution of the formed tubes was also analyzed by using electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD. Because of different stress states, the strain and strain rate are very different at different areas of the tube during the corner filling process, and consequently the microstructure of the formed component is affected to some degree. The results verified that HPPF is a potential technology to form titanium tubular components with complicated geometrical features with high efficiency.

  19. Estimation of the mass absorption cross section of the organic carbon component of aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA)

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, J.C.; Volkamer, R.; E. I. Kassianov

    2008-01-01

    Data taken from the MCMA-2003 and the 2006 MILAGRO field campaigns are used to examine the absorption of solar radiation by the organic component of aerosols. Using irradiance data from a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and an actinic flux spectroradiometer (SR), we derive aerosol single scattering albedo, π0,λ, as a function of wavelength, λ. We find that in the near-UV spectral range (250 to 400 nm) π0,&lambd...

  20. Comparison of High Resolution Ultrasonography and Nerve Conduction Study in the Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Diagnostic Value of Median Nerve Cross-Sectional Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohammadi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a common peripheral entrapment neuropathy. This study was performed to evaluate whether high-resolution ultrasonography may be an alternative diagnostic method for nerve conduction study (NCS in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. "nPatients and Methods: 132 wrists of 82 patients and 152 wrists of controls were enrolled in the study. The cross sectional area of the median nerve was measured at the carpal tunnel inlet and outlet in all patients and controls. All patients had a nerve conduction study. Then comparison between ultrasonography and NCS was performed. Combination of clinical diagnosis and NCS was used as the gold standard. "nResults: The mean cross-sectional area (CSA of the median nerve at the tunnel inlet was 11.4±1.7 mm2 for the patient group and 5.78 ±0.9 mm2 for the control group (P<0.001. The mean cross-sectional area at the tunnel outlet was 9.9±1.2 mm2 for the patient group and 4.7±0.7 mm2 for the control group (P<0.001. The best cut-off value of CSA at the tunnel inlet and the outlet was 7.5 mm2. "nConclusion: In patients with clinical diagnosis of CTS we confirmed that the diagnostic value of ultrasonography is similar to NCS and sonography may be used in primary evaluation of CTS.

  1. Measurement of the Neutron Capture Cross Sections of $^{233}$U, $^{237}$Np, $^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm with a Total Absorption Calorimeter at n_TOF

    CERN Multimedia

    Beer, H; Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Rapp, W; Embid, M; Dababneh, S

    2002-01-01

    Accurate and reliable neutron capture cross section data for actinides are necessary for the poper design, safety regulation and precise performance assessment of transmutation devices such as Fast Critical Reactors or Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The goal of this proposal is the measurement of the neutron capture cross sections of $^{233}$U, $^{237}$Np, $^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm at n_TOF with an accuracy of 5~\\%. $^{233}$U plays an essential role in the Th fuel cycle, which has been proposed as a safer and cleaner alternative to the U fuel cycle. The capture cross sections of $^{237}$Np,$^{240,242}$Pu, $^{241,243}$Am and $^{245}$Cm play a key role in the design and optimization of a strategy for the Nuclear Waste Transmutation. A high accuracy can be achieved at n_TOF in such measurements due to a combination of features unique in the world: high instantaneous neutron fluence and excellent energy resolution of the facility, innovative Data Acquisition System based on flash ADCs and t...

  2. 非相干光宽带腔增强吸收光谱技术应用于SO2弱吸收的测量%An Incoherent Broadband Optical Cavity Spectroscopy for Measuring Weak Absorption Cross Section of Sulfur Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段俊; 秦敏; 方武; 胡仁志; 卢雪; 沈兰兰; 王丹; 谢品华; 刘建国

    2016-01-01

    As a highly sensitive detection technology ,incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) have successfully measured a variety of trace gases .According to the principle of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy ,if the accurate concentration of the target gas ,the curve of the mirror reflectance ,effective absorption path length ,the light intensity of the absorbing gas and non-absorbing gas are known ,the absorption cross section of the absorption gas can be measured .The accurate measurements of absorption cross section are necessary for satellite retrievals of atmospheric trace gases and the atmos-pheric research .This paper describes an incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS) instrument with 365 nm LED as the light source for measuring absorption cross section of SO2 from 357 to 385 nm which is arising from the spin-forbidden a3 B1 — X1 A1 transition .In comparison to the literature absorption cross section of SO 2 ,and correlation coeffi-cient r is 0.997 3 .The result shows the potential of the IBBCEAS system for measuring weak absorption cross section .%非相干光宽带腔增强吸收光谱作为高灵敏检测技术 ,已成功应用于多种大气痕量气体浓度的测量.根据腔增强吸收光谱技术测量原理可知 ,若已知测量气体准确浓度 ,镜片反射率随波长的变化曲线、有效吸收长度、光学腔内有无测量气体吸收前后的光辐射变化 ,可测量出待测气体的吸收截面.SO2 由于 a 3 B1 —X1 A1 自旋禁阻跃迁 ,在345~420 nm波段吸收截面较低(~10-22 cm2/molecule) ,其测量有一定难度 ,而准确的弱吸收截面对于卫星反演大气痕量气体浓度以及大气研究等方面均有重要意义.采用365 nm L ED光源的宽带腔增强吸收光谱实验装置测量357~385 nm波段范围SO2 的弱吸收 ,获得该波段SO2 弱吸收截面 ,并与已公开发表的SO2 吸收截面进行对比 ,相关系数 r为0. 997 3 ,验证

  3. Effect of the diradical character on static polarizabilities and two-photon absorption cross sections: A closer look with spin-flip equation-of-motion coupled-cluster singles and doubles method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Kaushik D.; Krylov, Anna I.

    2017-06-01

    We present static polarizabilities and two-photon absorption (2PA) cross sections for the low-lying electronic states of prototypical diradicals such as benzynes and analogues of m-xylylene and p-quinodimethane computed with the spin-flip equation-of-motion coupled-cluster singles and doubles (EOM-SF-CCSD) method. The static polarizabilities were calculated as analytic second derivatives of the EOM energies, and the 2PA cross sections were calculated using the expectation-value approach. We explain the trends in the nonlinear responses of the SF target states by constructing few-states models based on truncated sum-over-states expressions for these nonlinear properties. By using a Huckel-type treatment of the frontier molecular orbitals that host the unpaired electrons, we rationalize the trends in the dipole interactions between the SF target states relevant in the few-states models. We demonstrate the correlation between the nonlinear responses of these electronic states and the diradical character.

  4. Significance of obesity markers and adipocytokines in high grade and high stage prostate cancer in North Indian men - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Reshu; Rajender, Singh; Natu, S M; Goel, Apul; Dalela, Divakar; Goel, M M; Tondon, Pushpa

    2013-08-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) in India is the 10th most common malignancy affecting men. CaP incidence in India is low, but rising like other countries. The reasons for this racial disparity are uncertain. The foremost reasons that may underlie regional/ethnic differences are genetic polymorphisms, altered hormonal status, socioeconomic status, and obesity. This study aimed at investigating the role of adipocytokines in stimulating the promotion and progression of CaP. A cross-sectional study on histopathologically proven prostate cancer (N=95) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (N=95) patients was undertaken. CaP patients were classified into high-grade (N=62) and low-grade (N=33), and high stage (N=31) and low stage (N=64) groups. The level of body mass index (BMI), waste to hip ratio (WHR), interleukin-6 (IL-6), leptin, and adiponectin were compared between BPH and CaP groups and between grades and stages of prostate cancer. The level of BMI was significantly (pprostate cancer independently, suggesting obesity to be a promoter of poor prostate health. Leptin and IL-6 appear to have stimulating effect on prostate cancer cells inducing the promotion and progression of CaP, but adiponectin appears to be protective against prostate cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement of ttbar differential cross-section for highly boosted top quarks produced at ATLAS in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Federica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of the differential cross-section for top quark pair production as function of top transverse momentum will be presented. The used dataset has been collected in 2012 in proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV. The measurement is performed for $t\\bar{t}$ events in the semileptonic channel decay where the hadronically decaying top quark has a transverse momentum above 300 GeV. The hadronic top quark decay is reconstructed as a single large radius jet and identified using the jet substructure properties. This technique allows to increase the detection efficiency extending the cross-section measurement to high $p_T$ region never reached before. The main background sources are evaluated both with data driven methods (for W+jets and fake leptons contributions) and using Monte Carlo simulations (Z+jets, diboson, $t\\bar{t}$ dilepton channel, single top). The observed yield, after the background subtraction, is corrected for efficiency and resolution effects to obtain the result bo...

  6. X-ray production cross-sections measurements for high-energy alpha particle beams: New dedicated set-up and first results with aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, T., E-mail: T.Dupuis@ulg.ac.be [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Chene, G., E-mail: Gregoire.Chene@ulg.ac.be [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Mathis, F., E-mail: Francois.Mathis@ulg.ac.be [Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B15, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); and others

    2011-12-15

    The 'IPNAS' laboratory, in collaboration with the 'Centre Europeen d'Archeometrie' is partly focused on material analysis by means of IBA techniques: PIXE, PIGE and RBS. A new transport beam line has been developed at our CGR-520 MeV cyclotron to analyze Cultural Heritage objects using these techniques. This facility allows us to produce proton and alpha particle beams with energies up to 20 MeV. A vacuum chamber dedicated to X-ray production and Non-Rutherford cross-section measurements has been recently constructed. After determination of the chamber's geometry for X-ray detection using thin foils of several elements (11 Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To Z Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 82) and 3 MeV proton beams, the measurement of the X-ray production cross-sections in the 6-12 MeV energy range has started using alpha particle beams on light element targets. These experiments contribute to the filling a serious lack of experimental values for alpha particles of this particular energy range in databases. The recent decision to focus our work on the alpha particle interaction with light elements was taken because of the high interest of the low Z elements in the field of archaeometry.

  7. X-ray production cross-sections measurements for high-energy alpha particle beams: New dedicated set-up and first results with aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, T.; Chêne, G.; Mathis, F.; Marchal, A.; Garnir, H.-P.; Strivay, D.

    2011-12-01

    The "IPNAS" laboratory, in collaboration with the "Centre Européen d'Archéométrie" is partly focused on material analysis by means of IBA techniques: PIXE, PIGE and RBS. A new transport beam line has been developed at our CGR-520 MeV cyclotron to analyze Cultural Heritage objects using these techniques. This facility allows us to produce proton and alpha particle beams with energies up to 20 MeV. A vacuum chamber dedicated to X-ray production and Non-Rutherford cross-section measurements has been recently constructed. After determination of the chamber's geometry for X-ray detection using thin foils of several elements (11 ⩽ Z ⩽ 82) and 3 MeV proton beams, the measurement of the X-ray production cross-sections in the 6-12 MeV energy range has started using alpha particle beams on light element targets. These experiments contribute to the filling a serious lack of experimental values for alpha particles of this particular energy range in databases. The recent decision to focus our work on the alpha particle interaction with light elements was taken because of the high interest of the low Z elements in the field of archaeometry.

  8. Prevalence of high blood pressure subtypes and its associations with BMI in Chinese children: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yide; Dong, Bin; Wang, Shuo; Dong, Yanhui; Zou, Zhiyong; Fu, Lianguo; Ma, Jun

    2017-06-26

    Data on prevalence and characteristics of different high blood pressure subtypes are lacking among Chinese children. Regarding the mechanistic differences between isolated systolic high blood pressure and isolated diastolic high blood pressure and their different impact on end organ diseases, it is necessary to examine the prevalence of different high blood pressure subtypes in Chinese children and explore their associations with adiposity. Data were derived from the baseline data of a multi-centered cluster randomized controlled trial involving participants from China. High blood pressure was defined according to age-, gender- and height-specific 95th percentile developed by the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group. Body mass index was used to classify underweight, normal weight, overweight and obesity. The prevalence of HBP was 10.2% and 8.9% for boys and girls, respectively. Isolated systolic high blood pressure is the dominant high blood pressure subtype among Chinese boys aged 6-17 years and girls aged 12-17 years, while isolated diastolic high blood pressure was the most common high blood pressure subtype in girls aged 6-11 years. In boys, the status of overweight doubled the risk of isolated systolic high blood pressure (95% CI, 1.73, 2.31; P risk for obese children was 4.32 (95% CI, 3.81, 4.90; P high blood pressure and adiposity. The distribution of high blood pressure subtypes in boys differed from those in girls, and boys with adiposity showed a higher risk of high blood pressure than their female counterpart. Difference in strength of association between isolated diastolic high blood pressure and isolated systolic high blood pressure with body mass index was also found. These results may aid current strategies for preventing and controlling pediatric hypertension.

  9. Elastic Differential Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneth, Charles M.; Maung, Khin M.; Ford, William P.; Norbury, John W.; Vera, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The eikonal, partial wave (PW) Lippmann-Schwinger, and three-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS3D) methods are compared for nuclear reactions that are relevant for space radiation applications. Numerical convergence of the eikonal method is readily achieved when exact formulas of the optical potential are used for light nuclei (A less than or equal to 16) and the momentum-space optical potential is used for heavier nuclei. The PW solution method is known to be numerically unstable for systems that require a large number of partial waves, and, as a result, the LS3D method is employed. The effect of relativistic kinematics is studied with the PW and LS3D methods and is compared to eikonal results. It is recommended that the LS3D method be used for high energy nucleon- nucleus reactions and nucleus-nucleus reactions at all energies because of its rapid numerical convergence and stability.

  10. Radar Cross Section measurements on the stealth metamaterial objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Fan, Kim; Strikwerda, Andrew C.

    have been realized in the form of thin, flexible metallized films of polyimide [1]. Here we apply a near-unity absorbing MM as a way to reduce the radar cross section of an object, and consider the real-life situation where the probe beam is significantly larger than the MM film and the object under...... investigation. We use a terahertz radar cross section (RCS) setup [2] for the characterization of the RCS of a real object covered with an absorbing MM film designed for high absorption in the THz frequency range, specifically at 0.8 THz. The results are in a form of 2D maps (sinograms), from which the RCS...

  11. Descriptive epidemiology and high risk behavior of male prescription opioid abusers: Cross-sectional study from Sikkim, North East India

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, D.; Pandey, S.; S. Dutta; Verma, Y; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sikkim is emerging as an important area for prescription opioid abuse with frequent news of seizures and arrests due to possession of prescription opioids. However, till date there is a little information on descriptive epidemiology and high risk behavior of prescription opioid abusers from Sikkim. Aims: The aim was to describe demographic (age, sex, religion, marital status, community, occupation, etc.); socioeconomic (income, education, family information etc.); and high risk be...

  12. Finite sum expressions for elastic and reaction cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werneth, Charles M., E-mail: charles.m.werneth@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, 2 West Reid Street, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Maung, Khin Maung, E-mail: khin.maung@usm.edu [University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 118 College Drive, Box 5046, Hattiesburg, MS (United States); Mead, Lawrence R., E-mail: lawrence.mead@usm.edu [University of Southern Mississippi, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 118 College Drive, Box 5046, Hattiesburg, MS (United States); Blattnig, Steve R., E-mail: steve.r.blattnig@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center, 2 West Reid Street, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Nuclear cross section calculations are often performed by using the partial wave method or the Eikonal method through Glauber theory. The expressions for the total cross section, total elastic cross section, and total reaction cross section in the partial wave method involve infinite sums and do not utilize simplifying approximations. Conversely, the Eikonal method gives these expressions in terms of integrals but utilizes the high energy and small angle approximations. In this paper, by using the fact that the lth partial wave component of the T-matrix can be very accurately approximated by its Born term, the infinite sums in each of the expressions for the differential cross section, total elastic cross section, total cross section, and total reaction cross section are re-written in terms of finite sums plus closed form expressions. The differential cross sections are compared to the Eikonal results for {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O,{sup 12}C+{sup 12}C, and p+{sup 12}C elastic scattering. Total cross sections, total reaction cross sections, and total elastic cross sections are compared to the Eikonal results for {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C scattering.

  13. More than half of high school students report disordered eating: a cross sectional study among Norwegian boys and girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Klungland Torstveit

    Full Text Available Disordered eating and eating disorders are of great concern due to their associations with physical and mental health risks. Even if adolescence has been identified as the most vulnerable time for developing disordered eating, few studies have used a broad spectrum of criteria to investigate the prevalence of disordered eating among high school students of both genders, in different programs of study, nor assessed correlates of disordered eating among this important target group. The purposes of this study were therefore to investigate the prevalence and correlates of disordered eating among both male and female high school students in sport-, general and vocational programs. A comprehensive questionnaire was completed by 2,451 students (98.7%, aged 15-17 years. The total prevalence of disordered eating was 54.9%, with 64.3% among girls and 45.0% among boys (p<0.001. The highest prevalence of disordered eating was found among vocational students (60.7%, followed by students in general programs (49.8% and sport students (38.3% (p<0.001. Female gender, school program (vocational and general, overweight/obesity and weight regulation were positively associated with disordered eating. The high prevalence indicates the importance of tailored prevention efforts directed at high school students, particularly in vocational programs. Furthermore, a smaller girls-boys ratio than expected indicates that the efforts to identify and manage disordered eating among high school students should include both genders.

  14. Stress Gradient Induced Strain Localization in Metals: High Resolution Strain Cross Sectioning via Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    steep train gradient is now highly feasible for certain classes of prob- ems in elastoplastic deformation of solids. In this paper, we em- loy one of...weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and igh temperature property stability 25. Ordinary fatigue and oreign-object-impact damage induced enhanced fatigue

  15. Effects of Ground-State Correlations on High Energy Scattering off Nuclei: the Case of the Total Neutron-Nucleus Cross Section

    CERN Document Server

    Alvioli, M; Marchino, I; Palli, V; Morita, H

    2008-01-01

    With the aim at quantitatively investigating the longstanding problem concerning the effect of short range nucleon-nucleon correlations on scattering processes at high energies, the total neutron-nucleus cross section is calculated within a parameter-free approach which, for the first time, takes into account, simultaneously, central, spin, isospin and tensor nucleon-nucleon (NN) correlations, and Glauber elastic and Gribov inelastic shadowing corrections. Nuclei ranging from 4He to 208Pb and incident neutron momenta in the range 3 GeV/c - 300 GeV/c are considered; the commonly used approach which approximates the square of the nuclear wave function by a product of one-body densities is carefully analyzed, showing that NN correlations can play a non-negligible role in high energy scattering off nuclei.

  16. Knowledge on the subject of human physiology among Polish high school students--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwinczewska, Helena; Rozwadowska, Joanna; Traczyk, Anna; Majda, Szymon; Wysocki, Michał; Grabowski, Kamil; Kopeć, Sylwia; Głowacki, Roman; Węgrzyn, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Walocha, Jerzy A

    2014-01-01

    In most cases the only knowledge an individual will receive with regards to their own body and its proper functioning is during their high school education. The aim of this study was to evaluate high school students' knowledge about basic physiology. The research was carried out in five, randomly chosen high schools in Krakow, Poland. Young people in the age of 17-19 years were asked to fill in the questionnaire designed by the authors. The first part of the survey included personal data. The second part contained 20 close-ended questions assessing students' knowledge about the basics of human physiology. Question difficulty varied from easy through average, and up to difficult. The maximum number of points to achieve was 20. One-thousand-and eighty-three (out of 1179 invited--91.86%) Polish high school students (63.25% female) filled in a 20-item questionnaire constructed by the authors regarding basic human physiology. The mean age of the group was 17.66 ± 0.80 years. The mean score among the surveyed was 10.15 ± 3.48 (range 0-20). Only 26.04% of students achieved a grade of 60% or more, and only one person obtained the highest possible score. Females achieved significantly better scores than males (10.49 ± 3.38 vs. 9.56 ± 3.56; p students did not know that mature red blood cells do not have cell nuclei and a similar number of them answered that humans have 500,000 erythrocytes in 1 mm3 of blood. Over 32% believed that plasma does not participate in the transport of respiratory gases, and 31% believed that endocrine glands secrete hormones within their immediate vicinity and into the blood. Our research has shown that young people, especially men, often lack basic physiological knowledge needed to make conscious and responsible decisions regarding their health. Our results suggest that more emphasis should be put on properly teaching human physiology in high school, especially to those students who do not plan a career in medicine-related fields. This study

  17. High rates of burnout among maternal health staff at a referral hospital in Malawi: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background Burnout among maternal healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa may have a negative effect on services provided and efforts to mitigate high maternal mortality rates. In Malawi, research on burnout is limited and no empirical research has been conducted specifically among maternal health staff. Therefore, the aims of the study were to examine the prevalence and degree of burnout reported by healthcare workers who provide antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal serv...

  18. Relationship Between the Parenting Styles and Students’ Educational Performance Among Iranian Girl High School Students, A Cross- Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Parivash; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Direkvand-Moghadam, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parenting styles are effective in the educational performance of their child. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the parenting styles and students’ educational performance among Iranian girl high school students. Materials and Methods In a cross–sectional survey, female students in high schools of Ilam (Iran) evaluated during the academic year 2014-15. Multistage cluster random sampling was used to select the participants. Data were collected by two demographic and Baumrind’s parenting styles questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was measured as an index of internal identicalness of the questionnaire to verify its reliability. Results: A total 400 students were studied. The Mean±SD of the students’ age were 14±1.08. The students’ school grades were the first year of high school to pre-university course. The Mean±SD of parenting styles were 35.37±5.8, 34.69±6.34 and 19.17±6.64 for permissive parenting style, authoritarian parenting style and authoritative parenting styles, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the score of permissive parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.151), authoritarian parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.343) and authoritative parenting style (p=0. 001, r= 0.261) with the students’ average score for studying. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that parental influence plays an important role in students’ educational performance. PMID:26813692

  19. Force of tuberculosis infection among adolescents in a high HIV and TB prevalence community: a cross-sectional observation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Elaine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding of the transmission dynamics of tuberculosis (TB in high TB and HIV prevalent settings is required in order to develop effective intervention strategies for TB control. However, there are little data assessing incidence of TB infection in adolescents in these settings. Methods We performed a tuberculin skin test (TST and HIV survey among secondary school learners in a high HIV and TB prevalence community. TST responses to purified protein derivative RT23 were read after 3 days. HIV-infection was assessed using Orasure® collection device and ELISA testing. The results of the HIV-uninfected participants were combined with those from previous surveys among primary school learners in the same community, and force of TB infection was calculated by age. Results The age of 820 secondary school participants ranged from 13 to 22 years. 159 participants had participated in the primary school surveys. At a 10 mm cut-off, prevalence of TB infection among HIV-uninfected and first time participants, was 54% (n = 334/620. HIV prevalence was 5% (n = 40/816. HIV infection was not significantly associated with TST positivity (p = 0.07. In the combined survey dataset, TB prevalence was 45% (n = 645/1451, and was associated with increasing age and male gender. Force of infection increased with age, from 3% to 7.3% in adolescents ≥20 years of age. Conclusions We show a high force of infection among adolescents, positively associated with increasing age. We postulate this is due to increased social contact with infectious TB cases. Control of the TB epidemic in this setting will require reducing the force of infection.

  20. Top quark production cross-section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Shota; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at center-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross-section of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of ...

  1. Parametric equations for calculation of macroscopic cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Mario Hugo; Carvalho, Fernando, E-mail: mariobotelho@poli.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Neutronic calculations of the core of a nuclear reactor is one thing necessary and important for the design and management of a nuclear reactor in order to prevent accidents and control the reactor efficiently as possible. To perform these calculations a library of nuclear data, including cross sections is required. Currently, to obtain a cross section computer codes are used, which require a large amount of processing time and computer memory. This paper proposes the calculation of macroscopic cross section through the development of parametric equations. The paper illustrates the proposal for the case of macroscopic cross sections of absorption (Σa), which was chosen due to its greater complexity among other cross sections. Parametric equations created enable, quick and dynamic way, the determination of absorption cross sections, enabling the use of them in calculations of reactors. The results show efficient when compared with the absorption cross sections obtained by the ALPHA 8.8.1 code. The differences between the cross sections are less than 2% for group 2 and less than 0.60% for group 1. (author)

  2. Associations of diet and lifestyle with headache in high-school students: results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milde-Busch, Astrid; Blaschek, Astrid; Borggräfe, Ingo; Heinen, Florian; Straube, Andreas; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2010-07-01

    Diet and lifestyle are seen as factors which influence headache in adults. However, population-based studies on this issue in adolescents are rare. Aim of the present study was to investigate associations between diet and lifestyle factors and different types of headache, ie, migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) in adolescents. A total of 1260 adolescents from the 10th and 11th grades of high schools filled in questionnaires on intake of meals, coffee, nonalcoholic and alcoholic drinks, smoking, and physical activity. Type of headache was classified according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders - 2nd edition. Multiple logistic regression models, adjusted for sex and grade, were calculated. High consumption of cocktails (odds ratio = 3.4; 95% confidence interval 1.9-6.0) and coffee (2.4; 1.3-4.7), smoking (2.7; 1.4-5.1), and lack of physical activity (2.2; 1.3-3.7) were significantly associated with migraine plus TTH episodes, consumption of coffee and physical inactivity particularly with migraine (3.4; 1.6-7.0 and 4.2; 2.2-7.9, respectively) and physical inactivity with TTH (1.7; 1.1-2.7). Skipping of meals or insufficient fluid intake were not associated with any type of headache. Adolescents with any type of headache might benefit from regular physical activity and low consumption of alcoholic drinks, while for migraine patients a low consumption of coffee should additionally be recommended. Intervention studies are warranted to assess whether psycho-educational programs conferring knowledge of these associations will influence headache-triggering behavior and headache in adolescents.

  3. High primary antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter Pylori strains isolated from dyspeptic patients: A prevalence cross-sectional study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-García, Fernando; Llovo-Taboada, José; Díaz-López, Mario; Bastón-Rey, Iria; Domínguez-Muñoz, Juan Enrique

    2017-09-15

    The rate of H. pylori resistance to different antibiotics is increasing and determines the selection of eradication therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance patterns of H. pylori strains in our area. Biopsies from gastric corpus for microbiological culture and antibiotic resistance were obtained in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for dyspepsia. Selective Agar Pylori for isolation of the bacteria and Agar Mueller-Hinton supplemented with blood to test the sensitivity to antibiotics were used. Presence of H. pylori was confirmed using direct observation with phase-contrast microscopy and/or smears stained with acridine orange. In vitro bacterial susceptibility to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, rifampicin, tetracycline, metronidazole, and levofloxacin was tested using diffusion MIC test strips. Minimum inhibitory concentration values were determined based on the 6th version of the EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) Clinical Breakpoint (2016). Two hundred and seventeen patients were included (58.1% female, median age 64 years, range 25-92). H. pylori was identified in 108 patients (49.8%); culture and antibiogram were completed in 77 of them (71.3% of H. pylori-positive patients). The resistance rates were as follows: levofloxacin 38.7%, rifampicin 33.3%, metronidazole 27% and clarithromycin 22.4%. No case of amoxicillin or tetracycline resistance was identified. Dual clarithromycin-metronidazole resistance was observed in 10% of strains, whereas multiple drug-resistant was observed in 14.2%. Resistance rate of H. pylori to antibiotics is high in the northwest of Spain. The high resistance to levofloxacin and clarithromycin advises against their wide empirical use of these antibiotics in eradication regimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Social factors associated to binge drinking: a cross-sectional survey among Brazilian students in private high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Zila M; Martins, Silvia S; Opaleye, Emerita S; Moura, Yone G; Locatelli, Danilo P; Noto, Ana R

    2011-03-31

    Binge drinking (BD) seems to be related to health and social complications among adolescents. Considering that knowledge about BD in developing countries is limited and that in Brazil high socioeconomic status is a risk factor for alcohol abuse, this study sheds light about this phenomenon among adolescents from a different cultural background than prior North-American and European studies. Brazilian students (n = 2691) selected through a representative, stratified and clustered sampling method were asked to answer a self-report questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions about patterns of alcohol consumption, religious beliefs, leisure activities, family structure and relationships. Data were analyzed with basic contingency tables with Chi-square tests followed by a decision tree analysis and weighted logistic regression. Almost thirty-five percent of the students reported recent binge drinking. BD in the past month was positively associated with older age (aOR = 1.5[1.2-1.7]), male gender (aOR = 1.5[1.2-2.0]) going out with friends almost every night (aOR = 33.9[14.2-80.7]), not living with mother (aOR = 2.4[1.3-4.7]), believing in God with little conviction (aOR = 1.6[1.2-2.0]) and rarely talking to parents about anything (aOR = 1.7[1.3-2.2]) or always about drugs (aOR = 1.8[1.3-2.5]). Factors inversely associated with BD were: paying lower monthly tuition fees (aOR = 0.5[0.4-0.9]), living with people who do not get drunk (aOR = 0.6[0.4-0.7]) and frequent engagement in worships (aOR = 0.7[0.5-0.9]). The habit of BD in adolescents enrolled in private high schools in Brazil is strongly linked to the frequency with which they go out with friends at night. Factors such as religiosity, expressed by trust in God and participation in worship, and being enrolled in a school with cheaper tuition fees were associated with avoidance of BD in this population.

  5. High prevalence of celiac disease among Saudi children with type 1 diabetes: a prospective cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hussaini Abdulrahman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is lack of data on prevalence of celiac disease (CD in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D in Arabs in the Middle East. The present investigation aims to study the prevalence rate and clinical characteristics of CD among Saudi children with T1D using a combination of the most sensitive and specific screening serologic tests (anti- tissue transglutaminase antibodies IgA [anti-TTG] and ednomyseal antibodies [EMA] and to determine the lower cut-off value of anti- anti-TTG level that best predicts CD in children with T1D. Methods Children with T1D following in diabetic clinic have been prospectively screened for presence of CD, over a two-year period (2008–2010, by doing anti-TTG, EMA, and total IgA. Children with positive anti-TTG titres (>50 U/ml and/or EMA and children with persistently low positive anti-TTG titres (two readings 20–50 U/ml; within 6 months intervals had upper endoscopy and 6 duodenal biopsies. Results One hundred and six children with T1D have been screened for CD: age ranged between 8 months to 15.5 years (62 females. Nineteen children had positive anti-TTG and/or EMA, however only 12 children had biopsy proven CD (11.3%. Five of 12 had gastrointestinal symptoms (42%. Children with T1D and CD had significantly lower serum iron than children with T1D alone (8.5 μgm/L Vs 12.5 μgm/L; P = 0.014. The sensitivity and specificity of anti-TTG were 91.6% and 93.6%, with a positive and negative predictive value of 64.7% and 98.8%, respectively. Receiver operated characteristics analysis for the best cut-off value of anti-TTG level for diagnosis of CD was 63 units (sensitivity 100% and specificity 98.8%. Conclusion CD is highly prevalent among Saudi children with T1D. Anti-TTG titres more than 3 times the upper limit of normal has very high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of CD in T1D children.

  6. The Iranian female high school students' attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoja Mohammadali M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS has become an important public health hazard in Iran. It is believed that AIDS-related knowledge does not necessarily translate into behavior modification. Hence, it has been suggested that culturally appropriate educational campaigns should be implemented to obtain satisfactory outcomes. Here, we evaluated the female high school students' attitude towards HIV/AIDS in Tabriz, Iran to assess the cultural needs for the related educational programs and to discover sources of information about AIDS. Results Anonymous, self-administered questionnaires were filled by the young female students. Among 300 students, 91% agreed that being an HIV carrier should not be an obstacle to obtaining education and employment. Moreover, 72.5% of the students declared that the community should be informed of HIV-positive people. In addition, one-tenth declared that they would feel extremely uncomfortable towards their HIV infected classmate. In addition, only 16% of the students stated that they would continue to shop at HIV infected grocer's store. The mass media and the experts were the major source and the most reliable source of information about AIDS, respectively. Conclusion Tabrizian female students have overall negative attitudes towards HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS related educational campaigns should target the students, society and the families with emphasizing the leading roles of health staff.

  7. Relation between eating habits and a high body mass index among freshman students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Fatma Esra; Bekiroglu, Nural; Imeryuz, Nese; Agirbasli, Mehmet

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the relation between eating habits and a high body mass index (BMI) in first-year freshman university students and included 2525 freshman university students 18 to 22 years old from a Turkish population. İn this study, 48% of the students were men. They were asked to complete a questionnaire on their dietary habits including the frequency of their consumption of individual food items, demographic data, and smoking habit. The effects of eating habits on increased BMI (≥25) were analyzed. Of 2259 subjects included in the analyses, 322 were overweight or obese and 1937 had normal and thin BMI (onsumptions of beer, alcoholic drinks other than beer and wine (e.g., spirits including whisky, gin, raki, vodka), coffee, tea, coke, red meat, variety meat, and eggs were associated with a significantly higher risk of obesity/overweight, whereas frequent consumption of snacks was associated with a low risk. Findings of further studies, possibly taking into consideration the absolute quantities of consumption along with cultural and local issues, would guide the adoption of healthier feeding behaviors in this particular age group.

  8. Measurement of the Inclusive e{\\pm}p Scattering Cross Section at High Inelasticity y and of the Structure Function FL

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F D; Andreev, V; Backovic, S; Baghdasaryan, A; Baghdasaryan, S; Barrelet, E; Bartel, W; Behrend, O; Belov, P; Begzsuren, K; Belousov, A; Bizot, J C; Boudry, V; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, D; Bruncko, D; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bylinkin, A; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cantun Avila, K B; Ceccopieri, F; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Cholewa, A; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Daum, K; Delcourt, B; Delvax, J; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dobre, M; Dodonov, V; Dossanov, A; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Egli, S; Eliseev, A; Elsen, E; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, D J; Fleischer, M; Fomenko, A; Gabathuler, E; Gayler, J; Ghazaryan, S; Glazov, A; Goerlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gouzevitch, M; Grab, C; Grebenyuk, A; Greenshaw, T; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Habib, S; Haidt, D; Helebrant, C; Henderson, R C.W; Hennekemper, E; Henschel, H; Herbst, M; Herrera, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R; Hreus, T; Huber, F; Jacquet, M; Janssen, X; Jonsson, L; Jung, A W; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, T; Knutsson, A; Kogler, R; Kostka, P; Kraemer, M; Kretzschmar, J; Kruger, K; Kutak, K; Landon, M P.J; Lange, W; Lastovicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Lipka, K; List, B; List, J; Loktionova, N; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Makankine, A; Malinovski, E; Marage, P; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Mehta, A; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Mudrinic, M; Muller, K; Naumann, Th; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nikitin, D; Nowak, G; Nowak, K; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Pahl, P; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Pandurovic, M; Papadopoulou, Th; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Perez, E; Petrukhin, A; Picuric, I; Piec, S; Pirumov, H; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pokorny, B; Polifka, R; Povh, B; Radescu, V; Raicevic, N; Ravdandorj, T; Reimer, P; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rotaru, M; Ruiz Tabasco, J E; Rusakov, S; Salek, D; Sankey, D P.C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmitt, S; Schoeffel, L; Schoning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sefkow, F; Shtarkov, L N; Shushkevich, S; Sloan, T; Smiljanic, I; Soloviev, Y; Sopicki, P; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Staykova, Z; Steder, M; Stella, B; Stoicea, G; Straumann, U; Sykora, T; Thompson, P D; Toll, T; Tran, T H; Traynor, D; Truol, P; Tsakov, I; Tseepeldorj, B; Tsurin, I; Turnau, J; Urban, K; Valkarova, A; Vallee, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vargas, A; Vazdik, Y; von den Driesch, M; Wegener, D; Wunsch, E; Zacek, J; Zalesak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F

    2011-01-01

    A measurement is presented of the inclusive neutral current e\\pm p scattering cross section using data collected by the H1 experiment at HERA during the years 2003 to 2007 with proton beam energies Ep of 920, 575, and 460 GeV. The kinematic range of the measurement covers low absolute four-momentum transfers squared, 1.5 GeV2 < Q2 < 120 GeV2, small values of Bjorken x, 2.9 \\cdot 10-5 < x < 0.01, and extends to high inelasticity up to y = 0.85. The structure function FL is measured by combining the new results with previously published H1 data at Ep = 920 GeV and Ep = 820 GeV. The new measurements are used to test several phenomenological and QCD models applicable in this low Q2 and low x kinematic domain.

  9. High prevalence of respiratory symptoms among workers in the development section of a manually operated coal mine in a developing country: A cross sectional study - article no. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamuya, S.H.D.; Bratveit, M.; Mashalla, Y.; Moen, B.E. [University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway). Center for International Health

    2007-02-15

    This study assesses the associations between exposure to dust and quartz and respiratory symptoms among coal mine workers in a manually operated coal mine in Tanzania, focusing on development workers, as they have the highest exposure to coal dust. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 production workers from a coal mine. Interviews were performed using modified standardized questionnaires to elicit information on occupational history, demographics, smoking habits and acute and chronic respiratory symptoms. The relationships between current dust exposure as well as cumulative respirable dust and quartz and symptoms were studied by group comparisons as well as logistic regression. The development workers in a coal mine had more acute and chronic respiratory symptoms than the mine and the other production workers. In addition, there was an association between high cumulative coal dust and respiratory symptoms.

  10. Prevalence and determinants of khat (Catha edulis chewing among high school students in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayalu A Reda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Use of psychoactive drugs such as khat leaves (Catha edulis alter moods and emotional state and lead to adverse effects on the health and social life of users. Ethiopia is a major producer and exporter of khat in east Africa and the majority of the khat comes from the eastern part of the country, however, no studies have been conducted to investigate the habit in this area. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among high school students in Harar, eastern Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted among 1,890 secondary school students in Harar town in April 2010. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing. RESULT: The overall prevalence of khat chewing among the sample was 24.2% (95% CI 22.2%-26.2%. About 28.5% of females and 71.5% of males had chewed khat. Older age (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.16-1.49, male gender (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.50-2.93, Muslim religion (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.17-3.04, having friends who chewed khat (OR 7.93; 95% CI 5.40-11.64, and availability of someone with a similar habit in the family (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.07-2.11 were found to be independent predictors of chewing. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of students chew khat. The use of khat is significantly associated with age, gender, Muslim religion, peer influence and habit of family and other relatives among students. Measures such as educational campaigns need to be instituted to create awareness among school adolescents and their parents in order to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its adverse social and health consequences.

  11. The correlation between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake: cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships in highly trained distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Andrew J; Ingham, Stephen A; Atkinson, Greg; Folland, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    A positive relationship between running economy and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) has been postulated in trained athletes, but previous evidence is equivocal and could have been confounded by statistical artefacts. Whether this relationship is preserved in response to running training (changes in running economy and V̇O2max) has yet to be explored. This study examined the relationships of (i) running economy and V̇O2max between runners, and (ii) the changes in running economy and V̇O2max that occur within runners in response to habitual training. 168 trained distance runners (males, n = 98, V̇O2max 73.0 ± 6.3 mL∙kg-1∙min-1; females, n = 70, V̇O2max 65.2 ± 5.9 mL kg-1∙min-1) performed a discontinuous submaximal running test to determine running economy (kcal∙km-1). A continuous incremental treadmill running test to volitional exhaustion was used to determine V̇O2max 54 participants (males, n = 27; females, n = 27) also completed at least one follow up assessment. Partial correlation analysis revealed small positive relationships between running economy and V̇O2max (males r = 0.26, females r = 0.25; Peconomy and V̇O2max in response to habitual training (r = 0.35; Peconomy and V̇O2max in highly trained distance runners. With >85% of the variance in these parameters unexplained by this relationship, these findings reaffirm that running economy and V̇O2max are primarily determined independently.

  12. Photodisintegration Cross Section of 241Am

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Hammond, S.; Howell, C. R.; Huibregtse, C.; Hutcheson, A.; Karwowski, H. J.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Rusev, G.; Tornow, W.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2009-03-01

    The photodisintegration cross section of radioactive 241Am has been obtained for the first time using monoenergetic γ-ray beams from the HIγS facility. The induced activity of 240Am produced via the 241Am(γ,n) reaction in the γ-ray energy range from 9.5 to 16 MeV was measured by the activation technique utilizing high resolution HPGe detectors. The 241Am(γ,n) cross section was determined both by measuring the absolute γ-ray flux and by comparison to the 197Au(γ,n) and 58Ni(γ,n) cross section standards. The experimental data for the 241Am(γ,n) reaction in the giant dipole resonance energy region is compared with statistical nuclear-model calculations.

  13. A study of the temperature dependence of the infrared absorption cross-sections of 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropanol in the range of 298-362 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Paul J.; Cabaj, Alex; Xu, Li-Hong; Le Bris, Karine; Strong, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropanol (PFPO) were derived from Fourier transform infrared spectra recorded from 565 to 3400 cm-1 with a resolution of 0.1 cm-1 over a temperature range of 298-362 K. These results were compared to previously published theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experimental measurements made at room temperature. We find good agreement between our experimentally derived results, DFT calculations, and previously published data. The only temperature dependence observed was in the centroid shift of the 850-1500 cm-1 band and in the amplitude of some of the absorption peaks. However, this temperature dependence does not result in a significant trend in integrated band strength as a function of temperature. We calculate an average integrated band strength of (1.991±0.001)×10-16 cm molecule-1 for PFPO over the spectral range studied. Radiative efficiencies (REs) and the global warming potential (GWP) for PFPO were also derived. We find an average RE of 0.2603 ± 0.0007 Wm-2ppbv-1 and a GWP100 of 19.8. The calculated radiative efficiencies show that no dependence on temperature and our findings are consistent with previous studies, increasing our confidence in the value of the GWP of PFPO.

  14. High adiposity is associated cross-sectionally with low self-concept and body size dissatisfaction among indigenous Cree schoolchildren in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willows, Noreen Dianne; Ridley, Denise; Raine, Kim D; Maximova, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    .... In this cross-sectional study the associations between adiposity and body size satisfaction, body image and self-concept were examined in indigenous children in grades four to six living in Cree...

  15. Arsenic Exposure from Drinking Water, Dietary Intakes of B Vitamins and Folate, and Risk of High Blood Pressure in Bangladesh: A Population-based, Cross-sectional Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Yu; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Howe, Geoffrey R; Graziano, Joseph H; Brandt-Rauf, Paul; Parvez, Faruque; van Geen, Alexander; Ahsan, Habibul

    The authors performed a cross-sectional analysis to evaluate the association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and blood pressure using baseline data of 10,910 participants in the Health...

  16. Towards the high-accuracy determination of the 238U fission cross section at the threshold region at CERN – n_TOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diakaki M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 238U fission cross section is an international standard beyond 2 MeV where the fission plateau starts. However, due to its importance in fission reactors, this cross-section should be very accurately known also in the threshold region below 2 MeV. The 238U fission cross section has been measured relative to the 235U fission cross section at CERN – n_TOF with different detection systems. These datasets have been collected and suitably combined to increase the counting statistics in the threshold region from about 300 keV up to 3 MeV. The results are compared with other experimental data, evaluated libraries, and the IAEA standards.

  17. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  18. Revolutionizing Cross-sectional Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Luo, Liangping; Lin, Wentao; Li, Zhiyu; Zhong, Xin; Shi, Changzheng; Newman, Tony; Zhou, Yi; Lv, Changsheng; Fan, Yuzhou

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging is so important that, six Nobel Prizes have been awarded to the field of nuclear magnetic resonance alone because it revolutionized clinical diagnosis. The BigBrain project supported by up to 1 billion euro each over a time period of 10 years predicts to "revolutionize our ability to understand internal brain organization" (Evan 2013). If we claim that cross-sectional imaging diagnosis is only semi-quantitative, some may believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient that we can observe the changes of this cross-sectional image next time. If we claim that BigBrain will make no difference in clinical medicine, then few would believe because no doctor would ever tell their patient to scan this part of the image and compare it with that from the BigBrain. If we claim that the BigBrain Project and the Human Brain Project have defects in their key method, one might believe it. But this is true. The key lies in the reconstruction of any cross-sectional image along any axis. Using Ga...

  19. Measuring Neutron-Induced Reaction Cross Sections without Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, L. A.; Schiller, A.; Cooper, J. R.; Hoffman, R. D.; McMahan, M. A.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Mitchell, G.; Tavukcu, E.; Guttormsen, M.

    2003-04-01

    Neutron-induced reactions on radioactive nuclei play a significant role in nuclear astrophysics and many other applied nuclear physics topics. However, the majority of these cross sections are impossible to measure due to the high-background of the targets and the low-intensity of neutron beams. We have explored the possibility of using charged-particle transfer reactions to form the same "pre-compound" nucleus as one formed in a neutron-induced reaction in order to measure the relative decay probabilities of the nucleus as a function of energy. Multiplying these decay probabilities by the neutron absorption cross section will then produce the equivalent neutron-induced reaction cross section. In this presentation I will explore the validity of this "surrogate reaction" technique by comparing results from the recent 157Gd(3He,axng)156-xGd experiment using STARS (Silicon Telescope Array for Reaction Studies) at GAMMASPHERE with reaction model calculations for the 155Gd(n,xng)156-xGd. This work was funded by the US Department of Energy under contracts number W-7405-ENG-48 (LLNL), AC03-76SF00098 (LBNL) and the Norwegian Research Council (Oslo).

  20. Measurement of K Shell Photoelectric Cross Sections at a K Edge--A Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, S. V.; Badiger, N. M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe in this paper a new method for measuring the K shell photoelectric cross sections of high-Z elemental targets at a K absorption edge. In this method the external bremsstrahlung (EB) photons produced in the Ni target foil by beta particles from a weak[superscript 90]Sr-[superscript 90]Y beta source are passed through an elemental target…

  1. Laboratory Measurements and Modeling of Molecular Photoabsorption Cross Sections in the Ultraviolet for Astronomical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Glenn; Smith, P. L.

    2008-09-01

    Our research program is dedicated to the measurement and modeling of vacuum ultraviolet and UV molecular photoabsorption cross sections with the highest practical resolution. It supports efforts to interpret and model observations of planetary atmospheres. Measurement and modeling efforts on molecular nitrogen, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and diatomic sulfur are in progress. N2: We focus on the measurement of line f-values and line widths within the complex spectrum between 80 and 100 nm. Our measurements are incorporated into a theoretical model of the absorption spectrum of N2 which has established the mechanisms responsible for predissociation and reproduces all observed features in 14N2 and its isotopomers as a function of temperature. CO2: The photodissociation of CO2 is a fundamental photochemical process in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus. Our research centers on the measurement of high resolution cross sections from 91 to 120 nm. We have completed measurements at 295 K and 195 K over the 106 to 120 nm region, and we are analyzing recent measurements of cross sections between 91 and 106 nm. SO2: We provide astronomers with high-resolution cross section data for the complex ultraviolet absorption spectrum between 198 and 325 nm. Using the Imperial College VUV Fourier transform spectrometer, we have completed and published room temperature cross sections, and we are completing work on low-temperature measurements over the same spectral region. S2: Interpretations of atmospheric (Io, Jupiter, cometary comae) S2 absorption features are hindered by a complete lack of laboratory cross section data in the ultraviolet. We are beginning an effort to quantify the photoabsorption spectrum of S2 from 200 to 300 nm based on theoretical calculations and laboratory measurements. Coupled-channel calculations will be complemented by measurements of the absorption spectrum of S2 at high resolution.

  2. Laboratory Measurements and Modeling of Molecular Photoabsorption Cross Sections for Planetary Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, G.; Smith, P. L.; Lewis, B. R.; Heays, A.; Blackie, D.; Pickering, J.

    2010-12-01

    Our research program comprises the measurement and modeling of ultraviolet molecular photoabsorption cross sections with the highest practical resolution. It supports efforts to interpret and model observations of planetary atmospheres. Measurement and modeling efforts on molecular nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, diatomic sulfur, and carbon dioxide are in progress. Molecular Nitrogen: We focus on the measurement of line f-values and line widths within the complex spectrum between 80 and 100 nm. Our measurements are incorporated into a theoretical model of the absorption spectrum of N2 which has established the mechanisms responsible for predissociation and reproduces all observed features in 14N2 and its isotopomers as a function of temperature. Sulfur Dioxide: We provide astronomers with high-resolution cross section data for the complex ultraviolet SO2 absorption spectrum. Using the Imperial College VUV Fourier transform spectrometer, we have completed and published room temperature cross sections from 198 to 325 nm and 160 K cross sections from 199 to 220 nm. We have completed work on further low-temperature measurements from 220 to 325 nm. Diatomic Sulfur: Interpretations of atmospheric (Io, Jupiter, cometary comae) S2 absorption features are hindered by a complete lack of laboratory cross section data in the ultraviolet. We are working to quantify the photoabsorption spectrum of S2 from 200 to 300 nm based on laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations. We have designed an experimental apparatus to produce a stable column of S2 vapor. Measurements of the absorption spectrum of S2 at high resolution will be complemented by coupled-channel calculations. Carbon Dioxide: The photodissociation of CO2 is a fundamental photochemical process in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus. Our research centers on the measurement of high resolution cross sections from 87 to 120 nm. We have completed measurements at 295 K and 195 K over the 106 to 120 nm region, and we have

  3. Laboratory Measurements and Modeling of Molecular Photoabsorption Cross Sections in the Ultraviolet for Planetary Atmospheres Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Glenn; Smith, P. L.; Lewis, B. R.; Heays, A. N.; Pickering, J.; Blackwell-Whitehead, R.; Blackie, D.

    2008-09-01

    Our research program is dedicated to the measurement and modeling of vacuum ultraviolet and UV molecular photoabsorption cross sections with the highest practical resolution. It supports efforts to interpret and model observations of planetary atmospheres. Measurement and modeling efforts on molecular nitrogen, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and diatomic sulfur are in progress. N2: We focus on the measurement of line f-values and line widths within the complex spectrum between 80 and 100 nm. Our measurements are incorporated into a theoretical model of the absorption spectrum of N2 which has established the mechanisms responsible for predissociation and reproduces all observed features in 14N2 and its isotopomers as a function of temperature. CO2: The photodissociation of CO2 is a fundamental photochemical process in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus. Our research centers on the measurement of high resolution cross sections from 91 to 120 nm. We have completed measurements at 295 K and 195 K over the 106 to 120 nm region, and we are analyzing recent measurements of cross sections between 91 and 106 nm. SO2: We provide astronomers with high-resolution cross section data for the complex ultraviolet absorption spectrum between 198 and 325 nm. Using the Imperial College VUV Fourier transform spectrometer, we have completed and published room temperature cross sections, and we are completing work on low-temperature measurements over the same spectral region. S2: Interpretations of atmospheric (Io, Jupiter, cometary comae) S2 absorption features are hindered by a complete lack of laboratory cross section data in the ultraviolet. We are beginning an effort to quantify the photoabsorption spectrum of S2 from 200 to 300 nm based on theoretical calculations and laboratory measurements. Coupled-channel calculations will be complemented by measurements of the absorption spectrum of S2 at high resolution.

  4. Differential top-quark-pair cross sections in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV with CMS and charge multiplication in highly irradiated silicon sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Joern

    2013-09-15

    Modern particle-physics experiments like the ones at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are global and interdisciplinary endeavours comprising a variety of different fields. In this work, two different aspects are dealt with: on the one hand a top-quark physics analysis and on the other hand research and development towards radiation-hard silicon tracking detectors. The high centre-of-mass energy and luminosity at the LHC allow for a detailed investigation of top-quark-pair (t anti t) pro duction properties. Normalised differential t anti t cross sections (1)/({sigma}) (d{sigma}{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t})/(dX) are measured as a function of nine different kinematic variables X of the t anti t system, the top quarks and their decay products (b jets and leptons). The analysis is performed using data of proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s) = 7 TeV recorded by the CMS experiment in 2011, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5 fb{sup -1}. A high-purity sample of t anti t events is selected according to the topology of the lepton+jets decay channel. Lepton-selection and trigger efficiencies are determined with data-driven methods. The top-quark four-vectors are reconstructed using a constrained kinematic fit. The reconstructed distributions are corrected for background and detector effects using a regularised unfolding technique. By normalising the differential cross sections with the in-situ measured total cross section, correlated systematic uncertainties are reduced, achieving a precision of typically 4-11%. The results are compared to standard-model predictions from Monte-Carlo event generators and approximate next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNLO) perturbative QCD calculations. A good agreement is observed. A high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) is envisaged for 2022, which implies increased radiation levels for the silicon tracking detectors. The innermost pixel layer is expected to be exposed to a 1-MeV-neutron-equivalent fluence in the order of 10

  5. Folic acid awareness and intake among women in areas with high prevalence of neural tube defects in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ziqian; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Yanping; Ma, Xi; Zhu, Jun

    2011-07-01

    To measure folic acid awareness and intake rates among women of childbearing age in certain areas of China with a high prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD). A cross-sectional survey was carried out utilising a nineteen-item questionnaire enquiring into individual women's knowledge of, attitude towards and practice of folic acid supplementation. A total of 293 low-income counties in six provinces of China. Women aged 19-44 years from six provinces with a high prevalence of NTD recruited from June to August 2008. Among 33 025 participants, 57 % had heard of folic acid but only 15 % knew all of the core information. The intake rate was 12 %; only 8 % took the recommended dose and only 4 % of non-pregnant women took folic acid. Some women did not take folic acid because they did not know that they should take it (49 %) or they had misconceptions about it (24 %). According to logistic regression analysis, rural residence was a risk factor for folic acid awareness. Ethnicity, educational level, average annual income per person and pregnancy were the influencing factors of folic acid awareness and folic acid intake. Although more than half of the respondents had heard of folic acid, the intake rate was still very low in areas with a high prevalence of NTD. Thus, more efforts are needed to increase folic acid awareness and intake among women of reproductive age in these areas.

  6. Top Quark Production Cross Section Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sectionsinproton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at centre of mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production cross section of a single top quark in association witha W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of t...

  7. Top quark production cross-section measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Massa, Lorenzo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive and differential cross-sections for top-quark pair and single top production cross sections in proton-proton collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are presented at centre-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The inclusive measurements reach high precision and are compared to the best available theoretical calculations. These measurements, including results using boosted tops, probe our understanding of top-pair production in the TeV regime. The results are compared to Monte Carlo generators implementing LO and NLO matrix elements matched with parton showers and NLO QCD calculations. For the t-channel single top measurement, the single top-quark and anti-top-quark total production cross-sections, their ratio, as well as differential cross sections are also presented. A measurement of the production crosssection of a single top quark in association with a W boson, the second largest single-top production mode, is also presented. Finally, measurements of t...

  8. Conformational ordering of biomolecules in the gas phase: nitrogen collision cross sections measured on a prototype high resolution drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jody C; Goodwin, Cody R; Lareau, Nichole M; Leaptrot, Katrina L; Morris, Caleb B; Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Mordehai, Alex; Klein, Christian; Barry, William; Darland, Ed; Overney, Gregor; Imatani, Kenneth; Stafford, George C; Fjeldsted, John C; McLean, John A

    2014-02-18

    Ion mobility-mass spectrometry measurements which describe the gas-phase scaling of molecular size and mass are of both fundamental and pragmatic utility. Fundamentally, such measurements expand our understanding of intrinsic intramolecular folding forces in the absence of solvent. Practically, reproducible transport properties, such as gas-phase collision cross-section (CCS), are analytically useful metrics for identification and characterization purposes. Here, we report 594 CCS values obtained in nitrogen drift gas on an electrostatic drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) instrument. The instrument platform is a newly developed prototype incorporating a uniform-field drift tube bracketed by electrodynamic ion funnels and coupled to a high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The CCS values reported here are of high experimental precision (±0.5% or better) and represent four chemically distinct classes of molecules (quaternary ammonium salts, lipids, peptides, and carbohydrates), which enables structural comparisons to be made between molecules of different chemical compositions for the rapid "omni-omic" characterization of complex biological samples. Comparisons made between helium and nitrogen-derived CCS measurements demonstrate that nitrogen CCS values are systematically larger than helium values; however, general separation trends between chemical classes are retained regardless of the drift gas. These results underscore that, for the highest CCS accuracy, care must be exercised when utilizing helium-derived CCS values to calibrate measurements obtained in nitrogen, as is the common practice in the field.

  9. High accuracy measurement of the $^{235}$U(n,f) reaction cross-section in the 10-30 keV neutron energy range

    CERN Multimedia

    The analysis of the neutron flux of n_TOF (in EAR1) revealed an anomaly in the 10-30 keV neutron energy range. While the flux extracted on the basis of the $^{6}$Li(n,t)$^{4}$He and $^{10}$B(n,$\\alpha$)$^{7}$Li reactions mostly agreed with each other and with the results of FLUKA simulations of the neutron beam, the one based on the $^{235}$U(n,f) reaction was found to be systematically lower, independently of the detection system used. A possible explanation is that the $^{235}$U(n,f) crosssection in that energy region, where in principle should be known with an uncertainty of 1%, may be systematically overestimated. Such a finding, which has a negligible influence on thermal reactors, would be important for future fast critical or subcritical reactors. Furthermore, its interest is more general, since the $^{235}$U(n,f) reaction is often used at that energy to determine the neutron flux, or as reference in measurements of fission cross section of other actinides. We propose to perform a high-accuracy, high-r...

  10. Behavioral and emotional problems among children aged 6-14 years on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Addis Ababa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Amare Worku; Berhane Tsehay, Yemane; Girma Belaineh, Belaineh; Alemu, Yonas Baheretibeb

    2012-01-01

    Children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at particular risk for psychological disturbance. Little is known about the mental health status of children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A hospital-based cross-sectional study of 318 children aged 6-14 on HAART in Addis Ababa was conducted. Behavioral and emotional problem was assessed using the child behavior check list (CBCL/6-18). Logistic regression analysis was done to select the best subset of predictor variables and determine their association with behavioral and emotional problems. Of the 318 caregivers of children aged 6-14 on HAART, 39.3% of the children had behavioral and emotional problems. Low family monthly income (AOR, 3.44, 95% CI, 1.89-6.25), older age (AOR, 2.27, 95% CI, 1.34-3.83), and parental loss (AOR, 1.89, 95% CI, 1.10-3.25) were found to be determinants of behavioral and emotional problems in the multivariate logistic regression. There is high prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems in children on HAART in Addis Ababa. More support is needed to children from families of low income and those who lost their parents. Further research should be carried out to enhance better understanding and appropriate response to behavioral and emotional problems.

  11. Thulium-169 neutron inelastic scattering cross section measurements via the sup 1 sup 6 sup 9 Tm(n,n'gamma) reaction 25.40.fq; Inelastic neutron scattering; Nuclear reactions 169Tm(n,n'gamma); gamma-branching ratios; Neutron inelastic level cross sections; Compound and direct nuclear interaction; Time-of-flight method; High purity Ge detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, Y J; Kegel, G H R; Desimone, D J; Seo, P N; Young, P G

    2000-01-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering from thulium-169 has been studied for states above 100 keV via the (n,n'gamma) reaction at incident energies in the 0.2- to 1.0-MeV range. A high-resolution Ge spectrometer in conjunction with the time-of-flight technique was utilized. Thirty-six gamma-ray transitions from 16 levels were observed. Gamma-ray angular distributions were measured at E sub n =750 keV and excitation functions at 125 degrees were measured in 50 keV steps over the range of incident energies. Differential gamma-ray production cross sections and gamma-ray branching ratios were obtained. Inferred neutron inelastic level cross sections of the four lowest ground-state rotational band (K suppi=1/2 sup +) members are compared to the sum of calculated compound nucleus and direct interaction cross sections. For the remaining levels, measurements are compared to compound nucleus calculations only. The comparison shows generally good agreement particularly near threshold.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls, glycaemia and diabetes in a population living in a highly polychlorinated biphenyls-polluted area in northern Italy: a cross-sectional and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods. 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS. Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases. Results. A total of 53 subjects (10.0% were diabetics: 28 had dia- betes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions. This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia.

  13. High-Mass Drell-Yan Cross-Section and Search for New Phenomena in Multi-Electron/Positron Final States with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wollstadt, Simon

    The Standard Model of particle physics is a very successful theory which describes nearly all known processes of particle physics very precisely. Nevertheless, there are several observations which cannot be explained within the existing theory. In this thesis, two analyses with high energy electrons and positrons using data of the ATLAS detector are presented. One, probing the Standard Model of particle physics and another searching for phenomena beyond the Standard Model. The production of an electron-positron pair via the Drell-Yan process leads to a very clean signature in the detector with low background contributions. This allows for a very precise measurement of the cross-section and can be used as a precision test of perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) where this process has been calculated at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). The invariant mass spectrum $m_{ee}$ is sensitive to parton distribution functions (PFDs), in particular to the poorly known distribution of antiquarks at large moment...

  14. Measurement of the inclusive e{sup {+-}}p scattering cross section at high inelasticity y and of the structure function F{sub L}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    A measurement is presented of the inclusive neutral current e{sup {+-}}p scattering cross section using data collected by the H1 experiment at HERA during the years 2003 to 2007 with proton beam energies E{sub p} of 920, 575, and 460 GeV. The kinematic range of the measurement covers low absolute four-momentum transfers squared, 1.5 GeV{sup 2} < Q{sup 2} < 120 GeV{sup 2}, small values of Bjorken x, 2.9 . 10{sup -5} < x < 0.01, and extends to high inelasticity up to y=0.85. The structure function FL is measured by combining the new results with previously published H1 data at E{sub p} = 920 GeV and E{sub p} = 820 GeV. The new measurements are used to test several phenomenological and QCD models applicable in this low Q{sup 2} and low x kinematic domain. (orig.)

  15. High prevalence of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes in adult Zoroastrians in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilzadeh, Saeedhossein; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Afrand, Mohammadhosain

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) varies among ethnic groups. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) for the first time in an ethnic population, specifically Zoroastrian citizens in Yazd, Iran whose ages were 30 or older. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, participants aged≥30 years were selected using systematic random sampling. An inventory, including socio-demographic data, was completed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard methods. Also, blood levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine (Cr), and uric acid were measured. The latest criteria established by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) were used to diagnose DM. Results: The mean age of the participants (n=403) was 56.9±12.8 years. The total prevalence of diabetes, including previously diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, IFG, and IGT was 26.1%, 18.6%, 7.5%, 34.7% and 25.8%, respectively. Participants with diabetes had higher fasting blood sugar (FBS) (PZoroastrian population of Yazd, Iran. One-third of the total cases with diabetes were undiagnosed. PMID:26052411

  16. Assessment of periodontal status of the patients with dental fluorosis in area with natural high levels of fluoride: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Sukumar Vora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental fluorosis exhibits as enamel mottling, surface irregularities, leading to plaque accumulation and periodontal diseases. It may cause failure of cemental resorption leading to hypercementosis and causes osteonecrosis of alveolar bone leading to reduced bone height. The study is conducted in Raichur, being known as one of the highest fluoride containing area in Karnataka with level of fluoride in drinking water approximately 3.5-5.5 ppm. This is an effort to find an association between dental fluorosis and periodontal diseases. Aims: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of severity of dental fluorosis on the periodontal status in the patients assessed. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional, epidemiological survey was carried out at rural parts of Raichur. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eleven subjects with dental fluorosis were selected for the study with age range of 15-45 years. Assessment of dental fluorosis and periodontal status was done by Dean′s Community Fluorosis Index (DCFI and Ramfjord′s Periodontal Index (RPI, respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance (ANOVA test, chi-square test, and Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results: A statistically significant relation was found between severity of dental fluorosis and severity of periodontal diseases (Spearman′s correlation coefficient 0.88, significant. Discussion: Dental fluorosis may have significant effect on periodontal condition. But, further studies on the periodontal status of subjects from naturally high water fluoride regions from different parts of India are essential.

  17. Measurement of K+ production cross section by 8 GeV protons using high energy neutrino interactions in the SciBooNE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, G

    2011-01-01

    The SciBooNE Collaboration reports K+ production cross section and rate measurements using high energy daughter muon neutrino scattering data off the SciBar polystyrene (C8H8) target in the SciBooNE detector. The K+ mesons are produced by 8 GeV protons striking a beryllium target in Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam line (BNB). Using observed neutrino and antineutrino events in SciBooNE, we measure d2{\\sigma}/dpd{\\Omega} = (5.34 \\times 0.76) mb/(GeV/c \\times sr) for p + Be -> K+ + X at mean K+ energy of 3.9 GeV and angle (with respect to the proton beam direction) of 3.7 degrees, corresponding to the selected K+ sample. Compared to Monte Carlo predictions using previous higher energy K+ production measurements, this measurement, which uses the NUANCE neutrino interaction generator, is consistent with a normalization factor of 0.85\\times0.12. This agreement is evidence that the extrapolation of the higher energy K+ measurements to an 8 GeV beam energy using Feynman scaling is valid. This measurement reduces the e...

  18. 3-D conformal treatment of prostate cancer to 74 Gy vs. high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost: A cross-sectional quality-of-life survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vordermark, Dirk [Univ. of Wuerzburg (DE). Dept. of Radiation Oncology] (and others)

    2006-09-15

    The effects of two modalities of dose-escalated radiotherapy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were compared. Forty-one consecutive patients were treated with a 3-D conformal (3-DC) boost to 74 Gy, and 43 with high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost (2x9 Gy), following 3-D conformal treatment to 46 Gy. Median age was 70 years in both groups, median initial PSA was 7.9 {mu}g/l in 3-DC boost patients and 8.1 {mu}g/l in HDR boost patients. Stage was 7 in 52% and 47%, respectively. HRQOL was assessed cross-sectionally using EORTC QLQ-C30 and organ-specific PR25 modules 3-32 (median 19) and 4-25 (median 14) months after treatment, respectively. Questionnaires were completed by 93% and 97% of patients, respectively. Diarrhea and insomnia scores were significantly increased in both groups. In the PR25 module, scores of 3-DC boost and HDR boost patients for urinary, bowel and treatment-related symptoms were similar. Among responders, 34% of 3-DC boost patients and 86% of HDR boost patients had severe erectile problems. Dose escalation in prostate cancer by either 3-DC boost to 74 Gy or HDR brachytherapy boost appears to result in similar HRQOL profiles.

  19. Magnitude and determinants of nonadherence and nonreadiness to highly active antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross - sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulu Andargachew

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate antiretroviral drug potency is essential for obtaining therapeutic benefit, however, the behavioral aspects of proper adherence and readiness to medication, often determine therapeutic outcome. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the level and determinants of nonadherence and nonreadiness to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA at Gondar University Teaching Hospital and Felege Hiwot Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and September 2008 using structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. All consecutive adult outpatients who were receiving antiretroviral treatment for at least three months, seen at both hospitals during the study period and able to give informed consent were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with nonadherence and nonreadiness. Results A total of 504 study subjects were included in this study. The prevalence rates of nonadherence and nonreadiness to HAART were 87 (17.3% and 70 (13.9% respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that medication adverse effects, nonreadiness to HAART, contact with psychiatric care service and having no goal had statistically significant association with nonadherence. Moreover, unwillingness to disclose HIV status was significantly associated with nonreadiness to HAART. Conclusions In this study the level of nonadherence and nonreadiness to HAART seems to be encouraging. Several factors associated with nonadherance and nonreadiness to HAART were identified. Efforts to minimize nonadherence and nonreadiness to HAART should be integrated in to regular clinical follow up of patients.

  20. Investigation of deuterium cross section data by integral testing: ZED-2 measurements of high-enriched uranium fuel substituted into a natural uranium core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atfield, J.E.; Kozier, K.S.; Roubtsov, D.; Zeller, M.B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Historical ZED-2 measurements of an HEU fuel rod substituted into a lattice of NU rods were analysed to determine their reactivity sensitivity to differences between the neutron elastic scattering cross-sections of deuterium from different evaluated nuclear data libraries. The differences in the deuterium nuclear data concern the angular probability distribution at neutron energies below 3.2 MeV. These ZED-2 experiments were selected due to the presence of HEU fuel in D{sub 2}O, since analyses of other critical experiments involving solutions of HEU fluoride in D{sub 2}O show substantial sensitivity (~10 mk) to these differences in the deuterium nuclear data. This analysis shows that the existing ZED-2 HEU experiments are insufficiently sensitive to resolve the discrepancy between the different deuterium data libraries. Further analysis of hypothetical configurations with high sensitivity shows that the sensitivity to the angular probability distribution of deuterium is strongly correlated with the leakage of fast neutrons, and it is recommended that further experiments to address this deuterium nuclear data issue be designed/evaluated to maximize this quantity. (author)

  1. Crystalluria in HIV/AIDS patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy in the Kumasi metropolis; a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. D. Ephraim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crystalluria is associated with some highly active anti-retroviral therapies (HAART′s used in the management of HIV/AIDS. Aims: This study used light microscopy to establish the prevalence of crystalluria among HIV/AIDS patients on HAART and identified the routine crystals present in their urine. Materials and Methods: In this simple randomised cross-sectional study, 200 HIV/AIDS participants, comprising 150 on HAART and 50 HAART-naοve were recruited from the HIV clinic at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH. Urine and blood samples were collected, for urinalysis and the determination of the CD4 count, respectively. A well-structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic data and clinical history of the participants. Results: The prevalence of crystalluria was higher among HIV-infected persons on HAART than those not on HAART (6.7% vs 4%; P = 0.733. Calcium oxalate and triple phosphate crystals were the crystal types present in their urine (3.5% and 2.5%, respectively and was present only in HIV subjects on first line of treatment (without protease inhibitors. Participants aged between 40-50 years and those with hypersthenuria and acidic urine had the highest amount of crystalluria (41.6%, 83.3%, and 58.3%, respectively. Conclusion: HAART is associated with crystalluria in HIV patients. Light microscopy will be of disgnostic value in resource limited settings.

  2. Excited-state dynamics and two-photon absorption cross sections of fluorescent diphenyl-tin(IV) derivatives with schiff bases: a comparative study of the effect of chelation from the ultrafast to the steady-state time scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugazagoitia, Jimena S; Maya, Mauricio; Damián-Zea, Carlos; Navarro, Pedro; Beltrán, Hiram I; Peon, Jorge

    2010-01-21

    Schiff bases bearing an intramolecular hydrogen bond are known to undergo excited-state intramolecular proton transfer and E-Z isomerization, which are related to their thermochromism and solvatochromism properties. In this study, we explored these ultrafast photoinduced processes for two doubly hydroxylated Schiff bases, salicylidene-2-aminophenol and 2-hydroxynaphthylmethylidene-2-aminophenol. From comparisons with our previously reported results for the parent monohidroxylated Schiff base salicylideneaniline, we were able to establish the lack of an effect of a second intramolecular hydrogen bond in the excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer process. Moreover, we synthesized and studied the photophysics of 14 diphenyl-tin(IV) derivatives with Schiff bases with the same framework as the former two. In these organometallic compounds, we observed an increase of more than 50 times in the excited-state decay times in comparison with those of the free ligands. This finding is attributed to the coordination with the metallic center, which restricts the fluctuations of the geometry of the organic Schiff base skeleton. The emission bands of these complexes can be easily tuned through substitutions at the Schiff base ligand and can be made to be centered well above 600 nm. The much enhanced emissive behavior of all diphenyl-tin(IV) derivatives allowed the study of several properties of their electronically excited states, including the effects of different substituents on their femtosecond and picosecond dynamics. Considering potential applications, we also performed transient absorption experiments to assess the wavelength interval for stimulated emission of this type of compound. Finally, we determined their two-photon absorption cross sections in the 760-820-nm range by measuring their two-photon induced fluorescence excitation spectra. Mainly, our results illustrate that the diphenyl-tin(IV) moiety, thanks to its size and its coordination mode with a single

  3. Total and partial photoneutron cross sections for Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Daoutidis, I.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Okamoto, A.; Yamagata, T.; Kamata, M.; Itoh, O.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2012-07-01

    Using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ rays, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 206,207,208Pb near neutron threshold with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. Partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission with linearly polarized γ rays. The E1 strength dominates over the M1 strength in the neutron channel where E1 photoneutron cross sections show extra strength of the pygmy dipole resonance in 207,208Pb near the neutron threshold corresponding to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to an M1 cross section less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross section.

  4. Partial Photoneutron Cross Sections for 207,208Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Using linearly-polarized laser-Compton scattering γ-rays, partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near neutron threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission. Separately, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 207,208Pb with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. The partial cross section measurement provides direct evidence for the presence of pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in 207,208Pb in the vicinity of neutron threshold. The strength of PDR amounts to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to M1 cross sections less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross sections.

  5. Gazpacho consumption is associated with lower blood pressure and reduced hypertension in a high cardiovascular risk cohort. Cross-sectional study of the PREDIMED trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Remón, A; Vallverdú-Queralt, A; Arranz, S; Ros, E; Martínez-González, M A; Sacanella, E; Covas, M I; Corella, D; Salas-Salvadó, J; Gómez-Gracia, E; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V; Lapetra, J; García-Valdueza, M; Arós, F; Saez, G T; Serra-Majem, L; Pinto, X; Vinyoles, E; Estruch, R; Lamuela-Raventos, R M

    2013-10-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem and a leading cause of death and disability in both developed and developing countries, affecting one-quarter of the world's adult population. Our aim was to evaluate whether the consumption of gazpacho, a Mediterranean vegetable-based cold soup rich in phytochemicals, is associated with lower blood pressure (BP) and/or reduced prevalence of hypertension in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. We selected 3995 individuals (58% women, mean age 67 y) at high cardiovascular risk (81% hypertensive) recruited into the PREDIMED study. BP, weight, and dietary and physical activity data were collected. In multivariate linear regression analyses, after adjustment, moderate and high gazpacho consumption categories were associated with reduced mean systolic BP of -1.9 mm Hg [95% confidence interval (CI): -3.4; -0.6] and -2.6 mm Hg (CI: -4.2; -1.0), respectively, and reduced diastolic BP of -1.5 mm Hg (CI: -2.3; -0.6) and -1.9 mm Hg (CI: -2.8; -1.1). By multiple-adjusted logistic regression analysis, gazpacho consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension, with OR = 0.85 (CI: 0.73; 0.99) for each 250 g/week increase and OR = 0.73 (CI: 0.55; 0.98) for high gazpacho consumption groups compared to the no-consumption group. Gazpacho consumption was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP and prevalence of hypertension in a cross-sectional Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. The association between gazpacho intake and reduction of BP is probably due to synergy among several bioactive compounds present in the vegetable ingredients used to make the recipe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vascular and metabolic comorbidities in open-angle glaucoma with low- and high-teen intraocular pressure: a cross-sectional study from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyung; Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Wonseok; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2017-07-05

    To assess the associations between vascular and metabolic comorbidities and the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) in Korea. Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2012 were analysed. Participants diagnosed with OAG with normal IOP were further classified into low-teen IOP (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen IOP (15 mmHg teen IOP groups. The prevalences of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and metabolic syndrome were significantly higher among subjects with low-teen OAG compared with normal subjects, while only the prevalences of hypertension and stroke were higher among subjects with high-teen OAG compared with normal subjects. In multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for confounding factors, low-teen OAG was significantly associated with hypertension (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.30-2.18), hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.07-2.08), ischaemic heart disease (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.07-3.11), stroke (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.12-3.25) and metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.12-1.90). High-teen OAG was only associated with stroke (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.20-5.53). Various vascular and metabolic comorbidities were significantly associated with low-teen OAG, but not with high-teen OAG. These data support the hypothesis that vascular factors play a more significant role in the pathogenesis of OAG with low-teen baseline IOP. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Leptin status in adolescence is associated with academic performance in high school: a cross-sectional study in a Chilean birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Castillo, Marcela; Peirano, Patricio; Algarín, Cecilia; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila; Burrows, Raquel

    2016-10-18

    Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone associated with learning and memory via brain receptors. However, elevated plasma leptin levels may impair cognitive and memory functions. Since individual differences in memory performance affect students' ability to learn, we aimed to study the relation between leptin status in adolescence and school performance. We studied 568 adolescents aged 16-17 years from Santiago. A cross-sectional analysis was carried out on a birth cohort conducted in Santiago (Chile). We measured serum leptin concentration using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cut-offs from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study for 16-year-olds were used to define abnormally high leptin levels (hyperleptinaemia). Academic performance was measured using high-school grades and grade point average (GPA). Data were collected in 2009-2012; data analysis was performed in 2014. 15% of participants had hyperleptinaemia. They had significantly lower school grades and GPA compared with participants with normal leptin levels (eg, GPA mean difference=33.8 points). Leptin levels were negative and significantly correlated with school grades in 9th, 10th and 12th. Similarly, it was negatively correlated with high-school GPA. After controlling for health, sociodemographic and education confounders, the chances of having a performance ≥75th centile in students having hyperleptinaemia were 32% (95% CI 0.19% to 0.89%) that of students having normal serum leptin concentration. In high school students, abnormally high levels of leptin were associated with poorer academic performance. These findings support the idea of a relationship between leptin and cognition. Further research is needed on the cognitive effects of leptin in younger populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Total cross sections for electron capture and transfer ionization by highly stripped, slow Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe projectiles on helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justiniano, E.; Cocke, C.L.; Gray, T.J.; Dubois, R.; Can, C.; Waggoner, W.; Schuch, R.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Ingwersen, H.

    1984-03-01

    Experimental cross sections are reported for electron capture and transfer ionization for Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe projectiles on He for charge states (q) between 2 and 13 and for projectile energies between (250 and 1000 eV)q. The double-electron capture is found to be typically an order of magnitude weaker than single-electron capture, and to be dominated in most cases by the transfer ionization channel. While gross features of the cross sections can be qualitatively understood, quantitative agreement with available theoretical model calculations is poor.

  9. High Sodium Intake Is Associated With Self-Reported Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cross Sectional and Case Control Analysis Within the SUN Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Eva; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; de Irala, Jokin; Carmona, Loreto; Gómez-Reino, Juan J

    2015-09-01

    Sodium intake is a potential environmental factor for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of sodium intake with rheumatoid arthritis. We performed a cross-sectional study nested in a highly educated cohort investigating dietary habits as determinants of disease. Daily sodium intake in grams per day was estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire. We identified prevalent self-reported cases of rheumatoid arthritis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio for rheumatoid arthritis by sodium intake adjusting for confounders. Linear trend tests and interactions between variables were explored. Sensitivity analyses included age- and sex-matched case-control study, logistic multivariate model adjusted by residuals, and analysis excluding individuals with prevalent diabetes or cardiovascular disease. The effective sample size was 18,555 individuals (mean age 38-years old, 60% women) including 392 self-reported rheumatoid arthritis. Median daily sodium intake (estimated from foods plus added salt) was 3.47 (P25-75: 2.63-4.55) grams. Total sodium intake in the fourth quartile showed a significant association with rheumatoid arthritis (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.1, P for trend = 0.02). Never smokers with high sodium intake had higher association than ever smokers with high sodium intake (P for interaction = 0.007). Dose-dependent association was replicated in the case-control study. High sodium intake may be associated with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. This confirms previous clinical and experimental research.

  10. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiar Pedro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4 in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8 in females (p Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change.

  11. Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, J.A.; Ganapol, B.D.; Morel, J.E.

    1999-09-27

    A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented.

  12. Single boson production and differential cross section measurements in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Debenedetti, Chiara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High-precision measurements of the Drell-Yan production allow to extract information on different aspects contributing to the process, such as parton distribution functions (PDFs), and to compare with the current precision reached theoretically on the calculations of the cross sections of such process. This document describes ATLAS measurements, performed at different centre of mass energies of vector boson (W and Z) cross sections and cross-section ratios, and ratios of Z-boson and top-quark pair production cross sections, obtaining important information on the proton PDFs.

  13. The Effect of High Intensity Interval Run Training on Cross-sectional Area of the Vastus Lateralis in Untrained College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESTES, REBEKAH R.; MALINOWSKI, AMY; PIACENTINI, MEREDITH; THRUSH, DAVID; SALLEY, ERIC; LOSEY, CASSIDY; HAYES, ERIK

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic cycling has been repeatedly shown to induce hypertrophy in skeletal muscle across a variety of populations, while there has been a lack of investigation into the impact of running upon hypertrophy. An increasingly popular model of aerobic exercise is high-intensity interval training (HIIT); in addition to its positive impact upon cardiovascular health, HIIT may be sufficient for inducing significant muscular hypertrophy. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of a high-intensity interval running protocol upon hypertrophy of the vastus lateralis in an untrained, young population. Twelve recreationally active university students (Male: 2; Female: 10; 19.9±0.5 yr.; 169.8±1.9 cm; 63.8±2.3 kg; VO2max: 42.1±1.6 ml•kg−1min−1) completed 24.5±0.6 sessions of high-intensity interval run training over 10 weeks. The protocol consisted of four sets of 4 minutes running at 90–95% HRmax followed by 3 minutes active rest at 70% HRmax. Relative and absolute aerobic capacity increased 5.2±2.2% and 6.0±2.3% respectively as a result of the intervention (p< 0.05). Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vastus lateralis was measured via panoramic ultrasound imaging pre- and post-intervention. Following the protocol, CSA of the intervention group was 10.6±2.7% greater (p< 0.05), while that of the control group did not change. This is the first data to demonstrate hypertrophy of the vastus lateralis in a young population following a running protocol. These data support the existing body of evidence suggesting aerobic exercise to be an effective mode of improving cardiorespiratory fitness as well as increasing whole muscle size of the quadriceps. PMID:28479954

  14. Prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure among people working with sound systems and general population in Brazil: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevisani Virgínia FM

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Music is ever present in our daily lives, establishing a link between humans and the arts through the senses and pleasure. Sound technicians are the link between musicians and audiences or consumers. Recently, general concern has arisen regarding occurrences of hearing loss induced by noise from excessively amplified sound-producing activities within leisure and professional environments. Sound technicians' activities expose them to the risk of hearing loss, and consequently put at risk their quality of life, the quality of the musical product and consumers' hearing. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure among sound technicians in Brazil and compare this with a control group without occupational noise exposure. Methods This was a cross-sectional study comparing 177 participants in two groups: 82 sound technicians and 95 controls (non-sound technicians. A questionnaire on music listening habits and associated complaints was applied, and data were gathered regarding the professionals' numbers of working hours per day and both groups' hearing complaint and presence of tinnitus. The participants' ear canals were visually inspected using an otoscope. Hearing assessments were performed (tonal and speech audiometry using a portable digital AD 229 E audiometer funded by FAPESP. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the sound technicians and controls regarding age and gender. Thus, the study sample was homogenous and would be unlikely to lead to bias in the results. A statistically significant difference in hearing loss was observed between the groups: 50% among the sound technicians and 10.5% among the controls. The difference could be addressed to high sound levels. Conclusion The sound technicians presented a higher prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure than did the general population, although

  15. Prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure among people working with sound systems and general population in Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Dib, Regina P; Silva, Edina M K; Morais, José F; Trevisani, Virgínia F M

    2008-05-07

    Music is ever present in our daily lives, establishing a link between humans and the arts through the senses and pleasure. Sound technicians are the link between musicians and audiences or consumers. Recently, general concern has arisen regarding occurrences of hearing loss induced by noise from excessively amplified sound-producing activities within leisure and professional environments. Sound technicians' activities expose them to the risk of hearing loss, and consequently put at risk their quality of life, the quality of the musical product and consumers' hearing. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure among sound technicians in Brazil and compare this with a control group without occupational noise exposure. This was a cross-sectional study comparing 177 participants in two groups: 82 sound technicians and 95 controls (non-sound technicians). A questionnaire on music listening habits and associated complaints was applied, and data were gathered regarding the professionals' numbers of working hours per day and both groups' hearing complaint and presence of tinnitus. The participants' ear canals were visually inspected using an otoscope. Hearing assessments were performed (tonal and speech audiometry) using a portable digital AD 229 E audiometer funded by FAPESP. There was no statistically significant difference between the sound technicians and controls regarding age and gender. Thus, the study sample was homogenous and would be unlikely to lead to bias in the results. A statistically significant difference in hearing loss was observed between the groups: 50% among the sound technicians and 10.5% among the controls. The difference could be addressed to high sound levels. The sound technicians presented a higher prevalence of high frequency hearing loss consistent with noise exposure than did the general population, although the possibility of residual confounding due to unmeasured factors

  16. The Influence of Social Capital Domains on Self-Rated Health Among Serbian High-School Students? A School-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Novak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Social capital has been shown as a positive asset for improving overall health in children and youth. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine the associations between family, neighborhood and school social capital with self-rated health among Serbian high-school students. This cross-sectional study on 1220 high-school students (539 males and 681 females was carried out in the school year 2015/2016. Main outcome was defined as self-rated health, measured by one question: "How would you rate your health?" with five possible answers: (1 very poor; (2 poor, (3 fair, (4 good and (5 excellent. We binarised the outcome, where answers "very poor", "poor" and "fair" represented "poor health" and "good" and "excellent" "good health". Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the associations between social capital domains and self-rated health. Adjusted by gender, body-mass index, self-perceived socioeconomic status, psychological distress and physical activity, good self-rated health was positively associated only with high family social capital (OR 2.29; 95% CI 1.62 to 3.24. When all the social capital variables were entered simultaneously, self-rated health remained associated with family social capital (OR 2.28; 95% CI 1.61 to 3.24. Family social capital was the only domain strongly associated with self-rated health. Since neighborhood and school social capital represent key support and empathy for children and youth, neighborhood and school-based strategies and policies should be implemented within the system to increase overall physical and mental health.

  17. Propionaldehyde infrared cross-sections and band strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köroğlu, Batikan; Loparo, Zachary; Nath, Janardan; Peale, Robert E.; Vasu, Subith S.

    2015-02-01

    The use of oxygenated biofuels reduces the greenhouse gas emissions; however, they also result in increased toxic aldehyde by-products, mainly formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and propionaldehyde. These aldehydes are carcinogenic and/or toxic and therefore it is important to understand their formation and destruction pathways in combustion and atmospheric systems. Accurate information about their infrared cross-sections and integrated strengths are crucially needed for development of quantitative detection schemes and modeling tools. Critical to the development of such diagnostics are accurate characterization of the absorption features of these species. In this study, the gas phase infrared spectra of propionaldehyde (also called propanal, CH3-CH2-CHO), a saturated three carbon aldehyde found in the exhaust emissions of biodiesel or diesel fuels, was studied using high resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy over the wavenumber range of 750-3300 cm-1 and at room temperature 295 K. The absorption cross sections of propionaldehyde were recorded at resolutions of 0.08 and 0.096 cm-1 and at seven different pressures (4-33 Torr). The calculated band-strengths were reported and the integrated band intensity results were compared with values taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) database (showing less than 2% discrepancy). The peak positions of the 19 different vibrational bands of propionaldehyde were also compared with previous studies taken at a lower resolution of 1 cm-1. To the best of our knowledge, the current FTIR measurements provide the first highest resolution infrared cross section data for propionaldehyde.

  18. Measurement of the differential cross section of highly boosted top quarks as a function of their transverse momentum in $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV proton-proton collisions using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Federica; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of the $t\\bar{t}$ differential cross section for high $p_T$ top quarks as a function of their transverse momentum using a sample of 20.3 $fb^{-1}$, collected in pp collisions from the ATLAS detector is presented. The techniques used in the analysis to reconstruct and identify the hadronic top quark with high Lorentz boost increase the detection efficiency and allow to extend the measurement in the TeV region. The observed yield is corrected for detector effects and the differential cross section obtained is compared with several theoretical predictions both in a fiducial region than extrapolated to the full phase space.

  19. Measurement of the integrated and differential t-tbar production cross sections for high-pt top quarks in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2016-04-30

    The cross section for pair production of top quarks (t-tbar) with high transverse momenta is measured in pp collisions, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC with sqrt(s) = 8 TeV in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 inverse-femtobarns. The measurement is performed using lepton+jets events, where one top quark decays semileptonically, while the second top quark decays to a hadronic final state. The hadronic decay is reconstructed as a single, large-radius jet, and identified as a top quark candidate using jet substructure techniques. The integrated cross section and the differential cross sections as a function of top quark pt and rapidity are measured at particle level within a fiducial region related to the detector-level requirements and at parton level. The particle-level integrated cross section is found to be sigma[t-tbar] = 0.499 +/- 0.035 (stat+syst) +/- 0.095 (theory) +/- 0.013 (lumi) pb for top quark pt > 400 GeV. The parton-level measurement is sigma[t-tbar] = 1.44 +/- 0.10 (stat+syst) +/- 0.29 (theory) +/- 0.04 (lumi) pb. The integrated and differential cross section results are compared to predictions from several event generators.

  20. Measurement of the integrated and differential t t ¯ production cross sections for high-pT top quarks in p p collisions at √{s }=8 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Schöfbeck, R.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; De Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Ferencek, D.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahrous, A.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Perrini, L.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Popov, A.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schomakers, C.; Schulte, J. F.; Schulz, J.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Beernaert, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Borras, K.; Campbell, A.; Connor, P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Grados Luyando, J. M.; Gunnellini, P.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Lelek, A.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Ntomari, E.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Stefaniuk, N.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Dreyer, T.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Niedziela, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Stober, F. M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Schröder, M.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Filipovic, N.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Choudhury, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Nayak, A.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Keshri, S.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Ghosh, S.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nandan, S.; Purohit, A.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Jain, Sa.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Kapoor, A.; Kothekar, K.; Rane, A.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Pigazzini, S.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellato, M.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; De Castro Manzano, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Fantinel, S.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Ventura, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Leonardi, R.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bartosik, N.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; La Licata, C.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. W.; Oh, Y. D.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Song, S.; Cho, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Zolkapli, Z.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Mejia Guisao, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shoaib, M.; Waqas, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Traczyk, P.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Hollar, J.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Bunin, P.; Golutvin, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Korenkov, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Mitsyn, V. V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Tikhonenko, E.; Voytishin, N.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Toms, M.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Chadeeva, M.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovskii, E.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. 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P.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. 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    2016-10-01

    The cross section for pair production of top quarks (t t ¯ ) with high transverse momenta is measured in p p collisions, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC with √{s }=8 TeV in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1 . The measurement is performed using lepton +jets events, where one top quark decays semileptonically, while the second top quark decays to a hadronic final state. The hadronic decay is reconstructed as a single, large-radius jet, and identified as a top quark candidate using jet substructure techniques. The integrated cross section and the differential cross sections as a function of top quark pT and rapidity are measured at particle level within a fiducial region related to the detector-level requirements and at parton level. The particle-level integrated cross section is found to be σt t ¯=0.499 ±0.035 (stat +syst )±0.095 (theo ) ±0.013 (lumi ) pb for top quark pT>400 GeV . The parton-level measurement is σt t ¯=1.44 ±0.10 (stat +syst )±0.29 (theo ) ±0.04 (lumi ) pb . The integrated and differential cross section results are compared to predictions from several event generators.

  1. Measurement of the differential cross-section of highly boosted top quarks as a function of their transverse momentum in $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV proton--proton collisions using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The differential cross-section for pair production of top quarks with high transverse momentum is measured in 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of proton--proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The measurement is performed for $t\\bar{t}$ events in the lepton+jets channel. The cross-section is reported as a function of the hadronically decaying top quark transverse momentum for values above 300 GeV. The hadronically decaying top quark is reconstructed as an anti-$k_t$ jet with radius parameter $R=1.0$ and identified with jet substructure techniques. The observed yield is corrected for detector effects to obtain a cross-section at particle level in a fiducial region close to the event selection. A parton-level cross-section extrapolated to the full phase space is also reported for top quarks with transverse momentum above 300 GeV. The predictions of a majority of next-to-leading-order and leading-order matrix-element Monte Carlo generators are found to agree with the measured cross-sections.

  2. Is Walk Score associated with hospital admissions from chronic diseases? Evidence from a cross-sectional study in a high socioeconomic status Australian city-state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Soumya; Learnihan, Vincent; Cochrane, Thomas; Phung, Hai; O'Connor, Bridget; Davey, Rachel

    2016-12-08

    To explore patterns of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT).To ascertain the effect of the neighbourhood built environmental features and especially walkability on health outcomes, specifically for hospital admissions from NCDs. A cross-sectional analysis of public hospital episode data (2007-2013). Hospitalisations from the ACT, Australia at very small geographic areas. Secondary data on 75 290 unique hospital episodes representing 39 851 patients who were admitted to ACT hospitals from 2007 to 2013. No restrictions on age, sex or ethnicity. Geographic Information System derived or compatible measures of general practitioner access, neighbourhood socioeconomic status, alcohol access, exposure to traffic and Walk Score walkability. Hospitalisations of circulatory diseases, specific endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, respiratory diseases and specific cancers. Geographic clusters with significant high and low risks of NCDs were found that displayed an overall geographic pattern of high risk in the outlying suburbs of the territory. Significant relationships between neighbourhood walkability as measured by Walk Score and the likelihood of hospitalisation with a primary diagnosis of myocardial infarction (heart attack) were found. A possible relationship was also found with the likelihood of being hospitalised with 4 major lifestyle-related cancers. Our research augments the growing literature underscoring the relationships between the built environment and health outcomes. In addition, it supports the importance of walkable neighbourhoods, as measured by Walk Score, for improved health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Adolescent-parent communication on sexual and reproductive health issues among high school students in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, Mulatuwa; Mengistie, Bezatu; Semahegn, Agumasie

    2014-11-07

    Sexual and reproductive health communications are most likely promoting healthy sexual development and reduce sexual risks. Communication is the principal means for parents to transmit sexual values, beliefs, expectations and knowledge to their adolescents. However, there is a paucity of evidence about adolescent parent communication in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine adolescent-parent communication on sexual and reproductive health issues and associated factors among high school students in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Institution based cross sectional study was conducted among high school students in Dire Dawa administrative council from February to March 2011. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 695 students from 9-12 grades. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussion separately for female and male parents. Data were entered in Epi info version 3.5.1 and analyzed by SPSS version 16.1. Logistic regression with OR and 95% confidence interval was used to identify the independent predictors of adolescent parent communication. Thirty seven percent of students had ever discussed on at least two sexual and reproductive health topics with their parents. Of which, majority of student preferred to discuss with their peers than parent. Condom use during first intercourse was associated with having communication about sexual and reproductive health [AOR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.8]. Cultural taboo, shame and lack of communication skill were reasons that hinder communication between parent and adolescent about sexual matters. Communication on sexual and reproductive health issue between adolescent and their parent was low. School based education is important to improve adolescent parent communication about sexual and reproductive health issues.

  4. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} charged current deep inelastic scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised positron beam at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics; Max-Planck-Inst., Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2010-08-15

    Measurements of the cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering in e{sup +}p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam are presented. The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 132 pb{sup -1} collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The total cross section is presented at positive and negative values of the longitudinal polarisation of the positron beams. The single-differential cross sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy are presented for Q{sup 2}>200 GeV{sup 2}. The reduced cross-section {sigma} is presented in the kinematic range 200

  5. Measurement of high-Q (2) charged current deep inelastic scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised positron beam at HERA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bokhonov, V.; Bold, T.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Boutle, S. K.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Bruemmer, N.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bussey, P. J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Bylsma, B.; Caldwell, A.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Chekanov, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; D'Agostini, G.; Dal Corso, F.; del Peso, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; De Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Dobur, D.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dolinska, G.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Fazio, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Forrest, M.; Foster, B.; Fourletov, S.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Geiser, A.; Gialas, I.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Goettlicher, P.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Hilger, E.; Hochman, D.; Hori, R.; Horton, K.; Huettmann, A.; Iacobucci, G.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jakob, H. -P.; Januschek, F.; Jimenez, M.; Jones, T. W.; Juengst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kamaluddin, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, U.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kotanski, A.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kulinski, P.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Lee, A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Loehr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Loizides, J. H.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Luzniak, P.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Mastroberardino, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Idris, F. Mohamad; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Nicholass, D.; Nigro, A.; Ning, Y.; Noor, U.; Notz, D.; Nowak, R. J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Oliver, K.; Olkiewicz, K.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Ota, O.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Plucinski, P.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polini, A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycien, M.; Raval, A.; Reeder, D. D.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y. D.; Robertson, A.; Roloff, P.; Ron, E.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Salii, A.; Samson, U.; Sartorelli, G.; Savin, A. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoenberg, V.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Slominski, W.; Smith, W. H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Son, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stopa, P.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A. D.; Tassi, E.; Terron, J.; Theedt, T.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomalak, O.; Tomaszewska, J.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Vazquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N. N.; Volynets, O.; Walczak, R.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Whitmore, J. J.; Whyte, J.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Yaguees-Molina, A. G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zichichi, A.; Zolko, M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Zulkapli, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of the cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering in e (+) p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam are presented. The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 132 pb(-1) collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at a ce

  6. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} charged current cross sections in e{sup +}p deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautenberg, J.

    2004-06-01

    Cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering have been measured in e{sup +}p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA in the running periods 1999 and 2000 correspond to an integrated luminosity of 61 pb{sup -1}. Single differential cross sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy have been measured for Q{sup 2}>200 GeV{sup 2}, as well as the double differential reduced cross section d{sup 2}{sigma}/dxdQ{sup 2} in the kinematic range 280 GeV{sup 2}cross sections. The helicity structure is investigated in particular. The mass of the space-like W boson propagator has been determined from a fit to d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}. (orig.)

  7. Total, inelastic and (quasi-)elastic cross sections of high energy pA and gamma-A reactions with the dipole formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafson, Gosta; Ster, Andras; Corgo, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the initial partonic state in proton-nucleus and electron-nucleus collisions, we investigate the total, inelastic, and (quasi-)elastic cross sections in pA and gamma-A collisions, as these observables are insensitive to possible collective effects in the final state interactions. We used as a tool the DIPSY dipole model, which is based on BFKL dynamics including non-leading effects, saturation, and colour interference, which we have extended to describe collisions of protons and virtual photons with nuclei. We present results for collisions with O, Cu, and Pb nuclei, and reproduce preliminary data on the pPb inelastic cross section at LHC by CMS and LHCb. The large NN cross section results in pA scattering that scales approximately with the area. The results are compared with conventional Glauber model calculations, and we note that the more subtle dynamical effects are more easily studied in the ratios between the total, inelastic and (quasi-)elastic cross sections. The smaller photon ...

  8. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} charged current deep inelastic scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised positron beam at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Stern, A. [Tel Aviv University, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics, Tel Aviv (Israel); Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Reisert, B.; Schmidke, W.B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L.; Bold, T.; Gach, G.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Kisielewska, D.; Przybycien, M.; Suszycki, L. [AGH-University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Cracow (Poland); Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Tymieniecka, T. [Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Aggarwal, R.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I. [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (India); Antonelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bindi, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; De Pasquale, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A. [University Bologna (Italy); INFN Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cindolo, F.; Corradi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A. [INFN Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M. [Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Novara (Italy); INFN, Torino (Italy); Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bokhonov, V.; Dolinska, G.; Gogota, O.; Kadenko, I.; Korol, I.; Kuprash, O.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Salii, A.; Tomalak, O.; Viazlo, O.; Volynets, O.; Zenaiev, O.; Zhmak, N.; Zolko, M. [National Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research, Kiev (Ukraine); Kiev National University, Kiev (Ukraine); Bachynska, O.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Blohm, C.; Borras, K.; Bot, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Fang, S.; Geiser, A.; Goettlicher, P.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Huettmann, A.; Januschek, F.; Kahle, B.; Katkov, I.I.; Klein, U. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany)] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    Measurements of the cross sections for charged current deep inelastic scattering in e {sup +} p collisions with a longitudinally polarised positron beam are presented. The measurements are based on a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 132 pb{sup -1} collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The total cross section is presented at positive and negative values of the longitudinal polarisation of the positron beams. The single-differential cross-sections d{sigma}/dQ {sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy are presented for Q{sup 2}>200 GeV{sup 2}. The reduced cross-section {sigma} is presented in the kinematic range 200

  9. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  10. High prevalence of self-reported symptoms of digital ischemia in elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Daan; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Langenhorst, Ton; Maas, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In the past 3 years, 6 volleyball players with ischemic digits and small microemboli in the digital arteries of the dominant hand presented themselves in our hospital. These complaints were caused by an aneurysmatic dilation of the posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) with distal occlusion and digital emboli in the isolateral limb. All were elite male volleyball players active in the national top league. Little is known about the exact symptoms associated with PCHA pathological lesions with digital emboli (PCHAP with DE) and its prevalence in elite volleyball players. If vascular injury can be identified at an early stage, thromboembolic complications and irreversible damage to the digits might be prevented. To assess the prevalence of symptoms that are consistent with digital ischemia and may be caused by PCHAP with DE in elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A questionnaire survey was performed among elite volleyball players in the Dutch national top league and the Dutch beach volleyball team. The questionnaire was constructed using literature-based data on symptoms associated with PCHAP with DE, together with data retrieved from medical files. A total of 99 of the 107 athletes participated, with a response rate of 93%. The most frequently reported symptoms associated with PCHAP with DE were cold, blue, or pale digits in the dominant hand during or immediately after practice or competition. The prevalence of these symptoms ranged from 11% to 27%. The prevalence of cold digits during practice and competition was 27%. The prevalence of cold, blue, and pale digits during or immediately after practice and competition was 12%. An unexpectedly high percentage of elite volleyball players reported symptoms that are associated with PCHAP with DE in the dominant hand. Because these athletes are considered potentially at risk for developing critical digital ischemia, further analysis of the presence of digital

  11. High blood levels of lead in children aged 6-36 months in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: A cross-sectional study of associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Karki, Khem Bahadur; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Dhimal, Bimala; Joshi, Hari Datt; Puri, Sajan; Pandey, Achyut Raj; Dhakal, Purushotam; Sharma, Arun Kumar; Raya, Ganendra Bhakta; Ansari, Imran; Groneberg, David A; Müller, Ruth; Kuch, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Young children are at greatest risk of exposure to lead and its effects. Although lead is one of the most widely used elements with known health hazard, there is little data on the blood lead level (BLL) of children in the Kathmandu Valley. Thus, this study aimed to assess factors associated with high BLL in children who were 6-36 months of age and resided in the Kathmandu Valley. In this hospital-based cross-sectional study 6-36 month-old children visiting the Paediatrics Outpatient Department of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Patan Hospital, and Siddhi Memorial Hospital were enrolled. All three hospitals are located in different areas inside the Kathmandu Valley. Written informed consent was obtained from the parents, and exposure data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Portable Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV) was used to determine BLLs in children. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Of 312 children enrolled in the study, 64.4% had BLLs ≥5μg/dl. A significant association was found between BLL and exposure to enamel paints in the household in the form of painting materials used in different parts of the house like walls, windows and doors (p = 0.001). Furthermore, multivariate analyses showed that BLLs were 4.5 times higher in children playing with dirt and dust (p = 0.006) and that children belonging to the community of lower caste/ethnicity groups had significantly higher BLLs compared to those from the upper caste groups (p = 0.02). Our study demonstrated that children living in households that have used enamel paints, children belonging to lower caste/ethnic groups, and children frequently playing with dirt and dust had significantly higher BLLs. The results of this study highlight the importance of policy decisions to limit environmental lead contamination, and to roll out awareness building measures designed to limit lead exposure and break the poverty cycle associated with chronic lead poisoning.

  12. Cross-sectional observation of the relationship of depressive symptoms with lifestyles and parents' status among Japanese junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyakutake, Aiko; Kamijo, Tomoko; Misawa, Yuka; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Inaba, Yuji; Tsukahara, Teruomi; Nomiyama, Tetsuo

    2016-07-01

    Students' depressive symptoms might be related to their own risk factors and to their parents' status. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship of depressive symptoms with lifestyle variables and parents' psychological and socio-demographic status among Japanese junior high school students. Of 477 students and their parents, 409 (85.7 %) students and 314 (65.8 %) parents participated in the study. Students answered self-reported questionnaire on depressive symptoms, their heights and weights, subjective stress, body dissatisfaction, lifestyles including sleep duration and extracurricular physical activity in school and other physical activity outside the school, and nutritional intake. Parents responded to questionnaire on depressive symptoms and socio-demographic status. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 24.9 %. Students with depressive symptoms were more likely to have stress. Students in shorter and longer sleep duration groups were more likely to have depressive symptoms. The students with depressive symptoms had smaller amount of energy intake than did those without depressive symptoms. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significant relationships between students' depressive symptoms and some independent variables. Sex, subjective stress, "almost-never"-categorized extracurricular physical activity in school and other physical activity outside the school, and having a parent with depressive symptoms were significantly associated with students' depressive symptoms. Reducing mental stress and taking care of lifestyles, especially, "almost-everyday"-categorized extracurricular physical activity in school and other physical activity outside the school, may have benefits for students' mental health, and having a parent with depressive symptoms may be associated with students' depressive symptoms.

  13. Shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment in swedish hunters: A cross-sectional internet-based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeth, Louise; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Bagger-Sjöbäck, Dan; Rosenhall, Ulf; Nyrén, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters was to examine the association between shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI). All hunters registered with an e-mail address in the membership roster of the Swedish Hunters' Association were invited via e-mail to a secure website with a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. Associations, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR), were multivariately modelled using Poisson regression. The questionnaire was answered by 1771 hunters (age 11-91 years), and 202 of them also completed the audiometry test. Subjective severe hearing loss was reported by 195/1771 (11%), while 23/202 (11%) exhibited HFHI upon testing with Internet-based audiometry. As many as 328/1771 (19%) had never used hearing protection during hunting. In the preceding 5 years, 785/1771 (45%), had fired >6 unprotected gunshots with hunting rifle calibers. The adjusted PR of HFHI when reporting 1-6 such shots, relative to 0, was 1.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.1; P = 0.02]. We could not verify any excessive HFHI prevalence among 89 hunters reporting unprotected exposure to such gunshot noise >6 times. Nor did the total number of reported rifle shots seem to matter. These findings support the notion of a wide variation in individual susceptibility to impulse noise; that significant sound energy, corresponding to unprotected noise from hunting rifle calibers, seems to be required; that susceptible individuals may sustain irreversible damage to the inner ear from just one or a few shots; and that use of hearing protection should be encouraged from the first shot with such weapons.

  14. Shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment in swedish hunters: A cross-sectional internet-based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Honeth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters was to examine the association between shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI. All hunters registered with an e-mail address in the membership roster of the Swedish Hunters′ Association were invited via e-mail to a secure website with a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. Associations, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR, were multivariately modelled using Poisson regression. The questionnaire was answered by 1771 hunters (age 11-91 years, and 202 of them also completed the audiometry test. Subjective severe hearing loss was reported by 195/1771 (11%, while 23/202 (11% exhibited HFHI upon testing with Internet-based audiometry. As many as 328/1771 (19% had never used hearing protection during hunting. In the preceding 5 years, 785/1771 (45%, had fired >6 unprotected gunshots with hunting rifle calibers. The adjusted PR of HFHI when reporting 1-6 such shots, relative to 0, was 1.5 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.1-2.1; P = 0.02]. We could not verify any excessive HFHI prevalence among 89 hunters reporting unprotected exposure to such gunshot noise >6 times. Nor did the total number of reported rifle shots seem to matter. These findings support the notion of a wide variation in individual susceptibility to impulse noise; that significant sound energy, corresponding to unprotected noise from hunting rifle calibers, seems to be required; that susceptible individuals may sustain irreversible damage to the inner ear from just one or a few shots; and that use of hearing protection should be encouraged from the first shot with such weapons.

  15. Measurements of neutron spallation cross section. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Imamura, M.; Nakao, N.; Shibata, S.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Tanaka, Su.

    1997-03-01

    Neutron spallation cross section of {sup 59}Co(n,xn){sup 60-x}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 56}Mn, {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 58}Co, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 60}Cu, {sup nat}Cu(n,xn){sup 61}Cu and {sup nat}Cu(n,sp){sup 65}Ni was measured in the quasi-monoenergetic p-Li neutron fields in the energy range above 40 MeV which have been established at three AVF cyclotron facilities of (1) INS of Univ. of Tokyo, (2) TIARA of JAERI and (3) RIKEN. Our experimental data were compared with the ENDF/B-VI high energy file data by Fukahori and the calculated cross section data by Odano. (author)

  16. High-accuracy 233U(n, f ) cross-section measurement at the white-neutron source n TOF from near-thermal to 1 MeV neutron energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Konovalov, V; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Krticka, M; Rudolf, G.; Kossionides, E.; Rullhusen, P; Leeb, H.; Salgado, J.; Capote, R.; Cano-Ott, D.; Mengoni, A.; Calviño Tavares, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    The 233U(n,f ) cross section has been measured at the white neutron source n TOF in a wide energy range with a dedicated fission ionization chamber. We report here the results from ∼30 meV to 1 MeV neutron energy. The 233U(n,f ) cross section has been determined relative to a reference sample of 235U(n,f )measured simultaneously with the same detector. The very high instantaneous neutron flux and the intrinsically low background of the n TOF installation result in an accuracy arou...

  17. Dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, Inna [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    At high collision energies accessible at ep collider HERA hard hadronic jets can be produced. At leading order, at low virtualities of the exchanged photon, two processes contribute to the jet production. In the direct photon process an almost real photon interacts as a point-like particle with a parton of the proton. In contrast in resolved processes the photon fluctuates to an hadronic state. The measurements of the jet production give an important information about the structure of the photon and the proton. Dijet cross sections have been measured in the reaction ep{yields} e+jet+jet+X with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 189 pb{sup -1}. Differential cross sections are presented as functions of average jet transverse energy and presudorapidity for dijet events with E{sub T}{sup jet1} > 21 GeV, E{sub T}{sup jet2} > 17 GeV, -1 < {eta}{sup jet1(2)} < 3 for {gamma}p centre-of-mass energies in range 142 < W{sub {gamma}p} < 293 GeV and photon virtuality Q{sup 2} < 1 GeV{sup 2}. In addition, the dijet cross section was measured as a function of the fraction of the incoming photon momentum taken by the dijet system. The dijet cross sections were also measured as functions of the dijet invariant mass, M{sub jj} and scattering angle in the dijet centre-of-mass system for E{sub T}{sup jet1(2)} > 17 GeV, -1 < {eta}{sup jet1(2)} < 3 and M{sub jj} > 60 GeV. Next-to-leading order calculations give a good description of the measurements. These measurements can be used to further constraint the gluon component of the proton parton density function at medium to high x.

  18. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  19. High seroprevalence of Rift Valley FEVER AND EVIDENCE FOR ENDEMIC circulation in Mbeya region, Tanzania, in a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Heinrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is an arthropod-borne phlebovirus. RVFV mostly causes outbreaks among domestic ruminants with a major economic impact. Human infections are associated with these events, with a fatality rate of 0.5-2%. Since the virus is able to use many mosquito species of temperate climates as vectors, it has a high potential to spread to outside Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a stratified, cross-sectional sero-prevalence survey in 1228 participants from Mbeya region, southwestern Tanzania. Samples were selected from 17,872 persons who took part in a cohort study in 2007 and 2008. RVFV IgG status was determined by indirect immunofluorescence. Possible risk factors were analyzed using uni- and multi-variable Poisson regression models. We found a unique local maximum of RVFV IgG prevalence of 29.3% in a study site close to Lake Malawi (N = 150. The overall seroprevalence was 5.2%. Seropositivity was significantly associated with higher age, lower socio-economic status, ownership of cattle and decreased with distance to Lake Malawi. A high vegetation density, higher minimum and lower maximum temperatures were found to be associated with RVFV IgG positivity. Altitude of residence, especially on a small scale in the high-prevalence area was strongly correlated (PR 0.87 per meter, 95% CI = 0.80-0.94. Abundant surface water collections are present in the lower areas of the high-prevalence site. RVF has not been diagnosed clinically, nor an outbreak detected in the high-prevalence area. CONCLUSIONS: RVFV is probably circulating endemically in the region. The presence of cattle, dense vegetation and temperate conditions favour mosquito propagation and virus replication in the vector and seem to play major roles in virus transmission and circulation. The environmental risk-factors that we identified could serve to more exactly determine areas at risk for RVFV endemicity.

  20. Attitudes and beliefs among high- and low-risk population groups towards β-thalassemia prevention: a cross-sectional descriptive study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Swati; Singh, Rajnish Kumar; Lakkakula, Bhaskar V K S; Vadlamudi, Raghavendra Rao

    2017-07-01

    " and "subjective norm." As this study is cross-sectional and descriptive in nature, the constructs of the theory should be considered as perceptions. However, we believe the patterns observed are indicative of "predicting behavior" that has far-reaching implications on health planners and administrators in designing β-thalassemia screening and prevention program.

  1. Radar cross section measurements using terahertz waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification in a lith......Radar cross sections at terahertz frequencies are measured on scale models of aircrafts. A time domain broadband THz system generates freely propagating THz pulses measured with sub-picosecond time resolution. The THz radiation is generated using fs laser pulses by optical rectification...... in a lithium niobate crystal with application of the tilted wave front method, resulting in high electric field THz pulses with a broad band spectrum from 100 GHz up to 4 THz. The corresponding wave lengths are two orders of magnitude smaller than normal radars and we therefore use scale models of size 5-10 cm...... in order to measure realistic radar cross sections. RCS polar and azimuthal angle plots of F-16 and F-35 are presented....

  2. Photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bing; Chen, I-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Lien, Chien-Yu; Guchhait, Nikhil; Lin, Jim J

    2010-04-15

    The photolysis rate of ClOOCl is crucial in the catalytic destruction of polar stratospheric ozone. In this work, we determined the photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm with a molecular beam and with mass-resolved detection. The photodissociation cross section is the product of the absorption cross section and the dissociation quantum yield. We formed an effusive molecular beam of ClOOCl at a nozzle temperature of 200 or 250 K and determined its photodissociation probability by measuring the decrease of the ClOOCl intensity upon laser irradiation. By comparing with a reference molecule (Cl(2)), of which the absorption cross section and dissociation quantum yield are well-known, we determined the absolute photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm to be (2.31 +/- 0.11) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 200 K and (2.47 +/- 0.12) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 250 K. Impurity interference has been a well-recognized problem in conventional spectroscopic studies of ClOOCl; our mass-resolved measurement directly overcomes such a problem. This measurement of the ClOOCl photolysis cross section at 330 nm is particularly useful in constraining its atmospheric photolysis rate, which in the polar stratosphere peaks near this wavelength.

  3. High accuracy determination of the $^{238}$U/$^{235}$U fission cross section ratio up to $\\sim$1 GeV at n_TOF (CERN)

    CERN Document Server

    Paradela, C; Tarrío, D; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Leong, L S; Tassan-Got, L; Naour, C Le; Duran, I; Colonna, N; Audouin, L; Mastromarco, M; Meo, S Lo; Ventura, A; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Cosentino, L; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dressler, R; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Finocchiaro, P; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Giubrone, G; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Gurusamy, P; Heinitz, S; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Mondalaers, W; Musumarra, A; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Ware, T; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wright, T; Žugec, P

    2015-01-01

    The $^{238}$U to $^{235}$U fission cross section ratio has been determined at n_TOF up to $\\sim$1 GeV, with two different detection systems, in different geometrical configurations. A total of four datasets have been collected and compared. They are all consistent to each other within the relative systematic uncertainty of 3-4%. The data collected at n_TOF have been suitably combined to yield a unique fission cross section ratio as a function of the neutron energy. The result confirms current evaluations up to 200 MeV. A good agreement is also observed with theoretical calculations based on the INCL++/Gemini++ combination up to the highest measured energy. The n_TOF results may help solving a long-standing discrepancy between the two most important experimental dataset available so far above 20 MeV, while extending the neutron energy range for the first time up to $\\sim$1 GeV.

  4. Z $\\rightarrow$ $\\tau\\tau$ Cross Section Measurement and Liquid-Argon Calorimeter Performance at High Rates at the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Seifert, Frank

    In this study, a measurement of the production cross section of Standard Model $Z$ bosons in proton-proton collisions in the decay channel $Z\\rightarrow\\tau\\tau$ is performed with data of 1.34$\\,\\mathrm{fb^{-1}}$ - 1.55$\\,\\mathrm{fb^{-1}}$ recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=7\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$. An event selection of the data is applied in order to obtain a sample enriched with $Z\\rightarrow\\tau\\tau$ events. After background estimations using data and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, the fiducial cross sections in the sub-channels $Z\\rightarrow\\tau\\tau\\rightarrow e\\tau_h + 3\

  5. High-$Q^{2}$ neutral current cross sections in $e^{+}p$ deep inelastic scattering at $\\sqrt{s}$=318 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Behrens, U; Bell, M; Bellagamba, L; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bloch, I; Bold, T; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chekanov, S; Chiochia, V; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cloth, P; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cottrell, A; D'Agostini, Giulio; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; Dannheim, D; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Deshpande, A A; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dobur, D; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fricke, U; Fusayasu, T; Gabareen, A; Galas, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Gliga, S; Goers, S; Golubkov, Yu A; Goncalo, R; González, O; Gosau, T; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gutsche, O; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hamilton, J; Hanlon, S; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Helbich, M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hillert, S; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Jones, T W; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kaji, H; Kananov, S; Kappes, A; Karstens, F; Kataoka, M; Katkov, I I; Kcira, D; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kim, Y K; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korzhav--, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D A; Kramberger, G; Kreisel, A; Krumnack, N; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Labes, H; Lainesse, J; Lammers, S; Lee, J H; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Li, L; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lopez-Duran Viani, A; Lukina, O Yu; Luzniak, P; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; McCubbin, N A; Mellado, B; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, U; Miglioranzi, S; Milite, M; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Moritz, M; Mus, B; Nagano, K; Namsoo, T; Nania, R; Nguyen, C N; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Paganis, S; Palmonari, F; Parenti, A; Park, I H; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Pesci, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Riveline, U Karshon M; Robins, S; Rosin, M; Rurua, L; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schleper, P; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schnurbusch, H; Sciulli, F; Shcheglova, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Stösslein, U; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tandler, J; Tapper, A D; Targett-Adams, C; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Vázquez, M; Velthuis, J J; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Walsh, R; Wang, M; Weber, A; Whitmore, J J; Wichmann, K; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zambrana, M; Zawiejski, L; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, S A; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J

    2004-01-01

    Cross sections for e^+p neutral current deep inelastic scattering have been measured at a centre-of-mass energy of sqrt{s}=318 GeV with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 63.2 pb^-1. The double-differential cross section, d^2sigma/dxdQ^2, is presented for 200 GeV^2 200 GeV^2. The effect of Z-boson exchange is seen in dsigma/dx measured for Q^2 > 10000 GeV^2. The data presented here were combined with ZEUS e^+p neutral current data taken at sqrt{s}=300 GeV and the structure function F_2^{em} was extracted. All results agree well with the predictions of the Standard Model.

  6. Mobile phone use, school electromagnetic field levels and related symptoms: a cross-sectional survey among 2150 high school students in Izmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durusoy, Raika; Hassoy, Hür; Özkurt, Ahmet; Karababa, Ali Osman

    2017-06-02

    Health outcomes of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from mobile phones and their base stations are of concern. Conducting multidisciplinary research, targeting children and exploring dose-response are recommended. Our objectives were to describe the mobile phone usage characteristics of high school students and to explore the association between mobile phone usage characteristics, high school EMF levels and self-reported symptoms. This cross-sectional study's data were collected by a survey questionnaire and by measuring school EMF levels between November 2009 and April 2011. A sample size of 2530 was calculated from a total of 20,493 students in 26 high schools and 2150 (85.0%) were included in the analysis. The frequencies of 23 symptoms were questioned and analysed according to 16 different aspects of mobile phone use and school EMF levels, exploring also dose-response. School EMF levels were measured with Aaronia Spectran HF-4060 device. Chi square and trend tests were used for univariate and logistic regression was used for multivariate analyses. Among participants, 2021 (94.0%) were using mobile phones and 129 (6.0%) were not. Among users, 49.4% were speaking mobile phone users. Dose-response relationships were observed especially for the number of calls per day, total duration of calls per day, total number of text messages per day, position and status of mobile phone at night and making calls while charging as exposures and headache, concentration difficulties, fatigue and sleep disturbances as general symptoms and warming of the ear and flushing as local symptoms. We found an association between mobile phone use and especially headache, concentration difficulties, fatigue, sleep disturbances and warming of the ear showing also dose-response. We have found limited associations between vicinity to base stations and some general symptoms; however, we did not find any association with school EMF levels. Decreasing the numbers of calls and messages, decreasing the

  7. Human papillomavirus prevalence, viral load and pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix in women initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybicki Ed

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are both important public health problems in South Africa (SA. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs, high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV, HPV viral load and HPV genotypes in HIV positive women initiating anti-retroviral (ARV therapy. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted at an anti-retroviral (ARV treatment clinic in Cape Town, SA in 2007. Cervical specimens were taken for cytological analysis and HPV testing. The Digene Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2 test was used to detect HR-HPV. Relative light units (RLU were used as a measure of HPV viral load. HPV types were determined using the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping test. Crude associations with abnormal cytology were tested and multiple logistic regression was used to determine independent risk factors for abnormal cytology. Results The median age of the 109 participants was 31 years, the median CD4 count was 125/mm3, 66.3% had an abnormal Pap smear, the HR-HPV prevalence was 78.9% (Digene, the median HPV viral load was 181.1 RLU (HC2 positive samples only and 78.4% had multiple genotypes. Among women with abnormal smears the most prevalent HR-HPV types were HPV types 16, 58 and 51, all with a prevalence of 28.5%. On univariate analysis HR-HPV, multiple HPV types and HPV viral load were significantly associated with the presence of low and high-grade SILs (LSIL/HSIL. The multivariate logistic regression showed that HPV viral load was associated with an increased odds of LSIL/HSIL, odds ratio of 10.7 (95% CI 2.0 – 57.7 for those that were HC2 positive and had a viral load of ≤ 181.1 RLU (the median HPV viral load, and 33.8 (95% CI 6.4 – 178.9 for those that were HC2 positive with a HPV viral load > 181.1 RLU. Conclusion Women initiating ARVs have a high prevalence of abnormal Pap smears and HR-HPV. Our results underscore the need

  8. Screening for latent TB, HIV, and hepatitis B/C in new migrants in a high prevalence area of London, UK: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Sally; Seedat, Farah; Car, Josip; Escombe, Rod; Hasan, Samia; Eliahoo, Joseph; Friedland, Jon S

    2014-12-03

    Rising rates of infectious diseases in international migrants has reignited the debate around screening. There have been calls to strengthen primary-care-based programmes, focusing on latent TB. We did a cross-sectional study of new migrants to test an innovative one-stop blood test approach to detect multiple infections at one appointment (HIV, latent tuberculosis, and hepatitis B/C) on registration with a General Practitioner (GP) in primary care. The study was done across two GP practices attached to hospital Accident and Emergency Departments (A&E) in a high migrant area of London for 6 months. Inclusion criteria were foreign-born individuals from a high TB prevalence country (>40 cases per 100,000) who have lived in the UK ≤ 10 years, and were over 18 years of age. All new migrants who attended a New Patient Health Check were screened for eligibility and offered the blood test. We followed routine care pathways for follow-up. There were 1235 new registrations in 6 months. 453 attended their New Patient Health Check, of which 47 (10.4%) were identified as new migrants (age 32.11 years [range 18-72]; 22 different nationalities; time in UK 2.28 years [0-10]). 36 (76.6%) participated in the study. The intervention only increased the prevalence of diagnosed latent TB (18.18% [95% CI 6.98-35.46]; 181.8 cases per 1000). Ultimately 0 (0%) of 6 patients with latent TB went on to complete treatment (3 did not attend referral). No cases of HIV or hepatitis B/C were found. Foreign-born patients were under-represented at these practices in relation to 2011 Census data (Chi-square test -0.111 [95% CI -0.125 to -0.097]; p < 0.001). The one-stop approach was feasible in this context and acceptability was high. However, the number of presenting migrants was surprisingly low, reflecting the barriers to care that this group face on arrival, and none ultimately received treatment. The ongoing UK debate around immigration checks and charging in primary care for new

  9. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seestrom, S. J.; Adamek, E. R.; Barlow, D.; Blatnik, M.; Broussard, L. J.; Callahan, N. B.; Clayton, S. M.; Cude-Woods, C.; Currie, S.; Dees, E. B.; Fox, W.; Hoffbauer, M.; Hickerson, K. P.; Holley, A. T.; Liu, C.-Y.; Makela, M.; Medina, J.; Morley, D. J.; Morris, C. L.; Pattie, R. W.; Ramsey, J.; Roberts, A.; Salvat, D. J.; Saunders, A.; Sharapov, E. I.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Slaughter, B. A.; Walstrom, P. L.; Wang, Z.; Wexler, J.; Womack, T. L.; Young, A. R.; Vanderwerp, J.; Zeck, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    We have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n -butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He . The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to our previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

  10. High adiposity is associated cross-sectionally with low self-concept and body size dissatisfaction among indigenous Cree schoolchildren in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Willows, Noreen Dianne; Ridley, Denise; Raine, Kim D.; Maximova, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity and mental health problems are prevalent among indigenous children in Canada and the United States. In this cross-sectional study the associations between adiposity and body size satisfaction, body image and self-concept were examined in indigenous children in grades four to six living in Cree communities in the Province of Quebec (Canada). Methods Weight status and body mass index (BMI) z-scores were derived from children’s measured height and weight using the World Health...

  11. Bone Microarchitecture and Estimated Strength in 499 Adult Danish Women and Men: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomographic Study on Peak Bone Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Shanbhogue, V.; Folkestad, L.;

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) allows in vivo assessment of cortical and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), geometry, and microarchitecture at the distal radius and tibia in unprecedented detail. In this cross-sectional study, we provide normative...

  12. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} neutral current deep inelastic e{sup +}p scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised positron beam at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] [and others; Collaboration: ZEUS Collaboration

    2012-08-15

    Measurements of neutral current cross sections for deep inelastic scattering in e{sup +}p collisions at HERA with a longitudinally polarised positron beam are presented. The single-differential cross-sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy and the reduced cross-section {sigma} were measured in the kinematic region Q{sup 2}>185 GeV{sup 2} and y<0.9, where Q{sup 2} is the four-momentum transfer squared, x the Bjorken scaling variable, and y the inelasticity of the interaction. The measurements were performed separately for positively and negatively polarised positron beams. The measurements are based on an integrated luminosity of 135.5 pb{sup -1} collected with the ZEUS detector in 2006 and 2007 at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV. The structure functions F{sub 3} and F{sup {gamma}Z}{sub 3} were determined by combining the e{sup +}p results presented in this paper with previously published e{sup -}p neutral current results. The asymmetry parameter A{sup +} is used to demonstrate the parity violation predicted in electroweak interactions. The measurements are well described by the predictions of the Standard Model.

  13. Measurement of high-Q{sup 2} neutral current deep inelastic e{sup -}p scattering cross sections with a longitudinally polarised electron beam at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    Measurements of the neutral current cross sections for deep inelastic scattering in e{sup -}p collisions at HERA with a longitudinally polarised electron beam are presented. The single-differential cross-sections d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dx and d{sigma}/dy and the double-differential cross sections in Q{sup 2} and x are measured in the kinematic region y < 0.9 and Q{sup 2} > 185GeV{sup 2} for both positively and negatively polarised electron beams and for each polarisation state separately. The measurements are based on an integrated luminosity of 169.9 pb{sup -1} taken with the ZEUS detector in 2005 and 2006 at a centre-of-mass energy of 318GeV. The structure functions xF{sub 3} and xF{sub 3}{sup {gamma}}{sup Z} are determined by combining the e{sup -}p results presented in this paper with previously measured e{sup +}p neutral current data. The asymmetry parameter A{sup -} is used to demonstrate the parity violating effects of electroweak interactions at large spacelike photon virtuality. The measurements agree well with the predictions of the Standard Model. (orig.)

  14. Adherence to self-administered tuberculosis treatment in a high HIV-prevalence setting: a cross-sectional survey in Homa Bay, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Nackers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Good adherence to treatment is crucial to control tuberculosis (TB. Efficiency and feasibility of directly observed therapy (DOT under routine program conditions have been questioned. As an alternative, Médecins sans Frontières introduced self-administered therapy (SAT in several TB programs. We aimed to measure adherence to TB treatment among patients receiving TB chemotherapy with fixed dose combination (FDC under SAT at the Homa Bay district hospital (Kenya. A second objective was to compare the adherence agreement between different assessment tools. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey amongst a series of new TB patients receiving 6 months of standard TB chemotherapy with FDC under SAT. Adherence was assessed at home with urine testing for Isoniazid (INH, pill count, interviewer-administered questionnaire and visual analogue scale (VAS. RESULTS: In November 2008 and in June 2009, 212 of 279 eligible patients were assessed for adherence. Overall, 95.2% [95%CI: 91.3-97.7] of the patients reported not having missed a tablet in the last 4 days. On the VAS, complete adherence was estimated at 92.5% [95%CI: 88.0-95.6]. INH urine test was positive for 97.6% [95%CI: 94.6-99.2] of the patients. Pill count could be assessed among only 70% of the interviewed patients. Among them, it was complete for 82.3% [95%CI: 75.1-88.1]. Among the 212 surveyed patients, 193 (91.0% were successfully treated (cured or treatment completed. The data suggest a fair agreement between the questionnaire and the INH urine test (k = 0.43 and between the questionnaire and the VAS (k = 0.40. Agreement was poor between the other adherence tools. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SAT, together with the FDC, allows achieving appropriate adherence to antituberculosis treatment in a high TB and HIV burden area. The use of a combination of a VAS and a questionnaire can be an adequate approach to monitor adherence to TB treatment in routine program

  15. MRSA Carriage in Community Outpatients: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study in a High-Density Livestock Farming Area along the Dutch-German Border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paget

    Full Text Available MRSA poses a considerable public health threat to the community. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of MRSA carriage and determine factors that were associated with MRSA carriage among outpatients who had used antibiotics in the previous three months and who lived in a high-density livestock farming area along the Dutch-German border.Cross-sectional prevalence study carried out between November 2011 and June 2012. Nasal swabs and questionnaires were collected in patients (>4 years who had used antibiotics in the previous three months from twelve Dutch General Practitioners (GPs, seven German GPs and two German outpatient urologists. To assess nasal carriage, swabs were analyzed using selective MRSA agars after broth enrichment. MRSA positive samples were spa typed.Data were collected from 513 GP outpatients in the Netherlands, 261 GP outpatients in Germany and 200 urologist outpatients in Germany. The overall prevalence of MRSA carriage was 0.8%, 1.1% and 2.0%, respectively. In the GP outpatient populations, the prevalence was similar in both countries (0.8% and 1.1%, respectively, p = 0.879, all spa types were indicative for livestock-associated MRSA (4xt011 in the Netherlands; 2xt034 and t011 in Germany and being a farmer, living on or near (<5km to a farm were associated with MRSA carriage. In the urologist outpatient population, the prevalence was higher (2.0%, all spa types were indicative for healthcare-associated MRSA (t068, t032, t003, t10231 and being a farmer, living on or near to a farm were factors not associated with MRSA carriage.The prevalence of MRSA carriage in these community outpatient populations along the Dutch-German border was low. There were striking similarities in livestock-associated MRSA carriage and clonal spread in the