WorldWideScience

Sample records for high ability children

  1. [High ability children and their differential cognitive functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Riba, S

    2008-01-01

    From the neuroconstructivist point of view, cognitive development is understood as a process of successive and continuous reorganization whose changing mechanisms and differential outcomes (typical and atypical) must be studied. High intellectual abilities are one of their differential manifestations but its concept and nature is confused conditioning the validity of its identification and the efficacy of the interventional programs. To propose a clarifying definition of the nature of high intellectual abilities and their manifestations: giftedness, talent and genious, as well as their cognitive functioning and neurological correlates. A qualitative task analysis is applied to 41 participants with intellectual profiles corresponding to: giftedness, talent and typical intelligence, previously obtained. Results show differences on the cognitive results, not only referred to the quantity of informations produced but in the data organization more complex and hard interrelated among the gifted participants. It must be a differential process of resolution adjusted to each one of the profiles studied.

  2. Patterns of Play Behaviors and Learning Center Choices between High Ability and Typical Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Hope E.

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of research regarding young children with high intellectual abilities, particularly research involving the direct observation of children in naturalistic settings. The current study examines 2 years of observations of young children (aged 37-71 months; n = 34) at an early childhood facility. The children were observed during the…

  3. Social Understanding of High-Ability Children in Middle and Late Childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boor-Klip, H.J.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Hell, J.G. van

    2014-01-01

    Despite its importance in social development, social understanding has hardly been studied in high-ability children. This study explores differences in social understanding between children in high-ability and regular classrooms, specifically theory of mind (ToM) and perception accuracy, as well as

  4. Social Understanding of High-Ability Children in Middle and Late Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boor-Klip, Henrike J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its importance in social development, social understanding has hardly been studied in high-ability children. This study explores differences in social understanding between children in high-ability and regular classrooms, specifically theory of mind (ToM) and perception accuracy, as well as associations between individual characteristics…

  5. Spatial and numerical processing in children with high and low visuospatial abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crollen, Virginie; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2015-04-01

    In the literature on numerical cognition, a strong association between numbers and space has been repeatedly demonstrated. However, only a few recent studies have been devoted to examine the consequences of low visuospatial abilities on calculation processing. In this study, we wanted to investigate whether visuospatial weakness may affect pure spatial processing as well as basic numerical reasoning. To do so, the performances of children with high and low visuospatial abilities were directly compared on different spatial tasks (the line bisection and Simon tasks) and numerical tasks (the number bisection, number-to-position, and numerical comparison tasks). Children from the low visuospatial group presented the classic Simon and SNARC (spatial numerical association of response codes) effects but showed larger deviation errors as compared with the high visuospatial group. Our results, therefore, demonstrated that low visuospatial abilities did not change the nature of the mental number line but rather led to a decrease in its accuracy.

  6. A New Look on the Development and Learning of Children with High Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Mattei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available When we approach the subject development and learning soon in them it comes the mind the process of education and specific learning of the pertaining to school environment. However we must have clearly that the development as well as learning is complex processes that involves the pertaining not only the school environment but the development of the physical, mental and social of the human being. The human being is not only intellect, is a complex being with strong cognitive and ambient support, of interactions, learnings and consequently development and evolution. This capacity to learn during all the life, exactly without being present in a pertaining school environment, is what in them it becomes only beings capable to be able to interpret, to reveal knowledge, to develop itself socially intellectual and, that is learning in potential. With regard to the children superendowed or carrying of high innumerable abilities doubts and contradictions thus permeat the relative aspects to its development and learning, different visions and perspectives are analyzed in order to contribute and to clarify aspects related to these children special, so that school and educators can assist in significant way these children potentializing his capacities.

  7. Comparing Diagnostic Ability of Basic Emotional States in Children with High Performance Autism Disorder with Normal Peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jalili

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Study on weaknesses and diagnostic strategies of autistic children in social interactions as well as how we can diagnose different emotions in the face may be an efficient step towards their therapy and communication improvement. The objective of this study was to compare diagnostic ability of basic emotions in children with high-performance autism with normal peers.Materials and Method: In this comparative profile study, two groups of 16 individuals: children with high-performance autistic disorder and their normal peers were selected by available sample method in terms of age, sex and life location. Neuropsychology diagnostic test of different emotions in Benton face (changed version was used to determine diagnostic ability of emotions (happy, sad and angry. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software and descriptive statistics and t-test were done for both independent groups.Results: Results showed that the ability of both tested groups is equal in diagnosing emotional states of joy, anger and neutral condition in face while viewing face picture and there was not any significant difference between groups but in diagnosing emotional grief state, the performance of autistics is lower and there was significant difference with normal peer group.Conclusion: The autistic children with high function are equal in ability with normal children in case of recognizing the happiness, anger and neutral facial excitement. However, they are less competent in recognizing the sadness and facial excitement than normal children

  8. Identifying High Ability Children with DSM-5 Autism Spectrum or Social Communication Disorder: Performance on Autism Diagnostic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Fosenburg, Staci L.; Wurster, Kristin G.; Assouline, Susan G.

    2017-01-01

    This study was a replication of Mazefsky et al.'s ("Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities" 43:1236-1242, 2013) investigation among a sample of 45 high ability children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD under DSM-IV-TR. Items from the ADOS and ADI-R were mapped onto DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ASD and SCD to determine…

  9. Intellectual Ability, Self-Perceived Social Competence, and Depressive Symptomatology in Children with High-Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerstaff, Sandy; Heriot, Sandra; Wong, Michelle; Lopes, Ana; Dossetor, David

    2007-01-01

    Although social competence deficits in children with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorders (HFASD) are well documented, there is little research investigating self-perceptions of social limitations. This study replicated research showing a negative association between self-perceived social competence and intellectual ability and…

  10. Identifying High Ability Children with DSM-5 Autism Spectrum or Social Communication Disorder: Performance on Autism Diagnostic Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Fosenburg, Staci L.; Wurster, Kristin G.; Assouline, Susan G.

    2017-01-01

    This study was a replication of Mazefsky et al.'s ("Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities" 43:1236-1242, 2013) investigation among a sample of 45 high ability children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD under DSM-IV-TR. Items from the ADOS and ADI-R were mapped onto DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ASD and SCD to determine…

  11. Narrative Abilities of Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekas, Amy; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Berl, Madison; Gaillard, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a noticeable publication gap in the speech-language pathology literature regarding the language abilities of children with common types of epilepsy. This paper reviews studies that suggest a high frequency of undetected language problems in this population, and it proposes the need for pragmatically based assessment of…

  12. Narrative Abilities of Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekas, Amy; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Berl, Madison; Gaillard, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a noticeable publication gap in the speech-language pathology literature regarding the language abilities of children with common types of epilepsy. This paper reviews studies that suggest a high frequency of undetected language problems in this population, and it proposes the need for pragmatically based assessment of…

  13. Detection of high ability children by teachers and parents: Psychometric quality of new rating checklists for the assessment of intellectual, creative and social ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ULRIKE SOMMER

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we devised scales for teachers’ and parents’ estimation of intellectual, creative and social abilities of fourth grade elementary school pupils. Their scores were related to psychometrically determined ability scores. Ninety-three school pupils in the age range between 9.3 and 11.2 years, as well as their parents and teachers took part. The new rating checklists proved as sufficiently reliable (particularly the teachers’ version. Analyses of validity showed a high correspondence in parents’ and teachers’ estimations of cognitive intelligence, but much lower correspondence for creativity and social ability. Correlating teachers’ and parents’ estimates with the respective psychometric tests shows that teachers and parents were better at identifying intellectual (highability than detecting creative and social abilities. With the exception of social (highability, where girls were usually regarded as highly socially gifted by their parents, there were no differences in parents’ and teachers’ estimations of boys and girls.

  14. Children's Cognitive Abilities and Intrahousehold Parental Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Zuppann

    2013-01-01

    I estimate how new information about children's cognitive abilities leads parents to adjust investment within and across children. I use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth matched mother-child data to construct measures of both child cognitive ability and parental investment during childhood. I find that parents respond to improvements in a child's cognitive abilities by devoting more resources towards that child. Â I find that positive information about one child leads to compensating...

  15. High ability: Giftedness and talent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Prieto Sánchez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the journal aims at putting together national and international research on high abilities, and is divided into three sections: 1 Roles and cognitive, emotional and professional competences of high ability students’ teachers, 2 Identification and assessment of high ability students, 3 Analysis of practices, programs and mentoring of high ability students’ attention to diversity.The articles are authored by scholars from nine different countries (Spain, Argentina, UK, USA, Russia, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, Portugal and Poland, from sixteen different Spanish and international universities: Alicante (Spain, Autónoma de Barcelona (Spain, Málaga (Spain, Murcia (Spain, Navarra (Spain, Oviedo (Spain, Tufts University (USA, Yale University (USA, Moscow State University (Russia, Nacional de La Plata (Argentina, University of Connecticut (USA, Universidade do Minho (Portugal, Universidade da Beira Interior (Portugal, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, King Faisal University (Saudi Arabia and Universidad de Szczecin (Poland.

  16. Spatial Training Improves Children's Mathematics Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Ling; Mix, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether mental rotation training improved math performance in 6- to 8-year-olds. Children were pretested on a range of number and math skills. Then one group received a single session of mental rotation training using an object completion task that had previously improved spatial ability in children this age (Ehrlich, Levine, &…

  17. Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaiying; Wu, Hanrong

    2011-02-01

    Inhibitory ability of children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) was investigated to explore the cognitive mechanism underlying DD. According to the definition of developmental dyscalculia, 19 children with DD-only and 10 children with DD&RD (DD combined with reading disability) were selected step by step, children in two control groups were matched with children in case groups by gender and age, and the match ratio was 1:1. Psychological testing software named DMDX was used to measure inhibitory ability of the subjects. The differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks and differences of accuracy in incongruent condition of color-word Stroop tasks and object inhibition tasks between DD-only children and their controls reached significant levels (P<0.05), and the differences of reaction time in number Stroop tasks between dyscalculic and normal children did not disappear after controlling the non-executive components. The difference of accuracy in color-word incongruent tasks between children with DD&RD and normal children reached significant levels (P<0.05). Children with DD-only confronted with general inhibitory deficits, while children with DD&RD confronted with word inhibitory deficits only.

  18. Challenging high-ability students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scager, Karin; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Pilot, Albert; Wubbels, Theo; Hafd Onderwijsadvies en training; Leerstoel Vermunt; Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen; LS Wubbels; Education and Learning: Development in Interaction

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on indicators of an optimal learning environment for high-ability students frequently discusses the concept of challenge. It is, however, not clear what, precisely, constitutes appropriate challenge for these students. In this study, the authors examined an undergraduate hono

  19. Challenging High-Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scager, Karin; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Pilot, Albert; Wubbels, Theo

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on indicators of an optimal learning environment for high-ability students frequently discusses the concept of challenge. It is, however, not clear what, precisely, constitutes appropriate challenge for these students. In this study, the authors examined an undergraduate honours course, Advanced Cell Biology, which has…

  20. Challenging high-ability students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scager, Karin; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Pilot, Albert; Wubbels, Theo; Hafd Onderwijsadvies en training; Leerstoel Vermunt; Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen; LS Wubbels; Education and Learning: Development in Interaction

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on indicators of an optimal learning environment for high-ability students frequently discusses the concept of challenge. It is, however, not clear what, precisely, constitutes appropriate challenge for these students. In this study, the authors examined an undergraduate hono

  1. Extracurricular enrichment workshops for high ability students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Rojo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze and explain attention to diversity measures for high ability (gifted and talented students. The model, developed in the Spanish region of Murcia, is based on cognitive psychology and aims to encourage thinking skills. The program is developed as a curriculum extension and the interests, motivations and abilities of children have been considered once these were identified. The article offers a theoretical approach, a set of objectives, and some of the activities that have been done with students.

  2. Emotional Abilities in Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): Impairments in Perspective-Taking and Understanding Mixed Emotions are Associated with High Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kearney, Richard; Salmon, Karen; Liwag, Maria; Fortune, Clare-Ann; Dawel, Amy

    2017-04-01

    Most studies of emotion abilities in disruptive children focus on emotion expression recognition. This study compared 74 children aged 4-8 years with ODD to 45 comparison children (33 healthy; 12 with an anxiety disorder) on behaviourally assessed measures of emotion perception, emotion perspective-taking, knowledge of emotions causes and understanding ambivalent emotions and on parent-reported cognitive and affective empathy. Adjusting for child's sex, age and expressive language ODD children showed a paucity in attributing causes to emotions but no other deficits relative to the comparison groups. ODD boys with high levels of callous-unemotional traits (CU) (n = 22) showed deficits relative to low CU ODD boys (n = 25) in emotion perspective-taking and in understanding ambivalent emotions. Low CU ODD boys did not differ from the healthy typically developing boys (n = 12). Impairments in emotion perceptive-taking and understanding mixed emotions in ODD boys are associated with the presence of a high level of CU.

  3. Kinesthetic Ability in Children with Spastic Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysagis, Nikolaos K.; Skordilis, Emmanouil K.; Koutsouki, Dimitra; Evans, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the differences in kinesthetic ability, at the elbow joint, between children with (n = 15) and without (n = 15) spastic hemiplegia. The Kin Com 125 AP isokinetic dynamometer Configuration Chattanooga was used. Results revealed significant (p less than 0.05) interaction between participant groups and side which was a…

  4. Teachers of high ability pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido Genovard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the characteristics of gifted and talented students’ expert teachers. The subject background and the specific proprieties of the instructional process to meet gifted students’ educational needs are analyzed. The value of teacher-student interactions and of teaching and learning styles are highlighted. Also, we include different action guidelines and instructional resources to use in the classroom to teach these students. There is not an ideal teacher for high ability students. However, teachers must know what the teaching-learning processes are and how these work, and the diverse psychological, content and contextual variables involved in such processes.

  5. Global Disability: Empowering Children of all Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Rebecca J; Maphula, Angelina; Pullen, Paige C; Shrestha, Rita; Matherne, Gaynell Paul; Roshan, Reeba; Koshy, Beena

    2017-08-01

    Worldwide, children are often not meeting their developmental potential owing to malnutrition, infection, lack of stimulation, and toxic stress. Children with disabilities are more likely to experience poverty, neglect, and abuse, and are less likely to have adequate access to education and medical care. Early childhood developmental stimulation can improve language, learning, and future participation in communities. Therapeutic supports and endeavors to reduce stigma for people of all abilities strengthen communities and allow for human thriving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Memory abilities in children with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicari, S; Brizzolara, D; Carlesimo, G A; Pezzini, G; Volterra, V

    1996-09-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic condition characterised by intellectual disability, typical facial dysmorphology and several medical anomalies. A specific neuropsychological profile with a dissociation between language (relatively preserved) and visuo-spatial abilities (more seriously impaired) has been hypothesised in these children. Memory abilities of these patients have not been adequately investigated, although they may substantially contribute to better understanding their neuropsychological profile. The present study aimed at investigating verbal and spatial memory in patients with WS (N = 16). Their performance was compared with that of normally developing children on tasks of verbal and spatial span and immediate and delayed recall of verbal and visuo-perceptual materials. Memory abilities of WS children appear to be characterised by defective visuo-spatial memory, both in the short-term and long-term domain, and a dissociation between normal short- but deficient long-term verbal learning. Results are interpreted by supporting the thesis that intellectual disability reflects the defective functioning of a complex system in which some cognitive competencies may be disrupted more than others (Detterman, 1987; Vicari, Albertini and Caltagirone, 1992).

  7. Maternal ability to take care of children exposed to HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyana Gomes Freitas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the ability of mothers to take care of children exposed to HIV, using the Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth and to check the association between the scale dimensions and maternal characteristics. METHOD: this cross-sectional study involved 62 HIV+ mothers whose children of up to one year old had been exposed to the virus at birth. The Assessment Scale of Care Skills for Children Exposed to HIV at Birth consists of 52 items and five dimensions, indicating high, moderate or low care ability. RESULTS: 72.7% of the mothers appropriately offered zidovudine syrup; 86.0% were highly skilled to prepare and administer milk formula; 44.4% were moderately able to prepare and administer complementary feeding; 76.5% revealed high ability to administer prophylactic treatment against pneumonia and 95.3% demonstrated high abilities for clinical monitoring and immunization. Significant associations were found between some maternal variables and the scale dimensions. CONCLUSION: the scale permits the assessment of maternal care delivery to these children and the accomplishment of specific child health interventions.

  8. High ability education in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul; Baltzer, Kirsten; Kyed, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Chapter in peer refereed book on gifted education. The chapter offers a state of the art review on gifted education literature, and reports the results from a Danish study on giftedness revealing that 42 % had more problems and far more problems than typically reported by children and adolescents...

  9. General Intelligence, Visuospatial and Verbal Abilities in Korean Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard; Song, Myung Ja

    1994-01-01

    Nine-year olds completed measures of general intelligence, visuospatial ability, and verbal fluency. Subjects were 107 Korean children and 115 British children. Found that Korean children scored higher on general intelligence and visuospatial ability and lower on verbal fluency than British children. (BC)

  10. Explaining High Abilities of Nobel Laureates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavinina, Larisa

    2004-01-01

    Although the Nobel Prize is associated with a rare, superior degree of intellectually creative achievement, high abilities of Nobel laureates are far from well explained. This paper argues that Nobel laureates' high abilities are determined in part by their extracognitive abilities, that is, specific feelings, preferences, beliefs and intuitive…

  11. Children with low motor ability have lower visual-motor integration ability but unaffected perceptual skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptual, visual-motor abilities and intellectual skills in children with low, average and above average motor abilities. The participants were 144 children (aged 6-10 years) attending elementary school. Three groups of children were identified on the basis of their performance at the TGMD (Test of Gross Motor Development; [Ulrich, D.A. (1985). TGMD, Test of Gross Motor Development. Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TGM. Test di valutazione delle abilita grosso-motorie. 1994, Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Each child received an intelligence test (K-BIT; [Kaufman, A.S., & Kaufman, N.L. (1990). K-BIT. Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service]) and was evaluated for perceptual and visual-motor integration abilities (DTVP; [Hammill, D.D., Pearson, N.A., & Voress, J.K. (1993). Developmental Test of Visual Perception (2nd ed.). Austin, Texas: PRO-ED. Edizione Italiana a cura di D. Ianes, TEST TPV. Test di percezione visiva e integrazione visuo-motoria. Trento: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson]). Results highlight a significant difference in visual-motor integration between children with high and low gross-motor abilities, in the absence of significant differences in perceptual skills or intellectual ability. The findings are discussed with reference to the concept of atypical brain development [Gilger, J.W., & Kaplan, B.J. (2001). Atypical brain development: A conceptual framework for understanding developmental learning disabilities. Developmental Neuropsychology, 20, 465].

  12. Impact of Intervention on Learning Abilities of Institutional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunshal, Saraswati C.; Gaonkar, V.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was under taken during 2003-2005 with the objectives to study the level of learning abilities and study the impact of intervention on learning abilities among children residing in juvenile institutions of Dharwad division in Karanataka. Level of scholastic ability and scholastic problems of children was assessed before…

  13. High Ability Students' Voice on Learning Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    This study used a self-determination theory lens to investigate high ability learners' motivational experiences. Participants were 15 high ability youth involved in a summer learning camp for gifted students. Two major themes emerged from qualitative data analysis: (a) "The Fun Factor of Learning" and (b) "The Rewards and Pressures…

  14. Purpose in Life among High Ability Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronk, Kendall Cotton; Finch, W. Holmes; Talib, Tasneem L.

    2010-01-01

    Leading high ability scholars have proposed theories that suggest a purpose in life may be particularly prevalent among high ability youth; however, the prevalence of purpose has not been empirically assessed among this population. Therefore using in-depth interviews the present study established the prevalence of purpose among a sample of high…

  15. Gait rehabilitation with a high tech platform based on virtual reality conveys improvements in walking ability of children suffering from acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, E; Beretta, E; Diella, E; Panzeri, D; Maghini, C; Turconi, A C; Strazzer, S; Reni, G

    2015-01-01

    The Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab (GRAIL) is an instrumented multi-sensor platform based on immersive virtual reality for gait training and rehabilitation. Few studies have been included GRAIL to evaluate gait patterns in normal and disabled people and to improve gait in adults, while at our knowledge no evidence on its use for the rehabilitation of children is available. In this study, 4 children suffering from acquired brain injury (ABI) underwent a 5 session treatment with GRAIL, to improve walking and balance ability in engaging VR environments. The first and the last sessions were partially dedicated to gait evaluation. Results are promising: improvements were recorded at the ankle level, selectively at the affected side, and at the pelvic level, while small changes were measured at the hip and knee joints, which were already comparable to healthy subjects. All these changes also conveyed advances in the symmetry of the walking pattern. In the next future, a longer intervention will be proposed and more children will be enrolled to strongly prove the effectiveness of GRAIL in the rehabilitation of children with ABI.

  16. Generalist genes and high cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Claire M A; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2009-07-01

    The concept of generalist genes operating across diverse domains of cognitive abilities is now widely accepted. Much less is known about the etiology of the high extreme of performance. Is there more specialization at the high extreme? Using a representative sample of 4,000 12-year-old twin pairs from the UK Twins Early Development Study, we investigated the genetic and environmental overlap between web-based tests of general cognitive ability, reading, mathematics and language performance for the top 15% of the distribution using DF extremes analysis. Generalist genes are just as evident at the high extremes of performance as they are for the entire distribution of abilities and for cognitive disabilities. However, a smaller proportion of the phenotypic intercorrelations appears to be explained by genetic influences for high abilities.

  17. [Pretend play ability in pre-school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, M; Ptok, M

    2009-11-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) are confronted with limitations in their language abilities that cannot be attributed to cognition, hearing impairments, or neurological deficits. However, there is evidence that children with SLI also have impairments. These include, for example, an impaired ability to pretend play. The current article aims to present firstly normal development of play behavior in children, followed by the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment (ChIPPA). This test enables an objective and standardized assessment of whether a child's ability to initiate and sustain pretend play is age-appropriate. SLI children with impaired play behavior should receive structured individual therapy.

  18. Understanding (Dis)abilities through Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtts, Stephanie A.; Gavigan, Karen W.

    2008-01-01

    The authors of this article examined how pre-service teachers can use children's and young adult literature about disabilities to enhance understanding of individual differences through a bibliotherapeutic approach. An introduction to bibliotherapy is provided along with related literature from the field. Strategies for using children's and young…

  19. Quantitative Measurement of Communication Ability in Children with Angelman Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Joseph C; Bahr, Ruth H; Schoenberg, Mike R; Conover, Laura; Mackie, Lauren N; Weeber, Edwin J

    2016-12-19

    Angelman syndrome is a rare disorder in which most individuals do not develop speech. Testing of communication ability using traditional neuropsychological measures reveals a performance level at or near the floor of the instrument resulting in an inability to detect change when experimental therapeutics are applied. Nine individuals, with molecularly confirmed AS, ranging in age from 34 to 126 months, and a single healthy control child (age 16 months) were audio and video-recorded while interacting with a licensed speech-language pathologist in an attempt to elicit vocalization and non-verbal communication. Thirty-minute audio recordings were transcribed and categorized per the Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development-Revised and a phonetic inventory was created. Using video recordings, gestures were classified by function, either behavioral regulation or social interaction and further categorized as deictic or representational (i.e., behavioral regulation) and joint attention or shared engagement (i.e., social interaction). The range of vocalizations produced by the children with AS was characteristic of children between 0-6 months and none of the children with AS used advanced forms of vocalizations. The mean frequency of reflexive vocalizations, control of phonation and expansion far exceeded the number of uses of canonical syllables, consistant with the characteristics of children around 12 months of age. Most vocalizations were either laughter or isolated vowels, only three children with AS produced consonant-vowel combinations. Children with AS tended to use central and low vowels with few producing high vowels, suggesting the presence of childhood apraxia of speech. Our results show the utilization of video-recorded behavioral observations provides a feasible and reliable alternative for quantification of communication ability in this patient population and may be employed during future clinical studies of potential therapeutics. © 2016 The Authors

  20. Language abilities of children with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalasti, Satu; Lepistö, Tuulia; Toppila, Esko; Kujala, Teija; Laakso, Minna; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; von Wendt, Lennart; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira

    2008-09-01

    Current diagnostic taxonomies (ICD-10, DSM-IV) emphasize normal acquisition of language in Asperger syndrome (AS). Although many linguistic sub-skills may be fairly normal in AS there are also contradictory findings. There are only few studies examining language skills of children with AS in detail. The aim of this study was to study language performance in children with AS and their age, sex and IQ matched controls. Children with AS had significantly lower scores in the subtest of Comprehension of Instructions. Results showed that although many linguistic skills may develop normally, comprehension of language may be affected in children with AS. The results suggest that receptive language processes should be studied in detail in children with AS.

  1. Early numerical abilities and cognitive skills in kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Lanfranchi, Silvia; Altoè, Gianmarco; Sollazzo, Nadia

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a unitary path analysis model was developed to investigate the relationship between cognitive variables (derived from published studies) and early numerical abilities in children attending the last year of kindergarten. We tested 100 children starting their last year of kindergarten on the following cognitive abilities: intelligence, phonological abilities, counting, verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and working memory, processing speed, and early numerical abilities. The same children were tested again on early numerical abilities at the end of the same year. The children's early numerical abilities at the beginning of the final year of kindergarten were found to be directly related to their verbal intelligence, phonological abilities, processing speed, and working memory and to be indirectly related to their nonverbal intelligence. Early numerical abilities at the end of the same year are directly related not only to early numerical abilities assessed at the beginning of the year but also to working memory and phonological abilities as well as have an indirect relationship with verbal and nonverbal intelligence. Overall, our results showed that both general and specific abilities are related to early mathematic learning in kindergarten-age children.

  2. Domestic Violence and Longitudinal Associations with Children's Physiological Regulation Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigterink, Tami; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Hessler, Danielle M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of domestic violence (DV) on children's emotion regulation abilities measured via baseline vagal tone (VT). Specifically, the authors examined the relationship between DV exposure and children's regulatory functioning over time, investigating whether DV exposure was related to the trajectory of children's…

  3. Relationship between Kindergarten Children's Language Ability and Social Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoria, Adelina Q.; Page, Melanie C.; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennison, Shelia M.

    2009-01-01

    The research investigated the hypothesis that teachers' ratings of kindergarten children's receptive and expressive language ability would be related to children's social competence. Teachers' ratings of social competence were obtained for a sample of 116 kindergarten children. Social competence was measured using the California Preschool Social…

  4. The Relationship between Creativity, Social Play, and Children's Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Romeo, Lynn; Ciraola, Stephanie; Grushko, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explore the interconnectedness between children's creativity, social play, and language abilities. The participants were 225 (109 girls, 116 boys) preschool children, from diverse European American, African American, and Hispanic ethnic heritages. We assessed the children in three ways. First, each child completed the Goodenough…

  5. The Relationship between Creativity, Social Play, and Children's Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Romeo, Lynn; Ciraola, Stephanie; Grushko, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explore the interconnectedness between children's creativity, social play, and language abilities. The participants were 225 (109 girls, 116 boys) preschool children, from diverse European American, African American, and Hispanic ethnic heritages. We assessed the children in three ways. First, each child completed the Goodenough…

  6. Creativity, synthetic intelligence and high ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sainz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the construct of creativity and its relationship with high ability, presenting different definitions, assessment tools and strategies to encourage their development in the school context. The paper is structured into five sections: firstly, we define the concept of creativity. Secondly, we present the most relevant instruments used in the analysis of high ability students’ creativity. Thirdly, we look into several studies on creativity and high abilitiy, highlighting the main limitations of the research carried out. Fourthly, we present principles and strategies in order to foster creativity in the school context. Finally, some conclusions are drawn on the relationship between creativity and high ability.

  7. Narrative ability in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Pernille; Dahlgren Sandberg, Annika; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study a group of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were found to have considerable difficulties with narratives, performing several standard deviations below the criteria for the Information score of the Bus Story Test (BST). To examine in depth the performance of children with CP and a control group with typically developing (TD) children on a narrative task, in order to search for possible underlying causes to the problems in the CP group. The results of the BST for 10 children with CP, mean age 7;11 years, were investigated. The analysis of the BST was supplemented with the use of the Narrative Assessment Profile (NAP) and quantitative analyses of number of words, mazes, propositions, types of conjunctions and story elements. A significant relationship between the explicitness dimension on the Narrative Assessment Profile and the BST Information score in the CP group suggested that the problems could be derived to a limited use of cohesion and a scarcity of essential information. Compared to the CP group, the TD group used significantly more causal conjunctions. The results indicate a general problem with cohesion at the textual level in the CP group. A further finding was the occurrence of a positive correlation between the use of mazes and the BST Information score in the CP group. These results have implications for the design of a more specific intervention for children, where the NAP was found to be a valuable tool in combination with the BST or other assessment materials. Further, it is shown that mazes, mostly regarded as a behaviour that not enhances speech production, for some children can be used as a means to find necessary words and pieces of information.

  8. Children's ability to evaluate television commercial messages for sugared products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambo, A M

    1981-09-01

    A study of the ability of 120 children to evaluate the cariogenic potential of products presented in commercial television messages was undertaken. Each child was shown commercials for sugar-containing products. The results indicated: 1) grade-related differences exist in a child's ability to evaluate products; 2) no differences between socioeconomic status groups were found in a child's ability to evaluate products; 3) a weak relationship between the level of dental health knowledge and ability to evaluate the products.

  9. Children's Morphological Awareness and Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, John R.; Deacon, S. Helene; Bowers, Peter N.; Izenberg, Leah; Wade-Woolley, Lesly; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of morphological awareness on five measures of reading in 103 children from Grades 1 to 3. Morphological awareness was assessed with a word analogy task that included a wide range of morphological transformations. Results indicated that the new measure had satisfactory reliability, and that morphological awareness was a…

  10. Expressive Drawing Ability in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Richard P.; O'Kelly, Rachael; Barlow, Claire M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The autistic impairments in emotional and social competence, imagination and generating ideas predict qualitative differences in expressive drawings by children with autism beyond that accounted by any general learning difficulties. In a sample of 60 5-19-year-olds, happy and sad drawings were requested from 15 participants with non-savant autism…

  11. Overall assessment of the ability of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia De Apollonia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the Project Svit, the reference sample and '21alunni consists of elementary school, reported and submitted for testing by teachers, difficulties' in the relevant logicomatematica. The subjects to be included in the trial have been identified within the class group, among children who have difficulties' to follow and keep up with the program curriculum.

  12. Language Abilities of Children with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalasti, Satu; Lepisto, Tuulia; Toppila, Esko; Kujala, Teija; Laakso, Minna; Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; von Wendt, Lennart; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira

    2008-01-01

    Current diagnostic taxonomies (ICD-10, DSM-IV) emphasize normal acquisition of language in Asperger syndrome (AS). Although many linguistic sub-skills may be fairly normal in AS there are also contradictory findings. There are only few studies examining language skills of children with AS in detail. The aim of this study was to study language…

  13. Predicting Spanish-English bilingual children's language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Komaroff, Eugene; Rodriguez, Barbara L; Lopez, Lisa M; Scarpino, Shelley E; Goldstein, Brian

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the authors investigated factors that affect bilingual children's vocabulary and story recall abilities in their 2 languages. Participants included 191 Latino families and their children, who averaged 59 months of age. Data on parental characteristics and children's exposure to and usage of Spanish and English were collected. The authors assessed children's Spanish and English vocabulary and story recall abilities using subtests of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised ( Woodcock, Muñoz-Sandoval, Ruef, & Alvarado, 2005). Sizeable percentages of variation in children's English (R2 = .61) and Spanish (R2 = .55) vocabulary scores were explained by children's exposure to, and usage of, each language and maternal characteristics. Similarly, variations in children's story recall scores in English (R2 = .38) and Spanish (R2 = .19) were also explained by the factors considered in this investigation. However, the authors found that different sets of factors in each category affected children's vocabulary and story recall abilities in each language. Children's exposure to and usage of their two languages as well as maternal characteristics play significant roles in bilingual individuals' language development. The results highlight the importance of gathering detailed sociolinguistic information about bilingual children when these children are involved in research and when they enter the educational system.

  14. Do High Ability Students Have Mathematics Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Kai Kow Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the level of mathematics anxiety among 116 high ability Secondary Two students. These students were from the top 10% of the Secondary Two students in Singapore. Mathematics Anxiety was measured using the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) (Fennema & Sherman, 1978) which consisted of twelve items…

  15. Stuttering and Language Ability in Children: Questioning the Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article explains why it is reasonable to question the view that stuttering and language ability in children are linked--the so-called "stuttering-language connection." Method: Studies that focused on syntactic, morphologic, and lexical development in children who stutter (CWS) are examined for evidence to support the following…

  16. Stuttering and Language Ability in Children: Questioning the Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article explains why it is reasonable to question the view that stuttering and language ability in children are linked--the so-called "stuttering-language connection." Method: Studies that focused on syntactic, morphologic, and lexical development in children who stutter (CWS) are examined for evidence to support the following…

  17. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentimonti, Jill; O'Connell, Ann; Justice, Laura; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the dimensionality of language ability for young children (4-8 years) from prekindergarten to third grade (n = 915), theorizing that measures of vocabulary and grammar ability will represent a unitary trait across these ages, and to determine whether discourse skills represent an additional…

  18. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentimonti, Jill; O'Connell, Ann; Justice, Laura; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the dimensionality of language ability for young children (4-8 years) from prekindergarten to third grade (n = 915), theorizing that measures of vocabulary and grammar ability will represent a unitary trait across these ages, and to determine whether discourse skills represent an additional…

  19. Language Ability Groups in Bilingual Children: A Latent Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gray, Shelley; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Classifying children into two language ability groups, with and without language impairment, may underestimate the number of groups with distinct language ability patterns, or, alternatively, there may be only a single group characterized by a continuum of language performance. The purpose of the current study was to identify the number…

  20. Theory of Mind Ability in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillott, A.; Furniss, F.; Walter, A.

    2004-01-01

    Whilst evidence of theory of mind impairments in children with autism is well established, possible impairments in children with language disorder have only recently been investigated. Children with specific language impairment aged between eight and 12 years were matched by age and gender to high functioning children with autism and normally…

  1. DEVELOPING NUMERICAL ABILITY IN CHILDREN WITH MATHEMATICAL DIFFICULTIES USING ORIGAMI (.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisztián, Ágota; Bernáth, László; Gombos, Hajnalka; Vereczkei, Lajos

    2015-08-01

    Certain aspects of numerical processing show a connection with spatial abilities. Spatial abilities may be enhanced through the practice of origami. It is possible that the development of spatial abilities will support the development of numerical processing. The goal was to investigate whether spatial and numerical skills can be developed using origami and the folding of three-dimensional shapes. During the course of the 10-wk. training program, consisting of weekly 60-min. sessions, the performance of children with mathematical difficulties showed considerable improvement in spatial and numerical tasks as compared to the control group of children with mathematical difficulties.

  2. Correlates of Ability Patterns in Children adn Adults: Implications for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Keith; Horowitz, Alan B.

    1975-01-01

    Presents research evidence that children with a high verbal-low spatial ability profile tend to respond in the "usual" way to social reinforcement or praise, whereas children with a high spatial-low verbal profile do not find praise reinforcing. Implications for teaching considered in detail. (Author)

  3. Singing abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain eCLEMENT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Specific Language impairment (SLI is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed when a child has difficulties learning to produce and/or understand speech for no apparent reason (Bishop et al., 2012. The verbal difficulties of children with SLI have been largely documented, and a growing number of studies suggest that these children may also have difficulties in processing non-verbal complex auditory stimuli (Brandt et al., 2012; Corriveau et al., 2007. In a recent study, we reported that a large proportion of children with SLI present deficits in music perception (Planchou et al, submitted. Little is known, however, about the singing abilities of children with SLI. In order to investigate whether or not the impairments in expressive language extend to the musical domain, we assessed singing abilities in 8 children with SLI and 15 children with Typical Language Development (TLD matched for age and non-verbal intelligence. To this aim, we designed a ludic activity consisting of two singing tasks: a pitch-matching and a melodic reproduction task. In the pitch-matching task, the children were requested to sing single notes. In the melodic reproduction task, children were asked to sing short melodies that were either familiar (FAM-SONG and FAM-TUNE conditions or unfamiliar (UNFAM-TUNE condition. The analysis showed that children with SLI were impaired in the pitch-matching task, with a mean pitch error of 250 cents (mean pitch error for children with TLD: 154 cents. In the melodic reproduction task, we asked 30 healthy adults to rate the quality of the sung productions of the children on a continuous rating scale. The results revealed that singing of children with SLI received lower mean ratings than the children with TLD. Our findings thus indicate that children with SLI showed impairments in musical production and are discussed in light of a general auditory-motor dysfunction in children with SLI.

  4. Visual Abilities in Children with Developmental Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Lotte G; Baggesen, Kirsten L

    previously been undiagnosed. Students tested with preferential looking systems (N = 78) had significantly lower visual acuities [VA (decimal) = 0.55] than students tested with ortho types [VA (decimal) = 0.91] and had problems participating in the colour and form tests, possibly due to cerebral VI......Purpose:  To investigate the visual abilities of students with severe developmental delay (DD) age 6-8 starting in special needs education. Methods:  Between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2008, we screened all students with severe DD starting in special needs schools in Northern Jutland, Denmark...... for vision. All students with visual acuities ≤6/12 were refractioned and examined by an ophthalmologist. Results:  Of 502 students, 56 (11%) had visual impairment (VI) [visual acuity (VA) ≤ 6/18], of which 21 had been previously undiagnosed. Legal blindness was found in 15 students (3%), of whom three had...

  5. [Musical abilities in children with an auditory processing disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffner, Evgenia; Vorwerk, Wilma; Vorwerk, Ulrich

    2017-08-01

    Objective Difficulties in solving musical tasks are observed in clinical practice in children with an auditory processing disorder (APD). There is a paucity of research on musical ability in children with an APD. Material and Methods To assess musical skills we had 15 children aged 6-11 years with the diagnosis of APD perform a test, and compared them to a control group of 15 children. Results APD children did significantly worse in pitch discrimination, reproduction of rhythm and singing. Correlations between language-based and musical skills in the APD-group were observed. Conclusions Greater attention should be paid to musical skills in APD diagnostics. The positive impact of musical training on language development and cognitive abilities in general has been demonstrated in numerous studies. Musical training should be the focus of further discussion for therapeutic methods of APD in the presence of musical deficits. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Cognitive abilities in children in contexts of poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Cohen Imach

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies of cognitive abilities were conducted on a group of children at a context of poverty, in reason of learning about the quality of such capabilities, and in direct relationship to low school performance and subsequent risk of academic underachievement. Fifty three 4th year EGB-2 (Elementary School children of both sexes participated. They attend a suburban school outside the city of San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. Tests of Analogies and Building with Cubes of Wechsler ́s Intelligence Scale III (WISCIII were used in the process. Additionally, a register protocol was prepared by the research team. Outcomes were articulated with a demographic poll inquiring on the social-economic context of the children. Results reveal a proportion of 18.9 % of the children showing below standard records in cognitive abilities related to the aptitude in forming verbal concepts, and of 13.2 % in non- verbal concepts. Verbal abilities refer to the faculty of classifying and categorizing, for which the subject needs to organize, abstract and find relationship between facts or ideas and the comprehension of oral/audio assignments. Non- verbal abilities submit to the aptitude of making processes of analysis- synthesis and applying non- verbal reasoning to spatial relationships. This group of children was selected to receive – in second stage- training in these abilities through the Instrumental Enrichment Program. 

  7. Pragmatic Abilities of Children with Williams Syndrome: A Longitudinal Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela E. John

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research has indicated that pragmatics is an area of particular weakness for individuals with Williams syndrome (WS, the relations among different pragmatic abilities and the relations between pragmatic ability and expressive vocabulary ability have yet to be addressed. In addition, analyses of the relations between the same type of pragmatic ability over time have not been reported. The present study was designed to address these questions. We considered the pragmatic language abilities of 14 children with WS at two time points: as 4-year-olds during a 30-minute play-session with their mothers (Time 1 and an average of 5.87 years later during a one-on-one conversation with a familiar researcher (Time 2. Children’s intellectual and expressive vocabulary abilities were assessed at both time points. Results indicated that the ability to verbally contribute information beyond what was required in response to a question was significantly related to the ability to verbally contribute new information in the absence of a question both at age 4 years and during primary school. At age 4, both the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact (intersubjectivity and expressive vocabulary ability were related to the ability to verbally contribute information beyond what was expected within a social interaction. Finally, the ability to verbally contribute new information to a social interaction beyond what was required to answer a question and the ability to pair verbalizations with eye contact (intersubjectivity at age 4 years predicted the ability to verbally contribute new information beyond what was required to answer a question at age 9 – 12 years. The theoretical implications of our findings and the importance of early pragmatic language intervention for children who have WS are discussed.

  8. Spatial ability in children's play with Lego blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, M J

    1998-08-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability have been argued to originate from sex differences in children's play preferences. Child (30 boys and 20 girls) were asked to construct a specific three-dimensional model using Lego blocks and were also given the Shepard and Metzler test of mental rotation. Those who completed the Lego model scored significantly higher in spatial ability than those who did not. Constructional ability was also related to errors made during the construction of the model, but spatial ability was the best predictor of completion of the model.

  9. Individual differences in sign language abilities in deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meronen, Auli; Ahonen, Timo

    2008-01-01

    The study attempted to identify characteristics of individual differences in sign language abilities among deaf children. Connections between sign language skills and rapid serial naming, hand motor skills, and early fluency were investigated. The sample consisted of 85 Finnish deaf children. Their first language was sign language. Simple correlations and multiple linear-regression analysis demonstrated the effect of early language development and serial hand movements on sign language abilities. Other significant factors were serial fingertapping and serial naming. Heterogeneity in poor sign language users was noted. Although identifying learning disorders in deaf children is complicated, developmental difficulties can be discovered by appropriate measurements. The study confirmed the results of earlier research demonstrating that the features of deaf and hearing children's learning resemble each other. Disorders in signed and spoken languages may have similar bases despite their different modalities.

  10. La Inteligencia Social: Aportes Desde su Estudio en Niños y Adolescente con Altas Capacidades Cognitivas Social Intelligence: Contributions From its Study in Children and Adolescents With High Cognitive Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica López

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available El constructo de "inteligencia social" ha suscitado reiterados cuestionamientos a lo largo de la historia de la Psicología. Una forma de contribuir al debate es a través del estudio del razonamiento social en personas con altas capacidades cognitivas. Las puntuaciones de 50 niños y adolescentes con altas capacidades cognitivas en dos medidas de razonamiento social fueron comparadas con las de un grupo de pares de capacidad cognitiva media equiparados uno a uno en sexo y edad cronológica. Los resultados indican que estos niños y adolescentes presentan un rendimiento significativamente superior a sus pares en tareas relacionadas con la inteligencia social, destacando sobre todo en procesos de razonamiento que involucran la comprensión y definición del problema social, la planificación de estrategias y la anticipación de consecuencias sociales.The construct of "social intelligence" has aroused reiterated debates throughout the history of Psychology. One way to contribute to this debate is through the study of social reasoning in people with high cognitive abilities. The scores of 50 Spanish-speaking children and adolescents with high cognitive abilities in two measures of social reasoning were compared to age- and sex-matched peers of normotypical cognitive ability. The results indicate that high-ability children and adolescents present a significatively superior performance compared to their peers in tasks related with social intelligence, especially in reasoning processes which involve understanding and defining the social problem, planning social strategies and anticipating social consequences.

  11. The Ability of Children With Language Impairment to Dissemble Emotions in Hypothetical Scenarios and Natural Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin; Hurst, Noel Quist; Jones, Emily Rowberry; Spackman, Matthew P

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the ability of children with language impairment (LI) to dissemble (hide) emotional reactions when socially appropriate to do so. Twenty-two children with LI and their typically developing peers (7;1-10;11 [years;months]) participated in two tasks. First, participants were presented with hypothetical scenarios in which the main character was exposed to situations that would require dissembling an emotional reaction for social purposes (e.g., receiving a disappointing gift from a grandparent). In the second task, children were presented with four naturally occurring opportunities to dissemble emotion (e.g., receiving a disappointing reward for taking part in the study). Although the ability to dissemble emotion was still emerging in children in both groups, typically developing children judged that dissemblance was appropriate significantly more often than did children with LI in the hypothetical scenarios. In naturalistic scenarios, there was little difference between groups in low-cost scenarios (those in which the child had nothing to lose by hiding emotion). In the high-cost scenario (hiding emotion meant accepting a disappointing prize), more typically developing children concealed their disappointment than did children with LI. These differences neared statistical significance (p = .058). Children with typically developing language showed a greater ability to dissemble in hypothetical scenarios. In naturalistic scenarios, performance was more nuanced. In low-cost scenarios, there was little difference between groups. In the high-cost scenario, typically developing children tended to dissemble more often than did children with LI.

  12. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine the dimensionality of language ability for young children (4-8 years) from prekindergarten to third grade (n = 915), theorizing that measures of vocabulary and grammar ability will represent a unitary trait across these ages, and to determine whether discourse skills represent an additional source of variance in language ability. Results demonstrated emergent dimensionality of language across development with distinct factors of vocabulary, grammar, and discourse skills by third grade, confirming that discourse skills are an important source of variance in children's language ability and represent an important additional dimension to be accounted for in studying growth in language skills over the course of childhood. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.

  13. Impaired picture sequencing ability in children with premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuthapisith, Jariya; Jantarapagdee, Kakanang; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan; Nunnarumit, Pracha

    2014-07-01

    Children born preterm are at increased risk for executive dysfunction, which affects learning outcomes. Picture sequencing ability is considered as executive function (EF) that requires skills in working memory and organizing the pictures. Children born preterm might have difficulties in these skills. The present study aimed to develop practical Picture Sequencing test (PS test) and examine the sequencing ability in preterm children comparing with term children. The PS test was developed to assess the child's ability to arrange pictures into a sequence. It consisted of three conditions, which were daily activities, social interaction routines, and feeling expressions. Each story had four cartoon styles cards. The child had to rearrange picture cards into the correct sequence positions. Thirty preterm children aged five to six years with gestational ages of 32 weeks and birth weights of < 1,500 grams, and thirty-five term children matched age, gender child 's education, parental education, and socioeconomic status were performed the PS test. The total scores were compared between the preterm group and the term group. The PS test scores on the daily activities domain of the preterm and term group were 18 and 25 (p = 0.03), respectively. The scores on the social interaction routines domain ofthe preterm and term group were 20 and 28 (p = 0.01) and the scores on the feeling expression domain were 18.5 and25 (p = 0.03), respectively. There was no significant correlation between perinatal complications and the PS test scores. The preterm children with IQs in the average range showed impairment in sequencing ability compared with the term children. The results underline the need for follow-up care with more comprehensive assessment of EF.

  14. The Effects of Age, Singing Ability, and Instrumental Experiences on Preschool Children's Melodic Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jonny H.

    1983-01-01

    Study results revealed the following: (1) age affected the children's perception of melodic rhythm, contour, and interval; (2) high-ability singers scored higher than low-ability singers on perception of melodic rhythm, contour, and interval and tonal center; and (3) instrumental experience did not significantly affect perception of melodic…

  15. Influence of social factors on the relation between lie-telling and children's cognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Victoria; Lavoie, Jennifer; Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Crossman, Angela M

    2017-07-01

    Lie-telling may be part of a normative developmental process for children. However, little is known about the complex interaction of social and cognitive factors related to this developmental behavior. The current study examined parenting style, maternal exposure to stressors, and children's cognitive abilities in relation to children's antisocial lie-telling behavior in an experimental setting. Children (3-6years, N=157) participated in a modified temptation resistance paradigm to elicit spontaneous lies. Results indicate that high authoritative parenting and high inhibitory control interact to predict a lower propensity to lie, but those who did lie had better semantic leakage control. This suggests that although children's lie-telling may be normative during early development, the relation to children's cognitive abilities can be moderated by responsive parenting behaviors that discourage lying. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Language ability predicts the development of behavior problems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Isaac T; Bates, John E; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Coyne, Claire A; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Van Hulle, Carol A

    2013-05-01

    Prior studies have suggested, but not fully established, that language ability is important for regulating attention and behavior. Language ability may have implications for understanding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorders, as well as subclinical problems. This article reports findings from two longitudinal studies to test (a) whether language ability has an independent effect on behavior problems, and (b) the direction of effect between language ability and behavior problems. In Study 1 (N = 585), language ability was measured annually from ages 7 to 13 years by language subtests of standardized academic achievement tests administered at the children's schools. Inattentive-hyperactive (I-H) and externalizing (EXT) problems were reported annually by teachers and mothers. In Study 2 (N = 11,506), language ability (receptive vocabulary) and mother-rated I-H and EXT problems were measured biannually from ages 4 to 12 years. Analyses in both studies showed that language ability predicted within-individual variability in the development of I-H and EXT problems over and above the effects of sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and performance in other academic and intellectual domains (e.g., math, reading comprehension, reading recognition, and short-term memory [STM]). Even after controls for prior levels of behavior problems, language ability predicted later behavior problems more strongly than behavior problems predicted later language ability, suggesting that the direction of effect may be from language ability to behavior problems. The findings suggest that language ability may be a useful target for the prevention or even treatment of attention deficits and EXT problems in children.

  17. Delayed transplantation may affect intellectual ability in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiwon M; Jung, Yeon Kyung; Bae, Jeong-Hoon; Yoon, Sun Ah; Kim, Ju Hee; Choi, YoungRok; Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Ahn, Hye Young; Kim, Jae Won; Shin, Min-Sup; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Ha, Il-Soo; Cheong, Hae Il; Kang, Hee Gyung; Yi, Nam-Joon

    2017-07-17

    Decline in neurocognitive function is a reported complication in children with chronic illness. Concerns have been increasing that exposure to a major surgery or trauma may negatively impact cognitive performance in children. This study has evaluated cognitive function in 43 Korean children who received organ transplantation, and sought to identify associated clinical factors. Pediatric recipients of kidney (KT) or liver transplantation (LT) from years 1999 to 2011 were recruited for cognitive tests. Cognitive function was evaluated by Intelligent Quotient (IQ), Social Quotient (SQ), and Continuous Performance Test using Advanced Test for Attention (ATA) scores which reflect the attention ability. Intellectual delay was graded as intellectual disability (ID, IQ children. Pre-Tx duration was more significant than the age at transplantation or total disease duration per se. Early Tx may be beneficial for cognitive function in children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Current insights in the development of children's motor imagery ability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S.; Kamp, J. van der; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these

  19. Current insights in the development of children's motor imagery ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S.; Kamp, J. van der; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these

  20. Current insights in the development of children's motor imagery ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S.; Kamp, J. van der; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these stu

  1. Current insights in the development of children's motor imagery ability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S.; Kamp, J. van der; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies on motor imagery in children has witnessed a large expansion. Most studies used the hand laterality judgment paradigm or the mental chronometry paradigm to examine motor imagery ability. The main objective of the current review is to collate these stu

  2. The contribution of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to different aspects of mathematics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träff, Ulf

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to word problem solving, calculation, and arithmetic fact retrieval in a sample of 134 children aged 10 to 13 years. The following tasks were administered: listening span, visual matrix span, verbal fluency, color naming, Raven's Progressive Matrices, enumeration, number line estimation, and digit comparison. Hierarchical multiple regressions demonstrated that number abilities provided an independent contribution to fact retrieval and word problem solving. General cognitive abilities contributed to problem solving and calculation. All three number tasks accounted for a similar amount of variance in fact retrieval, whereas only the number line estimation task contributed unique variance in word problem solving. Verbal fluency and Raven's matrices accounted for an equal amount of variance in problem solving and calculation. The current findings demonstrate, in accordance with Fuchs and colleagues' developmental model of mathematical learning (Developmental Psychology, 2010, Vol. 46, pp. 1731-1746), that both number abilities and general cognitive abilities underlie 10- to 13-year-olds' proficiency in problem solving, whereas only number abilities underlie arithmetic fact retrieval. Thus, the amount and type of cognitive contribution to arithmetic proficiency varies between the different aspects of arithmetic. Furthermore, how closely linked a specific aspect of arithmetic is to the whole number representation systems is not the only factor determining the amount and type of cognitive contribution in 10- to 13-year-olds. In addition, the mathematical complexity of the task appears to influence the amount and type of cognitive support.

  3. The effect of three different educational approaches on children's drawing ability: Steiner, Montessori and traditional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, M V; Rowlands, A

    2000-12-01

    Although there is a national curriculum for art education in the UK there are also alternative approaches in the private sector. This paper addresses the issue of the effect of these approaches on children's drawing ability. To compare the drawing ability in three drawing tasks of children in Steiner, Montessori and traditional schools. The participants were 60 school children between the ages of 5;11 and 7;2. Twenty children were tested in each type of school. Each child completed three drawings: a free drawing, a scene and an observational drawing. As predicted, the free and scene drawings of children in the Steiner school were rated more highly than those of children in Montessori and traditional schools. Steiner children's use of colour was also rated more highly, although they did not use more colours than the other children. Steiner children used significantly more fantasy topics in their free drawings. Further observation indicated that the Steiner children were better at using the whole page and organising their drawings into a scene; their drawings were also more detailed. Contrary to previous research Montessori children did not draw more inanimate objects and geometrical shapes or fewer people than other children. Also, contrary to the prediction, Steiner children were significantly better rather than worse than other children at observational drawing. The results suggest that the approach to art education in Steiner schools is conducive not only to more highly rated imaginative drawings in terms of general drawing ability and use of colour but also to more accurate and detailed observational drawings.

  4. Timing Abilities among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) in Comparison to Children with Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara; Regev, Noga

    2013-01-01

    Timing ability is essential for common everyday performance. The aim of the study was to compare timing abilities and temporal aspects of handwriting performance and relationships between these two components among children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD) and a control group. Forty two children, 21 diagnosed as DCD and 21 with…

  5. Metalinguistic Ability in Bilingual Children: The Role of Executive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Although bilingual children tend to obtain lower scores than their monolingual peers on tests of formal language ability, they exhibit a processing advantage on non-verbal executive control (EC) tasks. This advantage may be attributable to EC practice that bilinguals routinely receive from the constant need to manage attention to two jointly activated languages. Metalinguistic tasks, unlike linguistic tasks, require children to access both their language knowledge (i.e., representations) and recruit EC ability; that is, metalinguistic tasks require children to use attentional processes to operate on linguistic forms. In this article, we review our recent studies examining linguistic and metalinguistic abilities in tasks that differed in the extent to which solutions were based on linguistic knowledge (representations) or control processes, allowing us to examine the relative contribution of each to bilingual language processing. Results indicate that bilinguals’ superior EC ability allows them to compensate for weaker linguistic knowledge in metalinguistic tasks where greater recruitment of control processes is required. PMID:24782696

  6. A Structural Analysis on Korean Young Children's Mathematical Ability and Its Related Children's and Mothers' Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Jung; Kim, Jihyun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the structural relationships among variables that predict the mathematical ability of young children, namely young children's mathematical attitude, exposure to private mathematical learning, mothers' view about their children's mathematical learning, and mothers' mathematical attitude. To this end, we…

  7. A Structural Analysis on Korean Young Children's Mathematical Ability and Its Related Children's and Mothers' Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Jung; Kim, Jihyun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the structural relationships among variables that predict the mathematical ability of young children, namely young children's mathematical attitude, exposure to private mathematical learning, mothers' view about their children's mathematical learning, and mothers' mathematical attitude. To this end, we…

  8. Hand preference, performance abilities and hand selection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Marie Scharoun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is widely know that the pattern of human handedness is such that approximately 90% of the population is right handed with the remainder being left handed, at least in the adult population. What is less well understood is how handedness develops and at what age adult-like handedness patterns emerge. Quantified in terms of both preference and performance, a plethora of different behavioural assessments are currently in use with both children and adults. Handedness questionnaires are commonly used; however, these possess inherent limitations, considering their subjective nature. Hand performance measures have also been implemented; however, such tasks appear to measure different components of handedness. In addition to these traditional measures, handedness has been successfully assessed through observation of hand selection in reaching, which has proven to be a unique and effective manner in understanding the development of handedness in children. Research over the past several decades has demonstrated that young children display weak, inconsistent hand preference tendencies and are slower with both hands. Performance differences between the hands are larger for young children, and consistency improves with age. However, there remains some controversy surrounding the age at which hand preference and hand performance abilities can be considered fully developed. The following paper will provide a review of the literature pertaining to hand preference, performance abilities and hand selection in children in an attempt to ascertain the age at which adult-like patterns of hand preference and performance emerge.

  9. Aberrant behavior and cognitive ability in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Gustav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The sample included 712 preschool boys and girls at the age of 4 to 7 years (mean 5.96 decimal years and standard deviation .96 from preschool institutions in Novi Sad, Sombor, Sremska Mitrovica and Bačka Palanka. Information concerning 36 indicators of aberrant behavior of the children were supplied by their parents, whereas their cognitive ability was tested by Raven’s progressive colored matrices. Based on factor analysis (promax method, four factors i.e. generators of aberrant behavior in children were singled out: aggression, anxiousness, dissociation, and hysteria, whose relations with cognitive functioning and age were also analyzed by factor analysis. Aberrant behavior and cognitive abilities show significant interrelatedness. Owing to orderly developed cognitive abilities, a child understands essence and reality of problems, realizes possibilities and manners of solving them, and succeeds in realizing successful psycho-social functioning. Developed cognitive abilities enable a child to recognize and understand her/his own reactions in different situations and develop manners of reacting, which leads to strengthening psycho-social safety and adapting behavior in accordance with her/his age and abilities.

  10. Grammatical Abilities of Greek-Speaking Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Arhonto; Marinis, Theodoros; Kotsopoulou, Angeliki; Francis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates pronoun reference and verbs with nonactive morphology in high-functioning Greek-speaking children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). It is motivated by problems with reflexive pronouns demonstrated by English-speaking children with ASD and the fact that reflexivity is also expressed via nonactive (reflexive) verbs in…

  11. Finger gnosia: a predictor of numerical abilities in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2005-10-01

    This paper aimed to test the specificity of predicting power of finger gnosia on later numerical abilities in school-age children and to contribute to the understanding of this effect. Forty-one children were tested in the beginning of Grade 1 on finger gnosia, left-right orientation (another sign of the Gerstmann "syndrome"), and global development. Fifteen months later, numerical and reading abilities were assessed. Analyses of the results indicated that, contrary to the general measures of cognitive development, performance in the finger gnosia test was a good predictor of numerical skills 1 year later but not of reading skills, which proves the specificity of that predictor. The same conclusion was also true for the left-right orientation. However, finger gnosia could equally predict performance in numerical tasks that do or do not rely heavily on finger representation or on magnitude representation. Results are discussed in terms of the localizationist and the functional hypotheses.

  12. Static Balance Ability in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mitsiou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination of 8/9-year-old school aged children and the detection of possible differences in balance performance between those children assessed with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD and matched peers. It was found that 20 children out of the total number of 200 participating in this study, exhibited definite motor difficulties indicating a DCD disorder.The 20 students diagnosed with DCD were matched one by one with typically developing children participated in a detailed study of balance control. The main finding of the present study was the ability to control balance in both Anterior Posterior (A/P and Medio Lateral (M/L directions was inferior in students with DCD than in typically developing children. The findings reinforce the need for the evaluation of balance performance in school-aged children, in order specific individual motor profiles to be established for optimizing and adapting appropriate intervention programs.

  13. Visual scanning and reading ability in normal and dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, G; Mazzotti, S; Brizzolara, D

    2008-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated the development of visual search of aligned stimuli in relation to normal reading acquisition and in developmental dyslexia. In this study we used a new computerised experimental task which requires a visuo-motor response (RT) to a target appearing unpredictably in one out of seven different spatial positions on a horizontally aligned array of 18 geometrical figures. The aims of the study were to investigate: 1) the visual scanning development in normal children from pre-school to school age; 2) whether visual scanning performance in kindergarten children could predict reading acquisition; 3) the visual scanning abilities in a group of developmental dyslexic children. The main results were: 1) a significant decrement of RTs with age and a progressive increase of the left-to-right gradient with reading experience; 2) visual scanning abilities in kindergarten proved to be a good predictor of reading acquisition; 3) dyslexics were slow scanners and did not present the left-to-right strategy typical of normal readers. The results support the hypothesis of a relationship between visual scanning and reading abilities.

  14. Planning ability in children with mild intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buha Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning is considered one of the most complex cognitive abilities, which involves creating a mental representation of problems, evaluating several possible ways of solving them and their consequences. The aim of this paper is to determine the developmental level of planning ability in children with mild intellectual disability (MID. The sample consists of 93 children of both sexes, aged between 10 and 14. The average IQ level in the sample is about 60 (AS=60.45, SD=7.26, while minimum and maximum values are within the defined levels for the category of mild intellectual disability (50-70. Data on age and the level of the students' intellectual functioning were taken from the school records. Tower of London test was used in the assessment of planning abilities. By analyzing the results, it was determined that most children with MID use insufficiently efficient strategies in problem solving. Most of the participants (57% are uncertain in solving problems (intermediary level. A quarter of the participants successfully use higher strategies, while 16.1% use perceptive strategy, i.e. trial-error method. Significant negative correlation was determined between the IQ and the number of ball movements, and the time needed to perform the task. The correlation between the IQ and the total number of solved problems is positive. The variability of success in solving problems is not significantly related to the age and gender of the participants.

  15. Reading ability and phonological awareness in Japanese children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Ayumi; Kassai, Kazumi; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Koeda, Tatsuya

    2008-03-01

    In alphabetic languages, the deficit of the phonological awareness is considered as the core deficit in developmental dyslexia. However, the role of phonological awareness in the acquisition of reading Japanese kana, the transparent, mora-based phonogram, has not been understood completely. We examine the abilities of Japanese dyslexic children on different types of Japanese phonological tasks, and discussed which tasks significantly account for each aspect of reading ability. Fifteen dyslexic children (9.53+/-1.52 years old), and 15 children with normal reading ability (9.17+/-0.90 years old) participated in this study. They performed three types of phonological awareness tasks. The mora counting task and the mora reversal task of words require phonological awareness at the mora level. The letter rhyming task, which resembles the task in English language, requires phonological awareness at the phoneme level. We evaluated the reading ability by the reading speed, the reading errors, and the number of pauses while reading sentences aloud. The task performances of the dyslexic group on all three phonological awareness tasks were significantly lower than those of the control group. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the mora counting task and the rhyming letter task most significantly explained the reading speed and number of reading pauses. The mora reversal task of words, together with the antegraded digit span, significantly explained the reading errors. Japanese dyslexics showed deficits of phonological awareness both at the mora and the phoneme levels. Phonological awareness must be crucial for acquiring the ability of decoding phonograms, including Japanese kana.

  16. Profiling oral narrative ability in young school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if oral narrative comprehension and production measures derived in a fictional story retelling task could be used to create a profile of strengths and weaknesses in oral narrative ability (Profile of Oral Narrative Ability: PONA) in young school-aged children. The story retelling task was field-tested with 169 typically developing children, aged between 5;0 and 7;6 years. Children listened twice to an unfamiliar story while looking at the pictures in a book. Comprehension questions were asked after the first exposure. Following the second exposure, children were asked to retell the story without the use of the pictures. Story retellings were analysed on measures of semantics, morphosyntax, verbal productivity, and narrative quality. Results indicated sensitivity for age on measures of comprehension, narrative quality, semantics, and verbal productivity, but not for morphosyntactic measures. Factor analysis indicated that oral narrative performance comprised three factors, explaining more than 80% of the variance. Two clinical case examples are presented, which show the potential of the PONA to reveal different patterns of strengths and weaknesses across the oral narrative measures. Although early evidence suggests the potential usefulness of the PONA, further research is now needed to test the validity, reliability and clinical application of this tool.

  17. Evaluation of hearing ability in Danish children at the time of school start and at the end of school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, S.; Mortensen, Jens Tølbøll; Juul, S.

    2002-01-01

    in North Jutland County, Denmark were evaluated for hearing ability by a review of 1,605 school health records. We found a higher prevalence of impaired hearing ability in children who started school 1987 and 1997 compared to those who started school 1977. Reduced hearing was typically at high frequencies......Since previous studies have shown reduced hearing ability in children and adolescents at school start, this study was undertaken to evaluate the hearing ability in Danish children at the time of start and end of school. Children starting school in 1977, 1987, and 1997 from four minor municipalities....... At the end of school, hearing ability of the year group 1977 was just as poor as for the year group 1987. Whether reduced hearing can influence the learning abilities of these children should be evaluated by further studies including information on the exposure to noise....

  18. Determining the Criteria that Can Predict Children's Writing Ability : An Examination of Teachers' and Students' Evaluation of Children's Compositions

    OpenAIRE

    梶井,芳明

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the criteria that can predict developmental changes of elementary school children's composition writing ability. Participants were 21 elementary school teachers and 29 college students. Using the 18 evaluation criteria derived from the Japanese National Standards, participants were asked to evaluate narrative compositions written by children from different grade levels: low grade (grades 1 and 2), middle grade (grades 3 and 4) and high grade (grades 5 and 6). Bas...

  19. White matter microstructures underlying mathematical abilities in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eimeren, Lucia; Niogi, Sumit N; McCandliss, Bruce D; Holloway, Ian D; Ansari, Daniel

    2008-07-16

    The role of gray matter function and structure in mathematical cognition has been well researched. Comparatively little is known about white matter microstructures associated with mathematical abilities. Diffusion tensor imaging data from 13 children (7-9 years) and two measures of their mathematical competence were collected. Relationships between children's mathematical competence and fractional anisotropy were found in two left hemisphere white matter regions. Although the superior corona radiata was found to be associated with both numerical operations and mathematical reasoning, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus was correlated with numerical operations specifically. These findings suggest a role for microstructure in left white matter tracts for the development of mathematical skills. Moreover, the findings point to the involvement of different white matter tracts for numerical operations and mathematical reasoning.

  20. The Influence of Spelling Ability on Vocabulary Choices When Writing for Children With Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Emma; Connelly, Vincent; Barnett, Anna L

    2016-01-01

    Spelling is a prerequisite to expressing vocabulary in writing. Research has shown that children with dyslexia are hesitant spellers when composing. This study aimed to determine whether the hesitant spelling of children with dyslexia, evidenced by frequent pausing, affects vocabulary choices when writing. A total of 31 children with dyslexia, mean age 9 years, were compared to typically developing groups of children: the first matched by age, the second by spelling ability. Oral vocabulary was measured and children completed a written and verbal compositional task. Lexical diversity comparisons were made across written and verbal compositions to highlight the constraint of having to select and spell words. A digital writing tablet recorded the writing. Children with dyslexia and the spelling-ability group made a high proportion of spelling errors and within-word pauses, and had a lower lexical diversity within their written compositions compared to their verbal compositions. The age-matched peers demonstrated the opposite pattern. Spelling ability and pausing predicted 53% of the variance in written lexical diversity of children with dyslexia, demonstrating the link between spelling and vocabulary when writing. Oral language skills had no effect. Lexical diversity correlated with written and verbal text quality for all groups. Practical implications are discussed and related to writing models.

  1. Developmental abilities in children with mild visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analyzing the relation between visual acuity and developmental abilities (perceptive functions, verbal and non-verbal abilities in younger school children. The sample consists of 1165 children from urban, suburban, and rural parts of Belgrade, of both genders, aged between 7.5 and 11. American 'Lighthouse' Optotype was used for screening assessment of visual acuity. Mild visual impairment, i.e. near visual acuity in the better eye ranging from 0.3 to 0.7, was detected in 7.9% of the pupils. ACADIA test of developmental abilities was used for the assessment of developmental abilities. When compared to the examinees with visual acuity in the better eye ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 (mild amblyopia, the examinees with normal visual acuity achieved better results in visuomotor coordination, non-verbal reasoning (Visual Association subtest, and concept formation in non-verbal domain (Sequence and Coding subtest. No significant differences were determined in constructive praxis (Drawing Shapes subtest and representational dimension of a drawing (Drawing subtest. According to the criterion of age standard deviation, a statistically significant difference was determined between the examinees with mild visual impairment and the examinees with normal vision (χ2=13,425, df=2, p=0,001; ρ=0,103, p≤0,000. The results of 24.8% of the examinees with mild visual impairment deviate from age norms in one or two SD (14.9% in one SD, and 9.9% in two SD. In the group of examinees with normal vision 12.5% of the results deviate from age norms in one or two SD (8.7% in one SD, and 3.8% in two SD.

  2. Heritability of high reading ability and its interaction with parental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Angela; DeFries, John C; Olson, Richard K; Pennington, Bruce; Harlaar, Nicole; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Willcutt, Erik G; Wadsworth, Sally J; Corley, Robin; Keenan, Janice M

    2009-07-01

    Moderation of the level of genetic influence on children's high reading ability by environmental influences associated with parental education was explored in two independent samples of identical and fraternal twins from the United States and Great Britain. For both samples, the heritability of high reading performance increased significantly with lower levels of parental education. Thus, resilience (high reading ability despite lower environmental support) is more strongly influenced by genotype than is high reading ability with higher environmental support. This result provides a coherent account when considered alongside results of previous research showing that heritability for low reading ability decreased with lower levels of parental education.

  3. High Intellectual Ability: Extracurricular Enrichment and Cognitive Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to provide a better understanding of high intellectual abilities and of how to address the educational needs of those who possess such abilities. Within the emergent paradigm, high intellectual abilities are understood as multidimensional and as the result of lifetime development; that is, not only are they the result of their…

  4. Numerical magnitude processing in abacus-trained children with superior mathematical ability: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Du, Feng-lei; Yao, Yuan; Wan, Qun; Wang, Xiao-Song; Chen, Fei-Yan

    2015-08-01

    Distance effect has been regarded as the best established marker of basic numerical magnitude processes and is related to individual mathematical abilities. A larger behavioral distance effect is suggested to be concomitant with lower mathematical achievement in children. However, the relationship between distance effect and superior mathematical abilities is unclear. One could get superior mathematical abilities by acquiring the skill of abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), which can be used to solve calculation problems with exceptional speed and high accuracy. In the current study, we explore the relationship between distance effect and superior mathematical abilities by examining whether and how the AMC training modifies numerical magnitude processing. Thus, mathematical competencies were tested in 18 abacus-trained children (who accepted the AMC training) and 18 non-trained children. Electroencephalography (EEG) waveforms were recorded when these children executed numerical comparison tasks in both Arabic digit and dot array forms. We found that: (a) the abacus-trained group had superior mathematical abilities than their peers; (b) distance effects were found both in behavioral results and on EEG waveforms; (c) the distance effect size of the average amplitude on the late negative-going component was different between groups in the digit task, with a larger effect size for abacus-trained children; (d) both the behavioral and EEG distance effects were modulated by the notation. These results revealed that the neural substrates of magnitude processing were modified by AMC training, and suggested that the mechanism of the representation of numerical magnitude for children with superior mathematical abilities was different from their peers. In addition, the results provide evidence for a view of non-abstract numerical representation.

  5. Parent and Teacher Views of Gifted Children's Social Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Briar; Porath, Marion

    1997-01-01

    This study compared parent and teacher perceptions of 23 gifted children's (ages 6-12) social skills and the importance of different social skills. Teacher ratings of cooperation were significantly higher than parent ratings, and teachers valued cooperation highly. Parent ratings of assertion were significantly higher than teacher ratings, and…

  6. Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment: Differences and Similarities in Pragmatic Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Pernille; Nettelbladt, Ulrika; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2009-01-01

    Pragmatically related abilities were studied in three clinical groups of children from 5 to 11 years of age; children with cerebral palsy (CP; n = 10), children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH; n = 10) and children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI; n = 10), in order to explore pragmatic abilities within each group. A range of…

  7. Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment: Differences and Similarities in Pragmatic Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Pernille; Nettelbladt, Ulrika; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2009-01-01

    Pragmatically related abilities were studied in three clinical groups of children from 5 to 11 years of age; children with cerebral palsy (CP; n = 10), children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH; n = 10) and children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI; n = 10), in order to explore pragmatic abilities within each group. A range of…

  8. Sound localization ability of young children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijen, J.W.; Snik, A.F.M.; Mylanus, E.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefit of bilateral cochlear implantation in young children. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical trial comparing a group of bilaterally implanted children with a group of unilaterally implanted children. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Five bilaterally implanted children

  9. Measurement of narrative discourse ability in children with language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, B Z; Duffy, R J; Merritt, D D; Purcell, S L

    1995-04-01

    Narratives from three studies differing in subject pools, elicitation procedures, and story content were analyzed using seven variables hypothesized to measure a variety of language abilities used in narrative production. Two questions were addressed: (a) To what extent did multiple variables represent common factors? and (b) To what extent did these variables distinguish children with language disorder from their nondisordered peers? Results indicated that: (a) The seven variables represented two factors; Factor I measured global organization of content (i.e., episode structure), and Factor II measured within- and across-sentence structure (i.e., grammatical sentence structure, within subordinate clause productivity, and textual cohesion), and (b) regardless of study, only the variables representing Factor II were selected as the most effective in predicting group membership.

  10. Spatial anxiety relates to spatial abilities as a function of working memory in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2012-01-01

    Spatial ability is a strong predictor of students' pursuit of higher education in science and mathematics. However, very little is known about the affective factors that influence individual differences in spatial ability, particularly at a young age. We examine the role of spatial anxiety in young children's performance on a mental rotation task. We show that even at a young age, children report experiencing feelings of nervousness at the prospect of engaging in spatial activities. Moreover, we show that these feelings are associated with reduced mental rotation ability among students with high but not low working memory (WM). Interestingly, this WM × spatial anxiety interaction was only found among girls. We discuss these patterns of results in terms of the problem-solving strategies that boys versus girls use in solving mental rotation problems.

  11. Child Modifiability as a Predictor of Language Abilities in Deaf Children Who Use American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Wolfgang; Peña, Elizabeth D; Morgan, Gary

    2015-08-01

    This research explored the use of dynamic assessment (DA) for language-learning abilities in signing deaf children from deaf and hearing families. Thirty-seven deaf children, aged 6 to 11 years, were identified as either stronger (n = 26) or weaker (n = 11) language learners according to teacher or speech-language pathologist report. All children received 2 scripted, mediated learning experience sessions targeting vocabulary knowledge—specifically, the use of semantic categories that were carried out in American Sign Language. Participant responses to learning were measured in terms of an index of child modifiability. This index was determined separately at the end of the 2 individual sessions. It combined ratings reflecting each child's learning abilities and responses to mediation, including social-emotional behavior, cognitive arousal, and cognitive elaboration. Group results showed that modifiability ratings were significantly better for stronger language learners than for weaker language learners. The strongest predictors of language ability were cognitive arousal and cognitive elaboration. Mediator ratings of child modifiability (i.e., combined score of social-emotional factors and cognitive factors) are highly sensitive to language-learning abilities in deaf children who use sign language as their primary mode of communication. This method can be used to design targeted interventions.

  12. Lessons Learned from Working with High-Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses three lessons that stand out as particularly poignant in the author's career working with high-ability students. The author recounts personal and professional experiences that influenced his thinking. The three lessons are that identifying high-ability students is not an easy business, the development of talent requires more…

  13. Gamma power in rural Pakistani children: Links to executive function and verbal ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda R. Tarullo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Children in low- and middle-income countries are at high risk of cognitive deficits due to environmental deprivation that compromises brain development. Despite the high prevalence of unrealized cognitive potential, very little is known about neural correlates of cognition in this population. We assessed resting EEG power and cognitive ability in 105 highly disadvantaged 48-month-old children in rural Pakistan. An increase in EEG power in gamma frequency bands (21–30 Hz and 31–45 Hz was associated with better executive function. For girls, EEG gamma power also related to higher verbal IQ. This study identifies EEG gamma power as a neural marker of cognitive function in disadvantaged children in low- and middle-income countries. Elevated gamma power may be a particularly important protective factor for girls, who may experience greater deprivation due to gender inequality.

  14. Relationship between static postural control and the level of functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavão, Sílvia L.; Nunes, Gabriela S.; Santos, Adriana N.; Rocha, Nelci A. C. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postural control deficits can impair functional performance in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in daily living activities. Objective: To verify the relationship between standing static postural control and the functional ability level in children with CP. Method: The postural control of 10 children with CP (gross motor function levels I and II) was evaluated during static standing on a force platform for 30 seconds. The analyzed variables were the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) displacement of the center of pressure (CoP) and the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation. The functional abilities were evaluated using the mean Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) scores, which evaluated self-care, mobility and social function in the domains of functional abilities and caregiver assistance. Results: Spearman's correlation test found a relationship between postural control and functional abilities. The results showed a strong negative correlation between the variables of ML displacement of CoP, the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation and the PEDI scores in the self-care and caregiver assistance domains. Additionally, a moderate negative correlation was found between the area of the CoP oscillation and the mobility scores in the caregiver assistance domain. We used a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). Conclusions: We observed that children with cerebral palsy with high CoP oscillation values had lower caregiver assistance scores for activities of daily living (ADL) and consequently higher levels of caregiver dependence. These results demonstrate the repercussions of impairments to the body structure and function in terms of the activity levels of children with CP such that postural control impairments in these children lead to higher requirements for caregiver assistance. PMID:25054383

  15. The development of future thinking: young children's ability to construct event sequences to achieve future goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Janani; Hudson, Judith A

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that the ability to think about and act on the future emerges between 3 and 5 years of age. However, it is unclear what underlying processes change during the development of early future-oriented behavior. We report three experiments that tested the emergence of future thinking ability through children's ability to explicitly maintain future goals and construct future scenarios. Our main objectives were to examine the effects of goal structure and the effects of working memory demands on children's ability to construct future scenarios and make choices to satisfy future goals. The results indicate that 4-year-olds were able to successfully accomplish two temporally ordered goals even with high working memory demands and a complex goal structure, whereas 3-year-olds were able to accomplish two goals only when the working memory demands were low and the goal structure did not involve additional demands from inferential reasoning and contingencies between the temporally ordered goals. Results are discussed in terms of the development of future thinking in conjunction with working memory, inferential reasoning ability, and goal maintenance abilities.

  16. On the Primary Factors Affecting Linguistic Ability in Pre-School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahuhta, Eila

    This study tested the hypothesis that children with weaker speech ability have greater difficulties in perception, powers of reasoning and spatial orientation than children with better speech ability, and assessed the value of Apgar scores as a predictive measure of later linguistic disorders. Subjects were 100 children born in 1970 who attended…

  17. Phonological Abilities of Hearing-Impaired Cantonese-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants or Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Zoe W. Y.; So, Lydia K. H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article examined the phonological skills of 2 groups of Cantonese-speaking children with prelingual, profound bilateral hearing loss. The phonological abilities of 7 children fitted with hearing aids were compared with the abilities of 7 children who wore cochlear implants. Method: Participants in each group ranged in age from 5;1…

  18. Motor Imagery Ability in Children with Congenital Hemiplegia: Effect of Lesion Side and Functional Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacqueline; Reid, Susan M.; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Anderson, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    In addition to motor execution problems, children with hemiplegia have motor planning deficits, which may stem from poor motor imagery ability. This study aimed to provide a greater understanding of motor imagery ability in children with hemiplegia using the hand rotation task. Three groups of children, aged 8-12 years, participated: right…

  19. Construct Validity of the Children's Hand-Skills Ability Questionnaire (CHSQ) in Children with Disabilities: A Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chi-Wen; Brown, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The Children's Hand-Skill ability Questionnaire (CHSQ) is a new parent-report questionnaire that assesses children's manual ability in three domains: leisure and play, school/education, and activities of daily living. The CHSQ can be used with children presenting with a range of disabilities and works as a companion assessment before detailed…

  20. [Association between intelligence development and facial expression recognition ability in children with autism spectrum disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ning; Wu, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Ya-Fen; Guan, Han; Xu, Cai-Juan; Jing, Jin; Jin, Yu

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the features of intelligence development, facial expression recognition ability, and the association between them in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A total of 27 ASD children aged 6-16 years (ASD group, full intelligence quotient >70) and age- and gender-matched normally developed children (control group) were enrolled. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition and Chinese Static Facial Expression Photos were used for intelligence evaluation and facial expression recognition test. Compared with the control group, the ASD group had significantly lower scores of full intelligence quotient, verbal comprehension index, perceptual reasoning index (PRI), processing speed index(PSI), and working memory index (WMI) (Pchildren have delayed intelligence development compared with normally developed children and impaired expression recognition ability. Perceptual reasoning and working memory abilities are positively correlated with expression recognition ability, which suggests that insufficient perceptual reasoning and working memory abilities may be important factors affecting facial expression recognition ability in ASD children.

  1. My opinion on upgrading high school English learning ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng yusi

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, English has become the difficult problems for high school students to overcome. This article begins with the cultivation of English, and then from the perspectives of grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and listening ability to discuss the enhancement of English ability of the students.

  2. Investigating eye movement patterns, language, and social ability in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Steven D; Linnell, Karina J; Heaton, Pamela

    2014-05-01

    Although all intellectually high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display core social and communication deficits, some develop language within a normative timescale and others experience significant delays and subsequent language impairment. Early attention to social stimuli plays an important role in the emergence of language, and reduced attention to faces has been documented in infants later diagnosed with ASD. We investigated the extent to which patterns of attention to social stimuli would differentiate early and late language onset groups. Children with ASD (mean age = 10 years) differing on language onset timing (late/normal) and a typically developing comparison group completed a task in which visual attention to interacting and noninteracting human figures was mapped using eye tracking. Correlations on visual attention data and results from tests measuring current social and language ability were conducted. Patterns of visual attention did not distinguish typically developing children and ASD children with normal language onset. Children with ASD and late language onset showed significantly reduced attention to salient social stimuli. Associations between current language ability and social attention were observed. Delay in language onset is associated with current language skills as well as with specific eye-tracking patterns.

  3. Inferential Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Pernille; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the ability to make inferences in three groups of children ranging from 5;2 to 10;9 years: 10 children with cerebral palsy (CP), 10 children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH) and 10 children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI). The relationship between inferential and literal…

  4. Inferential Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Pernille; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the ability to make inferences in three groups of children ranging from 5;2 to 10;9 years: 10 children with cerebral palsy (CP), 10 children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH) and 10 children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI). The relationship between inferential and literal…

  5. Prenatal and postnatal polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure and visual spatial abilities in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Ann M; Braun, Joseph M; Yolton, Kimberly; Xie, Changchun; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2017-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are associated with impaired visual spatial abilities in toxicological studies, but no epidemiologic study has investigated PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in children. The Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a prospective birth cohort (2003-2006, Cincinnati, OH), was used to examine prenatal and childhood PBDEs and visual spatial abilities in 199 children. PBDEs were measured at 16±3 weeks gestation and at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years using gas chromatography/isotope dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. We used the Virtual Morris Water Maze to measure visual spatial abilities at 8 years. In covariate-adjusted models, 10-fold increases in BDE-47, -99, and -100 at 5 years were associated with shorter completion times by 5.2s (95% Confidence Interval [CI] -9.3, -1.1), 4.5s (95% CI -8.1, -0.9), and 4.7s (95% CI -9.0, -0.3), respectively. However, children with higher BDE-153 at 3 years had longer completion times (β=5.4s, 95% CI -0.3, 11.1). Prenatal PBDEs were associated with improved visual spatial memory retention, with children spending a higher percentage of their search path in the correct quadrant. Child sex modified some associations between PBDEs and visual spatial learning. Longer path lengths were observed among males with increased BDE-47 at 2 and 3 years, while females had shorter paths. In conclusion, prenatal and postnatal BDE-28, -47, -99, and -100 at 5 and 8 years were associated with improved visual spatial abilities, whereas a pattern of impairments in visual spatial learning was noted with early childhood BDE-153 concentrations.

  6. Predictors of Spelling Ability in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lisa; Arciuli, Joanne; Rickard Liow, Susan; Munro, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether there are processing differences between children with Down syndrome (DS; n = 22; 7 years 8 months to 13 years 10 months) and typically developing children (TD; n = 22; 6 years 6 months to 10 years 10 months), matched for receptive vocabulary. The TD children performed better on tests of nonverbal intelligence…

  7. Associations between Conceptual Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Adaptive Ability in High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Diane L.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Walker, Jon D.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Goldstein, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Abstract thinking is generally highly correlated with problem-solving ability which is predictive of better adaptive functioning. Measures of conceptual reasoning, an ecologically-valid laboratory measure of problem-solving, and a report measure of adaptive functioning in the natural environment, were administered to children and adults with and…

  8. Gender stereotypes about intellectual ability emerge early and influence children's interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Lin; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Cimpian, Andrei

    2017-01-27

    Common stereotypes associate high-level intellectual ability (brilliance, genius, etc.) with men more than women. These stereotypes discourage women's pursuit of many prestigious careers; that is, women are underrepresented in fields whose members cherish brilliance (such as physics and philosophy). Here we show that these stereotypes are endorsed by, and influence the interests of, children as young as 6. Specifically, 6-year-old girls are less likely than boys to believe that members of their gender are "really, really smart." Also at age 6, girls begin to avoid activities said to be for children who are "really, really smart." These findings suggest that gendered notions of brilliance are acquired early and have an immediate effect on children's interests.

  9. [Evidence against the myth of adjustment problems of people with high intellectual abilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges del Rosal, Africa; Hernández-Jorge, Carmen; Rodríguez-Naveiras, Elena

    2011-08-01

    Personal and social adjustment of high-ability children and adolescents is a very important issue in the specialized literature. The differences found between data for and against appropriate adjustment in gifted children and adolescents could be explained by conceptual or methodological biases. In this work, the relation between adjustment and high abilities are contrasted in a sample of teenagers from the Canary Islands, using a screening procedure based on their scores in intelligence tests. Results show that, although gifted adolescents differ significantly from their peers in the control group in socio-economic variables and academic performance, there are no differences in personal, social and educational adjustment. We conclude that adjustment problems and high ability are independent variables, and there is no evidence to support that gifted individuals have adjustment problems.

  10. The role of early language abilities on math skills among Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Fan, Xitao; Cheung, Sum Kwing; Meng, Yaxuan; Cai, Zhihui; Hu, Bi Ying

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of early language abilities in the development of math skills among Chinese K-3 students. About 2000 children in China, who were on average aged 6 years, were assessed for both informal math (e.g., basic number concepts such as counting objects) and formal math (calculations including addition and subtraction) skills, language abilities and nonverbal intelligence. Correlation analysis showed that language abilities were more strongly associated with informal than formal math skills, and regression analyses revealed that children's language abilities could uniquely predict both informal and formal math skills with age, gender, and nonverbal intelligence controlled. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationship between children's language abilities and formal math skills was partially mediated by informal math skills. The current findings indicate 1) Children's language abilities are of strong predictive values for both informal and formal math skills; 2) Language abilities impacts formal math skills partially through the mediation of informal math skills.

  11. Desirable characteristics for teachers of High Ability/Gifted students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra da Costa Souza Martins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the desirable educational background for a teacher to work with high ability/gifted students, desirable characteristics these teachers should present and conceptions on high ability/giftedness. The participants were 20 public school teachers from a city surrounding Brasilia. Of this group, ten were elementary school teachers working with initial grades and ten were undergraduate Pedagogy teachers. A qualitative approach was used and data were collected by means of a semi-structured interview. A content analysis was then conducted. In relation to the desirable educational background for a teach of high ability/gifted students, participants indicated the need of continuous training, under graduation curriculum adapted to the theme and graduation courses in the area. The desirable features for teachers of high ability/gifted students were related to personological attributes (personality traits and intellectual ability, as well as professional characteristics. The conceptions on high ability/giftedness presented by the participants were, in general, close to those found in the literature and used as reference for this study. However, there was lack of information on how to apply the theory into real practice, as well as several wrong ideas on the topic.

  12. Static Balance Ability in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Mitsiou; Paraskevi Giagazoglou; Maria Sidiropoulou; Georgios Kotsikas; Vasileios Tsimaras; Eleni Fotiadou

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was the examination of disorders in motor coordination of 8/9-year-old school aged children and the detection of possible differences in balance performance between those children assessed with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and matched peers. It was found that 20 children out of the total number of 200 participating in this study, exhibited definite motor difficulties indicating a DCD disorder.The 20 students diagnosed with DCD were matc...

  13. Brief Report: Developmental Change in Theory of Mind Abilities in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Shelly; Joseph, Robert M.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal study investigated developmental change in theory of mind among 57 children (ages 4-14) with autism. Theory of mind tests were administered on an initial visit and one year later. Data indicated significant developmental improvement in theory of mind ability, which was primarily related to the children's language ability. (Contains…

  14. Metalinguistic Abilities of Young Hearing-Impaired Children: Performance on a Judgment of Synonomy Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Deborah L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Metalinguistic abilities of 20 hearing-impaired children, aged 4-10, were assessed by asking them to judge synonymy of sentence pairs presented in Signed English, Pidgin Sign English, and American Sign Language. None of the children had developed metalinguistic abilities in any of the sign language systems. (Author/JDD)

  15. Children's and Adolescents' Thoughts on Pollution: Cognitive Abilities Required to Understand Environmental Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Manuel; Kohen, Raquel; Delval, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Pollution phenomena are complex systems in which different parts are integrated by means of causal and temporal relationships. To understand pollution, children must develop some cognitive abilities related to system thinking and temporal and causal inferential reasoning. These cognitive abilities constrain and guide how children understand…

  16. Bilingual children's language abilities and early reading outcomes in Head Start and kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Lawrence, Frank R; Miccio, Adele W

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Head Start children's receptive language development and their kindergarten reading outcomes. Eighty-eight bilingual children who were eligible to attend Head Start for 2 years participated in the study. Growth curve models were used to examine the relationship between children's language abilities during 2 years in Head Start and end-of-kindergarten reading outcomes. The results revealed that children's English and Spanish receptive language abilities increased during Head Start, and children's early reading abilities in English were within the typical range of monolingual norms at the end of kindergarten. Children's early reading abilities in Spanish were nearly 1 SD below the test mean or lower. The results also showed that children's growth in their English and Spanish language abilities during Head Start predicted their early reading abilities in English and Spanish. The findings imply that preschool programs are needed that target children's growth in language and not their performance measured at a particular point in time. Also, the results demonstrate the importance of early and regular evaluation of bilingual children's development in both languages in order to monitor children's growth in their two languages.

  17. Language Production Abilities of Children Whose Stuttering Persisted or Recovered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Ruth V.; Yairi, Ehud

    1997-01-01

    A study evaluated the language production of 12 children (ages 5-8) who continued stuttering for 36 months or more after onset, 10 who recovered 18-36 months post onset, and 10 who recovered within 18 months of onset of stuttering. The majority of the children performed in the average range on measures of language production. (Author/CR)

  18. Ruse and Representations: On Children's Ability to Conceal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Joan

    1992-01-01

    Children between three and five years of age engaged in a procedure in which a puppet competitor chose an object which the children preferred. Fewer than 30 percent of three year olds but more than 80 percent of five year olds knew how to conceal their preference from the competitor. (BC)

  19. Young children's ability to recognize advertisements in web page designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moondore; Blades, Mark; Oates, Caroline; Blumberg, Fran

    2009-03-01

    Identifying what is, and what is not an advertisement is the first step in realizing that an advertisement is a marketing message. Children can distinguish television advertisements from programmes by about 5 years of age. Although previous researchers have investigated television advertising, little attention has been given to advertisements in other media, even though other media, especially the Internet, have become important channels of marketing to children. We showed children printed copies of invented web pages that included advertisements, half of which had price information, and asked the children to point to whatever they thought was an advertisement. In two experiments we tested a total of 401 children, aged 6, 8, 10 and 12 years of age, from the United Kingdom and Indonesia. Six-year-olds recognized a quarter of the advertisements, 8-year-olds recognized half the advertisements, and the 10- and 12-year-olds recognized about three-quarters. Only the 10- and 12-year-olds were more likely to identify an advertisement when it included a price. We contrast our findings with previous results about the identification of television advertising, and discuss why children were poorer at recognizing web page advertisements. The performance of the children has implications for theories about how children develop an understanding of advertising.

  20. Young Children's Performance on Three Measures of Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas K.; And Others

    The Stanford-Binet: Fourth Edition and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children were administered in counterbalanced order followed by the Cognitive Domain of the Battelle Developmental Inventory to a sample of 30 nonhandicapped, preschool children (13 males and 17 females). Correlations (corrected for restriction in range) among the three…

  1. Setting the Bar for High-Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Buck; Cross, Tracy L.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary school principals face no shortage of issues and challenges when it comes to ensuring that their teachers and students are ready for the Common Core State Standards. With so many issues competing for scarce time and resources, it is understandable that for many school leaders, the needs of high-ability and high-potential students are not…

  2. Genetic Architecture of Verbal Abilities in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Rosa A.; Bartels, Meike; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    The etiology of individual differences in general verbal ability, verbal learning and letter and category fluency were examined in two independent samples of 9- and 18-year-old twin pairs and their siblings. In both age groups, we observed strong familial resemblance for general verbal ability and moderate familial resemblance for verbal learning,…

  3. Language ability, executive functioning and behaviour in school-age children

    OpenAIRE

    Karasinski, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Background Many children with language impairment present with deficits in other areas, including executive functioning (EF), attention and behaviour. Similarly, many children receiving services for attention or behaviour problems have deficits in language ability. Aims To evaluate the relations among EF, language ability and behaviour problems in a sample of school-age children with a wide range of language and behaviour profiles. The following research questions were addressed: Does perform...

  4. Children's Reading Ability in Early Primary Schooling: Challenges for a Kenyan Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwoma, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    School outcomes and good performance in different subjects depends on children's ability to read. Thus teaching children on how to read during early grades is critical in promoting learning to read. More advanced skills acquired in later grades depend on early grade learning, so children who do not acquire these reading skills in their early…

  5. Semantic abilities in children with pragmatic language impairment: The case of picture naming skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Hermans, S.I.A.; Cuperus, J.M.; Jansonius-Schultheiss, K.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The semantic abilities of children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) are subject to debate. The authors investigated picture naming and definition skills in 5-year-olds with PLI in comparison to typically developing children. Method: 84 children with PLI and 80 age-matched typically

  6. Semantic abilities in children with pragmatic language impairment: the case of picture naming skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Hermans, S.I.A.; Cuperus, J.; Jansonius, K.; Verhoeven, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The semantic abilities of children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) are subject to debate. The authors investigated picture naming and definition skills in 5-year-olds with PLI in comparison to typically developing children. Method: 84 children with PLI and 80 age-matched typically

  7. Memory abilities in children with subtypes of dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Mónica; Matute, Esmeralda; Pinto, Noemí; Ardila, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    This study examines (a) mathematical skills of 2 subgroups of children with developmental dyscalculia (DD)--1 group with DD only and a second group with DD plus reading disorders (RDD)-and (b) analyzes the memory skills of both groups of children. Fifty 11- and 12-year-old children were selected from public schools in Guadalajara, Mexico. Seventeen children had DD only, 13 had RDD, and 20 were normal controls. Testing included 10 calculation and 6 memory subtests taken from the Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil (Matute, Rosselli, Ardila, and Ostrosky, in press). Results indicated that children with DD and children with RDD show a similar pattern of mathematical impairment. Both subgroups had significantly lower scores than the control group in working memory tasks. In addition, the RDD group had significantly lower scores than the control group in visual learning and semantic memory. Although the RDD group scored lower than the DD group in most memory tests, this difference did not reach significance. Working memory tests (digits backwards and sentence repetition) appeared to be the best predictors of mathematical test scores and may represent a major cognitive defect in children with specific defects in mathematics.

  8. Concurrent Validity of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities with Native American Primary-Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Investigated concurrent validity of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) with Native American primary-grade children. Significantly low General Cognitive Index indicates that the MSCA with Native American children is not recommended for psychodiagnostic purposes. However, perceptual-performance and motor scales may provide useful…

  9. Pragmatic Abilities of Children with Hearing Loss Using Cochlear Implants or Hearing Aids Compared to Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Tova; Shina-August, Ella; Meilijson, Sara

    2010-01-01

    This study characterized the profile of pragmatic abilities among 24 children with hearing loss (HL) aged 6.3-9.4 years, 13 using hearing aids (HAs) and 11 using cochlear implants (CIs), in comparison to those of 13 hearing children with similar chronological and language ages. All the children with HL used spoken language, attended regular…

  10. Does anyone need help? Age and gender effects on children's ability to recognize need-of-help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarova, Margarita; Brielmann, Aenne A.

    2014-01-01

    The exploratory study presented here examines children's ability to recognize another person's need-of-help. This social perception process necessarily precedes the decision to actively help others. Fifty-eight children aged between 5 and 13 completed three experimental paradigms. They were asked to look at black-and-white drawings and to indicate which ones showed somebody in need of help. A control task requiring children to differentiate between pictures of humans and birds measured general categorization abilities. This experimental design enabled us to consider confounding effects of children's developmental status and motivation and to distinguish them from specific need-of-help recognition abilities. As gender and age have been shown to influence social perception as well as helping behavior, we explored whether these factors also have an impact on need-of-help recognition. Children's response accuracies and response times (RTs) were analyzed. We observed clearly higher accuracy rates for younger girls compared to younger boys specifically in the need-of-help recognition tasks. For boys, an age-related performance improvement was found. Younger girls performed at a similarly high level as older girls and boys. No gender differences were observed for children aged over nine. This report provides first evidence that the developmental trajectory of children's ability to recognize another person's need-of-help differs for girls and boys. PMID:24578698

  11. Idiom, Syntax, and Advanced Theory of Mind Abilities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Elisabeth M.; Nelson, Keith E.; Scherf, K. Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: When researchers investigate figurative language abilities (including idioms) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), syntax abilities may be more important than once considered. In addition, there are limitations to the overreliance on false-belief tasks to measure theory of mind (TOM) abilities. In the current study, the…

  12. Calculation Abilities in Young Children with Different Patterns of Cognitive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nancy C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the arithmetic calculation abilities of kindergarten and first-grade children (n=108) with different patterns of cognitive functioning: low language, low spatial ability, general delays, and nonimpaired. Nonverbal, story, and number fact problems were differentially sensitive to variation in cognitive ability. (Author/JDD)

  13. Mathematical abilities in dyslexic children: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerte, Inga K; Willems, Anna; Muehlmann, Marc; Moll, Kristina; Cornell, Sonia; Pixner, Silvia; Steffinger, Denise; Keeser, Daniel; Heinen, Florian; Kubicki, Marek; Shenton, Martha E; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2016-09-01

    Dyslexia is characterized by a deficit in language processing which mainly affects word decoding and spelling skills. In addition, children with dyslexia also show problems in mathematics. However, for the latter, the underlying structural correlates have not been investigated. Sixteen children with dyslexia (mean age 9.8 years [0.39]) and 24 typically developing children (mean age 9.9 years [0.29]) group matched for age, gender, IQ, and handedness underwent 3 T MR diffusion tensor imaging as well as cognitive testing. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics were performed to correlate behavioral data with diffusion data. Children with dyslexia performed worse than controls in standardized verbal number tasks, such as arithmetic efficiency tests (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division). In contrast, the two groups did not differ in the nonverbal number line task. Arithmetic efficiency, representing the total score of the four arithmetic tasks, multiplication, and division, correlated with diffusion measures in widespread areas of the white matter, including bilateral superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi in children with dyslexia compared to controls. Children with dyslexia demonstrated lower performance in verbal number tasks but performed similarly to controls in a nonverbal number task. Further, an association between verbal arithmetic efficiency and diffusion measures was demonstrated in widespread areas of the white matter suggesting compensatory mechanisms in children with dyslexia compared to controls. Taken together, poor fact retrieval in children with dyslexia is likely a consequence of deficits in the language system, which not only affects literacy skills but also impacts on arithmetic skills.

  14. Do statistical segmentation abilities predict lexical-phonological and lexical-semantic abilities in children with and without SLI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the predictions of the procedural deficit hypothesis by investigating the relationship between sequential statistical learning and two aspects of lexical ability, lexical-phonological and lexical-semantic, in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Participants included 40 children (ages 8;5–12;3), 20 children with SLI and 20 with typical development. Children completed Saffran’s statistical word segmentation task, a lexical-phonological access task (gating task), and a word definition task. Poor statistical learners were also poor at managing lexical-phonological competition during the gating task. However, statistical learning was not a significant predictor of semantic richness in word definitions. The ability to track statistical sequential regularities may be important for learning the inherently sequential structure of lexical-phonology, but not as important for learning lexical-semantic knowledge. Consistent with the procedural/declarative memory distinction, the brain networks associated with the two types of lexical learning are likely to have different learning properties. PMID:23425593

  15. Can headache impair intellectual abilities in children? An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Antonio Pascotto,1 Beatrice Gallai,3 Lucia Parisi,2 Michele Roccella,2 Rosa Marotta,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Antonella Gritti,5 Giovanni Mazzotta,6 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Second University of Naples, Naples, 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, 4Department of Psychiatry, “Magna Graecia” University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, 5Suor Orsola Benincasa University, Napoli, 6Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Azienda Sanitaria Locale 4, Terni, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive functioning of children affected by headache, pinpointing the differences in intelligence style between subjects affected by migraine without aura and subjects with tension-type headache.Methods: The study population consisted of 147 children (mean age 10.82 ± 2.17 years with headache, recruited from the Headache Center for Developmental Age, Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic, Second University of Naples. Cognitive profiling was performed using Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children Third Edition throughout the sample. According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders II criteria for pediatric age, subjects were divided into a migraine without aura group (n = 75; 43 boys, 32 girls and a tension-type headache group (n = 72; 49 boys, 23 girls. The results were compared with the findings obtained from a sample of 137 healthy control subjects recruited from schools in the Campania region, matched for age and gender.Results: No difference in full intelligence quotient was found between the groups, but the children with tension-type headache had a lower verbal intelligence quotient and a higher performance intelligence quotient than the healthy controls and children with migraine. Factor

  16. A Comparison Study of Psychiatric and Behavior Disorders and Cognitive Ability Among Homeless and Housed Children

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, ManSoo; North, Carol S.; LaVesser, Patricia D.; Osborne, Victoria A.; Spitznagel, Edward L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the association of homelessness and related factors with child psychiatric and behavior disorders (diagnosed with structured diagnostic interviews) and child cognitive ability (on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test) in a randomly selected sample of 157 homeless children and their mothers and a comparison of 61 housed children and their mothers. Homeless children had more disruptive behavior disorders and lower cognitive scores than housed children. In multivariate analyse...

  17. Teaching High-Ability Pupils in Early Primary School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Elma

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and implementation of the intervention 'Excel Kwadraat' in primary schools. This intervention aims to improve teachers’ differentiation practices in order to better anticipate pupil differences, including excellent or high-ability pupils. In the end, the intervention

  18. Teaching High-Ability Pupils in Early Primary School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Elma

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and implementation of the intervention 'Excel Kwadraat' in primary schools. This intervention aims to improve teachers’ differentiation practices in order to better anticipate pupil differences, including excellent or high-ability pupils. In the end, the intervention

  19. Identity Development of High-Ability Black Collegians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries-Britt, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties that high-ability black college students face in blending their academic interest and racial affiliation into their sense of self. Student narratives show how a strong peer community and positive student-faculty interactions can overcome these obstacles and promote healthy identity development. (Author/DB)

  20. High-Ability Students' Time Spent outside the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makel, Matthew C.; Li, Yan; Putallaz, Martha; Wai, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study considered how three groups of academically talented high school students--those who attended an academic summer program (TIP), those who qualified for the program but chose not to attend (QNA), and those who did not qualify (DNQ)--spent time outside the classroom. These groupings differentiated students by ability (QNA vs. DNQ) and…

  1. Social and emotional difficulties among high ability students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Soriano de Alencar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and emotional difficulties observed among highly able students are addressed. The asynchronous development, perfectionism, over-excitability, underachievement, and other social and emotional difficulties are discussed, describing factors related to them. The article finalizes highlighting possible contributions of the psychologist on counseling high ability students, their families and teachers, with the purpose of preventing or reducing maladjustments, as well as of helping them optimize their developmental process.

  2. Development of Children's Ability to Distinguish Sarcasm and Verbal Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenwright, Melanie; Pexman, Penny M.

    2010-01-01

    Adults distinguish between ironic remarks directed at targets (sarcasm) and ironic remarks not directed at specific targets. We investigated the development of children's appreciation for this distinction by presenting these speech acts to 71 five- to six-year-olds and 71 nine- to ten-year-olds. Five- to six-year-olds were beginning to understand…

  3. Development of Children's Ability to Distinguish Sarcasm and Verbal Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenwright, Melanie; Pexman, Penny M.

    2010-01-01

    Adults distinguish between ironic remarks directed at targets (sarcasm) and ironic remarks not directed at specific targets. We investigated the development of children's appreciation for this distinction by presenting these speech acts to 71 five- to six-year-olds and 71 nine- to ten-year-olds. Five- to six-year-olds were beginning to understand…

  4. Young Children's Ability to Recognize Advertisements in Web Page Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moondore; Blades, Mark; Oates, Caroline; Blumberg, Fran

    2009-01-01

    Identifying what is, and what is not an advertisement is the first step in realizing that an advertisement is a marketing message. Children can distinguish television advertisements from programmes by about 5 years of age. Although previous researchers have investigated television advertising, little attention has been given to advertisements in…

  5. Young Children's Ability to Recognize Advertisements in Web Page Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moondore; Blades, Mark; Oates, Caroline; Blumberg, Fran

    2009-01-01

    Identifying what is, and what is not an advertisement is the first step in realizing that an advertisement is a marketing message. Children can distinguish television advertisements from programmes by about 5 years of age. Although previous researchers have investigated television advertising, little attention has been given to advertisements in…

  6. Anticipatory Imagery Ability in Normal and Language-Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savich, Patricia A.

    1984-01-01

    five spatial tasks were administered to two groups of seven and one-half to nine and one-half year olds: 18 language-disabled and 18 children with normal language development. The language-disabled were less accurate on all tasks which involved anticipation or prediction of mental rotations, movements, or other transformations. (Author/CL)

  7. Gestural Abilities of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Charlotte; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Alcock, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when language is significantly below chronological age expectations in the absence of other developmental disorders, sensory impairments or global developmental delays. It has been suggested that gesture may enhance communication in children with SLI by providing an alternative means to…

  8. The impact of impaired vocal quality on children's ability to process spoken language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, V; Watson, D R

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigated the effect of voice quality on children's ability to process spoken language. A group of 24 children, mean age 11 years 5 months, listened to a series of recorded short passages, half spoken by a female with normal voice and half spoken by a female with a classic vocal impairment (dysphonic voice). The children were tested for their ability to recall words and to draw a final target inference. Children performed better on both preceding indices when listening to the normal voice. The implications of the findings are discussed, with particular reference to the classroom situation.

  9. Impaired visually guided weight-shifting ability in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballaz, Laurent; Robert, Maxime; Parent, Audrey; Prince, François; Lemay, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The ability to control voluntary weight shifting is crucial in many functional tasks. To our knowledge, weight shifting ability in response to a visual stimulus has never been evaluated in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of the study was (1) to propose a new method to assess visually guided medio-lateral (M/L) weight shifting ability and (2) to compare weight-shifting ability in children with CP and typically developing (TD) children. Ten children with spastic diplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I and II; age 7-12 years) and 10 TD age-matched children were tested. Participants played with the skiing game on the Wii Fit game console. Center of pressure (COP) displacements, trunk and lower-limb movements were recorded during the last virtual slalom. Maximal isometric lower limb strength and postural control during quiet standing were also assessed. Lower-limb muscle strength was reduced in children with CP compared to TD children and postural control during quiet standing was impaired in children with CP. As expected, the skiing game mainly resulted in M/L COP displacements. Children with CP showed lower M/L COP range and velocity as compared to TD children but larger trunk movements. Trunk and lower extremity movements were less in phase in children with CP compared to TD children. Commercially available active video games can be used to assess visually guided weight shifting ability. Children with spastic diplegic CP showed impaired visually guided weight shifting which can be explained by non-optimal coordination of postural movement and reduced muscular strength.

  10. Young children's spatial structuring ability and emerging number sense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nes, F.T.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis documents research into the role of young children’s spatial structuring ability in the development of number sense, particularly in terms of insight into numerical relations. We take Battista and Clements’ (1996, p. 503) definition to define the act of spatial structuring as “the mental

  11. An Enhanced Concept Map Approach to Improving Children's Storytelling Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Chen, Holly S. L.; Shih, Ju-Ling; Huang, Guo-Ting; Liu, Baw-Jhiune

    2011-01-01

    Storytelling is an imperative and innovative pathway to enhance learning due to the fact that such activity prompts learners to reflect to construct meaning based on their observations and knowledge. Therefore, to develop and enhance students' storytelling ability has become an important issue for both educators and researchers. Since storytelling…

  12. Children's Ability to Deceive: Who Does it Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robert S.; White, John B.

    This study examines the possibility that ability to avoid detection of deceptive behavior via nonverbal behavior might be related to an individual's role-taking skill. Sixty-one 5 to 12 year-old boys and girls were led to be verbally deceptive or truthful by saying that they either had enjoyed or not enjoyed an unpleasant experience or had enjoyed…

  13. [Psychoeducational intervention in high ability: intellectual functioning and extracurricular enrichment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2014-02-24

    The 'new paradigm' defines the high intellectual ability as a potential that should crystallize progressively throughout development. Its main feature is a high intellectual initial multidimensional potential, which is transformed so that, being a person with high intellectual ability is the result of a developmental process from a neurobiological substrate and the incidence of variables (psychosocial and education) which determines its manifestation more or less stable and optimal to excellence. It is interesting to know the effectiveness of psychoeducational intervention of the extracurricular enrichment programs and their effects on the expression of differential functioning and the optimization of the management of cognitive resources that lead to excellence. An extracurricular enrichment program is described and evaluated through: 1) the stability of the intellectual measures; 2) the satisfaction level of participants and families. Participants are 58 high ability students on the enrichment program and 25 parents. Intellectual profiles are obtained on T1-T2 and calculated their stability by regression analysis, the CSA and CSA-P questionnaires were applied in order to know the participants and families' satisfaction measure. Results show the basic stability of intellectual profiles with five cases of instability among the 58 profiles obtained, and a high satisfaction with the results obtained in the domain of cognitive and personal management among the participants.

  14. Attentional selection predicts rapid automatized naming ability in Chinese-speaking children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Encong; Sun, Meirong; Tao, Ye; Gao, Xiaoyi; Guo, Jialiang; Zhao, Chenguang; Li, Hui; Qian, Qiujin; Wu, Zhanliang; Wang, Yufeng; Sun, Li; Song, Yan

    2017-04-20

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are reported to have a significantly higher risk of showing reading difficulties or disorders. Here, we aimed to identify the relationship between electroencephalographic (EEG) marker of spatial attention and reading ability in Chinese children with ADHD. First, we demonstrated that rapid automatized naming (RAN) is a strong predictor of reading ability in Chinese-speaking children. Then, EEG data of 9-to 15-year-old children with ADHD (n = 38) and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 36) were collected while the children performed a classical visual search task. Children with ADHD showed slower RAN speed than TD children. For event-related potentials (ERPs), children with ADHD showed a reduced target-evoked N2pc component, which predicted their poorer RAN performance. However, in TD children the early occipital P1 amplitude was negatively correlated with their RAN performance. The correlation between decreased N2pc and poor RAN performance in children with ADHD suggests that their reading problems may in part be due to impaired attentional selection. In contrast, in TD children, development in early visual processing co-occurs with improvements in reading ability.

  15. Abacus Training Affects Math and Task Switching Abilities and Modulates Their Relationships in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjie; Geng, Fengji; Yao, Yuan; Weng, Jian; Hu, Yuzheng; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability) and executive function (e.g. working memory). This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and the task switching component of executive function. More importantly, this study investigated whether AMC training modulated the relationship between math abilities and task switching. The participants were seventy 7-year-old children who were randomly assigned into AMC and control groups at primary school entry. Children in AMC group received 2-hour AMC training every week since primary school entry. On the contrary, children in the control group had never received any AMC training. Math and task switching abilities were measured one year and three years respectively after AMC training began. The results showed that AMC children performed better than their peers on math abilities in arithmetical and visual-spatial domains. In addition, AMC group responded faster than control group in the switching task, while no group difference was found in switch cost. Most interestingly, group difference was present in the relationships between math abilities and switch cost. These results implied the effect of AMC training on math abilities as well as its relationship with executive function.

  16. Abacus Training Affects Math and Task Switching Abilities and Modulates Their Relationships in Chinese Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjie Wang

    Full Text Available Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC, a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability and executive function (e.g. working memory. This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and the task switching component of executive function. More importantly, this study investigated whether AMC training modulated the relationship between math abilities and task switching. The participants were seventy 7-year-old children who were randomly assigned into AMC and control groups at primary school entry. Children in AMC group received 2-hour AMC training every week since primary school entry. On the contrary, children in the control group had never received any AMC training. Math and task switching abilities were measured one year and three years respectively after AMC training began. The results showed that AMC children performed better than their peers on math abilities in arithmetical and visual-spatial domains. In addition, AMC group responded faster than control group in the switching task, while no group difference was found in switch cost. Most interestingly, group difference was present in the relationships between math abilities and switch cost. These results implied the effect of AMC training on math abilities as well as its relationship with executive function.

  17. Development of children's ability to distinguish sarcasm and verbal irony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenwright, Melanie; Pexman, Penny M

    2010-03-01

    Adults distinguish between ironic remarks directed at targets (sarcasm) and ironic remarks not directed at specific targets. We investigated the development of children's appreciation for this distinction by presenting these speech acts to 71 five- to six-year-olds and 71 nine- to ten-year-olds. Five- to six-year-olds were beginning to understand the non-literal meanings of sarcastic speakers and ironic speakers but did not distinguish ironic and sarcastic speakers' intentions. Nine- to ten-year-olds were more accurate at understanding sarcastic and ironic speakers and they distinguished these speakers' intentions, rating sarcastic criticisms as more 'mean' than ironic criticisms. These results show that children can determine the non-literal meanings of sarcasm and irony by six years of age but do not distinguish the pragmatic purposes of these speech acts until later in middle childhood.

  18. Ability, Parental Valuation of Education and the High School Dropout Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foley, Kelly; Gallipoli, Giovanni; Green, David

    We use a large, rich Canadian micro-level dataset to examine the channels through which family socio-economic status and unobservable characteristics a ect children's decisions to drop out of high school. First, we document the strength of observable socio-economic factors: our data suggest...... that teenage boys with two parents who are themselves high school dropouts have a 16% chance of dropping out, compared to a dropout rate of less than 1% for boys whose parents both have a university degree. We examine the channels through which this socio-economic gradient arises using an extended version....... Second, parental valuation of education has an impact of approximately the same size as cognitive ability e ects for medium and low ability teenagers. A low ability teenager has a probability of dropping out of approximately .03 if his parents place a high value on education but .36 if their education...

  19. Can Walking Ability Enhance the Effectiveness of Breathing Exercise in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function and the effectiveness of respiratory feedback training according to walking ability in children with cerebral palsy (CP...

  20. Watch the language! Language and linguistic-cognitive abilities in children with nocturnal epileptiform activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systad, Silje; Bjørnvold, Marit; Markhus, Rune; Lyster, Solveig-Alma H

    2017-01-01

    We studied the language and linguistic-cognitive abilities of a group of children with nocturnal epileptiform activity (NEA; N=33) who were hospitalized at a tertiary epilepsy hospital. The children were compared with two groups: one age- and gender-matched group (N=33) and one group matched on language ability (vocabulary) and gender (N=66). We also examined how NEA-related variables affected language abilities. Overall, the children with NEA showed delayed language abilities and a trend for specific difficulties with phonology and naming speed. We did not find firm evidence that the amount of NEA, the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and the lateralization and localization of NEA had an effect on language. However, we found that children with right-lateralized epileptiform activity seemed to have specific difficulties with naming speed. Additionally, our results indicated that NEA located in the centrotemporal areas particularly affected phonology and orthographic skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Remember dax? Relations between children's cross-situational word learning, memory, and language abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A; DeBrock, Catherine A

    2017-04-01

    Learning new words is a difficult task. Children are able to resolve the ambiguity of the task and map words to referents by tracking co-occurrence probabilities across multiple moments in time, a behavior termed cross-situational word learning (CSWL). Although we observe developments in CSWL abilities across childhood, the cognitive processes that drive individual and developmental change have yet to be identified. This research tested a developmental systems account by examining whether multiple cognitive systems co-contribute to children's CSWL. The results of two experiments revealed that multiple cognitive domains, such as memory and language abilities, are likely to drive the development of CSWL above and beyond children's age. The results also revealed that memory abilities are likely to be particularly important above and beyond other cognitive abilities. These findings have implications for theories and computational models of CSWL, which typically do not account for individual children's cognitive capacities or changes in cognitive capacities across time.

  2. Verbal abilities in low and highly proficient bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Georgia; Karapetsas, Anargyros

    2004-09-01

    The study investigated native language verbal skills among low and highly proficient bilinguals, using the WISC III verbal subtests. Highly proficient bilinguals showed a superiority for almost all verbal subtests. This finding lends support to Threshold Theory which maintains that bilinguals need to achieve high levels of linguistic proficiency before bilingualism can promote cognitive development. Our study also shows that verbal ability underlying proficiency in the native language can be generalized to a foreign language, revealing a causal connection between native and foreign language learning.

  3. Blocking in children's causal learning depends on working memory and reasoning abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Teresa; Simms, Victoria; McGourty, Jemma; Beckers, Tom

    2013-07-01

    A sample of 99 children completed a causal learning task that was an analogue of the food allergy paradigm used with adults. The cue competition effects of blocking and unovershadowing were assessed under forward and backward presentation conditions. Children also answered questions probing their ability to make the inference posited to be necessary for blocking by a reasoning account of cue competition. For the first time, children's working memory and general verbal ability were also measured alongside their causal learning. The magnitude of blocking and unovershadowing effects increased with age. However, analyses showed that the best predictor of both blocking and unovershadowing effects was children's performance on the reasoning questions. The magnitude of the blocking effect was also predicted by children's working memory abilities. These findings provide new evidence that cue competition effects such as blocking are underpinned by effortful reasoning processes.

  4. Identifying high ability students: a contribution from neuropsychological indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Dora Cortat Simonetti; Leandro S. Almeida; Zenita Guenther

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents some data on the convergence between psychometric intelligence measurements (IQ tests) and physiological signs of mental activity found in high ability adolescents. The research study focus on a small group of 15 subjects submitted to electric encephalograms, previously chosen from a larger group of 77 classmates on the basis of scores on the WISC-III IQ Test. The results suggest continuous predominance of Alpha waves for the gifted group (higher frequency percentile and h...

  5. Visual perceptual abilities of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports an investigation of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children's general visual perceptual abilities. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception was administered to 41 native Chinese-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 4 mo. in Hong Kong and 35 English-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 2 mo. in Melbourne. Of interest were the two interrelated components of visual perceptual abilities, namely, motor-reduced visual perceptual and visual-motor integration perceptual abilities, which require either verbal or motoric responses in completing visual tasks. Chinese-speaking children significantly outperformed the English-speaking children on general visual perceptual abilities. When comparing the results of each of the two different components, the Chinese-speaking students' performance on visual-motor integration was far better than that of their counterparts (ES = 2.70), while the two groups of students performed similarly on motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities. Cultural factors such as written language format may be contributing to the enhanced performance of Chinese-speaking children's visual-motor integration abilities, but there may be validity questions in the Chinese version.

  6. Cognitive contributions to theory of mind ability in children with a traumatic head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Naomi Kahana; Milgram, Noach

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study is to examine the contribution of intellectual abilities, executive functions (EF), and facial emotion recognition to difficulties in Theory of Mind (ToM) abilities in children with a traumatic head injury. Israeli children with a traumatic head injury were compared with their non-injured counterparts. Each group included 18 children (12 males) ages 7-13. Measurements included reading the mind in the eyes, facial emotion recognition, reasoning the other's characteristics based on motive and outcome, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, similarities and digit span (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised 95 subscales), verbal fluency, and the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Functions. Non-injured children performed significantly better on ToM, abstract reasoning, and EF measures compared with children with a traumatic head injury. However, differences in ToM abilities between the groups were no longer significant after controlling for abstract reasoning, working memory, verbal fluency, or facial emotion recognition. Impaired ToM recognition and reasoning abilities after a head injury may result from other cognitive impairments. In children with mild and moderate head injury, poorer performance on ToM tasks may reflect poorer abstract reasoning, a general tendency to concretize stimuli, working memory and verbal fluency deficits, and difficulties in facial emotion recognition, rather than deficits in the ability to understand the other's thoughts and emotions. ToM impairments may be secondary to a range of cognitive deficits in determining social outcomes in this population.

  7. Effect of Assessment Task and Letter Writing Ability on Preschool Children's Spelling Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia; Apel, Kenn

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether spelling performance in preschool children varied as a function of the method of assessment and letter writing ability. The authors manipulated the motoric element and memory demands of the task by having children spell single words using letter tiles, orally, and by writing. The authors also…

  8. Auditory Temporal-Organization Abilities in School-Age Children with Peripheral Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess auditory sequential organization (ASO) ability in children with and without hearing loss. Method: Forty children 9 to 12 years old participated in the study: 12 with sensory hearing loss (HL), 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and 16 with normal hearing. They performed an ASO task in which…

  9. Auditory Temporal-Organization Abilities in School-Age Children with Peripheral Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess auditory sequential organization (ASO) ability in children with and without hearing loss. Method: Forty children 9 to 12 years old participated in the study: 12 with sensory hearing loss (HL), 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and 16 with normal hearing. They performed an ASO task in which…

  10. Parents perceptions of preschool children's ability to regulate eating. Feeding style differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent feeding styles have been associated with children's eating behaviors and weight status across multiple studies. However, little is known about the mechanism through which parent feeding styles influence child weight status. Children's ability to self-regulate their eating may be the mechanism...

  11. Cognitive Abilities of Pre- and Primary School Children with Spina Bifida in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Femke; Fontaine, Johnny R. J.; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates cognitive abilities of pre/primary school children without and with spina bifida in Uganda. Qualitative semi structured interviews and quantitative functioning scales measurements were combined and conducted with 133 parents, 133 children with spina bifida, and 35 siblings. ANCOVA was used to test for differences in…

  12. Interactions between Levels of Attention Ability and Levels of Bilingualism in Children's Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Geoff B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Attention difficulty is associated with poor performance on executive functioning (EF) tasks, yet EF is enhanced in bilingual children. However, no research to date has investigated the possible interaction between bilingualism and attention ability in children to determine the consequences for EF when both are present. We assessed a sample of…

  13. Spinal fusion in children with spina bifida : influence on ambulation level and functional abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, MAGC; Gulmans, VAM; Gooskens, RHJM; Pruijs, JEH; Helders, PJM

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of spinal fusion on ambulation and functional abilities in children with spina bifida for whom early mobilization was stimulated. Ten children (three males and seven females) with myelomeningocele were prospectively followed. Their mean age at

  14. An exploration of person perception abilities in children with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, M.; Minderaa, R.B; Van Geert, P. L. C.; Jackson, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    This explorative study investigates differences in person perception abilities between a group of children diagnosed as having a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS) and a group of normal children of the same age and sex. Person perception, a social-cognitive skill,

  15. Language Abilities in Children Who Stutter: Toward Improved Research and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Ruth V.; Johnson, Bonnie W.

    2004-01-01

    The nature of the association between language and stuttering in young children has been the focus of debate for many years. One aspect of this ongoing discussion is the status of language abilities in children who stutter (CWS). Available research findings and associated interpretations of these findings are equivocal. This article asserts that…

  16. Adults' Perceptions of Children's Science Abilities and Interest after Participating in a Family Science Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanowitz, Karen L.; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine adults' and children's perceptions of participating in a family science night event, especially in the context of parental belief about children's science abilities. Family science nights are becoming increasingly popular and are used in a wide range of settings. During family science nights, adults and…

  17. Interactions between Levels of Attention Ability and Levels of Bilingualism in Children's Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Geoff B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Attention difficulty is associated with poor performance on executive functioning (EF) tasks, yet EF is enhanced in bilingual children. However, no research to date has investigated the possible interaction between bilingualism and attention ability in children to determine the consequences for EF when both are present. We assessed a sample of…

  18. Pragmatic Language and School Related Linguistic Abilities in Siblings of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yizhak, Noa; Yirmiya, Nurit; Seidman, Ifat; Alon, Raaya; Lord, Catherine; Sigman, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Siblings of probands with autism spectrum disorders are at higher risk for developing the broad autism phenotype (BAP). We compared the linguistic abilities (i.e., pragmatic language, school achievements, and underling reading processes) of 35 school-age siblings of children with autism (SIBS-A) to those of 42 siblings of children with typical…

  19. The Impact of Generic Language about Ability on Children's Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpian, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    Nuances in how adults talk about ability may have important consequences for children's sustained involvement and success in an activity. In this study, I tested the hypothesis that children would be less motivated while performing a novel activity if they were told that boys or girls in general are good at this activity (generic language) than if…

  20. Deficits in the Ability to Use Proprioceptive Feedback in Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Daniel J.; Hurvitz, Edward A.; Brown, Susan H.

    2009-01-01

    Compared with motor impairment in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP), less attention has been paid to sensory feedback processing deficits. This includes, especially, proprioceptive information regarding arm position. This study examined the ability of children with hemiplegic CP to use proprioceptive feedback during a goal-directed…

  1. Communicative abilities in toddlers and in early school age children with cleft palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Jolien S.; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Siena M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluation of improvement in communicative abilities in children with nonsyndromic cleft palate. Methods: Longitudinal retrospective case history Study. Out of 117 children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate born in 1998, 1999 and 2000 and enrolled in the cleft palate team of the Univers

  2. Spinal fusion in children with spina bifida : influence on ambulation level and functional abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, MAGC; Gulmans, VAM; Gooskens, RHJM; Pruijs, JEH; Helders, PJM

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of spinal fusion on ambulation and functional abilities in children with spina bifida for whom early mobilization was stimulated. Ten children (three males and seven females) with myelomeningocele were prospectively followed. Their mean age at ope

  3. Language Abilities of Children Who Stutter: A Meta-Analytical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntourou, Katerina; Conture, Edward G.; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To identify, integrate, and summarize evidence from empirical studies of the language abilities of children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CWNS). Method: Candidate studies were identified through electronic databases, the tables of contents of speech-language journals, and reference lists of relevant articles and…

  4. An exploration of person perception abilities in children with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, M.; Minderaa, R.B; Van Geert, P. L. C.; Jackson, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    This explorative study investigates differences in person perception abilities between a group of children diagnosed as having a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS) and a group of normal children of the same age and sex. Person perception, a social-cognitive skill, conc

  5. Obesity and Motor Coordination Ability in Taiwanese Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yi-Ching; Wu, Sheng K.; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between obesity and motor coordination ability in Taiwanese children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). 2029 children (1078 boys, 951 girls) aged nine to ten years were chosen randomly from 14 elementary schools across Taiwan. We used bioelectrical impedance…

  6. Executive Functions and Motor Ability Contribute to Children's Participation in Daily Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Limor; Jacobi, Shani; Bart, Orit

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions are crucial for efficient daily functioning. However, the contribution of executive functions to the participation in daily life activities of children, have been inadequately studied. The study aimed to examine the unique contribution of executive functions, beyond motor ability, to the diversity and independence of children's…

  7. The Impact of Behavioural Executive Functioning and Intelligence on Math Abilities in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, M. C.; Ziermans, T. B.; Swaab, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of behavioural executive functioning (EF) skills and level of intelligence (IQ) on math abilities in children with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities. Method: Teachers of 63 children attending a school for special education (age: 10 to 13 years; IQ: 50 to 85) filled out a Behaviour Rating…

  8. Memory Abilities in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: Comorbid Language Difficulties Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Giselle; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated cognitive abilities in children with difficulties in mathematics only (n = 48, M = 8 years and 5 months), combined mathematical and language difficulty (n = 27, M = 8 years and 1 month) and controls (n = 783, M = 7 years and 11 months). Cognitive abilities were measured with seven subtests, tapping visual perception,…

  9. Memory Abilities in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: Comorbid Language Difficulties Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Giselle; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated cognitive abilities in children with difficulties in mathematics only (n = 48, M = 8 years and 5 months), combined mathematical and language difficulty (n = 27, M = 8 years and 1 month) and controls (n = 783, M = 7 years and 11 months). Cognitive abilities were measured with seven subtests, tapping visual perception,…

  10. Structure and Coherence of Reasoning Ability in Down Syndrome Adults and Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsopoulos, D.; Christou, C.; Koutselini, M.; Raftopoulos, A.; Karefillidou, C.

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 31 adults with Down syndrome investigated their ability to reason. Results found they did not differ from typically developing children, matched on expressive and verbal ability, in transitivity and non-verbal analogical thinking; however, they did differ in categorical reasoning, classical verbal analogies, and short-term…

  11. Cognitive abilities in children with specific language impairment: consideration of visuo-spatial skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hick, R. F.; Botting, N.; Conti-Ramsden, G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The study is concerned with the cognitive abilities of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Previous research has indicated that children with SLI demonstrate difficulties with certain cognitive tasks despite normal non‐verbal IQ scores. It has been suggested that a general processing limitation might account for the pattern of language and cognitive difficulties seen in children with SLI. The performances on a visuo‐spatial short‐term memory task and a visuo‐spatial ...

  12. Influence of pre-school swimming on level of swimming abilities of early schol age children

    OpenAIRE

    Velová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    My thesis paper is focused on children swimming from their birth to early school age. The pivotal part of the paper is the comparison of swimming abilities between primary school children who have passed pre-school swimming training and those who have had no training at all. Theoretical framework of the paper is then focused on general swimming theory, characteristics of children's evolutionary stages within the context of swimming and definition of basic swimming skills.

  13. The influence of task paradigm on motor imagery ability in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, G D; Wilson, P H; Smits-Engelsman, B C M

    2015-12-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) have difficulty imagining movements such that they conform to the customary temporal constraints of real performance. We examined whether this ability is influenced by the choice of task used to elicit motor imagery (MI). Performance of typically developing (TD) (n=30) and children with DCD (n=30) was compared on two tasks: the Visually Guided Pointing Task (VGPT) and the Computerized Virtual Radial Fitts Task (C-VRFT). Since the VGPT places higher demands on executive functions like working memory but requires less spatial planning, we reasoned that the C-VRFT would provide a purer measure of motor imagery (or simulation). Based on our earlier work, we predicted that imagery deficits in DCD would more likely manifest on the C-VRFT. Results showed high correlations between tasks in terms of executed and imagined movement time suggest that both tasks measure MI ability. However, group differences were more pronounced in the imagined condition of the radial Fitts' task. Taken together, the more spatially complex C-VRFT appears to be a more sensitive measure of motor imagery, better discriminating between DCD and TD. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  14. Cognitive abilities and language comprehension in preschool children with perinatal brain lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlisa, Jasmina Ivsac; Simlesa, Sanja; Ljubesić, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Perinatal brain lesion is a risk factor for development, making parents of such children particularly worried about consequences it may have on the child's cognitive and language development. Although literature findings on the outcome of perinatal brain lesion are inconsistent, most of the studies have found a positive general outcome, but also subtle deficits that affect the child's academic success. Since language comprehension and cognitive abilities influence learning abilities at school, we wanted to know how six-year olds who were selected based on pathological ultrasonographical findings (ischemic or hemorrhagic brain lesion) would perform on subtests of Wechsler battery (WISC) and language comprehension measures (Reynell Developmental Language Scale and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test), compared with controls. The second issue we investigated was whether in children who suffered a perinatal brain lesion cognitive abilities predicted the level of language comprehension in the same way as in children without perinatal brain lesion. The relation between cognitive and linguistic abilities is still a controversial one, and a different relation would mean that these two groups of children have different structure of abilities probably due to perinatal brain lesion. Forty children who suffered a perinatal brain lesion and forty age-matched children without perinatal risk factors were examined. Our results showed that the groups differed more in linguistic than in cognitive variables. Also, the two groups showed different relation patterns between cognitive abilities and language comprehension. Cognitive abilities were statistically significantly associated with language comprehension in children who suffered a perinatal brain lesion, while this association was not statistically significant within the control group. Since a number of participants with perinatal brain lesion had language difficulties, it is presumed that they rely on cognitive abilities in order to

  15. Identifying high ability students: a contribution from neuropsychological indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Cortat Simonetti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some data on the convergence between psychometric intelligence measurements (IQ tests and physiological signs of mental activity found in high ability adolescents. The research study focus on a small group of 15 subjects submitted to electric encephalograms, previously chosen from a larger group of 77 classmates on the basis of scores on the WISC-III IQ Test. The results suggest continuous predominance of Alpha waves for the gifted group (higher frequency percentile and higher amplitude what was not observed in the group without any superior intellectual ability. Even taking into account methodological limitations, this study may contribute to the understanding of a relationship between the intellectual quotient (IQ and alpha waves frequency and amplitude, as observed during performance on cognitive tasks. Such results may suggest a possibility to complement psychometric measures with encephalic registers in giftedness research studies.

  16. Working conditions and parents' ability to care for children's preventive health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Alison; Heymann, Jody

    2014-04-01

    To determine whether workplace flexibility policies influence parents' ability to meet their children's preventive primary health care needs. Study sample included 917 employed adults with at least 1 child younger than 18 years in their household from a nationally representative survey of US adults. Multivariate logistic regression analyses of factors influencing parental ability to meet their children's preventive primary health care needs were conducted. Analyses assessed the effect of having access to schedule flexibility, a supervisor who is accommodating about work adjustments when family issues arise, and the ability to make personal calls without consequences on the odds of a parents' being unable to meet their child's preventive health care needs. Being able to make a personal phone call at work was associated with a 56% (P flexibility at work could make a substantial difference in parents' ability to obtain preventive care for their children.

  17. Impact of cognitive and linguistic ability on gaze behavior in children with hearing impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof eSandgren

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore verbal-nonverbal integration, we investigated the influence of cognitive and linguistic ability on gaze behavior during spoken language conversation between children with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment (HI and normal-hearing (NH peers. Ten HI-NH and ten NH-NH dyads performed a referential communication task requiring description of faces. During task performance, eye movements and speech were tracked. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model associations between performance on cognitive and linguistic tasks and the probability of gaze to the conversational partner’s face. Analyses compare the listeners in each dyad (HI: n = 10, mean age = 12;6 years, SD = 2;0, mean better ear pure-tone average 33.0 dB HL, SD = 7.8; NH: n = 10, mean age = 13;7 years, SD = 1;11. Group differences in gaze behavior – with HI gazing more to the conversational partner than NH – remained significant despite adjustment for ability on receptive grammar, expressive vocabulary, and complex working memory. Adjustment for phonological short term memory, as measured by nonword repetition, removed group differences, revealing an interaction between group membership and nonword repetition ability. Stratified analysis showed a twofold increase of the probability of gaze-to-partner for HI with low phonological short term memory capacity, and a decreased probability for HI with high capacity, as compared to NH peers. The results revealed differences in gaze behavior attributable to performance on a phonological short term memory task. Participants with hearing impairment and low phonological short term memory capacity showed a doubled probability of gaze to the conversational partner, indicative of a visual bias. The results stress the need to look beyond the hearing impairment in diagnostics and intervention. Acknowledgment of the finding requires clinical assessment of children with hearing impairment to be supported by tasks tapping

  18. How race and age experiences shape young children's face processing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Luo, Lizhu; Pisacane, Antonella; Li, Hong; Lee, Kang

    2014-04-01

    Despite recent advances in research on race and age biases, the question of how race and age experiences combine to affect young children's face perception remains unexplored. To fill this gap, the current study tested two ethnicities of 3-year-old children using a combined cross-race/cross-age design. Caucasian children with and without older siblings and Mainland Chinese children without older siblings were tested for their ability to discriminate adult and child Caucasian faces as well as adult and child Asian faces in both upright and inverted orientations. Children of both ethnicities manifested an own-race bias, which was confined to adult faces, and an adult face bias, which was confined to own-race faces. Likewise, sibling experience affected Caucasian children's processing of own-race child faces, but this effect did not generalize to other-race faces. Results suggest that race and age information are represented at the same hierarchical level in young children's memory.

  19. A novel tool for evaluating children's musical abilities across age and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Gosselin, Nathalie; Nan, Yun; Caron-Caplette, Emilie; Trehub, Sandra E; Béland, Renée

    2013-01-01

    THE PRESENT STUDY INTRODUCES A NOVEL TOOL FOR ASSESSING MUSICAL ABILITIES IN CHILDREN: The Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Musical Abilities (MBEMA). The battery, which comprises tests of memory, scale, contour, interval, and rhythm, was administered to 245 children in Montreal and 91 in Beijing (Experiment 1), and an abbreviated version was administered to an additional 85 children in Montreal (in less than 20 min; Experiment 2). All children were 6-8 years of age. Their performance indicated that both versions of the MBEMA are sensitive to individual differences and to musical training. The sensitivity of the tests extends to Mandarin-speaking children despite the fact that they show enhanced performance relative to French-speaking children. Because this Chinese advantage is not limited to musical pitch but extends to rhythm and memory, it is unlikely that it results from early exposure to a tonal language. In both cultures and versions of the tests, amount of musical practice predicts performance. Thus, the MBEMA can serve as an objective, short and up-to-date test of musical abilities in a variety of situations, from the identification of children with musical difficulties to the assessment of the effects of musical training in typically developing children of different cultures.

  20. Neural basis of dyslexia: a comparison between dyslexic and nondyslexic children equated for reading ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Fumiko; Hernandez, Arvel; McMillon, Glenn; Taylor-Hill, Heather; Martindale, Jennifer L; Meyler, Ann; Keller, Timothy A; Siok, Wai Ting; Deutsch, Gayle K; Just, Marcel Adam; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D E

    2006-10-18

    Adults and children with developmental dyslexia exhibit reduced parietotemporal activation in functional neuroimaging studies of phonological processing. These studies used age-matched and/or intelligence quotient-matched control groups whose reading ability and scanner task performance were often superior to that of the dyslexic group. It is unknown, therefore, whether differences in activation reflect simply poorer performance in the scanner, the underlying level of reading ability, or more specific neural correlates of dyslexia. To resolve this uncertainty, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, with a rhyme judgment task, in which we compared dyslexic children with two control groups: age-matched children and reading-matched children (younger normal readers equated for reading ability or scanner-performance to the dyslexic children). Dyslexic children exhibited reduced activation relative to both age-matched and reading-matched children in the left parietotemporal cortex and five other regions, including the right parietotemporal cortex. The dyslexic children also exhibited reduced activation bilaterally in the parietotemporal cortex when compared with children equated for task performance during scanning. Nine of the 10 dyslexic children exhibited reduced left parietotemporal activation compared with their individually selected age-matched or reading-matched control children. Additionally, normal reading fifth graders showed more activation in the same bilateral parietotemporal regions than normal-reading third graders. These findings indicate that the activation differences seen in the dyslexic children cannot be accounted for by either current reading level or scanner task performance, but instead represent a distinct developmental atypicality in the neural systems that support learning to read.

  1. Executive abilities in children with congenital visual impairment in mid-childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathelt, Joe; De Haan, Michelle; Salt, Alison; Dale, Naomi Jane

    2016-11-03

    The role of vision and vision deprivation in the development of executive function (EF) abilities in childhood is little understood; aspects of EF such as initiative, attention orienting, inhibition, planning and performance monitoring are often measured through visual tasks. Studying the development and integrity of EF abilities in children with congenital visual impairment (VI) may provide important insights into the development of EF and also its possible relationship with vision and non-visual senses. The current study investigates non-visual EF abilities in 18 school-age children of average verbal intelligence with VI of differing levels of severity arising from congenital disorders affecting the eye, retina, or anterior optic nerve. Standard auditory neuropsychological assessments of sustained and divided attention, phonemic, semantic and switching verbal fluency, verbal working memory, and ratings of everyday executive abilities by parents were undertaken. Executive skills were compared to age-matched typically-sighted (TS) typically-developing children and across levels of vision (mild to moderate VI [MVI] or severe to profound VI [SPVI]). The results do not indicate significant differences or deficits on direct assessments of verbal and auditory EF between the groups. However, parent ratings suggest difficulties with everyday executive abilities, with the greatest difficulties in those with SPVI. The findings are discussed as possibly reflecting increased demands of behavioral executive skills for children with VI in everyday situations despite auditory and verbal EF abilities in the typical range for their age. These findings have potential implications for clinical and educational practices.

  2. Influence of spatial perception abilities on reading in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Saj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial perception abilities enable individuals to explore a visual field, to detect spatial position and to infer relationships between visual stimuli. Written words and text are conceptualized spatially along a horizontal mental line, but little is known about the way children develop these representations. The exact relationship between visuo-spatial perception and academic achievement has never been directly assessed. Therefore, our aim was to study the developmental trajectory of space perception abilities by assessing perceptual, attentional and memory components, the relationship between these abilities and reading achievement in school-age children. Forty-nine children aged between 6.5 and 11 years old were divided into four age groups and were assessed with visual bisection, visual search and visual memory location tasks. The results showed that the groups of older children, from the age of nine, improved significantly on the bisection and visual search tasks with respect to all visual fields, while the groups of younger children showed more errors in the left visual field (LVF. Performances on these tasks were correlated with reading level and age. Older children with a low reading score showed a LVF bias, similar to the youngest children. These results demonstrate how abnormal space perception might distort space representation and in turn affect reading and learning processes.

  3. Experiences of High-Ability High School Students: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carrie; Goebel, Vella

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to answer the question, "To what extent do 12th-grade high-ability students feel that their past educational experiences, particularly in high school, have challenged their academic abilities?" Much research has been conducted in the field of gifted education about the identification, social and emotional…

  4. Conceptions of Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    Two different conceptions of ability are proposed. The first conception of ability is more differentiated and generally employed by adults and older children. Here ability level is defined with reference to the performance of others assuming that optimum effort was employed. High ability means higher than others. The second conception of ability…

  5. Relationships between symbolic play, functional play, verbal and non-verbal ability in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, V; Boucher, J; Lupton, L; Watson, S

    2000-01-01

    It is well established that certain aspects of play in young children are related to their emerging linguistic skills. The present study examined the relationships between functional play, symbolic play, non-verbal ability, and expressive and receptive language in normally developing children aged between 1 and 6 years using standardized assessment procedures, including a recently developed Test of Pretend Play (ToPP). When effects of chronological age were partialled out, symbolic play remained significantly correlated with both expressive and receptive language, but not with functional play or non-verbal ability; and functional play was only correlated significantly with expressive language. It is concluded that ToPP will provide practitioners with a useful way of assessing symbolic ability in children between the ages of 1 and 6 years, and will contribute to the assessment and diagnosis of a number of communication difficulties, and have implications for intervention.

  6. Measuring intellectual ability in children with cerebral palsy: can we do better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwell, Sarah; Reid, Susan M; Reddihough, Dinah S; Wrennall, Jacquie; Ong, Ben; Stargatt, Robyn

    2014-10-01

    Standard intelligence tests such as the WPPSI-III have limitations when testing children with motor impairment. This study aimed to determine the proportion of children with cerebral palsy with sufficient verbal and motor skills to complete the WPPSI-III, to determine their comparative ability to complete tasks with and without a significant motor component, and to investigate short forms of the WPPSI-III as alternatives. Participants were 78 of 235 eligible 4-5 year old children with cerebral palsy resident in the Australian state of Victoria. Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), and Full-scale IQ (FSIQ) were determined using the WPPSI-III. Initial screening for pointing and verbal abilities determined which tests were attempted. The impact of speed was investigated by comparing scores on the Block Design subtest with and without an imposed time limit. FSIQ scores were calculated from two short forms of the WPPSI-III and compared to the full form. On screening, 16 children had inadequate pointing (14) and verbal abilities (2). FSIQ was obtained in 62 (82%) children. Strong associations were seen between completion of the entire test battery and topographical pattern, level of manual ability and level of gross motor function. Scores on subtests requiring manual ability were depressed relative to other scores. Children performed better using short forms of the WPPSI-III and, for a minority, when time limits were disregarded. In summary, children with cerebral palsy often lack the fine and gross motor skills necessary to complete the WPPSI-III, scoring relatively poorly on tasks requiring a fine motor response. Using short-form estimations of FSIQ comprised of subtests without a significant fine motor component has the potential to increase a child's FSIQ by approximately 5 points. These findings have important clinical implications when assessing a child with both motor and cognitive limitations.

  7. Facial Emotion Recognition in Children with High Functioning Autism and Children with Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nina; Beidel, Deborah C.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Sims, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing facial affect is essential for effective social functioning. This study examines emotion recognition abilities in children aged 7-13 years with High Functioning Autism (HFA = 19), Social Phobia (SP = 17), or typical development (TD = 21). Findings indicate that all children identified certain emotions more quickly (e.g., happy [less…

  8. Facial Emotion Recognition in Children with High Functioning Autism and Children with Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nina; Beidel, Deborah C.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Sims, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing facial affect is essential for effective social functioning. This study examines emotion recognition abilities in children aged 7-13 years with High Functioning Autism (HFA = 19), Social Phobia (SP = 17), or typical development (TD = 21). Findings indicate that all children identified certain emotions more quickly (e.g., happy [less…

  9. Effects of verbal ability and fluid intelligence on children's emotion understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stasio, Simona; Fiorilli, Caterina; Di Chiacchio, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the role of verbal ability and fluid intelligence on children's emotion understanding, testing the hypothesis that fluid intelligence predicts the development of emotion comprehension over and above age and verbal ability. One hundred and two children (48 girls) aged 3.6-6 years completed the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) that comprised external and mental components, the Coloured Progressive Matrices and the Test for Reception of Grammar. Regression analysis showed that fluid intelligence was not equally related to the external and mental components of the TEC (Pons & Harris, 2000). Specifically, the results indicated that the external component was related to age and verbal ability only, whereas recognition of mental emotional patterns required abstract reasoning skills more than age and verbal ability. It is concluded that the development of fluid intelligence has a significant role in the development of mental component of emotion comprehension. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Communicative and psycholinguistic abilities in children with phenylketonuria and congenital hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Germano Gejão

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neonatal Screening for Inborn Errors of Metabolism of the Association of Parents and Friends of Special Needs Individuals (APAE - Bauru, Brazil, was implanted and accredited by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 1998. It covers about 286 cities of the Bauru region and 420 collection spots. Their activities include screening, diagnosis, treatment and assistance to congenital hypothyroidism (CH and phenylketonuria (PKU, among others. In 2005, a partnership was established with the Department of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology, Bauru School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Bauru, seeking to characterize and to follow, by means of research studies, the development of the communicative abilities of children with CH and PKU. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe communicative and psycholinguistic abilities in children with CH and PKU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-eight children (25 children aged 1 to 120 months with PKU and 43 children aged 1 to 60 months with CH participated in the study. The handbooks were analyzed and different instruments were applied (Observation of Communication Behavior, Early Language Milestone Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Gesell & Amatruda's Behavioral Development Scale, Portage Operation Inventory, Language Development Evaluation Scale, Denver Developmental Screening Test, ABFW Child Language Test-phonology and Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, according to the children's age group and developmental level. RESULTS: It was observed that the children with PKU and CH at risk for alterations in their developmental abilities (motor, cognitive, linguistic, adaptive and personal-social, mainly in the first years of life. Alterations in the psycholinguistic abilities were also found, mainly after the preschool age. Attention deficits, language and cognitive alterations were more often observed in children with CH, while attention deficits with hyperactivity and alterations in the

  11. Cortical Electrophysiological Markers of Language Abilities in Children with Hearing Aids: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) in pediatric hearing aid (HA) users, with and without language impairment. Design. CAEPs were measured in 11 pediatric HA users (age: 8–12 years) with moderate bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (HL); participants were classified according to language ability. CAEPs were also measured for a control group of 11 age-matched, normal-hearing (NH) children. Results. HL children without language impairment exhibited normal CAEP...

  12. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Narrative Abilities in a Group of Italian Normally Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzanica, Francesco; Ambrogi, Federico; Salvadorini, Renata; Sai, Elena; Pozzoli, Raffaella; Barillari, Maria Rosaria; Scarponi, Letizia; Schindler, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Only limited and conflicting information is available regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and narrative abilities. Besides, the role fathers' SES plays in the development of their children's narrative abilities has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between fathers' and mothers' SES and narrative abilities of their children assessed with the Italian version of the Bus Story Test (I-BST). A total of 505 normally developing Italian children were enrolled in the study. Information regarding parents' educational level and employment was collected for each child. Narrative abilities were evaluated using the I-BST. The relationships between parents' employment, educational level, and I-BST scores were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. In univariate analysis, both fathers' and mothers' education and employment were associated with most I-BST subscale scores, especially when higher educational and employment levels were contrasted with the lowest educational and employment levels. In multiple regression analysis, significant associations were found only between the fathers' working status and educational level and I-BST subscale scores. Parental education and employment might impact narrative abilities of children. When both fathers' and mothers' SES variables are considered together, only fathers' education and working status seemed to be associated with I-BST scores. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status Among School-aged Children of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Asghari Jafarabadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL, motor ability and weight status in children.Methods:Two hundred forty children ages 9-11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran,Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL.Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT.Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status.Results: Psychosocial,physical,and total health related qualities of life (all P< 0.05 were significantly lowered for obese when compared to normal weight participants. In contrast, the mean scores for each HRQOL domain in motor ability category were not significant. No significant interaction was apparent when examining HRQOL scores, BMAT variables and weight status.Conclusion:Regardless of motor ability levels,reducing body weight among children is a potential avenue for promoting improved HRQOL.Over weight boys reported significantly worse school performance than over weight girls, suggesting the importance in considering such dimensions in programs aimed at further understanding obesity in children.

  14. Effectiveness of Functional Power Training on Walking Ability in Young Children With Cerebral Palsy : Study Protocol of a Double-Baseline Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vulpen, Liesbeth F; de Groot, Sonja; Rameckers, Eugene A A; Becher, Jules G; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of functional high-velocity resistance (power) training to improve walking ability of young children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Twenty-two children with bi- or unilateral spastic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I and II, aged 4 to

  15. Dissociation of Age and Ability on a Visual Analogue of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, W. J.; Brereton, A.; Tonge, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    Early olfactory identification deficits have been associated with neurodevelopmental arrest of limbic-prefrontal networks. These same networks are implicated in development of autistic-spectrum disorders. We aimed to investigate olfactory identification ability in children with high functioning autism (HFA). Fifteen children with HFA (aged 5-9…

  16. Differences in some physical characteristics and motor abilities at dance active and dance inactive children

    OpenAIRE

    Petrič, Anja

    2012-01-01

    In Degree dissertation titled “Differences in some physical characteristics and motor abilities at dance active and dance inactive children” we compared some physical characteristics and motor abilities in the two groups of children: the ones that are taking the interests in dance and the ones that are not interested in dance. In theoretical part of dissertation we presented the offer of dance schools in Slovenia, projects School dance festival, recognition of dance in elementary schools, in...

  17. Deaf children attending different school environments: sign language abilities and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasuolo, Elena; Valeri, Giovanni; Di Renzo, Alessio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Volterra, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether full access to sign language as a medium for instruction could influence performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. Three groups of Italian participants (age range: 6-14 years) participated in the study: Two groups of deaf signing children and one group of hearing-speaking children. The two groups of deaf children differed only in their school environment: One group attended a school with a teaching assistant (TA; Sign Language is offered only by the TA to a single deaf child), and the other group attended a bilingual program (Italian Sign Language and Italian). Linguistic abilities and understanding of false belief were assessed using similar materials and procedures in spoken Italian with hearing children and in Italian Sign Language with deaf children. Deaf children attending the bilingual school performed significantly better than deaf children attending school with the TA in tasks assessing lexical comprehension and ToM, whereas the performance of hearing children was in between that of the two deaf groups. As for lexical production, deaf children attending the bilingual school performed significantly better than the two other groups. No significant differences were found between early and late signers or between children with deaf and hearing parents.

  18. Can the attention training technique turn one marshmallow into two? Improving children's ability to delay gratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joanne; Theakston, Anna; Wells, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    The seminal Marshmallow Test (Mischel & Ebbesen, 1970) has reliably demonstrated that children who can delay gratification are more likely to be emotionally stable and successful later in life. However, this is not good news for those children who can't delay. Therefore, this study aimed to explore whether a metacognitive therapy technique, Attention Training (ATT: Wells, 1990) can improve young children's ability to delay gratification. One hundred children participated. Classes of 5-6 year olds were randomly allocated to either the ATT or a no-intervention condition and were tested pre and post-intervention on ability to delay gratification, verbal inhibition (executive control), and measures of mood. The ATT intervention significantly increased (2.64 times) delay of gratification compared to the no-intervention condition. After controlling for age and months in school, the ATT intervention and verbal inhibition task performance were significant independent predictors of delay of gratification. These results provide evidence that ATT can improve children's self-regulatory abilities with the implication that this might reduce psychological vulnerability later in life. The findings highlight the potential contribution that the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model could make to designing techniques to enhance children's self-regulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High cholesterol - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and dressings Avoid foods that are high in saturated fat and added sugar Use skim milk or low- ... with other risk factors. Have family history of cardiovascular disease. Have one or more risk factors for ...

  20. Factors Influencing Academic Self-Concept of High-Ability Girls in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Melissa Mui Mei; Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the impact of entering high-ability classes on the academic self-concept of high-ability primary girls in Singapore. Participants in this study are 91 Primary 4 girls, 30 high-ability pupils, and 61 pupils from classes that include high-, middle-, and low-ability pupils. This study utilized a mixed-method…

  1. Myth 15: High-Ability Students Don't Face Problems and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sidney M.

    2009-01-01

    One rationale for failure to address the needs of high-ability students in schools is that high-ability students do not need special services because they do not face any special problems or challenges. A more extreme corollary of this attitude is the notion that high ability is so protective that students with high ability do not face problems or…

  2. Lipreading Ability and Its Cognitive Correlates in Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Lonka, Eila; Ahola, Sanna; Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Lipreading and its cognitive correlates were studied in school-age children with typical language development and delayed language development due to specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Forty-two children with typical language development and 20 children with SLI were tested by using a word-level lipreading test and an extensive…

  3. Effects of discrete emotions on young children's ability to discern fantasy and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Nathalie; Quas, Jodi A

    2006-11-01

    This study examined 3- to 5-year-olds' (N = 128; 54% girls) ability to discriminate emotional fantasy and reality. Children viewed images depicting fantastic or real events that elicited several emotions, reported whether each event could occur, and rated their emotional reaction to the image. Children were also administered the Play Behavior Questionnaire and Pretend Action Tasks to assess play behaviors. Findings revealed age-related improvements in performance and biases in judgment based on the emotion depicted. Children reported that happy fantastic events could occur significantly more often than frightening and angry fantastic events and that happy real events could occur significantly more often than frightening and angry real events. Children's emotional reactions to the images but not play behaviors were significantly related to their fantasy-reality distinctions. Implications for the relation between emotions and children's fantasy-reality distinctions are discussed.

  4. High blood pressure - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... number is the diastolic pressure. This measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest. Blood pressure ... Medical Professional Call your child's provider if home monitoring shows that your child's blood pressure is still high. Prevention Your child's provider will ...

  5. Communicative Abilities in Children: An Assessment through Different Phenomena and Expressive Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Francesca M.; Angeleri, Romina; Colle, Livia; Sacco, Katiuscia; Bara, Bruno G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on children's pragmatic abilities have tended to focus on just one pragmatic phenomenon and one expressive means at a time, mainly concentrating on comprehension, and overlooking the production side. We assessed both comprehension and production in relation to several pragmatic phenomena (simple and complex standard…

  6. Teachers' Reconceptualization of Young Children's Identities and Abilities through Research-Based Drama Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Sultan; Chapman, Kathryn; Kelley, Michael F.; Adams, Korbi; Millinger, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how the Early Years Educators at Play (EYEPlay) professional development (PD) program transformed preschool teachers' reconceptualization of children's learning identities and abilities. The EYEPlay PD model was a yearlong program, which integrated drama strategies into literacy practices within classroom contexts.…

  7. Direct versus Indirect Environmental Print Instruction and Early Reading Ability in Kindergarten Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, Patricia; Aldridge, Jerry

    1997-01-01

    Ascertains whether there were any significant differences in the early reading ability of kindergarten children who received direct instruction with environmental print, those who received indirect instruction, and those who received no instruction. Uses analysis of covariance to ascertain differences. Reveals that the control group and the…

  8. Story Retelling and Language Ability in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy and Speech Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, Ann; Dahlgren Sandberg, Annika; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research on retelling ability and cognition is limited in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and speech impairment. Aims: To explore the impact of expressive and receptive language, narrative discourse dimensions (Narrative Assessment Profile measures), auditory and visual memory, theory of mind (ToM) and non-verbal cognition on the…

  9. Inclusive and Integrated Schooling for Children with Limited Abilities: Problems and Conditions Necessary for Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liubavina, N. V.

    2014-01-01

    For more than twenty years now the system of education in Russia has been adopting the ideas of integrated schooling for children with limited abilities. The absence of positive outcomes has been confirmed by the results of numerous surveys (Malofeev 2007, 2011; Nazarova 1996, 2009). In this article, N. V. Liubavina writes that the time has now…

  10. Precursors of narrative ability: an in-depth study of three Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blauw, Akke

    2015-01-01

    This study examines nonpresent talk (NPT) in early parent-child interaction and its relation to later narrative ability. It analyses data obtained from a longitudinal study of three children in two monolingual Dutch families. A longitudinal design combined analyses of spontaneous interaction between

  11. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  12. The Influence of Spelling Ability on Handwriting Production: Children with and without Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Emma; Connelly, Vincent; Barnett, Anna L.

    2014-01-01

    Current models of writing do not sufficiently address the complex relationship between the 2 transcription skills: spelling and handwriting. For children with dyslexia and beginning writers, it is conceivable that spelling ability will influence rate of handwriting production. Our aim in this study was to examine execution speed and temporal…

  13. Activities of daily living in children with hemiparesis: influence of cognitive abilities and motor competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Caroline; Rauchenzauner, Markus; Staudt, Martin; Berweck, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate whether motor competence and cognitive abilities influence the quality of performance of activities of daily living (ADL) in children with hemiparesis. Patients and A total of 20 children with hemiparesis (age, 6-12 years; 11 congenital, 9 acquired during childhood) were studied. Motor competence was assessed with the Assisting Hand Assessment, cognitive abilities with the German version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV, and the quality of ADL performance with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). The motor skills scale of the AMPS correlated with motor competence, and the process skills scale of the AMPS correlated with cognitive abilities. The quality of ADL performance is influenced not only by motor competence but also by the cognitive abilities of a hemiparetic child. This suggests that, in addition to motor-oriented training programs, an optimal therapy for hemiparetic children should also consider cognitive approaches. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Twenty weeks of home-based interactive training of children with cerebral palsy improves functional abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Greve, Line Z; Kliim-Due, Mette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Home-based training is becoming ever more important with increasing demands on the public health systems. We investigated whether individualized and supervised interactive home-based training delivered through the internet improves functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy...

  15. Children's Cognitive Ability and Their Academic Achievement: The Mediation Effects of Parental Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Sivanes; Phillipson, Shane N.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that cognitive ability predicts academic achievement, and that parental involvement and expectations form part of the constellation of factors that predict their children's academic achievement, particularly for families within the Chinese-heritage Cultures. Although a number of interactions between these parental factors…

  16. Children's Cognitive Ability and Their Academic Achievement: The Mediation Effects of Parental Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Sivanes; Phillipson, Shane N.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that cognitive ability predicts academic achievement, and that parental involvement and expectations form part of the constellation of factors that predict their children's academic achievement, particularly for families within the Chinese-heritage Cultures. Although a number of interactions between these parental factors…

  17. Sex Differences in Spatial Competence: The Ability of Young Children to Map 'Primed' Unfamiliar Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, M. H.

    1987-01-01

    Reports a study designed to investigate the effects of gender upon the acquisition of spatial and environmental skills among primary grade children. Results showed boys performed better on complex tasks and lend support to those who argue that more extensive movements of boys through the environment leads to superior spatial ability. (Author/JDH)

  18. A Comparison of the Oral Narrative Abilities between Normal and Learning-Disabled Middle School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecan-Aker, Joan S.

    The study assessed the oral narrative abilities of 10 normal and 10 learning-disabled (LD) middle school children (11-12 years old). Narratives were assessed using A. Applebee's system for the development of story organization. The narratives were also examined for the specific components used within the stories themselves. Findings revealed…

  19. The Shortened Visuospatial Questionnaire for Children: A Useful Tool to Identify Students with Low Visuospatial Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Cherchi, Rossella; Penna, Maria Pietronilla

    2015-01-01

    The current research was aimed mainly at exploring the reliability of a short-screening tool developed to self-evaluate visuospatial abilities in children. We presented 290 Italian third, fourth, and fifth graders with the 16-item Shortened Visuospatial questionnaire and several objective measures of intellectual efficiency, such as Raven's…

  20. The Development of Preschool Children's Musical Abilities through Specific Types of Musical Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolic, Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the conducted research was to explore how much preschool teachers value certain types of musical activities, which positively influence the development of preschool children's musical abilities. The assumption in the research was that preschool teachers would choose musical games as the most prominent activity type in their educational…

  1. The Relationship between Emotion Recognition Ability and Social Skills in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Beth T.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between emotion recognition ability and social skills in 42 young children with autistic disorder aged 4-7 years. The analyses revealed that accuracy in recognition of sadness, but not happiness, anger or fear, was associated with higher ratings on the Vineland-II Socialization domain, above and beyond the…

  2. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  3. A Developmental Study of Children's Ability to Adopt Perspectives and Find Errors in Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Jeffrey J.; Hall, Vernon C.

    1991-01-01

    Children's ability to adopt perspectives and then apply schematic information on-line while listening to stories was investigated in 2 experiments with 59 second graders and 60 fourth graders. Although both subject groups had the knowledge to identify errors, fourth graders were more likely to apply such knowledge on-line during comprehension.…

  4. Mathematics Education and Neurosciences: Towards Interdisciplinary Insights into the Development of Young Children's Mathematical Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nes, Fenna

    2011-01-01

    The Mathematics Education and Neurosciences project is an interdisciplinary research program that bridges mathematics education research with neuroscientific research. The bidirectional collaboration will provide greater insight into young children's (aged four to six years) mathematical abilities. Specifically, by combining qualitative "design…

  5. Mathematics Education and Neurosciences: Towards Interdisciplinary Insights into the Development of Young Children's Mathematical Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nes, Fenna

    2011-01-01

    The Mathematics Education and Neurosciences project is an interdisciplinary research program that bridges mathematics education research with neuroscientific research. The bidirectional collaboration will provide greater insight into young children's (aged four to six years) mathematical abilities. Specifically, by combining qualitative "design…

  6. Emotion Recognition/Understanding Ability in Hearing or Vision-Impaired Children: Do Sounds, Sights, or Words Make the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Murray J.; Farrugia, Charles; Shochet, Ian M.; Holmes-Brown, Martez

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to assess whether children with a sensory disability have consistent delays in acquiring emotion recognition and emotion understanding abilities. Method: Younger (6-11 years) and older (12-18 years) hearing-impaired children (HI; n = 49), vision-impaired children (VI; n = 42), and children with no sensory…

  7. An Experimental Analysis of Children's Ability to Provide a False Report about a Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Joshua; Foster, Ida; Talwar, Victoria

    2016-05-03

    A considerable amount of research has evaluated children's lie-telling behaviors and skills(1-2); however, limitations with the tasks used for eliciting false testimonies and interviewing children have restricted the generalizability of the findings. The primary aim of the current study is to provide an easy-to-administer and ecologically valid method for measuring the veracity and quality of school-aged children's (ages 6-11) testimonies when they are asked to provide different types of true and false reports. Moreover, the methodology enables researchers to examine the social and developmental factors that could influence the credibility of a child's testimony. In the current study, children will witness a theft, and are then asked to either falsely deny the transgression, falsely accuse a researcher of the theft, or tell the truth. Afterwards, children are to be interviewed by a second researcher using a thorough and ecologically valid interview protocol that requires children to provide closed-ended and free-recall responses about the events with the instigator (E1). Coders then evaluate the length and number of theft-related details the children give throughout the interview, as well as their ability to maintain their true and false reports. The representative results indicate that the truth and lie-telling conditions elicit the intended behaviors from the children. The open-ended interview questions encouraged children to provide free-recall information about their experiences with E1. Moreover, findings from the closed-ended questions suggest that children are significantly better at maintaining their lies with age, and when producing a false denial compared to a false accusation. Results from the current study can be used to develop a greater understanding of the characteristics of children's true and false testimonies about crime, which can potentially benefit law enforcement, legal staff and professionals who interview children.

  8. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Vocabulary and Inductive Reasoning Ability: A Dynamic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühhirt, Michael; Klein, Markus

    2017-04-06

    This study investigates the relationship between early maternal employment history and children's vocabulary and inductive reasoning ability at age 5, drawing on longitudinal information on 2,200 children from the Growing Up in Scotland data. Prior research rarely addresses dynamics in maternal employment and the methodological ramifications of time-variant confounding. The present study proposes various measures to capture duration, timing, and stability of early maternal employment and uses inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for time-variant confounders that may partially mediate the effect of maternal employment on cognitive scores. The findings suggest only modest differences in the above ability measures between children who have been exposed to very different patterns of eary maternal employment, but with similar observed covariate history. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Children and adolescents previously treated with glucocorticoids display lower verbal intellectual abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sara Krøis; Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kathrine Skak

    2015-01-01

    /kg (range 21-723) and the mean time that had elapsed since treatment was three-and-a-half (standard deviation 2.2) years. Intellectual abilities were assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and memory performance and behavioural problems with a pattern recognition memory task......AIM: Perinatal exposure to glucocorticoids has been associated with adverse cerebral effects, but little is known about their effect on cognitive development and exposure later in childhood. This study examined intellectual abilities, memory and behavioural problems in children previously treated...... with glucocorticoids. METHODS: We evaluated 38 children aged from seven to 16 years, who had been treated with glucocorticoids for rheumatic disease or nephrotic syndrome, together with 42 healthy controls matched for age, gender and parental education. The median cumulative dose of prednisolone equivalents was 158 mg...

  10. The influence of spelling ability on handwriting production: children with and without dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Emma; Connelly, Vincent; Barnett, Anna L

    2014-09-01

    Current models of writing do not sufficiently address the complex relationship between the 2 transcription skills: spelling and handwriting. For children with dyslexia and beginning writers, it is conceivable that spelling ability will influence rate of handwriting production. Our aim in this study was to examine execution speed and temporal characteristics of handwriting when completing sentence-copying tasks that are free from composing demands and to determine the predictive value of spelling, pausing, and motor skill on handwriting production. Thirty-one children with dyslexia (Mage = 9 years 4 months) were compared with age-matched and spelling-ability matched children (Mage = 6 years 6 months). A digital writing tablet and Eye and Pen software were used to analyze handwriting. Children with dyslexia were able to execute handwriting at the same speed as the age-matched peers. However, they wrote less overall and paused more frequently while writing, especially within words. Combined spelling ability and within-word pausing accounted for over 76% of the variance in handwriting production of children with dyslexia, demonstrating that productivity relies on spelling capabilities. Motor skill did not significantly predict any additional variance in handwriting production. Reading ability predicted performance of the age-matched group, and pausing predicted performance for the spelling-ability group. The findings from the digital writing tablet highlight the interactive relationship between the transcription skills and how, if spelling is not fully automatized, it can constrain the rate of handwriting production. Practical implications are also addressed, emphasizing the need for more consideration to be given to what common handwriting tasks are assessing as a whole.

  11. Language abilities in preschool-aged siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders – preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD observed among relatives of people affected with autism are referred to as broader autism phenotype (BAP. Among the components of BAP are language and communication skills. Research to date on these skills amongst the relatives of individuals with ASD is inconclusive. Furthermore, limited data are available about preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD. Participants and procedure Eighty-six children aged 4 years and 6 months – 6 years and 11 months took part in the study (32 girls and 54 boys. They were divided into four groups: siblings of children with autism (S/ASD, high-functioning children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (HF/ASD, siblings of children with Down syndrome (S/DS and siblings of typically developing children (Controls, C. Communication and language skills were tested using the Vocabulary Test for Children (TSD. It was used to assess two kinds of verbal skills: receptive language (passive and expressive language (active. Results No differences were observed in expressive lanquage or receptive language between siblings of children with ASD and siblings of children with DS as well as typically developing children. In terms of receptive language and general communication skills, siblings of children with ASD scored higher than high functioning children with ASD. High functioning children with ASD displayed difficulties with receptive language, expressive language, general language and communication skills. Conclusions The results suggest that siblings of children with ASD do not display deficits in communication and language skills. It is however important to note that due to a small sample size this study should be considered as preliminary.

  12. Twenty weeks of home-based interactive training of children with cerebral palsy improves functional abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Greve, Line Z; Kliim-Due, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Home-based training is becoming ever more important with increasing demands on the public health systems. We investigated whether individualized and supervised interactive home-based training delivered through the internet improves functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy...... (CP). METHODS: Thirty four children with CP (aged 9-16; mean age 10.9 ± 2.4 years) (GMFCS I-II; MACS I-II) were included in this non-randomized controlled clinical training study. 12 children (aged 7-16; mean age: 11.3+/-0.9 years) were allocated to a control group in which measurements were performed...... home training of children with CP is an efficient way to deliver training, which can enable functional motor improvements and increased activity to perform daily activities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN13188513 . Date of registration: 04/12/2014....

  13. Association of Cognitive Abilities and Brain Lateralization among Primary School Children in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasem Y. Al-Hashel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many studies have explored the cognitive variation between left- and right-handed individuals; however, the differences remain poorly understood. Aim of the Work. To assess the association between brain lateralization indicated by handedness and cognitive abilities. Material and Methods. A total of 217 students aged between 7 and 10 years of both genders were identified for the study. Males and females were equally distributed. All left-handed students were chosen. An equal group with right-handed students was randomly selected. Handedness was assessed using traditional writing hand approach as well as the WatHand Cabient Test and the Grooved Pegboard Test. Cognition was measured using Cambridge University’s CANTAB eclipse cognitive battery. Pearson Correlation Coefficient Test “r” was calculated to measure the strength of association between quantitative data. Results. Right-handed children had superior visuospatial abilities (p=0.011, r=0.253, visual memory (p=0.034, r=0.205, and better scores in reaction time tests which incorporated elements of visual memory (p=0.004, r=-0.271. Left-handed children proved to have better simple reaction times (p=0.036, r=0.201. Conclusion. Right-handed children had superior visuospatial abilities and left-handed children have better simple reaction times.

  14. A successful intervention program for high ability minority students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Winson R.

    1989-01-01

    intervention program is the Saturday Academy program for high ability minority students in the Washington, D.C. area. A description of the Saturday Academy is provided with the intent of making it available to personnel who are considering the development of similar projects. The effect of participation in the program on high school graduate rates, college enrollment, and choice of quantitative major is examined.

  15. Differences in children and adolescents' ability of reporting two CVS-related visual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Yan, Zheng; Ye, Tiantian; Lu, Fan; Xu, Peng; Chen, Hao

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether children and adolescents can correctly report dry eyes and blurred distance vision, two visual problems associated with computer vision syndrome. Participants are 913 children and adolescents aged 6-17. They were asked to report their visual problems, including dry eyes and blurred distance vision, and received an eye examination, including tear film break-up time (TFBUT) and visual acuity (VA). Inconsistency was found between participants' reports of dry eyes and TFBUT results among all 913 participants as well as for all of four subgroups. In contrast, consistency was found between participants' reports of blurred distance vision and VA results among 873 participants who had never worn glasses as well as for the four subgroups. It was concluded that children and adolescents are unable to report dry eyes correctly; however, they are able to report blurred distance vision correctly. Three practical implications of the findings were discussed. Little is known about children's ability to report their visual problems, an issue critical to diagnosis and treatment of children's computer vision syndrome. This study compared children's self-reports and clinic examination results and found children can correctly report blurred distance vision but not dry eyes.

  16. Cognitive ability, neighborhood deprivation, and young children's emotional and behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2012-06-01

    To examine if cognitive ability moderates the effect of area (neighborhood) deprivation on young children's problem behavior. Data from the first two sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) in the UK were used. Children were clustered in small areas in nine strata in the UK and were aged 9 months at Sweep 1 and 3 years at Sweep 2. Neighborhood deprivation was measured with the Index of Multiple Deprivation at Sweep 1. Overall and specific problem behavior was measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at Sweep 2. To explore moderator specificity we used three indices of ability (verbal cognitive ability, non-verbal cognitive ability, and attainment of developmental milestones). Adjustment was made for child's age and sex, and for Sweep 1 family adversity (number of adverse life events), family structure, mother's social class and psychological distress, and family socio-economic disadvantage. We found both support for our main hypothesis, and evidence for specificity. Neighborhood deprivation was, even after adjustment for covariates, significantly associated with children's peer problems. However, verbal and non-verbal cognitive ability moderated this association. Neighborhood deprivation was related to peer problems even at preschool age. Although the effect of neighborhood deprivation on externalizing problems was mediated by family poverty and parental socio-economic position and although its effect on internalizing problems was mediated by parental mental health, its effect on difficulties with peers was independent of both parental and child characteristics. Cognitive ability moderated the effect of neighborhood deprivation on preschoolers' peer relationships difficulties.

  17. The role of early language abilities on math skills among Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xitao; Cheung, Sum Kwing; Cai, Zhihui; Hu, Bi Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background The present study investigated the role of early language abilities in the development of math skills among Chinese K-3 students. About 2000 children in China, who were on average aged 6 years, were assessed for both informal math (e.g., basic number concepts such as counting objects) and formal math (calculations including addition and subtraction) skills, language abilities and nonverbal intelligence. Methodology Correlation analysis showed that language abilities were more strongly associated with informal than formal math skills, and regression analyses revealed that children’s language abilities could uniquely predict both informal and formal math skills with age, gender, and nonverbal intelligence controlled. Mediation analyses demonstrated that the relationship between children’s language abilities and formal math skills was partially mediated by informal math skills. Results The current findings indicate 1) Children’s language abilities are of strong predictive values for both informal and formal math skills; 2) Language abilities impacts formal math skills partially through the mediation of informal math skills. PMID:28749950

  18. The Relationship between Motor Abilities and Early Social Development in a Preschool Cohort of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittingham, Koa; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; Boyd, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between motor ability and early social development in a cohort of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Design: Population-based cohort study. Methods: Participants were 122 children with CP assessed at 18, 24 and 30 months, corrected age (ca). Motor ability was measured by the Gross Motor Function…

  19. Children's and Adolescents' Thoughts on Pollution: Cognitive Abilities Required to Understand Environmental Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Manuel; Kohen, Raquel; Delval, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Pollution phenomena are complex systems in which different parts are integrated by means of causal and temporal relationships. To understand pollution, children must develop some cognitive abilities related to system thinking and temporal and causal inferential reasoning. These cognitive abilities constrain and guide how children understand…

  20. Present and past: Can writing abilities in school children be associated with their auditory discrimination capacities in infancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Gesa; Männel, Claudia; van der Meer, Elke; Pannekamp, Ann; Oberecker, Regine; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-12-01

    Literacy acquisition is highly associated with auditory processing abilities, such as auditory discrimination. The event-related potential Mismatch Response (MMR) is an indicator for cortical auditory discrimination abilities and it has been found to be reduced in individuals with reading and writing impairments and also in infants at risk for these impairments. The goal of the present study was to analyze the relationship between auditory speech discrimination in infancy and writing abilities at school age within subjects, and to determine when auditory speech discrimination differences, relevant for later writing abilities, start to develop. We analyzed the MMR registered in response to natural syllables in German children with and without writing problems at two points during development, that is, at school age and at infancy, namely at age 1 month and 5 months. We observed MMR related auditory discrimination differences between infants with and without later writing problems, starting to develop at age 5 months-an age when infants begin to establish language-specific phoneme representations. At school age, these children with and without writing problems also showed auditory discrimination differences, reflected in the MMR, confirming a relationship between writing and auditory speech processing skills. Thus, writing problems at school age are, at least, partly grounded in auditory discrimination problems developing already during the first months of life.

  1. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  2. Parenting Style, Perfectionism, and Creativity in High-Ability and High-Achieving Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Angie L.; Lambert, Amber D.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study explores the potential relationships among perceived parenting style, perfectionism, and creativity in a high-ability and high-achieving young adult population. Using data from 323 honors college students at a Midwestern university, bivariate correlations suggested positive relationships between (a) permissive parenting style and…

  3. Relationship between Intelligence Quotient and Musical Ability in Children with Cochlear Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanifar, Simin; Jafari, Zahra; Motasaddi Zarandy, Masoud; Asadi, Houman; Haghani, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Children with cochlear implants (CIs) may experience few opportunities for positive musical experiences, and musical perception is therefore often not sufficiently developed. This paper investigates and discusses the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and musical ability in children with CIs compared with children with normal hearing. This was a comparative analytical study conducted in 48 children with unilateral CI and 48 normal-hearing children, 6-8 years of age, with 'normal' IQ and no formal music training. The average IQ score in the experimental and control groups were 105.41 and 106.31, respectively. No statistically significant differences were detected between Raven's IQ scores in both groups. Data were collected by administering Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices IQ Tests and the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Musical Abilities (MBEMA) Test, consisting of scale, contour, interval, rhythm, and memory sections. Mean total MBEMA score in the experimental and control groups was 58.93 and 72.16 (out of 100), respectively. Significant differences were evident between scores of children with CIs in comparison with their normal-hearing peers (P≤0.001). A remarkable direct correlation between IQ and musical scores in both the control (r≥0.38) and experimental (r≥0.37) groups was observed. IQ has a noticeable effect on music processing and facilitates the perception of various musical elements. With regard to the mutual relationship between IQ and musical skills, this study illustrates the advantage of determining music perception scores and highlights the importance of appropriate musical intervention in order to enhance auditory neural plasticity, especially in children with cochlear implantation.

  4. Relationship between Intelligence Quotient and Musical Ability in Children with Cochlear Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanifar, Simin; Jafari, Zahra; Motasaddi Zarandy, Masoud; Asadi, Houman; Haghani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Children with cochlear implants (CIs) may experience few opportunities for positive musical experiences, and musical perception is therefore often not sufficiently developed. This paper investigates and discusses the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and musical ability in children with CIs compared with children with normal hearing. Materials and Methods: This was a comparative analytical study conducted in 48 children with unilateral CI and 48 normal-hearing children, 6–8 years of age, with ‘normal’ IQ and no formal music training. The average IQ score in the experimental and control groups were 105.41 and 106.31, respectively. No statistically significant differences were detected between Raven’s IQ scores in both groups. Data were collected by administering Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices IQ Tests and the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Musical Abilities (MBEMA) Test, consisting of scale, contour, interval, rhythm, and memory sections. Results: Mean total MBEMA score in the experimental and control groups was 58.93 and 72.16 (out of 100), respectively. Significant differences were evident between scores of children with CIs in comparison with their normal-hearing peers (P≤0.001). A remarkable direct correlation between IQ and musical scores in both the control (r≥0.38) and experimental (r≥0.37) groups was observed. Conclusion: IQ has a noticeable effect on music processing and facilitates the perception of various musical elements. With regard to the mutual relationship between IQ and musical skills, this study illustrates the advantage of determining music perception scores and highlights the importance of appropriate musical intervention in order to enhance auditory neural plasticity, especially in children with cochlear implantation. PMID:27738611

  5. Individual Differences in Speech and Language Ability Profiles in Areas of High Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Julie-Ann; Coulter, Lorraine

    2017-01-01

    Speech and language ability is not a unitary concept; rather, it is made up of multiple abilities such as grammar, articulation and vocabulary. Young children from socio-economically deprived areas are more likely to experience language difficulties than those living in more affluent areas. However, less is known about individual differences in…

  6. Children's construction task performance and spatial ability: controlling task complexity and predicting mathematics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Miles; Hunt, Thomas E; Richardson, Cassandra

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a methodology to control construction task complexity and examined the relationships between construction performance and spatial and mathematical abilities in children. The study included three groups of children (N = 96); ages 7-8, 10-11, and 13-14 years. Each group constructed seven pre-specified objects. The study replicated and extended previous findings that indicated that the extent of component symmetry and variety, and the number of components for each object and available for selection, significantly predicted construction task difficulty. Results showed that this methodology is a valid and reliable technique for assessing and predicting construction play task difficulty. Furthermore, construction play performance predicted mathematical attainment independently of spatial ability.

  7. Poverty, household chaos, and interparental aggression predict children's ability to recognize and modulate negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raver, C Cybele; Blair, Clancy; Garrett-Peters, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    The following prospective longitudinal study considers the ways that protracted exposure to verbal and physical aggression between parents may take a substantial toll on emotional adjustment for 1,025 children followed from 6 to 58 months of age. Exposure to chronic poverty from infancy to early childhood as well as multiple measures of household chaos were also included as predictors of children's ability to recognize and modulate negative emotions in order to disentangle the role of interparental conflict from the socioeconomic forces that sometimes accompany it. Analyses revealed that exposure to greater levels of interparental conflict, more chaos in the household, and a higher number of years in poverty can be empirically distinguished as key contributors to 58-month-olds' ability to recognize and modulate negative emotion. Implications for models of experiential canalization of emotional processes within the context of adversity are discussed.

  8. Visuo-spatial attention and reading abilities: an action game prototype for dyslexic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangione Giuseppina Rita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to play action videogames – not directly related to phonological or orthographic training – seems to be a teaching tool able to intervene specifically on spatial attention and drastically improve the reading skills of dyslexic children. The MADRIGALE project aims at the design and development of an action game, simultaneously involving both phonological and attention training in order to adapt educational game strategies for special needs.

  9. Recognizing young children with high potential: U-STARS∼PLUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Ruth

    2016-08-01

    Hands-on science is the ideal platform for observing young children's ability to solve problems, think deeply, and use their creative ingenuity to explore the world around them. Science is naturally interesting and offers authentic reasons to read for information and use math skills to collect, compile, and analyze data. This chapter will share one approach to nurturing and recognizing young children with high-potential: U-STARS∼PLUS (Using Science, Talents, and Abilities to Recognize Students∼Promoting Learning for Underrepresented Students). Each of the five components (high-end learning environments; teacher's observations of potential; engaging science activities; partnerships with parents; and capacity building for system change) will be explained. Concrete examples will be given for each area showing how it works and why it is important. Special attention will be paid to the needs of educationally vulnerable gifted children who remain underserved: racially, ethnically, and linguistically different; economically disadvantaged, and children who are twice exceptional (2e).

  10. The Possible Selves of High-Ability African Males Attending a Residential High School for Highly Able Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Andrea Dawn

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the possible selves of high-ability African American males attending a specialized school for high-ability students. To this end, interviews were conducted with nine students. Results provided details about the hoped-for and feared selves the young men envisioned as well as the strategies these youth utilized to realize and…

  11. Effects of a classroom intervention with spatial play materials on children's object and viewer transformation abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2017-02-01

    Children practice their spatial skills when playing with spatial toys, such as construction materials, board games, and puzzles. Sex and SES differences are observed in the engagement in such spatial play activities at home, which relate to individual differences in spatial performance. The current study investigated the effects of explicitly providing spatial play activities in the school setting on different types of spatial ability. We presented 8- to 10-year-old children with a short and easy-to-adopt classroom intervention comprising a set of different spatial play materials. The design involved a pretest-posttest comparison between the intervention group (n = 70) and a control group without intervention (n = 70). Effects were examined on object transformation ability (i.e., a paper-and-pencil mental rotation and paper folding task) and viewer transformation ability (i.e., a hands-on 3D spatial perspective-taking task). Results showed specific effects: there were no differences between the intervention and control group in progress on the two object transformation tasks. Substantial improvements were found for the intervention group compared to the control group on the viewer transformation task. Training progress was not related to sex and socioeconomic background of the child. These findings support the value of spatial play in the classroom for the spatial development of children between 8 and 10 years of age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Language and memory abilities of internationally adopted children from China: evidence for early age effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcenserie, Audrey; Genesee, Fred

    2014-11-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if internationally adopted (IA) children from China (M = 10;8) adopted by French-speaking families exhibit lags in verbal memory in addition to lags in verbal abilities documented in previous studies (Gauthier & Genesee, 2011). Tests assessing verbal and non-verbal memory, language, non-verbal cognitive ability, and socio-emotional development were administered to thirty adoptees. Their results were compared to those of thirty non-adopted monolingual French-speaking children matched on age, gender, and socioeconomic status. The IA children scored significantly lower than the controls on language, verbal short-term memory, verbal working memory, and verbal long-term memory. No group differences were found on non-verbal memory, non-verbal cognitive ability, and socio-emotional development, suggesting language-specific difficulties. Despite extended exposure to French, adoptees may experience language difficulties due to limitations in verbal memory, possibly as a result of their delayed exposure to that language and/or attrition of the birth language.

  13. Differences in brain function and changes with intervention in children with poor spelling and reading abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Daniela; Fink, Andreas; Kargl, Reinhard; Reishofer, Gernot; Koschutnig, Karl; Purgstaller, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Enzinger, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Previous fMRI studies in English-speaking samples suggested that specific interventions may alter brain function in language-relevant networks in children with reading and spelling difficulties, but this research strongly focused on reading impaired individuals. Only few studies so far investigated characteristics of brain activation associated with poor spelling ability and whether a specific spelling intervention may also be associated with distinct changes in brain activity patterns. We here investigated such effects of a morpheme-based spelling intervention on brain function in 20 children with comparatively poor spelling and reading abilities using repeated fMRI. Relative to 10 matched controls, children with comparatively poor spelling and reading abilities showed increased activation in frontal medial and right hemispheric regions and decreased activation in left occipito-temporal regions prior to the intervention, during processing of a lexical decision task. After five weeks of intervention, spelling and reading comprehension significantly improved in the training group, along with increased activation in the left temporal, parahippocampal and hippocampal regions. Conversely, the waiting group showed increases in right posterior regions. Our findings could indicate an increased left temporal activation associated with the recollection of the new learnt morpheme-based strategy related to successful training.

  14. Language and emotional abilities in children with Williams syndrome and children with autism spectrum disorder: similarities and differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacroix A

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Agnès Lacroix,1 Nawelle Famelart,2 Michèle Guidetti2 1Department of Psychology, Center for Research in Psychology, Cognition, and Communication, University of Rennes 2, Rennes, 2CLLE, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UT2J, France Abstract: Williams syndrome (WS is a genetic disease with a relatively homogeneous profile: relatively well-preserved language, impaired cognitive activities, and hypersociability. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD refers to a group of individuals with impairments in aspects of communication and a particular pattern of language acquisition. Although ASD and WS are polar opposites when it comes to communication abilities (language and emotion and social behavior, comparisons between WS and ASD are still rare in the literature. ASD and WS are both associated with general language and developmental delays. Difficulties in social interaction and general pragmatic difficulties are reported in both ASD and WS, but are more pervasive in ASD. Regarding facial emotion recognition, the two syndromes differ markedly in sensitivity to human faces. Despite the heterogeneity of these two groups, only a few studies with children have paid sufficient attention to participant recruitment and study design. A number of aspects need to be taken into account (eg, small age range, homogeneity of the subgroups, matching with typically developing children if scientific results are to inform the design of intervention programs for children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as ASD and WS. Keywords: neurodevelopmental disorders, facial emotion recognition, linguistic abilities, pragmatic abilities, emotions

  15. Phonological awareness, reading accuracy and spelling ability of children with inconsistent phonological disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Alison; Farrier, Faith; Dodd, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Although children with speech disorder are at increased risk of literacy impairments, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. They are also a heterogeneous population in terms of the number and type of speech errors and their identified speech processing deficits. One problem lies in determining which preschool children with speech disorder will have difficulties acquiring literacy skills. Two studies are presented that investigate the relationship between speech disorders and literacy. The first examined the phonological awareness abilities of children with different types of speech difficulties. The second study investigated the literacy skills of children with a history of inconsistent speech disorder. Experiment 1 measured the syllable segmentation, rhyme awareness and alliteration awareness of 61 preschool children: 46 with speech disorder (14 with delayed development, 17 who made consistent non-developmental errors, and 15 who made inconsistent errors) and 15 typically developing controls. Experiment 2 assessed the reading accuracy, spelling and phonological awareness abilities of nine 7-year-old children with a history of inconsistent phonological errors. The first study indicated unexpected patterns of performance. While the Delayed group performed less well than controls on all tasks, the Consistent group showed poor performance on rhyme and alliteration but appropriate performance on syllable segmentation. The Inconsistent group performed most poorly on syllable segmentation but no differently from controls on the other two tasks. The second study indicated that children with a history of inconsistent phonological disorder performed no differently from controls on measures of phonological awareness and reading, but less well on measures of spelling ability. The results support classification of speech disorders and show a differentiation of phonological awareness skills across groups. Children with consistent atypical speech errors have poor

  16. Cortical Electrophysiological Markers of Language Abilities in Children with Hearing Aids: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bakhos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs in pediatric hearing aid (HA users, with and without language impairment. Design. CAEPs were measured in 11 pediatric HA users (age: 8–12 years with moderate bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (HL; participants were classified according to language ability. CAEPs were also measured for a control group of 11 age-matched, normal-hearing (NH children. Results. HL children without language impairment exhibited normal CAEPs. HL children with language impairment exhibited atypical temporal CAEPs, characterized by the absence of N1c; frontocentral responses displayed normal age-related patterns. Conclusion. Results suggest that abnormal temporal brain function may underlie language impairment in pediatric HA users with moderate sensorineural HL.

  17. Inflectional and derivational morphological spelling abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critten, Sarah; Connelly, Vincent; Dockrell, Julie E; Walter, Kirsty

    2014-01-01

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) are known to have difficulties with spelling but the factors that underpin these difficulties, are a matter of debate. The present study investigated the impact of oral language and literacy on the bound morpheme spelling abilities of children with SLI. Thirty-three children with SLI (9-10 years) and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and one for language and spelling age (LA) (aged 6-8 years) were given dictated spelling tasks of 24 words containing inflectional morphemes and 18 words containing derivational morphemes. There were no significant differences between the SLI group and their LA matches in accuracy or error patterns for inflectional morphemes. By contrast when spelling derivational morphemes the SLI group was less accurate and made proportionately more omissions and phonologically implausible errors than both control groups. Spelling accuracy was associated with phonological awareness and reading; reading performance significantly predicted the ability to spell both inflectional and derivational morphemes. The particular difficulties experienced by the children with SLI for derivational morphemes are considered in relation to reading and oral language.

  18. Inflectional and derivational morphological spelling abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eCritten

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI are known to have difficulties with spelling but the factors which underpin these difficulties, are a matter of debate. The present study investigated the impact of oral language and literacy on the bound morpheme spelling abilities of children with SLI. Thirty-three children with SLI (9-10 years and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA and one for language and spelling age (LA (aged 6-8 years were given dictated spelling tasks of 24 words containing inflectional morphemes and 18 words containing derivational morphemes. There were no significant differences between the SLI group and their LA matches in accuracy or error patterns for inflectional morphemes. By contrast when spelling derivational morphemes the SLI group was less accurate and made proportionately more omissions and phonologically implausible errors than both control groups. Spelling accuracy was associated with phonological awareness and reading; reading performance significantly predicted the ability to spell both inflectional and derivational morphemes. The particular difficulties experienced by the children with SLI for derivational morphemes are considered in relation to reading and oral language.

  19. The Influence of Manifest Strabismus and Stereoscopic Vision on Non-Verbal Abilities of Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorovic, Milica; Vucinic, Vesna; Eskirovic, Branka; Jablan, Branka

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to examine the influence of manifest strabismus and stereoscopic vision on non-verbal abilities of visually impaired children aged between 7 and 15. The sample included 55 visually impaired children from the 1st to the 6th grade of elementary schools for visually impaired children in Belgrade. RANDOT stereotest…

  20. Social Adjustment, Academic Adjustment, and the Ability to Identify Emotion in Facial Expressions of 7-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Stephanie; Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The authors aimed to examine the possible association between (a) accurately reading emotion in facial expressions and (b) social and academic competence among elementary school-aged children. Participants were 840 7-year-old children who completed a test of the ability to read emotion in facial expressions. Teachers rated children's social and…

  1. How is This Child Feeling? Preschool-Aged Children's Ability to Recognize Emotion in Faces and Body Poses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alison E.; Mathis, Erin T.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: The study examined children's recognition of emotion from faces and body poses, as well as gender differences in these recognition abilities. Preschool-aged children ("N" = 55) and their parents and teachers participated in the study. Preschool-aged children completed a web-based measure of emotion recognition skills that…

  2. The Development and Empowerment of Mathematical Abilities: The Impact of Pencil and Paper and Computerised Interventions for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascia, Maria Lidia; Agus, Mirian; Fastame, Maria Chiara; Penna, Maria Pietronilla; Sale, Eliana; Pessa, Eliano

    2015-01-01

    The development of numerical abilities was examined in three groups of 5 year-olds: one including 13 children accomplishing a numerical training in pencil-and-paper format (EG1); another group including 21 children accomplished a homologous training in computerized format; the remaining 24 children were assigned to the control group (CG). The…

  3. Precursors and Consequences of Phonemic Length Discrimination Ability Problems in Children with Reading Disabilities and Familial Risk for Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennala, Riitta; Eklund, Kenneth; Hamalainen, Jarmo; Martin, Maisa; Richardson, Ulla; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the importance of phonemic length discrimination ability on reading and spelling skills among children with reading disabilities and familial risk for dyslexia and among children with typical reading skills, as well as the role of prereading skills in reading and spelling development in children with reading…

  4. Scientific Creativity and High Ability: Gender and academic level differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier ESPARZA MOLINA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and educational level on scientific creativity among gifted/talented students. A cohort of creatividad científica y alta habilidad: diferencias de género y nivel educativo 78 secondary school students from 12 to 16 years old participated in this research. The scientific creativity was measured using the Creative Scientific Ability Test (Sak & Ayas, 2011 designed for secondary school students from 11 to 14 years old. Its theoretical framework sets up the measurement of a three dimensional structure: general creative abilities (fluency, flexibility and creativity, scientific creative abilities (hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing and evidence evaluation and scientific knowledge. This test has the right adequate psychometric properties with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.848 (Sak & Ayas, 2013. Results indicated that male students scored significantly higher in a task named Interaction Graph which measures hypothesis generation in interdisciplinary science. The analysis also showed that students involved in upper education levels scores significantly higher in general fluency and in the task called The Food Chain which measures evidence evaluation in the area of ecology.

  5. An Investigation of Cognitive Skills and Behavior in High Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Elsworth, Miquela

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive and behavioral profiles of high ability students. Performance on measures of verbal and visuo-spatial working memory and general ability (vocabulary and block design) was compared across the following groups: high, average, and low ability students. The behavioral profile of high ability…

  6. Motor ability and inhibitory processes in children with ADHD: a neuroelectric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chiao-Ling; Chang, Yu-Kai; Chan, Yuan-Shuo; Shih, Chia-Hao; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between motor ability and response inhibition using behavioral and electrophysiological indices in children with ADHD. A total of 32 participants were recruited and underwent a motor ability assessment by administering the Basic Motor Ability Test-Revised (BMAT) as well as the Go/No-Go task and event-related potential (ERP) measurements at the same time. The results indicated that the BMAT scores were positively associated with the behavioral and ERP measures. Specifically, the BMAT average score was associated with a faster reaction time and higher accuracy, whereas higher BMAT subset scores predicted a shorter P3 latency in the Go condition. Although the association between the BMAT average score and the No-Go accuracy was limited, higher BMAT average and subset scores predicted a shorter N2 and P3 latency and a larger P3 amplitude in the No-Go condition. These findings suggest that motor abilities may play roles that benefit the cognitive performance of ADHD children.

  7. The impact of generic language about ability on children's achievement motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpian, Andrei

    2010-09-01

    Nuances in how adults talk about ability may have important consequences for children's sustained involvement and success in an activity. In this study, I tested the hypothesis that children would be less motivated while performing a novel activity if they were told that boys or girls in general are good at this activity (generic language) than if they were told that a particular boy or girl is good at it (non-generic language). Generic language may be detrimental because it expresses normative societal expectations regarding performance. If these expectations are negative, they may cause children to worry about confirming them; if positive, they may cause worries about failing to meet them. Moreover, generic statements may be threatening because they imply that performance is the result of stable traits rather than effort. Ninety-seven 4- to 7-year-olds were asked to play a game in which they succeeded at first but then made a few mistakes. Since young children remain optimistic in achievement situations until the possibility of failure is made clear, I hypothesized that 4- and 5-year-olds would not be affected by the implications of generic language until after they made mistakes; 6- and 7-year-olds, however, may be susceptible earlier. As expected, the older children who heard that boys or girls are good at this game displayed lower motivation (e.g., more negative emotions, lower perceived competence) from the start, while they were still succeeding and receiving praise. Four- and 5-year-olds who heard these generic statements had a similar reaction, but only after they made mistakes. These findings demonstrate that exposure to generic language about ability can be an obstacle to children's motivation and, potentially, their success.

  8. The relationship between parent report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciuli, Joanne; Stevens, Kirsten; Trembath, David; Simpson, Ian Craig

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to shed light on the profile of reading ability in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A key aim was to examine the relationship between parent report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of reading ability in these children. The authors investigated children's reading ability using the Wide Range Achievement Test—Fourth Edition (Wilkinson & Robertson, 2006) and the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability—Third Edition (Neale, 2007). Parent report data was collected using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales—Second Edition (Sparrow, Cicchetti, & Balla, 2005). Participants were 21 children with ASD (6-11 years) and their primary caregivers. Direct assessment of children's reading ability showed that some children with ASD have difficulty learning to read and exhibit particular weaknesses in comprehension. The results revealed positive relationships between Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales scores in the Adaptive Communication domain and direct assessment of children's reading ability across 3 measures of reading (word-level accuracy, passage-level accuracy, and passage-level comprehension). Although literacy levels vary among children with ASD, some clearly struggle with reading. There is a significant relationship between parent self-report of adaptive behavior and direct assessment of children's reading ability.

  9. Predicting Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted

  10. An Immersive Virtual Reality Platform to Enhance Walking Ability of Children with Acquired Brain Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, Emilia; Beretta, Elena; Cesareo, Ambra; Maghini, Cristina; Turconi, Anna C; Reni, Gianluigi; Strazzer, Sandra

    2017-03-23

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) may result in lifelong impairment of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial functions. Several rehabilitative treatments are often needed to support walking recovery, thus participants' engagement becomes a crucial aspect, especially when patients are children. In the last few years, traditional physiotherapy (PT) has been flanked by innovative technologies for rehabilitation in the fields of robotics and Virtual Reality (VR). Preliminary results have shown interesting perspectives in the use of a VR system, the GRAIL (Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab), in improving walking abilities in a small group of children with ABI, although further insights are needed about its use as rehabilitative tool in the pediatric population. To evaluate the efficacy of a rehabilitation treatment on a GRAIL system for the improvement of walking abilities, in a group of children suffering from ABI. 12 children with ABI (study group - SG; mean age = 12.1 ± 3.8 years old) underwent a 10-session treatment with the GRAIL, an instrumented multi-sensor platform based on immersive VR for gait training and rehabilitation in engaging VR environments. Before (T0) and at the end of the treatment (T1), the participants were assessed by means of functional scales (Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ), 6-Minute Walk Test (6minWT) and the 3D-Gait Analysis, over ground (OGA) and on GRAIL (GGA). All the participants completed the rehabilitative treatment. The functional evaluations showed an improvement in Gross Motor abilities (GMFM-88, p = 0.008), especially in standing (GMFM-D, p = 0.007) and walking (GMFM-E, p = 0.005), an increase of the endurance (6minWT, p = 0.002), and enhanced autonomy in daily life activities (FAQ, p = 0.025). OGA identified a significant decrease of the Gillette Gait Index for the impaired side and a general increase of symmetry. GGA showed improvements in

  11. Information Processing and Creative Thinking Abilities of Residential and Non-Residential School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atasi Mohanty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to assess and compare the residential and non-residential schoolchildren in information-processing skills and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 80 children from Classes 5 and 7 were selected from two types of schools, residential/ashram (02 and non-residential/formal schools (02 in Bolpur subdivision of West Bengal in India where the medium of instruction is Bengali language/mother-tongue. All the children were individually administered the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, Stroop, Matching Familiar Figure Test (MFFT-20, and creative thinking tasks. The residential school children were found to perform better both in information processing and creative thinking tasks. The developmental trend could not be clearly observed due to small sample size, but with increasing age, children were using better processing strategies. Due to ashram environment, creative pedagogy, and various co-curricular activities, the residential school children were found to be more creative than their formal school counterparts. Moreover, some significant positive correlations were found among information processing skills and creative thinking dimensions.

  12. LEVEL OF ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR ABILITIES OF SEDENTARY AND CHILDREN WHO ARE IN TRAINING IN VARIOUS SPORTS ORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nela Tatar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Whit the goal to describe anthropometric characteristic and motorical abilities in groups of non sports and children which have some sports training activities, to calculate quantitative and qualitative difference between these groups of children in anthropometric characteristic and motorical abilities, it is conduct survey with the sample of 150 entities, age from 11 to 13, different sports orientation (karate, judo, football and volleyball and non sports children (scholars. In analyze, it was used system of total 27 variables (12 morphological and 15 basic - motorical. Also, descriptive statistical procedures were done and in this paper we present only arithmetical means. For quantitative difference between combination per groups in anthropometric characteristic and motorical abilities it was used ANOVA. According to quantitative and qualitative differences in anthropometric characteristics and motorical abilities from survey, the best anthropometric characteristic were get in groups of volleyball players, and in motorical abilities the best performance shown group of children which train a karate.

  13. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa GAJEWSKA*

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Gajewska E, Sobieska M, Samborski W. Associations between Manual Abilities, Gross Motor Function, Epilepsy, and Mental Capacity in Children with Cerebral Palsy. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Spring 8(2:45-52.ObjectiveThis study aimed to evaluate gross motor function and hand function in children with cerebral palsy to explore their association with epilepsy and mental capacity. Material & MethodsThe research investigating the association between gross and fine motor function and the presence of epilepsy and/or mental impairment was conducted on a group of 83 children (45 girls, 38 boys. Among them, 41 were diagnosedwith quadriplegia, 14 hemiplegia, 18 diplegia, 7 mixed form, and 3 athetosis.A neurologist assessed each child in terms of possible epilepsy and confirmed diagnosis in 35 children. A psychologist assessed the mental level (according toWechsler and found 13 children within intellectual norm, 3 children with mild mental impairment, 18 with moderate, 27 with severe, and 22 with profound.Children were then classified based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification Scale.ResultsThe gross motor function and manual performance were analysed in relation to mental impairment and the presence of epilepsy. Epilepsy was found to disturb conscious motor functions, but also higher degree of mental impairment wasobserved in children with epilepsy.ConclusionThe occurrence of epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy is associated with worse manual function. The occurrence of epilepsy is associated with limitations in conscious motor functions. There is an association between epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy and the degree of mental impairment.The occurrence of epilepsy, mainly in children with hemiplegia and diplegia is associated with worse mental capacities.ReferencesRichards CL, Malouin F. Cerebral palsy: definition, assessment and rehabilitation. Handb Clin Neurol

  14. Individual and contextual predictors of cyberbullying: the influence of children's provictim attitudes and teachers' ability to intervene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian Elledge, L; Williford, Anne; Boulton, Aaron J; Depaolis, Kathryn J; Little, Todd D; Salmivalli, Christina

    2013-05-01

    Electronic social communication has provided a new context for children to bully and harass their peers and it is clear that cyberbullying is a growing public health concern in the US and abroad. The present study examined individual and contextual predictors of cyberbullying in a sample of 16, 634 students in grades 3-5 and 7-8. Data were obtained from a large cluster-randomized trial of the KiVa antibullying program that occurred in Finland between 2007 and 2009. Students completed measures at pre-intervention assessing provictim attitudes (defined as children's beliefs that bullying is unacceptable, victims are acceptable, and defending victims is valued), perceptions of teachers' ability to intervene in bullying, and cyberbullying behavior. Students with higher scores on provictim attitudes reported lower frequencies of cyberbullying. This relationship was true for individual provictim attitudes as well as the collective attitudes of students within classrooms. Teachers' ability to intervene assessed at the classroom level was a unique, positive predictor of cyberbullying. Classrooms in which students collectively considered their teacher as capable of intervening to stop bullying had higher mean levels of cyberbullying frequency. Our findings suggest that cyberbullying and other indirect or covert forms of bullying may be more prevalent in classrooms where students collectively perceive their teacher's ability to intervene in bullying as high. We found no evidence that individual or contextual effects were conditional on age or gender. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  15. Highly Motivated Children's Perceptions of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Kelli Ann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive case study was to explore the reading perceptions and attitudes of children who exhibited high levels of motivation to read. The study explored the extent to which the highly motivated children read and the extent to which they enjoy reading. Seven children enrolled in the fifth grade at a small, rural elementary…

  16. Using Self-Concept Instruments with High-Ability College Students: Reliability and Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinn, Anne N.; Cunningham, Lindy G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the reliability and validity of the academic subscales of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire III and Neeman and Harter's Self-Perception Profile for College Students for use with high-ability college students. Participants included 100 high-ability college students and 196 average-ability college students enrolled in a…

  17. Relationships between problematic behaviors and motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Akira; Nanba, Yosifumi; Otani, Yoshitaka; Takemasa, Seiichi; Hujii, Shun

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine whether motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy are related to their problematic behaviors. [Subjects] The subjects were children with mental retardation who were undergoing physical therapy. [Methods] Twenty-one examiners, 13 physical therapists, and 8 occupational therapists treated and examined the subjects by using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. The Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores were compared between the Gross Motor Function Classification System I to III (12 subjects) and Gross Motor Function Classification System IV and V groups (17 subjects). [Results] Lethargy and stereotypy scores significantly differed between the groups, proving that patients with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels IV and V have more severe problematic behaviors. [Conclusion] In this study, only five types of problematic behaviors, namely irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, hyperactivity, and inappropriate speech, were examined. Despite this limitation, the study clarifies that problematic behaviors of children with cerebral palsy, except lethargy and stereotypy, have little relationship with their motor abilities.

  18. CANONIC RELATION BASICO-MOTORICAL ABILITIES ON SITUATION SUCCESSFUL CHILDREN IN SMALL FOOTBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izudin Tanović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Football appertain to group polystructual sports, which characterize very big number different not standardize motorical abilities and technics which footballplayers execute in variable situations, begin intention or accidently during the game( Elsner,B.1985..For the difference of the big football,small football or Futsall presents game which is condition with very considerable space and time-limitation which are manifestate with very fast transformation of game from the phase of attack to phase of defence.Dinamic of game, difference of not-standaardize abilities, and application situation individual technic for successful deduction of actions request from player and very big level of psychocondition readiness. The aim of this exploration was to realize the level of influence basico-motorical abilities on situation successful in small football (Futsall game. Exploration is done on the children from the 12-14 years,at the school of small football in SFC “OT of MOSTAR”(OLD TOWN OF MOSTAR from the Mostar. Take into consideration strature characteristics and magnitude choosen pattern of children, and the target of exploration,processing the results are done with metod canonic-coleration analise. Final results of this exploration are characteristic for exploring strature,but also the same confirmation that exist statisticly very important binded between exploration spaces

  19. CORRELATION BETWEEN FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES AND AGILITY RESULTS IN CHILDREN WITH KYPHOTIC POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stanojević

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to determine statistically significant canonical relations between functional abilities and achieved agility results in children with kyphotic posture. The realization of such task would create possibility to come up with a more rational procedure for optimal planning, programming and control of the process of teaching corrective gymnastics. The research was conducted on a sample of 46 students of primary schools in Niš, all male, aged 12 (± 6 months, included in regular classes of PE and exercises in order to correct kyphosis three times a week for 45 minutes at Niš Health Center. The results of canonical relations with the results of the functional abilities of children with agility kyphotic posture were statistically processed in a way to provide answers to the research goal. We used the program “Statistica” 8.0 for Windows to calculate the descriptive statistical parameters and canonical correlation analysis. The results showed that there are statistically significant relations and influences between a set of variables for assessing functional ability, as a predictor system, and agility, as a criterion variable.  

  20. Iconicity Influences How Effectively Minimally Verbal Children with Autism and Ability-Matched Typically Developing Children Use Pictures as Symbols in a Search Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Previous word learning studies suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder may have difficulty understanding pictorial symbols. Here we investigate the ability of children with autism spectrum disorder and language-matched typically developing children to contextualize symbolic information communicated by pictures in a search task that did…

  1. Group play therapy for improving mental coping ability in children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian WANG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the role of group play therapy in the improvement of mental coping ability in children with asthma. Methods Forty-four asthmatic children with behavior problems were randomly divided into experimental group (n=25 and control group (n=19. All children received two tests. The tools in this research were Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Coping with a Disease Questionnaire (CODI. Before intervention, both groups received pretest. Members from the experimental group were provided with counseling for 3 months, once every two weeks for a total of 6 times, while during this period the members of the control group had not any experimental intervention.After intervention, the two groups received posttest. Five patients dropped out, and 39 went through this research (20 in experimental group and 19 in control group. The effects of group play therapy on behavior problems and coping strategy of children with asthma were evaluated. Results There was no statistically significant differences in the general information (age, sex, education, parents' marriage status and family structure and basic score of CBCL and CODI between the two groups (P > 0.05. After intervention, the scores of social problems, social withdrawal, depression, compulsive behavior, aggressive behavior and immature and total behavior problem score dropped significantly in experimental group (P < 0.05 while there were no significant changes in control group. And the scores of acceptance, avoidance and emotional reaction increased significantly in experimental group (P < 0.05 while there were no significant changes in control group. Conclusions Group play therapy can improve the children's confidence and interpersonal adaptability and emotion management capacity, thus correcting deviant behavior, ameliorate coping strategy, improving mental coping capability, and promote the development of mental health in children with asthma.

  2. Effects of Non-Symbolic Approximate Number Practice on Symbolic Numerical Abilities in Pakistani Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanum, Saeeda; Hanif, Rubina; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Berteletti, Ilaria; Hyde, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Current theories of numerical cognition posit that uniquely human symbolic number abilities connect to an early developing cognitive system for representing approximate numerical magnitudes, the approximate number system (ANS). In support of this proposal, recent laboratory-based training experiments with U.S. children show enhanced performance on symbolic addition after brief practice comparing or adding arrays of dots without counting: tasks that engage the ANS. Here we explore the nature and generality of this effect through two brief training experiments. In Experiment 1, elementary school children in Pakistan practiced either a non-symbolic numerical addition task or a line-length addition task with no numerical content, and then were tested on symbolic addition. After training, children in the numerical training group completed the symbolic addition test faster than children in the line length training group, suggesting a causal role of brief, non-symbolic numerical training on exact, symbolic addition. These findings replicate and extend the core findings of a recent U.S. laboratory-based study to non-Western children tested in a school setting, attesting to the robustness and generalizability of the observed training effects. Experiment 2 tested whether ANS training would also enhance the consistency of performance on a symbolic number line task. Over several analyses of the data there was some evidence that approximate number training enhanced symbolic number line placements relative to control conditions. Together, the findings suggest that engagement of the ANS through brief training procedures enhances children's immediate attention to number and engagement with symbolic number tasks. PMID:27764117

  3. Parental problem-solving abilities and the association of sickle cell disease complications with health-related quality of life for school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Lamia P; Daniel, Lauren C; Smith, Kelsey; Renée Robinson, M; Patterson, Chavis A

    2014-03-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The current analysis sought to explore parent problem-solving abilities/skills as a moderator between SCD complications and HRQOL to evaluate applicability to pediatric SCD. At baseline, 83 children ages 6-12 years and their primary caregiver completed measures of child HRQOL. Primary caregivers also completed a measure of social problem-solving. A SCD complications score was computed from medical record review. Parent problem-solving abilities significantly moderated the association of SCD complications with child self-report psychosocial HRQOL (p = .006). SCD complications had a direct effect on parent proxy physical and psychosocial child HRQOL. Enhancing parent problem-solving abilities may be one approach to improve HRQOL for children with high SCD complications; however, modification of parent perceptions of HRQOL may require direct intervention to improve knowledge and skills involved in disease management.

  4. INFLUENCE OF PROGRAMMED EXERCISE ON THE MOTOR ABILITIES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stanojević

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted on a sample of 36 examinees consisting of male children of preschool institutions in Niš, aged five and six ± 6 months. The main objective of the research was to determine the adaptive processes influenced by programmed exercise on the development of motor skills of preschool children. The aim was to provide the conditions for the establishment of rational procedures for optimal planning, programming and control of the motor exercise of preschool children. The assessment of the examinees was measured by motor tests based on the experience with adult counterparts and modified for young children. The study examined four motor dimensions: agility (running with direction shift, repetitive strength (lateral hops over the rope, flexibility (bend on the bench and explosive strength (standing long jump. The data obtained by these tests, using the method of multivariate and univariate analysis of variance, showed that at the end of the programmed exercise, there has been a statistically significant increase in motor abilities in the final measurement as compared to the initial.

  5. Rearing Styles, Parents' Attachment Mental State,and Children's Social Abilities: The Link to Peer Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Attili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the discriminant effect of mothers' and fathers' attachment working models, the quality of their relationships in everyday settings, and children's social abilities on children's peer acceptance. Participants were thirty-four 7–9 year olds, their mothers, and fathers. Interactions were observed at home and coded on global measures of positive, negative, controlling, disconfirming, correcting behaviors, and neutral conversation. Parents' IWM were assessed by the AAI. Children's peer acceptance and behavioral orientations as a measure of a child's social competence at school were assessed by sociometric techniques. By using both traditional statistical analyses and a multidimensional scaling approach (MDS, in terms of “similarity structure analysis (SSA” and the “external variables as points technique,” it emerged that children's lack of success among peers associated with social behaviors which were linked to parents' rejecting/neglecting and directive interactive styles, mainly to negative, disconfirming, and a few positive interactions. These parenting styles were significantly affected by adults' insecure IWM.

  6. Facial Expressions and Ability to Recognize Emotions From Eyes or Mouth in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Guarnera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to contribute to the literature on the ability to recognize anger, happiness, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust and neutral emotions from facial information. By investigating children’s performance in detecting these emotions from a specific face region, we were interested to know whether children would show differences in recognizing these expressions from the upper or lower face, and if any difference between specific facial regions depended on the emotion in question. For this purpose, a group of 6-7 year-old children was selected. Participants were asked to recognize emotions by using a labeling task with three stimulus types (region of the eyes, of the mouth, and full face. The findings seem to indicate that children correctly recognize basic facial expressions when pictures represent the whole face, except for a neutral expression, which was recognized from the mouth, and sadness, which was recognized from the eyes. Children are also able to identify anger from the eyes as well as from the whole face. With respect to gender differences, there is no female advantage in emotional recognition. The results indicate a significant interaction ‘gender x face region’ only for anger and neutral emotions.

  7. A longitudinal study of motor ability and kinaesthetic acuity in young children at risk of developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R; Piek, J P; Livesey, D J

    2001-03-01

    Several studies have linked poor kinaesthetic ability with poor motor coordination in school-aged children. However, few studies have investigated kinaesthesis in younger children. The aim of this study was to determine if preschool aged children who have been identified as at risk of developing developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have poorer kinaesthetic ability than matched controls. Kinaesthetic ability and performance IQ were examined in a group of children aged between 4 and 5 years. Following individual assessment of 291 children, 31 were identified as at risk of DCD at this age. One year later, 30 of these children were retested, and 23 were still found to be at risk. These children were matched on verbal IQ, age and sex with control children and their performance compared on the kinaesthetic acuity test (KAT) [D.J. Livesey and N.A. Parkes, Aust. J. Psychol., 47 (1995) 160] and three subtests of the WPPSI-R performance IQ (D. Wechsler, Manual for the Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence--revised, Psychological Corporation, New York, 1989). Both the KAT and the performance subtest scores were found to be significantly poorer in the children at risk of DCD. Follow-up testing one year later showed that both groups improved their kinaesthetic acuity score although the control children remained significantly better than the children with poor motor coordination.

  8. Muscle fatigue during high-intensity exercise in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratel, Sébastien; Duché, Pascale; Williams, Craig A

    2006-01-01

    Children are able to resist fatigue better than adults during one or several repeated high-intensity exercise bouts. This finding has been reported by measuring mechanical force or power output profiles during sustained isometric maximal contractions or repeated bouts of high-intensity dynamic exercises. The ability of children to better maintain performance during repeated high-intensity exercise bouts could be related to their lower level of fatigue during exercise and/or faster recovery following exercise. This may be explained by muscle characteristics of children, which are quantitatively and qualitatively different to those of adults. Children have less muscle mass than adults and hence, generate lower absolute power during high-intensity exercise. Some researchers also showed that children were equipped better for oxidative than glycolytic pathways during exercise, which would lead to a lower accumulation of muscle by-products. Furthermore, some reports indicated that the lower ability of children to activate their type II muscle fibres would also explain their greater resistance to fatigue during sustained maximal contractions. The lower accumulation of muscle by-products observed in children may be suggestive of a reduced metabolic signal, which induces lower ratings of perceived exertion. Factors such as faster phosphocreatine resynthesis, greater oxidative capacity, better acid-base regulation, faster readjustment of initial cardiorespiratory parameters and higher removal of metabolic by-products in children could also explain their faster recovery following high-intensity exercise.From a clinical point of view, muscle fatigue profiles are different between healthy children and children with muscle and metabolic diseases. Studies of dystrophic muscles in children indicated contradictory findings of changes in contractile properties and the muscle fatigability. Some have found that the muscle of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) fatigued less

  9. Classification of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Full Scale IQ or General Abilities Index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    KORIAKIN, TAYLOR A; MCCURDY, MARK D; PAPAZOGLOU, AIMILIA; PRITCHARD, ALISON E; ZABEL, T ANDREW; MAHONE, E MARK; JACOBSON, LISA A

    2013-01-01

    Aim We examined the implications of using the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) versus the General Abilities Index (GAI) for determination of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV). Method Children referred for neuropsychological assessment (543 males, 290 females; mean age 10y 5mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 6–16y) were administered the WISC-IV and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition (ABAS-II). Results GAI and FSIQ were highly correlated; however, fewer children were identified as having intellectual disability using GAI (n=159) than when using FSIQ (n=196). Although the 44 children classified as having intellectual disability based upon FSIQ (but not GAI) had significantly higher adaptive functioning scores than those meeting intellectual disability criteria based upon both FSIQ and GAI, mean adaptive scores still fell within the impaired range. FSIQ and GAI were comparable in predicting impairments in adaptive functioning. Interpretation Using GAI rather than FSIQ in intellectual disability diagnostic decision making resulted in fewer individuals being diagnosed with intellectual disability; however, the mean GAI of the disqualified individuals was at the upper end of criteria for intellectual impairment (standard score 75), and these individuals remained adaptively impaired. As GAI and FSIQ were similarly predictive of overall adaptive functioning, the use of GAI for intellectual disability diagnostic decision making may be of limited value. PMID:23859669

  10. Classification of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Full Scale IQ or General Abilities Index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriakin, Taylor A; McCurdy, Mark D; Papazoglou, Aimilia; Pritchard, Alison E; Zabel, T Andrew; Mahone, E Mark; Jacobson, Lisa A

    2013-09-01

    We examined the implications of using the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) versus the General Abilities Index (GAI) for determination of intellectual disability using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, fourth edition (WISC-IV). Children referred for neuropsychological assessment (543 males, 290 females; mean age 10y 5mo, SD 2y 9mo, range 6-16y) were administered the WISC-IV and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, second edition (ABAS-II). GAI and FSIQ were highly correlated; however, fewer children were identified as having intellectual disability using GAI (n=159) than when using FSIQ (n=196). Although the 44 children classified as having intellectual disability based upon FSIQ (but not GAI) had significantly higher adaptive functioning scores than those meeting intellectual disability criteria based upon both FSIQ and GAI, mean adaptive scores still fell within the impaired range. FSIQ and GAI were comparable in predicting impairments in adaptive functioning. Using GAI rather than FSIQ in intellectual disability diagnostic decision-making resulted in fewer individuals being diagnosed with intellectual disability; however, the mean GAI of the disqualified individuals was at the upper end of criteria for intellectual impairment (standard score 75), and these individuals remained adaptively impaired. As GAI and FSIQ were similarly predictive of overall adaptive functioning, the use of GAI for intellectual disability diagnostic decision-making may be of limited value. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  11. Relationship between overweight, obesity and the motor abilities of 9-12 year old school children

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić Zoran; Međedović Bojan

    2013-01-01

    On sample of 757 pupils, 379 boys and 378 girls, school age from 3rd to 6th class, nutrition status, according BMI, and motor status were analyzed by using 8 variables (3 for valuation of morphological and 5 for evaluation of motor abilities status). In the overall sample, 66.3% established a normal nutritional status 18.4% was overweight, 15.3% were obese. Obesity is the most vulnerable children in third grade (21.8%), and overweight in fourth (20.1%) and fifth (20.9%) grade. The results ind...

  12. Research of the relationship between the ability of emotion understanding and social adaptation in children with high functioning autism%高功能孤独症儿童情绪理解与社会适应能力关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾莉萍; 静进; 金宇; 陈强; 范方; 杨文翰; 刘步云

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the relationship between the ability of facial emotion recognition, attribution and social adaptation in children with high functioning autism. [Methods] 19 children with high functioning autism (age 9. 0±± 1. 8,male to female 17 : 2) took part in the tests. Photos chosen from Chinese static facial expression photos were used to evaluate the ability of emotion recognition and emotion attribution. The results of each child's FIQ,PIQ and VIQ were got from WISC-CR. Autism behavior checklist (ABC) and Social Adaptive Checklist (SAC) were used to estimate the behavior and the social adaptation of the subjects respectively. [Results] There was no statistical correlation between the ability of facial emotion recognition,attribution and the score of SAC. The score of neutral and disgusted emotion attribution was negatively correlated with the score of ABC (P<0. 05) ,and the score of sad emotion target attribution was also negatively correlated with ABC (P<0. 05). The negative relationship between factor score,total adaptive quotient and ABC was found (P <0. 01). The correlationships between adaptive quotient,factor score and VIQ (P<0. 05) ,PIQ (P<0. 01) and FIQ (P< 0. 01) were all positive. [Conclusion] The degree of the symptom influences the development of high functioning autistic children's ability to understand emotion expressions and their social adaptation,the self-care ability of these children may relatively independent of the ability of emotion understanding.%[目的]探讨高功能孤独症儿童面部表情识认和归因能力与其社会适应能力的关系,为其康复训练提供更全面的依据. [方法]对19例高功能孤独症[男17例、女2例,年龄(9.0±1.8)岁]做了本次评估.采用静态中国人物面部表情图片测试被试的表情识别和情绪归因能力,用韦氏儿童智力量表中国修订版评估他们的言语智商、操作智商和总智商,用孤独症行为评定量表评定其症状,用儿

  13. The Listening Skills Test--a new instrument to assess children's pragmatic ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, P; Peers, I; Foster, C

    2001-01-01

    Research has established that the development of autonomous (as opposed to collaborative) communication skills, using referential communication speaker and listener tasks, develops only slowly during the primary school years. Such a finding has implications for the classroom which puts a premium on independent language processing. Although the importance of oral language is recognised in the National Curriculum, there has been little attempt to assess the ability formally. The Listening Skills Test is a standardised pragmatic instrument focusing on the 3 1/2-7 years age group. The test is in four parts and assesses the ability to make judgements about the efficacy of verbal messages or instructions. Tasks include relating messages to arrays of pictorial items, making judgements about statements that refer to one complex picture, marking routes on a street plan in response to an extended set of instructions, and the ability to evaluate purely verbal utterances. The overall aim of the test is to assess children's ability to make sense on their own of verbal information in a decontextualised situation thought to represent the nature of much transactional communication in the classroom. Suggestions for remediation that have arisen from research conducted by the authors are also discussed.

  14. Pragmatic communication abilities in children and adults: implications for rehabilitation professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkstra, Lyn S; Clark, Allison; Burgess, Sloane; Hengst, Julie A; Wertheimer, Jeffrey C; Paul, Diane

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a review of pragmatic communication ability and its disorders, as a resource for rehabilitation team members. This review is a product of the Joint Committee on Interprofessional Relations Between the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association and Division 40: Society for Clinical Neuropsychology of the American Psychological Association. Review of the literature and expert opinion. We summarize key theoretical frameworks that guide assessment of pragmatic communication ability, describe the developmental progression of pragmatic skills and expectations for children and adults, provide an overview of pragmatic communication disorders, and discuss current assessment approaches. An understanding of pragmatic communication disorders may assist all rehabilitation team members, as impairments in this domain may have significant effects on rehabilitation progress and outcomes. Implications for Rehabilitation Pragmatic communication ability is the ability to use language in context, beyond understanding and expressing basic word meanings (semantics) in the correct grammatical forms (syntax). Pragmatic communication deficits have been documented in many of the populations frequently referred for rehabilitation, and can affect both progress during rehabilitation and outcomes from treatment. A broader understanding of pragmatic communication functions can help team members identify a patient's strengths and limitations, inform treatment planning, and improve communication among healthcare professionals, thereby contributing to improved outcomes for patients and their families.

  15. TRANSFORMATION OF MOTORICAL ABILITIES CHILDREN STRATURE FROM 10 TO 12 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Mikić

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available because of solving some specifical tasks which areappeared in all phases of game. Player must be able, that on max. level distinguish his motorical abilities (speed, explosive power, coordination….If we want quality respond to request of game, the player must be motoricaly build up and condicionaly ready, that we can achieve with one sistematical way of planning and programming of training process. Conditional preparation of young groups need to be very good structured process of evolved and maintenance conditional abilities with contents, methods, and strain which will stimulate dynamic progress football players , with all development of sensibile phases for progrsss comditional abilities( Bompa,T.,2005. In this exoloration, it was target to establish how much and how application trenage technology affect on progess of motorical abilities football players (children strature from 10 to 12 years, which training small football.For analise and processing informations applicate is :T-test with target to establish quantitative changes in motorical space , like as factory analise with target to establish qualitative changes in structure of motorical space of explorated pattern with influence of training technology characteristical for small football.

  16. Ability to taste 6-n-propylthiouracil and BMI in low-income preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeng, Julie C; Cardinal, Tiffany M; Sitto, Jacinta R; Kannan, Srimathi

    2008-07-01

    Sensitivity to the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is genetically mediated. Sensitivity to PROP has been associated with weight status in both adults and children. To determine whether there is an association between PROP sensitivity and BMI in low-income children of diverse race/ethnicity, among whom there is a high prevalence of obesity. Eighty-one preschool-aged children attending Head Start tasted a solution of 560 micromol/l PROP and reported whether it tasted "like water" or "like something else". Mothers reported child's race, age, maternal education, maternal weight and height, child's reluctance to sample new foods via the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), and child's dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured. BMI was calculated and for children, expressed in z-scores. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between child's PROP taster status and BMI z-score, testing covariates child's age, gender, race, maternal education and BMI, and child's FNS score. Children's dietary intake was compared by PROP taster status. PROP tasters, compared with nontasters, had significantly higher BMI z-scores (0.99 (s.d. 1.24) vs. 0.03 (1.12), P=0.004) and had a significantly higher prevalence of overweight (31.8% vs. 5.6%, P=0.025), but demonstrated no differences in reported dietary intake. The most parsimonious model predicting the child's BMI z-score included only maternal BMI and the child's PROP taster status (R(2)=22.3%). A genetically mediated ability to taste bitter may contribute to obesity risk in low-income, preschool-aged children.

  17. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density, muscle strength and functional ability in children with hemophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Eid

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Based on obtained data, it can be concluded that, resistance and aerobic exercise training program is effective in increasing BMD, muscle strength and functional ability in children with hemophilia.

  18. Early Identification of High-Ability Students: Clinical Assessment of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Brown, Elissa F.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of teachers to accurately rate the cognitive and academic functioning of 1,375 students in kindergarten through the third grade on the Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB), as compared to two objective cognitive ability tests. CAB teacher ratings were compared for high-ability students who were currently…

  19. Referring expressions and structural language abilities in children with specific language impairment: A pragmatic tolerance account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Catherine; Andrés-Roqueta, Clara; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2016-04-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) has traditionally been characterized as a deficit of structural language (specifically grammar), with relative strengths in pragmatics. In this study, comprehensive assessment of production, comprehension, and metalinguistic judgment of referring expressions revealed that children with SLI have weaknesses in both structural and pragmatic language skills relative to age-matched peers. Correlational analyses highlight a relationship between their performance on the experimental tasks and their structural language ability. Despite their poor performance on the production and comprehension tasks, children with SLI were able to recognize pragmatically under-informative reference relative to other types of utterance, although they imposed a less severe penalty on such expressions than typically developing peers, a pattern that supports the pragmatic tolerance account. Our novel methodology (which probed structural abilities from both the speaker's and hearer's perspectives as well as metalinguistic and pragmatic skills in the same sample) challenges the assumption that pragmatic errors stem from deficits in social cognition and instead supports recent findings suggesting that when the impact of structural language is isolated, pragmatic deficits may be resolved.

  20. The Empathizing-Systemizing Theory, Social Abilities, and Mathematical Achievement in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escovar, Emily; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Uddin, Lucina Q; Menon, Vinod

    2016-03-14

    The Empathizing-Systemizing (E-S) theory describes a profile of traits that have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, and are thought to encompass a continuum that includes typically developing (TD) individuals. Although systemizing is hypothesized to be related to mathematical abilities, empirical support for this relationship is lacking. We examine the link between empathizing and systemizing tendencies and mathematical achievement in 112 TD children (57 girls) to elucidate how socio-cognitive constructs influence early development of mathematical skills. Assessment of mathematical achievement included standardized tests designed to examine calculation skills and conceptual mathematical reasoning. Empathizing and systemizing were assessed using the Combined Empathy Quotient-Child (EQ-C) and Systemizing Quotient-Child (SQ-C). Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that mathematical achievement was not related to systemizing or the discrepancy between systemizing and empathizing. Surprisingly, children with higher empathy demonstrated lower calculation skills. Further analysis using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) revealed that the relationship between EQ-C and mathematical achievement was mediated by social ability rather than autistic behaviors. Finally, social awareness was found to play a differential role in mediating the relationship between EQ-C and mathematical achievement in girls. These results identify empathy, and social skills more generally, as previously unknown predictors of mathematical achievement.

  1. Structure and coherence of reasoning ability in Down Syndrome adults and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsopoulo, D; Christou, C; Koutselini, M; Raftopoulos, A; Karefillidou, C

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigates the ability of Down Syndrome (DS) adults to reason: (a) deductively with transitivity (linear and reverse relations) and categorical syllogisms (all-some relations); (b) inductively with classical verbal analogies and non-verbal analogical reasoning (Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices); and (c) to retain information in short-term memory. The results have shown that: (i) The Down Syndrome adults did not differ from typically developing children, matched on expressive and verbal ability, in transitivity and non-verbal analogical thinking; (ii) they differed in categorical reasoning, classical verbal analogies and short-term memory. Application of a structural model demonstrated that, despite differences in slope means in the three measures, the structure of functioning within-and-across all domains of cognition tests and its growth pattern, equally reliable and coherent, goes in parallel for the Down Syndrome adults and the typically developing children. The results are discussed within the context of the two-group developmental and difference approach.

  2. The approximate number system and domain-general abilities as predictors of math ability in children with normal hearing and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Rebecca; Marshark, Marc; Nordmann, Emily; Sapere, Patricia; Skene, Wendy A

    2017-08-29

    Many children with hearing loss (CHL) show a delay in mathematical achievement compared to children with normal hearing (CNH). This study examined whether there are differences in acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) between CHL and CNH, and whether ANS acuity is related to math achievement. Working memory (WM), short-term memory (STM), and inhibition were considered as mediators of any relationship between ANS acuity and math achievement. Seventy-five CHL were compared with 75 age- and gender-matched CNH. ANS acuity, mathematical reasoning, WM, and STM of CHL were significantly poorer compared to CNH. Group differences in math ability were no longer significant when ANS acuity, WM, or STM was controlled. For CNH, WM and STM fully mediated the relationship of ANS acuity to math ability; for CHL, WM and STM only partially mediated this relationship. ANS acuity, WM, and STM are significant contributors to hearing status differences in math achievement, and to individual differences within the group of CHL. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Children with hearing loss often perform poorly on measures of math achievement, although there have been few studies focusing on basic numerical cognition in these children. In typically developing children, the approximate number system predicts math skills concurrently and longitudinally, although there have been some contradictory findings. Recent studies suggest that domain-general skills, such as inhibition, may account for the relationship found between the approximate number system and math achievement. What does this study adds? This is the first robust examination of the approximate number system in children with hearing loss, and the findings suggest poorer acuity of the approximate number system in these children compared to hearing children. The study addresses recent issues regarding the contradictory findings of the relationship of the approximate number system to math ability

  3. Malaria with neurological involvement in Ugandan children: effect on cognitive ability, academic achievement and behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangirana Paul

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of ill health and neuro-disability in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Impaired cognition is a common outcome of malaria with neurological involvement. There is also a possibility that academic achievement may be affected by malaria with neurological involvement given the association between cognitive ability and academic achievement. This study investigated the effect of malaria with neurological involvement on cognitive ability, behaviour and academic achievement. Methods This prospective case-control study was carried out in Kampala City, Uganda between February 2008 and October 2010. Sixty-two children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were followed up and given assessments for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills and attention, behaviour (internalizing and externalizing problems and academic achievement (arithmetic, spelling and reading three months after the illness. Sixty-one community controls recruited from the homes or neighbouring families of the cases were also given the same assessments. Tests scores of the two groups were compared using analysis of covariance with age, sex, level of education, nutritional status and quality of the home environment as covariates. This study was approved by the relevant ethical bodies and informed consent sought from the caregivers. Results Children in the malaria group had more behavioural problems than the community controls for internalizing problems (estimated mean difference = -3.71, 95% confidence interval (CI, = -6.34 to -1.08, p = 0.007. There was marginal evidence of lower attention scores (0.40, CI = -0.05 to 0.86, p = 0.09. However, excluding one child from the analyses who was unable to perform the tests affected the attention scores to borderline significance (0.32, CI, = 0.01 to 0.62, p = 0.05. No significant differences were observed in other cognitive abilities or in academic

  4. Predicting Bilingual Spanish-English Children's Phonological Awareness Abilities from Their Preschool English and Spanish Oral Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Davison, Megan D.; Hammer, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish-English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children's 2 years in…

  5. Exploring the Musical Interests and Abilities of Blind and Partially Sighted Children and Young People with Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matawa, Christina

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the musical interests and talents of children and young people who are blind or partially sighted as a result of retinopathy of prematurity (RoP). The results from questionnaires completed by 37 parents were analysed using methods drawn from Ockelford et al.'s (2006) study of the musical interests and abilities of children with…

  6. Effects of an Early Intervention Program on Stress and Teaching Ability of Single Mothers of Young Multiply Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nancy L.; Bhavnagri, Navaz

    This study examined effects of participation by single mothers (n=23) of young children with multiple disabilities in an early intervention program. It evaluated the mothers' perceived stress in child rearing, perceived ability to teach their children, and any correlation between parental stress and teaching capability. The mothers in the program…

  7. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  8. How Tactile and Function Information Affect Young Children's Ability to Understand the Nature of Food-Appearing, Deceptive Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Christina Miles

    2008-01-01

    Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…

  9. Parental comparison of the prosodic and paralinguistic ability of children with cochlear implants and their normal hearing siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, David Jackson; Christiansen, Lærke; Uglebjerg, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    The everyday communication of children is commonly observed by their parents. This paper examines the responses of parents (n=18) who had both a Cochlear Implant (CI) and a Normal Hearing (NH) child. Through an online questionnaire, parents rated the ability of their children on a gamut of speech...

  10. Effectiveness of Functional Progressive Resistance Exercise Training on Walking Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtes, Vanessa A.; Becher, Jules G.; Janssen-Potten, Yvonne J.; Dekkers, Hurnet; Smallenbroek, Linda; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of functional progressive resistance exercise (PRE) training on walking ability in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Fifty-one ambulant children with spastic CP (mean age 10 years 5 months, 29 boys) were randomized to an intervention (n=26) or control group (n=25, receiving usual care).…

  11. Predicting Bilingual Spanish-English Children's Phonological Awareness Abilities from Their Preschool English and Spanish Oral Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Davison, Megan D.; Hammer, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish-English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children's 2 years in…

  12. Relation of Maternal Cognitive Stimulation, Emotional Support, and Intrusive Behavior during Head Start to Children's Kindergarten Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Culp, Anne McDonald; Culp, Rex E.; Miller, Carrie E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined effect, after 1 year, of parental cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and intrusiveness on verbal and nonverbal abilities of low-income children in Head Start programs. Found that children of parents who provide the highest cognitive stimulation and emotional support coupled with no intrusive behavior fared best in later perceptual…

  13. How Tactile and Function Information Affect Young Children's Ability to Understand the Nature of Food-Appearing, Deceptive Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Christina Miles

    2008-01-01

    Preschool children's (N = 64) ability to use tactile information and function cues on less-realistic and more-realistic food-appearing, deceptive objects was examined before and after training on the function of deceptive objects. They also responded to appearance and reality questions about deceptive objects. Half of the children (F-S:…

  14. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  15. The Challenge of Cross-Cultural Assessment--The Test of Ability to Explain for Zulu-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarsh, Barbara; Alant, Erna

    2006-01-01

    A culturally appropriate test, The Test of Ability To Explain for Zulu-speaking Children (TATE-ZC), was developed to measure verbal problem solving skills of rural, Zulu-speaking, primary school children. Principles of "non-biased" assessment, as well as emic (culture specific) and etic (universal) aspects of intelligence formed the theoretical…

  16. Risk factors for low receptive vocabulary abilities in the preschool and early school years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Christensen

    Full Text Available Receptive vocabulary development is a component of the human language system that emerges in the first year of life and is characterised by onward expansion throughout life. Beginning in infancy, children's receptive vocabulary knowledge builds the foundation for oral language and reading skills. The foundations for success at school are built early, hence the public health policy focus on reducing developmental inequalities before children start formal school. The underlying assumption is that children's development is stable, and therefore predictable, over time. This study investigated this assumption in relation to children's receptive vocabulary ability. We investigated the extent to which low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years was associated with low receptive vocabulary ability at 8 years, and the predictive utility of a multivariate model that included child, maternal and family risk factors measured at 4 years. The study sample comprised 3,847 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low receptive vocabulary ability from 4-8 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, substantial risk factors for receptive vocabulary delay from 4-8 years, in order of descending magnitude, were low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years, low maternal education, and low school readiness. Moderate risk factors, in order of descending magnitude, were low maternal parenting consistency, socio-economic area disadvantage, low temperamental persistence, and NESB status. The following risk factors were not significant: One or more siblings, low family income, not reading to the child, high maternal work hours, and Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ethnicity. The results of the sensitivity-specificity analysis showed that a well

  17. Risk factors for low receptive vocabulary abilities in the preschool and early school years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Daniel; Zubrick, Stephen R; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Taylor, Catherine L

    2014-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary development is a component of the human language system that emerges in the first year of life and is characterised by onward expansion throughout life. Beginning in infancy, children's receptive vocabulary knowledge builds the foundation for oral language and reading skills. The foundations for success at school are built early, hence the public health policy focus on reducing developmental inequalities before children start formal school. The underlying assumption is that children's development is stable, and therefore predictable, over time. This study investigated this assumption in relation to children's receptive vocabulary ability. We investigated the extent to which low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years was associated with low receptive vocabulary ability at 8 years, and the predictive utility of a multivariate model that included child, maternal and family risk factors measured at 4 years. The study sample comprised 3,847 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low receptive vocabulary ability from 4-8 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, substantial risk factors for receptive vocabulary delay from 4-8 years, in order of descending magnitude, were low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years, low maternal education, and low school readiness. Moderate risk factors, in order of descending magnitude, were low maternal parenting consistency, socio-economic area disadvantage, low temperamental persistence, and NESB status. The following risk factors were not significant: One or more siblings, low family income, not reading to the child, high maternal work hours, and Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ethnicity. The results of the sensitivity-specificity analysis showed that a well-fitted multivariate model

  18. Concurrent validity of the differential ability scales, second edition with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning in young children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan; Golden, Christine; Thurm, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of intelligence in young children with neurodevelopmental disorders are critical for making diagnoses, in characterizing symptoms of disorders, and in predicting future outcomes. The limitations of standardized testing for children with developmental delay or cognitive impairment are well known: Tests do not exist that provide developmentally appropriate material along with norms that extend to the lower reaches of ability. Two commonly used and interchanged instruments are the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), a test of developmental level, and the Differential Ability Scales, second edition (DAS-II), a more traditional cognitive test. We evaluated the correspondence of contemporaneous MSEL and the DAS-II scores in a mixed sample of children aged 2-10 years with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), non-ASD developmental delays, and typically developing children across the full spectrum of cognitive ability. Consistent with published data on the original DAS and the MSEL, scores on the DAS-II and MSEL were highly correlated. However, curve estimation revealed large mean differences that varied as a function of the child's cognitive ability level. We conclude that interchanging MSEL and DAS-II scores without regard to the discrepancy in scores may produce misleading results in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of children with and without ASD, and, thus, this practice should be implemented with caution.

  19. Dynamic Testing and Test Anxiety amongst Gifted and Average-Ability Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelaar, Bart; Bakker, Merel; Elliott, Julian G.; Resing, Wilma C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dynamic testing has been proposed as a testing approach that is less disadvantageous for children who may be potentially subject to bias when undertaking conventional assessments. For example, those who encounter high levels of test anxiety, or who are unfamiliar with standardized test procedures, may fail to demonstrate their true…

  20. Agreement between physicians and parents in rating functional ability of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buoncompagni Antonella

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate concordance between physicians and parents in rating the degree of functional ability of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Methods The attending physician and a parent were asked to rate independently the level of physical functioning of 155 patients with disease duration ≥ 5 years on a 6-point scale ranging from 1 = no disability (i.e. the child can do without difficulty all activities that children of his/her age can do to 6 = severe disability (i.e. all activities are difficult for the child. At study visit, measures of JIA activity and damage were assessed. Agreement was evaluated with weighted kappa (0.80 excellent agreement. Physician/parent evaluations were divided in 3 groups: 1 concordance; 2 parent over-rating = parent assessment over-rated relative to physician assessment; 3 physician over-rating = physician assessment over-rated relative to parent assessment. Factors affecting concordance/discordance were evaluated by means of Kruskal-Wallis or Chi-square/Fisher exact test. Results Concordance, parent over-rating and physician over-rating were observed in 107 (69%, 29 (18.7% and 19 (12.3% evaluations, respectively. Kappa value was 0.69. Parent over-rating was associated with greater intensity of pain (p = 0.01 and higher Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (C-HAQ score (p = 0.004, whereas physician over-rating was associated with more severe joint disease (p = 0.04 to Conclusion Physicians and parents revealed fair concordance in rating functional ability of children with JIA. Parent over-rating was associated with greater child's pain and worse C-HAQ score, whereas physician over-rating was associated with greater severity of joint inflammation and damage.

  1. The Importance of Intrinsic Motivation for High and Low Ability Readers' Reading Comprehension Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah; Medford, Emma; Hughes, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    The study examined how cognitive and motivational factors predicted reading skill and whether intrinsic reading motivation would explain significantly more variance in low ability readers' reading performance. One hundred and eleven children (aged 9-11) completed assessments of reading comprehension skill, verbal IQ, decoding skill and intrinsic…

  2. A 35-year comparison of children labelled as gifted, unlabelled as gifted and average-ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Freeman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1984686X14273Why are some children seen as gifted while others of identical ability are not?  To find out why and what the consequences might be, in 1974 I began in England with 70 children labelled as gifted.  Each one was matched for age, sex and socio-economic level with two comparison children in the same school class. The first comparison child had an identical gift, and the second taken at random.  Investigation was by a battery of tests and deep questioning of pupils, teachers and parents in their schools and homes which went on for 35 years. A major significant difference was that those labelled gifted had significantly more emotional problems than either the unlabelled but identically gifted or the random controls.  The vital aspects of success for the entire sample, whether gifted or not, have been hard work, emotional support and a positive personal outlook.  But in general, the higher the individual’s intelligence the better their chances in life. 

  3. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  4. Neural circuits underlying mother's voice perception predict social communication abilities in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A; Chen, Tianwen; Odriozola, Paola; Cheng, Katherine M; Baker, Amanda E; Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Ryali, Srikanth; Kochalka, John; Feinstein, Carl; Menon, Vinod

    2016-05-31

    The human voice is a critical social cue, and listeners are extremely sensitive to the voices in their environment. One of the most salient voices in a child's life is mother's voice: Infants discriminate their mother's voice from the first days of life, and this stimulus is associated with guiding emotional and social function during development. Little is known regarding the functional circuits that are selectively engaged in children by biologically salient voices such as mother's voice or whether this brain activity is related to children's social communication abilities. We used functional MRI to measure brain activity in 24 healthy children (mean age, 10.2 y) while they attended to brief (social function. Compared to female control voices, mother's voice elicited greater activity in primary auditory regions in the midbrain and cortex; voice-selective superior temporal sulcus (STS); the amygdala, which is crucial for processing of affect; nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex of the reward circuit; anterior insula and cingulate of the salience network; and a subregion of fusiform gyrus associated with face perception. The strength of brain connectivity between voice-selective STS and reward, affective, salience, memory, and face-processing regions during mother's voice perception predicted social communication skills. Our findings provide a novel neurobiological template for investigation of typical social development as well as clinical disorders, such as autism, in which perception of biologically and socially salient voices may be impaired.

  5. Development of reading ability is facilitated by intensive exposure to a digital children's picture book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masataka, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    Here the author presents preliminary evidence supporting the possibility that the reading ability of 4-year-old children can be improved as a consequence of intensive exposure to the narrative in a digital picture book over a consecutive 5-day period. When creating the digital version used here, two additional functions were provided with it. First, the entire story was voice-recorded by a professional narrator and programmed so that it was played as narration from the speaker of an iPad. Next, as the narration of each digitized page proceeded, the character exactly corresponding to that pronounced by the narrator at that moment became highlighted in red. When the subjects' literacy capability with respect to the syllabic script of the Japanese language (kana) was evaluated before and after the exposure, their performance score was found to increase after the exposure to the digital book, whereas such a change was not recorded in children who experienced exposure to the printed version of the same picture book read to them by their mother. These effects were confirmed when the children were retested 4 weeks later. Although preliminary, the current study represents the first experimental evidence for a positive effect of exposure to digital books upon any aspect of child development.

  6. Relationship between overweight, obesity and the motor abilities of 9-12 year old school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On sample of 757 pupils, 379 boys and 378 girls, school age from 3rd to 6th class, nutrition status, according BMI, and motor status were analyzed by using 8 variables (3 for valuation of morphological and 5 for evaluation of motor abilities status. In the overall sample, 66.3% established a normal nutritional status 18.4% was overweight, 15.3% were obese. Obesity is the most vulnerable children in third grade (21.8%, and overweight in fourth (20.1% and fifth (20.9% grade. The results indicate a statistically significant difference between the third and sixth grades, and no statistically significant differences in the frequency of overweight and obesity in all grades, or in relation to sex. Overweight has a negative correlation with explosive leg strength and muscle strength of arms and shoulders, while obesity has a negative correlation with the strength of muscles of arms and shoulders, running speed, strength of trunk muscle and explosive leg strength. Significant statistical relation was lacking in fl exibility. The results show a statistically significant difference in the speed of running, muscle strength of arms and shoulders, trunk muscle strength and explosive leg strength between the overweight and obese pupils. A significant difference was not observed in the test to assess the value of flexibility. Generally, children who are overweight and obese have significantly reduced motor skills compared to normal children too soon, especially with regard to the manifestation of strength and speed.

  7. Foster Children's Empathic Abilities%幼儿移情能力的培养初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宁宁

    2014-01-01

    Empathy as an important part of children's social cognitive development, empathy as an important social emotion, to better promote the development of children's social nature. Studies have shown that good empathic ability to promote pro-social behavior of child care, and reduce aggressive behavior. Thus, to explore ways to promote the development of empathy in children, it is very necessary.%移情作为幼儿社会认知发展的重要内容之一,移情作为一种十分重要的社会性情感,能更好地促使幼儿社会性的发展。已有研究表明,良好的移情能力能够促进幼儿亲社会行为的增加,并有效减少攻击性行为。因而,探讨如何促进幼儿移情能力的发展,是十分必要的。

  8. "Are the Good Beautiful or the Beautiful Good?" The Relationship between Children's Perceptions of Ability and Perceptions of Physical Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B.; Bohrnstedt, George W.

    1979-01-01

    Children's ratings were obtained, examining reciprocal feedback between perceptions of physical attractiveness and ability. Data supported the conclusion that perceptions of ability affect those of physical attractiveness but not vice versa. The role of the relative ambiguity of stimuli associated with physical attractiveness may explain the…

  9. The Complexity of the Affordance-Ability Relationship When Second-Grade Children Interact with Mathematics Virtual Manipulative Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Westenskow, Arla; Jordan, Kerry E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between app affordances and user abilities in second graders' interactions with mathematics virtual manipulative touchscreen tablet apps. The research questions focused on varying manifestations of affordance-ability relationships during children's interactions with mathematics virtual…

  10. Testing Orofacial Abilities of Children Who Stutter: The Movement, Articulation, Mandibular and Sensory Awareness (MAMS) Assessment Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Susanne; Rieger, Martina; Donlan, Chris; Howell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to introduce a new assessment designed to measure the orofacial abilities of children who stutter (CWS), the Movement, Articulation, Mandibular and Sensory Awareness (MAMS) Orofacial Assessment. The new instrument was developed and validated to measure orofacial abilities in a comprehensive manner. Design:…

  11. Testing Orofacial Abilities of Children Who Stutter: The Movement, Articulation, Mandibular and Sensory Awareness (MAMS) Assessment Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Susanne; Rieger, Martina; Donlan, Chris; Howell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to introduce a new assessment designed to measure the orofacial abilities of children who stutter (CWS), the Movement, Articulation, Mandibular and Sensory Awareness (MAMS) Orofacial Assessment. The new instrument was developed and validated to measure orofacial abilities in a comprehensive manner. Design:…

  12. [General cognitive functioning and psycholinguistic abilities in children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayzábal Heinze, Elena; Lens Villaverde, María; Moruno López, Esther; Conde Magro, Tatiana; Moura, Luis Felipe; Fernández, Montserrat; Sampaio, Adriana

    2011-11-01

    This study is a neuropsycholinguistic research of a rare genetic syndrome with microdeletion that co-occurs with intellectual disabilities and relatively good language abilities, the Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS). Nevertheless, there are no cognitive and psycholinguistic profile analyses performed with Spanish population. In this sense, we characterized the cognitive and psycholinguistic profile of a sample with 9 participants with SMS (7 to 11 years of age). The cognitive and psychological profile was assessed with diverse standardized tests: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - IV version, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Results suggest a specific cognitive and psychological profile characterized by a low IQ and relative good abilities in integrating information, whereas attention problems and hyperactive behaviors were displayed when interacting with the child during the assessment. This work is the first evidence of the cognitive and psycholinguistic profile characterization in patients with SMS in Spain, and will help to guide a more accurate diagnosis and differential intervention in rare genetic diseases with similar cognitive and psycholinguistic profiles.

  13. Digital Trainer for the Development of the Fine Motor Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrezueta-Guzmán Jonnathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The leading cause of disability in Ecuadorian children is cerebral palsy, this disorder in most cases produces a deficiency of the ability to move fingers, hands and wrists at various levels, this happens too with the intellect of the patient. Many of the treatments and therapies are seeking that the patient can develop all of your motor ability and intellectual skills, using activities that involve the part Intellectual and practicality of their extremities. Today technology gives us the opportunity to manage devices of aid and assistance that not only complement the daily activities that are performed during the therapies in the help centers, they need to give results that show leaps and bounds in the progress that you want to get. The purpose of this project is to make a device that helps a patient to develop their fine motor ability to the patient can use their hands, fingers and wrists movements in various ways in coordination with their vision in conjunction with occipital lobe causing that brain activity in the patient, present alterations of amplitude in the beta waves in the hemispheres of the brain that allow move muscles, with only maneuver a fully digital device and low cost. These brain and muscles signals will be analyzed in this project, to test the efficiency of this project.

  14. Ability to Taste 6-n-propylthiouracil and Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeng, Julie C.; Cardinal, Tiffany M.; Sitto, Jacinta R.; Kannan, Srimathi

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensitivity to the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is genetically mediated. Sensitivity to PROP has been associated with weight status in both adults and children. Objective To determine whether there is an association between PROP sensitivity and body mass index (BMI) in low-income children of diverse race/ethnicity, among whom there is a high prevalence of obesity. Methods 81 preschool-aged children attending Head Start tasted a solution of 560 μmol/L PROP and reported whether it tasted “like water” or “like something else”. Mothers reported child race, age, maternal education, maternal weight and height, child’s reluctance to sample new foods via the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), and child’s dietary intake via a food frequency questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured. BMI was calculated and for children, expressed in z-scores. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between child PROP taster status and BMI z-score, testing covariates child age, gender, race, maternal education and BMI, and child’s FNS score. Children’s dietary intake was compared by PROP taster status. Results PROP tasters, compared to non-tasters, had significantly higher BMI z-scores (0.99 (SD 1.24) v. 0.03 (1.12), p = .004) and had a significantly higher prevalence of overweight (31.8% v. 5.6%, p = .025), but demonstrated no differences in reported dietary intake. The most parsimonious model predicting the child’s BMI z-score included only maternal BMI and the child’s PROP taster status (R2 = 22.3%). Discussion A genetically-mediated ability to taste bitter may contribute to obesity risk in low-income, preschool-aged children. PMID:18421272

  15. Deficits in Approximate Number System Acuity and Mathematical Abilities in 6.5-Year-Old Children Born Extremely Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Melissa E; Forsman, Lea; Adén, Ulrika; Hellgren, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Preterm children are at increased risk for poor academic achievement, especially in math. In the present study, we examined whether preterm children differ from term-born children in their intuitive sense of number that relies on an unlearned, approximate number system (ANS) and whether there is a link between preterm children's ANS acuity and their math abilities. To this end, 6.5-year-old extremely preterm (i.e., preterm children had significantly lower ANS acuity than term-born children and that these differences could not be fully explained by differences in verbal IQ, perceptual reasoning skills, working memory, or attention. Differences in ANS acuity persisted even when demands on visuo-spatial skills and attention were reduced in the ANS task. Finally, we found that ANS acuity and math ability are linked in extremely preterm children, similar to previous results from term-born children. These results suggest that deficits in the ANS may be at least partly responsible for the deficits in math abilities often observed in extremely preterm children.

  16. Deficits in Approximate Number System Acuity and Mathematical Abilities in 6.5-Year-Old Children Born Extremely Preterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa E. Libertus

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Preterm children are at increased risk for poor academic achievement, especially in math. In the present study, we examined whether preterm children differ from term-born children in their intuitive sense of number that relies on an unlearned, approximate number system (ANS and whether there is a link between preterm children’s ANS acuity and their math abilities. To this end, 6.5-year-old extremely preterm (i.e., <27 weeks gestation, n = 82 and term-born children (n = 89 completed a non-symbolic number comparison (ANS acuity task and a standardized math test. We found that extremely preterm children had significantly lower ANS acuity than term-born children and that these differences could not be fully explained by differences in verbal IQ, perceptual reasoning skills, working memory, or attention. Differences in ANS acuity persisted even when demands on visuo-spatial skills and attention were reduced in the ANS task. Finally, we found that ANS acuity and math ability are linked in extremely preterm children, similar to previous results from term-born children. These results suggest that deficits in the ANS may be at least partly responsible for the deficits in math abilities often observed in extremely preterm children.

  17. Analysis on the Factors Affecting English Listening Ability of High School Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高小玉

    2012-01-01

    Listening is one of the most difficult skills to acquire. In language learning, listening is an important means to get information. Listening ability directly affects students' absorption of language, mastery of basic language skills and the ability to communicate with English. Only by hearing correctly, can they read smoothly and fluently. Therefore, high school students should improve their listening ability. Stu- dents' listening ability closely relates to the methods and profieiency in listening. Because of lacking of English environment and basic language skills, most high school students are not proficient in English listening. Therefore, this paper focuses on high school students' listening ability. It analyzes the factors that affect high school students' English listening from different aspects and it also comes up with coun- termeasures to improve students' listening ability.

  18. Investigation of cognitive abilities related to reading and spelling in Korean: readers with high, average, and low skill levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun-Rin; Uno, Akira

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of cognitive abilities as predictors of Korean reading and spelling ability, and the characteristics of the cognition of reading difficulty in Korean. In 103 Korean third-grade children, we tested ability to read and spell, nonverbal intelligence, vocabulary size, phonological cognitive processing, visual cognitive processing, and naming speed. Our results indicated that receptive vocabulary, phoneme awareness, and naming speed served as factors for predicting reading test score; receptive vocabulary served as a factor for predicting spelling test score. We found that low reading-level groups had significantly slower performance on the naming speed task and lower scores on the receptive vocabulary test, as compared with the other groups (average and high reading-level groups). The present results have implications concerning useful tasks for screening for Korean poor readers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Effect of EEG Biofeedback Therapy on Motor Abilities of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Žiaková

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Currently, EEG biofeedback (Neurofeedback is used in the rehabilitation of children with brain damage with the symptoms of attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity and impulsivity. After treatment improvements were observed not only in the control of attention and impulsivity but also in voluntary and involuntary movements. The aim of the prospective clinical study was to measure the impact of EEG biofeedback on motor abilities of children with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and compare the effectiveness of EEG biofeedback with classical rehabilitation. It was assumed that in children with ADHD in combination with central motor disorders EEG biofeedback therapy will strengthen not only the control of impulsivity and attention but also motor skills. Material. The observed group consisted of 60 (N = 60 children with mild central motor disorders with ADHD. They were randomly assigned to either the EEG biofeedback group (N = 30, mean age 8.9 years or the classical rehabilitation group (N = 30, mean age 8.5 years. Methods. Both groups received thirty 30-45 minute sessions of training, at a frequency of 2-3 times a week. Pre-post assessment included testing of motor skills with PANESS test (Physical and Neurological Examination for Subtle Signs for both groups and the EEG biofeedback group were assessed also for changes in impulse and attention control using CPT (Continuous Performance Test test AX version and changes observed by parents using TLC Subjective Assessment (The Learning Curve, 2004. Results. Achieved overall score of EEG biofeedback group was lower after therapy (Mdn = 24.00 than before therapy (Mdn = 55.00, T = 0.00, p <0.01, Z = -4.78, r = -0.62. Values of significance (Asymp.Sig. 2-tailed = 0.000 and effect size (effect size r = -0.62 indicate a statistical and factual significant positive effect of EEG biofeedback to improve overall motor skills (lower score is better. Conclusion. EEG biofeedback therapy

  20. The role of cognitive abilities in children's inferences about social atypicality and peer exclusion and inclusion in intergroup contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Palmer, Sally B; Pelletier, Joseph; Ferrell, Jennifer; Lee, Samantha

    2014-09-01

    Children aged 6-7 years judged a loyal and a partially disloyal member of a school in terms of how typical they are within the school group and their likely acceptance by peers from the same school and a different school. Second-order mental-state understanding (SOMSU) predicted whether children thought atypical members would be included differently in the two groups. Counterfactual reasoning ability, multiple classification ability, and working memory ability did not predict children's judgements of group members. Moreover, as predicted by the developmental subjective group dynamics model, only children with higher levels of SOMSU and who discerned differences in the typicality of normative and deviant ingroup members inferred that peers would differently include atypical individuals from the same and different groups.

  1. Construct validity and responsiveness of Movakic: An instrument for the evaluation of motor abilities in children with severe multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensch, Sonja M; Echteld, Michael A; Evenhuis, Heleen M; Rameckers, Eugène A A

    2016-12-01

    Movakic is a newly developed instrument for measurement of motor abilities in children with severe multiple disabilities, with a satisfactory feasibility and content validity and good inter-observer and test-retest reliability. The objective of this study was to investigate its construct validity and responsiveness to change. Sixty children with severe multiple disabilities (mean age 7.7 years, range 2-16) were measured using Movakic six times during 18 months. Construct validity was assessed by correlating Movakic scores with expert judgment. In order to assess responsiveness, scores during 3-months intervals were compared (mean score-changes and intraclass correlations) during which some children experienced meaningful events influencing motor abilities and during which others experienced no such event. Forty-five percent of children had a lower cognitive development level than 6-month, 52% had Gross Motor Function Classification System level V and 37% had level IV. For 27 children all measurements were completed, six children dropped out. Construct validity was good (r=0.50-0.71). Responsiveness was demonstrated by significantly larger score changes after events than when such events did not occur. Movakic is a valid instrument for measuring motor abilities in children with severe multiple disabilities. Results suggest responsiveness to change in motor abilities after meaningful events.

  2. Adults' Insensitivity to Developmental Changes in Children's Ability to Report When and How Many Times Abuse Occurred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Kyndra C; Quas, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    In legal settings, children are frequently asked to provide temporal information about alleged abuse, such as when it occurred and how often. Although there is a sizeable body of work in the literature regarding children's ability to provide such information, virtually nothing is known about how adults evaluate the veracity of that information. This omission is especially noteworthy given that adults' evaluations are critical to the progression and outcome of legal cases. We examined adults' perceptions of children's reports of temporal details regarding alleged sexual abuse. We varied both children's age (6 vs. 11 years) and how certain children were when providing such details to assess whether adults were sensitive to changes in how children of different ages typically talk about temporal information. With regard to credibility, adults were insensitive to children's age, perceiving younger and older children who reported temporal details with confidence as more credible than those who reported information tentatively. Normative developmental trends, however, would suggest that, with age, children are often tentative when reporting true temporal details. With regard to perceptions of children's accuracy in reporting temporal information, adults found younger children who were confident to be the most accurate. Regarding guilt judgments, adults rated defendants as having a higher degree of guilt when children were confident in reporting temporal details. The findings have implications for juror decision-making in cases of alleged sexual abuse in which children report when or how often abuse occurred. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Association between gross motor function (GMFCS and manual ability (MACS in children with cerebral palsy. A population-based study of 359 children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arner Marianne

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS has become an important tool to describe motor function in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP. The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS was developed recently as a corresponding classification of manual ability. The aim of this study was to describe the association between gross motor function and manual ability in a total population of children with cerebral palsy. Methods 365 children, born 1992 to 2001, who were registered in a population-based health care programme (CPUP for children with CP living in the south of Sweden were included in the study. GMFCS was evaluated by the child's physiotherapist and MACS by the occupational therapist. CP diagnosis and subtype were determined by the neuropaediatrician at or after the age of four. Results GMFCS levels were available in all 365 children, MACS levels in 359 (98%. There was a poor overall correlation between gross motor function and manual ability. However, different associations between gross motor function and manual ability were found in the different diagnostic subtypes. Children with spastic hemiplegia generally had a lower level of manual ability than gross motor function (p Conclusion Gross motor function and manual ability are often discrepant in children with CP, and the patterns seem to vary across the different subgroups based on the predominant neurological findings. To give a complete clinical picture when evaluating these children, both aspects have to be described. The GMFCS and the MACS seem to work well in this context and seem very useful in population-based studies, in health care registers for children with CP, and in clinical practice.

  4. Performance of children with social communication disorder on the Happé Strange Stories: Physical and mental state responses and relationship to language ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jenny; McBean, Kirsty; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Nash, Marysia; Law, James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether a modified scoring method was useful for examining the ability of children with social communication disorder (CwSCD) to understand non-literal language and use mental state responses on the Happé Strange Stories (HSS) task. CwSCD and a control group of children with typical language development (CwTLD) completed 10 of the original HSS. CwSCD scored significantly lower on the HSS task than did CwTLD and were much less likely to produce mental state responses. There was a high level of inter-rater reliability (Weighted Kappa=0.907) across data from both groups. HSS performance and language ability correlated significantly for CwSCD. A regression model with age, nonverbal intelligence, receptive and expressive language as predictors explained 55.2% of the variance in HSS ability for CwSCD. The results suggest that the HSS have potential to be used as a clinical assessment to investigate high-level language and ability to infer intent in CwSCD. Readers will be able to describe a modified scoring method for the Happé Strange Stories task. Readers will be able to identify areas of impairment for children with social communication disorder. Readers will identify how these areas of impairment have an effect on ability to understand non-literal language and produce mental state responses on the Happé Strange Stories task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The precision of mapping between number words and the approximate number system predicts children's formal math abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Melissa E; Odic, Darko; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2016-10-01

    Children can represent number in at least two ways: by using their non-verbal, intuitive approximate number system (ANS) and by using words and symbols to count and represent numbers exactly. Furthermore, by the time they are 5years old, children can map between the ANS and number words, as evidenced by their ability to verbally estimate numbers of items without counting. How does the quality of the mapping between approximate and exact numbers relate to children's math abilities? The role of the ANS-number word mapping in math competence remains controversial for at least two reasons. First, previous work has not examined the relation between verbal estimation and distinct subtypes of math abilities. Second, previous work has not addressed how distinct components of verbal estimation-mapping accuracy and variability-might each relate to math performance. Here, we addressed these gaps by measuring individual differences in ANS precision, verbal number estimation, and formal and informal math abilities in 5- to 7-year-old children. We found that verbal estimation variability, but not estimation accuracy, predicted formal math abilities, even when controlling for age, expressive vocabulary, and ANS precision, and that it mediated the link between ANS precision and overall math ability. These findings suggest that variability in the ANS-number word mapping may be especially important for formal math abilities.

  6. Investigation of basic cognitive predictors of reading and spelling abilities in Tunisian third-grade primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batnini, Soulef; Uno, Akira

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated first the main cognitive abilities; phonological processing, visual cognition, automatization and receptive vocabulary in predicting reading and spelling abilities in Arabic. Second, we compared good/poor readers and spellers to detect the characteristics of cognitive predictors which contribute to identifying reading and spelling difficulties in Arabic speaking children. A sample of 116 Tunisian third-grade children was tested on their abilities to read and spell, phonological processing, visual cognition, automatization and receptive vocabulary. For reading, phonological processing and automatization uniquely predicted Arabic word reading and paragraph reading abilities. Automatization uniquely predicted Arabic non-word reading ability. For spelling, phonological processing was a unique predictor for Arabic word spelling ability. Furthermore, poor readers had significantly lower scores on the phonological processing test and slower reading times on the automatization test as compared with good readers. Additionally, poor spellers showed lower scores on the phonological processing test as compared with good spellers. Visual cognitive processing and receptive vocabulary were not significant cognitive predictors of Arabic reading and spelling abilities for Tunisian third grade children in this study. Our results are consistent with previous studies in alphabetic orthographies and demonstrate that phonological processing and automatization are the best cognitive predictors in detecting early literacy problems. We suggest including phonological processing and automatization tasks in screening tests and in intervention programs may help Tunisian children with poor literacy skills overcome reading and spelling difficulties in Arabic. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Locus of Control, Academic Self-Concept, and Academic Dishonesty among High Ability College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinn, Anne N.; Boazman, Janette

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the current study were to evaluate a measure of academic dishonesty and examine high ability college students' loci of control and its effect on behaviors of academic dishonesty, as moderated by academic self-concept. A total of 357 high ability college students enrolled at two universities in the southwestern United States took…

  8. Extending Sociological Theorising on High Ability: The Significance of Values and Lived Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli Smith, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Sociological work on high ability is framed by social constructionist theorising and/or takes a social justice approach, and hence particular analytical intellectual traditions are foregrounded. Whilst these approaches have contributed the main critique of essentialist psychological understandings of high ability, they can eclipse normative…

  9. Do High Ability Learners Enjoy Learning Alone "or" in Groups? It Depends....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevsky, Lannie

    2015-01-01

    Pedagogical shifts favouring collaborative learning and findings of recent studies have raised concerns regarding the claim that gifted students prefer to learn alone. The purpose of this study was to further investigate if, when and how high ability learners want to work with or without others. The distributions of 416 high ability students (n =…

  10. Cognitive, Adaptive, and Psychosocial Differences between High Ability Youth with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doobay, Alissa F.; Foley-Nicpon, Megan; Ali, Saba R.; Assouline, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is thriving; however, scant empirical research has investigated how ASD manifests in high ability youth. Further research is necessary to accurately differentiate high ability students with ASD from those without the disorder, and thus decrease the risk of misdiagnosis. The purpose of the present study is…

  11. Selecting the Right Educational Setting for High-Ability TCKS: A Mother's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Meeting the needs of gifted students is challenging even in traditional contexts and settings. Well-known issues include a limited choice of schools, underrepresentation of certain populations, and, often, the lack of facilities and support for high-ability students. Imagine, then, the further complexities of high-ability Third Culture Kids (TCKs)…

  12. Memory and Cognitive Strategies of High Ability Students in a Rural Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Fuziana; Yunus, Melor Md

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine language learning strategies employed by the high ability students in a rural secondary school. Memory and cognitive strategies employed by the high ability students were the main focus in this study. A survey design was used and data was collected using Oxford's questionnaires. Findings reveal that the high…

  13. Motor ability and weight status are determinants of out-of-school activity participation for children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Lee, Velma Y L; Chan, Nerita N C; Chan, Rachel S H; Chak, Wai-Kwong; Pang, Marco Y C

    2011-01-01

    According to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model endorsed by the World Health Organization, participation in everyday activities is integral to normal child development. However, little is known about the influence of motor ability and weight status on physical activity participation in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This study aimed to (1) compare motor performance, weight status and pattern of out-of-school activity participation between children with DCD and those without; and (2) identify whether motor ability and weight status were determinants of participation patterns among children with DCD. We enrolled 81 children with DCD (boys, n = 63; girls, n = 18; mean age, 8.07 ± 1.5 years) and 67 typically developing children (boys, n = 48; girls, n = 19; mean age, 8.25 ± 1.6 years). Participation patterns (diversity, intensity, companionship, location, and enjoyment) were evaluated with the Children Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Motor ability was evaluated with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (MABC-2). Other factors that may influence participation such as age, gender, and body weight were also recorded. Analysis of variance was used to compare outcome variables of the two groups, and significant determinants of activity participation were identified by multiple regression analysis. Children with DCD participated in fewer activities (i.e., limited participation diversity) and participated less frequently (i.e., limited participation intensity) than their typically developing peers; however, companionship, location of participation, and enjoyment level did not differ between the two groups. Children in the DCD group demonstrated significantly worse motor ability as assessed by the MABC-2. Further, a greater proportion of children in the DCD group were in the overweight/obese category compared with their typically developing peers. After accounting for the

  14. Sensory preferences and discrimination ability of children before and after an obesity intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, Ute; Schaefer, Anke; Sailer, Oliver; Busch-Stockfisch, Mechthild; Reinehr, Thomas; Kunert, Joachim; Kersting, Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Sensory preferences and discrimination ability were assessed before and after participating in a long-term outpatient obesity lifestyle intervention for obese children and adolescents ('Obeldicks'). Each subject (N=72; 7-16 years) performed 9 experimental sensory tests (5 paired-comparison preference tests, 4 paired-comparison sensitivity tests). For the examination of the taste categories sweet, salty and sour, sugar, table salt or citric acid were added to suitable customary foods. Fatty foods were included in the tests using cheese and sausage (salami) in the preference tests and milk with different fat content in the sensitivity tests. All tests were conducted at the start of the intervention program, after three and twelve months. For both preference and sensitivity tests, there was no significant difference in experimental test decisions between the three time points.

  15. The effects of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition cognitive abilities on math achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Jason R; Beaujean, A Alexander

    2012-02-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to examine the effect of Stratum III (i.e., general intelligence) and Stratum II (i.e., Comprehension-Knowledge, Fluid Reasoning, Short-Term Memory, Processing Speed, and Visual Processing) factors of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities, as operationalized by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2003a) subtests, on Quantitative Knowledge, as operationalized by the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition (WIAT-II; Wechsler, 2002) subtests. Participants came from the WISC-IV/WIAT-II linking sample (n=550). We compared models that predicted Quantitative Knowledge using only Stratum III factors, only Stratum II factors, and both Stratum III and Stratum II factors. Results indicated that the model with only the Stratum III factor predicting Quantitative Knowledge best fit the data.

  16. Global Processing Speed in Children with Low Reading Ability and in Children and Adults with Typical Reading Ability: Exploratory Factor Analytic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate processing speed as a latent dimension in children with dyslexia and children and adults with typical reading skills. Method: Exploratory factor analysis (FA) was based on a sample of multigenerational families, each ascertained through a child with dyslexia. Eleven measures--6 of them timed--represented verbal and…

  17. Metapragmatic explicitation ability in children with typical language development: development and validation of a novel clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anna; Lockton, Elaine; Adams, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Speech-language practitioners recognise the importance of metapragmatic (MP) ability (the ability to explicitly reflect on pragmatic rules) in therapy for children with pragmatic and social communication difficulties. There is inconclusive evidence in the literature regarding both the development of metapragmatic ability in children with typical language and the expected levels of explicitation (reflection on pragmatic behaviours) in children's metapragmatic descriptions. The main purposes of this study were to investigate the reliability of a novel task of metapragmatic awareness (the Assessment of Metapragmatics or AMP) and to investigate typical developmental trends of metapragmatic ability and metapragmatic explicitation using the AMP task. Analysis of pooled data from 40 children with typical language development aged between six and eleven years and 48 children with communication impairments indicated that the AMP task had satisfactory internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. For children with typical language development, there was no relationship between gender and metapragmatic ability as measured by AMP. There was a linear relationship between age and AMP task scores and between age and explicitation. The scoring system used in the AMP task was sensitive to age-related changes in metapragmatic ability in a normative sample. The sophistication of metapragmatic awareness (explicitation) also increased with age. At age six years, children demonstrated metapragmatic awareness in their responses to 74% of AMP stimuli items; this increased to 95% of AMP items at ages 10-11 years. The AMP is a reliable measure of development in MP explicitation for children with satisfactory face validity in terms of acceptability to communication professionals and to child participants. From age six, children have some awareness of pragmatic acts and can identify and relate linguistic cues or pragmatic rules in atypical interactions of the type depicted in the AMP. The

  18. Visual-spatial abilities relate to mathematics achievement in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Nicole; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. Subjects were 56 children (29 AE, 27 CON) who were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory). The contribution of cognitive domains to mathematics achievement was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Attention, working memory, and visual memory data were entered together on Step 1 followed by group on Step 2, and the interaction terms on Step 3. Model 1 accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mathematics achievement measures; however, model fit improved with the addition of group on Step 2. Significant predictors of mathematics achievement were Spatial Span forward and backward and Spatial Recognition Memory. These findings suggest that deficits in spatial processing may be related to math impairments seen in FASD. In addition, prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with deficits in mathematics achievement, above and beyond the contribution of general cognitive abilities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Predictors of reading comprehension ability in primary school-aged children who have pragmatic language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Children who have pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI) have difficulties with the use of language in social contexts and show impairments in above-sentence level language tasks. Previous studies have found that typically developing children's reading comprehension (RC) is predicted by reading accuracy and spoken sentence level comprehension (SLC). This study explores the predictive ability of these factors and above-sentence level comprehension (ASLC) on RC skills in a group of CwPLI. Sixty nine primary school-aged CwPLI completed a measure of RC along with measures of reading accuracy, spoken SLC and both visual (pictorially presented) and spoken ASLC tasks. Regression analyses showed that reading accuracy was the strongest predictor of RC. Visual ASLC did not explain unique variance in RC on top of spoken SLC. In contrast, a measure of spoken ASLC explained unique variance in RC, independent from that explained by spoken SLC. A regression model with nonverbal intelligence, reading accuracy, spoken SLC and spoken ASLC as predictors explained 74.2% of the variance in RC. Findings suggest that spoken ASLC may measure additional factors that are important for RC success in CwPLI and should be included in routine assessments for language and literacy learning in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhanced Antisaccade Abilities in Children with Tourette syndrome: the Weakening of the Gap-Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eParvinchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a childhood onset disorder of motor and vocal tics. The neural networks underlying TS overlap with those of saccade eye movements. Thus, deviations on saccadic tasks can provide important information about psychopathology of TS. Tourette syndrome often coexists with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. Hence, we manipulated various components of a saccade task to measure its effects on saccades of children with TS-only, TS+ADHD, TS+ADHD+OCD and healthy controls. Children looked towards (prosaccade or in the opposite direction (antisaccade of a peripheral target as soon as it appeared. The prosaccade and antisaccade tasks were presented in three conditions. In the Gap200 condition, the fixation dot disappeared 200 msec prior to the appearance of the peripheral target, In the Gap800 condition, the fixation dot disappeared 800 msec prior to the appearance of the peripheral target and in Overlap200 the fixation dot disappeared 200 msec after the appearance of the peripheral target. Fixation-offset manipulations had different effects on each group’s antisaccades. The TS+ADHD+OCD group’s antisaccade latencies and error rates remained relatively unchanged in the three conditions and displayed a pattern of eye movements that can be interpreted as enhanced. Alternatively, the TS+ADHD group displayed an overall pattern of longer saccadic latencies. Findings corroborate the hypothesis that the combination of tic disorder and ADHD results in unique behavioural profiles. It is plausible that a subgroup of children with TS develop an adaptive ability to control their tics which generalizes to enhanced volitional control of saccadic behaviour as well. Supporting evidence and other findings are discussed.

  1. SAT predicts GPA better for high ability subjects: Implications for Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Thomas; Snyder, Anissa; Pillow, David; Kochunov, Peter

    2011-04-01

    This research examined the predictive validity of the SAT (formerly, the Scholastic Aptitude Test) for high and low ability groups. SAT scores and college GPAs were obtained from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Subjects were classified as high or low ability by g factor scores from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. SAT correlations with GPA were higher for high than low ability subjects. SAT g loadings (i.e., SAT correlations with g) were equivalent for both groups. This is the first study to show that the predictive validity of the SAT varies for ability groups that differ in g. The results contradict a presumption, based on Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns, that a test's predictive validity should be lower for high ability subjects. Further research is needed to identify factors that contribute to the predictive validity of the SAT for groups that differ in g.

  2. Trend of relations between morphological characteristics and motor abilities in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Gustav; Jalsić, Damjan; Katić, Ratko

    2009-06-01

    Measurements of eight anthropometric characteristics and a battery of seven motor tests were applied in a large sample of 1170 children, 565 boys and 605 girls aged 4 to 7.5 decimal years from preschool institutions in three towns in Vojvodina (Novi Sad, Sombor, and Bacha Palanka). Children were selected according to 0.5 decimal years in the mentioned age range. The status of boys and girls according to seven age categories, age-related differences between boys and girls, as well as the relations between anthropometric characteristics and motor abilities were analyzed by use of intercorrelation matrices and canonical correlation analysis. Generally, significant sex differences were found in anthropometric characteristics, i.e., the values of bone growth in length were higher in boys, while the values of voluminosity and subcutaneous adipose tissue were higher in girls. Concerning the space of motor variables, there were significant differences in functioning of the mechanism of movement structuring, the mechanism of synergetic regulation, and the mechanism of excitation duration control, which reached higher values in boys, whereas the functioning of the mechanism of tonus regulation showed higher values in girls. These differences generated morphological and motor structures in boys and girls according to age groups analyzed whose relations showed variable level of statistical significance. The youngest and oldest ages showed generalness of the canonical factor structure, as well as the highest significance of participation in the common variance of the two spaces of the variables applied. Between the above ages, i.e., between 4 and 7 years, the relation between morphological characteristics and motor abilities in children decreased, followed by gradual increase. It was monitored by the coefficient of determination between the first pairs of canonical factors in each age category, in boys and girls alike. This relation tended to be higher in boys in all analyzed

  3. Differential effect of cognitive training on executive functions and reading abilities in children with ADHD and in children with ADHD comorbid with reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi

    2015-06-01

    The comorbidity of ADHD and reading difficulties (ADHD + RD) is believed to be a disability distinct from ADHD alone, with unique challenges faced by individuals suffering from one disability versus the other. We aimed to examine the differential effect of 8 weeks of cognitive training on reading abilities and on executive functions, through use of the Wisconsin task, in children with ADHD and in children with ADHD + RD. Greater impairments in reading and executive functions, especially in speed of processing, were found in the comorbid group at baseline. The comorbid group showed greater improvements in most measures after training as well. We propose that the cognitive training used in the present study affected not only the immediate abilities of executive functioning but also the secondary ability of reading, especially in the comorbid group, by improving in particular, speed of processing. We suggest that a differential approach should be taken when treating children with ADHD + RD versus treating ADHD children.

  4. Early Identification of Educationally High Potential and High Risk Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Barbara K.; Smith, Carol E.

    Early identification of educationally high potential and high risk children was investigated by following the same 49 children from kindergarten entrance through grade five of a regular school program. Kindergarten predictive measures were the Bender Gestalt Test and teachers' evaluations; follow-up measures were yearly standard achievement test…

  5. Pre-school social abilities: Construction and validation of a scale for children in contexts of poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Betina Lacunza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Social abilities are an essential part of human activity since they have a bearing on self-con­fidence, adoption of roles, self-regulation of behavior and academic performance, among other aspects. This study presents the process of construction and validation of a scale of social abilities for pre-school children. The scale was administered to 318 parents of 3 to 5 years old children of low socio-economic status who attend Primary Health Care Centers in San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. Considering the evolutionary and contextual charac­teristics relative to the process of acquisition of social abilities, a different protocol for every age group was designed. The result was a scale with confidence and validity characteristics. The validation of these instruments is helpful for evaluating children in poverty contexts since they enable us to distinguish social resources that allow children’s adaptation.

  6. Hypercorrection of High Confidence Errors in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Janet; Finn, Bridgid

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether the hypercorrection effect--the finding that errors committed with high confidence are easier, rather than more difficult, to correct than are errors committed with low confidence--occurs in grade school children as it does in young adults. All three experiments showed that Grade 3-6 children hypercorrected…

  7. Hypercorrection of High Confidence Errors in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Janet; Finn, Bridgid

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether the hypercorrection effect--the finding that errors committed with high confidence are easier, rather than more difficult, to correct than are errors committed with low confidence--occurs in grade school children as it does in young adults. All three experiments showed that Grade 3-6 children hypercorrected…

  8. Comparing a parent-report and a performance-based measure of children's motor skill abilities: are they associated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Lane, Haylee

    2014-10-01

    Both parent-report and performance-based assessment approaches are used in occupational therapy practice to gather information about children's motor skill abilities. This study investigated whether an association existed between the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency- 2(nd) edition (BOT-2), a performance-based motor-skill assessment and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2(nd) edition (MABC-2) Checklist, a parent-report scale of children's motor abilities. A convenience sample of 50 typically developing children aged 7-16 years were recruited. Scores from the BOT-2 and MABC-2 Checklist were analyzed using Spearman's rho correlations and linear regression analyses with several significant correlations found. The following BOT-2 derived scores were correlated with the MABC-2 Checklist: (1) BOT-2 subscales of Fine Motor Precision (rho = .33, p Coordination (rho = .39, p Coordination (rho = .33, p Coordination composite area scores.

  9. The association between visual, nonverbal cognitive abilities and speech, phonological processing, vocabulary and reading outcomes in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lindsey; Anderson, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the possibility that specific nonverbal, visual cognitive abilities may be associated with outcomes after pediatric cochlear implantation. The study therefore examined the relationship between visual sequential memory span and visual sequential reasoning ability, and a range of speech, phonological processing, vocabulary knowledge, and reading outcomes in children with cochlear implants. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used. Sixty-six children aged 5 to 12 years completed tests of visual memory span and visual sequential reasoning, along with tests of speech intelligibility, phonological processing, vocabulary knowledge, and word reading ability (the outcome variables). Auditory memory span was also assessed, and its relationship with the other variables examined. Significant, positive correlations were found between the visual memory and reasoning tests, and each of the outcome variables. A series of regression analyses then revealed that for all the outcome variables, after variance attributable to the age at implantation was accounted for, visual memory span and visual sequential reasoning ability together accounted for significantly more variance (up to 25%) in each outcome measure. These findings have both clinical and theoretical implications. Clinically, the findings may help improve the identification of children at risk of poor progress after implantation earlier than has been possible to date as the nonverbal tests can be administered to children as young as 2 years of age. The results may also contribute to the identification of children with specific learning or language difficulties as well as improve our ability to develop intervention strategies for individual children based on their specific cognitive processing strengths or difficulties. Theoretically, these results contribute to the growing body of knowledge about learning and development in deaf children with cochlear implants.

  10. Synchrony of auditory brain responses predicts behavioral ability to keep still in children with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Yoshimura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The auditory-evoked P1m, recorded by magnetoencephalography, reflects a central auditory processing ability in human children. One recent study revealed that asynchrony of P1m between the right and left hemispheres reflected a central auditory processing disorder (i.e., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD in children. However, to date, the relationship between auditory P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization and the comorbidity of hyperactivity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD is unknown. In this study, based on a previous report of an asynchrony of P1m in children with ADHD, to clarify whether the P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization is related to the symptom of hyperactivity in children with ASD, we investigated the relationship between voice-evoked P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization and hyperactivity in children with ASD. In addition to synchronization, we investigated the right-left hemispheric lateralization. Our findings failed to demonstrate significant differences in these values between ASD children with and without the symptom of hyperactivity, which was evaluated using the Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule, Generic (ADOS-G subscale. However, there was a significant correlation between the degrees of hemispheric synchronization and the ability to keep still during 12-minute MEG recording periods. Our results also suggested that asynchrony in the bilateral brain auditory processing system is associated with ADHD-like symptoms in children with ASD.

  11. The mental health, emotional literacy, cognitive ability, literacy attainment and 'resilience' of 'looked after children': a multidimensional, multiple-rater population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Existing research studies suggest that children who are looked after by the State experience high levels of mental health difficulties and underachieve in many other domains. Few studies, however, aim to reflect the heterogeneity of these children and those who are performing well may be under-represented in the findings. This study aims to provide a more representative picture, offering novel data on resilience. A multidimensional, multiple-rater population-based study of looked after children. The entire population of looked after children aged 7-15 years (n = 193) in one local authority was assessed in core domains; mental health, emotional literacy, cognitive ability and literacy attainment. Measures included the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire, Emotional Literacy Assessment and Intervention Inventory, and the British Ability Scales. The children's data were compared with general population norms and existing research studies. The incidence of resilience, defined by the fulfilment of positive exception criteria, was recorded. Children fulfilling positive exception criteria were then compared to the remaining children on key factors. The looked after children performed less well in all domains compared with general population norms. Sixteen per cent of children met the positive exception criteria. Positive performance on individual measures varied from 34% to 76%. A statistically significant association was found between positive exception classification and two factors; parental contact and mainstream schooling. In general terms, this study supports the findings of previous research studies. However, evidence of positive exceptions across and within all domains cautions against overgeneralization of findings. The findings also implicate parental contact and mainstream education in the promotion of resilience. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Pre-school social abilities: Construction and validation of a scale for children in contexts of poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Betina Lacunza; Alejandro Castro Solano; Norma Contini

    2009-01-01

    Social abilities are an essential part of human activity since they have a bearing on self-con­fidence, adoption of roles, self-regulation of behavior and academic performance, among other aspects. This study presents the process of construction and validation of a scale of social abilities for pre-school children. The scale was administered to 318 parents of 3 to 5 years old children of low socio-economic status who attend Primary Health Care Centers in San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. Cons...

  13. Ability to show shame can include children with autism and ADHD in physical education (PE) at primary school in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentholm, Anette Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    children and the principals at the schools, focus group interviews with the PE teachers and modified Social Network method on the school classes. The empirical framework will be analyzed through process-sociologist Norbert Elias theory of Civilizing (1994) and The Establish and Outsiders (Elias & Scotson...... outsiders. A child’s ability to show shame as a way of uncivilized behavior and the size of the figuration has influence on how established the children are in PE....

  14. Durable Effects of Concentrated Disadvantage on Verbal Ability among African-American Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert J. Sampson; Patrick Sharkey; Stephen W. Raudenbush

    2008-01-01

    .... African-American children are exposed in such disproportionate numbers to concentrated disadvantage that white and Latino children cannot be reliably compared, calling into question traditional...

  15. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Živorad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that “fine motor skills” are determined by the development of its large motorics, the authors point to the significance of the content and structure of physical education programme in preschool institutions and younger age school classes. It is evident that the effects of cultivating of children development during preschool period can be seen in younger primary school classes. The goal of this research was to determine if and how much the different organization of preparatory part of physical education lesson for younger school children, determines the differences in the development of their motor abilities. By the use of experimental method, the effects of prolonged preparatory part of a lesson in younger school classes. This part was realized through complex of exercises which were supposed to have influence on transformation of motor abilities in relation to the structure with standard duration of certain parts of a lesson. It is determined that certain increase in body movement of students during physical activity can significantly contribute to better development of motor abilities. These abilities determine correct physical development and strengthening of health, which determines general aim of physical education.

  16. Approximate number and approximate time discrimination each correlate with school math abilities in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odic, Darko; Lisboa, Juan Valle; Eisinger, Robert; Olivera, Magdalena Gonzalez; Maiche, Alejandro; Halberda, Justin

    2016-01-01

    What is the relationship between our intuitive sense of number (e.g., when estimating how many marbles are in a jar), and our intuitive sense of other quantities, including time (e.g., when estimating how long it has been since we last ate breakfast)? Recent work in cognitive, developmental, comparative psychology, and computational neuroscience has suggested that our representations of approximate number, time, and spatial extent are fundamentally linked and constitute a "generalized magnitude system". But, the shared behavioral and neural signatures between number, time, and space may alternatively be due to similar encoding and decision-making processes, rather than due to shared domain-general representations. In this study, we investigate the relationship between approximate number and time in a large sample of 6-8 year-old children in Uruguay by examining how individual differences in the precision of number and time estimation correlate with school mathematics performance. Over four testing days, each child completed an approximate number discrimination task, an approximate time discrimination task, a digit span task, and a large battery of symbolic math tests. We replicate previous reports showing that symbolic math abilities correlate with approximate number precision and extend those findings by showing that math abilities also correlate with approximate time precision. But, contrary to approximate number and time sharing common representations, we find that each of these dimensions uniquely correlates with formal math: approximate number correlates more strongly with formal math compared to time and continues to correlate with math even when precision in time and individual differences in working memory are controlled for. These results suggest that there are important differences in the mental representations of approximate number and approximate time and further clarify the relationship between quantity representations and mathematics.

  17. High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung, and Blood Institute Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know Page Content Children can have high blood pressure. Did you know that children could have high ...

  18. Iconicity influences how effectively minimally verbal children with autism and ability-matched typically developing children use pictures as symbols in a search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Calum; Allen, Melissa L

    2015-07-01

    Previous word learning studies suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder may have difficulty understanding pictorial symbols. Here we investigate the ability of children with autism spectrum disorder and language-matched typically developing children to contextualize symbolic information communicated by pictures in a search task that did not involve word learning. Out of the participant's view, a small toy was concealed underneath one of four unique occluders that were individuated by familiar nameable objects or unfamiliar unnamable objects. Children were shown a picture of the hiding location and then searched for the toy. Over three sessions, children completed trials with color photographs, black-and-white line drawings, and abstract color pictures. The results reveal zero group differences; neither children with autism spectrum disorder nor typically developing children were influenced by occluder familiarity, and both groups' errorless retrieval rates were above-chance with all three picture types. However, both groups made significantly more errorless retrievals in the most-iconic photograph trials, and performance was universally predicted by receptive language. Therefore, our findings indicate that children with autism spectrum disorder and young typically developing children can contextualize pictures and use them to adaptively guide their behavior in real time and space. However, this ability is significantly influenced by receptive language development and pictorial iconicity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Analysis of primary school children's abilities and strategies for reading and recording time from analogue and digital clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Wilss, Lynn; Mutch, Sue

    1997-09-01

    Sixty-seven children in Grades 1-3 and 66 children in Grades 4-6 were tested for their ability to read and record analogue and digital times. The children in Grades 4-6 were asked to describe their strategies. A sequence of time acquisition was proposed, based on a recent theory of cognitive development and the literature. This was: hour, half hour, quarter hour, five minute, and minute times. Times after the hour would be more difficult and digital times would be learned sooner. The sequence was confirmed for Grades 1-3; irregularities occurred in Grades 4-6. Some implications are drawn for the teaching of time.

  20. Logical Reasoning Abilities of Junior High School Students in the Province of Cotabato, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul John B. Ongcoy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reasoning abilities of the learners and its development was well-discussed in the world of education. The higher the ability of the person to reason abstractly, the higher the probability that a person will effectively function in the society. Thus, it is the main goal of the K-12 Curriculum of the Department of Education to improve the reasoning abilities and formal reasoning among students in the country. The higher the reasoning ability of a person, the more productive he is. The ability of logical reasoning has an essential function in the academic performance of students and their construction of the concepts. This study aimed to determine the logical reasoning abilities of 150 randomly selected junior high school students. Specifically, this study aimed to determine the logical reasoning abilities namely combinatorial reasoning, controlling variables, correlation reasoning, probabilistic reasoning and proportional reasoning among the grade 10 junior high school students and determine whether there is a significant difference in students’ logical reasoning abilities according to their gender. The respondents answered the Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT. Thirty respondents were interviewed to verify their answers. The findings of the study led to the following conclusions: most students correctly answered problems in probabilistic reasoning and least number of students correctly answered problems in proportional reasoning and combinatorial reasoning and, male and female respondents have equal performances in problems pertaining to combinatorial reasoning, controlling variables, correlational reasoning and probabilistic reasoning but female respondents are better in proportional reasoning than the male respondents.

  1. Response inhibition and academic abilities in typically developing children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder-combined subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Jesse C; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Pliszka, Steven R

    2010-11-01

    Research in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) generally utilizes clinical samples or children with comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Findings indicated that children with ADHD experience academic underachievement and poor performance on measures of response inhibition (RI). Less is known, about the neuropsychological profile of typically developing children with ADHD. The aim of the current study was twofold: (1) determine if academic skills and RI were impaired in typically developing children with ADHD-combined subtype (ADHD-C) and (2) determine to what extent RI may predict academic abilities. Children with ADHD-C did not differ on any academic domain from controls. Children with ADHD-C performed more poorly than controls on RI measures. Regression analyses suggest that Written Expression ability was significantly influenced by RI. No other academic domain was related to RI. Results suggest that children with ADHD-C may experience impairments in RI despite adequate academic functioning. Impaired RI is not solely responsible for difficulties found in academic skills in ADHD-C.

  2. Evaluating the clinical utility of the Profile of Oral Narrative Ability for 4-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T; Boyd, Lynda

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated if the story retelling and comprehension task Ana Gets Lost, that is frequently used with school-aged children, has clinical utility with a preschool population. The study also assessed the task's concurrent and predictive validity with norm-referenced tests of language performance. A total of 92 typically-developing 4-year-old children participated. After 12 months, 57 children were available for a follow-up session. At each session, children listened twice to the story while looking at the pictures and then retold the story without the use of pictures. After the first exposure the children were asked comprehension questions to assess their oral narrative comprehension. Children's performance was analysed on measures of comprehension, narrative quality, semantics, morphosyntax, and verbal productivity to provide a Profile of Oral Narrative Ability (PONA). Results showed normal distribution of some of the measures and acceptable concurrent and predictive correlations with two norm-referenced measures of language ability. Although the results indicate the potential usefulness of this tool with preschool children, further research should investigate its potential as a screening measure of oral narrative performance.

  3. Does the transparency of the counting system affect children's numerical abilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowker, Ann; Roberts, Manon

    2015-01-01

    The Welsh language uses a regular counting system, whereas English uses an irregular counting system, and schools within Wales teach either through the medium of Welsh or English. This provides the opportunity to compare linguistic effects on arithmetical skills in the absence of many other confounding factors that arise in international comparisons. This study investigated the hypothesis that language properties influence children's performance in certain numerical tasks by comparing the performance of 20 Welsh- and 20 English-medium Year Two pupils in non-verbal line estimations and transcoding. Groups did not differ on global arithmetic abilities, but the pupils taught through the medium of Welsh on average performed better in the non-verbal line estimation tasks than the English-medium group. This superiority was most apparent in comparisons involving numbers over 20: a result which was complicated by the fact that Welsh-medium pupils showed a lower range of error scores than the English-medium pupils. These results were thought to be related to the increased transparency of the Welsh counting system.

  4. Intentional and automatic numerical processing as predictors of mathematical abilities in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Violeta; Castillo, Alejandro; Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Fuentes, Luis J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that numerical processing relates to mathematical performance, but it seems that such relationship is more evident for intentional than for automatic numerical processing. In the present study we assessed the relationship between the two types of numerical processing and specific mathematical abilities in a sample of 109 children in grades 1-6. Participants were tested in an ample range of mathematical tests and also performed both a numerical and a size comparison task. The results showed that numerical processing related to mathematical performance only when inhibitory control was involved in the comparison tasks. Concretely, we found that intentional numerical processing, as indexed by the numerical distance effect in the numerical comparison task, was related to mathematical reasoning skills only when the task-irrelevant dimension (the physical size) was incongruent; whereas automatic numerical processing, indexed by the congruency effect in the size comparison task, was related to mathematical calculation skills only when digits were separated by small distance. The observed double dissociation highlights the relevance of both intentional and automatic numerical processing in mathematical skills, but when inhibitory control is also involved.

  5. Does the transparency of the counting system affect children's numerical abilities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann eDowker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Welsh language uses a regular counting system, whereas English uses an irregular counting system, and schools within Wales teach either through the medium of Welsh or English. This provides the opportunity to compare linguistic effects on arithmetical skills in the absence of many other confounding factors that arise in international comparisons. This study investigated the hypothesis that language properties influence children's performance in certain numerical tasks by comparing the performance of 20 Welsh- and 20 English-medium Year Two pupils in nonverbal line estimations and transcoding. Groups did not differ on global arithmetic abilities, but the pupils taught through the medium of Welsh on average performed better in the nonverbal line estimation tasks than the English-medium group. This superiority was most apparent in comparisons involving numbers over 20: a result which was complicated by the fact that Welsh-medium pupils showed a lower range of error scores than the English-medium pupils. These results were thought to be related to the increased transparency of the Welsh counting system.

  6. Intentional and Automatic Numerical Processing as Predictors of Mathematical Abilities in Primary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ePina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that numerical processing relates to mathematical performance, but it seems that such relationship is more evident for intentional than for automatic numerical processing. In the present study we assessed the relationship between the two types of numerical processing and specific mathematical abilities in a sample of 109 children in grades 1 to 6. Participants were tested in an ample range of mathematical tests and also performed both a numerical and a size comparison task. The results showed that numerical processing related to mathematical performance only when inhibitory control was involved in the comparison tasks. Concretely, we found that intentional numerical processing, as indexed by the numerical distance effect in the numerical comparison task, was related to mathematical reasoning skills only when the task-irrelevant dimension (the physical size was incongruent; whereas automatic numerical processing, indexed by the congruency effect in the size comparison task, was related to mathematical calculation skills only when digits were separated by small distance. The observed double dissociation highlights the relevance of both intentional and automatic numerical processing in mathematical skills, but when inhibitory control is also involved.

  7. Developmental and Cognitive Characteristics of “High-Level Potentialities” (Highly Gifted Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vaivre-Douret

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study covers the interesting field of the development in gifted children which is often neglected in pediatrics because psychomotor development data are still rare, since “gifted” children are generally noticed towards the end of their primary schooling by IQ measurement. Developmental studies have shown the evidence from several fields that children identified as “high-level potentialities” or “intellectually gifted” develop sensory, locomotor, neuropsychological, and language skills earlier than typically expected. The hypothesis is offered that the earlier development originates from biological processes affecting the physical development of the brain and in turn even intellectual abilities are developed earlier, potentially allowing for advanced development. Further it is discussed how these developmental advances interact with the social environment and in certain circumstances may entail increased risk for developing socioemotional difficulties and learning disabilities that often go unaddressed due to the masking by the advance intellectual abilities.

  8. On Strategies of Improving Junior High School Students' Oral English Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗茜

    2015-01-01

    With the increasingly frequent international exchanges,English,as an international language,has been attached greater importance.The oral English ability of junior high school students plays an indispensable role in their everyday study and social interaction,and it is the present junior school study that can lay a solid foundation for their future study and life. Therefore,to comprehensively improve their oral English ability is in urgent need and of paramount significance.This paper focuses on analyzing the external and internal factors influencing the cultivation of junior high school students' oral English ability,and put forwards the corresponding cultivating strategies of the oral English ability of junior high school students.

  9. On Strategies of Improving Junior High School Students’ Oral English Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗茜

    2015-01-01

    With the increasingly frequent international exchanges,English,as an international language,has been attached greater importance.The oral English ability of junior high school students plays an indispensable role in their everyday study and social interaction,and it is the present junior school study that can lay a solid foundation for their future study and life.Therefore,to comprehensively improve their oral English ability is in urgent need and of paramount significance.This paper focuses on analyzing the external and internal factors influencing the cultivation of junior high school students’oral English ability,and put forwards the corresponding cultivating strategies of the oral English ability of junior high school students.

  10. Getting Ahead: Current Secondary and Postsecondary Acceleration Options for High-Ability Students in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Scott J.; Mann, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate and concurrent enrollment programs are both options available for high-ability high school students. Their value lies in their potential to provide greater depth and breadth of curriculum than is traditionally possible in public high schools. This study surveyed public school corporations in Indiana to examine the…

  11. Developing Student-Centered Learning Model to Improve High Order Mathematical Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, Elvis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop student-centered learning model aiming to improve high order mathematical thinking ability of junior high school students of based on curriculum 2013 in North Sumatera, Indonesia. The special purpose of this research was to analyze and to formulate the purpose of mathematics lesson in high order…

  12. Study of the effect of humanistic nursing care model wards in Children Caring Ward School on the nurses' caring ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao He; De-Ying Hu; Yi-Lan Liu; Li-Fen Wu; Lian Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To understand the effect of humanistic nursing care model wards in Children Caring Ward School (CCWS) on the nurses' caring ability. Methods: Questionnaire 25 nurses of humanistic nursing care model wards in CCWS using the Nkongho Caring Ability Inventory (CAI) before and after implement the humanistic nursing care model, including reform the systems of nursing care, introduce humanistic care model, implement the humanistic care, to measure the nurses' caring ability. Results: The nurses' caring ability had significantly developed on total, cognition dimension, courage dimension and patience dimension after all measures considered (p Conclusions: The humanistic nursing care model wards in CCWS has a positive effect on the nurses' caring ability, not only to help build great relationships between nurses and patients but also to enhance the patients' satisfaction.

  13. Cultivation of Children's Self-dependence Ability%浅谈学生自理能力的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓静

    2011-01-01

    Self-care ability is the embodiment of the self service ability and plays an important role in children's growth.Based on the analysis of the infants' ability of self-dependence, the paper puts forward some cultivating methods of ability of self-dependence.The practice proves that this method can effectively improve their ability of self-dependence, establish confidence, and cultivate perfect personality.%自理能力是自我服务能力的体现,对幼儿的成长有着重要作用.本文通过对幼儿自理能力的分析,提出了一些培养幼儿自理能力的方法.经实践证明,这些方法能够有效提高幼儿自理能力,树立自信心,培养健全人格.

  14. Educational level signals unobserved abilities of people with high functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokotani, Kenji

    2010-08-01

    The effect of educational level on employment of people with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) was examined. If education augments natural abilities to accomplish tasks in people with HFASD, then those with more education would have comparative advantages in both obtaining and retaining jobs. In contrast, if education did not augment natural abilities and only signaled unobservable abilities, one would expect an advantage only in obtaining a job, but not in retention. 22 people with HFASD replied to questionnaires regarding their history of education and employment. Those with job experience had higher educational levels than those with no job experience, but educational level was not significantly different between groups with and without more than one year of job experience. Educational level seems to be associated with abilities, but probably the unobserved abilities underlie both educational attainment and employment history.

  15. Early and Middle Childhood Pre-Service Teachers' Perceptions Concerning Foster Children's Academic Ability and Behavior in a Regular Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlawn, Penny Ann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of early and middle level childhood pre-service teachers concerning foster children's academic abilities and behaviors in a regular classroom. The participants consisted of a convenience sample of students from a junior level education class. The participants rated their degree of…

  16. Correlation of Leiter and The Visual Subtests of The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities With Deaf Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddonio, Robert O.

    1973-01-01

    Deaf elementary school children were administered the Leiter International Performance Scale and the five nonauditory, nonverbal subtests of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. The intellectual quotient derived from the Leiter and the psycholinguistic quotient derived from the five visually oriented subtests were then correlated. The…

  17. Effects of prenatal PCB and dioxin background exposure on cognitive and motor abilities in Dutch children at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, HJI; Lanting, Caren; Mulder, PCH; Boersma, ER; Weisglas-Kuperus, N

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate whether effects of exposure to environmental levels of PCBs and dioxins on development in the Dutch cohort persist until school age. Study design: In the Dutch PCB/dioxin study, cognitive and motor abilities were assessed with the McCarthy Scales of Children's

  18. The Effects of Daily Opportunities To Draw and Write on Kindergarten Children's Ability To Represent Phonemes in their Spelling Inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, M. Elizabeth; And Others

    This quasi-experimental study measured the effects of daily opportunities to draw and write on kindergarten children's ability to represent phonemes in their spelling inventions. All students involved in the study had previously been tested using the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test and placed in developmentally appropriate kindergarten…

  19. The Effectiveness of a Multisensory Writing Programme for Improving Cursive Writing Ability in Children with Sensorimotor Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Julia; Law, Mary

    1994-01-01

    Five letter groups were taught over 10 weeks to 4 children with sensorimotor difficulties. Visual analysis revealed changes in cursive writing ability; statistical analysis found quality scores for one child changed significantly but no significant changes in overall speed. Teacher reports suggested an increase in self-confidence about writing.…

  20. The Haptic Test Battery: A New Instrument to Test Tactual Abilities in Blind and Visually Impaired and Sighted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Bardisa, Dolores; Millar, Susanna; Reales, Jose M.

    2005-01-01

    A new psychological test battery was designed to provide a much-needed comprehensive tool for assessing the perceptual and cognitive abilities of visually handicapped children in using active touch. The test materials consist of raised-line, raised-dot, raised-surface shapes and displays, and familiar and novel 3-D objects. The research used 20…

  1. Tactile localization performance in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) corresponds to their motor skill and not their cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Joanne S; Begum Ali, Jannath; Hill, Elisabeth L; Bremner, Andrew J

    2017-01-18

    When localizing touches to the hands, typically developing children and adults show a "crossed hands effect" whereby identifying which hand received a tactile stimulus is less accurate when the hands are crossed than uncrossed. This demonstrates the use of an external frame of reference for locating touches to one's own body. Given that studies indicate that developmental vision plays a role in the emergence of external representations of touch, and reliance on vision for representing the body during action is atypical in developmental coordination disorder (DCD), we investigated external spatial representations of touch in children with DCD using the "crossed hands effect". Nineteen children with DCD aged 7-11years completed a tactile localization task in which posture (uncrossed, crossed) and view (hands seen, unseen) were varied systematically. Their performance was compared to that of 35 typically developing controls (19 of a similar age and cognitive ability, and 16 of a younger age but similar fine motor ability). Like controls, the DCD group exhibited a crossed hands effect, whilst their overall tactile localization performance was weaker than their peers of similar age and cognitive ability, but in line with younger controls of similar motor ability. For children with movement difficulties, these findings indicate tactile localization impairments in relation to age expectations, but apparently typical use of an external reference frame for localizing touch.

  2. Career Barriers and Reading Ability as Correlates of Career Aspirations and Expectations of Parents and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Peter A.; Conlon, Elizabeth G.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Data were obtained from 176 Year 7 children (mean age=12.2 years) on career status aspirations and expectations, career barriers, academic engagement, academic control beliefs, general ability and literacy; and from parents, mainly mothers, on aspirations, expectations and career barriers. Discrepancy scores between aspirations and expectations…

  3. The Effect of a Training Programme in Creativity on Developing the Creative Abilities among Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A.; al-Masa'deh, Mu'tasem M.; Oliemat, Enass M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of a training programme in creativity on developing creative abilities among 9-10-year-old children with visual impairment in Jordan. The study sample consisted of 41 students from fourth and fifth grades, who were randomly selected and divided into two experimental groups and two control groups. To…

  4. Using Grounded Theory to Understand Resiliency in Pre-Teen Children of High-Conflict Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomrenke, Marlene

    2007-01-01

    Using grounded theory, this study identified factors that contributed to children's ability to utilize their resilient attributes. Children between the ages of 9 and 12 from high-conflict separated or divorced families participated in a study that examined how family and community interactions promote resilient behaviour. Substantive-level theory…

  5. Synchrony of auditory brain responses predicts behavioral ability to keep still in children with autism spectrum disorder: Auditory-evoked response in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Hasegawa, Chiaki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Remijn, Gerard B; Oi, Manabu; Munesue, Toshio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    The auditory-evoked P1m, recorded by magnetoencephalography, reflects a central auditory processing ability in human children. One recent study revealed that asynchrony of P1m between the right and left hemispheres reflected a central auditory processing disorder (i.e., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD) in children. However, to date, the relationship between auditory P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization and the comorbidity of hyperactivity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unknown. In this study, based on a previous report of an asynchrony of P1m in children with ADHD, to clarify whether the P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization is related to the symptom of hyperactivity in children with ASD, we investigated the relationship between voice-evoked P1m right-left hemispheric synchronization and hyperactivity in children with ASD. In addition to synchronization, we investigated the right-left hemispheric lateralization. Our findings failed to demonstrate significant differences in these values between ASD children with and without the symptom of hyperactivity, which was evaluated using the Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule, Generic (ADOS-G) subscale. However, there was a significant correlation between the degrees of hemispheric synchronization and the ability to keep still during 12-minute MEG recording periods. Our results also suggested that asynchrony in the bilateral brain auditory processing system is associated with ADHD-like symptoms in children with ASD.

  6. Young children's yes bias: How does it relate to verbal ability, inhibitory control, and theory of mind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Yusuke; Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how young children reduce a yes bias, the tendency to answer 'yes' to yes-no questions. Specifically, we examined three possible factors: verbal ability, inhibitory control and theory of mind. Results revealed that verbal ability and inhibitory control were strongly associated with a yes bias even after controlling for age. Regression analyses revealed that these two factors significantly predicted a yes bias. Theory of mind was not significantly correlated with a yes bias. The results indicate that young children may have to inhibit a dominant 'yes' response when they are supposed to respond 'no'. The development of verbal skills may reduce young children's yes biases.

  7. Mathematical ability of students with Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Lin, Yueh-Hsien

    2007-11-01

    This article reviews studies investigating cognitive ability and academic achievement of students with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA). Particular emphasis is placed on the mathematical ability of people with AS/HFA. A preliminary analysis of empirical data is presented. Findings indicate that: (1) the majority of individuals with AS/HFA have average mathematical ability; (2) the majority of individuals with AS/HFA have a significant but clinically modest math weakness; (3) some individuals with AS/HFA have mathematical giftedness.

  8. Auditory disorders and acquisition of the ability to localize sound in children born to HIV-positive mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gentile Matas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate children born to HIV-infected mothers and to determine whether such children present auditory disorders or poor acquisition of the ability to localize sound. The population studied included 143 children (82 males and 61 females, ranging in age from one month to 30 months. The children were divided into three groups according to the classification system devised in 1994 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: infected; seroreverted; and exposed. The children were then submitted to audiological evaluation, including behavioral audiometry, visual reinforcement audiometry and measurement of acoustic immittance. Statistical analysis showed that the incidence of auditory disorders was significantly higher in the infected group. In the seroreverted and exposed groups, there was a marked absence of auditory disorders. In the infected group as a whole, the findings were suggestive of central auditory disorders. Evolution of the ability to localize sound was found to be poorer among the children in the infected group than among those in the seroreverted and exposed groups.

  9. Effects of listening ability on speaking, writing and reading skills of children who were suspected of auditory processing difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçinkaya, Fulya; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Sahin, Semra

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of listening ability on speaking, writing and reading skills of children who was suspected of auditory processing difficulty (APD). This research was conducted with 67 children in 1st or 2nd grade of primary school. The first group (Group I-control) was comprised of 41 children without APD. The second group (Group II-study group) was comprised of 26 children with APD. Listening, speaking, reading and writing skills were evaluated by Observational Rating Scale (ORS) and analyzed in both groups. Listening value of ORS in APD group was significantly lower; and, speaking, reading and writing values of ORS in APD group were significantly higher than control group (p=0.000). It was also found that, the main effect of listening skills was on speaking in normal childs, and on writing ability in children with APD. It was concluded that, for school-aged children, APD can lead to or is associated with difficulties in written language.

  10. Visiting Children's Theory of Intelligence from The View of Ability Perception Formation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    関田, 一彦

    2005-01-01

    Carol Dweck and her colleagues have extensively investigated one's believes of intelligence, morality, and personality in the relationship with his/her motivation. Particularly, they named children's believes of their smartness as children's theories of i

  11. Visiting Children's Theory of Intelligence from The View of Ability Perception Formation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    関田, 一彦; Kazuhiko, SEKITA

    2005-01-01

    Carol Dweck and her colleagues have extensively investigated one's believes of intelligence, morality, and personality in the relationship with his/her motivation. Particularly, they named children's believes of their smartness as children's theories of i

  12. EMOTIONAL ROLE-TAKING ABILITIES OF CHILDREN WITH A PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, M.; Minderaa, R.B; Van Geert, P. L. C.; Jackson, A.E.; Althaus, M.; Til, R.

    Seven to 12-year-old children with a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDDNOS) were compared with normal, healthy children of the same age and sex on three different emotional role-taking tasks. In these tasks, children had to use person-specific information to make an

  13. The Influence of Spelling Ability on Vocabulary Choices When Writing for Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Emma; Connelly, Vincent; Barnett, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    Spelling is a prerequisite to expressing vocabulary in writing. Research has shown that children with dyslexia are hesitant spellers when composing. This study aimed to determine whether the hesitant spelling of children with dyslexia, evidenced by frequent pausing, affects vocabulary choices when writing. A total of 31 children with dyslexia,…

  14. The Engagement in Musical Activities of Young Children with Varied Hearing Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen-Hafteck, Lily; Schraer-Joiner, Lyn

    2011-01-01

    This multiple case study examined the musical experiences of five hard-of-hearing/deaf children (hearing loss ranging from 35-95 dB) and four typical-hearing children, ages 3-4. Their responses to various musical activities were observed and analysed using flow indicators. It was found that both groups of children: (1) were capable of engaging in…

  15. Teachers' Ability and Help Attributions and Children's Math Performance and Task Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõeväli, Paula-Karoliina; Kikas, Eve

    2016-01-01

    The present longitudinal study examined the reciprocal relationships between teachers' causal attributions and children's math performance and task persistence. In total, 760 elementary school children and their teachers participated in this study. The children were tested in math twice, at the end of the second and third grades. At both time…

  16. Effects of Script Fading on the Abilities of Children with Autism to Reciprocate Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedoff, Marc Alan

    2009-01-01

    Teaching communication skills to children with autism is a primary concern because speech and/or language delay characterize autism. One method of teaching verbal communication skills to children with autism is script fading. This study examined the effects of teaching children with autism to exchange information to peers about objects and…

  17. The Influence of Spelling Ability on Vocabulary Choices When Writing for Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Emma; Connelly, Vincent; Barnett, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    Spelling is a prerequisite to expressing vocabulary in writing. Research has shown that children with dyslexia are hesitant spellers when composing. This study aimed to determine whether the hesitant spelling of children with dyslexia, evidenced by frequent pausing, affects vocabulary choices when writing. A total of 31 children with dyslexia,…

  18. High-Ability Students: New Ways to Conceptualize Giftedness and Provide Psychological Services in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicpon, Megan Foley; Pfeiffer, Steven I.

    2011-01-01

    Psychologists working in the schools have an opportunity to affect in new and exciting ways the services they provide to high-ability students. A talent development framework offers a unique lens through which gifted services is conceptualized. The framework moves school psychologists beyond viewing giftedness and high IQ as synonymous to…

  19. The Relationship between Utilization of Computer Games and Spatial Abilities among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Vahid; Yaghoubi, Razeyah Mohagheghyan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the relationship between computer game use and spatial abilities among high school students. The sample consisted of 300 high school male students selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. Data gathering tools consisted of a researcher made questionnaire (to collect information on computer game usage) and the…

  20. Communicative competence and metalinguistic ability: performance by children and adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Fiona M; Murdoch, Bruce E; Woodyatt, Gail C

    2007-09-01

    The Test of Language Competence-Expanded Edition (TLC-E) was administered to children and adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Relative to controls, those with ASD were less competent on a range of TLC-E tasks. No differences were found for either child or adult ASD groups on any of the TLC-E measures when re-classified as Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) using DSM-IV language criterion. Hierarchical cluster analyses of individuals with ASD identified subgroups within the spectrum. The use of developmental language history as an identifying marker in autism is questioned. The findings suggest that comprehensive language assessments on individuals with ASD can provide clinically relevant information regarding the heterogeneity of language skills within the autistic spectrum.

  1. Numerical abilities of school-age children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD): A behavioral and eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Alice; Piazza, Manuela; Jobert, Antoinette; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Huron, Caroline

    2016-08-31

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a disorder of motor coordination which interferes with academic achievement. Difficulties in mathematics have been reported. Performance in the number line task is very sensitive to atypical development of numerical cognition. We used a position-to-number task in which twenty 7-to-10years old children with DCD and 20 age-matched typically developing (TD) children had to estimate the number that corresponded to a hatch mark placed on a 0-100 number line. Eye movements were recorded. Children with DCD were less accurate and slower to respond than their peers. However, they were able to map numbers onto space linearly and used anchoring strategies as control. We suggest that the shift to a linear trend reflects the ability of DCD children to use efficient strategies to solve the task despite a possibly more imprecise underlying numerical acuity.

  2. Early preschool processing abilities predict subsequent reading outcomes in bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Buil-Legaz, Lucía; Pérez-Castelló, Josep A; Rigo-Carratalà, Eduard; Adrover-Roig, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) have severe language difficulties without showing hearing impairments, cognitive deficits, neurological damage or socio-emotional deprivation. However, previous studies have shown that children with SLI show some cognitive and literacy problems. Our study analyses the relationship between preschool cognitive and linguistic abilities and the later development of reading abilities in Spanish-Catalan bilingual children with SLI. The sample consisted of 17 bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with SLI and 17 age-matched controls. We tested eight distinct processes related to phonological, attention, and language processing at the age of 6 years and reading at 8 years of age. Results show that bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with SLI show significantly lower scores, as compared to typically developing peers, in phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming (RAN), together with a lower outcome in tasks measuring sentence repetition and verbal fluency. Regarding attentional processes, bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with SLI obtained lower scores in auditory attention, but not in visual attention. At the age of 8 years Spanish-Catalan children with SLI had lower scores than their age-matched controls in total reading score, letter identification (decoding), and in semantic task (comprehension). Regression analyses identified both phonological awareness and verbal fluency at the age of 6 years to be the best predictors of subsequent reading performance at the age of 8 years. Our data suggest that language acquisition problems and difficulties in reading acquisition in bilingual children with SLI might be related to the close interdependence between a limitation in cognitive processing and a deficit at the linguistic level. After reading this article, readers will be able to: identify their understanding of the relation between language difficulties and reading outcomes; explain how processing

  3. Development of 30Cr06A, a high strength cast steel and its welding ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO You-jin

    2008-01-01

    High performance hydraulic supports have a high requirement in strength, toughness and welding ability of socket ma- terial. Targeting this problem, we analyzed the properties of the high strength socket material 30Cr06, used in high performance hydraulic supports both at home and abroad and developed a new kind of high strength cast steel 30Cr06A, by making use of an orthogonal experiment, which provided the design conditions for its optimal composition. The result shows that the strength and toughness of the newly developed high strength cast steel 30Cr06A is much better than that of 30Cr06. Theoretical calculations, mechanical property tests and hardness distribution tests of welded joints were carried out for a study of the welding ability of the new material, which is proved to be very good. Therefore, this 30Cr06A material has been successfully used in the socket of high performance hydraulic support.

  4. Region-specific slowing of alpha oscillations associated with visual-perceptual abilities in children born very preterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam McLeod Doesburg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Children born very preterm (≤32 weeks GA without major intellectual or neurological impairments often express selective deficits in visual-perceptual abilities. The alterations in neurophysiological development underlying these problems, however, remain poorly understood. Recent research has indicated that spontaneous alpha oscillations are slowed in children born very preterm, and that atypical alpha-mediated functional network connectivity may underlie selective developmental difficulties in visual-perceptual ability in this group. The present study provides the first source-resolved analysis of slowing of spontaneous alpha oscillations in very preterm children, indicating alterations in a distributed set of brain regions concentrated in areas of posterior parietal and inferior temporal regions associated with visual-perception, as well as prefrontal cortical regions and thalamus. We also uniquely demonstrate that slowing of alpha oscillations is associated with selective difficulties in visual-perceptual ability in very preterm children. These results indicate that region-specific slowing of alpha oscillations contribute to selective developmental difficulties prevalent in this population.

  5. Looking at the high ability/giftedness through the lens of curriculum studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Napoleão Freitas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available From diving in the educational field, either in teaching or research in Special Education, this article postulates bring visibility to a curricular discussion strongly marked by the educational practice of learners with high ability/giftedness and having the "lighthouse flag” the inclusion policy school principles, not just theorizing about the elements of the theme. Curriculum is understood as a territory of knowledge and power, so the manufacturing process of the curriculum in the wake of the inclusive hillside – a journey which aims to solidify egalitarian social link - can put up as an potentiating agent of different actions for the education of students with high ability/giftedness, protecting them from moments of discrimination, segregation and personal, family, school and social exclusion. Therefore, this article takes up an invitation to educators to look at the prerogatives of education that hosts students with high ability/giftedness with the lens of curriculum studies.

  6. High functioning individuals with schizophrenia have preserved social perception but not mentalizing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpouzian, Tatiana M; Alden, Eva C; Reilly, James L; Smith, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Social perception and mentalizing are fundamental social cognitive abilities that are related to functioning and are impaired in schizophrenia. A novel approach to examine the relationship between social cognition and community functioning is to first functionally categorize individuals with schizophrenia and then evaluate social cognitive performance. We evaluated differences in social perception and mentalizing among controls (CON, n=45), high functioning individuals with schizophrenia (HF-SCZ, n=36), and individuals with low functioning schizophrenia (LF-SCZ, n=24). Analyses revealed that HF-SCZ had preserved social perceptual abilities compared to LF-SCZ. Both schizophrenia groups had impaired mentalizing abilities compared to CON, but did not differ from each other. These results suggest that HF-SCZ and LF-SCZ are characterized by differences in the perceptual aspects of social cognition and encourage future research to evaluate the neural basis underlying this preserved ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of methylphenidate-OROS® on the narrative ability of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa L. Rausch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD experience difficulty with expressive language, including form (e.g. grammatical construction and content (e.g. coherence. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of methylphenidate-Osmotic Release Oral System® (MPH-OROS® on the narrative ability of children with ADHD and language impairment, through the analysis of microstructure and macrostructure narrative elements.Method: In a single group off–on medication test design, narratives were obtained from 12 children with ADHD, aged 7–13 years, using wordless picture books. For microstructure, number of words, type–token ratio and mean length of utterance were derived from narrative samples using Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts conventions. For macrostructure, the narratives were coded according to the Narrative Scoring Scheme, which includes seven narrative characteristics, as well as a composite score reflecting the child’s overall narrative ability.Results: The administration of MPH-OROS® resulted in a significant difference in certain aspects of language macrostructure: cohesion and overall narrative ability. Little effect was noted in microstructure elements.Conclusion: We observed a positive effect of stimulant medication on the macrostructure, but not on the microstructure, of narrative production. Although stimulant medication improves attention and concentration, it does not improve all aspects of language abilities in children with ADHD. Language difficulties associated with ADHD related to language content and use may be more responsive to stimulant medication than language form, which is likely to be affected by cascading effects of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity beginning very early in life and to progress over a more protracted period. Therefore, a combination of treatments is advocated to ensure that children with ADHD are successful in reaching their

  8. High blood pressure in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Bluhm, Brian

    2012-04-01

    High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked by physicians. Normal blood pressure values for children and adolescents are based on age, sex, and height, and are available in standardized tables. Prehypertension is defined as a blood pressure in at least the 90th percentile, but less than the 95th percentile, for age, sex, and height, or a measurement of 120/80 mm Hg or greater. Hypertension is defined as blood pressure in the 95th percentile or greater. A secondary etiology of hypertension is much more likely in children than in adults, with renal parenchymal disease and renovascular disease being the most common. Overweight and obesity are strongly correlated with primary hypertension in children. A history and physical examination are needed for all children with newly diagnosed hypertension to help rule out underlying medical disorders. Children with hypertension should also be screened for other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia, and should be evaluated for target organ damage with a retinal examination and echocardiography. Hypertension in children is treated with lifestyle changes, including weight loss for those who are overweight or obese; a healthy, low-sodium diet; regular physical activity; and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol. Children with symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, target organ damage, diabetes, or persistent hypertension despite nonpharmacologic measures should be treated with antihypertensive medications. Thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers are safe, effective, and well tolerated in children.

  9. Changes in actual and perceived physical abilities in clinically obese children: a 9-month multi-component intervention study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Morano

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: (1 To examine relationships among changes in physical activity, physical fitness and some psychosocial determinants of activity behavior in a clinical sample of obese children involved in a multi-component program; (2 to investigate the causal relationship over time between physical activity and one of its strongest correlates (i.e. perceived physical ability. METHODS: Self-reported physical activity and health-related fitness tests were administered before and after a 9-month intervention in 24 boys and 20 girls aged 8 to 11 years. Individuals' perceptions of strength, speed and agility were assessed using the Perceived Physical Ability Scale, while body image was measured using Collins' Child Figure Drawings. RESULTS: Findings showed that body mass index, physical activity, performances on throwing and weight-bearing tasks, perceived physical ability and body image significantly improved after treatment among obese children. Gender differences were found in the correlational analyses, showing a link between actual and perceived physical abilities in boys, but not in girls. For the specific measurement interval of this study, perception of physical ability was an antecedent and not a potential consequence of physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that a multi-component activity program not based merely on a dose-effect approach enhances adherence of the participants and has the potential to increase the lifelong exercise skills of obese children. Rather than focusing entirely on diet and weight loss, findings support the inclusion of interventions directed toward improving perceived physical ability that is predictive of subsequent physical activity.

  10. Healthy children show gender differences in correlations between nonverbal cognitive ability and brain activation during visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kohei; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Asano, Michiko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-08-08

    Humans perceive textual and nontextual information in visual perception, and both depend on language. In childhood education, students exhibit diverse perceptual abilities, such that some students process textual information better and some process nontextual information better. These predispositions involve many factors, including cognitive ability and learning preference. However, the relationship between verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during visual perception has not yet been examined in children. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between nonverbal and verbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during nontextual visual perception in large numbers of children. A significant positive correlation was found between nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation in the right temporoparietal junction, which is thought to be related to attention reorienting. This significant positive correlation existed only in boys. These findings suggested that male brain activation differed from female brain activation, and that this depended on individual cognitive processes, even if there was no gender difference in behavioral performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The method of developing the ability to maintain balance in children of secondary school age by means of art gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchuk T.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the direction of the static and dynamic balance among students of the middle classes. The experiment involved 40 students of 7-8 classes. It is designed the technique development and improvement of the ability to maintain balance in children. The method includes the most basic elements of gymnastics, under which you must have skill preservation of stability (balance, turns and jumps. It is noted the desirability of combining similar in their biomechanical characteristics curves and equilibria. We recommend the use of hops as a means of developing the ability to maintain balance.

  12. Simulation of type selection for 6-high cold tandem mill based on shape control ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yan; LIU Hong-min; WANG Dong-cheng

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical method for selecting strip rolling mill type that considered shape control ability was established using the figure alteration range that was worked by the alteration track of vector expressing strip's cross section (crown) to express the shape control ability of rolling mill. With the mathematical models and simulation software that were developed by the authors' own models, four types of mills were aimed, including HCM (6-high middle rolls shift type HC (high crown) -mill), HCMW (6-high middle rolls and work rolls shift type HC-mill), UCM (6-high middle rolls shift type HC-mill with middle roll bender) and UCMW (6-high middle rolls and work rolls shift type HC-mill with middle roll bender), and the shape and crown control ability of every mill type was analyzed and compared. An appropriate arrangement mode of tandem mill was brought forward. The results show that UCMW mill is a perfect choice for controlling shape and crown, and the area of control characteristics curve of UCMW (or UCM) is twice than that of HCM, but UCM mill is also a good choice for its simple frame. In other word, the shape and crown controlling ability of UCMW mill is better than that of UCM mill, but the frame of UCM mill is simpler than that of UCMW mill. As for the final type of mill, should be synthetically decided by thinking over fund and equipment technology.

  13. Manual Ability Classification System for Children With Cerebral Palsy in a School Setting and Its Relationship to Home Self-Care Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, M. A.; van der Wilden, G. J.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationship between (a) the manual abilities of children with cerebral palsy (CP), assessed with the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) in a school rehabilitation setting, and (b) the children's performance of self-care activities at h

  14. The Associations among Motor Ability, Social-Communication Skills, and Participation in Daily Life Activities in Children with Low-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Limor; Moran, Adva; Bart, Orit

    2017-01-01

    Decreased motor ability is a common feature in autism, leading to the proposal of a motor-social link in autism. The purpose of the study was to assess the contribution of motor abilities and social-communication skills to children's participation in daily activities, among children with low-functioning autism spectrum disorder (LFASD).…

  15. High-demand jobs: age-related diversity in work ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluiter, Judith K

    2006-07-01

    High-demand jobs include 'specific' job demands that are not preventable with state of the art ergonomics knowledge and may overburden the bodily capacities, safety or health of workers. An interesting question is whether the age of the worker is an important factor in explanations of diversity in work ability in the context of high-demand jobs. In this paper, the work ability of ageing workers is addressed according to aspects of diversity in specific job demands and the research methods that are needed to shed light upon the relevant associated questions. From the international literature, a body of evidence was elicited concerning rates of chronological ageing in distinct bodily systems and functions. Intra-age-cohort differences in capacities and work ability, however, require (not yet existing) valid estimates of functional age or biological age indices for the specific populations of workers in high-demand jobs. Many studies have drawn on the highly demanding work of fire-fighters, ambulance workers, police officers, medical specialists, pilots/astronauts and submarine officers. Specific job demands in these jobs can be physical, mental or psychosocial in origin but may cause combined task-level loadings. Therefore, the assessment of single demands probably will not reveal enough relevant information about work ability in high-demand jobs and there will be a call for more integrated measures. Existing studies have used a variety of methodologies to address parts of the issue: task analyses for quantifying physical work demands, observations of psychological and physiological parameters, measures of psychosocial work demands and health complaints. Specific details about the work ability of ageing workers in high-demand jobs are scarce. In general, specific demands are more likely to overtax the capacities of older workers than those of younger workers in high-demand jobs, implying greater repercussions for health, although these effects also vary considerably

  16. Port Pirie Cohort Study: environmental exposure to lead and children's abilities at the age of four years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, A.J.; Baghurst, P.A.; Wigg, N.R.; Vimpani, G.V.; Robertson, E.F.; Roberts, R.J.

    1988-08-25

    We studied the effect of environmental exposure to lead on children's abilities at the age of four years in a cohort of 537 children born during 1979 to 1982 to women living in a community situated near a lead smelter. Samples for measuring blood lead levels were obtained from the mothers antenatally, at delivery from the mothers and umbilical cords, and at the ages of 6, 15, and 24 months and then annually from the children. Concurrently, the mothers were interviewed about personal, family, medical, and environmental factors. Maternal intelligence, the home environment, and the children's mental development (as evaluated with use of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities) were formally assessed. The mean blood lead concentration varied from 0.44 mumol per liter in midpregnancy to a peak of 1.03 mumol per liter at the age of two years. The blood lead concentration at each age, particularly at two and three years, and the integrated postnatal average concentration were inversely related to development at the age of four. Multivariate analysis incorporating many factors in the children's lives indicated that the subjects with an average postnatal blood lead concentration of 1.50 mumol per liter had a general cognitive score 7.2 points lower (95 percent confidence interval, 0.3 to 13.2; mean score, 107.1) than those with an average concentration of 0.50 mumol per liter. Similar deficits occurred in the perceptual-performance and memory scores. Within the range of exposure studied, no threshold dose for an effect of lead was evident. We conclude that postnatal blood lead concentration is inversely related to cognitive development in children, although one must be circumspect in making causal inferences from studies of this relation, because of the difficulties in defining and controlling confounding effects.

  17. Prosodic Abilities in Spanish and English Children with Williams Syndrome: A Cross-Linguistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Castilla, Pastora; Stojanovik, Vesna; Setter, Jane; Sotillo, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prosodic profiles of English- and Spanish-speaking children with Williams syndrome (WS), examining cross-linguistic differences. Two groups of children with WS, English and Spanish, of similar chronological and nonverbal mental age, were compared on performance in expressive and receptive prosodic tasks…

  18. Fine motor deficiencies in children diagnosed as DCD based on poor grapho-motor ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits-Engelsman, BCM; Niemeijer, AS; van Galen, GP

    A sample of 125 children from grades 4 and 5 of two normal Dutch primary schools were investigated regarding the incidence of handwriting problems and other fine motor disabilities. Handwriting quality was assessed with the concise assessment method for children's handwriting (BHK) and the school

  19. Children's Media Comprehension: The Relationship between Media Platform, Executive Functioning Abilities, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkes, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Children's media comprehension was compared for material presented on television, computer, or touchscreen tablet. One hundred and thirty-two children were equally distributed across 12 groups defined by age (4- or 6-years-olds), gender, and the three media platforms. Executive functioning as measured by attentional control, cognitive…

  20. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay

    2016-01-01

    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  1. Predictors of Reading Ability in English for Mandarin-Speaking Bilingual Children in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yah Hui; Poon, Kenneth K.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the reading skills of monolingual children has established a convergent skills model for acquisition involving context-free decoding, language comprehension, and visual and phonological processing. This study sought to identify the predictors of Primary One bilingual children's reading accuracy and reading comprehension in English.…

  2. The Ability of Children with Language Impairment to Recognize Emotion Conveyed by Facial Expression and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Matthew P.; Fujiki, Martin; Brinton, Bonnie; Nelson, Donna; Allen, Jillean

    2005-01-01

    The emotion understanding of children with language impairment (LI) was examined in two studies employing emotion-recognition tasks selected to minimize reliance on language skills. Participants consisted of 43 children with LI and 43 typically developing, age-matched peers, sampled from the age ranges of 5 to 8 and 9 to 12 years. In the first…

  3. Early Hearing Loss and Language Abilities in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Glynis; Hall, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although many children with Down syndrome experience hearing loss, there has been little research to investigate its impact on speech and language development. Studies that have investigated the association give inconsistent results. These have often been based on samples where children with the most severe hearing impairments have…

  4. Learning Vocabulary through E-Book Reading of Young Children with Various Reading Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hee

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that young children learn novel word meanings by simply reading and listening to a printed book. In today's classroom, many children's e-books provide audio narration support so young readers can simply listen to the e-books. The focus of the present study is to examine the effect of e-book reading with audio narration…

  5. Deaf Children Attending Different School Environments: Sign Language Abilities and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasuolo, Elena; Valeri, Giovanni; Di Renzo, Alessio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Volterra, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether full access to sign language as a medium for instruction could influence performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. Three groups of Italian participants (age range: 6-14 years) participated in the study: Two groups of deaf signing children and one group of hearing-speaking children. The two groups of deaf…

  6. The Ability of Children with Language Impairment to Recognize Emotion Conveyed by Facial Expression and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Matthew P.; Fujiki, Martin; Brinton, Bonnie; Nelson, Donna; Allen, Jillean

    2005-01-01

    The emotion understanding of children with language impairment (LI) was examined in two studies employing emotion-recognition tasks selected to minimize reliance on language skills. Participants consisted of 43 children with LI and 43 typically developing, age-matched peers, sampled from the age ranges of 5 to 8 and 9 to 12 years. In the first…

  7. Early Hearing Loss and Language Abilities in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Glynis; Hall, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although many children with Down syndrome experience hearing loss, there has been little research to investigate its impact on speech and language development. Studies that have investigated the association give inconsistent results. These have often been based on samples where children with the most severe hearing impairments have…

  8. Predictors of Reading Ability in English for Mandarin-Speaking Bilingual Children in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yah Hui; Poon, Kenneth K.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the reading skills of monolingual children has established a convergent skills model for acquisition involving context-free decoding, language comprehension, and visual and phonological processing. This study sought to identify the predictors of Primary One bilingual children's reading accuracy and reading comprehension in English.…

  9. The Development of Children's Ability to Use Evidence to Infer Reality Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, Ansley; Woolley, Jacqueline D.

    2009-01-01

    These studies investigate children's use of scientific reasoning to infer the reality status of novel entities. Four- to 8-year-olds heard about novel entities and were asked to infer their reality status from 3 types of evidence: supporting evidence, irrelevant evidence, and no evidence. Experiment 1 revealed that children used supporting versus…

  10. Home Literacy Environment and Its Influence on Singaporean Children's Chinese Oral and Written Language Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Tan, Chee Lay

    2016-01-01

    In a bilingual environment such as Singaporean Chinese community, the challenge of maintaining Chinese language and sustaining Chinese culture lies in promoting the daily use of Chinese language in oral and written forms among children. Ample evidence showed the effect of the home language and literacy environment (HLE), on children's language and…

  11. Fine motor deficiencies in children diagnosed as DCD based on poor grapho-motor ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits-Engelsman, BCM; Niemeijer, AS; van Galen, GP

    2001-01-01

    A sample of 125 children from grades 4 and 5 of two normal Dutch primary schools were investigated regarding the incidence of handwriting problems and other fine motor disabilities. Handwriting quality was assessed with the concise assessment method for children's handwriting (BHK) and the school qu

  12. Factors Influencing High School Students' Science Enrollments Patterns: Academic Abilities, Parental Influences, and Attitudes toward Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Ghada A.; Voss, Burton E.

    This study was designed, using a path analytic model, to assess the relative impact of different factors on science concentration decisions made by grade 10 high school students (N=237). Included in the model were selected demographic and socioeconomic factors, academic abilities factors (including logical thinking), indicators of home and school…

  13. A Comparison of High School Student Interests across Three Grade and Ability Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Newell T.

    1980-01-01

    Students (Grades 9-11) in two Florida metropolitan high schools rated their interest in 28 topics, such as travel, popular music, religion, the opposite sex, war, and politics. Interests were analyzed by sex, grade, and ability track in English (Honors, Average, Basic). Findings, especially those on romantic interests, are discussed. (SJL)

  14. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Abilities and Classroom Management Skills of High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdag, Seyithan

    2015-01-01

    High school teachers experience difficulties while providing effective teaching approaches in their classrooms. Some of the difficulties are associated with the lack of classroom management skills and critical thinking abilities. This quantitative study includes non-random selection of the participants and aims to examine critical thinking…

  15. Pragmatic Inference Abilities in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism. A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukusa, Soile; Moilanen, Irma

    2009-01-01

    This review summarizes studies involving pragmatic language comprehension and inference abilities in individuals with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism. Systematic searches of three electronic databases, selected journals, and reference lists identified 20 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of:…

  16. Profile of Secondary School Students with High Mathematics Ability in Solving Shape and Space Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Mulia; Novita, Rita

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the profile of secondary school students with high mathematics ability in solving shape and space problem in PISA (Program for International Student Assessment). It is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach, in which the subjects in this study were students of class VIII SMP N 1 Banda Aceh. The results show…

  17. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Abilities and Classroom Management Skills of High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdag, Seyithan

    2015-01-01

    High school teachers experience difficulties while providing effective teaching approaches in their classrooms. Some of the difficulties are associated with the lack of classroom management skills and critical thinking abilities. This quantitative study includes non-random selection of the participants and aims to examine critical thinking…

  18. A Comparison of High School Student Interests across Three Grade and Ability Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Newell T.

    1980-01-01

    Students (Grades 9-11) in two Florida metropolitan high schools rated their interest in 28 topics, such as travel, popular music, religion, the opposite sex, war, and politics. Interests were analyzed by sex, grade, and ability track in English (Honors, Average, Basic). Findings, especially those on romantic interests, are discussed. (SJL)

  19. The Effects of Acceleration on High-Ability Learners: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen-Hu, Saiying; Moon, Sidney M.

    2011-01-01

    Current empirical research about the effects of acceleration on high-ability learners' academic achievement and social-emotional development were synthesized using meta-analytic techniques. A total of 38 primary studies conducted between 1984 and 2008 were included. The results were broken down by developmental level (P-12 and postsecondary) and…

  20. Accelerated Mathematics and High-Ability Students' Math Achievement in Grades Three and Four

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the use of a computer-managed integrated learning system entitled Accelerated Math (AM) as a supplement to traditional mathematics instruction on achievement as measured by TerraNova achievement tests of third and fourth grade high-ability students. Gender, socioeconomic status, and…