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Sample records for hierarchies transaction support

  1. An Architecture for Nested Transaction Support on Standard Database Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Vonk, J.; Apers, Peter M.G.

    Many applications dealing with complex processes require database support for nested transactions. Current commercial database systems lack this kind of support, offering flat, non-nested transactions only. This paper presents a three-layer architecture for implementing nested transaction support on

  2. The analytic hierarchy process as a support for decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Milanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this text deals with a convention site selection as one of the most lucrative areas in the tourism industry. The second part gives a further description of a method for decision making - the analytic hierarchy process. The basic characteristics: hierarchy constructions and pair wise comparison on the given level of the hierarchy are allured. The third part offers an example of application. This example is solved using the Super - Decision software, which is developed as a computer support for the analytic hierarchy process. This indicates that the AHP approach is a useful tool to help support a decision of convention site selection. .

  3. A Transaction Management Model Supporting Service Grids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiang-yu; SHEN De-rong; YU Ge; LI Rui; ZHANG Xiao

    2004-01-01

    Service grids possess the features of intelligence and automation to compose heterogeneous resources and will be a commercial focus in network economy pattern.However, service grid business is loosely-coupled, distributed and long-running, so there is a real challenge for the researchers to provide consistency and reliability for service grid business.This paper references the transaction management methods in Web service and the safepoint concept in workflow system, combines with the feature of the service grid, and then presents a transaction management model based on service grid.This model guarantees the robustness of grid service composition and assures that service grid enabling system provides consistent and reliable results for the consumers.

  4. Decision support for information systems management : applying analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Decision-making in the field of information systems has become more complex due to a larger number of alternatives, multiple and sometimes conflicting goals, and an increasingly turbulent environment. In this paper we explore the appropriateness of Analytic Hierarchy Process to support I/S decision

  5. Decision support for information systems management : applying analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Decision-making in the field of information systems has become more complex due to a larger number of alternatives, multiple and sometimes conflicting goals, and an increasingly turbulent environment. In this paper we explore the appropriateness of Analytic Hierarchy Process to support I/S decision

  6. Retribution as hierarchy regulation: Hierarchy preferences moderate the effect of offender socioeconomic status on support for retribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Liz; Ratliff, Kate A

    2017-09-17

    People punish others for various reasons, including deterring future crime, incapacitating the offender, and retribution, or payback. The current research focuses on retribution, testing whether support for retribution is motivated by the desire to maintain social hierarchies. If so, then the retributive tendencies of hierarchy enhancers or hierarchy attenuators should depend on whether offenders are relatively lower or higher in status, respectively. Three studies showed that hierarchy attenuators were more retributive against high-status offenders than for low-status offenders, that hierarchy enhancers showed a stronger orientation towards retributive justice, and that relationship was stronger for low-status, rather than high-status, criminal offenders. These findings clarify the purpose and function of retributive punishment. They also reveal how hierarchy-regulating motives underlie retribution, motives which, if allowed to influence judgements, may contribute to biased or ineffective justice systems. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Decision support for information systems management: applying analytic hierarchy process

    OpenAIRE

    Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Decision-making in the field of information systems has become more complex due to a larger number of alternatives, multiple and sometimes conflicting goals, and an increasingly turbulent environment. In this paper we explore the appropriateness of Analytic Hierarchy Process to support I/S decision making. AHP can be applied if the decision problem includes multiple objectives, conflicting criteria, incommensurable units, and aims at selecting an alternative from a known set of alternatives. ...

  8. Scheduling support for transactional memory contention management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maldonado, Walther; Marler, Patrick; Felber, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    traditionally resolved by consulting an STM-level contention manager. Consequently, the contention managers of these "conventional" TM implementations suffer from a lack of precision and often fail to ensure reasonable performance in high-contention workloads. Recently, scheduling-based TM contention-management...... has been proposed for increasing TM efficiency under high-contention [2, 5, 19]. However, only user-level schedulers have been considered. In this work, we propose, implement and evaluate several novel kernel-level scheduling support mechanisms for TM contention management. We also investigate...... different strategies for efficient communication between the kernel and the user-level TM library. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to investigate kernel-level support for TM contention management. We have introduced kernel-level TM scheduling support into both the Linux and Solaris...

  9. Technology Staff-Development and Support Programs: Applying Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Gerald D.; Pownell, David

    1998-01-01

    Presents Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs (physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, self-actualization) as a model for developing technology training and support for teachers, identifies basic technology-related needs that must be met before higher levels of technology integration can be achieved, and offers seven implications to help…

  10. Technology Staff-Development and Support Programs: Applying Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Gerald D.; Pownell, David

    1998-01-01

    Presents Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs (physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, self-actualization) as a model for developing technology training and support for teachers, identifies basic technology-related needs that must be met before higher levels of technology integration can be achieved, and offers seven implications to help…

  11. Mathematics teachers' support and retention: using Maslow's hierarchy to understand teachers' needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Molly H.; Royster, David

    2016-10-01

    As part of a larger study, four mathematics teachers from diverse backgrounds and teaching situations report their ideas on teacher stress, mathematics teacher retention, and their feelings about the needs of mathematics teachers, as well as other information crucial to retaining quality teachers. The responses from the participants were used to develop a hierarchy of teachers' needs that resembles Maslow's hierarchy, which can be used to better support teachers in various stages of their careers. The interviews revealed both non content-specific and content-specific needs within the hierarchy. The responses show that teachers found different schools foster different stress levels and that as teachers they used a number of resources for reducing stress. Other mathematics-specific ideas are also discussed such as the amount of content and pedagogy courses required for certification.

  12. Keeping Minorities Happy: Hierarchy Maintenance and Whites' Decreased Support for Highly Identified White Politicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sora; Lowery, Brian S; Guillory, Lucia

    2017-08-01

    We test the hypothesis that, to avoid provoking minorities, Whites will withhold their support for White political candidates who are highly identified with their race. In Study 1, we found that White Republicans were less supportive of White candidates the higher the perceived White identity of the candidate due to beliefs that such candidates would provoke racial minorities. In Study 2, we replicated this effect with a manipulation of candidates' White identity. Study 3 found that Whites reported less support for high-identity candidates when they were led to believe that the hierarchy was unstable rather than stable. Consistent with our hypothesis that those who have the most to lose are most likely to avoid provoking minorities, in Study 4, we found that Whites with high subjective socioeconomic status (SES) varied their support for provocative White candidates as a function of hierarchy stability, whereas those with low subjective SES did not.

  13. Model, architecture and system for cross-organizational transaction support in virtual enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Vonk, Jochem; Derks, Wijnand; Grefen, Paul; Koetsier, Marjanca

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, workflow management systems have become an accepted technology to support automation in process-centric environments. Lately, organizations concentrate more and more on their core business processes while outsourcing supporting processes to other organizations, thereby forming virtual enterprises. To apply workflow management technology in these virtual enterprises, support for cross-organizational processes is necessary. Transaction support, already considered an important i...

  14. Health care development: integrating transaction cost theory with social support theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajli, M Nick; Shanmugam, Mohana; Hajli, Ali; Khani, Amir Hossein; Wang, Yichuan

    2014-07-28

    The emergence of Web 2.0 technologies has already been influential in many industries, and Web 2.0 applications are now beginning to have an impact on health care. These new technologies offer a promising approach for shaping the future of modern health care, with the potential for opening up new opportunities for the health care industry as it struggles to deal with challenges including the need to cut costs, the increasing demand for health services and the increasing cost of medical technology. Social media such as social networking sites are attracting more individuals to online health communities, contributing to an increase in the productivity of modern health care and reducing transaction costs. This study therefore examines the potential effect of social technologies, particularly social media, on health care development by adopting a social support/transaction cost perspective. Viewed through the lens of Information Systems, social support and transaction cost theories indicate that social media, particularly online health communities, positively support health care development. The results show that individuals join online health communities to share and receive social support, and these social interactions provide both informational and emotional support.

  15. Finding Frequent Pattern with Transaction and Occurrences based on Density Minimum Support Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Khare

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of data mining is increasing exponentially since last decade and in recent time where there is very tough competition in the market where the quality of information and information on time play a very crucial role in decision making of policy has attracted a great deal of attention in the information industry and in society as a whole. In this approach we also use density minimum support so that we reduce the execution time. A frequent superset means it contains more transactions then the minimum support. It utilize the concept that if the item set is not frequent but the superset may be frequent which is consider for the further data mining task. By this approach we can store the transaction on the daily basis, then we provide three different density zone based on the transaction and minimum support which is low (L, Medium (M, High (H. Based on this approach we categorize the item set for pruning. Our approach is based on apriori algorithm but provides better reduction in time because of the prior separation in the data, which is useful for selecting according to the density wise distribution in India. Our algorithm provides the flexibility for improved association and dynamic support. Comparative result shows the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  16. The relationship between personality, supportive transactions and support satisfaction, and mental health of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Results from the Dutch part of the Euridiss study : results from the Dutch part of the Euridiss study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmeijer, TPBM; Van Sonderen, FLP; Krol, B; Doeglas, DM; Van den Heuvel, WJA; Sanderman, R

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between two personality characteristics (neuroticism, extraversion), three types of supportive transactions (emotional support, social companionship, instrumental support) and satisfaction with these transactions, and two aspects of mental health (feelings of anxiety and depressive

  17. Higher-Order Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2003-01-01

    . Finally, it must be possible to write generic code that works on every hierarchy derived from the hierarchy for which it was written. This paper presents a language design that supports such a notion of higher-order hierarchies. It has been implemented in context of a full-fledged, statically typed...... be possible to create hierarchies incrementally based on existing hierarchies, such that commonalities are expressed via reuse, not duplication. Second, the hierarchies must themselves be organized into hierarchies, such that their relationships are made explicit and can be exploited in a type safe manner...... language....

  18. Theorizing E-Commerce Business Models: On the Impact of Partially and Fully Supported Transaction Phases on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Madlberger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although considerable research has been conducted on the definition and classification of e-commerce business models, little research has integrated the support and impact of distinct transaction phases within e-commerce business models. Indeed, any channel design decisions depend on the arrangement of the three transaction phases, viz. information phase, agreement phase and fulfilment phase. Whereas in literature, a complete support of transaction phases is implicitly assumed, in practice, e-commerce firms exist that consciously do not support all three transaction phases through the online channel. In cases for which only certain phases are supported in one channel, the customer is required to switch to another channel to complete the transaction. To gain an initial understanding of the relevance of transaction phases, we examine the influence of transaction phase support in one channel on satisfaction and reuse intention of an e-commerce website under consideration of users’ prior experiences. We conduct a laboratory experiment involving two e-commerce business models that differ only in the number of supported transaction phases via the online channel. Empirical data was analysed using a Bayesian network approach. Our analysis indicates the types of users who value partial support compared to those users who prefer full support of transaction phases. The results will assist firms in meeting future challenges regarding user engagement and attraction to their online stores.

  19. A Development of Group Decision Support System for Strategic Item Classification using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sung Ho; Tae, Jae Woong; Yang, Seung Hyo; Shin, Dong Hoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Korea has carried out export controls on nuclear items that reflect the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) guidelines (Notice on Trade of Strategic Item of Foreign Trade Act) since joining the NSG in 1995. Nuclear export control starts with classifications that determine whether export items are relevant to nuclear proliferation or not according to NSG guidelines. However, due to qualitative characteristics of nuclear item definition in the guidelines, classification spends a lot of time and effort to make a consensus. The aim of this study is to provide an analysis of an experts' group decision support system (GDSS) based on an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for the classification of strategic items. The results of this study clearly demonstrated that a GDSS based on an AHP proved positive, systematically providing relative weight among the planning variables and objectives. By using an AHP we can quantify the subjective judgements of reviewers. An order of priority is derived from a numerical value. The verbal and fuzzy measurement of an AHP enables us reach a consensus among reviewers in a GDSS. An AHP sets common weight factors which are a priority of each attribute that represent the views of an entire group. It makes a consistency in decision-making that is important for classification.

  20. The Impact of Interactive Environment and Metacognitive Support on Academic Achievement and Transactional Distance in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ramazan; Keser, Hafize

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to reveal the impact of the interactive environment and metacognitive support (MS) in online learning on academic achievement and transactional distance (TD). The study is designed as 2 × 2 factorial design, and both qualitative and quantitative research techniques are used. The study was carried out on 127…

  1. The Impact of Interactive Environment and Metacognitive Support on Academic Achievement and Transactional Distance in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ramazan; Keser, Hafize

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to reveal the impact of the interactive environment and metacognitive support (MS) in online learning on academic achievement and transactional distance (TD). The study is designed as 2 × 2 factorial design, and both qualitative and quantitative research techniques are used. The study was carried out on 127…

  2. Intergroup Consensus/Disagreement in Support of Group-Based Hierarchy: An Examination of Socio-Structural and Psycho-Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ching; Pratto, Felicia; Johnson, Blair T.

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis examined the extent to which socio-structural and psycho-cultural characteristics of societies correspond with how much gender and ethnic/racial groups differ on their support of group-based hierarchy. Robustly, women opposed group-based hierarchy more than men did, and members of lower power ethnic/racial groups opposed…

  3. Fostering multidisciplinary learning through computer-supported collaboration script: The role of a transactive memory script

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, O.; Weinberger, A.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Teasley, S.D.; Mulder, M.

    2012-01-01

    For solving many of today's complex problems, professionals need to collaborate in multidisciplinary teams. Facilitation of knowledge awareness and coordination among group members, that is through a Transactive Memory System (TMS), is vital in multidisciplinary collaborative settings. Online platfo

  4. Fostering multidisciplinary learning through computer-supported collaboration script: The role of a transactive memory script

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, O.; Weinberger, A.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Teasley, S.D.; Mulder, M.

    2012-01-01

    For solving many of today's complex problems, professionals need to collaborate in multidisciplinary teams. Facilitation of knowledge awareness and coordination among group members, that is through a Transactive Memory System (TMS), is vital in multidisciplinary collaborative settings. Online

  5. Optimal Medical Equipment Maintenance Service Proposal Decision Support System combining Activity Based Costing (ABC) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Leticia; Sloane, Elliot; M Bassani, Jose

    2005-01-01

    This study describes a framework to support the choice of the maintenance service (in-house or third party contract) for each category of medical equipment based on: a) the real medical equipment maintenance management system currently used by the biomedical engineering group of the public health system of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas located in Brazil to control the medical equipment maintenance service, b) the Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, and c) the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Results show the cost and performance related to each type of maintenance service. Decision-makers can use these results to evaluate possible strategies for the categories of equipment.

  6. On the analytic hierarchy process and decision support based on fuzzy-linguistic preference structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Rios, Camilo Andres

    2014-01-01

    The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has received different fuzzy formulations, where two main lines of research can be identified in literature. The most popular one refers to the Extent Analysis Method, which has been subject of recent criticism, among other things, due to a number......, where experts value pairs of alternatives/criteria with words, making it essentially fuzzy under the view that words can be represented by fuzzy sets for their respective computation. Hence, reasoning with fuzzy logic is justified by the analytical framework that it offers to design the meaning of words...

  7. USING THE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE USE OF GEO-RESOURCES IN METROPOLITAN AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oswald MARINONI; Andreas HOPPE

    2006-01-01

    Sand and gravel are important raw materials which are needed for many civil engineering projects.Due to economic reasons, sand and gravelpits are frequently located in the periphery of metropolitan areas which are often subject to competing land-use interests. As a contribution to land-use conflict solving, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is applied within a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Two AHP preference matrix scenario constellations are evaluated and their results are used to create a land-use conflict map.

  8. An experimental comparison of fuzzy logic and analytic hierarchy process for medical decision support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzoka, Faith-Michael Emeka; Obot, Okure; Barker, Ken; Osuji, J

    2011-07-01

    The task of medical diagnosis is a complex one, considering the level vagueness and uncertainty management, especially when the disease has multiple symptoms. A number of researchers have utilized the fuzzy-analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy-AHP) methodology in handling imprecise data in medical diagnosis and therapy. The fuzzy logic is able to handle vagueness and unstructuredness in decision making, while the AHP has the ability to carry out pairwise comparison of decision elements in order to determine their importance in the decision process. This study attempts to do a case comparison of the fuzzy and AHP methods in the development of medical diagnosis system, which involves basic symptoms elicitation and analysis. The results of the study indicate a non-statistically significant relative superiority of the fuzzy technology over the AHP technology. Data collected from 30 malaria patients were used to diagnose using AHP and fuzzy logic independent of one another. The results were compared and found to covary strongly. It was also discovered from the results of fuzzy logic diagnosis covary a little bit more strongly to the conventional diagnosis results than that of AHP.

  9. Decision Support Model for User Submission Approval Energy Partners Candidate Using Profile Matching Method and Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moedjiono Moedjiono

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the field of services, customer satisfaction is a very important factor and determine the success of an enterprise. In the field of outsourcing, customer satisfaction indicator is the labor required delivery in a timely manner and has a level of quality in accordance with the terms proposed by the customer. To provide the best talent to customers, team recruitment and selection must perform a series of tests with a variety of methods to match the criteria of office given by the user with the criteria owned candidates and in order to support growth in graduation rates force a partner at the stage of user approval. For this purpose, the authors conducted a study with the method of observation, interviews, document reviews the candidate recruitment process, so as to provide recommendations for candidates with the highest quality delivery to the user at the stage of approval. The author put forward a model of decision support that is supported by the method of profile matching and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP in problem solving. The final results of this study can be used to support a decision in order to improve the effectiveness of the delivery of quality candidates, increase customer satisfaction, lower costs and improve gross operational margin of the company.

  10. Decision Support Model for User Submission Approval Energy Partners Candidate Using Profile Matching Method and Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moedjiono Moedjiono

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the field of services, customer satisfaction is a very important factor and determine the success of an enterprise. In the field of outsourcing, customer satisfaction indicator is the labor required delivery in a timely manner and has a level of quality in accordance with the terms proposed by the customer. To provide the best talent to customers, team recruitment and selection must perform a series of tests with a variety of methods to match the criteria of office given by the user with the criteria owned candidates and in order to support growth in graduation rates force a partner at the stage of user approval. For this purpose, the authors conducted a study with the method of observation, interviews, document reviews the candidate recruitment process, so as to provide recommendations for candidates with the highest quality delivery to the user at the stage of approval. The author put forward a model of decision support that is supported by the method of profile matching and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP in problem solving. The final results of this study can be used to support a decision in order to improve the effectiveness of the delivery of quality candidates, increase customer satisfaction, lower costs and improve gross operational margin of the company.

  11. Using a Hierarchy of Supportive Consequences to Address Problem Behaviors in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Debra; Helf, Shawnna

    2016-01-01

    Many educators across the country are implementing positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in their schools and classrooms. While PBIS primarily focuses on proactive and preventative approaches to improve behavior, one of the essential elements of PBIS is the consistent use of consequences when students do not meet behavioral…

  12. Model, architecture and system for cross-organizational transaction support in virtual enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Jochem; Derks, Wijnand; Grefen, Paul; Koetsier, Marjanca

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, workflow management systems have become an accepted technology to support automation in process-centric environments. Lately, organizations concentrate more and more on their core business processes while outsourcing supporting processes to other organizations, thereby forming virtu

  13. Model, Architecture and System for Cross-Organizational Transaction Support in Virtual Enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J.; Derks, W.L.A.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Koetsier, M.J.

    In recent years, workflow management systems have become an accepted technology to support automation in process-centric environments. Lately, organizations concentrate more and more on their core business processes while outsourcing supporting processes to other organizations, thereby forming

  14. Intergroup consensus/disagreement in support of group-based hierarchy: an examination of socio-structural and psycho-cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ching; Pratto, Felicia; Johnson, Blair T

    2011-11-01

    A meta-analysis examined the extent to which socio-structural and psycho-cultural characteristics of societies correspond with how much gender and ethnic/racial groups differ on their support of group-based hierarchy. Robustly, women opposed group-based hierarchy more than men did, and members of lower power ethnic/racial groups opposed group-based hierarchy more than members of higher power ethnic/racial groups did. As predicted by social dominance theory, gender differences were larger, more stable, and less variable from sample to sample than differences between ethnic/racial groups. Subordinate gender and ethnic/racial group members disagreed more with dominants in their views of group-based hierarchy in societies that can be considered more liberal and modern (e.g., emphasizing individualism and change from traditions), as well as in societies that enjoyed greater gender equality. The relations between gender and ethnic/racial groups are discussed, and implications are developed for social dominance theory, social role theory, biosocial theory, social identity theory, system justification theory, realistic group conflict theory, and relative deprivation theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Intergroup Consensus/Disagreement in Support of Group Based Hierarchy: An Examination of Socio-Structural and Psycho-Cultural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ching; Pratto, Felicia; Johnson, Blair T.

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis examined the extent to which socio-structural and psycho-cultural characteristics of societies correspond with how much gender and ethnic/racial groups differ on their support of group-based hierarchy. Robustly, women opposed group-based hierarchy more than men did and members of lower-power ethnic/racial groups opposed group-based hierarchy more than members of higher-power ethnic/racial groups. As predicted by social dominance theory, gender differences were larger, more stable, and less variable from sample to sample than differences between ethnic/racial groups. Subordinate gender and ethnic/racial group members disagreed more with dominants in their views of group-based hierarchy in societies that can be considered more liberal and modern (e.g., emphasizing individualism and change from traditions), as well as in societies that enjoyed greater gender equality. The relations between gender and ethnic/racial groups are discussed and implications are developed for social dominance theory, social role theory and biosocial theory, social identity theory, system justification theory, realistic group conflict theory and relative deprivation theory. PMID:22023142

  16. Transaction management

    CERN Document Server

    Chorafas, Dimitris N, Dr

    1998-01-01

    This book provides an essential update for experienced data processing professionals, transaction managers and database specialists who are seeking system solutions beyond the confines of traditional approaches. It provides practical advice on how to manage complex transactions and share distributed databases on client servers and the Internet. Based on extensive research in over 100 companies in the USA, Europe, Japan and the UK, topics covered include :ʺ the challenge of global transaction requirements within an expanding business perspectiveʺ how to handle long transactions and their consti

  17. Transactional Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tim; Rajwar, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    The advent of multicore processors has renewed interest in the idea of incorporating transactions into the programming model used to write parallel programs.This approach, known as transactional memory, offers an alternative, and hopefully better, way to coordinate concurrent threads. The ACI(atomicity, consistency, isolation) properties of transactions provide a foundation to ensure that concurrent reads and writes of shared data do not produce inconsistent or incorrect results. At a higher level, a computation wrapped in a transaction executes atomically - either it completes successfullyand

  18. Micro-transactions for concurrent data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meawad, Fadi; Iyer, Karthik; Schoeberl, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    Transactional memory is a promising technique for enforcing disciplined access to shared data in a multiprocessor system. Transactional memory simplifies the implementation of a variety of concurrent data structures. In this paper, we study the benefits of a modest, real-time aware, hardware...... implementation of transactional memory that we call micro-transactions. In particular, we argue that hardware support for micro-transactions allows us to efficiently implement certain data structures. Those data structures are difficult to realize with the atomic operations provided by stock hardware and provide......, atomic instructions, and micro-transactions. Our results suggest that transactional memory is an interesting alternative to traditional concurrency control mechanisms....

  19. Safe Commits for Transactional Featherweight Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuong Tran, Thi Mai; Steffen, Martin

    Transactions are a high-level alternative for low-level concurrency-control mechanisms such as locks, semaphores, monitors. A recent proposal for integrating transactional features into programming languages is Transactional Featherweight Java (TFJ), extending Featherweight Java by adding transactions. With support for nested and multi-threaded transactions, its transactional model is rather expressive. In particular, the constructs governing transactions - to start and to commit a transaction - can be used freely with a non-lexical scope. On the downside, this flexibility also allows for an incorrect use of these constructs, e.g., trying to perform a commit outside any transaction. To catch those kinds of errors, we introduce a static type and effect system for the safe use of transactions for TFJ. We prove the soundness of our type system by subject reduction.

  20. Participatory hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Marianne; Bloch-Poulsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    is to show that a participatory approach can unintentionally create new hierarchies or reinforce existing ones, thus leading to the exclusion of certain employees (or action researchers) in terms of voice and/or choice. Second, the theoretical purpose is to show how participation in OAR projects can......This article focuses on employee participation in organisational action research (OAR), presenting three examples of OAR in one private and two public organisations in Denmark, respectively. Each of these examples shows how participatory hierarchies between employees and between them and action...... researchers are constructed in OAR projects, leading in these cases to the exclusion of silent pedagogues, elderly foremen, and a critical employee. Based on these examples, the article has three mutually connected purposes, an empirical, theoretical, and methodological purpose. First, the empirical purpose...

  1. The Role of Transaction Cost Economics in Selecting Firm Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia DAVID

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available From the first beginning Transaction Cost Economics (TCE was concerned by the reason and circumstances when the firms choose the hierarchy instead of market for organizing a transaction. Further this analysis model was expended to considering other governance modes, as relational contracting. Even it was mostly criticized Transaction Cost Economics has an important role in choosing the firm strategy based on a transaction costs analysis. The purpose of this present paper is to offer an transaction assessment griddle – a new instrument for managers in choosing the firm strategy.

  2. New integrable lattice hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, Andrew [Area de Matematica Aplicada, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, c/ Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Zhu Zuonong [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced 1, 37008 Salamanca (Spain) and Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: znzhu2@yahoo.com.cn

    2006-01-23

    In this Letter we give a new integrable four-field lattice hierarchy, associated to a new discrete spectral problem. We obtain our hierarchy as the compatibility condition of this spectral problem and an associated equation, constructed herein, for the time-evolution of eigenfunctions. We consider reductions of our hierarchy, which also of course admit discrete zero curvature representations, in detail. We find that our hierarchy includes many well-known integrable hierarchies as special cases, including the Toda lattice hierarchy, the modified Toda lattice hierarchy, the relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy, and the Volterra lattice hierarchy. We also obtain here a new integrable two-field lattice hierarchy, to which we give the name of Suris lattice hierarchy, since the first equation of this hierarchy has previously been given by Suris. The Hamiltonian structure of the Suris lattice hierarchy is obtained by means of a trace identity formula.

  3. Modelling Real Property Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2002-01-01

    . The developed models and a subsequent comparative analysis can be used for improving the efficiency of the procedures. Further-more, the COST action will support Ph.D.-studies by providing a much-needed international research framework and a basis for Ph.D.-level courses. The paper develops on the multi...... of researchers relate to surveying studies, and hence to the FIG. The main objective of the action is to improve the transparency of real property markets and to provide a stronger basis for the reduction of costs of real property transactions by preparing a set of models of real property transaction...

  4. Transactional Network Platform: Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert G.; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop air conditioners and heat pump units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or "agents" that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on a local building controller or in the Cloud. The transactional network project is a multi-lab effort with Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) also contributing to the effort. PNNL coordinated the project and also was responsible for the development of the transactional network (TN) platform and three different applications associated with RTUs. This document describes two applications or "agents" in details, and also summarizes the platform. The TN platform details are described in another companion document.

  5. A decision support system using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) for the optimal environmental reclamation of an open-pit mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascetin, A.

    2007-04-01

    The selection of an optimal reclamation method is one of the most important factors in open-pit design and production planning. It also affects economic considerations in open-pit design as a function of plan location and depth. Furthermore, the selection is a complex multi-person, multi-criteria decision problem. The group decision-making process can be improved by applying a systematic and logical approach to assess the priorities based on the inputs of several specialists from different functional areas within the mine company. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) can be very useful in involving several decision makers with different conflicting objectives to arrive at a consensus decision. In this paper, the selection of an optimal reclamation method using an AHP-based model was evaluated for coal production in an open-pit coal mine located at Seyitomer region in Turkey. The use of the proposed model indicates that it can be applied to improve the group decision making in selecting a reclamation method that satisfies optimal specifications. Also, it is found that the decision process is systematic and using the proposed model can reduce the time taken to select a optimal method.

  6. Evaluation of Conservation Voltage Reduction with Analytic Hierarchy Process: A Decision Support Framework in Grid Operations Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungsung An

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic framework to evaluate the performance of conservation voltage reduction (CVR by determining suitable substations for CVR in operations planning. Existing CVR planning practice generally only focuses on the energy saving aspect without taking other underlying attributes into account, i.e., network topology and reduced voltage effects on other substations. To secure the desired operating reserve and avoid any adverse impacts, these attributes should be considered for implementing CVR more effectively. This research develops a practical decision-making framework based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP to quantify several of the aforementioned attributes. Candidate substations for CVR deployment are prioritized such that performances are compared in terms of power transfer distribution factor (PTDF, voltage sensitivity factor (VSF, and CVR factor. In addition, to meet a specified reserve requirement, an integer programming approach is adopted to select potential substations for CVR implementations. Case studies for a Korean electric power system under diverse operating conditions are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Leasing transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Presová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes trade operations in lea­sin­g companies as specific businesses enabling acquisition of possession by legal and physical persons by gradual repayments of the purchase price. On a diagram it shows the complexity of business relations between the main participants of a lea­sin­g transaction, which are production companies, lea­sin­g companies and those interested in the subject of lea­sin­g. To capture the complexity of relations, there are also included all other participants. Their function in a lea­sin­g transaction starts only at the moment, when the leaseholders are not able to pay their liabilities to which they agreed in the innominate contract. Paper clarifies the term “lea­sin­g with zero mark-up”. With the help of calculation it describes the basis of a lea­sin­g transaction, where significantly participates also the production company, insurance company and commercial bank. All these subjects have certain benefits from a realized transaction. These are enabled by their close business relationships with the lea­sin­g company, which is sufficiently clear from the diagram and it is also substantiated by calculations. Paper includes a definition of lea­sin­g operations, as well as a ma­the­ma­ti­cal model of lea­sin­g payments calculation for a car. A part of the paper is also dealing with a cession of a lea­sin­g contract in the person of a leaseholder as a specific case enforced by financial issues of the leaseholder. The paper elaborates alternatives of evaluating client’s bonding capacity with the help of financial indicators.

  8. Transactional Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Håkan

    2010-01-01

    Current and future processor generations are based on multicore architectures where the performance increase comes from an increasing number of cores on a chip. In order to utilize the performance potential of multicore architectures the programs also need to be parallel, but writing parallel programs is a non-trivial task. Transactional memory tries to ease parallel program development by providing atomic and isolated execution of code sequences, enabling software composability and protected...

  9. Life cycle inventory and mass-balance of municipal food waste management systems: Decision support methods beyond the waste hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Joel; Othman, Maazuza; Crossin, Enda; Burn, Stewart

    2017-08-14

    When assessing the environmental and human health impact of a municipal food waste (FW) management system waste managers typically rely on the principles of the waste hierarchy; using metrics such as the mass or rate of waste that is 'prepared for recycling,' 'recovered for energy,' or 'sent to landfill.' These metrics measure the collection and sorting efficiency of a waste system but are incapable of determining the efficiency of a system to turn waste into a valuable resource. In this study a life cycle approach was employed using a system boundary that includes the entire waste service provision from collection to safe end-use or disposal. A life cycle inventory of seven waste management systems was calculated, including the first service wide inventory of FW management through kitchen in-sink disposal (food waste disposer). Results describe the mass, energy and water balance of each system along with key emissions profile. It was demonstrated that the energy balance can differ significantly from its' energy generation, exemplified by mechanical biological treatment, which was the best system for generating energy from waste but only 5(th) best for net-energy generation. Furthermore, the energy balance of kitchen in-sink disposal was shown to be reduced because 31% of volatile solids were lost in pre-treatment. The study also confirmed that higher FW landfill diversion rates were critical for reducing many harmful emissions to air and water. Although, mass-balance analysis showed that the alternative end-use of the FW material may still contain high impact pollutants. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Implementing supported self-management for asthma: a systematic review and suggested hierarchy of evidence of implementation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Hilary; Epiphaniou, Eleni; Pearce, Gemma; Parke, Hannah; Greenhalgh, Trish; Sheikh, Aziz; Griffiths, Chris J; Taylor, Stephanie J C

    2015-06-01

    Asthma self-management remains poorly implemented in clinical practice despite overwhelming evidence of improved healthcare outcomes, reflected in guideline recommendations over three decades. To inform delivery in routine care, we synthesised evidence from implementation studies of self-management support interventions. We systematically searched eight electronic databases (1980 to 2012) and research registers, and performed snowball and manual searches for studies evaluating implementation of asthma self-management in routine practice. We included, and adapted systematic review methodology to reflect, a broad range of implementation study designs. We extracted data on study characteristics, process measures (for example, action plan ownership), asthma control (for example, patient reported control questionnaires, days off school/work, symptom-free days) and use of health services (for example, admissions, emergency department attendances, unscheduled consultations). We assessed quality using the validated Downs and Black checklist, and conducted a narrative synthesis informed by Kennedy's whole systems theoretical approach (considering patient, practitioner and organisational components and the interaction between these). We included 18 studies (6 randomised trials, 2 quasi-experimental studies, 8 with historical controls and 3 with retrospective comparators) from primary, secondary, community and managed care settings serving a total estimated asthma population of 800,000 people in six countries. In these studies, targeting professionals (n = 2) improved process, but had no clinically significant effect on clinical outcomes. Targeting patients (n = 6) improved some process measures, but had an inconsistent impact on clinical outcomes. Targeting the organisation (n = 3) improved process measures, but had little/no effect on clinical outcomes. Interventions that explicitly addressed patient, professional and organisational factors (n = 7) showed the most

  11. Mathematical hierarchies and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Mirkin, Boris; Roberts, Fred S; Roberts, Fred S; Rzhetsky, Andrey

    1997-01-01

    The mathematical approach to the study of hierarchies presents the theoretical basis for many important areas of current scientific investigation. Biology has benefited from this research and has also stimulated the mathematical study of hierarchies. This collection presents papers devoted to theoretical, algorithmical, and application issues related to (1) reconstructing hierarchies (trees or ranking) from (dis)similarity or entity-to-character data, (2) using hierarchies for modeling evolution and other processes, and (3) combining (gene) trees. The papers in this volume provide a contemporary sample of many new results in hierarchy theory with applications in biology, psychology, data analysis, and systems engineering. Features: Mathematical treatment of hierarchies in several interconnected frameworks: set systems, linear subspaces, graph objects, and tree metrics. The relationship of hierarchies to many issues of current application-from learning robots to wavelets to intron evolution to the evolution ...

  12. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  13. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  14. Measuring Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2013-08-01

    Two scales have been proposed to measure Maslow's hierarchy of needs in college students, one by Lester (1990) and one by Strong and Fiebert (1987). In a sample of 51 college students, scores on the corresponding scales for the five needs did not correlate significantly and positively, except for the measures of physiological needs. Furthermore, there was limited support for Maslow's hypothesis that need deprivation would predict psychopathology (specifically, mania and depression).

  15. The Star Height Hierarchy Vs. The Variable Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Belkhir, Walid

    2009-01-01

    The star height hierarchy (resp. the variable hierarchy) results in classifying $\\mu$-terms into classes according to the nested depth of fixed point operators (resp. to the number of bound variables). We prove, under some assumptions, that the variable hierarchy is a proper refinement of the star height hierarchy. We mean that the non collapse of the variable hierarchy implies the non collapse of the star height hierarchy. The proof relies on the combinatorial characterization of the two hie...

  16. Why hierarchies thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Harold J

    2003-03-01

    Hardly anyone has a good word to say about hierarchies. Academics, consultants, and management gurus regularly forecast their imminent replacement because hierarchies--even when populated by considerate and intelligent people--can be cruel and stupid. They routinely transform motivated and loyal employees into disaffected Dilberts. It's no wonder that we continue to search for more humane and productive alternatives to them. Yet the intensity with which we struggle against hierarchies only serves to highlight their durability. Hierarchy, it seems, may be intrinsic not only to the natural world but also to our own natures. In this article, organizational behavior expert Harold J. Leavitt presents neither a defense of human hierarchies nor another attack on them. Instead, he offers a reality check, a reminder that hierarchy remains the basic structure of most, if not all, large, ongoing human organizations. That's because although they are often depicted as being out of date, hierarchies have proved to be extraordinarily adaptive. Over the past 50 years, for example, they have co-opted the three major managerial movements--human relations, analytic management, and communities of practice. Hierarchies also persist because they deliver real practical and psychological value, and they fulfill our deep need for order and security. Despite the good they may do, hierarchies are inevitably authoritarian. That authoritarianism shows up in all kinds of ways and influences everything in organizations, particularly communication. In multilevel organizations, for instance, messages get distorted as they travel up and down the ladder of command. Self-protection and self-interest weigh in, and relevant information is lost as messages make stops along the route. Sensitive leaders take steps to make speaking the truth as painless as possible. But it never is in organizations, because authoritarianism is an immutable element of hierarchy.

  17. Distributed Management of Concurrent Web Service Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Balke, Wolf-Tilo

    2009-01-01

    Business processes involve dynamic compositions of interleaved tasks. Therefore, ensuring reliable transactional processing of Web services is crucial for the success of Web service-based B2B and B2C applications. But the inherent autonomy and heterogeneity of Web services render the applicability...... of conventional ACID transaction models for Web services far from being straightforward. Current Web service transaction models relax the isolation property and rely on compensation mechanisms to ensure atomicity of business transactions in the presence of service failures. However, ensuring consistency...... in the open and dynamic environment of Web services, where interleaving business transactions enter and exit the system independently, remains an open issue. In this paper, we address this problem and propose an architecture that supports concurrency control on the Web services level. An extension...

  18. The Impact of Trust on the Mode of Transaction Governance between Manufacturer and Distributor: Evidence from Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George BERULAVA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to explore main determinants of the mode of transaction governance between manufacturers and distributors. We examine a number of types of transaction governance, viz., markets, relational transacting, and hierarchies. The model proposed in the paper integrates the concept of trust with key dimensions of transaction cost economics, being estimated with data from a sample of Georgian manufacturing industries. The main finding of the study is that trust along with traditional dimensions of transaction cost economics has a significant impact on the choice of exchange governance mode

  19. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tibély

    Full Text Available Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of

  20. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  1. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  2. The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    With more and more companies using enterprise social networks (ESN) for employee communication and collaboration, the influence of ESN on organizational hierarchies has been subject of countless discussions in practice-oriented media and first academic studies. Conversely, the question whether...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...

  3. Delegation Within Hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Karim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    We investigate trade-offs associated with delegating authority over multiple interrelated decisions in a complex task structure. The empirical setting is a business process of a global Fortune 50 firm. The firm decentralized its organization and redefined decision authority across organizational......-relevant knowledge, the matching of required knowledge and managers’ expertise, and information processing intensity affect (a) the occurrence of delegation and, (b) if delegation occurs, how far down the organizational hierarchy authority is delegated. We discuss how these findings complement existing theories...... hierarchies between 2008 and 2011. We employ regression analysis of microlevel data on the allocation of decision authority between formal and real authority, and further on the organization design of 761 decision tasks within a hierarchy. Our findings show how the specialization of decision...

  4. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  5. Extracting tag hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Tibély, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy betwe...

  6. Integrity in Transactional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter begins with a discussion of the impact of limited resources on the integrity of transactions between students and student affairs administrators. A framework and guiding principles for maintaining integrity are offered, and then some general principles for transactions with students are presented. Next, the chapter involves integrity…

  7. Improving Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: New Approach to needs hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Babak Nemati

    2013-01-01

    In this article Maslow's hierarchy of needs is reviewed with two viewpoints: critical and supportive. We try to extract and classify the relevant subject related to the research content after studying and analysis of documents. Thus, because of their common characters, the needs that have been cited from some scientists could be gathered and make some new levels.The new Maslow's hierarchy of needs has been presented in this research and we added three levels EPISTEMOLOGY, LOG and EROS (Freedo...

  8. Networks and transaction costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Christian H.C.A.; Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne

    Based on the well-known fact that social networks can provide effective mechanisms that help to increase the trust level between two trade partners, we apply a simple game-theoretical framework to derive transaction costs as a high risk of opportunistic behavior in a repeated trade relation...... transaction cost functions for all traded farm inputs and outputs. Estimation results based on a sample of 315 Polish farms imply a significant influence of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs. Moreover, estimated transaction costs correspond to a reasonable amount of farm specific shadow...... determined by the density and size of trading networks. In the empirical part of the paper we apply a two stage procedure to estimate the impact of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs observed for different input and output markets. At a first stage we estimate a multiple input...

  9. Hierarchies in student groups

    OpenAIRE

    Güntert, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This is a research about hierarchies in student groups. It shows how they are built und what sense they have. The position of a student in his student peer group is evaluated. The influence of the look, the style, the behaviour of the other sex, the gender, the origin, the prehistory, the appearance, achievement and their effect on hierarchies is analysed and the impact of charisma and organisation are compared. The meaning of this research is to indicate how a student must be to get the lead...

  10. Contribution of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method for supporting the decision to outsource or internalize activities in the context of technology-based company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Paula Reis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The definition of business model requires, among other decisions, the structure of the value chain of an emerging new organization. This structure depends on the decision to outsource or internalize sets of processes and their activities. This decision fundamentally strategic, demand a correct definition of the activities that actually add value to the business, and therefore desirable a methodology able to assist the manager in the process of decision making. This paper aims to propose a process to aid decision to outsource or internalize activities in the context of a technology-based company, using the strategy of action research methods associated with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and focus group technique. The study has resulted in the structuring of the decision process and criteria relevant to the identification of activities to be internalized by the technology-based company.

  11. Unbundling Transaction Services in the Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Lomet, David; Weikum, Gerhard; Zwilling, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The traditional architecture for a DBMS engine has the recovery, concurrency control and access method code tightly bound together in a storage engine for records. We propose a different approach, where the storage engine is factored into two layers (each of which might have multiple heterogeneous instances). A Transactional Component (TC) works at a logical level only: it knows about transactions and their "logical" concurrency control and undo/redo recovery, but it does not know about page layout, B-trees etc. A Data Component (DC) knows about the physical storage structure. It supports a record oriented interface that provides atomic operations, but it does not know about transactions. Providing atomic record operations may itself involve DC-local concurrency control and recovery, which can be implemented using system transactions. The interaction of the mechanisms in TC and DC leads to multi-level redo (unlike the repeat history paradigm for redo in integrated engines). This refactoring of the system arch...

  12. The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias;

    2015-01-01

    and how formal organizational hierarchies influence ESN usage behavior has not yet been addressed. Drawing on a rich data set comprising 2.5 years of relationship building via direct messages, confirmed contact requests, and group messages, we are able to show that formal hierarchies have an important...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...

  13. The Reinforcement Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forness, Steven R.

    1973-01-01

    Reinforcement hierarchy implies movement along a continuum from top to bottom, from primitive levels of reinforcement to more sophisticated levels. Unless it is immediately obvious that a child cannot function without the use of lower-order reinforcers, we should approach him as though he responds to topmost reinforcers until he demonstrates…

  14. Network Constrained Transactive Control for Electric Vehicles Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are commonly recognized as smart grid assets in addition to their environmental benefits. However, uncoordinated charging or sole cost minimization based charging of electric vehicles may bring undesirable peak demands and voltage violations in the distribution system....... This paper applies the transactive control concept to integrate electric vehicles into the power distribution system with the purpose of minimizing the charging cost of electric vehicles as well as preventing grid congestions and voltage violations. A hierarchical EV management system is proposed where three...... actors are considered: distribution system operator (DSO), fleet operators and EV owners. In the lower level of the hierarchy, the fleet operator centrally manages the charging schedule of electric vehicles; in the upper level of the hierarchy, the DSO uses transactive control technique to coordinate...

  15. Reactions to Crime as a Hierarchy Regulating Strategy:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Eva G. T.; Thomsen, Lotte; Sidanius, Jim;

    2009-01-01

    Across two studies, we demonstrated that support for group-based hierarchies differentially affects evaluation of ingroup and outgroup criminal offenders and that this effect generalizes to overall evaluations of their respective groups. Drawing on social dominance theory, our results show...... of ethnicity or nationality, not education level and employment status, were the important cues for hierarchy-regulating judgments of criminal offenders...

  16. Genus-zero Whitham hierarchies in conformal-map dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Alonso, Luis [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: luism@fis.ucm.es; Medina, Elena [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Cadiz, E-11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2006-10-26

    A scheme for solving quasiclassical string equations is developed to prove that genus-zero Whitham hierarchies describe the deformations of planar domains determined by rational conformal maps. This property is applied in normal matrix models to show that deformations of simply-connected supports of eigenvalues under changes of coupling constants are governed by genus-zero Whitham hierarchies.

  17. Simple Resonance Hierarchy for Surmounting Quantum Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2010-12-01

    For a hundred years violation or surmounting the Quantum Uncertainty Principle has remained a Holy Grail of both theoretical and empirical physics. Utilizing an operationally completed form of Quantum Theory cast in a string theoretic Higher Dimensional (HD) form of Dirac covariant polarized vacuum with a complex Einstein energy dependent spacetime metric, M̂4±C4 with sufficient degrees of freedom to be causally free of the local quantum state, we present a simple empirical model for ontologically surmounting the phenomenology of uncertainty through a Sagnac Effect RF pulsed Laser Oscillated Vacuum Energy Resonance hierarchy cast within an extended form of a Wheeler-Feynman-Cramer Transactional Calabi-Yau mirror symmetric spacetime bachcloth.

  18. Extending Software Transactional Memory in Clojure with Side-Effects and Transaction Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kejser; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2016-01-01

    do however not support execution of code with side-effects and provide no methods for synchronising threads. Additional concurrency mechanisms on top of STM are needed for these use cases, increasing the complexity of the code. We present multiple constructs allowing functions with side-effects...... to be executed as part of a transaction. These constructs are made accessible through a uniform interface, making them interchangeable. We present constructs providing explicit control of transactions. Through these constructs transactions can synchronise threads based on the current program state, abort...

  19. An extension of heat hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Joe S.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a formally completely integrable extension of heat hierarchy based on the space of symmetries isomorphic to the Weyl algebra $\\mathcal{A}_1$. The extended heat hierarchy will be the basic model for the analysis of the extension of KP hierarchy, and other integrable equations.

  20. Absorbers in the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Jean-Sébastien; Marchildon, Louis

    2013-03-01

    The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics, following the time-symmetric formulation of electrodynamics, uses retarded and advanced solutions of the Schrödinger equation and its complex conjugate to understand quantum phenomena by means of transactions. A transaction occurs between an emitter and a specific absorber when the emitter has received advanced waves from all possible absorbers. Advanced causation always raises the specter of paradoxes, and it must be addressed carefully. In particular, different devices involving contingent absorbers or various types of interaction-free measurements have been proposed as threatening the original version of the transactional interpretation. These proposals will be analyzed by examining in each case the configuration of absorbers and, in the special case of the so-called quantum liar experiment, by carefully following the development of retarded and advanced waves through the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We will show that there is no need to resort to the hierarchy of transactions that some have proposed, and will argue that the transactional interpretation is consistent with the block-universe picture of time.

  1. Transactional vs. Strategic Sourcing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark Ware

    2010-01-01

    .... It's frequently a situation of "here's the comparator that's needed. . .find it yesterday." Having to source a comparator in a very short amount of time can impose a transactional approach to sourcing, rather than a strategic one...

  2. Ansatz for dynamical hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S.; Baas, N.A.; Mayer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Complex, robust functionalities can be generated naturally in at least two ways: by the assembly of structures and by the evolution of structures. This work is concerned with spontaneous formation of structures. We define the notion of dynamical hierarchies in natural systems and show...... the importance of this particular kind of organization for living systems. We then define a framework that enables us to formulate, investigate, and manipulate such dynamical hierarchies. This framework allows us to simultaneously investigate different levels of description together with them interrelationship...... three. Formulating this system as a simple two-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) lattice gas allows us within one dynamical system to demonstrate the successive emergence of two higher levels (three levels all together) of robust structures with associated properties. Second, we demonstrate how...

  3. Hierarchies in Dependence Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    We study fragments of dependence logic defined either by restricting the number k of universal quantifiers or the width of dependence atoms in formulas. We find the sublogics of existential second-order logic corresponding to these fragments of dependence logic. We also show that these both ways of defining fragments of dependence logic give rise to a hierarchy in expressive power with respect to k.

  4. Valuation of Transactive Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbert, Erik I. [Navigant Consulting, Boulder, CO (United States); Chandler, Shawn [Navigant Consulting, Portland, OR (United States); Shandross, Richard [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-05-12

    This is a final report from a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to formulate and test a methodology for valuation of systems where transaction-based mechanisms coordinate the exchange of value between the system’s actors. Today, the principal commodity being exchanged is electrical energy, and such mechanisms are called transactive energy systems. The authors strove to lay a foundation for meaningful valuations of transactive systems in general, and transactive energy systems as a special case. The word valuation is used in many different ways. This report proposes a valuation methodology that is inclusive of many types of valuations. Many will be familiar with cost-benefit valuations, in which both costs and benefits are assessed to determine whether the assets are worth their cost. Another set of valuation methods attempt to optimize an outcome using available resources, as is the case with integrated resource planning. In the end, this report’s methodology was most influenced by and most resembles the integrated-resource-planning approach. Regardless, we wish to enforce the premise that all valuations are comparative and should clearly specify a baseline scenario. A long, annotated list of prior valuation studies and valuation methodologies that influenced this report has been appended to this report. Much research is being conducted today concerning transactive systems, but only a handful of transactive system mechanisms have been formulated and field tested. They are found to be quite diverse, and the documentation of the various mechanisms is uneven in breadth and quality. It is therefore not adequate to simply assert that a valuation scenario includes a transactive system; certain characteristics and qualities of the chosen transactive system mechanism must be defined and stated. The report lists and discusses most of the known transactive system mechanisms. It offers a set of questions that may be used to help specify important

  5. GPU accelerated tandem traversal of blocked bounding volume hierarchy collision detection for multibody dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Jesper; Erleben, Kenny

    2009-01-01

    hierarchies. Our approach makes it possible to perform non-convex object versus non-convex object collision on the GPU, using tandem traversals of bounding volume hierarchies. Prior work only supports single traversals on GPUs. We introduce a blocked hierarchy data structure, using imaginary nodes...

  6. Nonlinear Integrable Couplings of Levi Hierarchy and WKI Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengduo Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the help of the known Lie algebra, a type of new 8-dimensional matrix Lie algebra is constructed in the paper. By using the 8-dimensional matrix Lie algebra, the nonlinear integrable couplings of the Levi hierarchy and the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa (WKI hierarchy are worked out, which are different from the linear integrable couplings. Based on the variational identity, the Hamiltonian structures of the above hierarchies are derived.

  7. Nonlinear Integrable Couplings of Levi Hierarchy and WKI Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengduo Shan; Hongwei Yang; Baoshu Yin

    2014-01-01

    With the help of the known Lie algebra, a type of new 8-dimensional matrix Lie algebra is constructed in the paper. By using the 8-dimensional matrix Lie algebra, the nonlinear integrable couplings of the Levi hierarchy and the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa (WKI) hierarchy are worked out, which are different from the linear integrable couplings. Based on the variational identity, the Hamiltonian structures of the above hierarchies are derived.

  8. 基于灰色层次分析的后装专业处置能力评估磁%Skill Capability Evaluation of Logistics and Equipment Integrated Support Training Based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚原; 周同喜

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the contingency ,sustainability and precision of the logistics and equipment integrated support training ,an index system of skill capability was constructed .And in this paper ,a grey analytic hierarchy process with grey system and AHP was used to evaluate the skill capability in the logistics and equipment integrated support training .It was conducive to find the primary factor that influenced the integrated support training quality of logistics andequip -ment .And it was also beneficial to draw up a specific training plan and take specific training .%围绕后装一体化专业保障训练要突出应急保障、持续保障和精确保障这三种能力,建立评估指标体系,并利用AHP 法与灰统计相结合的灰色层次分析法对后装一体化专业处置能力进行评估,有利于查找影响后装一体化保障训练质量的主要因素,进行针对性训练。

  9. The Impact of Formal Hierarchies on Enterprise Social Networking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Sebastian; Klier, Julia; Klier, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    With more and more companies using enterprise social networks (ESN) for employee communication and collaboration, the influence of ESN on organizational hierarchies has been subject of countless discussions in practice-oriented media and first academic studies. Conversely, the question whether...... and how formal organizational hierarchies influence ESN usage behavior has not yet been addressed. Drawing on a rich data set comprising 2.5 years of relationship building via direct messages, confirmed contact requests, and group messages, we are able to show that formal hierarchies have an important...... impact on social networking behavior. By applying means of social network analysis and supported by statements from interviews, we illustrate how deeply formal hierarchy impacts the three examined types of relationships. Our results motivate academics to further study the interrelation between hierarchy...

  10. Delegated Contracting and Corporate Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Chongwoo; Park, In-Uck

    2004-01-01

    In a typical corporate hierarchy, the manager is delegated the authority to make decisions that set directions for the organization, employ subordinates and contract with external suppliers. This paper explains when such delegation of authority can be optimal, using a model of a firm with three parties: the principal, the manager and the worker. In centralization with two two-tier hierarchies, the principal designs contracts for both agents. In delegation with a three-tier hierarchy, the prin...

  11. Foreign experience of regulating international trade transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko L. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the international experience of state regulating international trade transactions; nature, directions and contradictions of contemporary processes of globalization are defined; components of regulatory and incentive means in system of state supporting foreign trade activity of commodity producers are considered; general provisions for the improvement of state regulation mechanisms of export-import activities in Ukraine are determined.

  12. Resources and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2004-01-01

    AbstractThe economics of property rights furthers the resource-based view in a number ofways. Resource analysis is refined by conceptualizing resources as composed ofmultiple attributes to which property rights may be held. A resource owner's abilityto create, appropriate and sustain value from...... resources depends on the propertyrights that she holds to those resources and on the transaction costs of exchanging,defining and protecting the relevant property rights. While transaction costs aremajor sources of value dissipation, value may be created by reducing suchdissipation. Implications for the RBV...

  13. Hierarchies of Inefficient Kernelizability

    CERN Document Server

    Hermelin, Danny; Sołtys, Karolina; Wahlström, Magnus; Wu, Xi

    2011-01-01

    The framework of Bodlaender et al. (ICALP 2008) and Fortnow and Santhanam (STOC 2008) allows us to exclude the existence of polynomial kernels for a range of problems under reasonable complexity-theoretical assumptions. However, there are also some issues that are not addressed by this framework, including the existence of Turing kernels such as the "kernelization" of Leaf Out Branching(k) into a disjunction over n instances of size poly(k). Observing that Turing kernels are preserved by polynomial parametric transformations, we define a kernelization hardness hierarchy, akin to the M- and W-hierarchy of ordinary parameterized complexity, by the PPT-closure of problems that seem likely to be fundamentally hard for efficient Turing kernelization. We find that several previously considered problems are complete for our fundamental hardness class, including Min Ones d-SAT(k), Binary NDTM Halting(k), Connected Vertex Cover(k), and Clique(k log n), the clique problem parameterized by k log n.

  14. The tensor hierarchy algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmkvist, Jakob, E-mail: palmkvist@ihes.fr [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, 35 Route de Chartres, FR-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-01-15

    We introduce an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra which is an extension of the U-duality Lie algebra of maximal supergravity in D dimensions, for 3 ⩽ D ⩽ 7. The level decomposition with respect to the U-duality Lie algebra gives exactly the tensor hierarchy of representations that arises in gauge deformations of the theory described by an embedding tensor, for all positive levels p. We prove that these representations are always contained in those coming from the associated Borcherds-Kac-Moody superalgebra, and we explain why some of the latter representations are not included in the tensor hierarchy. The most remarkable feature of our Lie superalgebra is that it does not admit a triangular decomposition like a (Borcherds-)Kac-Moody (super)algebra. Instead the Hodge duality relations between level p and D − 2 − p extend to negative p, relating the representations at the first two negative levels to the supersymmetry and closure constraints of the embedding tensor.

  15. Quest Hierarchy for Hyperspectral Face Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    IEEE, 363-366 (2002). [40] Moghaddam, Baback and Ming-Hsuan Yang , “Learning Gender with Support Faces,” IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and...64] Luo, Jun , Yong Ma, Erina Takikawa, Shihong Lao, Masato Kawade, Bao-Liang Lu, "Person-Specific SIFT Features for Face Recognition," IEEE...http://www.airforcetimes.com/news/2009/02/airforce_WAAS_021609/ [117] Capaccio, Tony , “Boeing Co. Drones Play Pivotal Role In War On Taliban, Al

  16. Transacted Memory for Smart Cards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Butler, Michael J.; de Jong, Eduard; Longley, Mark; Olivieira, J.N.; Zave, P.

    A transacted memory that is implemented using EEPROM technology offers persistence, undoability and auditing. The transacted memory system is formally specified in Z, and refined in two steps to a prototype C implementation / SPIN model. Conclusions are offered both on the transacted memory system

  17. Modelling Real Property Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Der er store forskelle i financieringsomkostningerne ved hussalg i forskellige lande. Er disse forskelle nødvendige? og kan udgifterne reduceres? Sådanne spørgsmål søger forskningsprojektet ?Modelling Real Property Transactions?, officielt sat i værk indenfor rammerne af COST (European Co...

  18. Transactional Analysis in Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Julie; Turner, Colin

    Although Transactional Analysis (TA) has heavily influenced psychotherapy, little has been written to parallel that influence in areas of organization theory, organization behavior, or management studies. This book is intended primarily for people working in management roles. In part one, personal experiences are drawn upon to describe a fictional…

  19. Transactive Energy Simulation Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-24

    TESP combines existing domain simulators in the electric power grid, with new transactive agents, growth models and evaluation scripts. The existing domain simulators include GridLAB-D for the distribution grid and single-family residential buildings, MATPOWER for transmission and bulk generation, and EnergyPlus for large buildings. More are planned for subsequent versions of TESP. The new elements are: • TEAgents - simulate market participants and transactive systems for market clearing. Some of this functionality was extracted from GridLAB-D and implemented in Python for customization by PNNL and others. • Growth Model - a means for simulating system changes over a multiyear period, including both normal load growth and specific investment decisions. Customizable in Python code. • Evaluation Script - a means of evaluating different transactive systems through customizable post-processing in Python code. TESP provides a method for other researchers and vendors to design transactive systems, and test them in a virtual environment. It allows customization of the key components by modifying Python code.

  20. Value and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2003-01-01

    caused by transaction costs), andnew types of resources (i.e., capture and protection capabilities), clarifies the roleof contracting in the exercise of market power, and suggests that `strategizing'and `economizing' perspectives are related to a larger extent than is normallyrecognized. Refutable...

  1. Facilitating Learning in Multidisciplinary Groups with Transactive CSCL Scripts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, O.; Teasley, S.D.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Weinberger, A.; Mulder, M.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and transfer are essential for learning in groups, especially when group members have different disciplinary expertise and collaborate online. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environments have been designed to facilitate transactive knowledge sharing and transfer i

  2. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Douglas

    1996-01-01

    Reviews Maslow's hierarchy of needs and characterization of the self-actualizing personality, suggesting that since few people meet his self-actualization criteria, an educational system designed to produce such personalities may fail, with teachers attending only to the hierarchy's lower stages (self-esteem and self-actualization) which dilutes…

  3. Loewner equations and dispersionless hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takebe, Takashi [Department of Mathematics, Ochanomizu University, Otsuka 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112-8610 (Japan); Teo, Lee-Peng [Faculty of Information Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya, 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Zabrodin, Anton [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Kosygina str. 4, 119991 Moscow, Russia and ITEP, Bol. Cheremushkinskaya str. 25, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-09-15

    Using the Hirota representation of dispersionless dKP and dToda hierarchies, we show that the chordal Loewner equations and radial Loewner equations respectively serve as consistency conditions for one-variable reductions of these integrable hierarchies. We also clarify the geometric meaning of this result by relating it to the eigenvalue distribution of normal random matrices in the large N limit.

  4. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Douglas

    1996-01-01

    Reviews Maslow's hierarchy of needs and characterization of the self-actualizing personality, suggesting that since few people meet his self-actualization criteria, an educational system designed to produce such personalities may fail, with teachers attending only to the hierarchy's lower stages (self-esteem and self-actualization) which dilutes…

  5. Stress amplifies memory for social hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I Cordero

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their social status and societies in the extent of social status differences among their members. There is great interest in understanding the key factors that contribute to the establishment of social dominance structures. Given that stress can affect behavior and cognition, we hypothesized that, given equal opportunities to become either dominant or submissive, stress experienced by one of the individuals during their first encounter would determine the long-term establishment of a social hierarchy by acting as a two-stage rocket: (1 by influencing the rank achieved after a social encounter and (2 by facilitating and/or promoting a long-term memory for the specific hierarchy. Using a novel model for the assessment of long-term dominance hierarchies in rats, we present here the first evidence supporting such hypothesis. In control conditions, the social rank established through a first interaction and food competition test between two male rats is not maintained when animals are confronted 1 week later. However, if one of the rats is stressed just before their first encounter, the dominance hierarchy developed on day 1 is still clearly observed 1 week later, with the stressed animal becoming submissive (i.e., looser in competition tests in both social interactions. Our findings also allow us to propose that stress potentiates a hierarchy-linked recognition memory between “specific” individuals through mechanisms that involve de novo protein synthesis. These results implicate stress among the key mechanisms contributing to create social imbalance and highlight memory mechanisms as key mediators of stress-induced long-term establishment of social rank.

  6. SecurePhone: a mobile phone with biometric authentication and e-signature support for dealing secure transactions on the fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, R.; Chollet, G.; Crispino, M. V.; Jassim, S.; Koreman, J.; Olivar-Dimas, M.; Garcia-Salicetti, S.; Soria-Rodriguez, P.

    2006-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the SecurePhone project, with an account of the first results obtained. SecurePhone's primary aim is to realise a mobile phone prototype - the 'SecurePhone' - in which biometrical authentication enables users to deal secure, dependable transactions over a mobile network. The SecurePhone is based on a commercial PDA-phone, supplemented with specific software modules and a customised SIM card. It integrates in a single environment a number of advanced features: access to cryptographic keys through strong multimodal biometric authentication; appending and verification of digital signatures; real-time exchange and interactive modification of (esigned) documents and voice recordings. SecurePhone's 'biometric recogniser' is based on original research. A fused combination of three different biometric methods - speaker, face and handwritten signature verification - is exploited, with no need for dedicated hardware components. The adoption of non-intrusive, psychologically neutral biometric techniques is expected to mitigate rejection problems that often inhibit the social use of biometrics, and speed up the spread of e-signature technology. Successful biometric authentication grants access to SecurePhone's built-in esignature services through a user-friendly interface. Special emphasis is accorded to the definition of a trustworthy security chain model covering all aspects of system operation. The SecurePhone is expected to boost m-commerce and open new scenarios for m-business and m-work, by changing the way people interact and by improving trust and confidence in information technologies, often considered intimidating and difficult to use. Exploitation plans will also explore other application domains (physical and logical access control, securised mobile communications).

  7. Transaction based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunka, Frantisek; Matula, Jiri

    2017-07-01

    Transaction based approach is utilized in some methodologies in business process modeling. Essential parts of these transactions are human beings. The notion of agent or actor role is usually used for them. The paper on a particular example describes possibilities of Design Engineering Methodology for Organizations (DEMO) and Resource-Event-Agent (REA) methodology. Whereas the DEMO methodology can be regarded as a generic methodology having its foundation in the theory of Enterprise Ontology the REA methodology is regarded as the domain specific methodology and has its origin in accountancy systems. The results of these approaches is that the DEMO methodology captures everything that happens in the reality with a good empirical evidence whereas the REA methodology captures only changes connected with economic events. Economic events represent either change of the property rights to economic resource or consumption or production of economic resources. This results from the essence of economic events and their connection to economic resources.

  8. ELEMENTS OF CONTROL OVER HIERARCHIE SYSTEMS WITH ASSUMED HIERARCHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushnir N. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical model of control over dynamic hierarchy system. The model was proposed for dealing with systems with assumed order in the technical problem of predicting destructions depending onto the amount of defects on different scale levels. The problem of the closest to a certain point of shelf life of hierarchy system is solved. The example of approach control during the given time is given. The problem concerns mathematic programming. Formulation of multi-parameter vector optimization criteria (improvement with its own hierarchy and the formal exercise of multi-criteria optimization of the model parameters. The research can achieve clarity about the conditions under which the structure is preserved. Managing sustainable development system with a given level of the hierarchy for the technical systems can only be achieved in keeping

  9. Anarchy and hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2000-09-14

    We advocate a new approach to study models of fermion massesand mixings, namely anarchy proposed in hep-ph/9911341. In this approach,we scan the O(1) coefficients randomly. We argue that this is the correctapproach when the fundamental theory is sufficiently complicated.Assuming there is no physical distinction among three generations ofneutrinos, the probability distributions in MNS mixing angles can bepredicted independent of the choice of the measure. This is because themixing angles are distributed according to the Haar measure of the Liegroups whose elements diagonalize the mass matrices. The near-maximalmixings, as observed in the atmospheric neutrino data and as required inthe LMA solution to the solar neutrino problem, are highly probable. Asmall hierarchy between the Delta m2 for the atmospheric and the solarneutrinos is obtained very easily; the complex seesaw case gives ahierarchy of a factor of 20 as the most probable one, even though thisconclusion is more measure-dependent. U_e3 has to be just below thecurrent limit from the CHOOZ experiment. The CP-violating parameter sindelta is preferred to be maximal. We present a simple SU(5)-likeextension of anarchy to the charged-lepton and quark sectors which workswell phenomenologically.

  10. Hamiltonian Structure of PI Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanehisa Takasaki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The string equation of type (2,2g+1 may be thought of as a higher order analogue of the first Painlevé equation that corresponds to the case of g = 1. For g > 1, this equation is accompanied with a finite set of commuting isomonodromic deformations, and they altogether form a hierarchy called the PI hierarchy. This hierarchy gives an isomonodromic analogue of the well known Mumford system. The Hamiltonian structure of the Lax equations can be formulated by the same Poisson structure as the Mumford system. A set of Darboux coordinates, which have been used for the Mumford system, can be introduced in this hierarchy as well. The equations of motion in these Darboux coordinates turn out to take a Hamiltonian form, but the Hamiltonians are different from the Hamiltonians of the Lax equations (except for the lowest one that corresponds to the string equation itself.

  11. Hierarchies of Predominantly Connected Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, Michael; Wagner, Dorothea

    2013-01-01

    We consider communities whose vertices are predominantly connected, i.e., the vertices in each community are stronger connected to other community members of the same community than to vertices outside the community. Flake et al. introduced a hierarchical clustering algorithm that finds such predominantly connected communities of different coarseness depending on an input parameter. We present a simple and efficient method for constructing a clustering hierarchy according to Flake et al. that supersedes the necessity of choosing feasible parameter values and guarantees the completeness of the resulting hierarchy, i.e., the hierarchy contains all clusterings that can be constructed by the original algorithm for any parameter value. However, predominantly connected communities are not organized in a single hierarchy. Thus, we develop a framework that, after precomputing at most $2(n-1)$ maximum flows, admits a linear time construction of a clustering $\\C(S)$ of predominantly connected communities that contains ...

  12. Extending Software Transactional Memory in Clojure with Side-Effects and Transaction Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kejser; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2016-01-01

    do however not support execution of code with side-effects and provide no methods for synchronising threads. Additional concurrency mechanisms on top of STM are needed for these use cases, increasing the complexity of the code. We present multiple constructs allowing functions with side......-effects to be executed as part of a transaction. These constructs are made accessible through a uniform interface, making them interchangeable. We present constructs providing explicit control of transactions. Through these constructs transactions can synchronise threads based on the current program state, abort...... additional capabilities to Clojure's STM implementation without violating its ACI properties. Through a usability evaluation with a small sample size we show that using these constructs reduces both the number of lines of code and the development time compared to Clojure 1.8. Last we demonstrate through...

  13. Principles of synchronous digital hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The book presents the current standards of digital multiplexing, called synchronous digital hierarchy, including analog multiplexing technologies. It is aimed at telecommunication professionals who want to develop an understanding of digital multiplexing and synchronous digital hierarchy in particular and the functioning of practical telecommunication systems in general. The text includes all relevant fundamentals and provides a handy reference for problem solving or defining operations and maintenance strategies. The author covers digital conversion and TDM principles, line coding and digital

  14. The Return of the Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup Christensen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    corporatisation. This layered set-up provided the state with a double governance grip that drove marketisation until 2011. However, the SOE as a hybrid created ripple effects between the market and the hierarchy that hampered the marketisation. The hierarchical governance turned towards centralisation and market....... It presents a case on how hybridity is altered and evolves in SOEs as a hybrid mode of governance between hierarchy and market in marketisation and how this can lead to re-centralisation....

  15. Information slows down hierarchy growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Suchecki, Krzysztof; Miñano, Borja; Trias, Miquel; Hołyst, Janusz A

    2014-06-01

    We consider models of growing multilevel systems wherein the growth process is driven by rules of tournament selection. A system can be conceived as an evolving tree with a new node being attached to a contestant node at the best hierarchy level (a level nearest to the tree root). The proposed evolution reflects limited information on system properties available to new nodes. It can also be expressed in terms of population dynamics. Two models are considered: a constant tournament (CT) model wherein the number of tournament participants is constant throughout system evolution, and a proportional tournament (PT) model where this number increases proportionally to the growing size of the system itself. The results of analytical calculations based on a rate equation fit well to numerical simulations for both models. In the CT model all hierarchy levels emerge, but the birth time of a consecutive hierarchy level increases exponentially or faster for each new level. The number of nodes at the first hierarchy level grows logarithmically in time, while the size of the last, "worst" hierarchy level oscillates quasi-log-periodically. In the PT model, the occupations of the first two hierarchy levels increase linearly, but worse hierarchy levels either do not emerge at all or appear only by chance in the early stage of system evolution to further stop growing at all. The results allow us to conclude that information available to each new node in tournament dynamics restrains the emergence of new hierarchy levels and that it is the absolute amount of information, not relative, which governs such behavior.

  16. Transaction costs and social networks in productivity measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Henning, Christian H. C. A.

    2015-01-01

    . Hence, both the absolute productivity measures and, more importantly, the productivity ranking will be distorted. A major driver of transaction costs is poor access to information and contract enforcement assistance. Social networks often catalyse information exchange as well as generate trust...... and support. Hence, we use measures of a firm’s access to social networks as a proxy for the transaction costs the firm faces. We develop a microeconomic production model that takes into account transaction costs and networks. Using a data set of 384 Polish farms, we empirically estimate this model...... and compare different parametric, semiparametric, and nonparametric model specifications. Our results generally support our hypothesis. Especially, large trading networks and dense household networks have a positive influence on a farm’s productivity. Furthermore, our results indicate that transaction costs...

  17. Transaction Costs For Innovations Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Romanov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of transaction costs of the innovations distribution. The factors, affecting the innovations diffusion in accordance with the clusters, relations, dynamics of the distribution are disclosed. Transaction costs as a result of bounded rationality of economic entities are detected. The inevitability of transaction costs as an objective phenomenon is shown. Their dependence on the quality of economic information and information uncertainty is indicated. Correlative approach for the analysis of these costs is applied. The article justifies that the reduction of transaction costs increases the efficiency of innovations.

  18. Design of a Data Storage Hierarchy. DSH-III--Software & Hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    Mlanagement Systems (DBPIS’s) are caoable of handling data bases on the order of a trillion (1012) bits of data, and can porocess transactions at rates of...level extracting the appropriate sub-page from the broadcast data. This strategy is called READ-THROUGH since the requested data is read through from...to all higher levels of the hierarchy. Section 3 describes the architecture which allows the destination levels to extract appropriate sub-pages from

  19. Cognitive Hierarchy Theory and Two-Person Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gracia-Lázaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of many social and economic interactions, such as stock-market transactions, is strongly determined by the predictions that agents make about the behavior of other individuals. Cognitive hierarchy theory provides a framework to model the consequences of forecasting accuracy that has proven to fit data from certain types of game theory experiments, such as Keynesian beauty contests and entry games. Here, we focus on symmetric two-player-two-action games and establish an algorithm to find the players’ strategies according to the cognitive hierarchy approach. We show that the snowdrift game exhibits a pattern of behavior whose complexity grows as the cognitive levels of players increases. In addition to finding the solutions up to the third cognitive level, we demonstrate, in this theoretical frame, two new properties of snowdrift games: (i any snowdrift game can be characterized by only a parameter, its class; (ii they are anti-symmetric with respect to the diagonal of the pay-off’s space. Finally, we propose a model based on an evolutionary dynamics that captures the main features of the cognitive hierarchy theory.

  20. Multilevel Fuzzy Synthesis Evaluation of Foundation Pit Support Scheme Based on Improved Analytic Hierarchy Process%基坑支护方案的改进AHP与多级模糊综合评判

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖瑛; 王月香; 华志明

    2011-01-01

    在研究与基坑支护方案评价有关的各项指标的基础之上,建立了一套较为完整的基坑支护系统评价指标体系.改进传统的层次分析法使判断矩阵自然满足一致性检验,并计算得到各评价指标的权重;对于定量指标采用隶属函数法确定其隶属度,而对于定性指标,则对其评语进行模糊化处理,从而有效地降低了主观因素对评判结果的影响并得到其模糊评价矩阵.最后按照多级模糊综合评判法对基坑支护系统评价指标体系依次进行一级、二级和三级模糊综合评判,由此获得最优基坑支护方案.%Based on analysis of the related indexes of the evaluation of foundation pit support scheme, a relatively integrated evaluation index system of foundation pit support system was established. By making use of the method of improved Analytic Hierarchy Process which could satisfy consistent verification naturally, the weight of every evaluating factor was calculated. And furthermore, the membership function was used to determine the quantitive index' s membership, and for the qualitative index, their comment was disposed faintly and therefore the fuzzy evaluation matrix was received and at the same time, the influence on the judgement of the subjective factors was depressed effectively. Finally, based on the multilevel fuzzy synthesis evaluation method the first class, the second class and the third class fuzzy synthesis evaluation for the evaluation index system were calculated to get the optimum scheme of the foundation pit support system.

  1. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W

    1965-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  2. Transaction Cost Economics : The Origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williamson, Oliver E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an autobiographical recollection of how my interest in and work on transaction cost economics progressively developed. It begins with an overview of the transaction cost economics project. A sketch of my undergraduate and graduate education follows. Key events in the 1960s that set the

  3. Information slows down hierarchy growth

    CERN Document Server

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Minano, Borja; Trias, Miquel; Holyst, Janusz A

    2013-01-01

    We consider models of a growing tree with the growth process driven by the rules of tournament selection, where a new node is attached to a contestant node at the best hierarchy level (closest to the tree root). The proposed evolution reflects limited information about the network topology that is available for new nodes. Two cases are considered: the constant tournament (CT) model where the number of tournament participants is constant throughout the tree evolution, and the proportional tournament (PT) model where it is grows proportionally to the actual tree size. The results of analytical calculations based on a rate equation fit well to numerical simulations for both models. In the CT model all hierarchy levels emerge in the tree but the birth time of the hierarchy level increases exponentially or faster with level number. The number of nodes at the first hierarchy level (just below the root) grows logarithmically in time, while the size of the last, "worst" hierarchy level oscillates quasi log-periodical...

  4. Decision, Transaction, Law and Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    is transaction cost economics in the tradition of Oliver E. Williamson. The foundation for this tradition was laid by 1991 Nobel Laureate Ronald Coase in a paper, “The Nature of the Firm” in 1937. But the breakthrough as an influential research program was achieved with Williamson’s influential “Markets...... traditional neo-classical economic theory have been analyzed using this framework. Prominent examples are analyses of vertical integration, the M-form organization and the employment relation. The purpose of this dissertation has been to develop the “Williamsonian” tradition in transaction cost economics...... further. Compared to earlier contributions, the mode of analysis employed differs in at least three ways. Firstly, the analysis is made in terms of the decision premises for entering a transactional relationship. This is in opposition to traditional transaction cost economics, where the transaction...

  5. VOLTTRON Lite: Integration Platform for the Transactional Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haack, Jereme N.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Akyol, Bora A.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2013-10-31

    In FY13, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network platform. The platform is intended to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). Initially, in FY13, the concept demonstrated transactions between packaged rooftop units (RTUs) and the electric grid using applications or “agents” that reside on the platform, on the equipment, on local building controller or in the Cloud. This document describes the core of the transactional network platform, the Volttron Lite™ software and associated services hosted on the platform. Future enhancements are also discussed. The appendix of the document provides examples of how to use the various services hosted on the platform.

  6. A Case for Including Transactions in OpenMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M; Bihari, B L; de Supinski, B R; Wu, P; Michael, M; Liu, Y; Chen, W

    2010-01-25

    Transactional Memory (TM) has received significant attention recently as a mechanism to reduce the complexity of shared memory programming. We explore the potential of TM to improve OpenMP applications. We combine a software TM (STM) system to support transactions with an OpenMP implementation to start thread teams and provide task and loop-level parallelization. We apply this system to two application scenarios that reflect realistic TM use cases. Our results with this system demonstrate that even with the relatively high overheads of STM, transactions can outperform OpenMP critical sections by 10%. Overall, our study demonstrates that extending OpenMP to include transactions would ease programming effort while allowing improved performance.

  7. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  8. Hierarchy in inorganic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Juergen

    2016-06-13

    Thin films of a few μm thickness for particle filtration and gas separation cannot be applied as self-supporting layers since they are mechanically insufficiently strong. Therefore, these top layers for particle filtration and gas separation are usually deposited on porous mechanically strong supports with a hierarchical pore structure. To reduce the pressure drop of a gas stream over the membrane and to ensure high fluxes in filtration and gas separation, the cross section of the support is usually asymmetric or graded with a small thickness of the layer with the smallest pore size called the top layer. Since the pressure drop over a capillary with radius r is ∼r(4), the layer with the smallest pore size should be as thin as possible. The disk-like planar supports are usually prepared by sequential tape casting which is an expensive technology. Tubular supports with a hierarchical cross section can be prepared in one step by hollow fiber spinning, double mantle spinning or centrifugal casting.

  9. FINANCING OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU NICOLAE BĂLUNĂ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Financing (funding is essentially the purchase of funds necessary for a business. This can be done from internal sources (company’s own funds or external (borrowed funds. The high value of goods traded in international trade makes revenues generated from internal resources not sufficient to settle the value of the goods. Thus, it is frequent to resort to borrowed funds. In International Business Transactions, external financing is done both by classical techniques of credit (credit supplier and buyer credit and modern techniques of financing (factoring, forfeiting, leasing all trade tailored. In terms of the length of financing, accounting funding is short-term (1-12 months and long-term financing (over a year. In principle, export and import operations prevailing short-term financing techniques, while international investment and industrial cooperation actions are specific long-term funding

  10. Unifying Memory and Database Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ricardo J.; Lourenço, João M.

    Software Transactional Memory is a concurrency control technique gaining increasing popularity, as it provides high-level concurrency control constructs and eases the development of highly multi-threaded applications. But this easiness comes at the expense of restricting the operations that can be executed within a memory transaction, and operations such as terminal and file I/O are either not allowed or incur in serious performance penalties. Database I/O is another example of operations that usually are not allowed within a memory transaction. This paper proposes to combine memory and database transactions in a single unified model, benefiting from the ACID properties of the database transactions and from the speed of main memory data processing. The new unified model covers, without differentiating, both memory and database operations. Thus, the users are allowed to freely intertwine memory and database accesses within the same transaction, knowing that the memory and database contents will always remain consistent and that the transaction will atomically abort or commit the operations in both memory and database. This approach allows to increase the granularity of the in-memory atomic actions and hence, simplifies the reasoning about them.

  11. Finite Projective Geometries and Classification of the Weight Hierarchies of Codes (I)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen De CHEN; Torleiv KLфVE

    2004-01-01

    The weight hierarchy of a binary linear [n, k] code C is the sequence (d1, d2,……, dk), where dr is the smallest support of an r-dimensional subcode of C. The codes of dimension 4 are collected in classes and the possible weight hierarchies in each class is determined by finite projective geometries.The possible weight hierarchies in class A, B, C, D are determined in Part (Ⅰ). The possible weight hierarchies in class E, F, G, H, I are determined in Part (Ⅱ).

  12. Assessment of Personal Goal Hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Marlene; Ford, Donald H.

    1983-01-01

    Developed a new method for measuring goal hierarchies, called the Adult Intentional and Motivational Systems Chart, by interviewing 53 men and constructing a system summarizing their goals. Results suggested the continued use of the chart for research on self-direction and adult development as well as intervention. (LLL)

  13. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  14. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Henok; Huizinga, Joost; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Clune, Jeff

    2016-06-01

    Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments). Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  15. Combinatorial solutions to integrable hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Kazarian, M.; Lando, S.

    2015-01-01

    We give a review of modern approaches to constructing formal solutions to integrable hierarchies of mathematical physics, whose coefficients are answers to various enumerative problems. The relationship between these approaches and combinatorics of symmetric groups and their representations is explained. Applications of the results to constructing efficient computations in problems related to models of quantum field theories are given.

  16. Dressing Technique for Intermediate Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Holod, P.; Pakuliak, S.

    1994-01-01

    A generalized AKNS systems introduced and discussed recently in \\cite{dGHM} are considered. It was shown that the dressing technique both in matrix pseudo-differential operators and formal series with respect to the spectral parameter can be developed for these hierarchies.

  17. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  18. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok Mengistu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments. Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  19. Quark masses without Yukawa hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia-Canal, C. [Plata Univ. Nacional, Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Dept. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, La Plata (Argentina); Ponce, W.A. [Antioquia Univ., Instituto de Fisica, Colombia La (Argentina)

    2005-12-15

    A model based on the local gauge group SU(3){sub c}*SU(3){sub L}*U(1){sub X} without particles with exotic electric charges is shown to be able to provide the quark mass spectrum and their mixing, by means of universal see-saw mechanisms, avoiding a hierarchy in the Yukawa coupling constants. (authors)

  20. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok Mengistu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments. Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  1. Adapting Memory Hierarchies for Emerging Datacenter Interconnects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江涛; 董建波; 侯锐; 柴琳; 张立新; 孙凝晖; 田斌

    2015-01-01

    Efficient resource utilization requires that emerging datacenter interconnects support both high performance communication and efficient remote resource sharing. These goals require that the network be more tightly coupled with the CPU chips. Designing a new interconnection technology thus requires considering not only the interconnection itself, but also the design of the processors that will rely on it. In this paper, we study memory hierarchy implications for the design of high-speed datacenter interconnects—particularly as they affect remote memory access—and we use PCIe as the vehicle for our investigations. To that end, we build three complementary platforms: a PCIe-interconnected prototype server with which we measure and analyze current bottlenecks; a software simulator that lets us model microarchitectural and cache hierarchy changes;and an FPGA prototype system with a streamlined switchless customized protocol Thunder with which we study hardware optimizations outside the processor. We highlight several architectural modifications to better support remote memory access and communication, and quantify their impact and limitations.

  2. Dynamic Self-Healing Mechanism for Transactional Business Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhai Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that transactional behavior consistency is a prerequisite and basis for construction of a reliable services-based business application. However, in previous works, maintaining transactional consistency during exception handling was ignored. Maintaining transactional consistency requires functionality for rolling back some operations and revoking uploaded data. Replacing only the failed service will eventually lead to overall business application failure. In this study, we take fully into account the behavioral consistency of transactional services and propose two effective self-healing mechanisms for service-based applications. If a service enters into potential failure condition, a rescheduling mechanism is triggered to maintain consistent transactional behavior and to ensure reliable execution; if a service fails during execution, the compensation operation is triggered and the system will take action to ensure transactional behavior consistency. Meanwhile, cost-benefit analysis with compensation support is proposed to minimize the dynamic reselection cost. Finally, the experimental analysis shows that the proposed strategies can effectively guarantee the reliability of Web-based applications system.

  3. Principles of Transactional Memory The Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Guerraoui, Rachid

    2010-01-01

    Transactional memory (TM) is an appealing paradigm for concurrent programming on shared memory architectures. With a TM, threads of an application communicate, and synchronize their actions, via in-memory transactions. Each transaction can perform any number of operations on shared data, and then either commit or abort. When the transaction commits, the effects of all its operations become immediately visible to other transactions; when it aborts, however, those effects are entirely discarded. Transactions are atomic: programmers get the illusion that every transaction executes all its operati

  4. A Test of the Need Hierarchy Concept by a Markov Model of Change in Need Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenberger, John; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In this study of 547 high school graduates, Alderfer's and Maslow's need hierarchy theories were expressed in Markov chain form and were subjected to empirical test. Both models were disconfirmed. Corroborative multiwave correlational analysis also failed to support the need hierarchy concept. (Author/IRT)

  5. A Test of the Need Hierarchy Concept by a Markov Model of Change in Need Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenberger, John; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In this study of 547 high school graduates, Alderfer's and Maslow's need hierarchy theories were expressed in Markov chain form and were subjected to empirical test. Both models were disconfirmed. Corroborative multiwave correlational analysis also failed to support the need hierarchy concept. (Author/IRT)

  6. Preferred hierarchy scales from the product landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Songlin Lv; Zheng Sun; Lina Wu

    2014-01-01

    The product landscape method has been recently proposed to solve hierarchy problems such as the cosmological constant problem. We suggest that the parameter distribution on logarithmic scales should be used as a benchmark for hierarchy, and the preferred hierarchy scales can be obtained from the distribution peak. It is shown that generating hierarchy from purely product distribution is very inefficient. To achieve a reasonably acceptable efficiency, other effects such as accumulation of weak...

  7. Vanishing point: Scale independence in geomorphological hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2016-08-01

    Scale linkage problems in geosciences are often associated with a hierarchy of components. Both dynamical systems perspectives and intuition suggest that processes or relationships operating at fundamentally different scales are independent with respect to influences on system dynamics. But how far apart is "fundamentally different"-that is, what is the "vanishing point" at which scales are no longer interdependent? And how do we reconcile that with the idea (again, supported by both theory and intuition) that we can work our way along scale hierarchies from microscale to planetary (and vice-versa)? Graph and network theory are employed here to address these questions. Analysis of two archetypal hierarchical networks shows low algebraic connectivity, indicating low levels of inferential synchronization. This explains the apparent paradox between scale independence and hierarchical linkages. Incorporating more hierarchical levels results in an increase in complexity or entropy of the network as a whole, but at a nonlinear rate. Complexity increases as a power α of the number of levels in the hierarchy, with α < 1 and usually ≤ 0.6. However, algebraic connectivity decreases at a more rapid rate. Thus, the ability to infer one part of the hierarchical network from other level decays rapidly as more levels are added. Relatedness among system components decreases with differences in scale or resolution, analogous to distance decay in the spatial domain. These findings suggest a strategy of identifying and focusing on the most important or interesting scale levels, rather than attempting to identify the smallest or largest scale levels and work top-down or bottom-up from there. Examples are given from soil geomorphology and karst flow networks.

  8. Generalized W-algebras and integrable hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Burroughs, N J; Hollowood, Timothy J; Miramontes, J L

    1992-01-01

    We report on generalizations of the KdV-type integrable hierarchies of Drinfel'd and Sokolov. These hierarchies lead to the existence of new classical $W$-algebras, which arise as the second Hamiltonian structure of the hierarchies. In particular, we present a construction of the $W_n^{(l)}$ algebras.

  9. Reductions of Lower Triangular Toda Hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helminck, G.F.; Mishina, Marina G.; Polenkova, Svetlana V.

    2007-01-01

    Deforming commutative algebras in the lower triangular (ℤ×ℤ)-matrices yields lower triangular Toda hierarchies and their associated nonlinear equations. Like for their counterpart in the ring of pseudodifferential operators, the KP-hierarchy, one also has for these hierarchies a geometric picture:

  10. The Role of Transaction Cost Theory in the Tradition of New Institutional Economics and Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Gurcaylilar-Yenidogan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study gives guidance on the transaction cost factors triggering the organizational choice among alternative governance forms and aims to identify areas for future research. Providing an introductory discussion on the role of transaction cost theory in the tradition of new institutional economics the study here treats the explanation capacity on governance issue of the conceptual models based on transaction cost theory from a critical perspective. Ongoing empirical research on governance choice provides findings supported by the arguments of resource-based view and relational view of governance in addition to the transaction cost theory. Accordingly, this study concludes by providing some insights on possible areas of future research.

  11. Extending the applicability of the analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizingh, K.R.E.; Vrolijk, H.C.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has often been used to support decisions that only have to be made once. in this study, we explore whether the AHP can be applied to repetitive decision-making. We suggest a variant of the process to elicit implicit decision models that evaluate alternatives not

  12. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  13. Object class hierarchy for an incremental hypertext editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colesnicov

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The object class hierarchy design is considered due to a hypertext editor implementation. The following basic classes were selected: the editor's coordinate system, the memory manager, the text buffer executing basic editing operations, the inherited hypertext buffer, the edit window, the multi-window shell. Special hypertext editing features, the incremental hypertext creation support and further generalizations are discussed.

  14. The Hierarchy of Minority Languages in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for the existence of a minority language hierarchy in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of language ideologies expressed in recent policy documents and interviews with policymakers and representatives of minority language communities, it presents the arguments forwarded in support of the promotion of different types of…

  15. Transactional interactive multimedia banner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shae, Zon-Yin; Wang, Xiping; von Kaenel, Juerg

    2000-05-01

    Advertising in TV broadcasting has shown that multimedia is a very effective means to present merchandise and attract shoppers. This has been applied to the Web by including animated multimedia banner ads on web pages. However, the issues of coupling interactive browsing, shopping, and secure transactions e.g. from inside a multimedia banner, have only recently started to being explored. Currently there is an explosively growing amount of back-end services available (e.g., business to business commerce (B2B), business to consumer (B2C) commerce, and infomercial services) in the Internet. These services are mostly accessible through static HTML web pages at a few specific web portals. In this paper, we will investigate the feasibility of using interactive multimedia banners as pervasive access point for the B2C, B2B, and infomercial services. We present a system architecture that involves a layer of middleware agents functioning as the bridge between the interactive multimedia banners and back-end services.

  16. Do transactive memory and participative teamwork improve nurses' quality of work life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunault, Paul; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Colombat, Philippe; Gillet, Nicolas; El-Hage, Wissam; Camus, Vincent; Gaillard, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Improvement in nurses' quality of work life (QWL) has become a major issue in health care organizations. We hypothesized that the level of transactive memory (defined as the way groups collectively encode, store, and retrieve knowledge) and participative teamwork (an organizational model of care based on vocational training, a specific service's care project, and regular interdisciplinary staffing) positively affect nurses' QWL. This cross-sectional study enrolled 84 ward-based psychiatric nurses. We assessed transactive memory, participative teamwork, perceived organizational justice, perceived organizational support, and QWL using psychometrically reliable and valid scales. Participative teamwork and transactive memory were positively associated with nurses' QWL. Perceived organizational support and organizational justice fully mediated the relationship between participative teamwork and QWL, but not between transactive memory and QWL. Improved transactive memory could directly improve nurses' QWL. Improved participative teamwork could improve nurses' QWL through better perceived organizational support and perceived organizational justice.

  17. Real-Time Wait-Free Queues using Micro-Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meawad, Fadi; Iyer, Karthik; Schoeberl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the applicability of transactional mem- ory to the implementation of dierent non-blocking data structures in the context of the Real-time Specication for Java. In particular, we argue that hardware support for micro-transaction allows us to implement eciently data structures ...

  18. Do Transaction Costs and Risk Preferences Influence Marketing Arrangements in the Illinois Hog Industry?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, J.R.V.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2009-01-01

    Risk reduction and transaction costs are often used to explain contracting in the U.S. hog industry with little empirical support. Using a unified conceptual framework that draws from risk behavior and transaction cost theories, in combination with unique survey and accounting data, we demonstrate

  19. Understanding Transactional Distance in Web-Based Learning Environments: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Chandra, Aruna; DePaolo, Concetta A.; Simmons, Lakisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Transactional distance is an important pedagogical theory in distance education that calls for more empirical support. The purpose of this study was to verify the theory by operationalizing and examining the relationship of (1) dialogue, structure and learner autonomy to transactional distance, and (2) environmental factors and learner demographic…

  20. Cognitive hierarchy theory and two-person games

    CERN Document Server

    Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-01-01

    The outcome of many social and economic interactions, such as stock-market transactions, is strongly determined by the predictions that agents make about the behavior of other individuals. Cognitive Hierarchy Theory provides a framework to model the consequences of forecasting accuracy that has proven to fit data from certain types of game theory experiments, such as Keynesian Beauty Contests and Entry Games. Here, we focus on symmetric two-players-two-actions games and establish an algorithm to find the players' strategies according to the Cognitive Hierarchy Approach. We show that the Snowdrift Game exhibits a pattern of behavior whose complexity grows as the cognitive levels of players increases. In addition to finding the solutions up to the third cognitive level, we demonstrate, in this theoretical frame, two new properties of snowdrift games: i) any snowdrift game can be characterized by only a parameter -- its class, ii) they are anti-symmetric with respect to the diagonal of the pay-off's space. Final...

  1. The stochastic integrable AKNS hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaudon, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    We derive a stochastic AKNS hierarchy using geometrical methods. The integrability is shown via a stochastic zero curvature relation associated with a stochastic isospectral problem. We expose some of the stochastic integrable partial differential equations which extend the stochastic KdV equation discovered by M. Wadati in 1983 for all the AKNS flows. We also show how to find stochastic solitons from the stochastic evolution of the scattering data of the stochastic IST. We finally expose som...

  2. KP hierarchy for Hodge integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Kazarian, M.

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the ELSV formula, we derive a number of new equations on the generating functions for Hodge integrals over the moduli space of complex curves. This gives a new simple and uniform treatment of certain known results on Hodge integrals like Witten's conjecture, Virasoro constrains, Faber's lambda_g conjecture etc. Among other results we show that a properly arranged generating function for Hodge integrals satisfies the equations of the KP hierarchy.

  3. Combinatorial solutions to integrable hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, M. E.; Lando, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews modern approaches to the construction of formal solutions to integrable hierarchies of mathematical physics whose coefficients are answers to various enumerative problems. The relationship between these approaches and the combinatorics of symmetric groups and their representations is explained. Applications of the results to the construction of efficient computations in problems related to models of quantum field theories are described. Bibliography: 34 titles.

  4. Hierarchy Measure for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Lilla; Vicsek, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people). Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes) together with their relations (edges). Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure) which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks and, as we demonstrate, is capable of capturing the essential features of the structure and the degree of hierarchy in a complex network. The measure we introduce is based on a generalization of the m-reach centrality, which we first extend to directed/partially directed graphs. Then, we define the global reaching centrality (GRC), which is the difference between the maximum and the average value of the generalized reach centralities over the network. We investigate the behavior of the GRC considering both a synthetic model with an adjustable level of hierarchy and real networks. Results for real networks show that our hierarchy measure is related to the controllability of the given system. We also propose a visualization procedure for large complex networks that can be used to obtain an overall qualitative picture about the nature of their hierarchical structure. PMID:22470477

  5. Automatic Transaction Compensation for Reliable Grid Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei-Long Tang; Ming-Lu Li; Joshua Zhexue Huang

    2006-01-01

    As grid technology is expanding from scientific computing to business applications, service oriented grid computing is aimed at providing reliable services for users and hiding complexity of service processes from them. The grid services for coordinating long-lived transactions that occur in business applications play an important role in reliable grid applications. In this paper, the grid transaction service (GridTS) is proposed for dealing with long-lived business transactions. We present a compensation-based long-lived transaction coordination algorithm that enables users to select results from committed sub-transactions. Unlike other long-lived transaction models that require application programmers to develop corresponding compensating transactions, GridTS can automatically generate compensating transactions on execution of a long-lived grid transaction. The simulation result has demonstrated the feasibility of GridTS and effectiveness of the corresponding algorithm.

  6. FAMILY CONFLICT MODERATES EARLY PARENT-CHILD BEHAVIORAL TRANSACTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Katherine W; Barnett, Melissa A; Mastergeorge, Ann M; Mortensen, Jennifer A

    2017-09-01

    The reciprocal transactions that shape early parent-child relationships are influenced by contextual stress, such as family conflict. Although family conflict is a salient stressor to the family system, few studies have considered how parent-child transactions vary according to exposure to family conflict. The present study examined how family conflict alters early parent-child behavioral transactions. We utilized three waves of data from a multisite longitudinal study of low-income families (N = 2, 876), child age 14 months, 24 months, and 36 months, to identify behavioral transactions of positive and negative maternal (supportiveness, negative regard) and child (engagement, negativity) behaviors. Results indicated that family conflict at 14 months diminished the positive association between maternal supportiveness and child engagement, and amplified the inverse association between maternal negativity and child engagement. Family conflict at 14 months also was associated with increased stability of child negativity and subsequent increased maternal negative regard at 36 months, in part via increases in 24-month child negativity. In sum, family conflict occurring early in childhood predicted and moderated behavioral transactions between young children and their mothers. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. Memory Hierarchy Sensitive Graph Layout

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Amitabha

    2012-01-01

    Mining large graphs for information is becoming an increasingly important workload due to the plethora of graph structured data becoming available. An aspect of graph algorithms that has hitherto not received much interest is the effect of memory hierarchy on accesses. A typical system today has multiple levels in the memory hierarchy with differing units of locality; ranging across cache lines, TLB entries and DRAM pages. We postulate that it is possible to allocate graph structured data in main memory in a way as to improve the spatial locality of the data. Previous approaches to improving cache locality have focused only on a single unit of locality, either the cache line or virtual memory page. On the other hand cache oblivious algorithms can optimise layout for all levels of the memory hierarchy but unfortunately need to be specially designed for individual data structures. In this paper we explore hierarchical blocking as a technique for closing this gap. We require as input a specification of the units...

  8. Hierarchy of knowledge in GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An intelligent geographic information system (GIS) has to handle various types and huge volumes of geoscience-related knowledge as well as enormous amounts of data and information. More recent attention concentrates on collection,represen-tation,management,and usage of knowledge. This article presents a three-tier hi-erarchy for geoscience knowledge in a GIS. The first tier is for knowledge of data. It includes knowledge of feature objects definition,data structure,data model,and relations among data as well as rules,restrictions,and regulations about data. The second tier is for knowledge of processing. It describes analysis models,data processing procedures,workflows,and conditions. The third tier contains knowl-edge of a GIS for the public sector. This tier provides knowledge to people on how to access this GIS and what the GIS can do. The three-tier hierarchy of knowledge in a GIS provides an understandable and practical category frame to handle geo-science knowledge. One of the advantages of this hierarchy is that it separates system resource consumption into different stages so it can avoid exhausting the system at peak times when the GIS handles a complex,large task.

  9. Solving the Wrong Hierarchy Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, Nikita

    2016-01-01

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and $\\mathbb{Z}_2$-symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop thi...

  10. Solving the wrong hierarchy problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinov, Nikita; Hook, Anson

    2016-06-01

    Many theories require augmenting the Standard Model with additional scalar fields with large order one couplings. We present a new solution to the hierarchy problem for these scalar fields. We explore parity- and Z_2 -symmetric theories where the Standard Model Higgs potential has two vacua. The parity or Z_2 copy of the Higgs lives in the minimum far from the origin while our Higgs occupies the minimum near the origin of the potential. This approach results in a theory with multiple light scalar fields but with only a single hierarchy problem, since the bare mass is tied to the Higgs mass by a discrete symmetry. The new scalar does not have a new hierarchy problem associated with it because its expectation value and mass are generated by dimensional transmutation of the scalar quartic coupling. The location of the second Higgs minimum is not a free parameter, but is rather a function of the matter content of the theory. As a result, these theories are extremely predictive. We develop this idea in the context of a solution to the strong CP problem. We show this mechanism postdicts the top Yukawa to be within 1 σ of the currently measured value and predicts scalar color octets with masses in the range 9-200 TeV.

  11. Analysis of Transaction and Concurrency Mechanism in Two Way Waiting Algorithm for different Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.CHANDRA SEKHAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Database is the well-organized collection of data in a meaningful way that user can perform the transaction. Transaction is a sequence of many actions considered to be atomic. In the coming months or years you will probably be implementing applications for multiple users to use across a network. Client/server environments are designed specifically for this purpose. Traditionally, a server (in this case, a database server supports multiple network connections to it. As often happens with technology, this newfound flexibility adds a new degree of complexity to the environment. The throughput of the transactions can be increased by performing the transactions in parallel. Transactions are performed in parallel without infringing the data integrity. When the transactions are executing in parallel then this will lead to concurrency in database and deadlock of the transaction. This work will analyze how and is done to prevent the occurrence of deadlock and also improves system performance by shrink the number of restarts transaction which also saves the time and cost for performing the transaction in the system. So, it improves the efficiency of the distributed system.

  12. Analysis of Transaction Costs in Logistics and the Methodologies for Their Information Reflection for Automotive Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Evgen’evna Kovrizhnykh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transaction costs emerge in different types of logistics activities and influence the material flow and the accompanying financial and information flows; due to this fact, the information support and assessment are important tasks for the enterprise. The paper analyzes transaction costs in logistics for automotive manufacturers; according to the analysis, the level of these costs in any functional area of “logistics supply” ranges from 1.5 to 20%. These are only the official figures of transaction costs of enterprises that do not take into consideration implicit costs. Despite the growing interest in transaction costs in logistics in the latest fifteen years, this topic is covered rather poorly in Russian literature; the definition of “transaction costs” is unclear, there is no technique of their information reflection and assessment. We have developed the methods for information reflection of transaction costs that can be used by automotive enterprises. Each enterprise will have an opportunity to choose the most suitable technique for information reflection of transaction costs or to compare the level of transaction costs when using different techniques. Application of techniques for information reflection of transaction costs allows the enterprises to increase profits by optimizing and reducing costs and using their assets more effectively, to identify possible ways to improve cost parameters of their performance, to improve their efficiency and productivity; to cut out unnecessary or duplicate activities, to optimize the number of staff involved in a particular activity

  13. HTML thin client and transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Touchette, J F

    1999-01-01

    When writing applications for thin clients such as Web browsers, you face several challenges that do not exist with fat-client applications written in Visual Basic, Delphi, or Java. For one thing, your development tools do not include facilities for automatically building reliable, nonrepeatable transactions into applications. Consequently, you must devise your own techniques to prevent users from transmitting duplicate transactions. The author explains how to implement reliable, nonrepeatable transactions using a technique that is applicable to any Java Server Development Kit based architecture. Although the examples presented are based on the IBM WebSphere 2.1 Application Server, they do not make use of any IBM WebSphere extensions. In short, the concepts presented here can be implemented in Perl CGI and ASP scripts, and the sample code has been tested with JDK 1.1.6 and 1.2. (0 refs).

  14. Decision, Transaction, Law and Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    Copy from ”Preface to Post Doctoral Dissertation” ”Decision, transaction, law and contract” The period since 1970 has witnessed an explosion in contributions to what is now often referred to as the new institutional economics. One of the most influential (but also most atypical) of these approaches...... traditional neo-classical economic theory have been analyzed using this framework. Prominent examples are analyses of vertical integration, the M-form organization and the employment relation. The purpose of this dissertation has been to develop the “Williamsonian” tradition in transaction cost economics...... is transaction cost economics in the tradition of Oliver E. Williamson. The foundation for this tradition was laid by 1991 Nobel Laureate Ronald Coase in a paper, “The Nature of the Firm” in 1937. But the breakthrough as an influential research program was achieved with Williamson’s influential “Markets...

  15. Security of the Internet Transactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Felix Musau; Shengbing Ren; Shouyi Yu

    2002-01-01

    The new generation of networked business solutions brings legacy data and applications to the world wide Web, and lets companies redefine internal and external business processes. The present need for internet transaction has forced many business to adopt the internet forms of distribution of its business items. This has threatened security, hence needs to be given a key priority. This paper alights the key areas on how to protect the information we transact on the internet. It also aims at improving the security of our data and the computers we use to access this data.

  16. Money laundering: correlation between risk assessment and suspicious transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Cindori

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk assessment system was introduced in the Republic of Croatia in 2009, as a result of harmonization with international standards, especially the Directive 2005/60/EC on the prevention of the use of the financial system for the purpose of money laundering and terrorist financing. Risk assessment is an extensive concept which requires not only a legislative framework, but also the application of numerous criteria for its effective implementation in practice. Among these criteria are suspicious transactions, closely related to the assessment of the customer, transaction, product or service.The undeniable contribution of suspicious transactions to the quality of the risk assessment system will be confirmed by a statistical analysis of a number of West and East European countries. A combination of strict, but sufficiently flexible legal provisions governing the system for prevention of money laundering and terrorist financing and a statistical analysis of reported suspicious transactions will lead to conclusions that either support or represent criticism of the efficiency of application of the risk assessment system in practice.The aforementioned statistical analysis will show whether suspicious transactions are a reliable criterion for the risk assessment analysis, and whether they can be considered the only such criterion. There is a possibility that the findings of the analysis will be contradictory to those of some international studies.

  17. Transactions in domain-specific information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacek, Jaroslav

    2017-07-01

    Substantial number of the current information system (IS) implementations is based on transaction approach. In addition, most of the implementations are domain-specific (e.g. accounting IS, resource planning IS). Therefore, we have to have a generic transaction model to build and verify domain-specific IS. The paper proposes a new transaction model for domain-specific ontologies. This model is based on value oriented business process modelling technique. The transaction model is formalized by the Petri Net theory. First part of the paper presents common business processes and analyses related to business process modeling. Second part defines the transactional model delimited by REA enterprise ontology paradigm and introduces states of the generic transaction model. The generic model proposal is defined and visualized by the Petri Net modelling tool. Third part shows application of the generic transaction model. Last part of the paper concludes results and discusses a practical usability of the generic transaction model.

  18. Transactions Concurrency Control in Web Service Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    an engineering point of view as it does not change the way consumers or clients of web services have to be programmed. Furthermore, it avoids direct communication between transaction coordinators which preserves security by keeping the information about business transactions restricted to the coordinators which......Business transactions in web service environments run with relaxed isolation and atomicity property. In such environments, transactions can commit and roll back independently on each other. Transaction management has to reflect this issue and address the problems which result for example from...... concurrent access to web service resources and data. In this paper we propose an extension to the WS-Transaction Protocol which ensures the consistency of the data when independent business transactions access the data concurrently under the relaxed transaction properties. Our extension is based...

  19. Leadership in Academic Health Centers: Transactional and Transformational Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick O

    2015-12-01

    Leadership is a crucial component to the success of academic health science centers (AHCs) within the shifting U.S. healthcare environment. Leadership talent acquisition and development within AHCs is immature and approaches to leadership and its evolution will be inevitable to refine operations to accomplish the critical missions of clinical service delivery, the medical education continuum, and innovations toward discovery. To reach higher organizational outcomes in AHCs requires a reflection on what leadership approaches are in place and how they can better support these missions. Transactional leadership approaches are traditionally used in AHCs and this commentary suggests that movement toward a transformational approach is a performance improvement opportunity for AHC leaders. This commentary describes the transactional and transformational approaches, how they complement each other, and how to access the transformational approach. Drawing on behavioral sciences, suggestions are made on how a transactional leader can change her cognitions to align with the four dimensions of the transformational leadership approach.

  20. A Method for Visualizing Transaction Logs of a Faceted OPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Niu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors introduce a method for visualizing user transaction logs from a library catalog application. Simple visualization supporting intuitive or qualitative analysis to quickly make sense of complicated patterns can be a useful supplement or alternative to more common quantitative analysis. To this end, a visual flowchart is created illustrating an individual user session. This visualization can be used to qualitatively grasp user behavior within the application, possibly as an aid to identifying patterns or clusters of use. These flowcharts are created by automatically pre-processing apache transaction logs into an XML representation of meaningful user actions, which are then converted via JavaScript in a web browser to HTML table based flowcharts. The particular toolkit introduced is named Visualization for Understanding Transaction Logs (VUTL, and is available with an open source license. The toolkit has been prototyped with logs from the catalog applications of several academic and one public library.

  1. Multi-Core Cache Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramonian, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    A key determinant of overall system performance and power dissipation is the cache hierarchy since access to off-chip memory consumes many more cycles and energy than on-chip accesses. In addition, multi-core processors are expected to place ever higher bandwidth demands on the memory system. All these issues make it important to avoid off-chip memory access by improving the efficiency of the on-chip cache. Future multi-core processors will have many large cache banks connected by a network and shared by many cores. Hence, many important problems must be solved: cache resources must be allocat

  2. Weight hierarchies of linear codes satisfying the almost chain condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The weight hierarchy of a linear [n, k; q] code C over GF(q) is the sequence (d1, d2,…,dk) where dr is the size of the smallest support of an r-dimensional subcode of C. An [n, k; q] codehas dimension r and support of size dr for all r. Further, C satisfies the almost chain condition ifit does not satisfy the chain condition, but there exist subcodes Dr of dimension r and support offor a sequence to be the weight hierarchy of a code satisfying the almost chain condition is given.Further, explicit constructions of such codes are given, showing that in almost all cases, the necessaryconditions are also sufficient.

  3. Emergent Power Hierarchies and Group Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauendorfer, Denise; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Sanchez-Cortes, Dairazalia; Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    In newly formed groups, informal hierarchies emerge automatically and readily. In this study, we argue that emergent group hierarchies enhance group performance (Hypothesis 1) and we assume that the more the power hierarchy within a group corresponds to the task-competence differences of the individual group members, the better the group performs (Hypothesis 2). Twelve three-person groups and 28 four-person groups were investigated while solving the Winter Survival Task. Results show that emerging power hierarchies positively impact group performance but the alignment between task-competence and power hierarchy did not affect group performance. Thus, emergent power hierarchies are beneficial for group performance and although they were on average created around individual group members' competence, this correspondence was not a prerequisite for better group performance.

  4. Generalized NLS Hierarchies from Rational $W$ Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Toppan, F

    1994-01-01

    Finite rational $\\cw$ algebras are very natural structures appearing in coset constructions when a Kac-Moody subalgebra is factored out. In this letter we address the problem of relating these algebras to integrable hierarchies of equations, by showing how to associate to a rational $\\cw$ algebra its corresponding hierarchy. We work out two examples: the $sl(2)/U(1)$ coset, leading to the Non-Linear Schr\\"{o}dinger hierarchy, and the $U(1)$ coset of the Polyakov-Bershadsky $\\cw$ algebra, leading to a $3$-field representation of the KP hierarchy already encountered in the literature. In such examples a rational algebra appears as algebra of constraints when reducing a KP hierarchy to a finite field representation. This fact arises the natural question whether rational algebras are always associated to such reductions and whether a classification of rational algebras can lead to a classification of the integrable hierarchies.

  5. Transaction Costs, Information Technology and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Nirvikar

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores potential channels through which information technology (IT) affects economic development. The channel emphasized here is the reduction of transaction costs through the use of information technology. We discuss the nature of transaction costs, their possible impacts on economic outcomes, and the impacts of IT on transaction costs. We provide a theoretical discussion of how a reduction in transaction costs may affect the number of intermediate goods that are produced, and i...

  6. Explaining the Value of Transactional Lawyering

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarcz, Steven L.

    2006-01-01

    This article attempts, empirically, to explain the value that lawyers add when acting as counsel to parties in business transactions. Contrary to existing scholarship, which is based mostly on theory, this article shows that transactional lawyers add value primarily by reducing regulatory costs, thereby challenging the reigning models of transactional lawyers as "transaction cost engineers" and "reputational intermediaries." This new model not only helps inform contract theory but also reveal...

  7. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1999-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this en...... a native and modular implementation of the entire hierarchy. We illustrate it with several examples, the most significant of which is layered monads....

  8. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1998-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end...... a native and modular implementation of the entire hierarchy. We illustrate it with several examples, the most significant of which is layered monads....

  9. Nonblocking Scheduling for Web Service Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Balke, Wolf-Tilo; Dolog, Peter

    2007-01-01

    For improved flexibility and concurrent usage existing transaction management models for Web services relax the isolation property of Web service-based transactions. Correctness of the concurrent execution then has to be ensured by commit order-preserving transaction schedulers. However, local...

  10. A Strategic Market Game with Transactions Costs,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-30

    Hahn, F. M. (1971), "Equilibrium with Transaction Cost ," Econo- metrica, 39, 417-439. [91 Hicks, J. R. (1938), Value and Capital, Oxford University...of an Exchange Economy with Transaction Cost ," International Economic Review, 15, 699-717. [12] Kurz, M. (1974b), "Equilibrium with Transaction Costs

  11. Reactions to Corporate Insider’s Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar; Søpstad, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    . Based on a comprehensive collection of stock market announcements from Danish CEOs and chairmen we find that insiders’ transactions influence share prices. However, it appears that there is a surprisingly difference, as buy transactions by chairmen have a much higher impact compared to CEO transactions...

  12. 31 CFR 547.406 - Offshore transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offshore transactions. 547.406 Section 547.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 547.406 Offshore transactions. The prohibitions in § 547.201 on transactions or...

  13. Transactions on Computational Science IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 9th issue of the Transactions on Computational Science journal, edited by François Anton, is devoted to the subject of Voronoi diagrams in science and engineering. The 9 papers included in the issue constitute extended versions of selected papers from the International Symposium on Voronoi...

  14. Transactions on Computational Science IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 9th issue of the Transactions on Computational Science journal, edited by François Anton, is devoted to the subject of Voronoi diagrams in science and engineering. The 9 papers included in the issue constitute extended versions of selected papers from the International Symposium on Voronoi...

  15. Reconsidering Moore's Transactional Distance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giossos, Yiannis; Koutsouba, Maria; Lionarakis, Antonis; Skavantzos, Kosmas

    2009-01-01

    One of the core theories of distance education is Michael Graham Moore's "Theory of Transactional Distance" that provides the broad framework of the pedagogy of distance education and allows the generation of almost infinite number of hypotheses for research. However, the review of the existing studies relating to the theory showed the use of a…

  16. Queuing Theory and Reference Transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbille, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Examines the implications of applying the queuing theory to three different reference situations: (1) random patron arrivals; (2) random durations of transactions; and (3) use of two librarians. Tables and figures represent results from spreadsheet calculations of queues for each reference situation. (JMV)

  17. The Appropriateness of Hierarchies (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the early days of EBLIP, then referred to as evidence based librarianship (EBL, there were calls to strengthen our research base with "better" forms of evidence. These proposed better quality research methods were all quantitative and I admit myself to saying that ‚librarianship tends to reflect more qualitative, social sciences/humanities in its research methods and study types which tend to be less rigorous and more prone to bias‛ (Crumley and Koufogiannakis 2002, p.61. Although this was not meant to be a slight to qualitative research, I can see how it came across as one. Now, I would not put ‚less rigorous and more prone to bias‛ in that sentence, although the first half of the statement certainly still holds true. In our 2002 article, the general point that Ellen Crumley and I were trying to make is that a medical style research hierarchy is not a good fit for librarianship, where qualitative methods are generally more appropriate. At that time, we proposed a ‚core-centred approach to librarianship research‛ (p.68 rather than a hierarchical one, although this did not gain much traction within the EBLIP literature. We noted: ‚rather than relying on an evidence hierarchy, which is an artificial concept for librarians, Fig.3 suggests a core-centred approach. The types of studies that are likely to be conducted by librarians are placed near the centre, moving from a hierarchical to an encompassing model. … *This+ presents a more equitable view of a model for research in the profession‛ (p.67.Today I am even more resolved that it is time to remove the concept of a hierarchy of evidence from EBLIP. This concept is tied very closely to the medical model of evidence based medicine (EBM and is solely focused on quantitative research. Library and information studies (LIS is a social sciences discipline and as such is concerned mostly with questions of why we do things and how people function in the world. The actions of people

  18. Social Hierarchy and Depression: The Role of Emotion Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Carrie A.; Epel, Elissa; Matthews, Karen; Moskowitz, Judith T.; Adler, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of women. Low social power was related to greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by emotion suppression. Study 2 examined education as a proxy for social hierarchy position, anger suppression, and depressive symptoms in a national, longitudinal cohort study (The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study). Similar to Study 1, low education levels were correlated with greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by anger suppression. Further, suppression mediated the relationship between low education and subsequent depression up to 15 years later. These findings support the theory that social hierarchy affects mental health in part through a process of emotion suppression. PMID:22808688

  19. Influences of transaction costs in environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggan, Anthea [CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, 306 Carmody Rd., St. Lucia, Qld, 4067 (Australia); Whitten, Stuart M. [CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Gungahlin Homestead, Bellenden St., Gungahlin, Canberra (Australia); Bennett, Jeff [Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    There is a growing literature reporting the extent of transaction costs for environmental policies. However understanding why transaction costs occur and why they are small or large is also important for efficient policy selection and evaluation. Following an analysis of the organisational economics literature and reports of the extent of transaction costs for a number of environmental policies, three key influences to transaction costs in environmental policies are identified. These are the following: (1) the characteristics of the transaction for the environmental good; (2) the nature of the transactors; and (3) the current institutional environment and arrangements. These affect transaction costs to the government and all other parties influenced by a policy. Transaction costs occur due to actions of information collection and policy design, policy enactment and establishment, implementation and contracting, administration and monitoring, and enforcement. An interrogation of transaction cost influences reveals that: (1) the influence varies between parties and is affected by the actions and interactions of and between all parties to a policy; (2) how transaction costs are experienced varies across time; and (3) who experiences transaction costs depends on the policy itself. Future policy selection and refinement will benefit from empirical analysis of the causes of transaction costs. (author)

  20. Transactions Concurrency Control in Web Service Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrifai, Mohammad; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    on transaction dependency graphs maintained at the service provider side. We have implemented such a protocol on top of WS-Transaction. The extension on the web service provider side is simple to achieve as it can be an integral part of the service invocation mechanism. It has also an advantage from...... an engineering point of view as it does not change the way consumers or clients of web services have to be programmed. Furthermore, it avoids direct communication between transaction coordinators which preserves security by keeping the information about business transactions restricted to the coordinators which......Business transactions in web service environments run with relaxed isolation and atomicity property. In such environments, transactions can commit and roll back independently on each other. Transaction management has to reflect this issue and address the problems which result for example from...

  1. Sustainability Standards and the Reorganization of Private Label Supply Chains: A Transaction Cost Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Banterle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Private standards are among the main measures that can be implemented to differentiate food production. Retailers have been particularly active in setting food safety and quality systems for the development of their private labels. The purpose of this paper is to identify the effects of introducing measures that guarantee the environmental sustainability of food production on vertical dyadic relations. We focus our attention on the adoption of integrated pest management (IPM systems that are designed by retailers to support private label products, with the aim of studying how these systems affect the governance structure of transactions between retailer and farmer/processor. Transaction cost analysis is used as theoretical framework to assess changes in vertical coordination after the adoption of an IPM system. Four case studies related to food retailers in Italy were analyzed to identify changes in transaction characteristics, costs, and governance that are related to the adoption of this system. The results show that the introduction of an IPM system leads to an increase of transaction asset specificity (i.e., especially of human and material asset specificity among the agents of the supply chain, and a decrease of the degree of transaction uncertainty. The variations in transaction characteristics determine changes in transaction costs. These changes lead to new hybrid forms of transaction governance, namely dyadic contracts, and a centralized organization of vertical relationships.

  2. A descending hierarchy of reflection principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper can best be viewed as a portrait in miniature of a fascinating structure: a. descending hierarchy of reflection principles. Ascending hierarchies of reflection principles are amply studied, e.g. in Feferman's great paper Transfinite Recursive Progressions of Axiomatic Theories (Feferman[l

  3. Ordinal ultrafilters versus P-hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Starosolski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    An earlier paper, entitled "P-hierarchy on $\\beta\\omega$", investigated the relations between ordinal ultrafilters and the so-called P-hierarchy. This study is continued in the present paper and focuses on the aspects of characterization of classes of finite index, existence, generic existence and the Rudin-Keisler-order.

  4. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  5. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  6. Hierarchy of Modular Graph Identities

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hoker, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analy...

  7. A hierarchy of Poisson brackets

    CERN Document Server

    Pavelka, Michal; Esen, Ogul; Grmela, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    The vector field generating reversible time evolution of macroscopic systems involves two ingredients: gradient of a potential (a covector) and a degenerate Poisson structure transforming the covector into a vector. The Poisson structure is conveniently expressed in Poisson brackets, its degeneracy in their Casimirs (i.e. potentials whose gradients produce no vector field). In this paper we investigate in detail hierarchies of Poisson brackets, together with their Casimirs, that arise in passages from more to less detailed (i.e. more macroscopic) descriptions. In particular, we investigate the passage from mechanics of particles (in its Liouville representation) to the reversible kinetic theory and the passage from the reversible kinetic theory to the reversible fluid mechanics. From the physical point of view, the investigation includes binary mixtures and two-point formulations suitable for describing turbulent flows. From the mathematical point of view, we reveal the Lie algebra structure involved in the p...

  8. Hierarchy measure for complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people). Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes) together with their relations (edges). Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure) which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks...

  9. Flavor hierarchies from dynamical scales

    CERN Document Server

    Panico, Giuliano

    2016-07-20

    One main obstacle for any beyond the SM (BSM) scenario solving the hierarchy problem is its potentially large contributions to electric dipole moments. An elegant way to avoid this problem is to have the light SM fermions couple to the BSM sector only through bilinears, $\\bar ff$. This possibility can be neatly implemented in composite Higgs models. We study the implications of dynamically generating the fermion Yukawa couplings at different scales, relating larger scales to lighter SM fermions. We show that all flavor and CP-violating constraints can be easily accommodated for a BSM scale of few TeV, without requiring any extra symmetry. Contributions to B physics are mainly mediated by the top, giving a predictive pattern of deviations in $\\Delta F=2$ and $\\Delta F=1$ flavor observables that could be seen in future experiments.

  10. Normalization of Class Hierarchy in Databases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天柱; 肖计田; 等

    1996-01-01

    In complex object oriented databases,the purpose of introducing class hierarchy is to express ISA semantics,to realize inheriting and to reuse schema definition codes.The schema defintition and schema evolution,based on the partial order of lattice,often cause the loss o information inheriting and the redundance of schema definition.Based on the fullness of the inheritance shown by class hierarchy,three normal forms of class hierarchy are given in this paper,and a general algorithm of normalization of class hierarchy is presented,following the Boolean algebra model of class hierarchy.The loss of information inheritance can be avoided when they are applied to schema design and schema evolution.

  11. Is there a hierarchy of survival reflexes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphail, Kieran

    2013-10-01

    A hierarchy of survival reflexes for prioritising assessment and treatment in patients with pain of insidious onset is hypothesised. The hierarchy asserts that some systems are more vital than others and that the central nervous system (CNS) prioritises systems based on their significance to survival. The hypothesis suggests that dysfunction in more important systems will cause compensation in less important systems. This paper presents studies examining these effects for each system, arguing that each section of the hierarchy may have effects on other systems within the hierarchy. This concept is untested empirically, highly speculative and substantial research is required to validate the suggested hierarchical prioritisation by the CNS. Nonetheless, the hierarchy does provide a theoretical framework to use to exclude contributing systems in patients with pain of insidious onset. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Detectability of ranking hierarchies in directed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Letizia, Elisa; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Identifying hierarchies and rankings of nodes in directed graphs is fundamental in many applications such as social network analysis, biology, economics, and finance. A recently proposed method identifies the hierarchy by finding the ordered partition of nodes which minimizes a score function, termed agony. This function penalizes the links violating the hierarchy in a way depending on the strength of the violation. To investigate the detectability of ranking hierarchies we introduce an ensemble of random graphs, the Hierarchical Stochastic Block Model. We find that agony may fail to identify hierarchies when the structure is not strong enough and the size of the classes is small with respect to the whole network. We analytically characterize the detectability threshold and we show that an iterated version of agony can partly overcome this resolution limit.

  13. The recursion operator for a constrained CKP hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chuanzhong; He, Jingsong; Cheng, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a recursion operator for a 1-constrained CKP hierarchy, and by the recursion operator it proves that the 1-constrained CKP hierarchy can be reduced to the mKdV hierarchy under condition $q=r$.

  14. The recursion operator for a constrained CKP hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chuanzhong; Tian, Kelei; He, Jingsong; Cheng, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a recursion operator for a 1-constrained CKP hierarchy, and by the recursion operator it proves that the 1-constrained CKP hierarchy can be reduced to the mKdV hierarchy under condition $q=r$.

  15. PayPal Transactions Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Toader

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent threads to prominent organizations and companies have greatly increased the need for information security. Many measures have been designed and developed to guard against threats from outsider attacks. Technologies are actively implemented to prohibit such attacks that could actively prohibit rogue connections. In this paper, common vulnerabilities for PayPal transactions identified as well as solutions for defending against them.

  16. Identifying Bitcoin users by transaction behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, John V.

    2015-05-01

    Digital currencies, such as Bitcoin, offer convenience and security to criminals operating in the black marketplace. Some Bitcoin marketplaces, such as Silk Road, even claim anonymity. This claim contradicts the findings in this work, where long term transactional behavior is used to identify and verify account holders. Transaction timestamps and network properties observed over time contribute to this finding. The timestamp of each transaction is the result of many factors: the desire purchase an item, daily schedule and activities, as well as hardware and network latency. Dynamic network properties of the transaction, such as coin flow and the number of edge outputs and inputs, contribute further to reveal account identity. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology for identifying and verifying Bitcoin users based on the observation of Bitcoin transactions over time. The behavior we attempt to quantify roughly occurs in the social band of Newell's time scale. A subset of the Blockchain 230686 is taken, selecting users that initiated between 100 and 1000 unique transactions per month for at least 6 different months. This dataset shows evidence of being nonrandom and nonlinear, thus a dynamical systems approach is taken. Classification and authentication accuracies are obtained under various representations of the monthly Bitcoin samples: outgoing transactions, as well as both outgoing and incoming transactions are considered, along with the timing and dynamic network properties of transaction sequences. The most appropriate representations of monthly Bitcoin samples are proposed. Results show an inherent lack of anonymity by exploiting patterns in long-term transactional behavior.

  17. Visualizing Dynamic Bitcoin Transaction Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Dan; Birch, David; Akroyd, David; Molina-Solana, Miguel; Guo, Yike; Knottenbelt, William J

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a systemic top-down visualization of Bitcoin transaction activity to explore dynamically generated patterns of algorithmic behavior. Bitcoin dominates the cryptocurrency markets and presents researchers with a rich source of real-time transactional data. The pseudonymous yet public nature of the data presents opportunities for the discovery of human and algorithmic behavioral patterns of interest to many parties such as financial regulators, protocol designers, and security analysts. However, retaining visual fidelity to the underlying data to retain a fuller understanding of activity within the network remains challenging, particularly in real time. We expose an effective force-directed graph visualization employed in our large-scale data observation facility to accelerate this data exploration and derive useful insight among domain experts and the general public alike. The high-fidelity visualizations demonstrated in this article allowed for collaborative discovery of unexpected high frequency transaction patterns, including automated laundering operations, and the evolution of multiple distinct algorithmic denial of service attacks on the Bitcoin network.

  18. Visualizing Dynamic Bitcoin Transaction Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Dan; Birch, David; Akroyd, David; Molina-Solana, Miguel; Guo, Yike; Knottenbelt, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This work presents a systemic top-down visualization of Bitcoin transaction activity to explore dynamically generated patterns of algorithmic behavior. Bitcoin dominates the cryptocurrency markets and presents researchers with a rich source of real-time transactional data. The pseudonymous yet public nature of the data presents opportunities for the discovery of human and algorithmic behavioral patterns of interest to many parties such as financial regulators, protocol designers, and security analysts. However, retaining visual fidelity to the underlying data to retain a fuller understanding of activity within the network remains challenging, particularly in real time. We expose an effective force-directed graph visualization employed in our large-scale data observation facility to accelerate this data exploration and derive useful insight among domain experts and the general public alike. The high-fidelity visualizations demonstrated in this article allowed for collaborative discovery of unexpected high frequency transaction patterns, including automated laundering operations, and the evolution of multiple distinct algorithmic denial of service attacks on the Bitcoin network. PMID:27441715

  19. Hierarchy of rational order families of chaotic maps with an invariant measure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M A Jafarizadeh; M Foroutan; S Ahadpour

    2006-12-01

    We introduce an interesting hierarchy of rational order chaotic maps that possess an invariant measure. In contrast to the previously introduced hierarchy of chaotic maps [1–5], with merely entropy production, the rational order chaotic maps can simultaneously produce and consume entropy. We compute the Kolmogorov–Sinai entropy of these maps analytically and also their Lyapunov exponent numerically, where the obtained numerical results support the analytical calculations.

  20. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A; Acheson, Daniel J; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-12-22

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was achieved if the combined investments exceeded a threshold, and the higher ranked individual distributed the spoils unless control was contested by the partner. Compared to a condition lacking hierarchy, cooperation declined in the presence of a hierarchy due to a decrease in investment by lower ranked individuals. Furthermore, hierarchy was detrimental to cooperation regardless of whether it was earned or arbitrary. These findings mirror results from nonhuman primates and demonstrate that hierarchies are detrimental to cooperation. However, these results deviate from nonhuman primate findings by demonstrating that human behavior is responsive to changing hierarchical structures and suggests partnership dynamics that may improve cooperation. This work introduces a controlled way to investigate the social influences on human behavior, and demonstrates the evolutionary continuity of human behavior with other primate species.

  1. Automated Measurement and Signaling Systems for the Transactional Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Brown, Richard; Price, Phillip; Page, Janie; Granderson, Jessica; Riess, David; Czarnecki, Stephen; Ghatikar, Girish; Lanzisera, Steven

    2013-12-31

    The Transactional Network Project is a multi-lab activity funded by the US Department of Energy?s Building Technologies Office. The project team included staff from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The team designed, prototyped and tested a transactional network (TN) platform to support energy, operational and financial transactions between any networked entities (equipment, organizations, buildings, grid, etc.). PNNL was responsible for the development of the TN platform, with agents for this platform developed by each of the three labs. LBNL contributed applications to measure the whole-building electric load response to various changes in building operations, particularly energy efficiency improvements and demand response events. We also provide a demand response signaling agent and an agent for cost savings analysis. LBNL and PNNL demonstrated actual transactions between packaged rooftop units and the electric grid using the platform and selected agents. This document describes the agents and applications developed by the LBNL team, and associated tests of the applications.

  2. Constraints-Aware Scheduling for Transactional Services Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Liu; Hai Liu; Qing Li; Liu-Sheng Huang; Ming-Jun Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Composite Web services need transactional support to guarantee their consistent and reliable execution. Due to the long running and inter-organizational characteristics of Web services, current approaches for transactional Web services composition adopt compensation mechanism to maintain atomicity. A common assumption is that a compensation operation can be applied at any time with no cost. However, compensation operations are typically associated with temporal and cost constraints, which make compensation mechanism problematic in this new environment. To address this problem, we distinguish two types of scheduling for transactional Web services composition: time aware scheduling and cost aware scheduling. We devise several algorithms for scheduling, which can ensure the atomicity of composite services when compensation operations have temporal constraints, and assist composite services to maintain atomicity with minimum compensation cost when compensation operations have cost constraints. We benchmark our algorithms by simulations and the results show that our algorithm decreases the compensation cost and in turn improves the QoS of transactional services composition.

  3. Similarity based mixed transaction concurrency control protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yi; LU Yan-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Due to the various performance requirements and data access restrictions of different types of real-time transactions, concurrency control protocols which had been designed for the systems with single type of transactions are not sufficient for mixed real-time database systems (MRTDBS), where different types of real-time transactions coexist in the systems concurrently. In this paper, a new concurrency control protocol MRTT_CC for mixed real-time transactions is proposed. The new strategy integrates with different concurrency control protocols to meet the deadline requirements of different types of real-time transactions. The data similarity concept is also explored in the new protocol to reduce the blocking time of soft real-time transactions, which increases their chances to meet the deadlines. Simulation experiments show that the new protocol has gained good performance.

  4. Private benefits in corporate control transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in corporate control transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer is a more efficient monitor...... with high security benefits, or because the buyer has high private benefits from the control rights that come with the shares? Using voting rights as the vehicle for private benefits, I find that the selling shareholders in block transactions attach more value to private benefits than the buyers. In tender...... offer transactions, the answer is that private benefits are insignificant to both sides of the transaction. As an alternative measure of the transaction premium, I calculate the abnormal return premium. This represents the stock market's valuation of the transaction. I find that the stock market puts...

  5. Diagonal gates in the Clifford hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Gottesman, Daniel; Krishna, Anirudh

    2017-01-01

    The Clifford hierarchy is a set of gates that appears in the theory of fault-tolerant quantum computation, but its precise structure remains elusive. We give a complete characterization of the diagonal gates in the Clifford hierarchy for prime-dimensional qudits. They turn out to be pmth roots of unity raised to polynomial functions of the basis state to which they are applied, and we determine which level of the Clifford hierarchy a given gate sits in based on m and the degree of the polynomial.

  6. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-07-19

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages).

  7. UC hierarchy and monodromy preserving deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuda, Teruhisa

    2010-01-01

    The UC hierarchy is an extension of the KP hierarchy, which possesses not only an infinite set of positive time evolutions but also that of negative ones. Through a similarity reduction we derive from the UC hierarchy a class of the Schlesinger systems including the Garnier system and the sixth Painleve equation, which describes the monodromy preserving deformations of Fuchsian linear differential equations with certain spectral types. We also present a unified formulation of the above Schlesinger systems as a canonical Hamiltonian system whose Hamiltonian functions are polynomials in the canonical variables.

  8. Hierarchy and information in feedforward networks

    CERN Document Server

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos; Solé, Ricard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we define a hierarchical index for feedforward structures taking, as the starting point, three fundamental concepts underlying hierarchy: order, predictability and pyramidal structure. Our definition applies to the so called causal graphs, i.e., connected, directed acyclic graphs in which the arrows depict a direct causal relation between two elements defining the nodes. The estimator of hierarchy is obtained by evaluating the complexity of causal paths against the uncertainty in recovering them from a given end point. This naturally leads us to a definition of mutual information which, properly normalized and weighted through the layered structure of the graph, results in suitable index of hierarchy with strong theoretical grounds.

  9. Networks and RegionalCompetitiveness: Towards a Transaction Cost Approach of Small-Scale Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Friel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A preoccupation with competition often dominates the study of governance. A focus on competition often unnecessarily precludes the possibility that regional institutions can suspend competition in certain areas and facilitate cooperation among potential rivals, thereby potentially contributing to their mutual success. In many ways companies cooperating through these types of networks have a greater degree of flexibility than firms which are forced to rely solely on hierarchies or markets for solutions to their problems. In order to fully understand how such networks work, this article first parses out differences in definitions of networks in order to understand how the type of network mentioned above actually differs from other uses of this term. Then it develops a theory of governance that goes beyond hierarchies and markets by demonstrating how this type of network can lead to reductions in transaction costs. This claim is illustrated on hand from examples of alternative forms of organization in Germany and Italy.

  10. Topological Strings and Integrable Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Aganagic, M; Klemm, A D; Marino, M; Vafa, C; Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Klemm, Albrecht; Marino, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-01-01

    We consider the topological B-model on local Calabi-Yau geometries. We show how one can solve for the amplitudes by using W-algebra symmetries which encodes the symmetries of holomorphic diffeomorphisms of the Calabi-Yau. In the highly effective fermionic/brane formulation this leads to a free fermion description of the amplitudes. Furthermore we argue that topological strings on Calabi-Yau geometries provide a unifying picture connecting non-critical (super)strings, integrable hierarchies, and various matrix models. In particular we show how the ordinary matrix model, the double scaling limit of matrix models, and Kontsevich-like matrix model are all related and arise from studying branes in specific local Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also show how A-model topological string on P^1 and local toric threefolds (and in particular the topological vertex) can be realized and solved as B-model topological string amplitudes on a Calabi-Yau manifold.

  11. Topological Strings and Integrable Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Klemm, Albrecht; Mariño, Marcos; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-01-01

    We consider the topological B-model on local Calabi-Yau geometries. We show how one can solve for the amplitudes by using -algebra symmetries which encode the symmetries of holomorphic diffeomorphisms of the Calabi-Yau. In the highly effective fermionic/brane formulation this leads to a free fermion description of the amplitudes. Furthermore we argue that topological strings on Calabi-Yau geometries provide a unifying picture connecting non-critical (super)strings, integrable hierarchies, and various matrix models. In particular we show how the ordinary matrix model, the double scaling limit of matrix models, and Kontsevich-like matrix model are all related and arise from studying branes in specific local Calabi-Yau three-folds. We also show how an A-model topological string on P1 and local toric threefolds (and in particular the topological vertex) can be realized and solved as B-model topological string amplitudes on a Calabi-Yau manifold.

  12. Quark masses and their hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, M.

    1987-12-01

    Electroweak symmetry breaking is attributed to dynamical generation of quark masses. Quarks q (and leptons l) are assumed to be produced by hypercolor confinement of preons at an intermediate scale Λ hc. Hierarchies observed in the q mass spectra can be explained by a BCS mechanism if the color interaction is enough asymptotically free and if residual ones emerging by the confinement are medium strong. The former assumption claims that N≦4, where N is the family number of q and l. Dynamical equations to determine q masses and mixings are given, but they require knowledge on the physics at Λ hc. A phenomenological approach is also made on the basis of an SU(7)× SU(7) chiral preon model with N=4. The mass ratio m t/ mb is related to ( m c/ m s)ηB with η B≃1.1 and m t'/ mb' to ( m u/ m d)ηA with η A≃1.4. In this scheme the fourth down quark is the heaviest (˜ 110 GeV) and contributes dominantly to F 2, where F is the Fermi scale.

  13. Hierarchies in Dictionary Definition Space

    CERN Document Server

    Picard, Olivier; Harnad, Stevan; Marcotte, Odile; Chicoisne, Guillaume; Gargouri, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    A dictionary defines words in terms of other words. Definitions can tell you the meanings of words you don't know, but only if you know the meanings of the defining words. How many words do you need to know (and which ones) in order to be able to learn all the rest from definitions? We reduced dictionaries to their "grounding kernels" (GKs), about 10% of the dictionary, from which all the other words could be defined. The GK words turned out to have psycholinguistic correlates: they were learned at an earlier age and more concrete than the rest of the dictionary. But one can compress still more: the GK turns out to have internal structure, with a strongly connected "kernel core" (KC) and a surrounding layer, from which a hierarchy of definitional distances can be derived, all the way out to the periphery of the full dictionary. These definitional distances, too, are correlated with psycholinguistic variables (age of acquisition, concreteness, imageability, oral and written frequency) and hence perhaps with th...

  14. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-11-09

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  15. Transaction costs in beans market in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eterno Venâncio Assunção

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the presence of transaction costs in the beans market in Brazil. Therefore, threshold autoregressive (TAR models were used to check co-integration and the existence of transaction costs in the Brazilian beans market. The results confirmed the presence of transaction costs in the beans market, which are mainly related to the freight component of production, since the markets are often far away from the producing regions.

  16. A transactional framework for pediatric rehabilitation: shifting the focus to situated contexts, transactional processes, and adaptive developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Imms, Christine; Stewart, Debra; Freeman, Matt; Nguyen, Tram

    2017-04-11

    A paradigm shift is taking place in pediatric rehabilitation research, practice, and policy - a shift towards the real-life contexts of clients rather than requiring clients to navigate the world of pediatric rehabilitation. This article proposes a conceptual framework to bring about a broader awareness of clients' lives and transactional processes of change over the life course. The framework draws attention to transactional processes by which individuals, situated in life contexts, change and adapt over the life course and, in turn, influence their contextual settings and broader environments. This framework is based on (a) basic tenets derived from foundational theories taking a life course perspective to change, and (b) transactional processes identified from relevant pediatric rehabilitation models that bring these foundational theories into the pediatric rehabilitation sphere. The framework identifies three types of transactional processes relevant to pediatric rehabilitation: facilitative, resiliency, and socialization processes. These processes describe how contexts and people mutually influence each other via opportunities and situated experiences, thus facilitating capacity, adaptation to adversity, and socialization to new roles and life transitions. The utility of the framework is considered for research, practice, service organizations, and policy. Implications for Rehabilitation The framework supports practitioners going beyond person and environment as separate entities, to provide services to the "situated person" in real-life contexts The framework shifts the focus from "body structures/functions" and "person in activity" to "person in changing and challenging life contexts" Working from a transactional perspective, practitioner-client conversations will change; practitioners will view client situations through a lens of opportunities and experiences, assess client experiences in real-life contexts, and strive to create context-based therapy

  17. Transaction of Marine Fishing Right: Theoretical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jishen; Long Wenjun

    2008-01-01

    The difference between fishermen's fishing catch and the optimal fishing catch is the basic reason for the transaction of marine fishing rights (TMFR). The effects of productive cost, non-productive cost, use-cost, transaction cost, productive revenue and non-productive revenue on the TMFR and the optimal fishing catch are analyzed. This paper draws following conclusions: the non-productive revenue has a positive effect on the TMFR, and other factors, such as non-productive cost, usecost and transaction cost, have a negative effect; the TMFR will promote the resource allocation; the high transaction cost may affect the implementation of TMFR.

  18. On finding similar items in a stream of transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campagna, Andrea; Pagh, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    While there has been a lot of work on finding frequent itemsets in transaction data streams, none of these solve the problem of finding similar pairs according to standard similarity measures. This paper is a first attempt at dealing with this, arguably more important, problem. We start out......(\\min\\{mb,n^k,(mb/\\varphi)^k\\})$ bits, where $mb$ is the number of items in the stream so far, $n$ is the number of distinct items and $\\varphi$ is a support threshold. To achieve any non-trivial space upper bound we must thus abandon a worst-case assumption on the data stream. We work under the model that the transactions come...... in random order, and show that surprisingly, not only is small-space similarity mining possible for the most common similarity measures, but the mining accuracy {\\em improves\\/} with the length of the stream for any fixed support threshold....

  19. 34 CFR 85.205 - Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction? 85.205 Section 85.205 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education... particular transaction is a covered transaction? The importance of a covered transaction depends upon who...

  20. 21 CFR 1404.215 - Which nonprocurement transactions are not covered transactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Which nonprocurement transactions are not covered transactions? 1404.215 Section 1404.215 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE... transaction that the Office of National Drug Control Policy needs to respond to a national or...

  1. Managing transaction risks in interdependent supply chains: an extended transaction cost economics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, M.; Wognum, P.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the management of transaction risks in supply chains. Risk management studies often ignore the wider supply chain context in which individual transactions take place. However, risk management strategies which are suitable to use when only a single transaction is considered

  2. 31 CFR 547.404 - Transactions ordinarily incident to a licensed transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... licensed transaction. 547.404 Section 547.404 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... THE CONGO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 547.404 Transactions ordinarily incident to a... blocked pursuant to § 547.201(a); or (b) An ordinarily incident transaction, not explicitly authorized...

  3. Analysis of Transaction Costs in Logistics and the Methodologies for Their Information Reflection for Automotive Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Ol’ga Evgen’evna Kovrizhnykh; Polina Aleksandrovna Nechaeva

    2016-01-01

    Transaction costs emerge in different types of logistics activities and influence the material flow and the accompanying financial and information flows; due to this fact, the information support and assessment are important tasks for the enterprise. The paper analyzes transaction costs in logistics for automotive manufacturers; according to the analysis, the level of these costs in any functional area of “logistics supply” ranges from 1.5 to 20%. These are only the official figures of transa...

  4. An ANFIS-based on B2C electronic commerce transaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Juan, E-mail: linjuanliucaihong@qq.com [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fuqing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China); Liu, Chenlian, E-mail: chenglian.liu@gmail.com [School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Long Yan University, Longyan 364012 (China); Guo, Yongning, E-mail: guoyn@163.com [Fuqing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China)

    2014-10-06

    The purpose of this study is to use an adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system to model a fuzzy logic-based system (FIS) for supporting decision-making process in B2C electronic commerce transaction. Firstly we introduce FIS in B2C electronic commerce transaction and ANFIS. Then we use ANFIS to model FIS with different membership functions(MF). Lastly we give a conclusion.

  5. An ANFIS-based on B2C electronic commerce transaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Juan; Liu, Chenlian; Guo, Yongning

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to use an adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system to model a fuzzy logic-based system (FIS) for supporting decision-making process in B2C electronic commerce transaction. Firstly we introduce FIS in B2C electronic commerce transaction and ANFIS. Then we use ANFIS to model FIS with different membership functions(MF). Lastly we give a conclusion.

  6. Integrable Couplings of the Coupled Burgers Hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIATie-Cheng; CHENXiao-Hong; CHENDeng-Yuan; ZHANGYu-Feng

    2004-01-01

    In this letter, a new loop algebra G is constructed, from which a new isospectral problem is established. It follows that integrable couplings of the well-known coupled Burgers hierarchy are obtained.

  7. Hierarchy of non-glucose sugars in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidelberg, Guy; Towbin, Benjamin D; Rothschild, Daphna; Dekel, Erez; Bren, Anat; Alon, Uri

    2014-12-24

    Understanding how cells make decisions, and why they make the decisions they make, is of fundamental interest in systems biology. To address this, we study the decisions made by E. coli on which genes to express when presented with two different sugars. It is well-known that glucose, E. coli's preferred carbon source, represses the uptake of other sugars by means of global and gene-specific mechanisms. However, less is known about the utilization of glucose-free sugar mixtures which are found in the natural environment of E. coli and in biotechnology. Here, we combine experiment and theory to map the choices of E. coli among 6 different non-glucose carbon sources. We used robotic assays and fluorescence reporter strains to make precise measurements of promoter activity and growth rate in all pairs of these sugars. We find that the sugars can be ranked in a hierarchy: in a mixture of a higher and a lower sugar, the lower sugar system shows reduced promoter activity. The hierarchy corresponds to the growth rate supported by each sugar- the faster the growth rate, the higher the sugar on the hierarchy. The hierarchy is 'soft' in the sense that the lower sugar promoters are not completely repressed. Measurement of the activity of the master regulator CRP-cAMP shows that the hierarchy can be quantitatively explained based on differential activation of the promoters by CRP-cAMP. Comparing sugar system activation as a function of time in sugar pair mixtures at sub-saturating concentrations, we find cases of sequential activation, and also cases of simultaneous expression of both systems. Such simultaneous expression is not predicted by simple models of growth rate optimization, which predict only sequential activation. We extend these models by suggesting multi-objective optimization for both growing rapidly now and preparing the cell for future growth on the poorer sugar. We find a defined hierarchy of sugar utilization, which can be quantitatively explained by

  8. Cities, Wages, and the Urban Hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Juan D. Soto; Dusan Paredes

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence regarding the unequal spatial distribution of population in the north and south of Chile which implies that even when geographical distances to the main urban center are similar, the distances in a context of urban hierarchy are completely di?erent. Given this economic geography, we postulate that Central Place Theory provides a better understanding for the study of city size wage gap in Chile. In order to test our hypothesis, we construct ?ve tiers of urban hierarchy usin...

  9. Existence of Hierarchies and Human's Pursuit of Top Hierarchy Lead to Power Law

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Shuiyuan; Liu, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    The power law is ubiquitous in natural and social phenomena, and is considered as a universal relationship between the frequency and its rank for diverse social systems. However, a general model is still lacking to interpret why these seemingly unrelated systems share great similarity. Through a detailed analysis of natural language texts and simulation experiments based on the proposed 'Hierarchical Selection Model', we found that the existence of hierarchies and human's pursuit of top hierarchy lead to the power law. Further, the power law is a statistical and emergent performance of hierarchies, and it is the universality of hierarchies that contributes to the ubiquity of the power law.

  10. Programming Idioms for Transactional Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Kehrt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Transactional events (TE are an extension of Concurrent ML (CML, a programming model for synchronous message-passing. Prior work has focused on TE's formal semantics and its implementation. This paper considers programming idioms, particularly those that vary unexpectedly from the corresponding CML idioms. First, we solve a subtle problem with client-server protocols in TE. Second, we argue that CML's wrap and guard primitives do not translate well to TE, and we suggest useful workarounds. Finally, we discuss how to rewrite CML protocols that use abort actions.

  11. Evaluating, Comparing, and Interpreting Protein Domain Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Arranging protein domain sequences hierarchically into evolutionarily divergent subgroups is important for investigating evolutionary history, for speeding up web-based similarity searches, for identifying sequence determinants of protein function, and for genome annotation. However, whether or not a particular hierarchy is optimal is often unclear, and independently constructed hierarchies for the same domain can often differ significantly. This article describes methods for statistically evaluating specific aspects of a hierarchy, for probing the criteria underlying its construction and for direct comparisons between hierarchies. Information theoretical notions are used to quantify the contributions of specific hierarchical features to the underlying statistical model. Such features include subhierarchies, sequence subgroups, individual sequences, and subgroup-associated signature patterns. Underlying properties are graphically displayed in plots of each specific feature's contributions, in heat maps of pattern residue conservation, in “contrast alignments,” and through cross-mapping of subgroups between hierarchies. Together, these approaches provide a deeper understanding of protein domain functional divergence, reveal uncertainties caused by inconsistent patterns of sequence conservation, and help resolve conflicts between competing hierarchies. PMID:24559108

  12. PENGGUNAAN METODE ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS DALAM PEMILIHAN LOKASI MANGROVE PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustika Mustika

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Demak district is a district that has quite a lot of mangrove forests, beautiful expanse of mangrove is a natural potential that can be developed as a regional tourism assets. Mangrove Park is one of the utilization of conservation area into tourism areas of education and recreation The Selection of Planning site locations required an appropriate location in the terms of land use, The appropriate land is a land that has a Mangrove area which still leafy, natural (unprocessed and intended as a tourism area, an easy accessibility, the network infrastructure is also needed in the election of location in order to support the available facilities in the building. In addition, the view of the inside and outside of the site that will be a tourism place attraction. Decision Support System can be used as a tool to help the site selection process that involves many criteria. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP can be used to analyze which support the decision to choose a location. Phases of AHP used in this research is the identification of causes, preparation of hierarchy, prioritization, consistency, and the priority weight. From the Implementation of the method on the study case successfully find the best location for mangrove park, it is in the village Bedono it has the highest total global priorities 1.2349. Keywords: Site Location, Analytical Hierarchy Process, Mangrove Park Kabupaten Demak adalah kabupaten yang memiliki hutan mangrove yang cukup banyak, hamparan mangrove yang indah merupakan potensi alam yang dapat dikembangkan sebagai aset pariwisata daerah. Mangrove Park adalah salah satu bentuk pemanfaatan kawasan konservasi menjadi kawasan wisata edukasi dan rekreasi. Pemilihan lokasi tapak perencanaan diperlukan sebuah lokasi yang tepat dari segi peruntukan lahan, lahan yang tepat adalah lahan yang memiliki area Mangrove yang masih rimbun, alami (belum diolah dan diperuntukkan sebagai kawasan wisata, aksebilitas yang mudah dijangkau, jaringan

  13. Topological hierarchy matters — topological matters with superlattices of defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Kou, Su-Peng

    2016-11-01

    Topological insulators/superconductors are new states of quantum matter with metallic edge/surface states. In this paper, we review the defects effect in these topological states and study new types of topological matters — topological hierarchy matters. We find that both topological defects (quantized vortices) and non topological defects (vacancies) can induce topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters after considering the superlattice of defects. These topological mid-gap states have nontrivial topological properties, including the nonzero Chern number and the gapless edge states. Effective tight-binding models are obtained to describe the topological mid-gap states in the topological hierarchy matters. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB921803 and 2012CB921704), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174035, 11474025, 11404090, and 11674026), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. A2015205189), the Hebei Education Department Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. QN2014022), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China.

  14. Climate Change Mitigation Through Reduced-Impact Logging and the Hierarchy of Production Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Vickers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed hierarchy of production forest management provides modus operandi for forest concessions to move incrementally towards Sustainable Forest Management (SFM via Reduced-Impact Logging (RIL and forest certification. Financial benefits are sourced in the “Additionality Zone”, financing the rise in the hierarchy and offsetting prohibitive forest and carbon certification costs. RIL carbon registration components consist of developing credible baseline, additionality and leakage arguments around the business-as-usual scenario through the quantification of historical forest inventory and production records, forest infrastructure records and damage to the residual forest. If conventional harvesting is taken as a baseline, research indicates RIL can potentially reduce emissions by approximately 1–7 tCO2e ha−1yr−1. The current market price of USD $7.30 per tCO2e may result in over USD $50 ha−1yr−1 in additional revenue, well above the estimated USD $3–5 ha−1 in carbon transaction costs. Concessions in Sabah Malaysia demonstrate the financial viability of long-term RIL and certification planning. This may act as a basis for future planned forest management activities involving RIL, carbon and forest certification through the hierarchy of production forest management.

  15. Extending an evidence hierarchy to include topics other than treatment: revising the Australian 'levels of evidence'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Tracy; Weston, Adele; Tooher, Rebecca

    2009-06-11

    In 1999 a four-level hierarchy of evidence was promoted by the National Health and Medical Research Council in Australia. The primary purpose of this hierarchy was to assist with clinical practice guideline development, although it was co-opted for use in systematic literature reviews and health technology assessments. In this hierarchy interventional study designs were ranked according to the likelihood that bias had been eliminated and thus it was not ideal to assess studies that addressed other types of clinical questions. This paper reports on the revision and extension of this evidence hierarchy to enable broader use within existing evidence assessment systems. A working party identified and assessed empirical evidence, and used a commissioned review of existing evidence assessment schema, to support decision-making regarding revision of the hierarchy. The aim was to retain the existing evidence levels I-IV but increase their relevance for assessing the quality of individual diagnostic accuracy, prognostic, aetiologic and screening studies. Comprehensive public consultation was undertaken and the revised hierarchy was piloted by individual health technology assessment agencies and clinical practice guideline developers. After two and a half years, the hierarchy was again revised and commenced a further 18 month pilot period. A suitable framework was identified upon which to model the revision. Consistency was maintained in the hierarchy of "levels of evidence" across all types of clinical questions; empirical evidence was used to support the relationship between study design and ranking in the hierarchy wherever possible; and systematic reviews of lower level studies were themselves ascribed a ranking. The impact of ethics on the hierarchy of study designs was acknowledged in the framework, along with a consideration of how harms should be assessed. The revised evidence hierarchy is now widely used and provides a common standard against which to initially

  16. 21 CFR 1310.08 - Excluded transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... international transactions of Lugol's Solution (consisting of 5 percent iodine and 10 percent potassium iodide in an aqueous solution) in original manufacturer's packaging of one-fluid-ounce (30 milliliters) or... CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.08 Excluded transactions. Pursuant to 21 U.S.C....

  17. Clinical HBSE Concentration: A Transactional Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Rosemary L.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a transactional model for addressing the underrepresentation of key areas in advanced clinical courses in human behavior in the social environment (HBSE), looking at social work's understanding of the biological and spiritual aspects of human beings. The transactional model is distinguished from other reductionist or interactionist models…

  18. The transactional approach in company boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Chaihuaque Dueñas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the relationship between market and firms through the theory of transactional cost and the relationsthat determine the structure and boundaries of the firm. Using the assumptions from the transactional cost approach,this article proposes some variables that determine optimal organizational structures and their boundaries.

  19. 76 FR 22633 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... exposure to retail forex transactions or any other foreign exchange risk. Section 48.12--Authorization to... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Part 48 RIN 1557-AD42 Retail Foreign Exchange... engage in off-exchange transactions in foreign currency with retail customers. The proposed rule also...

  20. 31 CFR 103.63 - Structured transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Structured transactions. 103.63 Section 103.63 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.63...

  1. 76 FR 41676 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... ``retail forex transactions,'' and as further defined below) with a registered broker or dealer (``broker... forex business until July 16, 2012, provided that the broker-dealer complies with the Securities... applicable to retail forex transactions. DATES: Effective Date: Rule 15b12-1T is effective on July 15, 2011...

  2. 19 CFR 152.103 - Transaction value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CLASSIFICATION AND APPRAISEMENT OF MERCHANDISE Valuation of Merchandise § 152.103 Transaction... made directly or indirectly. Example 1. In a transaction with foreign Company X, a U.S. firm pays Company X $10,000 for a shipment of meat products, packed ready for shipment to the United States....

  3. The topology of card transaction money flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Massimiliano; Papo, David; Romance, Miguel; Criado, Regino; Moral, Santiago

    2016-11-01

    Money flow models are essential tools to understand different economical phenomena, like saving propensities and wealth distributions. In spite of their importance, most of them are based on synthetic transaction networks with simple topologies, e.g. random or scale-free ones, as the characterisation of real networks is made difficult by the confidentiality and sensitivity of money transaction data. Here, we present an analysis of the topology created by real credit card transactions from one of the biggest world banks, and show how different distributions, e.g. number of transactions per card or amount, have nontrivial characteristics. We further describe a stochastic model to create transactions data sets, feeding from the obtained distributions, which will allow researchers to create more realistic money flow models.

  4. An Object—Oriented Transaction Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾君忠

    1993-01-01

    In object-oriented database systems(OOBSs),the traditional transaction models are no longer suitable because of the difference between the object-oriented data model(OODM)and the conventional data models(e.g.relational data model).In this paper,transction models for advanced database applications are reviewed and their shortcomings are analyzed.Exchangeability of operations is proposed instead of commuativity and recoverability for using more semantics in transaction management.As a result,an object-oriented transaction model(in short,OOTM)is presented.It is not modeled for some special application,but directly based on object-oriented paradigms.A transaction is regarded as an interpretation of a metho.Each transaction(even subtransactions)keeps relative ACID(Atomicity,Consistency,Isolation,Durability)properties,therefore the special problems appearing in OOBSs such as“long transactions”,“visibility of inconsistent database state”can be solved.

  5. The Ups and Downs of Hierarchy: the causes and consequences of hierarchy struggles and positional loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Schouten (Maartje)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractScholars have assumed that social hierarchies, the rank ordering of individuals with respect to a valued social dimension within a team, are stable over time. However, hierarchies change and the more changeable they are, the more likely they are to lead to conflicts and have other ne

  6. The Ups and Downs of Hierarchy: the causes and consequences of hierarchy struggles and positional loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Schouten (Maartje)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractScholars have assumed that social hierarchies, the rank ordering of individuals with respect to a valued social dimension within a team, are stable over time. However, hierarchies change and the more changeable they are, the more likely they are to lead to conflicts and have other

  7. An Environment for Flexible Advanced Compensations of Web Service Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefer, Michael; Dolog, Peter; Nejdl, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    recovery principles. We extend the existing Web service transaction coordination architecture and infrastructure in order to support flexible compensation operations. We use a contract-based approach, which allows the specification of permitted compensations at runtime. We introduce abstract service......Business to business integration has recently been performed by employing Web service environments. Moreover, such environments are being provided by major players on the technology markets. Those environments are based on open specifications for transaction coordination. When a failure...... in such an environment occurs, a compensation can be initiated to recover from the failure. However, current environments have only limited capabilities for compensations, and are usually based on backward recovery. In this article, we introduce an environment to deal with advanced compensations based on forward...

  8. REAL-TIME OBJECT DETECTION IN PARALLEL THROUGH ATOMIC TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sivakumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Object detection and tracking is important operation involved in embedded systems like video surveillance, Traffic monitoring, campus security system, machine vision applications and other areas. Detecting and tracking multiple objects in a video or image is challenging problem in machine vision and computer vision based embedded systems. Implementation of such a object detection and tracking systems are done in sequential way of processing and also it was implemented using hardware synthesize tools like verilog HDL with FPGA, achieves considerably lesser performance in speed and it does support lesser atomic transactions. There are many object detection and tracking algorithm were proposed and implemented, among them background subtraction is one of them. This paper proposes a implementation of detecting and tracking multiple objects based on background subtraction algorithm using java and .NET and also discuss about the architecture concept for object detection through atomic transactional, modern hardware synthesizes language called Bluespec.

  9. Observations of radiographer communication: An exploratory study using Transactional Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Lisa A. [School of Medical Imaging Sciences, St. Martin' s College, Bowerham Road, Lancaster LA1 3JD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: l.booth@ucsm.ac.uk; Manning, David J. [School of Medical Imaging Sciences, St. Martin' s College, Bowerham Road, Lancaster LA1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: Communication in medical imaging is a neglected area of research, despite the necessity for good communication if optimum diagnostic images are to be achieved. Methods: The present study has investigated the styles of communication used in medical imaging, using an approach known as Transactional Analysis. This approach has been demonstrated previously as having reliability and validity, using observations and supporting interviews with medical imaging staff, along with inter-rater observations of radiographer-patient interactions. Results: The results indicate that Transactional Analysis can be used effectively for identifying and naming interaction events in diagnostic radiography, with diagnostic radiographers using five styles of communication. Conclusion: Radiographers tend to use Parental styles of communicating; these styles are commonly associated with a practitioner-centred approach to dealing with patients which often result in non-adherence.

  10. AN AGENT BASED TRANSACTION PROCESSING SCHEME FOR DISCONNECTED MOBILE NODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Walter Jeyakumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a mobile transaction framework in which mobile users can share data which is stored in the cache of a mobile agent. This mobile agent is a special mobile node which coordinates the sharing process. The proposed framework allows mobile affiliation work groups to be formed dynamically with a mobile agent and mobile hosts. Using short range wireless communication technology, mobile users can simultaneously access the data from the cache of the mobile agent. The data Access Manager module at the mobile agent enforces concurrency control using cache invalidation technique. This model supports disconnected mobile computing allowing mobile agent to move along with the Mobile Hosts. The proposed Transaction frame work has been simulated in Java 2 and performance of this scheme is compared with existing frame works.

  11. The network motif architecture of dominance hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuka, Daizaburo; McDonald, David B

    2015-04-01

    The widespread existence of dominance hierarchies has been a central puzzle in social evolution, yet we lack a framework for synthesizing the vast empirical data on hierarchy structure in animal groups. We applied network motif analysis to compare the structures of dominance networks from data published over the past 80 years. Overall patterns of dominance relations, including some aspects of non-interactions, were strikingly similar across disparate group types. For example, nearly all groups exhibited high frequencies of transitive triads, whereas cycles were very rare. Moreover, pass-along triads were rare, and double-dominant triads were common in most groups. These patterns did not vary in any systematic way across taxa, study settings (captive or wild) or group size. Two factors significantly affected network motif structure: the proportion of dyads that were observed to interact and the interaction rates of the top-ranked individuals. Thus, study design (i.e. how many interactions were observed) and the behaviour of key individuals in the group could explain much of the variations we see in social hierarchies across animals. Our findings confirm the ubiquity of dominance hierarchies across all animal systems, and demonstrate that network analysis provides new avenues for comparative analyses of social hierarchies.

  12. Cohesion and Hierarchy in Physically Abusive Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa De Antoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cohesion (emotional bonding and hierarchy (powerstructure in families with abuse against their children. Twenty low-incomefamilies participated. Father, mother and child’s perspective of family relations(cohesion and hierarchy were evaluated by the Family System Test(FAST. The relationship between father-child, mother-child, couple, andamong siblings were evaluated at typical and conflictive situations. Resultsshow a significance regarding to cohesion in typical and conflictive situationfor father-child and mother-child dyads in all perspectives (by father, mother,and child. There is no significant differences regarding to hierarchy. Theseresults suggest that the families see the intrafamilial violence as a constant,since they cannot differentiate between both situations.

  13. The mammary cellular hierarchy and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Samantha R; Gallego-Ortega, David; Ormandy, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    Advances in the study of hematopoietic cell maturation have paved the way to a deeper understanding the stem and progenitor cellular hierarchy in the mammary gland. The mammary epithelium, unlike the hematopoietic cellular hierarchy, sits in a complex niche where communication between epithelial cells and signals from the systemic hormonal milieu, as well as from extra-cellular matrix, influence cell fate decisions and contribute to tissue homeostasis. We review the discovery, definition and regulation of the mammary cellular hierarchy and we describe the development of the concepts that have guided our investigations. We outline recent advances in in vivo lineage tracing that is now challenging many of our assumptions regarding the behavior of mammary stem cells, and we show how understanding these cellular lineages has altered our view of breast cancer.

  14. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages). PMID:22688632

  15. Maslow and the motivation hierarchy: measuring satisfaction of the needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, Robert J; Gao, Jennifer H

    2013-01-01

    For each of the 5 needs in Maslow's motivational hierarchy (physiological, safety-security, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization), operational definitions were developed from Maslow's theory of motivation. New measures were created based on the operational definitions (1) to assess the satisfaction of each need, (2) to assess their expected correlations (a) with each of the other needs and (b) with four social and personality measures (i.e., family support, traditional values, anxiety/worry, and life satisfaction), and (3) to test the ability of the satisfaction level of each need to statistically predict the satisfaction level of the next higher-level need. Psychometric tests of the scales conducted on questionnaire results from 386 adult respondents from the general population lent strong support for the validity and reliability of all 5 needs measures. Significant positive correlations among the scales were also found; that is, the more each lower-level need was satisfied, the more the next higher-level need was satisfied. Additionally, as predicted, family support, traditional values, and life satisfaction had significant positive correlations with the satisfaction of all 5 needs, and the anxiety/worry facet of neuroticism had significant negative correlations with the satisfaction of all the needs. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the satisfaction of each higher-level need was statistically predicted by the satisfaction of the need immediately below it in the hierarchy, as expected from Maslow's theory.

  16. Integrable couplings of a generalized AKNS hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉峰; 张鸿庆; 闫庆友

    2002-01-01

    A generalized AKNS isospectral problem where the trace of corresponding spectral matrix is not zero, is transformed to a new isospectral problem where the trace of the resulting matrix is zero, by using transformation of Lax pairs, and these two spectral problems lead to the same hierarchy of equations. The authors started from the transformed spectral problem and constructed a new loop algebra which has not appeared before, and obtained the integrable coupling of the generalized AKNS hierarchy. Specially, the integrable couplings of the KdV equation and MKdV equation are obtained.

  17. An Operational Investigation of the CPS Hierarchy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Yang, Zhe

    1998-01-01

    We explore the hierarchy of control induced by successive transformations into continuation-passing style (CPS) in the presence of “control delimiters ” and “composable continuations ”. Specifically, we investigate the structural operational semantics associated with the CPS hierarchy. To this end......, we characterize an operational notion of continuation semantics. We relate it to the traditional CPS transformation and we use it to account for the control operator shift and the control delimiter reset operationally. We then transcribe the resulting continuation semantics in ML, thus obtaining...

  18. Entrepreneurship, Transaction Costs, and Resource Attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    This paper responds to Kim and Mahoney's "How Property Rights Economics Furthers the Resource-Based View: Resources, Transaction Costs and Entrepreneurial Discovery" (a comment on Foss and Foss, 2005). While we agree with many of their arguments, we argue that they fail to recognize how exactly...... transaction costs and property rights shape the process of entrepreneurial discovery. We provide a sketch of the mechanisms that link entrepreneurship, property rights, and transaction costs in a resource-based setting, contributing further to the attempt to take the RBV in a more dynamic direction....

  19. Entrepreneurship, transaction costs, and resource attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    This paper responds to Kim and Mahoney's "How Property Rights Economics Furthers the Resource-Based View: Resources, Transaction Costs and Entrepreneurial Discovery" (a comment on Foss and Foss, 2005). While we agree with many of their arguments, we argue that they fail to recognise how exactly...... transaction costs shape the process of entrepreneurial discovery. We provide a sketch of the mechanisms that link entrepreneurship, property rights, and transaction costs in a resource-based setting, contributing further to the attempt to take the RBV in a more dynamic direction....

  20. Accounting costs of transactions in real estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The costs of transactions in real estate is of importance for households, for investors, for statistical services, for governmental and international bodies concerned with the efficient delivery of basic state functions, as well as for research. The paper takes a multi-disciplinary approach...... in relating theoretical conceptualizations of transaction costs to national accounting and further to the identification and quantification of actions on units of real estate. The notion of satellite accounting of the System of National Accounts is applied to the segment of society concerned with changes...... in real estate. The paper ends up with an estimate of the cost of a major real property transaction in Denmark....

  1. Security of M-Commerce transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this material electronic market are defined. How they are structured. Security in E-Commerce applications is very important both at the administrative level and from the user perspective. The new trend in the field is the M-commerce that involves making purchases through mobile devices. And for M-commerce transactions the security is a very important thing. Here's how to analyze the security of M-commerce transactions and ways to increase security for these transactions taking into account the organization of M-Commerce applications, software used, hardware used and other important issues in the development of these applications.

  2. 21 CFR 1404.200 - What is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a covered transaction? 1404.200 Section 1404.200 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 1404.200 What is a covered transaction? A covered transaction is...

  3. 16 CFR 801.90 - Transactions or devices for avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions or devices for avoidance. 801.90 Section 801.90 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND... Transactions or devices for avoidance. Any transaction(s) or other device(s) entered into or employed for...

  4. 31 CFR 560.526 - Commodities trading and related transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transaction, that the goods would be for delivery to Iran or to the Government of Iran; (2) The United States... Iranian-origin goods, or transactions incidental to such trading, where: (1) No party to the transaction... for the United States person to determine at the time of entry into the transaction, given all...

  5. 基于临界区划分的实时事务并发控制机制%COR-based Concurrency Control Strategies in the Real-time Transaction Model Supporting Functional Alternatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏家莉; 王文乐; 朱文婷; 曹重华

    2013-01-01

    针对支持功能替代的实时事务模型,根据替代做处理的数据对象将替代划分为若干个临界区,提出了临界区动态相容检测方法,提出了基于临界区动态相容的并发控制策略COR-CCS:分区封锁策略、支持预释放的封锁策略、按序提交策略和级联回滚策略,并给出了相应的并发控制实现算法.当实时系统中存在资源冲突时,若高优先级替代未完成的临界区与低优先级替代动态相容,可令二者并发执行.实验仿真结果证明,COR-CCS策略有利减少低优先级替代等待时间、提高系统成功率和CPU有效利用率.%In the real-time system model based on functional alternatives, we divided the alternatives into Critical Operation Regions (short for CORs) according to the data that they handled, and proposed the method to examine the dynamic compatibility between two CORs. Also, we present the strategies, named COR-CCS, that can improve the concurrence of the alternatives, such as: the strategy of locking each by COR, the strategy of pre-releasing lock, the strategy of orderly submitting and the strategy of cascaded roll-backing. After that we gave the algorithm of COR-based concurrency control. When scheduling the real-time system with data confliction, the alternatives can concurrently executed if the CORS in the alternative with higher priority is dynamic compatibility with the lower priority alternative. The experimental results showed that the COR-CCS is effect on reducing the waiting time of the lower priority alternatives, increasing the successful execution ratio of the transactions, and improving the CPU usage.

  6. Multiple Trust Model in Online Transaction by Trusted Third Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Suganya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available the information fortune and the connectivity are provided by the universe of E-commerce over an enormous distance at all time. In an open and distributed environment the buyers or providers will not act in a mutually understood or agreed manner by which the incomplete practices and fraudulent activities happen. So in any online transaction the security and trust are two important factors that are to be considered. In Ecommerce markets the above mentioned problems are criticized as the most important barriers. In order to improve these barriers a trust based third party mechanism is successfully adopted as a self-regulatory system to improve the buyer and seller trust. The online transactions are made very easy now days by E-commerce technologies. Built integrity belief approach (BIB, Support Vector Mechanic approach (SVM and Random Number Generation approach (RNG are the three approaches which are mainly used in this paper for online trust management. The seller and the buyer communication will be handled through the trusted third party. Apart from this a coupon based approach is introduced as an advancement in this paper for providing discount schemes which is helpful in attracting the customer who purchase beyond the threshold level fixed by the seller. Moreover a product review study is integrated in order to reduce the scam reviews in online transactions.

  7. Utility-guided Clustering-based Transaction Data Anonymization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Gkoulalas-Divanis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Transaction data about individuals are increasingly collected to support a plethora of applications, spanning from marketing to biomedical studies. Publishing these data is required by many organizations, but may result in privacy breaches, if an attacker exploits potentially identifying information to link individuals to their records in the published data. Algorithms that prevent this threat by transforming transaction data prior to their release have been proposed recently, but they may incur significant utility loss due to their inability to: (i accommodate a range of different privacy requirements that data owners often have, and (ii guarantee that the produced data will satisfy data owners’ utility requirements. To address this issue, we propose a novel clustering-based framework to anonymizing transaction data, which provides the basis for designing algorithms that better preserve data utility. Based on this framework, we develop two anonymization algorithms which explore a larger solution space than existing methods and can satisfy a wide range of privacy requirements. Additionally, the second algorithm allows the specification and enforcement of utility requirements, thereby ensuring that the anonymized data remain useful in intended tasks. Experiments with both benchmark and real medical datasets verify that our algorithms significantly outperform the current state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of data utility, while being comparable in terms of efficiency.

  8. 5 CFR 919.205 - Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction? 919.205 Section 919.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 919.205 Why is it important if a particular transaction is a...

  9. 31 CFR 19.205 - Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction? 19.205 Section 19.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the....205 Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction? The importance of a...

  10. Guarding against Collateral Damage during Chromatin Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmeyer, Matthias; Lukas, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Signal amplifications are vital for chromatin function, yet they also bear the risk of transforming into unrestrained, self-escalating, and potentially harmful responses. Examples of inbuilt limitations are emerging, revealing how chromatin transactions are confined within physiological boundaries....

  11. Governance structures for real estate transactions: Markets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    networks in the governance of real-estate transactions under three property rights regimes in ..... makers may engage in corruption and other forms of 'rent-seeking' behaviour, benefiting .... trust or other corporate body. The key difference from ...

  12. Conceptualizing and Measuring Transformational and Transactional Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ulrich Thy; Bøgh Andersen, Lotte; Bro, Louise Ladegaard

    2016-01-01

    Existing conceptualizations and measures of transformational and transactional leadership have unclear theoretical bases, confound leadership and its effects, and are not necessarily suitable for public organizations. Overcoming these problems is necessary to test how leadership affects performan...

  13. Anonymity And Accountability In Web Based Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Jayasree

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Decreased privacy is an unavoidable consequence in the drive to make the world a more secure, safer place, according to some analysts. In the on-line world, the conflict between privacy and security manifests itself in a debate between anonymity and accountability. Balance between Anonymity and Accountability is a major concern in web based transactions. The protection of users’ privacy when performing web-based transactions is an important factor in the acceptance and use of Internet and web services. There is a tremendous improvement in the automation of the way we pay for goods and services by the variety and growth of electronic banking services available to the consumers. Hence there is a need for the ultimate structure of the new electronic transaction system that has a substantial impact on the personal privacy as well as on the nature and extent of criminal use of E- transactions. This paper presents an approach for such structure.

  14. The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, John G.

    2001-06-01

    The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics [1] was originally published in 1986 and is now about 14 years old. It is an explicitly nonlocal and Lorentz invariant alternative to the Copenhagen interpretation. It interprets the formalism for a quantum interaction as describing a "handshake" between retarded waves (ψ) and advanced waves (ψ*) for each quantum event or "transaction" in which energy, momentum, angular momentum, and other conserved quantities are transferred. The transactional interpretation offers the advantages that (1) it is actually "visible" in the formalism of quantum mechanics, (2) it is economical, involving fewer independent assumptions than its rivals, (3) it is paradox-free, resolving all of the paradoxes of standard quantum theory including nonlocality and wave function collapse, (4) it does not give a privileged role to observers or measurements, and (5) it permits the visualization of quantum events. We will review the transactional interpretation and some of its applications to "quantum paradoxes."

  15. Large hierarchies from approximate R symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappl, Rolf; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik Dept. T30; Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Zentrum fuer Theoretische Physik und Physikalisches Inst.; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Zentrum fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-12-15

    We show that hierarchically small vacuum expectation values of the superpotential in supersymmetric theories can be a consequence of an approximate R symmetry. We briefly discuss the role of such small constants in moduli stabilization and understanding the huge hierarchy between the Planck and electroweak scales. (orig.)

  16. Integrable hierarchies of Heisenberg ferromagnet equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugmanova, G.; Azimkhanova, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider the coupled Kadomtsev-Petviashvili system. From compatibility conditions we obtain the form of matrix operators. After using a gauge transformation, obtained a new type of Lax representation for the hierarchy of Heisenberg ferromagnet equation, which is equivalent to the gauge coupled Kadomtsev-Petviashvili system.

  17. Geometrical hierarchy and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farakos, K.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Surridge, M.; Zoupanos, G.

    1987-06-04

    A four-dimensional gauge theory, where Higgs fields and the corresponding potential appear naturally, is obtained by dimensionally reducing a pure gauge theory over a compact coset space S/R. We show, using an explicit example, that a hierarchy of the scales in the coset space can change the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the four-dimensional gauge theory.

  18. Beyond Hierarchy: The Search for High Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, Patricia A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This special report of the reorganization of work looks at approaches to organizational renewal that are challenging the notion of the hierarchy as the only form that works. Looks at models for organizing work presented by Gary Rummler, D. Quinn Mills, and Marvin Weisbord and a blueprint for creating common futures with large groups of people.…

  19. Dark energy and the hierarchy problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, P

    2007-01-01

    The well-known hierarchy between the Planck scale (~10^{19}GeV) and the TeV scale, namely a ratio of ~10^{16} between the two, is coincidentally repeated in a inverted order between the TeV scale and the dark energy scale at \\~10^{-3}eV implied by the observations. We argue that this is not a numerical coincidence. The same brane-world setups to address the first hierarchy problem may also in principle address this second hierarchy issue. Specifically, we consider supersymmetry in the bulk and its breaking on the brane and resort to the Casimir energy induced by the bulk graviton-gravitino mass-shift on the brane as the dark energy. For the ADD model we found that our notion is sensible only if the number of extra dimension n=2. We extend our study to the Randall-Sundrum model. Invoking the chirality-flip on the boundaries for SUSY-breaking, the zero-mode gravitino contribution to the Casimir energy does give rise to the double hierarchy. Unfortunately since the higher Kaluza-Klein modes acquire relative mass...

  20. Beyond Hierarchy: The Search for High Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, Patricia A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This special report of the reorganization of work looks at approaches to organizational renewal that are challenging the notion of the hierarchy as the only form that works. Looks at models for organizing work presented by Gary Rummler, D. Quinn Mills, and Marvin Weisbord and a blueprint for creating common futures with large groups of people.…

  1. Self-organization of divided hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagaki, Takashi; Kitada, Keigo; Omizo, Kenta; Fujie, Ryo

    2015-03-01

    There are two types of extreme form of hierarchy, one is the plutonomy where small fraction of winners and losers and many people in the middle class appear and the other a divided hierarchy where half of population become winners and the remaining half become losers. We study the emergence of the divided hierarchy in a model society which consists of bellicose individuals who always try to fight and fight with the strongest neighbor and pacific individuals who always try not to fight and when necessary fight with the weakest neighbor. In our model society, (1) individuals make random walk on a square lattice, (2) when two individuals encounter they fight each other and (3) the winner deprives wealth from the loser. By a Monte Carlo simulation, we show that there are two transitions when the population density is increased; one is a transition from the egalitarian society to a hierarchical society I where winners, losers and middle classes coexist and the other is a transition from the hierarchical society I to a hierarchical society II where winners and losers exist but no middle classes exist, that is the divided hierarchy. We also show that clusters consisting mostly of bellicose individuals appear in the hierarchical society I.

  2. The FO^2 alternation hierarchy is decidable

    CERN Document Server

    Kufleitner, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    We consider the two-variable fragment FO^2[<] of first-order logic over finite words. Numerous characterizations of this class are known. Th\\'erien and Wilke have shown that it is decidable whether a given regular language is definable in FO^2[<]. From a practical point of view, as shown by Weis, FO^2[<] is interesting since its satisfiability problem is in NP. Restricting the number of quantifier alternations yields an infinite hierarchy inside the class of FO^2[<]-definable languages. We show that each level of this hierarchy is decidable. For this purpose, we relate each level of the hierarchy with a decidable variety of finite monoids. Our result implies that there are many different ways of climbing up the FO^2[<]-quantifier alternation hierarchy: deterministic and co-deterministic products, Mal'cev products with definite and reverse definite semigroups, iterated block products with J-trivial monoids, and some inductively defined omega-term identities. A combinatorial tool in the process o...

  3. Using Analytic Hierarchy Process in Textbook Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in English language teaching materials evaluation, focusing in particular on its potential for systematically integrating different components of evaluation criteria in a variety of teaching contexts. AHP is a measurement procedure wherein pairwise comparisons are made…

  4. Integrating partonomic hierarchies in anatomy ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yiya

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anatomy ontologies play an increasingly important role in developing integrated bioinformatics applications. One of the primary relationships between anatomical tissues represented in such ontologies is part-of. As there are a number of ways to divide up the anatomical structure of an organism, each may be represented by more than one valid partonomic (part-of hierarchy. This raises the issue of how to represent and integrate multiple such hierarchies. Results In this paper we describe a solution that is based on our work on an anatomy ontology for mouse embryo development, which is part of the Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project (EMAP. The paper describes the basic conceptual aspects of our approach and discusses strengths and limitations of the proposed solution. A prototype was implemented in Prolog for evaluation purposes. Conclusion With the proposed name set approach, rather than having to standardise hierarchies, it is sufficient to agree on a suitable set of basic tissue terms and their meaning in order to facilitate the integration of multiple partonomic hierarchies.

  5. The Analytic Hierarchy Process and Participatory Decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Daniel L. Peterson; Robert L. Smith

    1995-01-01

    Managing natural resource lands requires social, as well as biophysical, considerations. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to accurately assess and quantify changing social preferences, and to aggregate conflicting opinions held by diverse social groups. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) provides a systematic, explicit, rigorous, and robust mechanism for...

  6. Conceptualizing and Measuring Transformational and Transactional Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ulrich Thy; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Ladegaard, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Existing conceptualizations and measures of transformational and transactional leadership have unclear theoretical bases, confound leadership and its effects, and are not necessarily suitable for public organizations. Overcoming these problems is necessary to test how leadership affects performance....... Many public administration scholars apply the concepts, emphasizing the need to ensure that the concepts are applicable in both public and private organizations. The article reconceptualizes transformational and transactional leadership and develops and tests revised measures that can be employed...

  7. Mutual authentication in electronic commerce transactions.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Electronic commerce is a large and ever growing industry. Online transactions are returning ever-growing revenues to electronic merchants. The e-commerce industry is still facing a range of problems concerning the process of completion of online transactions. Such problems are connected to consumer fears dealing with the identity of online merchants, their security pre- cautions and methods for accepting online payments. This thesis develops and presents a Mutual Authentication Model (MAM), w...

  8. Sociality, hierarchy, health comparative biodemography: a collection of papers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weinstein, Maxine; Lane, Meredith A

    2014-01-01

    "Sociality, Hierarchy, Health: Comparative Biodemography is a collection of papers that examine cross-species comparisons of social environments with a focus on social behaviors along with social hierarchies and connections...

  9. The concept of hierarchy in general systems theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparski, W

    1994-01-01

    The paper reviews main ideas related to the concept of hierarchy as they are discussed in contemporary general systems theory. After presenting a dictionary definition of the concept, the author examines the intuitive idea of hierarchy quoting Mario Bunge's notion of level structure. Then relationship between two other concepts: a system and a hierarchy is characterised on the bases of Bowler's, Bunge's again, Klir's, and the author's studies. Finally, the paper is concluded that hierarchy is not an otological concept but epistemological one.

  10. Dispersionless and multicomponent BKP hierarchies with quantum torus symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanzhong

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we will construct the additional perturbative quantum torus symmetry of the dispersionless BKP hierarchy based on the W∞ infinite dimensional Lie symmetry. These results show that the complete quantum torus symmetry is broken from the BKP hierarchy to its dispersionless hierarchies. Further a series of additional flows of the multicomponent BKP hierarchy will be defined and these flows constitute an N-folds direct product of the positive half of the quantum torus symmetries.

  11. FIXING THE ONTOLOGICAL HIERARCHY IN ANCIENT GREEK EPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljeva A. S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of representations of hierarchical structure of the universe in ancient Greek mythic-epic tradition. In the research there was shown that the myth reflects the main program of interpretation of main principles of the universe by a man in its structure; the Chaos in itself possesses the generative power and forms an order from itself but the hierarchy appears together with the formation of the order-outer space. The first deities – Gaea and born from her Uranus, mountains, Pontus, - possess the great power and in the first place, the power of generation. From works of Gomer and Gesiodus we ascertained that the history of gods was connected with the fight of children with the father-sovereign. One generation of gods became that support on which the other stands. The third generation of gods is sovereigns in greater extent than another one. The generation of Titans is implacable but lives according to unlimited forces of nature. Titans are unbridled. Gods-Olympians, on contrary, have the relation to conscious restriction. Gods of the third generation possess passions: love, hate. However, Olympians as well as humans must submit to transcendental law of the universe. Gods of the third generation join to the rationale. The order of the universe submitted to the law – Destiny is disseminated in human community. Power as an accidental of initial hierarchy gives itself in hands of that who can submit its will to absolute power of Destiny. The legitimacy of power is determined by initial hierarchy of the universe

  12. Vector Loop Algebra and Its Applications to Tu Hierarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan

    2007-01-01

    A vector loop algebra and its extended loop algebra are proposed, which are devoted to obtaining the Tu hierarchy. By making use of the extended trace identity, the Hamiltonian structure of the Tu hierarchy is constructed.Furthermore, we apply the quadratic-form identity to the integrable coupling system of the Tu hierarchy.

  13. Basic Studies of Learning Hierarchies in School Subjects. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Robert M.

    This study explores three areas of learning hierarchies: (1) the condition for learning in accordance with learning hierarchies; (2) the use of hierarchies in the diagnosis and learning of prerequisite intellectual skills; and (3) the conditions of learning and retention of principles. There were seven studies undertaken using elementary and…

  14. 3D Printing in Instructional Settings: Identifying a Curricular Hierarchy of Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abbie

    2015-01-01

    A report of a year-long study in which the author engaged in 3D printing activity in order to determine how to facilitate and support skill building, concept attainment, and increased confidence with its use among teachers. Use of 3D printing tools and their applications in instructional settings are discussed. A hierarchy of 3D printing…

  15. PP1 - A systematic review of the analytic hierarchy process in health care decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, J.M.; IJzerman, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a technique for multi-criteria decision analysis, is increasingly being used to support health care decision making. These decisions mainly relate to the application and coverage of health care technologies, and its use as a patient-reported outcome

  16. PP1 - A systematic review of the analytic hierarchy process in health care decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, J. Marjan; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a technique for multi-criteria decision analysis, is increasingly being used to support health care decision making. These decisions mainly relate to the application and coverage of health care technologies, and its use as a patient-reported outcome

  17. 3D Printing in Instructional Settings: Identifying a Curricular Hierarchy of Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abbie

    2015-01-01

    A report of a year-long study in which the author engaged in 3D printing activity in order to determine how to facilitate and support skill building, concept attainment, and increased confidence with its use among teachers. Use of 3D printing tools and their applications in instructional settings are discussed. A hierarchy of 3D printing…

  18. An empirical test of Maslow's theory of need hierarchy using hologeistic comparison by statistical sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Sharts, J

    1986-10-01

    Maslow's hierarchy of basic human needs provides a major theoretical framework in nursing science. The purpose of this study was to empirically test Maslow's need theory, specifically at the levels of physiological and security needs, using a hologeistic comparative method. Thirty cultures taken from the 60 cultural units in the Health Relations Area Files (HRAF) Probability Sample were found to have data available for examining hypotheses about thermoregulatory (physiological) and protective (security) behaviors practiced prior to sleep onset. The findings demonstrate there is initial worldwide empirical evidence to support Maslow's need hierarchy.

  19. Extending Software Transactional Memory in Clojure with Side-Effects and Transaction Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kejser; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2016-01-01

    In conjunction with the increase of multi-core processors the use of functional programming languages has increased in recent years. The functional language Clojure has concurrency as a core feature, and provides Software Transactional Memory (STM) as a substitute for locks. Transactions in Cloju...

  20. A real-time transaction service for grid computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Feilong; Li Minglu; Joshua Huang Zhexue; Frank Tong; Cao Jian

    2005-01-01

    A real-time transaction service aims at ensuring the consistency of real-time and transactional Grid applications. This paper proposes an efficient real-time transaction service (RTTS). It provides abilities to discover qualified services, I.e., participants, to execute specified sub-transactions, coordinate real-time Grid transactions, calculate deadline and assign priority for scheduling concurrent transactions. The service discovery adopts the two-level registry mechanismto adapt to transient Grid services. The coordination algorithm invokes multiplefunctional alternative services for each sub-transaction so that it remarkablyimproves the successful ratio of real-time transactions. The experiment result shows that the RTTS can well coordinate real-time transactions for Grid service environment and shield users from the complex process.

  1. Zero tolerance for incorrect data: Best practices in SQL transaction programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiho, M.; Skourlas, C.; Dervos, D. A.

    2015-02-01

    DBMS products differ in the way they support even the basic SQL transaction services. In this paper, a framework of best practices in SQL transaction programming is given and discussed. The SQL developers are advised to experiment with and verify the services supported by the DBMS product used. The framework has been developed by DBTechNet, a European network of teachers, trainers and ICT professionals. A course module on SQL transactions, offered by the LLP "DBTech VET Teachers" programme, is also presented and discussed. Aims and objectives of the programme include the introduction of the topics and content of SQL transactions and concurrency control to HE/VET curricula and addressing the need for initial and continuous training on these topics to in-company trainers, VET teachers, and Higher Education students. An overview of the course module, its learning outcomes, the education and training (E&T) content, virtual database labs with hands-on self-practicing exercises, plus instructions for the teacher/trainer on the pedagogy and the usage of the course modules' content are briefly described. The main principle adopted is to "Learn by verifying in practice" and the transactions course motto is: "Zero Tolerance for Incorrect Data".

  2. Breaking through the Glass Ceiling: Consumers in Mental Health Organisations' Hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Brett; Bocking, Julia; Happell, Brenda

    2017-05-01

    Contemporary mental health policies call for consumers to be engaged in all levels of mental health service planning, implementation, and delivery. Critical approaches to traditional healthcare hierarchies can effectively challenge barriers to better engagement with consumers in mental health organisations. This qualitative exploratory study analyses how particular strategies for consumer leadership facilitate or hinder relationships between consumers and mental health services, and how these strategies influence hierarchical structures. Fourteen participants from a range of mental health organisations were interviewed. These interviews were analysed using thematic analytic and discursive psychological techniques. The findings highlight several benefits of having consumers within mental health organisational hierarchies, and elaborate on ways that employees within mental health services can support integration of consumers into existing hierarchies. Specific barriers to consumers in hierarchies are discussed, including a lack of clarity of structures and roles within hierarchies, and resistance to consumers reaching the highest levels of leadership within organisations. Alternative hierarchical models which privilege consumers' control over resources and power are also discussed. Mental health organisations are encouraged to integrate consumer leaders into their hierarchical structures to improve their organisational offerings, their reputation, and their service innovation.

  3. Lax Triad Approach to Symmetries of Scalar Modified Kadomtsev–Petviashvili Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiao; Chen, Kui; Zhang, Da-Jun

    2017-02-01

    By means of Lax triads we reconstruct isospectral and nonisospectral scalar modified Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (mKP) hierarchies. In this approach the argument y is treated as an independent variable which is independent of time parameters \\{{t}1,{t}2,\\ldots \\}. Consequently, the isospectral and nonisospectral scalar mKP flows can have clear zero curvature representations, which enables us to handle investigation of symmetries of the scalar isospectral mKP hierarchy as freely as for (1+1)-dimensional systems. As a result, we obtain Lie algebraic structures of the scalar mKP flows and construct symmetries for the scalar isospectral mKP hierarchy. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11371241

  4. Dual Hierarchies of a Multi-Component Camassa-Holm System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Min; Li, Yu-Qi; Chen, Yong

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we derive the bi-Hamiltonian structure of a multi-component Camassa-Holm system, which associates with the multi-component AKNS hierarchy and multi-component KN hierarchy via the tri-Hamiltonian duality method. Furthermore, the spectral problems of the dual hierarchies may be obtained. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11275072 and 11375090, Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China under No. 20120076110024, the Innovative Research Team Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61321064, Shanghai Knowledge Service Platform for Trustworthy Internet of Things under Grant No. ZF1213, Talent Fund and K.C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University

  5. A 2 + 1 non-isospectral integrable lattice hierarchy related to a generalized discrete second Painleve hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordoa, Pilar R. [Area de Matematica Aplicada, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Pickering, Andrew [Area de Matematica Aplicada, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: andrew.pickering@urjc.es; Zhu Zuonong [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030 (China); Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced 1, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    In this article, by considering a 2 + 1 dimensional discrete non-isospectral linear problem, a new 2 + 1 dimensional integrable lattice hierarchy is constructed. It is shown that a generalization of the discrete second Painleve hierarchy can be obtained as a reduction. Other reductions include new 1 + 1 dimensional integrable lattice hierarchies.

  6. Neural basis of social status hierarchy across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y

    2010-12-01

    Social status hierarchy is a ubiquitous principle of social organization across the animal kingdom. Recent findings in social neuroscience reveal distinct neural networks associated with the recognition and experience of social hierarchy in humans, as well as modulation of these networks by personality and culture. Additionally, allelic variation in the serotonin transporter gene is associated with prevalence of social hierarchy across species and cultures, suggesting the importance of the study of genetic factors underlying social hierarchy. Future studies are needed to determine how genetic and environmental factors shape neural systems involved in the production and maintenance of social hierarchy across ontogeny and phylogeny. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Egalitarian despots: hierarchy steepness, reciprocity and the grooming-trade model in wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburu, Stefano S K; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2015-01-01

    Biological market theory models the action of natural selection as a marketplace in which animals are viewed as traders with commodities to offer and exchange. Studies of female Old World monkeys have suggested that grooming might be employed as a commodity to be reciprocated or traded for alternative services, yet previous tests of this grooming-trade model in wild adult male chimpanzees have yielded mixed results. Here we provide the strongest test of the model to date for male chimpanzees: we use data drawn from two social groups (communities) of chimpanzees from different populations and give explicit consideration to variation in dominance hierarchy steepness, as such variation results in differing conditions for biological markets. First, analysis of data from published accounts of other chimpanzee communities, together with our own data, showed that hierarchy steepness varied considerably within and across communities and that the number of adult males in a community aged 20-30 years predicted hierarchy steepness. The two communities in which we tested predictions of the grooming-trade model lay at opposite extremes of this distribution. Second, in accord with the grooming-trade model, we found evidence that male chimpanzees trade grooming for agonistic support where hierarchies are steep (despotic) and consequent effective support is a rank-related commodity, but not where hierarchies are shallow (egalitarian). However, we also found that grooming was reciprocated regardless of hierarchy steepness. Our findings also hint at the possibility of agonistic competition, or at least exclusion, in relation to grooming opportunities compromising the free market envisioned by biological market theory. Our results build on previous findings across chimpanzee communities to emphasize the importance of reciprocal grooming exchanges among adult male chimpanzees, which can be understood in a biological markets framework if grooming by or with particular individuals is a

  8. An Imperative Type Hierarchy with Partial Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1989-01-01

    notation for defining recursive types, that is superior to traditional type sums and products. We show how the ordering on types extends to an ordering on types with invariants. We allow the use of least upper bounds in type definitions and show how to compute upper bounds of invariants.......A type hierarchy for a programming language defines an ordering on the types such that any application for small types may be reused for all larger types. The imperative facet makes this non-trivial; the straight-forward definitions will yield an inconsistent system. We introduce a new type...... constructor, the partial product, and show how to define a consistent hierarchy in the context of fully recursive types. A simple polymorphism is derived by introducing a notion of placeholder types. By extending the partial product types to include structural invariants we obtain a particularly appropriate...

  9. Mass Hierarchy of Collisional Energy Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Kolevatov, Rodion

    2008-01-01

    Collisional parton energy loss is revisited within a simple model assuming incoherent elastic scattering of on-shell projectile partons on partonic constituents of the QGP with HTL screening. The thermal motion of plasma particles is carefully taken into account. Results on $dE/dx$ are found to be consistent with other authors. There is a significant discrepancy in the energy loss pattern for the cases with thermal motion on and off, which illustrates the importance of taking the kinematics into account exactly. The dependence on the mass of the partons forming the plasma is included in the calculations and its influence on the collisional energy loss is studied. The mass hierarchy of collisional energy loss is found to have a strong dependence on the mass introduced for plasma particles. Due to difference in the mass hierarchy with radiative energy loss, the collisional one when included increases the relative suppression of heavy quarks compared to light quarks.

  10. Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis Sand

    2015-01-01

    the use of remote sensing. In this study, we explore how sensing mode and range depend on body size. We reveal a hierarchy of sensing modes (chemosensing, mechanosensing, vision, hearing, and echolocation) where body size determines the available battery of sensing modes and where larger body size means...... a longer sensing range. The size-dependent hierarchy and the transitions between primary sensory modes are explained on the grounds of limiting factors set by physiology and the physical laws governing signal generation, transmission and reception. We characterize the governing mechanisms and theoretically...... predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align very well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic...

  11. Deep Hierarchies in the Primate Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Jannsen, Per; Kalkan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Computational modeling of the primate visual system yields insights of potential relevance to some of the challenges that computer vision is facing, such as object recognition and categorization, motion detection and activity recognition or vision-based navigation and manipulation. This article...... reviews some functional principles and structures that are generally thought to underlie the primate visual cortex, and attempts to extract biological principles that could further advance computer vision research. Organized for a computer vision audience, we present functional principles...... of the processing hierarchies present in the primate visual system considering recent discoveries in neurophysiology. The hierarchal processing in the primate visual system is characterized by a sequence of different levels of processing (in the order of ten) that constitute a deep hierarchy in contrast to the flat...

  12. Hierarchy of Scales in Language Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Blythe, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Methods and insights from statistical physics are finding an increasing variety of applications where one seeks to understand the emergent properties of a complex interacting system. One such area concerns the dynamics of language at a variety of levels of description, from the behaviour of individual agents learning simple artificial languages from each other, up to changes in the structure of languages shared by large groups of speakers over historical timescales. In this Colloquium, we survey a hierarchy of scales at which language and linguistic behaviour can be described, along with the main progress in understanding that has been made at each of them---much of which has come from the statistical physics community. We argue that future developments may arise by linking the different levels of the hierarchy together in a more coherent fashion, in particular where this allows more effective use of rich empirical data sets.

  13. Size structures sensory hierarchy in ocean life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Erik A; Wadhwa, Navish; Jacobsen, Nis S; Lindemann, Christian; Andersen, Ken H; Visser, André

    2015-09-22

    Survival in aquatic environments requires organisms to have effective means of collecting information from their surroundings through various sensing strategies. In this study, we explore how sensing mode and range depend on body size. We find a hierarchy of sensing modes determined by body size. With increasing body size, a larger battery of modes becomes available (chemosensing, mechanosensing, vision, hearing and echolocation, in that order) while the sensing range also increases. This size-dependent hierarchy and the transitions between primary sensory modes are explained on the grounds of limiting factors set by physiology and the physical laws governing signal generation, transmission and reception. We theoretically predict the body size limits for various sensory modes, which align well with size ranges found in literature. The treatise of all ocean life, from unicellular organisms to whales, demonstrates how body size determines available sensing modes, and thereby acts as a major structuring factor of aquatic life. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Solving moment hierarchies for chemical reaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Supriya; Smith, Eric

    2017-10-01

    The study of chemical reaction networks (CRN’s) is a very active field. Earlier well-known results (Feinberg 1987 Chem. Enc. Sci. 42 2229, Anderson et al 2010 Bull. Math. Biol. 72 1947) identify a topological quantity called deficiency, for any CRN, which, when exactly equal to zero, leads to a unique factorized steady-state for these networks. No results exist however for the steady states of non-zero-deficiency networks. In this paper, we show how to write the full moment-hierarchy for any non-zero-deficiency CRN obeying mass-action kinetics, in terms of equations for the factorial moments. Using these, we can recursively predict values for lower moments from higher moments, reversing the procedure usually used to solve moment hierarchies. We show, for non-trivial examples, that in this manner we can predict any moment of interest, for CRN’s with non-zero deficiency and non-factorizable steady states.

  15. Feminist Praxis, Critical Theory and Informal Hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Giraud

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on my experiences teaching across two undergraduate media modules in a UK research-intensive institution to explore tactics for combatting both institutional and informal hierarchies within university teaching contexts. Building on Sara Motta’s (2012 exploration of implementing critical pedagogic principles at postgraduate level in an elite university context, I discuss additional tactics for combatting these hierarchies in undergraduate settings, which were developed by transferring insights derived from informal workshops led by the University of Nottingham’s Feminism and Teaching network into the classroom. This discussion is framed in relation to the concepts of “cyborg pedagogies” and “political semiotics of articulation,” derived from the work of Donna Haraway, in order to theorize how these tactics can engender productive relationships between radical pedagogies and critical theory.

  16. Homology and the hierarchy of biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Ralf J

    2008-07-01

    Homology is the similarity between organisms due to common ancestry. Introduced by Richard Owen in 1843 in a paper entitled "Lectures on comparative anatomy and physiology of the invertebrate animals", the concept of homology predates Darwin's "Origin of Species" and has been very influential throughout the history of evolutionary biology. Although homology is the central concept of all comparative biology and provides a logical basis for it, the definition of the term and the criteria of its application remain controversial. Here, I will discuss homology in the context of the hierarchy of biological organization. I will provide insights gained from an exemplary case study in evolutionary developmental biology that indicates the uncoupling of homology at different levels of biological organization. I argue that continuity and hierarchy are separate but equally important issues of homology. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Assessing Transaction Environment Conditions for Investment and Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishlanova Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains characteristic description of the transaction-based approach and identifies problems of studying the transaction envi-ronment for investments and construction. It also discusses the results of transaction cost analysis in the real estate sector, and assessment of the business environment in Russia. The authors present indirect assessment of transaction environment through the economic freedom index, detailed particularly for Russia; they demonstrate the transaction environment structure and offer methodological recommendations on evaluation of transaction environment for investment and construction.

  18. Understanding the hierarchy governance choice of some wineries in Brazil - case study of 3 Brazilian wineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassia Watanabe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to contribute towards understanding the multiple factors, which influence firm's governance decisions. To identify some of these factors, three cases in the Brazilian wine industry were analyzed: Miolo located in Vale dos Vinhedos (South of Brazil and in Vale do Rio São Francisco (Northeast of Brazil; Don Laurindo located in Vale dos Vinhedos; and ViniBrasil located in Vale do Rio São Francisco. For the most part, all three firms procure the grapes they use for their wine production in-house. Only Miolo purchases an insignificant amount of grapes outside of its production. By Brazilian standards, these regions have a long tradition of grape production and it is not difficult to purchase sufficient quantity of grapes to produce wine. However, the wineries are concerned also about the quality of the grapes they use and purchasing high-quality grapes might be critical issue. On the other hand, the quality of grapes is easily measured and the cost to buy in the market is cheaper than producing in-house. Furthermore, also the level of asset specificity present in the grape-grower-wine-producer transaction seems, by itself, insufficient to justify the use of hierarchical governance forms. Then, the aim of the article is to analyze the reasons why these wineries largely rely on hierarchy governance forms to procure their grape-inputs. What explains their use of hierarchy governance, given that both asset specificity and measurement problems appear to be relatively low?

  19. Hamiltonian hierarchy and the Hulthen potential

    CERN Document Server

    Gönül, B

    2000-01-01

    We deal with the Hamiltonian hierarchy problem of the Hulth\\'{e}n potential within the frame of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics and find that the associated superymmetric partner potentials simulate the effect of the centrifugal barrier. Incorporating the supersymmetric solutions and using the first-order perturbation theory we obtain an expression for the energy levels of theHulth\\'{e}n potential which gives satisfactory values for the non-zero angular momentum states.

  20. INFORMATION GATHERING, DELEGATED CONTRACTING AND CORPORATE HIERARCHIES

    OpenAIRE

    Chongwoo Choe; In-Uck Park

    2008-01-01

    In a typical corporate hierarchy, the manager is delegated the authority to make strategic decisions, and to contract with other employees. We study when such delegation can be optimal. In centralization, the owner retains the authority, which fails to motivate the manager to acquire valuable information, leading to suboptimal decisions and inefficient incentive provision to the worker. Beneficial delegation should necessarily motivate the manager to acquire information, which is possible onl...

  1. Transactions Security Tools in Account Receivables Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wodyńska

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Large competition among goods and services suppliers caused that granting clients deferred term of payment became a standard, so in other word granting clients commercial credit is a standard. Companies try to limit credit risk by securing their trade transactions in accordance with their credit policy that determines in some way the choice of trade transaction security tools.This article presents a full range of trade transaction security tools according to the general division into personal and property securities. The author pays attention to the fact that while conducting a proper credit policy in relation to clients, a company has chances to monitor efficiently the receivables and insist on their payment as well as use, as needed, the earlier prepared trade transaction security tools.The author convinces that regardless of the choice of trade transaction security tools, or reasons leading the receivables managing person, the basic criterion of security evaluation shall be its real, checked and verified value. The pledge on an object that does not exist is not worth much. The same applies to security granted by an insolvent person.

  2. Context-dependent hierarchies in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Máté; Vásárhelyi, Gábor; Pettit, Benjamin; Roberts-Mariani, Isabella; Vicsek, Tamás; Biro, Dora

    2013-08-06

    Hierarchical organization is widespread in the societies of humans and other animals, both in social structure and in decision-making contexts. In the case of collective motion, the majority of case studies report that dominant individuals lead group movements, in agreement with the common conflation of the terms "dominance" and "leadership." From a theoretical perspective, if social relationships influence interactions during collective motion, then social structure could also affect leadership in large, swarm-like groups, such as fish shoals and bird flocks. Here we use computer-vision-based methods and miniature GPS tracking to study, respectively, social dominance and in-flight leader-follower relations in pigeons. In both types of behavior we find hierarchically structured networks of directed interactions. However, instead of being conflated, dominance and leadership hierarchies are completely independent of each other. Although dominance is an important aspect of variation among pigeons, correlated with aggression and access to food, our results imply that the stable leadership hierarchies in the air must be based on a different set of individual competences. In addition to confirming the existence of independent and context-specific hierarchies in pigeons, we succeed in setting out a robust, scalable method for the automated analysis of dominance relationships, and thus of social structure, applicable to many species. Our results, as well as our methods, will help to incorporate the broader context of animal social organization into the study of collective behavior.

  3. Do Convolutional Neural Networks Learn Class Hierarchy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsallakh, Bilal; Jourabloo, Amin; Ye, Mao; Liu, Xiaoming; Ren, Liu

    2017-08-29

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) currently achieve state-of-the-art accuracy in image classification. With a growing number of classes, the accuracy usually drops as the possibilities of confusion increase. Interestingly, the class confusion patterns follow a hierarchical structure over the classes. We present visual-analytics methods to reveal and analyze this hierarchy of similar classes in relation with CNN-internal data. We found that this hierarchy not only dictates the confusion patterns between the classes, it furthermore dictates the learning behavior of CNNs. In particular, the early layers in these networks develop feature detectors that can separate high-level groups of classes quite well, even after a few training epochs. In contrast, the latter layers require substantially more epochs to develop specialized feature detectors that can separate individual classes. We demonstrate how these insights are key to significant improvement in accuracy by designing hierarchy-aware CNNs that accelerate model convergence and alleviate overfitting. We further demonstrate how our methods help in identifying various quality issues in the training data.

  4. TRANSACTIONAL LEADER IN ROMANIAN PRIVATE BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Ciprian CRIȘAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available From a managerial point of view, all the media means of professional communication, socialization and interaction emphasize entrepreneurial success stories. One of the modern concerns of all current researchers is to underline the place and role of leaders in the institutional framework. The leadership is perceived as a support pillar in maintaining any business. The analysis of this phenomenon is extremely extensive, starting with the culture of a company, the purpose of its existence and comprises aspects concerning the employees motivation and the degree of identifying themselves with the organizational objective. A constant concern in analyzing this phenomenon is retaining the employees and encouraging them to bring added value to the organization where they perform their daily activities. Nevertheless, the Romanian banking system in Timişoara seems to display a strong resistance towards change. The leadership of this industry is comprised of people with great managerial abilities. The transactional method, manifested by the leader in the Romanian private banking system in Timişoara, seems to be the main phenomenon at the basis of their daily activity. The manager – leader hypothesis is slowly taking shape. Due to the resistance to change, generated by the educational model, from a managerial point of view, the balance is strongly tilting towards the managerial traits at the expense of the leadership ones. We are still at the stage where the tolerance towards liberty, uncertainty, are some of the traits of the leader in the Romanian private banking system in Timişoara, which are poorly identified at the management level of this very important segment of activity.

  5. TRANSACTIONAL LEADER IN ROMANIAN PRIVATE BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Ciprian CRIȘAN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available From a managerial point of view, all the media means of professional communication, socialization and interaction emphasize entrepreneurial success stories. One of the modern concerns of all current researchers is to underline the place and role of leaders in the institutional framework. The leadership is perceived as a support pillar in maintaining any business. The analysis of this phenomenon is extremely extensive, starting with the culture of a company, the purpose of its existence and comprises aspects concerning the employees motivation and the degree of identifying themselves with the organizational objective. A constant concern in analyzing this phenomenon is retaining the employees and encouraging them to bring added value to the organization where they perform their daily activities. Nevertheless, the Romanian banking system in Timişoara seems to display a strong resistance towards change. The leadership of this industry is comprised of people with great managerial abilities. The transactional method, manifested by the leader in the Romanian private banking system in Timişoara, seems to be the main phenomenon at the basis of their daily activity. The manager – leader hypothesis is slowly taking shape. Due to the resistance to change, generated by the educational model, from a managerial point of view, the balance is strongly tilting towards the managerial traits at the expense of the leadership ones. We are still at the stage where the tolerance towards liberty, uncertainty, are some of the traits of the leader in the Romanian private banking system in Timişoara, which are poorly identified at the management level of this very important segment of activity.

  6. Optimizing Concurrent M3-Transactions: A Fuzzy Constraint Satisfaction Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng LI

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high connectivity and great convenience, many E-commerce application systems have a high transaction volume. Consequently, the system state changes rapidly and it is likely that customers issue transactions based on out-of-date state information. Thus, the potential of transaction abortion increases greatly. To address this problem, we proposed an M3-transaction model. An M3-transaction is a generalized transaction where users can issue their preferences in a request by specifying multiple criteria and optional data resources simultaneously within one transaction. In this paper, we introduce the transaction grouping and group evaluation techniques. We consider evaluating a group of M3-transactions arrived to the system within a short duration together. The system makes optimal decisions in allocating data to transactions to achieve better customer satisfaction and lower transaction failure rate. We apply the fuzzy constraint satisfaction approach for decision-making. We also conduct experimental studies to evaluate the performance of our approach. The results show that the M3-transaction with group evaluation is more resilient to failure and yields much better performance than the traditional transaction model.

  7. Optimizing Concurrent M3-Transactions: A Fuzzy Constraint Satisfaction Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng LI

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high connectivity and great convenience, many E-commerce application systems have a high transaction volume. Consequently, the system state changes rapidly and it is likely that customers issue transactions based on out-of-date state information. Thus, the potential of transaction abortion increases greatly. To address this problem, we proposed an M3-transaction model. An M3-transaction is a generalized transaction where users can issue their preferences in a request by specifying multiple criteria and optional data resources simultaneously within one transaction. In this paper, we introduce the transaction grouping and group evaluation techniques. We consider evaluating a group of M3-transactions arrived to the system within a short duration together. The system makes optimal decisions in allocating data to transactions to achieve better customer satisfaction and lower transaction failure rate. We apply the fuzzy constraint satisfaction approach for decision-making. We also conduct experimental studies to evaluate the performance of our approach. The results show that the M3-transaction with group evaluation is more resilient to failure and yields much better performance than the traditional transaction model.

  8. Transaction charges allocation using sensitivity factor methodology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Charles Raja; J Jeslin Drusila Nesamalar; P Venkatesh

    2014-04-01

    Deregulation of the electricity industry aims for creating a competitive market to trade electricity, which generates a host of new technical challenges among market participants and power system researchers. One of the major challenges is to establish a cost for system services on a nondiscriminatory basis. In this paper, the evaluation of transmission cost is proposed based on sensitivity factor method like AC Power Transfer Distribution Factor (ACPTDF) method for bilateral and multilateral transactions. The transacted power is estimated by ACPTDF method for each transaction. The advantages of the proposed methodology are demonstrated on a sample 6 bus, IEEE 30 bus and Indian Utility 69 bus systems. The solution provides a better pricing approach that can impact a more reasonable economic indicator for transmission cost.

  9. The transaction as a quantum concept

    CERN Document Server

    Leonardo, Chiatti

    2012-01-01

    This essay intends to present a novel approach to the concept of "transaction" in quantum physics. Breaking with Cramer's original theory, the transaction is not connected to the simultaneously retarded and advanced spacetime propagation of classical fields, as in the spirit of Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics. Instead, the transaction is seen as an archetypal structure intrinsic within the quantum formalism. The present approach is advantageous in that, while preserving the essential point of Cramer's theory, is also fully consistent with the standard quantum formalism. In particular, it has the advantage of avoiding the introduction of elements which are completely extraneous to quantum formalism (such as the propagation of real physical waves in four-dimensional spacetime, the phase difference between offer and confirmation waves which is necessary for the elimination of "tails", the echoing mechanism, etc.)

  10. Buyer protection for e-commerce transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Laskowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Buyer protection has been a major challenge for e-commerce entrepreneurs and engineers building application for executing transactions on-line. The threat connected with e-commerce is mostly connected with problems in authenticating users performing the buy/sell action. Key webportals such as eBay.com and Paypal.com offer 100% money back buyer protection programs for transactions that were unsuccessful or purchased goods were substantially different from the provided description. The aim of this article is to analyze procedures of acquiring compensation in buyer protection programs procedures. The case study enclosed in the article seem to advocate that buyer protection programs does not insure e-commerce transactions. Any kind of money back guarantee is affected by the current marketing policy of the company. The user agreement does not directly impose an obligation of receiving compensation by the user.

  11. 31 CFR 500.576 - Authorization of transactions concerning certain development projects in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... blocking of such funds and to facilitate export transactions. (f) Annual reports must be filed with the... lending, International Monetary Fund balance-of-payments support, and general development assistance... subject to U.S. jurisdiction may not enter into any new commitments with respect to the project after the...

  12. Scripting for Construction of a Transactive Memory System in Multidisciplinary CSCL Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozi, Omid; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Weinberger, Armin; Mulder, Martin; Chizari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Establishing a Transactive Memory System (TMS) is essential for groups of learners, when they are multidisciplinary and collaborate online. Environments for Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) could be designed to facilitate the TMS. This study investigates how various aspects of a TMS (i.e., specialization, coordination, and trust)…

  13. Private Benefits in Corporate Control Transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in block transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer has high security benefits, or because...... the buyer has high private benefits from the control rights that come with the shares? Using voting rights as the vehicle for private benefits, I find that the selling shareholders in block transactions attaches more value to private benefits than the buyers and that toeholds are insignificant...

  14. Biometrics Identity Authentication in Secure Electronic Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepu Saini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are so many ways by which a person can be identified, but authentication of a person by biometric methods is assumed to be more secure. There are many reasons behind this e.g. in this world each person is having different biometric features, even thetwins in this world having different biometrics features. In electronic transactions, biometric method is used from very early days but now a day’s it is supposed to be the best and secure method for electronic transactions. In this paper the concepts regarding biometric identity authentication are explained.

  15. Plural Governance: A Modified Transaction Cost Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies.......Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...

  16. 2008 Annual Report of SGCC on Electricity Market Transactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On April 14,2009,the State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) held the press conference in Beijing on electricity market transactions and then released the "2008 Annual Report of SGCC on Electricity Market Transactions".

  17. Bullying, Victimization, School Performance, and Mother-Child Relationship Quality: Direct and Transactional Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas A. Fanti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current investigation examines longitudinal differences between bullies, victims, and bully victims in terms of the quality of their relationship with their parents and school performance. We also investigate the transactional association between the quality of the parent-child relationship and bullying behavior, after taking into account the longitudinal association among bullying, victimization, and school performance. The sample consisted of 895 mothers and their children who participated in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. According to the findings, children in the cooccurring bully victim group were at higher risk to experience continuous conflict with their mothers and to perform worse academically. The findings also offer support for the hypothesized transactional association between bullying and parent-child conflict and closeness. Further, a positive longitudinal transactional association between victimization and parent-child closeness was identified. Finally, school performance was positively related to victimization but was unrelated to bullying behavior.

  18. Conclusions from a NAIVE Bayes Operator Predicting the Medicare 2011 Transaction Data Set

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The United States Federal Government operates one of the worlds largest medical insurance programs, Medicare, to ensure payment for clinical services for the elderly, illegal aliens and those without the ability to pay for their care directly. This paper evaluates the Medicare 2011 Transaction Data Set which details the transfer of funds from Medicare to private and public clinical care facilities for specific clinical services for the operational year 2011. Methods: Data mining was conducted to establish the relationships between reported and computed transaction values in the data set to better understand the drivers of Medicare transactions at a programmatic level. Results: The models averaged 88 for average model accuracy and 38 for average Kappa during training. Some reported classes are highly independent from the available data as their predictability remains stable regardless of redaction of supporting and contradictory evidence. DRG or procedure type appears to be unpredictable from the...

  19. Hierarchy, Dominance, and Deliberation: Egalitarian Values Require Mental Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Laura; Crandall, Christian S; Eidelman, Scott; Blanchar, John C

    2015-09-01

    Hierarchy and dominance are ubiquitous. Because social hierarchy is early learned and highly rehearsed, the value of hierarchy enjoys relative ease over competing egalitarian values. In six studies, we interfere with deliberate thinking and measure endorsement of hierarchy and egalitarianism. In Study 1, bar patrons' blood alcohol content was correlated with hierarchy preference. In Study 2, cognitive load increased the authority/hierarchy moral foundation. In Study 3, low-effort thought instructions increased hierarchy endorsement and reduced equality endorsement. In Study 4, ego depletion increased hierarchy endorsement and caused a trend toward reduced equality endorsement. In Study 5, low-effort thought instructions increased endorsement of hierarchical attitudes among those with a sense of low personal power. In Study 6, participants' thinking quickly allocated more resources to high-status groups. Across five operationalizations of impaired deliberative thought, hierarchy endorsement increased and egalitarianism receded. These data suggest hierarchy may persist in part because it has a psychological advantage. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. Evaluating supplier quality performance using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nazihah; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Rajoo, Shanmugam Sundram Kalimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Evaluating supplier quality performance is vital in ensuring continuous supply chain improvement, reducing the operational costs and risks towards meeting customer's expectation. This paper aims to illustrate an application of Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process to prioritize the evaluation criteria in a context of automotive manufacturing in Malaysia. Five main criteria were identified which were quality, cost, delivery, customer serviceand technology support. These criteria had been arranged into hierarchical structure and evaluated by an expert. The relative importance of each criteria was determined by using linguistic variables which were represented as triangular fuzzy numbers. The Center of Gravity defuzzification method was used to convert the fuzzy evaluations into their corresponding crisps values. Such fuzzy evaluation can be used as a systematic tool to overcome the uncertainty evaluation of suppliers' performance which usually associated with human being subjective judgments.

  1. Ways to remember disasters - inclusions, exclusions and hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2009-01-01

    Title: Ways to remember disasters ? inclusions, exclusions and hierarchies Abstract: Some disasters are given much attention and get their own place in history. But how are these events remembered in society and why is it that some disasters are forgotten right away? These are the questions...... that this paper deals with. It will be argued, that there is a strong focus on the situation of citizens that suffers from, are affected or hurt by spectacular disasters. At least for a while after the event has taken place. The citizens get acknowledgement and eagerness to express care and support can...... be identified. There is especially focus on the psychological consequences and ways of dealing with traumas. This care and acknowledgement can on the one hand be seen as a strength, but the paper suggests, that it on the other hand can be seen as a weakness, that consequences of disasters primarily...

  2. The hierarchy problem of the electroweak standard model revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegerlehner, Fred [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    A careful renormalization group analysis of the electroweak Standard Model reveals that there is no hierarchy problem in the SM. In the broken phase a light Higgs turns out to be natural as it is self-protected and self-tuned by the Higgs mechanism. It means that the scalar Higgs needs not be protected by any extra symmetry, specifically super symmetry, in order not to be much heavier than the other SM particles which are protected by gauge- or chiral-symmetry. Thus the existence of quadratic cutoff effects in the SM cannot motivate the need for a super symmetric extensions of the SM, but in contrast plays an important role in triggering the electroweak phase transition and in shaping the Higgs potential in the early universe to drive inflation as supported by observation.

  3. The Spontaneous Origin of New Levels in a Scalar Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley N. Salthe

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Given a background of universal thermodynamic disequilibrium, I suggest that the interpolation of new levels in a material scale hierarchy is favored when the entropy production of a local region would be increased by such structural complexification. This would involve the separation by order of magnitude of the average dynamical rate of the new level compared to those of the resulting contiguous levels from which it became disentangled, thereby facilitating laminar flows. Here the Second Law of thermodynamics is understood as a final cause, which can be expressed in this creative way when the surrounding superstructure has a form allowing it to mediate this change (by, e.g., focusing kinetics, etc., and given, as well, sufficiently differentiated local energy gradients to materially support the increased local dissipation.

  4. 45 CFR 162.1901 - Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. 162... STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Medicaid Pharmacy Subrogation § 162.1901 Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction. The Medicaid pharmacy subrogation transaction is the...

  5. 10 CFR 72.78 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall submit a Nuclear Material Transaction Report in computer-readable format as specified in the... shall submit a Nuclear Material Transaction Report in computer-readable format in accordance with... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material transaction reports. 72.78 Section...

  6. 10 CFR 74.15 - Nuclear material transaction reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for transfers and receipts, shall submit a Nuclear Material Transaction Report, in computer-readable.... Each licensee who transfers the material shall submit a Nuclear Material Transaction Report in computer.... Each licensee who receives the material shall submit a Nuclear Material Transaction Report in...

  7. 76 FR 46652 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions (Regulation NN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... otherwise mitigating its own exposure to retail forex transactions or any other foreign exchange risk... CFR Part 240 RIN 7100-AD 79 Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions (Regulation NN) AGENCY: Board of... into, certain types of foreign exchange transactions described in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) of the CEA...

  8. Electronic Business Transaction Infrastructure Analysis Using Petri Nets and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Andrew Lee

    2010-01-01

    Rapid growth in eBusiness has made industry and commerce increasingly dependent on the hardware and software infrastructure that enables high-volume transaction processing across the Internet. Large transaction volumes at major industrial-firm data centers rely on robust transaction protocols and adequately provisioned hardware capacity to ensure…

  9. Transactional sex among young women in rural South Africa: prevalence, mediators and association with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Ranganathan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young adolescent women in sub-Saharan Africa are three to four times more likely to be HIV-positive than boys or men. One of the relationship dynamics that is likely to be associated with young women's increased vulnerability to HIV is transactional sex. There are a range of HIV-related risk behaviours that may drive this vulnerability. However, to date, limited epidemiological data exist on the role of transactional sex in increasing HIV acquisition, especially among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Our paper presents data on the prevalence of self-reported engagement in transactional sex and explores whether transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV infection among a cohort of young, rural, sexually active South African women. We also explore whether this relationship is mediated through certain HIV-related risk behaviours. Methods: We analyzed baseline data from a phase III trial of conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention of 693 sexually active, school-going young women aged 13–20 years in rural South Africa. We examined the association between young women's engagement in transactional sex and HIV infection. Transactional sex is defined as a non-commercial, non-marital sexual relationship whereby sex is exchanged for money and/or gifts. We explored whether this relationship is mediated by certain HIV-related risk behaviours. We used logistic and multinomial regression and report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI. Results: Overall, 14% (n=97 of sexually active young women reported engaging in transactional sex. Engagement in transactional sex was associated with an increased risk of being HIV-positive (aOR: 2.5, CI: 95% 1.19–5.25, p=0.01. The effect size of this association remained nearly unchanged when adjusted for certain other dimensions of HIV risk that might help explain the underlying pathways for this relationship. Conclusions: This study provides quantitative support

  10. Memory-Scalable GPU Spatial Hierarchy Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiming Hou; Xin Sun; Kun Zhou; Lauterbach, C; Manocha, D

    2011-04-01

    Recent GPU algorithms for constructing spatial hierarchies have achieved promising performance for moderately complex models by using the breadth-first search (BFS) construction order. While being able to exploit the massive parallelism on the GPU, the BFS order also consumes excessive GPU memory, which becomes a serious issue for interactive applications involving very complex models with more than a few million triangles. In this paper, we propose to use the partial breadth-first search (PBFS) construction order to control memory consumption while maximizing performance. We apply the PBFS order to two hierarchy construction algorithms. The first algorithm is for kd-trees that automatically balances between the level of parallelism and intermediate memory usage. With PBFS, peak memory consumption during construction can be efficiently controlled without costly CPU-GPU data transfer. We also develop memory allocation strategies to effectively limit memory fragmentation. The resulting algorithm scales well with GPU memory and constructs kd-trees of models with millions of triangles at interactive rates on GPUs with 1 GB memory. Compared with existing algorithms, our algorithm is an order of magnitude more scalable for a given GPU memory bound. The second algorithm is for out-of-core bounding volume hierarchy (BVH) construction for very large scenes based on the PBFS construction order. At each iteration, all constructed nodes are dumped to the CPU memory, and the GPU memory is freed for the next iteration's use. In this way, the algorithm is able to build trees that are too large to be stored in the GPU memory. Experiments show that our algorithm can construct BVHs for scenes with up to 20 M triangles, several times larger than previous GPU algorithms.

  11. 31 CFR 800.302 - Transactions that are not covered transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transaction is solely for the purpose of passive investment. (See § 800.223.) Example 1. In an open market... into a contractual arrangement to acquire the entire armored personnel carrier business operations...

  12. White Paper: Measuring the Neutrino Mass Hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Cahn, R N; Freedman, S J; Haxton, W C; Kadel, R W; Kolomensky, Yu G; Luk, K B; McDonald, P; Gann, G D Orebi; Poon, A W P

    2013-01-01

    This white paper is a condensation of a report by a committee appointed jointly by the Nuclear Science and Physics Divisions at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The goal of this study was to identify the most promising technique(s) for resolving the neutrino mass hierarchy. For the most part, we have relied on calculations and simulations presented by the proponents of the various experiments. We have included evaluations of the opportunities and challenges for these experiments based on what is available already in the literature.

  13. Mixed superposition rules and the Riccati hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Janusz; de Lucas, Javier

    Mixed superposition rules, i.e., functions describing the general solution of a system of first-order differential equations in terms of a generic family of particular solutions of first-order systems and some constants, are studied. The main achievement is a generalization of the celebrated Lie-Scheffers Theorem, characterizing systems admitting a mixed superposition rule. This somehow unexpected result says that such systems are exactly Lie systems, i.e., they admit a standard superposition rule. This provides a new and powerful tool for finding Lie systems, which is applied here to studying the Riccati hierarchy and to retrieving some known results in a more efficient and simpler way.

  14. Mixed superposition rules and the Riccati hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Grabowski, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    Mixed superposition rules, i.e., functions describing the general solution of a system of first-order differential equations in terms of a generic family of particular solutions of first-order systems and some constants, are studied. The main achievement is a generalization of the celebrated Lie-Scheffers Theorem, characterizing systems admitting a mixed superposition rule. This somehow unexpected result says that such systems are exactly Lie systems, i.e., they admit a standard superposition rule. This provides a new and powerful tool for finding Lie systems, which is applied here to studying the Riccati hierarchy and to retrieving some known results in a more efficient and simpler way.

  15. Cascade Hierarchy in SUSY SU(5) GUT

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Kentaro; Takahashi, Ryo

    2010-01-01

    We study cascade hierarchy in supersymmetric SU(5) grand unified theory. The neutrino Dirac mass matrix of the cascade form can lead to the tri-bimaximal generation mixing at the leading order in the seesaw mechanism while the down quark mass matrix of a hybrid cascade form naturally gives the CKM structure. We embed such experimentally favored mass textures into supersymmetric SU(5) GUT, which gives a relation between the down quark and charged lepton mass matrices. Related phenomenologies, such as lepton flavor violating processes and leptogenesis, are also investigated in addition to lepton mixing angles.

  16. Three New Integrable Hierarchies of Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A general Lie algebra Vs and the corresponding loop algebra ~Vs are constructed, from which the linear isospectral Lax pairs are established, whose compatibility presents the zero curvature equation. As its application, a new Lax integrable hierarchy containing two parameters is worked out. It is not Liouville-integrable, however, its two reduced systems are Liouville-integrable, whose Hamiltonian structures are derived by making use of the quadratic-form identity and the γ formula (i.e. the computational formula on the constant γ appeared in the trace identity and the quadratic-form identity).

  17. 31 CFR 545.208 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 545.208 Section 545.208 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  18. 31 CFR 515.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 515.206 Section 515.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... the creation of information or informational materials, and payment of royalties to a designated...

  19. 31 CFR 537.210 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 537.210 Section 537.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  20. 31 CFR 587.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 587.206 Section 587.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...-produce, create, or assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to...

  1. 31 CFR 538.212 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 538.212 Section 538.212 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... services to market, produce or co-produce, create or assist in the creation of information and...

  2. 31 CFR 595.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 595.206 Section 595.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF..., provision of services to market, produce or co-produce, create or assist in the creation of information and...

  3. 31 CFR 586.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 586.206 Section 586.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... or assist in the creation of information and informational materials, and payment of royalties to...

  4. 31 CFR 588.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 588.206 Section 588.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  5. 31 CFR 542.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 542.206 Section 542.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  6. 31 CFR 800.303 - Lending transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lending transactions. 800.303 Section 800.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... the creation in the foreign person of a secured interest in securities or other assets of the U.S...

  7. 31 CFR 548.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 548.206 Section 548.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  8. 31 CFR 539.204 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 539.204 Section 539.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... of services to market, produce or co-produce, create, or assist in the creation of information or...

  9. 31 CFR 541.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 541.206 Section 541.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to information or...

  10. 31 CFR 560.210 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 560.210 Section 560.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... services to market, produce or co-produce, create or assist in the creation of information and...

  11. 31 CFR 544.206 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 544.206 Section 544.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF...-produce, create, or assist in the creation of information or informational materials; and, with respect to...

  12. 31 CFR 536.205 - Exempt transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt transactions. 536.205 Section 536.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... creation of information and informational materials, and payment of royalties to a specially designated...

  13. A Serialization Graph Construction for Nested Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    allowing replacement of entire subtrees of nested activity by single actions as well as the reordering of actions in a history . Also, they do not...systems. 28 [11] N. Lynch, M. Merritt, W. Weihl, and A. Fekete. A theory of atomic transactions. In International Conference on Database Theory, Bruges

  14. 5 CFR 919.970 - Nonprocurement transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonprocurement transaction. 919.970 Section 919.970 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.970...

  15. Offshoring in the transaction costs theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Kraciuk

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an idea of offshoring, a concept assuming movement and realization of production and service processes abroad. It displays different kinds of offshoring as well as presents the transaction cost theory, which considerably influences in explanation of offshoring activities. There were also presented attractiveness of particular countries for running offshoring activities as well as the global and Polish offshoring markets.

  16. Portfolio Optimization Model with Transaction Costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-ping Chen; Chong Li; Sheng-hong Li; Xiong-wei Wu

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to formulate, under the l∞ risk measure, a model of portfolio selection with transaction costs and then investigate the optimal strategy within the proposed. The characterization of a optimal strategy and the efficient algorithm for finding the optimal strategy are given.

  17. 31 CFR 551.201 - Prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited transactions. 551.201 Section 551.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 551.201: Section 203 of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706)...

  18. 77 FR 62177 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... \\5\\ (a retail foreign exchange (forex) rule). Transactions described in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I...'s retail forex rule must treat similarly all such futures and options and all agreements, contracts... forex rules must prescribe appropriate requirements with respect to disclosure, recordkeeping, capital...

  19. 76 FR 56094 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... requirements enumerated in the OCC's retail forex rule. The rule implements the provision of the Dodd-Frank... forex rule). A transaction described in section 2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I) includes ``an agreement, contract, or... institutions. See 12 U.S.C. 1813(c)(1). \\3\\ For purposes of the retail forex rules, ``Federal regulatory agency...

  20. 31 CFR 800.207 - Covered transaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Covered transaction. 800.207 Section 800.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF..., which could result in control of a U.S. business by a foreign person....

  1. Editorial for IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    Our IEEE transactions on power electronics has had some very positive progress these past years under the leadership of Dr. Daan van Wyk. Papers have been processed efficiently both in review time and publication time. This success has spread throughout the whole power electronics community which...

  2. Editorial for IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    Our IEEE transactions on power electronics has had some very positive progress these past years under the leadership of Dr. Daan van Wyk. Papers have been processed efficiently both in review time and publication time. This success has spread throughout the whole power electronics community which...

  3. Private benefits in corporate control transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    This paper presents an analytical framework from which it can be inferred whether sellers or buyers in corporate control transactions value private benefits highest. I am thus able to suggest an answer to the question: Are blocks of shares traded because the buyer is a more efficient monitor...

  4. Evidence for a distributed hierarchy of action representation in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, Scott T.; de C. Hamilton, Antonia F.

    2007-01-01

    Complex human behavior is organized around temporally distal outcomes. Behavioral studies based on tasks such as normal prehension, multi-step object use and imitation establish the existence of relative hierarchies of motor control. The retrieval errors in apraxia also support the notion of a hierarchical model for representing action in the brain. In this review, three functional brain imaging studies of action observation using the method of repetition suppression are used to identify a putative neural architecture that supports action understanding at the level of kinematics, object centered goals and ultimately, motor outcomes. These results, based on observation, may match a similar functional anatomic hierarchy for action planning and execution. If this is true, then the findings support a functional anatomic model that is distributed across a set of interconnected brain areas that are differentially recruited for different aspects of goal oriented behavior, rather than a homogeneous mirror neuron system for organizing and understanding all behavior. PMID:17706312

  5. The Hierarchy Solution to the LHC Inverse Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Gainer, James S; Park, Myeonghun

    2015-01-01

    Supersymmetric (SUSY) models, even those described by relatively few parameters, generically allow many possible SUSY particle (sparticle) mass hierarchies. As the sparticle mass hierarchy determines, to a great extent, the collider phenomenology of a model, the enumeration of these hierarchies is of the utmost importance. We therefore provide a readily generalizable procedure for determining the number of sparticle mass hierarchies in a given SUSY model. As an application, we analyze the gravity-mediated SUSY breaking scenario with various combinations of GUT-scale boundary conditions involving different levels of universality among the gaugino and scalar masses. For each of the eight considered models, we provide the complete list of forbidden hierarchies in a compact form. Our main result is that the complete (typically rather large) set of forbidden hierarchies among the eight sparticles considered in this analysis can be fully specified by just a few forbidden relations involving much smaller subsets of ...

  6. The hierarchy solution to the LHC inverse problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainer, James S.; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Park, Myeonghun

    2015-06-01

    Supersymmetric (SUSY) models, even those described by relatively few parameters, generically allow many possible SUSY particle (sparticle) mass hierarchies. As the sparticle mass hierarchy determines, to a great extent, the collider phenomenology of a model, the enumeration of these hierarchies is of the utmost importance. We therefore provide a readily generalizable procedure for determining the number of sparticle mass hierarchies in a given SUSY model. As an application, we analyze the gravity-mediated SUSY breaking scenario with various combinations of GUT-scale boundary conditions involving different levels of universality among the gaugino and scalar masses. For each of the eight considered models, we provide the complete list of forbidden hierarchies in a compact form. Our main result is that the complete (typically rather large) set of forbidden hierarchies among the eight sparticles considered in this analysis can be fully specified by just a few forbidden relations involving much smaller subsets of sparticles.

  7. 2 CFR 180.205 - Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction? 180.205 Section 180.205 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND... GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 180.205 Why is it important if...

  8. 22 CFR 208.205 - Why is it important to know if a particular transaction is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Why is it important to know if a particular transaction is a covered transaction? 208.205 Section 208.205 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 208.205 Why is...

  9. 21 CFR 1404.205 - Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Why is it important if a particular transaction is a covered transaction? 1404.205 Section 1404.205 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Covered Transactions § 1404.205 Why is...

  10. 17 CFR 242.601 - Dissemination of transaction reports and last sale data with respect to transactions in NMS stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reports and last sale data with respect to transactions in NMS stocks. 242.601 Section 242.601 Commodity..., AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation Nms-Regulation of the... transactions in NMS stocks. (a) Filing and effectiveness of transaction reporting plans. (1) Every...

  11. Transactive Campus Energy Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Corbin, Charles D.; Haack, Jereme N.; Hao, He; Kim, Woohyun; Hostick, Donna J.; Akyol, Bora A.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Huang, Sen; Liu, Guopeng; Lutes, Robert G.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Ngo, Hung; Somasundaram, Sriram; Underhill, Ronald M.; Zhao, Mingjie

    2017-09-26

    Transactive energy refers to the combination of economic and control techniques to improve grid reliability and efficiency. The fundamental purpose of transactive energy management is to seamlessly coordinate the operation of large numbers of new intelligent assets—such as distributed solar, energy storage and responsive building loads—to provide the flexibility needed to operate the power grid reliably and at minimum cost, particularly one filled with intermittent renewable generation such as the Pacific Northwest. It addresses the key challenge of providing smooth, stable, and predictable “control” of these assets, despite the fact that most are neither owned nor directly controlled by the power grid. The Clean Energy and Transactive Campus (CETC) work described in this report was done as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Washington State Department of Commerce (Commerce) through the Clean Energy Fund (CEF). The project team consisted of PNNL, the University of Washington (UW) and Washington State University (WSU), to connect the PNNL, UW, and WSU campuses to form a multi-campus testbed for transaction-based energy management—transactive—solutions. Building on the foundational transactive system established by the Pacific Northwest Smart Grid Demonstration (PNWSGD), the purpose of the project was to construct the testbed as both a regional flexibility resource and as a platform for research and development (R&D) on buildings/grid integration and information-based energy efficiency. This report provides a summary of the various tasks performed under the CRADA.

  12. Trust management for e-transactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vishwas Patil; R K Shyamasundar

    2005-04-01

    There has been enormous increase in transactions and cooperativecomputing services on the internet. This is both a technical and a social phenomenon. Transactions and services over the internet have global reach and users, known or unknown to the service provider, might be interested in availing access or participating in the cooperative transaction in a distributed manner. Thus, it is very important for service providers to identify and establish trustworthiness of potential collaborators, which they do by writing contracts (e.g. access control, security policies; the words contract and policy are used interchangeably) without violating the privacy and confidentiality laws that prevail across geographical boundaries. But as the system becomes complex and dynamic, contractual incompleteness arises since it becomes cumbersome to mention potentially large set of outcomes of the user’s choice of action. Trust plays a crucial role in the design of optimal contracts; not all the relevant, valuable information on the user’s choice of action is incorporated in the equilibrium contract. It may also be noted in that traditional transactions, the notion of seeing is believing plays a vital role. However, in e-transactions, this is not the case. The challenge is to see how in such a scenario trust can indeed be generated. Note that the presence of trust facilitates cooperative behaviour and allows for exchange to occur in situations where its absence would preclude trade. In this paper, we shall present a comparative analysis of various approaches of trust management in practice that integrates technology with other factors. We shall also bring out the relative deficiencies and how these issues are tackled in our ongoing work that facilitates execution of optimal contracts.

  13. How to deal with malleability of BitCoin transactions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrychowicz, Marcin; Dziembowski, Stefan; Malinowski, Daniel; Mazurek, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    BitCoin transactions are malleable in a sense that given a transaction an adversary can easily construct an equivalent transaction which has a different hash. This can pose a serious problem in some BitCoin distributed contracts in which changing a transaction's hash may result in the protocol disruption and a financial loss. The problem mostly concerns protocols, which use a "refund" transaction to withdraw a deposit in a case of the protocol interruption. In this short note, we show a gener...

  14. Transaction-Based Building Controls Framework, Volume 1: Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fernandez, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Foster, Nikolas AF [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Steckley, Andrew C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This document proposes a framework concept to achieve the objectives of raising buildings’ efficiency and energy savings potential benefitting building owners and operators. We call it a transaction-based framework, wherein mutually-beneficial and cost-effective market-based transactions can be enabled between multiple players across different domains. Transaction-based building controls are one part of the transactional energy framework. While these controls realize benefits by enabling automatic, market-based intra-building efficiency optimizations, the transactional energy framework provides similar benefits using the same market -based structure, yet on a larger scale and beyond just buildings, to the society at large.

  15. Transaction-Based Building Controls Framework, Volume 1: Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sriram; Pratt, Robert G.; Akyol, Bora A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Foster, Nikolas AF; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Somani, Abhishek; Steckley, Andrew C.; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2014-04-28

    This document proposes a framework concept to achieve the objectives of raising buildings’ efficiency and energy savings potential benefitting building owners and operators. We call it a transaction-based framework, wherein mutually-beneficial and cost-effective market-based transactions can be enabled between multiple players across different domains. Transaction-based building controls are one part of the transactional energy framework. While these controls realize benefits by enabling automatic, market-based intra-building efficiency optimizations, the transactional energy framework provides similar benefits using the same market -based structure, yet on a larger scale and beyond just buildings, to the society at large.

  16. Hamiltonian and Godunov Structures of the Grad Hierarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Grmela, Miroslav; Jou, David; Lebon, Georgy; Pavelka, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The time evolution governed by the Boltzmann kinetic equation is compatible with mechanics and thermodynamics. The former compatibility is mathematically expressed in the Hamiltonian and Godunov structures, the latter in the structure of gradient dynamics guaranteeing the growth of entropy and consequently the approach to equilibrium. We carry all three structures to the Grad reformulation of the Boltzmann equation (to the Grad hierarchy). First, we recognize the structures in the infinite Grad hierarchy and then in several examples of finite hierarchies representing extended hydrodynamic equations. In the context of Grad's hierarchies we also investigate relations between Hamiltonian and Godunov structures.

  17. OPTIMAL HIERARCHY STRUCTURES FOR MULTI-ATTRIBUTE-CRITERIA DECISIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stan LIPOVETSKY

    2009-01-01

    A problem of a hierarchy structure optimization is considered. Hierarchical structures are widely used in the Analytic Hierarchy Process, conjoint analysis, and various other methods of multiple criteria decision making. The problem consists in finding a structure that needs a minimum number of pair comparisons for a given total number of the alternatives. For an optimal hierarchy, the minimum efforts are needed for eliciting data and synthesizing the local References across the hierarchy to get the global priorities or utilities. Special estimation techniques are developed and numerical simulations performed. Analytical and numerical results suggest optimal ways of priority evaluations for practical managerial decisions in a complex environment.

  18. Correlating Dimensions of Inheritance Hierarchy with Complexity & Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasib S. Gill

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance is the vital feature of any object oriented software which provides reuse of exiting classes for designing new classes. Higher reuse provides higher productivity and greater quality.Inheritance hierarchy is one of the very important artifacts targeted for measurement of reuse and reusability. Reuse through inheritance hierarchy can be measured from two dimensions- Depth and Breadth. Higher depth and breadth may increase complexity of software which makes the software difficult to understand and maintain. This paper aimed to correlate the depth and breadth of inheritance hierarchy with reuse and complexity of inheritance hierarchy using design oriented metrics.

  19. When Do Types Induce the Same Belief Hierarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Perea

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Type structures are a simple device to describe higher-order beliefs. However, how can we check whether two types generate the same belief hierarchy? This paper generalizes the concept of a type morphism and shows that one type structure is contained in another if and only if the former can be mapped into the other using a generalized type morphism. Hence, every generalized type morphism is a hierarchy morphism and vice versa. Importantly, generalized type morphisms do not make reference to belief hierarchies. We use our results to characterize the conditions under which types generate the same belief hierarchy.

  20. An extended integrable fractional-order KP soliton hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Li, E-mail: li07099@163.co [College of Maths and Systematic Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China)

    2011-01-17

    In this Letter, we consider the modified derivatives and integrals of fractional-order pseudo-differential operators. A sequence of Lax KP equations hierarchy and extended fractional KP (fKP) hierarchy are introduced, and the fKP hierarchy has Lax presentations with the extended Lax operators. In the case of the extension with the half-order pseudo-differential operators, a new integrable fKP hierarchy is obtained. A few particular examples of fractional order will be listed, together with their Lax pairs.

  1. Gravitational inflaton decay and the hierarchy problem

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Yuki

    2007-01-01

    We study implications of the large-N species solution to the hierarchy problem, proposed by G. Dvali, for reheating of the universe after inflation. Dvali's proposal contains additional N~10^{32} Z_2-conserved quantum fields beyond the Standard Model particles with mass ~1 TeV, which weaken gravity by a factor of 1/N, and thus explain the hierarchy between the Plank scale and the electroweak scale. We show that, in this scenario, the decay rates of inflaton fields through gravitational decay channels are enhanced by a factor of N, and thus they decay into N species of the quantum fields very efficiently, in the limit that quantum gravity effects are unimportant for the gravitational decay rate. In order not to over-reheat the universe, inflaton mass, vacuum expectation value of inflaton, or non-minimal gravitational coupling should be tightly fine-tuned. Our conclusion holds even when the gravitational decay is prohibited by some symmetry of the theory; the universe may still be over-reheated via annihilation...

  2. Instability-induced hierarchy in bipedal locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgane, Kunishige; Ueda, Kei-Ichi

    2008-05-01

    One of the important features of human locomotion is its instant adaptability to various unpredictable changes of physical and environmental conditions. This property is known as flexibility. Modeling the bipedal locomotion system, we show that initial-state coordination by a global variable which encodes the attractor basins of the system can yield flexibility. This model is based on the following hypotheses: (i) the walking velocity is a global variable, and (ii) the leg posture at the beginning of the stance phase is the initial state of the gait. Moreover, we confirm these hypotheses. We investigate the regions near the neutral states between walking and falling phases using numerical experiments and demonstrate that global variables can be defined as the dominant unstable directions of the system dynamics near the neutral states. We propose the concept of an “instability-induced hierarchy.” In this hierarchy, global variables govern other variables near neutral states; i.e., they become elements of a higher level.

  3. Cortical hierarchy governs rat claustrocortical circuit organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael G; Cody, Patrick A; Bubser, Michael; Wang, Hui-Dong; Deutch, Ariel Y; Mathur, Brian N

    2017-04-15

    The claustrum is a telencephalic gray matter structure with various proposed functions, including sensory integration and attentional allocation. Underlying these concepts is the reciprocal connectivity of the claustrum with most, if not all, areas of the cortex. What remains to be elucidated to inform functional hypotheses further is whether a pattern exists in the strength of connectivity between a given cortical area and the claustrum. To this end, we performed a series of retrograde neuronal tract tracer injections into rat cortical areas along the cortical processing hierarchy, from primary sensory and motor to frontal cortices. We observed that the number of claustrocortical projections increased as a function of processing hierarchy; claustrum neurons projecting to primary sensory cortices were scant and restricted in distribution across the claustrum, whereas neurons projecting to the cingulate cortex were densely packed and more evenly distributed throughout the claustrum. This connectivity pattern suggests that the claustrum may preferentially subserve executive functions orchestrated by the cingulate cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1347-1362, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Transaction Processing in Mobile Real-Time Database Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEIXiangdong; ZHAOYuelong; YUANXiaoli

    2005-01-01

    Multiversion optimistic concurrency control protocol (MVOCC) is presented for processing mobile real-tlme transactions. The protocol can eliminate conflicts between read-only and update transactions and resolve data conflicts flexibly using dynamic adjustment of serialization order to avoid unnecessary restarts of transactions. The Mobile hosts (MHs) do not need to synchronize with each other and server for data conflict detection. Read-only transactions can be efficiently processed at MHs. Response time of read-only transactions is greatly improved. Local validation of transactions is performed at MHs. To prevent cached data inconsistent transactions that survive in local validation must be submitted to server for global validation. The protocol presented is compared with OCC-TI-WAIT50 and HP2PL by simulation experiments. The results of experiment show that the protocol performs better than other protocols under normal load.

  5. ON GAUGE EQUIVALENT INTEGRABLE SYSTEMS AND r-MATRICES FOR AKNS HIERARCHY AND A COUPLED MKdV HIERARCHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘响林; 陈庆辉; 张保才

    2003-01-01

    The new coupled MKdV hierarchy is obtained. By using gauge transformation,the corns trained flow, the integrable system and Lax representation for the coupled MKdVhierarchy were first corstructed from the AKNS hierarchy and then using the Laxrepresentation, the r-matrix for the constrained flow of the coupled MKdV hierarchy wasconstructed. The second set of conserved integrals of this constrained flow and theirinvolutivity were also given.

  6. Motivational Hierarchy in the Chinese Brain: Primacy of the Individual Self, Relational Self, or Collective Self?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangru; Wu, Haiyan; Yang, Suyong; Gu, Ruolei

    2016-01-01

    According to the three-tier hierarchy of motivational potency in the self system, the self can be divided into individual self, relational self, and collective self, and individual self is at the top of the motivational hierarchy in Western culture. However, the motivational primacy of the individual self is challenged in Chinese culture, which raises the question about whether the three-tier hierarchy of motivational potency in the self system can be differentiated in the collectivist brain. The present study recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) to evaluate brain responses when participants gambled for individual self, for a close friend (relational self), or for the class (collective self). The ERP results showed that when outcome feedback was positive, gambling for individual self evoked a larger reward positivity compared with gambling for a friend or for the class, while there is no difference between the latter two conditions. In contrast, when outcome feedback was negative, no significant effect was found between conditions. The present findings provide direct electrophysiological evidence that individual self is at the top of the three-tier hierarchy of the motivational system in the collectivist brain, which supports the classical pancultural view that individual self has motivational primacy.

  7. Transaction management with integrity checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenghi, Davide; Christiansen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    Database integrity constraints, understood as logical conditions that must hold for any database state, are not fully supported by current database technology. It is typically up to the database designer and application programmer to enforce integrity via triggers or tests at the application level......, which are difficult to maintain and error prone. Two important aspects must be taken care of. 1.~It is too time consuming to check integrity constraints from scratch after each update, so simplified checks before each update should be used relying on the assumption that the current state is consistent...

  8. The quantum handshake entanglement, nonlocality and transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cramer, John G

    2016-01-01

    This book shines bright light into the dim recesses of quantum theory, where the mysteries of entanglement, nonlocality, and wave collapse have motivated some to conjure up multiple universes, and others to adopt a "shut up and calculate" mentality. After an extensive and accessible introduction to quantum mechanics and its history, the author turns attention to his transactional model. Using a quantum handshake between normal and time-reversed waves, this model provides a clear visual picture explaining the baffling experimental results that flow daily from the quantum physics laboratories of the world. To demonstrate its powerful simplicity, the transactional model is applied to a collection of counter-intuitive experiments and conceptual problems.

  9. Accounting mortgage transactions: directions of improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Vygivska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentation methods of accounting of contractual obligations secured by mortgage, discussion questions evaluating the object of mortgage at the stage of conclusion of loan agreements (credit and the probability of default and foreclosure with the mortgagor necessitated a comprehensive research and development of methodical maintenance of accounting mortgage transactions in subjects of its implementation (the mortgagor and mortgagee, including the improvement of the order of accounting reflection operations with a mortgage of property rights, hypothec, «solid mortgage», mortgage securities, the mortgage of goods in circulation or processing. The article also provides the procedure of evaluating the object of mortgage at default of the mortgagor conditions of the contract taking into account its depreciation (physical and moral deterioration during the loan repayment period; the author specifies the procedure for recording of transactions related to the sale of such objects as the basis for providing contractual management process obligations of the debtor with relevant information.

  10. Transactional distance in a blended learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Dron

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study that describes and discusses the problems encountered during the design and implementation of a blended learning course, largely taught online through a web-based learning environment. Based on Moore's theory of transactional distance, the course was explicitly designed to have dialogue at its heart. However, the reality of systemic behaviours caused by delivering such a course within a group of conventional further and higher educational institutions has led to an entirely unanticipated reversion to structure, with unpleasant consequences for both quality and quantity of dialogue. The paper looks at some of the reasons for this drift, and suggests that some of the disappointing results (in particular in terms of the quality of the students' experience and associated poor retention can be attributed to the lack of dialogue, and consequent increase in transactional distance. It concludes with a description and evaluation of steps currently being taken to correct this behaviour.

  11. Certifying Concurrent Programs Using Transactional Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Li; Yu Zhang; Yi-Yun Chen; Yong Li

    2009-01-01

    Transactional memory (TM) is a new promising concurrency-control mechanism that can avoid many of the pitfalls of the traditional lock-based techniques. TM systems handle data races between threads automatically so that programmers do not have to reason about the interaction of threads manually. TM provides a programming model that may make the development of multi-threaded programs easier. Much work has been done to explore the various implementation strategies of TM systems and to achieve better performance, but little has been done on how to formally reason about programs using TM and how to make sure that such reasoning is sound. In this paper, we focus on the semantics of transactional memory and present a proof-carrying code (PCC) system for reasoning about programs using TM . We formalize our reasoning with respect to the TM semantics, prove its soundness, and use examples to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  12. The Possibilist Transactional Interpretation and Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Kastner, Ruth E

    2012-01-01

    A recent ontological variant of Cramer's Transactional Interpretation, called "Possibilist Transactional Interpretation" or PTI, is extended to the relativistic domain. The present interpretation clarifies the concept of 'absorption,' which plays a crucial role in TI (and in PTI). In particular, in the relativistic domain, coupling amplitudes between fields are interpreted as amplitudes for the generation of confirmation waves (CW) by a potential absorber in response to offer waves (OW), whereas in the nonrelativistic context CW are taken as generated with certainty. It is pointed out that solving the measurement problem requires venturing into the relativistic domain in which emissions and absorptions take place; nonrelativistic quantum mechanics only applies to quanta considered as 'already in existence' (i.e., 'free quanta'), and therefore cannot fully account for the phenomenon of measurement, in which quanta are tied to sources and sinks.

  13. Inequality Matters : Classroom Status Hierarchy and Adolescents' Bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garandeau, Claire F.; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The natural emergence of status hierarchies in adolescent peer groups has long been assumed to help prevent future intragroup aggression. However, clear evidence of this beneficial influence is lacking. In fact, few studies have examined between-group differences in the degree of status hierarchy (d

  14. The Diversity Education Dilemma: Exposing Status Hierarchies without Reinforcing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Lisa M.; Loyd, Denise Lewin; Hoobler, Jenny M.

    2010-01-01

    A "diversity education dilemma" occurs when exposure to information concerning status hierarchies, related to demographic and other socially salient identity groups, reinforces those hierarchies in the classroom. Discussions of diversity-related issues in a variety of management courses (e.g., immigrant issues in labor relations, the composition…

  15. THE HAMILTONIAN SYSTEMS OF THE LCZ HIERARCHY BY NONLINEARIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Lu

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we first search for the Hamiltonian structure of LCZ hierarchy by use of a trace identity. Then we determine a higher-order constraint condition between the potentials and the eigenfunctions of the LCZ spectral problem, and under this constraint condition, the Lax pairs of LCZ hierarchy are all nonlinearized into the finite-dimensional integrable Hamiltonian systems in Liouville sense.

  16. Criteria for optimizing cortical hierarchies with continuous ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Krumnack

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper (Reid et al.; 2009, NeuroImage we introduced a method to calculate optimal hierarchies in the visual network that utilizes continuous, rather than discrete, hierarchical levels, and permits a range of acceptable values rather than attempting to fit fixed hierarchical distances. There, to obtain a hierarchy, the sum of deviations from the constraints that define the hierarchy was minimized using linear optimization. In the short time since publication of that paper we noticed that many colleagues misinterpreted the meaning of the term optimal hierarchy. In particular, a majority of them were under the impression that there was perhaps only one optimal hierarchy, but a substantial difficulty in finding that one. However, there is not only more than one optimal hierarchy but also more than one option for defining optimality. Continuing the line of this work we look at additional options for optimizing the visual hierarchy: minimizing the number of violated constraints and minimizing the maximal size of a constraint violation using linear optimization and mixed integer programming. The implementation of both optimization criteria is explained in detail. In addition, using constraint sets based on the data from Felleman and Van Essen, optimal hierarchies for the visual network are calculated for both optimization methods.

  17. Inferring heuristic classification hierarchies from natural language input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Richard; Gomez, Fernando

    1993-01-01

    A methodology for inferring hierarchies representing heuristic knowledge about the check out, control, and monitoring sub-system (CCMS) of the space shuttle launch processing system from natural language input is explained. Our method identifies failures explicitly and implicitly described in natural language by domain experts and uses those descriptions to recommend classifications for inclusion in the experts' heuristic hierarchies.

  18. A Second Look at Maslow's Hierarchy of Basic Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles M.

    Implications of Maslow's Need Hierarchy are considered in this paper, along with possible qualifications to the suggested structure and potential effects of superimposing relative deprivation theory onto the hierarchy as an approach to adult education. The interfacing of needs and alternative structurings is discussed in terms of two theories: (1)…

  19. The Academic Structure in Japan: Institutional Hierarchy and Academic Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, Akira

    The characteristics of the Japanese academic structure are examined with attention to the evolution of institutional hierarchy, the closed academic structure, and the effects of the academic structure upon academic research. The evolution of Japan's institutional hierarchy in academics has been tightly related to factors of nationalism,…

  20. A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Rex J.

    A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…

  1. A Second Look at Maslow's Hierarchy of Basic Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles M.

    Implications of Maslow's Need Hierarchy are considered in this paper, along with possible qualifications to the suggested structure and potential effects of superimposing relative deprivation theory onto the hierarchy as an approach to adult education. The interfacing of needs and alternative structurings is discussed in terms of two theories: (1)…

  2. A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Rex J.

    A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…

  3. Integrable dispersionless KdV hierarchy with sources

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    An integrable dispersionless KdV hierarchy with sources (dKdVHWS) is derived. Lax pair equations and bi-Hamiltonian formulation for dKdVHWS are formulated. Hodograph solution for the dispersionless KdV equation with sources (dKdVWS) is obtained via hodograph transformation. Furthermore, the dispersionless Gelfand-Dickey hierarchy with sources (dGDHWS) is presented.

  4. Nonlinear Super Integrable Couplings of Super Classical-Boussinesq Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Xing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear integrable couplings of super classical-Boussinesq hierarchy based upon an enlarged matrix Lie super algebra were constructed. Then, its super Hamiltonian structures were established by using super trace identity. As its reduction, nonlinear integrable couplings of the classical integrable hierarchy were obtained.

  5. Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Non Hierarchical Terrorist Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    to analyze terrorist networks and prioritize their targets. Applying recently introduced mathematical methods for constructing the hidden hierarchy of "nonhierarchical" terrorist networks; we present case studies of the terrorist attacks occurred / planned in the past, in order to identify hidden hierarchy...

  6. Scale-independent inflation and hierarchy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro G. Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii classical scale symmetry is broken only through −112ςϕ2R couplings where ς departs from the special conformal value of 1; (iii the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs of the scalars (iv there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two-scalar potential; (v the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.

  7. Scale-Independent Inflation and Hierarchy Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Pedro G. [Oxford U.; Hill, Christopher T. [Fermilab; Ross, Graham G. [Oxford U., Theor. Phys.

    2016-03-18

    We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii) classical scale symmetry is broken only through $-\\frac{1}{12}\\varsigma \\phi^2 R$ couplings where $\\varsigma$ departs from the special conformal value of $1$; (iii) the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs) of the scalars (iv) there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two--scalar potential; (v) the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.

  8. Approximation Limits of Linear Programs (Beyond Hierarchies)

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Gábor; Pokutta, Sebastian; Steurer, David

    2012-01-01

    We develop a framework for approximation limits of polynomial-size linear programs from lower bounds on the nonnegative ranks of suitably defined matrices. This framework yields unconditional impossibility results that are applicable to any linear program as opposed to only programs generated by hierarchies. Using our framework, we prove that O(n^{1/2-eps})-approximations for CLIQUE require linear programs of size 2^{n^\\Omega(eps)}. (This lower bound applies to linear programs using a certain encoding of CLIQUE as a linear optimization problem.) Moreover, we establish a similar result for approximations of semidefinite programs by linear programs. Our main ingredient is a quantitative improvement of Razborov's rectangle corruption lemma for the high error regime, which gives strong lower bounds on the nonnegative rank of certain perturbations of the unique disjointness matrix.

  9. Structural hierarchy governs fibrin gel mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechocka, Izabela K; Bacabac, Rommel G; Potters, Max; Mackintosh, Fred C; Koenderink, Gijsje H

    2010-05-19

    Fibrin gels are responsible for the mechanical strength of blood clots, which are among the most resilient protein materials in nature. Here we investigate the physical origin of this mechanical behavior by performing rheology measurements on reconstituted fibrin gels. We find that increasing levels of shear strain induce a succession of distinct elastic responses that reflect stretching processes on different length scales. We present a theoretical model that explains these observations in terms of the unique hierarchical architecture of the fibers. The fibers are bundles of semiflexible protofibrils that are loosely connected by flexible linker chains. This architecture makes the fibers 100-fold more flexible to bending than anticipated based on their large diameter. Moreover, in contrast with other biopolymers, fibrin fibers intrinsically stiffen when stretched. The resulting hierarchy of elastic regimes explains the incredible resilience of fibrin clots against large deformations.

  10. Predictability and hierarchy in Drosophila behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Gordon J; Shaevitz, Joshua W

    2016-01-01

    Even the simplest of animals exhibit behavioral sequences with complex temporal dynamics. Prominent amongst the proposed organizing principles for these dynamics has been the idea of a hierarchy, wherein the movements an animal makes can be understood as a set of nested sub-clusters. Although this type of organization holds potential advantages in terms of motion control and neural circuitry, measurements demonstrating this for an animal's entire behavioral repertoire have been limited in scope and temporal complexity. Here, we use a recently developed unsupervised technique to discover and track the occurrence of all stereotyped behaviors performed by fruit flies moving in a shallow arena. Calculating the optimally predictive representation of the fly's future behaviors, we show that fly behavior exhibits multiple time scales and is organized into a hierarchical structure that is indicative of its underlying behavioral programs and its changing internal states.

  11. Lax operator algebras and Hamiltonian integrable hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Sheinman, Oleg K

    2009-01-01

    We consider the theory of Lax equations in complex simple and reductive classical Lie algebras with the spectral parameter on a Riemann surface of finite genus. Our approach is based on the new objects -- the Lax operator algebras, and develops the approach of I.Krichever treating the $\\gl(n)$ case. For every Lax operator considered as the mapping sending a point of the cotangent bundle on the space of extended Tyrin data to an element of the corresponding Lax operator algebra we construct the hierarchy of mutually commuting flows given by Lax equations and prove that those are Hamiltonian with respect to the Krichever-Phong symplectic structure. The corresponding Hamiltonians give integrable finite-dimensional Hitchin-type systems. For example we derive elliptic $A_n$, $C_n$, $D_n$ Calogero-Moser systems in frame of our approach.

  12. Lax operator algebras and Hamiltonian integrable hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinman, Oleg K [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-28

    This paper considers the theory of Lax equations with a spectral parameter on a Riemann surface, proposed by Krichever in 2001. The approach here is based on new objects, the Lax operator algebras, taking into consideration an arbitrary complex simple or reductive classical Lie algebra. For every Lax operator, regarded as a map sending a point of the cotangent bundle on the space of extended Tyurin data to an element of the corresponding Lax operator algebra, a hierarchy of mutually commuting flows given by the Lax equations is constructed, and it is proved that they are Hamiltonian with respect to the Krichever-Phong symplectic structure. The corresponding Hamiltonians give integrable finite-dimensional Hitchin-type systems. For example, elliptic A{sub n}, C{sub n}, and D{sub n} Calogero-Moser systems are derived in the framework of our approach. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  13. A new wavefunction hierarchy for interacting geminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limacher, Peter A.

    2016-11-01

    A new truncation scheme for non-orthogonal antisymmetrized products of interacting geminals (APIG) is introduced based on antisymmetrized products of strongly orthogonal geminals (APSG). This wavefunction hierarchy of interacting geminals (IG) allows us to gradually increase the accuracy at which the ground state of a seniority-zero Hamiltonian can be estimated, ranging from APSG up to approximation-free APIG. Mathematical expressions for the lowest four orders (IG0, IG1, IG2, and IG3) are given explicitly and the computational cost to evaluate their transition density matrix is verified to scale only cubically with system size. Exemplary numerical calculations indicate that already a very early truncation level leads to results virtually identical to APIG.

  14. Scale-Independent Inflation and Hierarchy Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Pedro G; Ross, Graham G

    2016-01-01

    We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii) classical scale symmetry is broken only through $-\\frac{1}{12}\\varsigma \\phi^2 R$ couplings where $\\varsigma$ departs from the special conformal value of $1$; (iii) the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs) of the scalars (iv) there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two--scalar potential; (v) the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.

  15. Scale-independent inflation and hierarchy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Pedro G.; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.

    2016-12-01

    We discuss models involving two scalar fields coupled to classical gravity that satisfy the general criteria: (i) the theory has no mass input parameters, (ii) classical scale symmetry is broken only through -1/12 ςϕ2 R couplings where ς departs from the special conformal value of 1; (iii) the Planck mass is dynamically generated by the vacuum expectations values (VEVs) of the scalars (iv) there is a stage of viable inflation associated with slow roll in the two-scalar potential; (v) the final vacuum has a small to vanishing cosmological constant and an hierarchically small ratio of the VEVs and the ratio of the scalar masses to the Planck scale. This assumes the paradigm of classical scale symmetry as a custodial symmetry of large hierarchies.

  16. Optimal Organizational Hierarchies: Source Coding: Disaster Relief

    CERN Document Server

    Murthy, G Rama

    2011-01-01

    ulticasting is an important communication paradigm for enabling the dissemination of information selectively. This paper considers the problem of optimal secure multicasting in a communication network captured through a graph (optimal is in an interesting sense) and provides a doubly optimal solution using results from source coding. It is realized that the solution leads to optimal design (in a well defined optimality sense) of organizational hierarchies captured through a graph. In this effort two novel concepts : prefix free path, graph entropy are introduced. Some results of graph entropy are provided. Also some results on Kraft inequality are discussed. As an application Hierarchical Hybrid Communication Network is utilized as a model of structured Mobile Adhoc network for utility in Disaster Management. Several new research problems that naturally emanate from this research are summarized.

  17. Impact of transaction costs on healthcare outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Renée A; So, Stephanie A

    2003-06-01

    This article reviews transaction cost economics to frame a discussion of how inefficiencies in healthcare delivery processes affect clinical outcomes and differentiate between inefficiencies that are tractable from those that are transitional or intractable. Recognizing and quantifying these effects improves the ability of organizations to calculate returns on investment in quality improvement, research and development and related value enhancing, but it is subject to high-risk undertakings.

  18. A Transactional View of Property Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Merges, Robert P

    2005-01-01

    Property rights and contract law are two of our most basic legal categories. Many legal scholars describe what makes them different; this Essay describes how they work together to promote economic exchange. Incorporating the insights of both “transaction cost” and “new property rights” economics, it identifies two crucial contributions that property rights make to real-world contracting: (1) precontractual liability, or protection for disclosure of sensitive information in the period leading ...

  19. A Monetary Equilibrium Model with Transactions Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Julio J. Rotemberg

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the competitive equilibrium of an economy in which people hold money for transactions purposes. It studies both the steady states which result from different rates of monetary expansion and the effects of such non-steady state events as an open market operation. Even though the model features no uncertainty and perfect foresight, open market operations affect aggregate output. In particular, a simultaneous increase in money and governmental holdings of capital temporarily ...

  20. Private benefits in corporate control transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    with high security benefits, or because the buyer has high private benefits from the control rights that come with the shares? Using voting rights as the vehicle for private benefits, I find that the selling shareholders in block transactions attach more value to private benefits than the buyers. In tender...... shareholders have a very small effect on these results, but that they do attach more value to private benefits....

  1. A Monetary Equilibrium Model with Transactions Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Julio J. Rotemberg

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the competitive equilibrium of an economy in which people hold money for transactions purposes. It studies both the steady states which result from different rates of monetary expansion and the effects of such non-steady state events as an open market operation. Even though the model features no uncertainty and perfect foresight, open market operations affect aggregate output. In particular, a simultaneous increase in money and governmental holdings of capital temporarily ...

  2. Lepton mass hierarchy from the quark mass hierarchy in the light of the quark Technicolor Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sauli, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We explore the possibility that all electroweak symmetry breaking (EWSB) comes from the strong dynamics of Technicolor while these are the only quarks which receive masses through Technicolor dynamics. We assume the leptons are not embedded in a representation of Extended Technigroup. In this paper we suggest a model where the leptons receive their masses through the loop corrections which includes at least one closed quark loop. For this purpose we introduce model based on private family SU(2) scalar two doublets which interact very weakly with the Standard Model(SM) fermions and which do not condense at tree level. Assuming quark/lepton universality of suggested Yukawa interactions the model becomes strongly predictive and we calculate mass contributions to the all known SM lepton gauge eigenstates. Up to not yet explored mixing, the model suggests that the lepton mass hierarchy comes from the quark mass hierarchy. Within a single universal Yukawa coupling the absolute values of masses for neutrino family e...

  3. Efficient Tabling Mechanisms for Transaction Logic Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present efficient evaluation algorithms for the Horn Transaction Logic (a generalization of the regular Horn logic programs with state updates). We present two complementary methods for optimizing the implementation of Transaction Logic. The first method is based on tabling and we modified the proof theory to table calls and answers on states (practically, equivalent to dynamic programming). The call-answer table is indexed on the call and a signature of the state in which the call was made. The answer columns contain the answer unification and a signature of the state after the call was executed. The states are signed efficiently using a technique based on tries and counting. The second method is based on incremental evaluation and it applies when the data oracle contains derived relations. The deletions and insertions (executed in the transaction oracle) change the state of the database. Using the heuristic of inertia (only a part of the state changes in response to elementary updates), mos...

  4. Transaction costs of raising energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, K.

    2003-07-01

    Part of the debate evolves around the existence and importance of energy saving potentials to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions that may be available at negative net costs, implying that the energy cost savings of one specific technology can actually more than offset the costs of investing into this technology and of using it. This so called ''no-regret'' potential would comprise measures that from a pure economic efficiency point of view would be ''worth undertaking whether or not there are climate-related reasons for doing so''. The existence of the no-regret potential is often denied by arguing, that the economic evaluation of the energy saving potentials did not take into account transaction costs. This paper will re-examine in more detail the concept of transaction costs as it is used in the current debate on no-regret potentials (section 1). Four practical examples are presented to illustrate how transaction costs and their determinants can be identified, measured and possibly influenced (section 2). In order to link the presented cases to modelling based evaluation approaches the implications for cost evaluations of energy saving measures, especially in the context of energy system modelling, will be shown (section 3). (author)

  5. Simulating water markets with transaction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Tohid; Binions, Olga; Harou, Julien J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an optimization model to simulate short-term pair-wise spot-market trading of surface water abstraction licenses (water rights). The approach uses a node-arc multicommodity formulation that tracks individual supplier-receiver transactions in a water resource network. This enables accounting for transaction costs between individual buyer-seller pairs and abstractor-specific rules and behaviors using constraints. Trades are driven by economic demand curves that represent each abstractor's time-varying water demand. The purpose of the proposed model is to assess potential hydrologic and economic outcomes of water markets and aid policy makers in designing water market regulations. The model is applied to the Great Ouse River basin in Eastern England. The model assesses the potential weekly water trades and abstractions that could occur in a normal and a dry year. Four sectors (public water supply, energy, agriculture, and industrial) are included in the 94 active licensed water diversions. Each license's unique environmental restrictions are represented and weekly economic water demand curves are estimated. Rules encoded as constraints represent current water management realities and plausible stakeholder-informed water market behaviors. Results show buyers favor sellers who can supply large volumes to minimize transactions. The energy plant cooling and agricultural licenses, often restricted from obtaining water at times when it generates benefits, benefit most from trades. Assumptions and model limitations are discussed. This article was corrected on 13 JUN 2014. See the end of the full text for details.

  6. Detecting the Neutrinos Mass Hierarchy from Cosmological Data

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new parameterization to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy, namely $\\Delta=(m_3-m_1)/(m_1+m_3)$ which is dimensionless and varies in the range $[-1,1]$. Taking into account the results of neutrino oscillation experiments, $\\Delta$ is the unique parameter for determining all the masses of neutrinos, and a positive (negative) sign of $\\Delta$ denotes the normal (inverted) mass hierarchy. Adopting the currently available cosmic observations, we find that the normal mass hierarchy is slightly favored, and the mass of lightest neutrino is less than $0.030$ eV for the normal mass hierarchy and $0.024$ eV for the inverted mass hierarchy at $95\\%$ confidence level.

  7. Neuroanatomical Markers of Social Hierarchy Recognition in Humans: A Combined ERP/MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría-García, Hernando; Burgaleta, Miguel; Sebastián-Gallés, Nuria

    2015-07-29

    Social hierarchy is an ubiquitous principle of social organization across animal species. Although some progress has been made in our understanding of how humans infer hierarchical identity, the neuroanatomical basis for perceiving key social dimensions of others remains unexplored. Here, we combined event-related potentials and structural MRI to reveal the neuroanatomical substrates of early status recognition. We designed a covertly simulated hierarchical setting in which participants performed a task either with a superior or with an inferior player. Participants showed higher amplitude in the N170 component when presented with a picture of a superior player compared with an inferior player. Crucially, the magnitude of this effect correlated with brain morphology of the posterior cingulate cortex, superior temporal gyrus, insula, fusiform gyrus, and caudate nucleus. We conclude that early recognition of social hierarchies relies on the structural properties of a network involved in the automatic recognition of social identity. Humans can perceive social hierarchies very rapidly, an ability that is key for social interactions. However, some individuals are more sensitive to hierarchical information than others. Currently, it is unknown how brain structure supports such fast-paced processes of social hierarchy perception and their individual differences. Here, we addressed this issue for the first time by combining the high temporal resolution of event-related potentials (ERPs) and the high spatial resolution of structural MRI. This methodological approach allowed us to unveil a novel association between ERP neuromarkers of social hierarchy perception and the morphology of several cortical and subcortical brain regions typically assumed to play a role in automatic processes of social cognition. Our results are a step forward in our understanding of the human social brain. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3510843-08$15.00/0.

  8. Hospital efficiency and transaction costs: a stochastic frontier approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Martijn; Groot, Wim; Van Merode, Frits

    2009-07-01

    The make-or-buy decision of organizations is an important issue in the transaction cost theory, but is usually not analyzed from an efficiency perspective. Hospitals frequently have to decide whether to outsource or not. The main question we address is: Is the make-or-buy decision affected by the efficiency of hospitals? A one-stage stochastic cost frontier equation is estimated for Dutch hospitals. The make-or-buy decisions of ten different hospital services are used as explanatory variables to explain efficiency of hospitals. It is found that for most services the make-or-buy decision is not related to efficiency. Kitchen services are an important exception to this. Large hospitals tend to outsource less, which is supported by efficiency reasons. For most hospital services, outsourcing does not significantly affect the efficiency of hospitals. The focus on the make-or-buy decision may therefore be less important than often assumed.

  9. A Transactional Asynchronous Replication Scheme for Mobile Database Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁治明; 孟小峰; 王珊

    2002-01-01

    In mobile database systems, mobility of users has a significant impact on data replication. As a result, the various replica control protocols that exist today in traditional distributed and multidatabase environments are no longer suitable. To solve this problem, a new mobile database replication scheme, the Transaction-Level Result-Set Propagation (TLRSP)model, is put forward in this paper. The conflict detection and resolution strategy based on TLRSP is discussed in detail, and the implementation algorithm is proposed. In order to compare the performance of the TLRSP model with that of other mobile replication schemes, we have developed a detailed simulation model. Experimental results show that the TLRSP model provides an efficient support for replicated mobile database systems by reducing reprocessing overhead and maintaining database consistency.

  10. Transactive memory system links work team characteristics and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Xue; Hempel, Paul S; Han, Yu-Lan; Tjosvold, Dean

    2007-11-01

    Teamwork and coordination of expertise among team members with different backgrounds are increasingly recognized as important for team effectiveness. Recently, researchers have examined how team members rely on transactive memory system (TMS; D. M. Wegner, 1987) to share their distributed knowledge and expertise. To establish the ecological validity and generality of TMS research findings, this study sampled 104 work teams from a variety of organizational settings in China and examined the relationships between team characteristics, TMS, and team performance. The results suggest that task interdependence, cooperative goal interdependence, and support for innovation are positively related to work teams' TMS and that TMS is related to team performance; moreover, structural equation analysis indicates that TMS mediates the team characteristics-performance links. Findings have implications both for team leaders to manage their work teams effectively and for team members to improve their team performance.

  11. Status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio : Three contextual factors explaining the status-aggression link among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René

    2013-01-01

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys (N = 1,665) and girls (N = 1,637) (M age = 13.60). In line

  12. Status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio : Three contextual factors explaining the status-aggression link among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan; Veenstra, René

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys (N = 1,665) and girls (N = 1,637) (M age = 13.60). In line

  13. Status Hierarchy, Attractiveness Hierarchy and Sex Ratio: Three Contextual Factors Explaining the Status-Aggression Link among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Michiel; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, Rene

    2013-01-01

    The moderating effects of three specific conditions (status hierarchy, attractiveness hierarchy and sex ratio) on the link between status (popularity) and physical and relational aggression were examined in a large sample of adolescent boys ("N" = 1,665) and girls ("N" = 1,637) ("M" age = 13.60). In line with the…

  14. Hierarchy Software Development Framework (h-dp-fwk) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, A.

    2010-04-01

    Hierarchy Software Development Framework provides a lightweight tool for building portable modular applications for performing automated data analysis tasks in a batch mode. The history of design and development activities devoted to the project has begun in March 2005 and from the very beginning it was targeting the case of building experimental data processing applications for the CMD-3 experiment which is being commissioned at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP, Novosibirsk, Russia). Its design addresses the generic case of modular data processing application operating within the well defined distributed computing environment. The main features of the framework are modularity, built-in message and data exchange mechanisms, XInclude and XML schema enabled XML configuration management tools, dedicated log management tools, internal debugging tools, both dynamic and static module chains support, internal DSO version and consistency checking, well defined API for developing specialized frameworks. It is supported on Scientific Linux 4 and 5 and planned to be ported to other platforms as well. The project is provided with the comprehensive set of technical documentation and users' guides. The licensing schema for the source code, binaries and documentation implies that the product is free for non-commercial use. Although the development phase is not over and many features are to be implemented yet the project is considered ready for public use and creating applications in various fields including development of events reconstruction software for small and moderate scale HEP experiments.

  15. The Effect of Volume of Transaction On The Intention Towards Tax E-filing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Saliza Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volume of transaction is specifically referring to number of clients or return forms dealing by tax agents/preparers. This variable does play role even though there is less empirical evidence on this matter. This paper is basically to explore the effect of volume of transaction that could possibly influence the acceptance of tax e-filing system as it did in other areas of transaction i.e. court cases. Undoubtedly, it is proved to be significantly influenced the behavioural intention towards tax e-filing acceptability in Malaysia. The tax agents/preparers are randomly selected in this study from the list provided in the Inland Revenue Board of Malaysia (IRBM website. The responds are analysed via Partial Least Square (PLS method which produce the significant results among the low and high volume of transaction of tax e-filing which support the fact that volume does matter in the decision of acceptability of tax e-filing system in Malaysia.

  16. Diagramming Transactive Building Business Cases: Using Principles of e3 Value to Document Valuation Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Maria C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    Energy management in buildings is becoming more transactive. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office recently defined innovative use cases wherein market-like mechanisms are used to manage energy within buildings, between buildings, and between buildings and third-party entities, such as power utilities. A next step toward defining a set of transactive use cases in the buildings domain is to carefully diagram the corresponding business cases to capture details of transactions among all stakeholders and their economic value propositions. The principles of e3-value diagramming are applied in this report toward creating business value diagrams. These principles are extended to be consistent with Universal Modeling Language use-case diagrams. Example diagrams are presented for a subset of buildings-domain use cases that were introduced in an earlier Pacific Northwest National Laboratory report. The diagrams are intended to clearly represent an understanding of the transactions through which individual entities accumulate value in their respective use cases, and the diagrams should therefore support economic valuation studies. The report reviews some of the foundational principles of e3 value and includes authors’ insights concerning the formulation of these diagrams using Universal Modeling Language as a more systematic modeling approach.

  17. The Wright stuff: reimagining path analysis reveals novel components of the sex determination hierarchy in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear, Justin M; Arbeitman, Michelle N; Salomon, Matthew P; Dalton, Justin E; Tower, John; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; McIntyre, Lauren M

    2015-09-04

    The Drosophila sex determination hierarchy is a classic example of a transcriptional regulatory hierarchy, with sex-specific isoforms regulating morphology and behavior. We use a structural equation modeling approach, leveraging natural genetic variation from two studies on Drosophila female head tissues--DSPR collection (596 F1-hybrids from crosses between DSPR sub-populations) and CEGS population (75 F1-hybrids from crosses between DGRP/Winters lines to a reference strain w1118)--to expand understanding of the sex hierarchy gene regulatory network (GRN). This approach is completely generalizable to any natural population, including humans. We expanded the sex hierarchy GRN adding novel links among genes, including a link from fruitless (fru) to Sex-lethal (Sxl) identified in both populations. This link is further supported by the presence of fru binding sites in the Sxl locus. 754 candidate genes were added to the pathway, including the splicing factors male-specific lethal 2 and Rm62 as downstream targets of Sxl which are well-supported links in males. Independent studies of doublesex and transformer mutants support many additions, including evidence for a link between the sex hierarchy and metabolism, via Insulin-like receptor. The genes added in the CEGS population were enriched for genes with sex-biased splicing and components of the spliceosome. A common goal of molecular biologists is to expand understanding about regulatory interactions among genes. Using natural alleles we can not only identify novel relationships, but using supervised approaches can order genes into a regulatory hierarchy. Combining these results with independent large effect mutation studies, allows clear candidates for detailed molecular follow-up to emerge.

  18. "Positive" results increase down the Hierarchy of the Sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Fanelli

    Full Text Available The hypothesis of a Hierarchy of the Sciences with physical sciences at the top, social sciences at the bottom, and biological sciences in-between is nearly 200 years old. This order is intuitive and reflected in many features of academic life, but whether it reflects the "hardness" of scientific research--i.e., the extent to which research questions and results are determined by data and theories as opposed to non-cognitive factors--is controversial. This study analysed 2434 papers published in all disciplines and that declared to have tested a hypothesis. It was determined how many papers reported a "positive" (full or partial or "negative" support for the tested hypothesis. If the hierarchy hypothesis is correct, then researchers in "softer" sciences should have fewer constraints to their conscious and unconscious biases, and therefore report more positive outcomes. Results confirmed the predictions at all levels considered: discipline, domain and methodology broadly defined. Controlling for observed differences between pure and applied disciplines, and between papers testing one or several hypotheses, the odds of reporting a positive result were around 5 times higher among papers in the disciplines of Psychology and Psychiatry and Economics and Business compared to Space Science, 2.3 times higher in the domain of social sciences compared to the physical sciences, and 3.4 times higher in studies applying behavioural and social methodologies on people compared to physical and chemical studies on non-biological material. In all comparisons, biological studies had intermediate values. These results suggest that the nature of hypotheses tested and the logical and methodological rigour employed to test them vary systematically across disciplines and fields, depending on the complexity of the subject matter and possibly other factors (e.g., a field's level of historical and/or intellectual development. On the other hand, these results support the

  19. Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) and Cost Estimation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-15

    1 Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) and Cost Estimation Methodology Diana Angelis, Francois Melese (DRMI) John Dillard, Chip Franck (GSBPP) NAVAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) and Cost Estimation Methodology 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...NEXT? 3 OVERVIEW • ENTERING HYPOTHESIS • TRANSACTION COST ECONOMICS (TCE) – MAKE OR BUY, AND ASSOCIATED DIFFICULTIES • OUR VIEW OF TCE AND COST

  20. Transactions Cost From a Program Manager’s Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Angelis + 3, – “Applying Transaction Cost Economics to Improve DoD Cost Estimates” • 2008: Angelis + 5/3, – “Exploring the Implications of TCE on Joint...oversight – Programmatic and technical reviews • Within the context of two frameworks: – Principal-Agent Model (Agency Theory) – Transaction Cost Economics...and Information Costs + Bargaining, Decision and Contracting Costs + Policing and Enforcement Costs 12 Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) • Objective

  1. Commercial agencies and surrogate motherhood: a transaction cost approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Mhairi; McLachlan, Hugh V; Swales, J Kim

    2005-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the legal arrangements involved in UK surrogate motherhood from a transaction-cost perspective. We outline the specific forms the transaction costs take and critically comment on the way in which the UK institutional and organisational arrangements at present adversely influence transaction costs. We then focus specifically on the potential role of surrogacy agencies and look at UK and US evidence on commercial and voluntary agencies. Policy implications follow.

  2. The liquidity premium in CDS transaction prices: Do frictions matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Gehde-Trapp, Monika; Gündüz, Yalin; Nasev, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Based on individual CDS transactions cleared by the Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, we show that illiquidity strongly affects credit default swap premiums. We identify the following effects: First, transaction direction affects prices, as buy (sell) orders lead to premium increases (decreases). Second, larger transactions have a higher price impact. This finding stands in stark contrast to corporate bond markets. Third, traders charge higher premiums as a price for liquidity provisio...

  3. "Ballet It's Too Whitey": Discursive Hierarchies of High School Dance Spaces and the Constitution of Embodied Feminine Subjectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atencio, Matthew; Wright, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates (i) how the structuring practices and meanings associated with dance classes at an inner-city American high school operated as institutional spaces (re)producing "dividing practices" that supported racial and classed hierarchies; (ii) how these racist structures were created and maintained relative to dominant notions of…

  4. Research on Efficient Frontier of Portfolios with Transaction Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴祝武; 范胜君; 周圣武; 朱开永

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a study on the efficient frontier characters of portfolio with transaction cost. The conclusion is drawn that all portfolios are of positive correlation on the efficient frontier with transaction cost; the sufficient condition for the derivable efficient frontier has also been achieved. Meanwhile, in comparison with the position of the efficient frontier without transaction cost in the plane (σ2,R), the conclusion has been made that the efficient frontiers with transaction cost drift and its opening shrinks correspondingly. With this study, the content of the efficient frontier is further enriched. It's very constructive and important for the practical portfolio investment strategy.

  5. On Transaction-Cost Models in Continuous-Time Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Poufinas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transaction-cost models in continuous-time markets are considered. Given that investors decide to buy or sell at certain time instants, we study the existence of trading strategies that reach a certain final wealth level in continuous-time markets, under the assumption that transaction costs, built in certain recommended ways, have to be paid. Markets prove to behave in manners that resemble those of complete ones for a wide variety of transaction-cost types. The results are important, but not exclusively, for the pricing of options with transaction costs.

  6. The Use of Programming Languages on the Final Project Report by Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhartini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development in information technology provides a lot of convenience for everyone. Academy of Information Management and Computer (AIMC students of the fourth semester, implementing the Job Training must specify the type of programming that will be used as a Final Project Report. The study assessed five types of programming language by using the approach of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP to obtain information on the programming language that has the quality or better rating than 5 programming languages is based on the parameters. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is one way in determining or making a decision that are multi-criteria or multi-objective such as choosing the programming language for the Student Information Management at the Academy of Information Management and Computer (AIMC. Programming language based on five criteria consisting of Clarity, Simplicity, and unity; Orthogonality; Fairness for Applications; Supports Abstraction; Environment Program; and Portability Program.

  7. Quasi-periodic Solutions to the K(-2, -2) Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lihua; Geng, Xianguo

    2016-07-01

    With the help of the characteristic polynomial of Lax matrix for the K(-2, -2) hierarchy, we define a hyperelliptic curve 𝒦n+1 of arithmetic genus n+1. By introducing the Baker-Akhiezer function and meromorphic function, the K(-2, -2) hierarchy is decomposed into Dubrovin-type differential equations. Based on the theory of hyperelliptic curve, the explicit Riemann theta function representation of meromorphic function is given, and from which the quasi-periodic solutions to the K(-2, -2) hierarchy are obtained.

  8. The $n$-component KP hierarchy and representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kac, V G

    1993-01-01

    Starting from free charged fermions we give equivalent definitions of the $n\\/$-component KP hierarchy, in terms of $\\tau\\/$-functions $\\tau_\\alpha\\/$ (where $\\alpha \\in M =\\/$ root lattice of $sl_n\\/$), in terms of $n \\times n\\/$ matrix valued wave functions $W_\\alpha(\\alpha\\in M)\\/$, and in terms of pseudodifferential wave operators $P_\\alpha(\\alpha\\in M)\\/$. These imply the deformation and the zero curvature equations. We show that the 2-component KP hierarchy contains the Davey-Stewartson system and the $n\\geq3\\/$ component KP hierarchy continues the $n\\/$-wave interaction equations. This allows us to construct theis solutions.

  9. Modeling Leadership Hierarchy in Multilevel Animal Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Ozogány, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    A typical feature of many natural and social networks is the presence of communities giving rise to multiple levels of organization. We investigate the decision-making process of a group combining self organization and social dynamics, and reproduce the simultaneous emergence of a hierarchical and modular leadership network. All individuals in the model try, with varying degrees of ability, to find a direction of movement, with the result that leader-follower relationships evolve between them, since they tend to follow the more successful ones. The harem-forming ambitions of male individuals inspired by an observed Przewalski horse herd (Hortob\\'agy, Hungary) leads to modular structure. In this approach we find that the harem-leader to harem-member ratio observed in horses corresponds to an optimal network regarding common success, and that modularly structured hierarchy is more benefical than a non-modular one, in the sense that common success is higher, and the underlying network is more hierarchical. We al...

  10. How transportation hierarchy shapes human mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Gallotti, Riccardo; Rambaldi, Sandro; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The recent availability of data allowing to monitor the position of individuals triggered a wealth of quantitative studies on human mobility. In particular, it is now believed that displacements can be described by a L\\'evy type of walk, characterized by many small movements and some rare long jumps. We show here that this view is not correct and that effective movements in urban and inter-urban areas are much simpler. We use a database containing the trajectories of $780,000$ private vehicles in Italy and an open dataset describing the temporal characteristics of the entire public transportation system in Great Britain. We observe that trips for both private and public transportation are on average accelerated as a consequence of the multilayer hierarchy of transportation infrastructures. In other terms, the speed depends on the duration of the trip, with larger speed for longer trips. This sole ingredient leads, starting from the observed exponential distribution of travel-times and velocities, to a distrib...

  11. 6D RG Flows and Nilpotent Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Heckman, Jonathan J; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    With the eventual aim of classifying renormalization group flows between 6D superconformal field theories (SCFTs), we study flows generated by the vevs of "conformal matter," a generalization of conventional hypermultiplets which naturally appear in the F-theory classification of 6D SCFTs. We consider flows in which the parent UV theory is (on its partial tensor branch) a linear chain of gauge groups connected by conformal matter, with one flavor group G at each end of the chain, and in which the symmetry breaking of the conformal matter at each end is parameterized by the orbit of a nilpotent element, i.e. T-brane data, of one of these flavor symmetries. Such nilpotent orbits admit a partial ordering, which is reflected in a hierarchy of IR fixed points. For each such nilpotent orbit, we determine the corresponding tensor branch for the resulting SCFT. An important feature of this algebraic approach is that it also allows us to systematically compute the unbroken flavor symmetries inherited from the parent U...

  12. Hierarchy Formation and Self-Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano I. Di Domenico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined how self-determination, the subjective experience of one’s behavior as internally initiated and personally endorsed, depends on one’s standing in real-world social hierarchies. We predicted that those with the traits most relevant to status attainment would be those afforded the most opportunities to be self-determining. We examined the trait of physical attractiveness, given its documented association with social status and no known association with self-determination. First-year undergraduates living in same-sex residences rated their housemates’ social status, while an independent set of observers rated the participants’ physical attractiveness. Consistent with prediction, physically attractive individuals attained the highest levels of social status; in turn, those who attained the highest levels of social status experienced the highest levels of self-determination. These findings provide new insights into self-determination as an inherently relational phenomenon and specifically highlight the formative influence of social status on people’s capacities for self-determination.

  13. Mirror quintic vacua: hierarchies and inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Bizet, Nana Cabo; Zavala, Ivonne

    2016-01-01

    We study the moduli space of type IIB string theory flux compactifications on the mirror of the CY quintic 3-fold in P4. We focus on the dynamics of the four dimensional moduli space, defined by the axio-dilaton {\\tau} and the complex structure modulus z. The z-plane has critical points, the conifold, the orbifold and the large complex structure with non trivial monodromies. We find the solutions to the Picard-Fuchs equations obeyed by the periods of the CY in the full z-plane as a series expansion in z around the critical points to arbitrary order. This allows us to discard fake vacua, which appear as a result of keeping only the leading order term in the series expansions. Due to monodromies vacua are located at a given sheet in the z-plane. A dS vacuum appears for a set of fluxes. We revisit vacua with hierarchies among the 4D and 6D physical scales close to the conifold point and compare them with those found at leading order in [1, 2]. We explore slow-roll inflationary directions of the scalar potential ...

  14. 6D RG flows and nilpotent hierarchies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, Jonathan J. [Department of Physics, University of North Carolina,Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Department of Physics, Columbia University,New York, NY 10027 (United States); CUNY Graduate Center, Initiative for the Theoretical Sciences,New York, NY 10016 (United States); Rudelius, Tom [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tomasiello, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,Milan (Italy); INFN, sezione di Milano-Bicocca,Milan (Italy)

    2016-07-15

    With the eventual aim of classifying renormalization group flows between 6D superconformal field theories (SCFTs), we study flows generated by the vevs of “conformal matter,” a generalization of conventional hypermultiplets which naturally appear in the F-theory classification of 6D SCFTs. We consider flows in which the parent UV theory is (on its partial tensor branch) a linear chain of gauge groups connected by conformal matter, with one flavor group G at each end of the chain, and in which the symmetry breaking of the conformal matter at each end is parameterized by the orbit of a nilpotent element, i.e. T-brane data, of one of these flavor symmetries. Such nilpotent orbits admit a partial ordering, which is reflected in a hierarchy of IR fixed points. For each such nilpotent orbit, we determine the corresponding tensor branch for the resulting SCFT. An important feature of this algebraic approach is that it also allows us to systematically compute the unbroken flavor symmetries inherited from the parent UV theory.

  15. Appeasement: Whites' strategic support for affirmative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Rosalind M; Lowery, Brian S; Hogan, Caitlin M

    2013-03-01

    This article explores the possibility that dominant-group members will attempt to appease subordinate groups to protect the hierarchy. In four studies, we find that (a) prohierarchy Whites perceive more intergroup threat when they believe ethnic minorities hold Whites in low regard, (b) prohierarchy Whites respond to ethnic minorities' low regard for Whites by increasing their support for redistributive policies (e.g., affirmative action), (c) the increase in support only occurs when prohierarchy Whites perceive the hierarchy to be unstable, and (d) prohierarchy Whites perceive the hierarchy to be more stable if they believe Whites support redistributive policies. These results suggest that prohierarchy dominant-group members' support for redistributive policies can stem from a concern about maintaining the hierarchical status quo, and provides evidence that support for redistributive policies can be a hierarchy-enhancing strategy.

  16. 22 CFR 1006.215 - Which nonprocurement transactions are not covered transactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... covered transactions? 1006.215 Section 1006.215 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE... excepted). For example, if a person receives social security benefits under the Supplemental Security Income provisions of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. 1301 et seq., those benefits are not...

  17. 75 FR 78758 - Prohibited Transaction Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Department amend the language contained in the penultimate sentence of the second paragraph of Representation... percentage of total assets invested by benefit plan investors in the Funds so that, as of each acquisition or... language of Section I (``Covered Transactions''), Section II (``General Conditions''), and Section...

  18. More than just talk: the framing of transactional sex and its implications for vulnerability to HIV in Lesotho, Madagascar and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background 'Transactional sex' was regarded by the mid-1990s as an important determinant of HIV transmission, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Little attention has been paid to what the terms used to denote transactional sex suggest about how it is understood. This study provides a nuanced set of descriptions of the meaning of transactional sex in three settings. Furthermore, we discuss how discourses around transactional sex suggest linkages to processes of globalization and hold implications for vulnerability to HIV. Methods The analysis in this article is based on three case studies conducted as part of a multi-country research project that investigated linkages between economic globalization and HIV. In this analysis, we contextualize and contrast the 'talk' about transactional sex through the following research methods in three study sites: descriptions revealed through semi-structured interviews with garment workers in Lesotho; focus groups with young women and men in Antananarivo, Madagascar; and focus groups and in-depth interviews with young women and men in Mbekweni, South Africa. Results Participants' talk about transactional sex reveals two themes: (1) 'The politics of differentiation' reflects how participants used language to demarcate identities, and distance themselves from contextually-based marginalized identities; and (2) 'Gender, agency and power' describes how participants frame gendered-power within the context of transactional sex practices, and reflects on the limitations to women's power as sexual agents in these exchanges. Talk about transactional sex in our study settings supports the assertion that emerging transactional sexual practices are linked with processes of globalization tied to consumerism. Conclusions By focusing on 'talk' about transactional sex, we locate definitions of transactional sex, and how terms used to describe transactional sex are morally framed for people within their local context. We take advantage of an

  19. Homogenization and asymptotics for small transaction costs

    CERN Document Server

    Soner, H Mete

    2012-01-01

    We consider the classical Merton problem of lifetime consumption-portfolio optimization problem with small proportional transaction costs. The first order term in the asymptotic expansion is explicitly calculated through a singular ergodic control problem which can be solved in closed form in the one-dimensional case. Unlike the existing literature, we consider a general utility function and general dynamics for the underlying assets. Our arguments are based on ideas from the homogenization theory and use the convergence tools from the theory of viscosity solutions. The multidimensional case is studied in our accompanying paper using the same approach.

  20. Transaction costs and the sharing economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the so-called sharing economy from an industrial structure perspective. The illustrative cases examined are Airbnb and Uber. The research question raised is concerned with the extent to which transaction cost theory can be used to explain the changing industrial structures...... in the application areas that the Internet-based platforms are addressing and how other theoretical frameworks can be helpful in understanding these developments. The paper concludes by proposing a theoretical framework for analyzing the structural implications of the sharing economy based on theories on multi...