WorldWideScience

Sample records for hidden variable theories

  1. A survey of hidden-variables theories

    CERN Document Server

    Belinfante, F J

    1973-01-01

    A Survey of Hidden-Variables Theories is a three-part book on the hidden-variable theories, referred in this book as """"theories of the first kind"""". Part I reviews the motives in developing different types of hidden-variables theories. The quest for determinism led to theories of the first kind; the quest for theories that look like causal theories when applied to spatially separated systems that interacted in the past led to theories of the second kind. Parts II and III further describe the theories of the first kind and second kind, respectively. This book is written to make the literat

  2. Hidden Variable Theories and Quantum Nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    We clarify the meaning of Bell's theorem and its implications for the construction of hidden variable theories by considering an example system consisting of two entangled spin-1/2 particles. Using this example, we present a simplified version of Bell's theorem and describe several hidden variable theories that agree with the predictions of…

  3. Hidden variables and hidden time in quantum theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kurakin, Pavel V.

    2005-01-01

    Bell's theorem proves only that hidden variables evolving in true physical time can't exist; still the theorem's meaning is usually interpreted intolerably wide. The concept of hidden time (and, in general, hidden space-time) is introduced. Such concept provides a whole new class of physical theories, fully compatible with current knowledge, but giving new tremendous possibilities. Those theories do not violate Bell's theorem.

  4. Algorithmic information theory and the hidden variable question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    The admissibility of certain nonlocal hidden-variable theories are explained via information theory. Consider a pair of Stern-Gerlach devices with fixed nonparallel orientations that periodically perform spin measurements on identically prepared pairs of electrons in the singlet spin state. Suppose the outcomes are recorded as binary strings l and r (with l sub n and r sub n denoting their n-length prefixes). The hidden-variable theories considered here require that there exists a recursive function which may be used to transform l sub n into r sub n for any n. This note demonstrates that such a theory cannot reproduce all the statistical predictions of quantum mechanics. Specifically, consider an ensemble of outcome pairs (l,r). From the associated probability measure, the Shannon entropies H sub n and H bar sub n for strings l sub n and pairs (l sub n, r sub n) may be formed. It is shown that such a theory requires that the absolute value of H bar sub n - H sub n be bounded - contrasting the quantum mechanical prediction that it grow with n.

  5. On Noncontextual, Non-Kolmogorovian Hidden Variable Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feintzeig, Benjamin H.; Fletcher, Samuel C.

    2017-01-01

    One implication of Bell's theorem is that there cannot in general be hidden variable models for quantum mechanics that both are noncontextual and retain the structure of a classical probability space. Thus, some hidden variable programs aim to retain noncontextuality at the cost of using a generalization of the Kolmogorov probability axioms. We generalize a theorem of Feintzeig (Br J Philos Sci 66(4): 905-927, 2015) to show that such programs are committed to the existence of a finite null cover for some quantum mechanical experiments, i.e., a finite collection of probability zero events whose disjunction exhausts the space of experimental possibilities.

  6. On Noncontextual, Non-Kolmogorovian Hidden Variable Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feintzeig, Benjamin H.; Fletcher, Samuel C.

    2017-02-01

    One implication of Bell's theorem is that there cannot in general be hidden variable models for quantum mechanics that both are noncontextual and retain the structure of a classical probability space. Thus, some hidden variable programs aim to retain noncontextuality at the cost of using a generalization of the Kolmogorov probability axioms. We generalize a theorem of Feintzeig (Br J Philos Sci 66(4): 905-927, 2015) to show that such programs are committed to the existence of a finite null cover for some quantum mechanical experiments, i.e., a finite collection of probability zero events whose disjunction exhausts the space of experimental possibilities.

  7. The incompatibility between local hidden variable theories and the fundamental conservation laws

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C S Unnikrishnan

    2005-09-01

    I discuss in detail the result that the Bell's inequalities derived in the context of local hidden variable theories for discrete quantized observables can be satisfied only if a fundamental conservation law is violated on the average. This result shows that such theories are physically nonviable, and makes the demarcating criteria of the Bell's inequalities redundant. I show that a unique correlation function can be derived from the validity of the conservation law alone and this coincides with the quantum mechanical correlation function. Thus, any theory with a different correlation function, like any local hidden variable theory, is incompatible with the fundamental conservation laws and space-time symmetries. The results are discussed in the context of two-particle singlet and triplet states, GHZ states, and two-particle double slit interferometry. Some observations on quantum entropy, entanglement, and nonlocality are also discussed.

  8. Post-relativistic gravity a hidden variable theory for general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Schmelzer, I

    1996-01-01

    Post-relativistic gravity is a hidden variable theory for general relativity. It introduces the pre-relativistic notions absolute space, absolute time, and ether as hidden variables into general relativity. Evolution is defined by the equations of general relativity and the harmonic coordinate condition interpreted as a physical equation. There are minor differences in predictions compared with general relativity (i.e. trivial topology of the universe is predicted). The unobservable absolute time is designed to solve the problem of time in quantization of general relativity. Background space and time define a Newtonian frame for the quantization of the gravitational field. By the way, a lot of other conceptual problems of quantization will be solved (i.e. no constraints, no topological foam, no black hole and bib bang singularities, natural vacuum definition for quantum fields on classical background).

  9. Hidden Variables or Positive Probabilities?

    CERN Document Server

    Rothman, T; Rothman, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Despite claims that Bell's inequalities are based on the Einstein locality condition, or equivalent, all derivations make an identical mathematical assumption: that local hidden-variable theories produce a set of positive-definite probabilities for detecting a particle with a given spin orientation. The standard argument is that because quantum mechanics assumes that particles are emitted in a superposition of states the theory cannot produce such a set of probabilities. We examine a paper by Eberhard who claims to show that a generalized Bell inequality, the CHSH inequality, can be derived solely on the basis of the locality condition, without recourse to hidden variables. We point out that he nonetheless assumes a set of positive-definite probabilities, which supports the claim that hidden variables or "locality" is not at issue here, positive-definite probabilities are. We demonstrate that quantum mechanics does predict a set of probabilities that violate the CHSH inequality; however these probabilities ar...

  10. Hidden-variable models for the spin singlet: I. Non-local theories reproducing quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Di Lorenzo, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    A non-local hidden variable model reproducing the quantum mechanical probabilities for a spin singlet is presented. The non-locality is concentrated in the distribution of the hidden variables. The model otherwise satisfies both the hypothesis of outcome independence, made in the derivation of Bell inequality, and of compliance with Malus's law, made in the derivation of Leggett inequality. It is shown through the prescription of a protocol that the non-locality can be exploited to send information instantaneously provided that the hidden variables can be measured, even though they cannot be controlled.

  11. Critical analysis of the empirical tests of local hidden-variable theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Emilio

    1992-10-01

    A local hidden-variable model is exhibited for the experiments by Aspect, Grangier, and Roger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 460 (1981); 49, 91 (1982)] and Aspect, Dalibard, and Roger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1804 (1982)] measuring polarization correlation of optical-photon pairs. The model agrees with quantum-mechanical predictions for all measurable quantities even with ideal polarizers and detectors, and emphasizes the need of a high degree of directional correlation, besides the correlation of spin (or polarization or other quantities), in any test of locality. It is proved that homogeneous inequalities, involving only coincidence detection rates, cannot discriminate between quantum mechanics and local theories, which invalidates all previously used empirical tests. The role of supplementary assumptions, like the so-called no enhancement, for the derivation of Bell's inequalities is discussed. Finally it is conjectured that quantum mechanics might be compatible with local realism, if we assume that not all self-adjoint operators represent observables and not all density operators represent states.

  12. A Bell-type Theorem Without Hidden Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Stapp, Henry P

    2002-01-01

    Bell's theorem rules out local hidden-variable theories. The locality condition is the demand that what an experimenter freely chooses to measure in one space-time region has no influence in a second space-time region that is spacelike separated from the first. The hidden-variable stipulation means that this demand is implemented through requirements on an assumed-to-exist substructure involving hidden variables. The question thus arises whether the locality condition itself fails, or only its implementation by means of the assumed hidden-variable structure. This paper shows that any theory that satisfies two generally accepted features of orthodox quantum theory and that yields certain predictions of quantum theory cannot satisfy the afore-mentioned locality condition. These two features are that the choices made by the experimenters can be treated as localized free variables and that such free choices do not affect outcomes that have already occurred.

  13. On local-hidden-variable no-go theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methot, A. A.

    2006-06-01

    The strongest attack against quantum mechanics came in 1935 in the form of a paper by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. It was argued that the theory of quantum mechanics could not be called a complete theory of Nature, for every element of reality is not represented in the formalism as such. The authors then put forth a proposition: we must search for a theory where, upon knowing everything about the system, including possible hidden variables, one could make precise predictions concerning elements of reality. This project was ultimately doomed in 1964 with the work of Bell, who showed that the most general local hidden variable theory could not reproduce correlations that arise in quantum mechanics. There exist mainly three forms of no-go theorems for local hidden variable theories. Although almost every physicist knows the consequences of these no-go theorems, not every physicist is aware of the distinctions between the three or even their exact definitions. Thus, we will discuss here the three principal forms of no-go theorems for local hidden variable theories of Nature. We will define Bell theorems, Bell theorems without inequalities, and pseudo-telepathy. A discussion of the similarities and differences will follow.

  14. Hidden simplicity of gauge theory amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J M, E-mail: drummond@lapp.in2p3.f [LAPTH, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux, Cedex (France)

    2010-11-07

    These notes were given as lectures at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge Theory 2010. We describe the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, focussing on the maximally supersymmetric theory to highlight the hidden symmetries which appear. Using the Britto, Cachzo, Feng and Witten (BCFW) recursion relations we solve the tree-level S-matrix in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and describe how it produces a sum of invariants of a large symmetry algebra. We review amplitudes in the planar theory beyond tree level, describing the connection between amplitudes and Wilson loops, and discuss the implications of the hidden symmetries.

  15. Hidden simplicity of gauge theory amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. M.

    2010-11-01

    These notes were given as lectures at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge Theory 2010. We describe the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, focussing on the maximally supersymmetric theory to highlight the hidden symmetries which appear. Using the Britto, Cachzo, Feng and Witten (BCFW) recursion relations we solve the tree-level S-matrix in \\ {N}=4 super Yang-Mills theory and describe how it produces a sum of invariants of a large symmetry algebra. We review amplitudes in the planar theory beyond tree level, describing the connection between amplitudes and Wilson loops, and discuss the implications of the hidden symmetries.

  16. Foundational Forces & Hidden Variables in Technology Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Brandon

    2011-03-01

    The science of physics seems vastly different from the process of technology commercialization. Physics strives to understand our world through the experimental deduction of immutable laws and dependent variables and the resulting macro-scale phenomenon. In comparison, the~goal of business is to make a profit by addressing the needs, preferences, and whims of individuals in a market. It may seem that this environment is too dynamic to identify all the hidden variables and deduct the foundational forces that impact a business's ability to commercialize innovative technologies. One example of a business ``force'' is found in the semiconductor industry. In 1965, Intel co-founder Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors incorporated in a chip will approximately double every 24 months. Known as Moore's Law, this prediction has become the guiding principle for the semiconductor industry for the last 40 years. Of course, Moore's Law is not really a law of nature; rather it is the result of efforts by Intel and the entire semiconductor industry. A closer examination suggests that there are foundational principles of business that underlie the macro-scale phenomenon of Moore's Law. Principles of profitability, incentive, and strategic alignment have resulted in a coordinated influx of resources that has driven technologies to market, increasing the profitability of the semiconductor industry and optimizing the fitness of its participants. New innovations in technology are subject to these same principles. So, in addition to traditional market forces, these often unrecognized forces and variables create challenges for new technology commercialization. In this talk, I will draw from ethnographic research, complex adaptive theory, and industry data to suggest a framework with which to think about new technology commercialization. Intel's bio-silicon initiative provides a case study.

  17. Quantum Discord, CHSH Inequality and Hidden Variables -- Critical reassessment of hidden-variables models

    CERN Document Server

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Hidden-variables models are critically reassessed. It is first examined if the quantum discord is classically described by the hidden-variable model of Bell in the Hilbert space with $d=2$. The criterion of vanishing quantum discord is related to the notion of reduction and, surprisingly, the hidden-variable model in $d=2$, which has been believed to be consistent so far, is in fact inconsistent and excluded by the analysis of conditional measurement and reduction. The description of the full contents of quantum discord by the deterministic hidden-variables models is not possible. We also re-examine CHSH inequality. It is shown that the well-known prediction of CHSH inequality $|B|\\leq 2$ for the CHSH operator $B$ introduced by Cirel'son is not unique. This non-uniqueness arises from the failure of linearity condition in the non-contextual hidden-variables model in $d=4$ used by Bell and CHSH, in agreement with Gleason's theorem which excludes $d=4$ non-contextual hidden-variables models. If one imposes the l...

  18. On local-hidden-variable no-go theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Méthot, A A

    2005-01-01

    The strongest attack against quantum mechanics came in 1935 in the form of a paper by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen. It was argued that the theory of quantum mechanics could not be called a complete theory of Nature, for every element of reality is not represented in the formalism as such. The authors then put forth a proposition: we must search for a theory where, upon knowing everything about the system, including possible hidden variables, one could make precise predictions concerning elements of reality. This project was ultimatly doomed in 1964 with the work of Bell Bell, who showed that the most general local hidden variable theory could not reproduce correlations that arise in quantum mechanics. There exist mainly three forms of no-go theorems for local hidden variable theories. Although almost every physicist knows the consequences of these no-go theorems, not every physicist is aware of the distinctions between the three or even their exact definitions. Thus we will discuss here the three principal fo...

  19. Hidden Variables and Placebo Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2006-03-01

    God's response to prayers and placebo leads to a question. How does He respond deterministically? He may be controlling at least one of the two variables of the uncertainty principle by extending His invisible soul to each body particle locally. Amazingly, many Vedic verses support this answer. One describes the size of the soul as arithmetically matching the size of the nucleons as if a particle is a soul. One gives a name meaning particle soul (anu-atma), consistent with particle's indeterministic behavior like that of (soulful) bird’s flying in any directions irrespective of the direction of throw. One describes souls as eternal consistent with the conservation of baryon number. One links the souls to the omnipresent (param- atma) like Einstein Rosen bridges link particles to normal spacetime. One claims eternal coexistence of matter and soul as is inflationary universe in physics/0210040 V2. The implicit scientific consistency of such verses makes the relationship of particle source of consciousness to the omnipresent Supreme analogous to the relationship of quantum source of gravitons in my gr-qc/0507130 to normal spacetime This frees us from the postulation of quantum wormholes and quantum foam. Dr. Hooft's view in ``Does God play dice,'' Physicsword, Dec 2005 seems consistent with my progressive conference presentations in Russia, Europe, India, and USA (Hindu University) in 2004/05. I see implications for nanoscience.

  20. Consistent histories, quantum truth functionals, and hidden variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    A central principle of consistent histories quantum theory, the requirement that quantum descriptions be based upon a single framework (or family), is employed to show that there is no conflict between consistent histories and a no-hidden-variables theorem of Bell, and Kochen and Specker, contrary to a recent claim by Bassi and Ghirardi. The argument makes use of `truth functionals' defined on a Boolean algebra of classical or quantum properties.

  1. Consistent histories, quantum truth functionals, and hidden variables

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, R B

    1999-01-01

    A central principle of consistent histories quantum theory, the requirement that quantum descriptions be based upon a single framework (or family), is employed to show that there is no conflict between consistent histories and a no-hidden-variables theorem of Bell, and Kochen and Specker, contrary to a recent claim by Bassi and Ghirardi. The argument makes use of ``truth functionals'' defined on a Boolean algebra of classical or quantum properties.

  2. Dark matter in the hidden gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Nodoka; Gongyo, Shinya; Iida, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    The cosmological scenario of the dark matter generated in the hidden gauge theory based on the grand unification is discussed. It is found that the stability of the dark matter halo of our Galaxy and the cosmic ray observation constrain, respectively, the dark matter mass and the unification scale between the standard model and the hidden gauge theory sectors. To obtain a phenomenologically consistent thermal evolution, the entropy of the standard model sector needs to be increased. We therefore propose a scenario where the mini-inflation is induced from the potential coupled to the Standard model sector, in particular the Higgs sector. This scenario makes consistent the current dark matter density as well as the baryon-to-photon ratio for the case of pion dark matter. For the glueball or heavy pion of hidden gauge theory, an additional mini-inflation in the standard model sector before the leptogenesis is required. We also propose the possibility to confirm this scenario by known prospective experimental app...

  3. Local clustering in scale-free networks with hidden variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hofstad, Remco; Janssen, A J E M; van Leeuwaarden, Johan S H; Stegehuis, Clara

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the presence of triangles in a class of correlated random graphs in which hidden variables determine the pairwise connections between vertices. The class rules out self-loops and multiple edges. We focus on the regime where the hidden variables follow a power law with exponent τ∈(2,3), so that the degrees have infinite variance. The natural cutoff h_{c} characterizes the largest degrees in the hidden variable models, and a structural cutoff h_{s} introduces negative degree correlations (disassortative mixing) due to the infinite-variance degrees. We show that local clustering decreases with the hidden variable (or degree). We also determine how the average clustering coefficient C scales with the network size N, as a function of h_{s} and h_{c}. For scale-free networks with exponent 2vanish only for networks as large as N=10^{9}.

  4. Dark matter in the nonabelian hidden gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Nodoka; Gongyo, Shinya; Iida, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the dark matter in the hidden gauge theory. We propose a scenario where the mini-inflation dilutes the dark matter density. This scenario is consistent with the current baryon number asymmetry.

  5. Bardeen variables and hidden gauge symmetries in linearized massive gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Jaccard, Maud; Mitsou, Ermis

    2012-01-01

    We give a detailed discussion of the use of the (3+1) decomposition and of Bardeen's variables in massive gravity linearized over a Minkowski as well as over a de Sitter background. In Minkowski space the Bardeen "potential" \\Phi, that in the massless case is a non-radiative degree of freedom, becomes radiative and describes the helicity-0 component of the massive graviton. Its dynamics is governed by a simple Klein-Gordon action, supplemented by a term (\\Box \\Phi)^2 if we do not make the Fierz-Pauli tuning of the mass term. In de Sitter the identification of the variable that describes the radiative degree of freedom in the scalar sector is more subtle, and even involves expressions non-local in time. The use of this new variable provides a simple and transparent derivation of the Higuchi bound and of the disappearance of the scalar degree of freedom at a special value of $m_g^2/H^2$. The use of this formalism also allows us to uncover the existence of a hidden gauge symmetry of the massive theory, that beco...

  6. Locality or non-locality in quantum mechanics: hidden variables without ''spooky action-at-a-distance''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharonov, Y. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics and Astronomy; Botero, A. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Centro Internacional de Fisica, Ciudad Univ., Bogota (Colombia); Scully, M. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    The folklore notion of the ''Non-Locality of Quantum Mechanics'' is examined from the point of view of hidden-variables theories according to Belinfante's classification in his Survey of Hidden Variables Theories. It is here shown that in the case of EPR, there exist hidden variables theories that successfully reproduce quantum-mechanical predictions, but which are explicitly local. Since such theories do not fall into Belinfante's classification, we propose an expanded classification which includes similar theories, which we term as theories of the ''third'' kind. Causal implications of such theories are explored. (orig.)

  7. Backward causation, hidden variables and the meaning of completeness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Huw Price

    2001-02-01

    Bell’s theorem requires the assumption that hidden variables are independent of future measurement settings. This independence assumption rests on surprisingly shaky ground. In particular, it is puzzlingly time-asymmetric. The paper begins with a summary of the case for considering hidden variable models which, in abandoning this independence assumption, allow a degree of ‘backward causation’. The remainder of the paper clarifies the physical significance of such models, in relation to the issue as to whether quantum mechanics provides a complete description of physical reality.

  8. A Sequence of Relaxations Constraining Hidden Variable Models

    CERN Document Server

    Steeg, Greg Ver

    2011-01-01

    Many widely studied graphical models with latent variables lead to nontrivial constraints on the distribution of the observed variables. Inspired by the Bell inequalities in quantum mechanics, we refer to any linear inequality whose violation rules out some latent variable model as a "hidden variable test" for that model. Our main contribution is to introduce a sequence of relaxations which provides progressively tighter hidden variable tests. We demonstrate applicability to mixtures of sequences of i.i.d. variables, Bell inequalities, and homophily models in social networks. For the last, we demonstrate that our method provides a test that is able to rule out latent homophily as the sole explanation for correlations on a real social network that are known to be due to influence.

  9. Optical Test of Local Hidden-Variable Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU XiaoHua; ZONG HongShi; PANG HouRong

    2001-01-01

    An inequality is deduced from local realism and a supplementary assumption. This inequality defines an experiment that can be actually performed with the present technology to test local hidden-variable models, and it is violated by quantum mechanics with a factor 1.92, while it can be simplified into a form where just two measurements are required.``

  10. Local clustering in scale-free networks with hidden variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hofstad, Remco; Janssen, A. J. E. M.; van Leeuwaarden, Johan S. H.; Stegehuis, Clara

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the presence of triangles in a class of correlated random graphs in which hidden variables determine the pairwise connections between vertices. The class rules out self-loops and multiple edges. We focus on the regime where the hidden variables follow a power law with exponent τ ∈(2 ,3 ) , so that the degrees have infinite variance. The natural cutoff hc characterizes the largest degrees in the hidden variable models, and a structural cutoff hs introduces negative degree correlations (disassortative mixing) due to the infinite-variance degrees. We show that local clustering decreases with the hidden variable (or degree). We also determine how the average clustering coefficient C scales with the network size N , as a function of hs and hc. For scale-free networks with exponent 2 universality class at hand. We characterize the extremely slow decay of C when τ ≈2 and show that for τ =2.1 , say, clustering starts to vanish only for networks as large as N =109 .

  11. Algorithmic Construction of Local Hidden Variable Models for Entangled Quantum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Flavien; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Vértesi, Tamás; Pusey, Matthew F.; Brunner, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Constructing local hidden variable (LHV) models for entangled quantum states is a fundamental problem, with implications for the foundations of quantum theory and for quantum information processing. It is, however, a challenging problem, as the model should reproduce quantum predictions for all possible local measurements. Here we present a simple method for building LHV models, applicable to any entangled state and considering continuous sets of measurements. This leads to a sequence of tests which, in the limit, fully captures the set of quantum states admitting a LHV model. Similar methods are developed for local hidden state models. We illustrate the practical relevance of these methods with several examples.

  12. Algorithmic Construction of Local Hidden Variable Models for Entangled Quantum States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Flavien; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Vértesi, Tamás; Pusey, Matthew F; Brunner, Nicolas

    2016-11-04

    Constructing local hidden variable (LHV) models for entangled quantum states is a fundamental problem, with implications for the foundations of quantum theory and for quantum information processing. It is, however, a challenging problem, as the model should reproduce quantum predictions for all possible local measurements. Here we present a simple method for building LHV models, applicable to any entangled state and considering continuous sets of measurements. This leads to a sequence of tests which, in the limit, fully captures the set of quantum states admitting a LHV model. Similar methods are developed for local hidden state models. We illustrate the practical relevance of these methods with several examples.

  13. Hidden blazars and emission line variability of high redshift quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ma

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out a survey to search for hidden blazars in a sample of z 2 radio{loud quasars. The idea is based on our prediction that we should be able to see large C IV line variability not associated with observed continuum variations or most other emission lines in every radio{loud quasar. Here we report the initial results including the discovery of large C IV line variations in two quasars.

  14. Hidden variable models for quantum mechanics can have local parts

    CERN Document Server

    Larsson, Jan-Ake

    2009-01-01

    We present an explicit nonlocal nonsignaling model which has a nontrivial local part and is compatible with quantum mechanics. This model constitutes a counterexample to Colbeck and Renner's statement [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 050403 (2008)] that "any hidden variable model can only be compatible with quantum mechanics if its local part is trivial". Furthermore, we examine Colbeck and Renner's definition of "local part" and find that, in the case of models reproducing the quantum predictions for the singlet state, it is a restriction equivalent to the conjunction of nonsignaling and trivial local part.

  15. Quantum Computing and Hidden Variables II: The Complexity of Sampling Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Aaronson, S

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that, if we could examine the entire history of a hidden variable, then we could efficiently solve problems that are believed to be intractable even for quantum computers. In particular, under any hidden-variable theory satisfying a reasonable axiom called "indifference to the identity," we could solve the Graph Isomorphism and Approximate Shortest Vector problems in polynomial time, as well as an oracle problem that is known to require quantum exponential time. We could also search an N-item database using O(N^{1/3}) queries, as opposed to O(N^{1/2}) queries with Grover's search algorithm. On the other hand, the N^{1/3} bound is optimal, meaning that we could probably not solve NP-complete problems in polynomial time. We thus obtain the first good example of a model of computation that appears slightly more powerful than the quantum computing model.

  16. Hidden Markov processes theory and applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Vidyasagar, M

    2014-01-01

    This book explores important aspects of Markov and hidden Markov processes and the applications of these ideas to various problems in computational biology. The book starts from first principles, so that no previous knowledge of probability is necessary. However, the work is rigorous and mathematical, making it useful to engineers and mathematicians, even those not interested in biological applications. A range of exercises is provided, including drills to familiarize the reader with concepts and more advanced problems that require deep thinking about the theory. Biological applications are t

  17. Hidden variable problem for a family of continuously many spin 1 measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kurzynski, Pawel; Soeda, Akihito; Bzdega, Bartlomiej; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2012-01-01

    We study a continuous set of spin 1 measurements and show that for a special family of measurements parametrized by a single variable $\\theta$ the possibility of hidden-variable description is a discontinuous property.

  18. Bianchi Cosmologies New Variables and a Hidden Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Obregón, O; Ryan, M P; Obregon, Octavio; Pullin, Jorge; Ryan, Michael P.

    1993-01-01

    We find a supersymmetrization of the Bianchi IX cosmology in terms of Ashtekar's new variables. This provides a framework for connecting the recent results of Graham and those of Ryan and Moncrief for quantum states of this model. These states are also related with the states obtained particularizing supergravity for a minisuperspace. Implications for the general theory are also briefly discussed.

  19. Inferring topologies of complex networks with hidden variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoqun; Wang, Weihan; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2012-10-01

    Network topology plays a crucial role in determining a network's intrinsic dynamics and function, thus understanding and modeling the topology of a complex network will lead to greater knowledge of its evolutionary mechanisms and to a better understanding of its behaviors. In the past few years, topology identification of complex networks has received increasing interest and wide attention. Many approaches have been developed for this purpose, including synchronization-based identification, information-theoretic methods, and intelligent optimization algorithms. However, inferring interaction patterns from observed dynamical time series is still challenging, especially in the absence of knowledge of nodal dynamics and in the presence of system noise. The purpose of this work is to present a simple and efficient approach to inferring the topologies of such complex networks. The proposed approach is called "piecewise partial Granger causality." It measures the cause-effect connections of nonlinear time series influenced by hidden variables. One commonly used testing network, two regular networks with a few additional links, and small-world networks are used to evaluate the performance and illustrate the influence of network parameters on the proposed approach. Application to experimental data further demonstrates the validity and robustness of our method.

  20. A Proposal for Testing Local Realism Without Using Assumptions Related to Hidden Variable States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryff, Luiz Carlos

    1996-01-01

    A feasible experiment is discussed which allows us to prove a Bell's theorem for two particles without using an inequality. The experiment could be used to test local realism against quantum mechanics without the introduction of additional assumptions related to hidden variables states. Only assumptions based on direct experimental observation are needed.

  1. A brief history of hidden quantum symmetries in Conformal Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, C; Gomez, Cesar; Sierra, German

    1992-01-01

    We review briefly a stream of ideas concerning the role of quantum groups as hidden symmetries in conformal field theories, paying particular attention to the field theoretical representations of quantum groups based on Coulomb gas methods. An extensive bibliography is also included.

  2. Chern-Simons-Higgs theory with visible and hidden sectors and its N = 2 SUSY extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Paola; Ireson, Edwin; Schaposnik, Fidel A.; Tallarita, Gianni

    2015-10-01

    We study vortex solutions in Abelian Chern-Simons-Higgs theories with visible and hidden sectors. We first consider the case in which the two sectors are connected through a BF-like gauge mixing term with no explicit interaction between the two scalars. Since first order Bogomolny equations do not exist in this case, we derive the second order field equations. We then proceed to an N = 2 supersymmetric extension including a Higgs portal mixing among the visible and hidden charged scalars. As expected, Bogomolny equations do exist in this case and we study their string-like solutions numerically.

  3. Hidden Modulus in the Extended Veneziano-Yankielowicz Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Auzzi, R; Auzzi, Roberto; Sannino, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    The issue of domain walls in the recently extended Veneziano-Yankielowicz theory is investigated and we show that they have an interesting substructure. We also demonstrate the presence of a noncompact modulus. The associated family of degenerate solutions is physically due to the presence of a valley of vacua in the enlarged space of fields. This is a feature of the extended Veneziano-Yankielowicz theory. Unfortunately the above properties do not match the ones expected for the domain walls of N=1 super Yang-Mills.

  4. Tarski's hidden theory of meaning: Sentences say exactly one thing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh Novaes, C.; Rahman, S.; Tulenheimo, T.; Genot, E.

    2008-01-01

    I argue that Tarski's truth schema (T) concerns meaning just as much as it concerns truth. Better said, (T) implicitly presupposes a theory of meaning; it rests on a simple and yet contentious assumption, namely what Andjelković and Williamson [1] have termed the principle of uniformity (U): every s

  5. Local hidden-variable model for a recent experimental test of quantum nonlocality and local contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cour, Brian R.

    2017-07-01

    An experiment has recently been performed to demonstrate quantum nonlocality by establishing contextuality in one of a pair of photons encoding four qubits; however, low detection efficiencies and use of the fair-sampling hypothesis leave these results open to possible criticism due to the detection loophole. In this Letter, a physically motivated local hidden-variable model is considered as a possible mechanism for explaining the experimentally observed results. The model, though not intrinsically contextual, acquires this quality upon post-selection of coincident detections.

  6. Elements Of Theory Of Multidimensional Complex Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E. Dale

    1993-01-01

    Two reports describe elements of theory of multidimensional complex variables, with emphasis on three dimensions. First report introduces general theory. Second, presents further developments in theory of analytic functions of single three-dimensional variable and applies theory to representation of ideal flows. Results of preliminary studies suggest analytic functions of new three-dimensional complex variables useful in numerous applications, including representing of three-dimensional flows and potentials.

  7. Gauged diffeomorphisms and hidden symmetries in Kaluza-Klein theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohm, Olaf [Spinoza Institute and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-06-07

    We analyse the symmetries that are realized on the massive Kaluza-Klein modes in generic D-dimensional backgrounds with three non-compact directions. For this, we construct the unbroken phase given by the decompactification limit, in which the higher Kaluza-Klein modes are massless. The latter admits an infinite-dimensional extension of the three-dimensional diffeomorphism group as local symmetry and, moreover, a current algebra associated with SL(D-2,R) together with the diffeomorphism algebra of the internal manifold as global symmetries. It is shown that the 'broken phase' can be reconstructed by gauging a certain subgroup of the global symmetries. This deforms the three-dimensional diffeomorphisms to a gauged version, and it is shown that they can be governed by a Chern-Simons theory, which unifies the spin-2 modes with the Kaluza-Klein vectors. This provides a reformulation of D-dimensional Einstein gravity, in which the physical degrees of freedom are described by the scalars of a gauged nonlinear {sigma}-model based on SL(D-2,R)/SO(D-2), while the metric appears in a purely topological Chern-Simons form.

  8. Time separation as a hidden variable to the Copenhagen school of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y S

    2010-01-01

    The Bohr radius is a space-like separation between the proton and electron in the hydrogen atom. According to the Copenhagen school of quantum mechanics, the proton is sitting in the absolute Lorentz frame. If this hydrogen atom is observed from a different Lorentz frame, there is a time-like separation linearly mixed with the Bohr radius. Indeed, the time-separation is one of the essential variables in high-energy hadronic physics where the hadron is a bound state of the quarks, while thoroughly hidden in the present form of quantum mechanics. It will be concluded that this variable is hidden in Feynman's rest of the universe. It is noted first that Feynman's Lorentz-invariant differential equation for the bound-state quarks has a set of solutions which describe all essential features of hadronic physics. These solutions explicitly depend on the time separation between the quarks. This set also forms the mathematical basis for two-mode squeezed states in quantum optics, where both photons are observable, but...

  9. Nonlinear hidden symmetries in General Relativity and String Theory: a matrix generalization of the Ernst potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa-Cendejas, Nandinii; Kanakoglou, Konstantinos; Paschalis, Joannis E

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we recall a simple formulation of the stationary electrovacuum theory in terms of the famous complex Ernst potentials, a pair of functions which allows one to generate new exact solutions from known ones by means of the so-called nonlinear hidden symmetries of Lie-Backlund type. This formalism turned out to be very useful to perform a complete classification of all 4D solutions which present two spacetime symmetries or possess two Killing vectors. Curiously enough, the Ernst formalism can be extended and applied to stationary General Relativity as well as the effective heterotic string theory reduced down to three spatial dimensions by means of a (real) matrix generalization of the Ernst potentials. Thus, in this theory one can also make use of nonlinear matrix hidden symmetries in order to generate new exact solutions from seed ones. Due to the explicit independence of the matrix Ernst potential formalism of the original theory (prior to dimensional reduction) on the dimension D, in the case wh...

  10. Hidden worlds in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gouesbet, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a resurgence in research and interest in the areas of quantum computation and entanglement. This new book addresses the hidden worlds or variables of quantum physics. Author Gérard Gouesbet studied and worked with a former student of Louis de Broglie, a pioneer of quantum physics. His presentation emphasizes the history and philosophical foundations of physics, areas that will interest lay readers as well as professionals and advanced undergraduate and graduate students of quantum physics. The introduction is succeeded by chapters offering background on relevant concepts in classical and quantum mechanics, a brief history of causal theories, and examinations of the double solution, pilot wave, and other hidden-variables theories. Additional topics include proofs of possibility and impossibility, contextuality, non-locality, classification of hidden-variables theories, and stochastic quantum mechanics. The final section discusses how to gain a genuine understanding of quantum mec...

  11. On-line Fault Diagnosis in Industrial Processes Using Variable Moving Window and Hidden Markov Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周韶园; 谢磊; 王树青

    2005-01-01

    An integrated framework is presented to represent and classify process data for on-line identifying abnormal operating conditions. It is based on pattern recognition principles and consists of a feature extraction step, by which wavelet transform and principal component analysis are used to capture the inherent characteristics from process measurements, followed by a similarity assessment step using hidden Markov model (HMM) for pattern comparison. In most previous cases, a fixed-length moving window was employed to track dynamic data, and often failed to capture enough information for each fault and sometimes even deteriorated the diagnostic performance. A variable moving window, the length of which is modified with time, is introduced in this paper and case studies on the Tennessee Eastman process illustrate the potential of the proposed method.

  12. Ordered random variables theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shahbaz, Muhammad Qaiser; Hanif Shahbaz, Saman; Al-Zahrani, Bander M

    2016-01-01

    Ordered Random Variables have attracted several authors. The basic building block of Ordered Random Variables is Order Statistics which has several applications in extreme value theory and ordered estimation. The general model for ordered random variables, known as Generalized Order Statistics has been introduced relatively recently by Kamps (1995).

  13. Variable rules meet Impoverishment theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parrott, Jeffrey K.; Nevins, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    is met. By hypothesis, morphological ‘Impoverishment’ operations (Bonet 1991, Halle 1997, Noyer 1998) are induced by the inherent and universal markedness of particular morphosyntactic features or their combination (Greenberg 1966, Croft 2003). We examine markedness-driven variable Impoverishment through...

  14. Yang-Mills theory in terms of gauge invariant dual variables

    CERN Document Server

    Diakonov, D

    2002-01-01

    Quantum Yang-Mills theory and the Wilson loop can be rewritten identically in terms of local gauge-invariant variables being directly related to the metric of the dual space. In this formulation, one reveals a hidden high local symmetry of the Yang-Mills theory, which mixes up fields with spins up to J=N for the SU(N) gauge group. In the simplest case of the SU(2) group the dual space seems to tend to the de Sitter space in the infrared region. This observation suggests a new mechanism of gauge-invariant mass generation in the Yang-Mills theory.

  15. Subseasonal to multidecadal variability of northeast monsoon daily rainfall over Peninsular Malaysia using a hidden Markov model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei Lun; Yusof, Fadhilah; Yusop, Zulkifli

    2017-07-01

    This study involves the modelling of a homogeneous hidden Markov model (HMM) on the northeast rainfall monsoon using 40 rainfall stations in Peninsular Malaysia for the period of 1975 to 2008. A six hidden states HMM was selected based on Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and every hidden state has distinct rainfall characteristics. Three of the states were found to correspond by wet conditions; while the remaining three states were found to correspond to dry conditions. The six hidden states were found to correspond with the associated atmospheric composites. The relationships between El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the sea surface temperatures (SST) in the Pacific Ocean are found regarding interannual variability. The wet (dry) states were found to be well correlated with a Niño 3.4 index which was used to characterize the intensity of an ENSO event. This model is able to assess the behaviour of the rainfall characteristics with the large scale atmospheric circulation; the monsoon rainfall is well correlated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in Peninsular Malaysia.

  16. Subseasonal to multidecadal variability of northeast monsoon daily rainfall over Peninsular Malaysia using a hidden Markov model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei Lun; Yusof, Fadhilah; Yusop, Zulkifli

    2016-04-01

    This study involves the modelling of a homogeneous hidden Markov model (HMM) on the northeast rainfall monsoon using 40 rainfall stations in Peninsular Malaysia for the period of 1975 to 2008. A six hidden states HMM was selected based on Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and every hidden state has distinct rainfall characteristics. Three of the states were found to correspond by wet conditions; while the remaining three states were found to correspond to dry conditions. The six hidden states were found to correspond with the associated atmospheric composites. The relationships between El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the sea surface temperatures (SST) in the Pacific Ocean are found regarding interannual variability. The wet (dry) states were found to be well correlated with a Niño 3.4 index which was used to characterize the intensity of an ENSO event. This model is able to assess the behaviour of the rainfall characteristics with the large scale atmospheric circulation; the monsoon rainfall is well correlated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in Peninsular Malaysia.

  17. Fermion zero modes in the vortex background of a Chern-Simons-Higgs theory with a hidden sector

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, Gustavo; Schaposnik, Fidel A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study a $2+1$ dimensional system in which fermions are coupled to the self-dual topological vortex in $U(1) \\times U(1)$ Chern-Simons theory, where both $U(1)$ gauge symmetries are spontaneously broken. We consider two Abelian Higgs scalars with visible and hidden sectors coupled to a fermionic field through three interaction Lagrangians, where one of them violates the fermion number. Using a fine tuning procedure, we could obtain the number of the fermionic zero modes which is equal to the absolute value of the sum of the vortex numbers in the visible and hidden sectors.

  18. Chern-Simons-Higgs Theory with Visible and Hidden Sectors and its ${\\cal N}=2$ SUSY Extension

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Paola; Schaposnik, Fidel A; Tallarita, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    We study vortex solutions in Abelian Chern-Simons-Higgs theories with visible and hidden sectors. We first consider the case in which the two sectors are connected through a BF-like gauge mixing term with no explicit interaction between the the two scalars. Since first order Bogomolny equations do not exist in this case, we derive the second order field equations. We then proceed to an ${\\cal N}=2$ supersymmetric extension including a Higgs portal mixing among the visible and hidden charged scalars. As expected, Bogomolnyi equations do exist in this case and we study their string-like solutions numerically.

  19. KEY ROLE OF METALLOGENIC THEORY OF POLYGENETIC COMPOUND ORE DEPOSITS IN LOCATION PREDICTION OF HIDDEN ORE DEPOSITS IN DIWA REGIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG; Sheng-lin; LIU; Liang-ming; LAI; Jian-qing

    2001-01-01

    The metallogenic theory of polygenetic compound ore deposit is the Important basis for location prediction of hidden ore deposits in diwa regions.It can play an important role in each step of prediction research,targeting procedure,acquiring information and integrating information.In this paper,the authors discusses how to construct geological concept by using of the metallogenic theory of polygenetic ore deposits for predicting targeting area,to arrange investigation and detection for getting enough useful information,and to analyze and integrate information for reaching a trustful prediction conclusion.According to these strategies,we conduct a successful prediction of location of hidden ore bodies in the outer of the Fenghuangshan copper mine,a principal producing mine in Tongling Cu-Au district.

  20. Function theory of several complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, Steven G

    2001-01-01

    The theory of several complex variables can be studied from several different perspectives. In this book, Steven Krantz approaches the subject from the point of view of a classical analyst, emphasizing its function-theoretic aspects. He has taken particular care to write the book with the student in mind, with uniformly extensive and helpful explanations, numerous examples, and plentiful exercises of varying difficulty. In the spirit of a student-oriented text, Krantz begins with an introduction to the subject, including an insightful comparison of analysis of several complex variables with th

  1. The detection of hidden visual loss in optic neuropathy: VISTECH test at variable illuminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, M J; Candaele, C M; Uvijls, A G; Heintz, B F; De Rouck, A F; Odom, J V

    1990-01-01

    The sensitivity of the VISTECH chart in the detection of hidden visual loss is debated. We tried to evaluate the diagnostic value of the test by using different illumination levels. Twelve MS-patients with normal acuity but a pathological VEP were examined at 9 different illuminations. We did not identify more abnormalities among patients, using VISTECH test at other illumination levels than the one recommended by the manufacturer.

  2. Hidden singularities and closed timelike curves in a proposed dual for Lifshitz-Chern-Simons gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Copsey, Keith

    2011-01-01

    We point out that the metrics recently proposed by K. Balasubramanian and J. McGreevy \\cite{BalaMcGreevyLifshitz} as gravitational duals to Lifshitz Chern-Simons gauge theories contain both a hidden null singularity and a region of closed timelike curves accessible to asymptotic observers. Like the singularity in the original Liftshitz spacetime given by Kachru, Liu, and Mulligan, this singularity does not include large $\\alpha'$ or $g_s$ corrections and hence appears to be singular in string theory as well as classically.

  3. Studies of regional-scale climate variability and change. Hidden Markov models and coupled ocean-atmosphere modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghil, M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kravtsov, S. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Robertson, A. W. [IRI, Palisades, NY (United States); Smyth, P. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2008-10-14

    This project was a continuation of previous work under DOE CCPP funding, in which we had developed a twin approach of probabilistic network (PN) models (sometimes called dynamic Bayesian networks) and intermediate-complexity coupled ocean-atmosphere models (ICMs) to identify the predictable modes of climate variability and to investigate their impacts on the regional scale. We had developed a family of PNs (similar to Hidden Markov Models) to simulate historical records of daily rainfall, and used them to downscale GCM seasonal predictions. Using an idealized atmospheric model, we had established a novel mechanism through which ocean-induced sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies might influence large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns on interannual and longer time scales; we had found similar patterns in a hybrid coupled ocean-atmosphere-sea-ice model. The goal of the this continuation project was to build on these ICM results and PN model development to address prediction of rainfall and temperature statistics at the local scale, associated with global climate variability and change, and to investigate the impact of the latter on coupled ocean-atmosphere modes. Our main results from the grant consist of extensive further development of the hidden Markov models for rainfall simulation and downscaling together with the development of associated software; new intermediate coupled models; a new methodology of inverse modeling for linking ICMs with observations and GCM results; and, observational studies of decadal and multi-decadal natural climate results, informed by ICM results.

  4. Estimating parameters and hidden variables in non-linear state-space models based on ODEs for biological networks inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Minh; Brunel, Nicolas; d'Alché-Buc, Florence

    2007-12-01

    Statistical inference of biological networks such as gene regulatory networks, signaling pathways and metabolic networks can contribute to build a picture of complex interactions that take place in the cell. However, biological systems considered as dynamical, non-linear and generally partially observed processes may be difficult to estimate even if the structure of interactions is given. Using the same approach as Sitz et al. proposed in another context, we derive non-linear state-space models from ODEs describing biological networks. In this framework, we apply Unscented Kalman Filtering (UKF) to the estimation of both parameters and hidden variables of non-linear state-space models. We instantiate the method on a transcriptional regulatory model based on Hill kinetics and a signaling pathway model based on mass action kinetics. We successfully use synthetic data and experimental data to test our approach. This approach covers a large set of biological networks models and gives rise to simple and fast estimation algorithms. Moreover, the Bayesian tool used here directly provides uncertainty estimates on parameters and hidden states. Let us also emphasize that it can be coupled with structure inference methods used in Graphical Probabilistic Models. Matlab code available on demand.

  5. The Properties of Model Selection when Retaining Theory Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendry, David F.; Johansen, Søren

    Economic theories are often fitted directly to data to avoid possible model selection biases. We show that embedding a theory model that specifies the correct set of m relevant exogenous variables, x{t}, within the larger set of m+k candidate variables, (x{t},w{t}), then selection over the second...... set by their statistical significance can be undertaken without affecting the estimator distribution of the theory parameters. This strategy returns the theory-parameter estimates when the theory is correct, yet protects against the theory being under-specified because some w{t} are relevant....

  6. New supervised learning theory applied to cerebellar modeling for suppression of variability of saccade end points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masahiko

    2013-06-01

    A new supervised learning theory is proposed for a hierarchical neural network with a single hidden layer of threshold units, which can approximate any continuous transformation, and applied to a cerebellar function to suppress the end-point variability of saccades. In motor systems, feedback control can reduce noise effects if the noise is added in a pathway from a motor center to a peripheral effector; however, it cannot reduce noise effects if the noise is generated in the motor center itself: a new control scheme is necessary for such noise. The cerebellar cortex is well known as a supervised learning system, and a novel theory of cerebellar cortical function developed in this study can explain the capability of the cerebellum to feedforwardly reduce noise effects, such as end-point variability of saccades. This theory assumes that a Golgi-granule cell system can encode the strength of a mossy fiber input as the state of neuronal activity of parallel fibers. By combining these parallel fiber signals with appropriate connection weights to produce a Purkinje cell output, an arbitrary continuous input-output relationship can be obtained. By incorporating such flexible computation and learning ability in a process of saccadic gain adaptation, a new control scheme in which the cerebellar cortex feedforwardly suppresses the end-point variability when it detects a variation in saccadic commands can be devised. Computer simulation confirmed the efficiency of such learning and showed a reduction in the variability of saccadic end points, similar to results obtained from experimental data.

  7. Reversibility of time series: revealing the hidden messages in X-ray binaries and cataclysmic variables

    CERN Document Server

    Scaringi, S; Middleton, M

    2014-01-01

    We explore the non-linear, high-frequency, aperiodic variability properties in the three cataclysmic variables MV Lyr, KIC 8751494 and V1504 Cyg observed with Kepler, as well as the X-ray binary Cyg X-1 observed with RXTE. This is done through the use of a high-order Fourier statistic called the bispectrum and its related biphase and bicoherence, as well as the time-skewness statistic. We show how all objects display qualitatively similar biphase trends. In particular all biphase amplitudes are found to be smaller than $\\pi/2$, suggesting that the flux distributions for all sources are positively skewed on all observed timescales, consistent with the log-normal distributions expected from the fluctuating accretion disk model. We also find that for all objects the biphases are positive at frequencies where the corresponding power spectral densities display their high frequency break. This suggests that the noise-like flaring observed is rising more slowly than it is falling, and thus not time-reversible. This ...

  8. Variability Theory and Its Enlightenment on the Treatment of Errors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhen

    2014-01-01

    In SLA, the learners’language as interlanguage has been widely recognized and discussed among teachers and linguists. Various models have been established to explain the phenomenon of errors in second language learning including the Variability Theory in question. This paper makes an attempt to review the Variability Theory and its distinct attitude and solution to the so-called errors.

  9. The Properties of Model Selection when Retaining Theory Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendry, David F.; Johansen, Søren

    Economic theories are often fitted directly to data to avoid possible model selection biases. We show that embedding a theory model that specifies the correct set of m relevant exogenous variables, x{t}, within the larger set of m+k candidate variables, (x{t},w{t}), then selection over the second...

  10. A close hidden stellar companion to the SX Phe-type variable star DW Psc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, S.-B.; Li, L.-J.; Wang, S.-M.; He, J.-J.; Zhou, X.; Jiang, L.-Q., E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P.O. Box 110, 650011 Kunming (China)

    2015-01-01

    DW Psc is a high-amplitude SX Phe-type variable with a period of pulsation of 0.05875 days. Using a few newly determined times of maximum light together with those collected from the literature, the changes in the observed-calculated (O-C) diagram are analyzed. It is discovered that the O-C curve of DW Psc shows a cyclic variation with a period of 6.08 years and a semi-amplitude of 0.0066 days. The periodic variation is analyzed for the light travel time effect, which is due to the presence of a stellar companion (M{sub 2}sini∼0.45(±0.03) M{sub ⊙}). The two-component stars in the binary system are orbiting each other in an eccentric orbit (e ∼ 0.4) at an orbital separation of about 2.7(±0.3) AU. The detection of a close stellar companion to an SX Phe-type star supports the idea that SX Phe-type pulsating stars are blue stragglers that were formed from the merging of close binaries. The stellar companion has played an important role in the merging of the original binary by removing angular momentum from the central binary during early dynamical interaction or/and late dynamical evolution. After the more massive component in DW Psc evolves into a red giant, the cool close companion should help to remove the giant envelope via possible critical Roche-lobe overflow, and the system may be a progenitor of a cataclysmic variable. The detection of a close stellar companion to DW Psc makes it a very interesting system to study in the future.

  11. Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-01-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of

  12. Climate Variations and Variability: Facts and Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-30

    Institute of Astronomy of the Catholic Univer- sity of Louvain, Belgium, presented a paper entitled " Milankovitch Astro- nomical Theory of...stated, "We do not claim that every peak in the Milankovitch curves produces an ice age. However, most probably when the influence is right and we have

  13. Continuously variable transmissions: theory and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beachley, Norman H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Frank, Andrew A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1979-08-01

    The five basic principles that can be used in the design of continuously variable transmissions (CVT) for motor vehicles are examined and compared. These include: hydrostatic, traction drive (V-belt and rolling contact), overrunning clutch, electric, and multispeed gearbox with slipping clutch. Appendix A discusses commercially available CVTs suitable for motor vehicles, and Appendix B describes research and development programs for CVTs.

  14. Entanglement without hidden nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Flavien; Túlio Quintino, Marco; Bowles, Joseph; Vértesi, Tamás; Brunner, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    We consider Bell tests in which the distant observers can perform local filtering before testing a Bell inequality. Notably, in this setup, certain entangled states admitting a local hidden variable model in the standard Bell scenario can nevertheless violate a Bell inequality after filtering, displaying so-called hidden nonlocality. Here we ask whether all entangled states can violate a Bell inequality after well-chosen local filtering. We answer this question in the negative by showing that there exist entangled states without hidden nonlocality. Specifically, we prove that some two-qubit Werner states still admit a local hidden variable model after any possible local filtering on a single copy of the state.

  15. The interplay between affect and theory of planned behavior variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keer, M.; van den Putte, B.; Neijens, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether affective evaluations of health behaviors moderate or mediate the influence of theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables on intention. Methods: For each of 20 health behaviors, respondents (N=300) completed questionnaire measures of affective evaluation, attitude,

  16. Illuminating the hidden sector of string theory by shining light through a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, S.A.; Khoze, V.V. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Particle Theory; Jaeckel, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    It has recently been shown that the observation by the PVLAS collaboration of an anomalously large rotation of the polarization plane of light in the presence of a magnetic field in vacuum may originate from pair production of light, m{sub f}{proportional_to}0.1 eV, millicharged, Q{sub f}{proportional_to}3 x 10{sup -6}e, fermions. Such millicharges arise generically from kinetic-mixing in theories containing at least two U(1) gauge factors. In this letter, we point out that the required multiple U(1) factors, the size of kinetic-mixing, and suitable matter representations to explain the PVLAS data occur very naturally in the context of realistic extensions of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particle physics based on string theory. (orig.)

  17. Graph theory enables drug repurposing--how a mathematical model can drive the discovery of hidden mechanisms of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruggero Gramatica

    Full Text Available We introduce a methodology to efficiently exploit natural-language expressed biomedical knowledge for repurposing existing drugs towards diseases for which they were not initially intended. Leveraging on developments in Computational Linguistics and Graph Theory, a methodology is defined to build a graph representation of knowledge, which is automatically analysed to discover hidden relations between any drug and any disease: these relations are specific paths among the biomedical entities of the graph, representing possible Modes of Action for any given pharmacological compound. We propose a measure for the likeliness of these paths based on a stochastic process on the graph. This measure depends on the abundance of indirect paths between a peptide and a disease, rather than solely on the strength of the shortest path connecting them. We provide real-world examples, showing how the method successfully retrieves known pathophysiological Mode of Action and finds new ones by meaningfully selecting and aggregating contributions from known bio-molecular interactions. Applications of this methodology are presented, and prove the efficacy of the method for selecting drugs as treatment options for rare diseases.

  18. Graph Theory Enables Drug Repurposing – How a Mathematical Model Can Drive the Discovery of Hidden Mechanisms of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Ruggero; Di Matteo, T.; Giorgetti, Stefano; Barbiani, Massimo; Bevec, Dorian; Aste, Tomaso

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a methodology to efficiently exploit natural-language expressed biomedical knowledge for repurposing existing drugs towards diseases for which they were not initially intended. Leveraging on developments in Computational Linguistics and Graph Theory, a methodology is defined to build a graph representation of knowledge, which is automatically analysed to discover hidden relations between any drug and any disease: these relations are specific paths among the biomedical entities of the graph, representing possible Modes of Action for any given pharmacological compound. We propose a measure for the likeliness of these paths based on a stochastic process on the graph. This measure depends on the abundance of indirect paths between a peptide and a disease, rather than solely on the strength of the shortest path connecting them. We provide real-world examples, showing how the method successfully retrieves known pathophysiological Mode of Action and finds new ones by meaningfully selecting and aggregating contributions from known bio-molecular interactions. Applications of this methodology are presented, and prove the efficacy of the method for selecting drugs as treatment options for rare diseases. PMID:24416311

  19. Graph theory enables drug repurposing--how a mathematical model can drive the discovery of hidden mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Ruggero; Di Matteo, T; Giorgetti, Stefano; Barbiani, Massimo; Bevec, Dorian; Aste, Tomaso

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a methodology to efficiently exploit natural-language expressed biomedical knowledge for repurposing existing drugs towards diseases for which they were not initially intended. Leveraging on developments in Computational Linguistics and Graph Theory, a methodology is defined to build a graph representation of knowledge, which is automatically analysed to discover hidden relations between any drug and any disease: these relations are specific paths among the biomedical entities of the graph, representing possible Modes of Action for any given pharmacological compound. We propose a measure for the likeliness of these paths based on a stochastic process on the graph. This measure depends on the abundance of indirect paths between a peptide and a disease, rather than solely on the strength of the shortest path connecting them. We provide real-world examples, showing how the method successfully retrieves known pathophysiological Mode of Action and finds new ones by meaningfully selecting and aggregating contributions from known bio-molecular interactions. Applications of this methodology are presented, and prove the efficacy of the method for selecting drugs as treatment options for rare diseases.

  20. Hidden Fermi liquid; the moral: a good effective low-energy theory is worth all of Monte Carlo with Las Vegas thrown in

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Philip W; Casey, Philip A, E-mail: pwa@princeton.ed [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2010-04-28

    We present a formalism for dealing directly with the effects of the Gutzwiller projection implicit in the t-J model which is widely believed to underlie the phenomenology of the high-T{sub c} cuprates. We suggest that a true Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer condensation from a Fermi liquid state takes place, but in the unphysical space prior to projection. At low doping, however, instead of a hidden Fermi liquid one gets a 'hidden' non-superconducting resonating valence bond state which develops hole pockets upon doping. The theory which results upon projection does not follow conventional rules of diagram theory and in fact in the normal state is a Z = 0 non-Fermi liquid. Anomalous properties of the 'strange metal' normal state are predicted and compared against experimental findings.

  1. Hidden selection rules, M5-instantons and fluxes in F-theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martucci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ‘Galileo Galilei’, Università di Padova, & I.N.F.N. Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Weigand, Timo [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-10-21

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the selection rules governing the contributions of fluxed M5-instantons to the F-theory four-dimensional effective action, with emphasis on the generation of charged matter F-terms. The structure of such couplings is unraveled by exploiting the perturbative and non-perturbative homological relations, introduced in our companion paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2015)198, which encode the interplay between the self-dual 3-form flux on the M5-brane, the background 4-form flux and certain fibral curves. The latter are wrapped by time-like M2-branes representing matter insertions in the instanton path integral. In particular, we clarify how fluxed M5-instantons detect the presence of geometrically massive U(1)s which are responsible for ‘hidden’ selection rules. We discuss how for non-generic embeddings the M5-instanton can probe ‘locally massless’ U(1) symmetries if the rank of its Mordell-Weil group is enhanced compared to that of the bulk. As a phenomenological off-spring we propose a new type of non-perturbative corrections to Yukawa couplings which may change the rank of the Yukawa matrix. Along the way, we also gain new insights into the structure of massive U(1) gauge fluxes in the stable degeneration limit.

  2. State variable theories based on Hart's formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korhonen, M.A.; Hannula, S.P.; Li, C.Y.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper a review of the development of a state variable theory for nonelastic deformation is given. The physical and phenomenological basis of the theory and the constitutive equations describing macroplastic, microplastic, anelastic and grain boundary sliding enhanced deformation are presented. The experimental and analytical evaluation of different parameters in the constitutive equations are described in detail followed by a review of the extensive experimental work on different materials. The technological aspects of the state variable approach are highlighted by examples of the simulative and predictive capabilities of the theory. Finally, a discussion of general capabilities, limitations and future developments of the theory and particularly the possible extensions to cover an even wider range of deformation or deformation-related phenomena is presented.

  3. tests of the arbitrage pricing theory using macroeconomic variables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    : G1 ... relevant in the pricing of stocks returns. This theory ..... this implies that these are most volatile variables in terms of annual movements over time. .... the fact that new or emerging firms with prospects may be more active in the market.

  4. Exploration of Variability from the Perspective of Speech Style Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洁

    2013-01-01

    From the emergency of the term, interlanguage is one of the key of the language teaching researches. The essay illus⁃trates the variability of interlanguage from the perspective of Speech Style Theory in order to promote the development of lan⁃guage teaching.

  5. An infinite-dimensional weak KAM theory via random variables

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-08-31

    We develop several aspects of the infinite-dimensional Weak KAM theory using a random variables\\' approach. We prove that the infinite-dimensional cell problem admits a viscosity solution that is a fixed point of the Lax-Oleinik semigroup. Furthermore, we show the existence of invariant minimizing measures and calibrated curves defined on R.

  6. Behavioral variability in an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Andrei; McDowell, J J

    2016-03-01

    McDowell's evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics (McDowell, 2004) instantiates populations of behaviors (abstractly represented by integers) that evolve under the selection pressure of the environment in the form of positive reinforcement. Each generation gives rise to the next via low-level Darwinian processes of selection, recombination, and mutation. The emergent patterns can be analyzed and compared to those produced by biological organisms. The purpose of this project was to explore the effects of high mutation rates on behavioral variability in environments that arranged different reinforcer rates and magnitudes. Behavioral variability increased with the rate of mutation. High reinforcer rates and magnitudes reduced these effects; low reinforcer rates and magnitudes augmented them. These results are in agreement with live-organism research on behavioral variability. Various combinations of mutation rates, reinforcer rates, and reinforcer magnitudes produced similar high-level outcomes (equifinality). These findings suggest that the independent variables that describe an experimental condition interact; that is, they do not influence behavior independently. These conclusions have implications for the interpretation of high levels of variability, mathematical undermatching, and the matching theory. The last part of the discussion centers on a potential biological counterpart for the rate of mutation, namely spontaneous fluctuations in the brain's default mode network.

  7. A metric measure for weight matrices of variable lengths—with applications to clustering and classification of hidden Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2007-02-01

    We construct a metric measure among weight matrices that are commonly used in non-interacting statistical physics systems, computational biology problems, as well as in general applications such as hidden Markov models. The metric distance between two weight matrices is obtained via aligning the matrices and thus can be evaluated by dynamic programming. Capable of allowing reverse complements in distance evaluation, this metric accommodates both gapless and gapped alignments between two weight matrices. The distance statistics among random motifs is also studied. We find that the average square distance and its standard error grow with different powers of motif length, and the normalized square distance follows a Gaussian distribution for large motif lengths.

  8. A Machian Version of Einstein's Variable Speed of Light Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Unzicker, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    It is little known that while developing general relativity, Einstein's very first idea was a variable speed of light theory. Indeed spacetime curvature can be mimicked by a speed of light $c(r)$ that depends on the distribution of masses. Einstein's 1911 theory was considerably improved by Robert Dicke in 1957, but only recently the equivalence of the variable speed of light approach to the conventional formalism has been demonstrated (Broekaert, 2008). Using Green's functions, we show that Einstein's 1911 idea can be expressed in an analytic form, similar to the Poisson equation. Using heuristic arguments, we derive then a simple formula that directly relates curvature $w$ to the local speed of light, $w= -c^2 \\Delta \\frac{1}{c^2}$. In contrast to the conventional formulation, this allows for a Machian interpretation of general relativity and the gravitational constant $G$. Gravity, though described by local equations, would have its origin in all other masses in the universe.

  9. Quantum simulation of quantum field theory using continuous variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kevin; Pooser, Raphael; Siopsis, George; Weedbrook, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The year 1982 is often credited as the year that theoretical quantum computing was started with a keynote speech by Richard Feynman, who proposed a universal quantum simulator, the idea being that if you had such a machine you could in principle "imitate any quantum system, including the physical world." With that in mind, we present an algorithm for a continuous-variable quantum computing architecture which gives an exponential speedup over the best-known classical methods. Specifically, this relates to efficiently calculating the scattering amplitudes in scalar bosonic quantum field theory, a problem that is believed to be hard using a classical computer. Building on this, we give an experimental implementation based on continuous-variable states that is feasible with today's technology.

  10. Preconjugate variables in quantum field theory and their use

    CERN Document Server

    Much, Albert; Sibold, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Preconjugate variables X have commutation relations with the energy-momentum P of the respective system which are of a more general form than just the Hamiltonian one. Since they have been proven useful in their own right for finding new spacetimes we present here a study of them. Interesting examples can be found via geometry: motions on the mass-shell for massive and massless systems, and via group theory: invariance under special conformal transformations of mass-shell, resp. light-cone -- both find representations on Fock space. We work mainly in ordinary fourdimensional Minkowski space and spin zero. The limit process from non-zero to vanishing mass turns out to be non-trivial and leads naturally to wedge variables. We point out some applications and extension to more general spacetimes. In a companion paper we discuss the transition to conjugate pairs.

  11. Theory of Variable Fuzzy Sets for Artificial Emotions Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Kuang Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions have a very important impact on human’s beliefs, motivations, actions, and physical states. Emotions predicting and its application in intelligent system can improve the interaction between humans and machines. Current research in artificial emotion focuses on how to measure, calculate, or compute it. However, the transfer of emotion is often too complicated to present full emotion states and changes. This paper combines with emotional dimension and theory of variable fuzzy sets to present a predicting artificial emotion model and shows illustrated example of it. This study shows that any raw data from input can be computed with variable fuzzy set. It provides a mathematical method for representing emotion quantitative, gradual qualitative, and mutated qualitative change. This framework improves calculation methods and mechanisms, closer to real emotional changes.

  12. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main...... the ill parent. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the traumatic process of parental ABI that some children experience and emphasize the importance of family-centred interventions that include the children....

  13. Hidden Statistics of Schroedinger Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    Work was carried out in determination of the mathematical origin of randomness in quantum mechanics and creating a hidden statistics of Schr dinger equation; i.e., to expose the transitional stochastic process as a "bridge" to the quantum world. The governing equations of hidden statistics would preserve such properties of quantum physics as superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods.

  14. Distributed multi-dimensional hidden Markov model: theory and application in multiple-object trajectory classification and recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiang; Schonfeld, Dan; Khokhar, Ashfaq

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel distributed causal multi-dimensional hidden Markov model (DHMM). The proposed model can represent, for example, multiple motion trajectories of objects and their interaction activities in a scene; it is capable of conveying not only dynamics of each trajectory, but also interactions information between multiple trajectories, which can be critical in many applications. We firstly provide a solution for non-causal, multi-dimensional hidden Markov model (HMM) by distributing the non-causal model into multiple distributed causal HMMs. We approximate the simultaneous solution of multiple HMMs on a sequential processor by an alternate updating scheme. Subsequently we provide three algorithms for the training and classification of our proposed model. A new Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm suitable for estimation of the new model is derived, where a novel General Forward-Backward (GFB) algorithm is proposed for recursive estimation of the model parameters. A new conditional independent subset-state sequence structure decomposition of state sequences is proposed for the 2D Viterbi algorithm. The new model can be applied to many other areas such as image segmentation and image classification. Simulation results in classification of multiple interacting trajectories demonstrate the superior performance and higher accuracy rate of our distributed HMM in comparison to previous models.

  15. There is Neither Classical Bug with a Superluminal Shadow Nor Quantum Absolute Collapse Nor (Subquantum) Superluminal Hidden Variable

    CERN Document Server

    Pankovic, V; Krmar, M; Radovanovic, M; Pankovic, Vladan; Predojevic, Milan; Krmar, Miodrag; Radovanovic, Milan

    2005-01-01

    In this work we analyse critically Griffiths's example of the classical superluminal motion of a bug shadow. Griffiths considers that this example is conceptually very close to quantum nonlocality or superluminality,i.e. quantum breaking of the famous Bell inequality. Or, generally, he suggests implicitly an absolute asymmetric duality (subluminality vs. superluminality) principle in any fundamental physical theory.It, he hopes, can be used for a natural interpretation of the quantum mechanics too. But we explain that such Griffiths's interpretation retires implicitly but significantly from usual, Copenhagen interpretation of the standard quantum mechanical formalism. Within Copenhagen interpretation basic complementarity principle represents, in fact, a dynamical symmetry principle (including its spontaneous breaking, i.e. effective hiding by measurement). Similarly, in other fundamental physical theories instead of Griffiths's absolute asymmetric duality principle there is a dynamical symmetry (including it...

  16. Recognizing suspicious activities in infrared imagery using appearance-based features and the theory of hidden conditional random fields for outdoor perimeter surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogotis, Savvas; Palaskas, Christos; Ioannidis, Dimosthenis; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Likothanassis, Spiros

    2015-11-01

    This work aims to present an extended framework for automatically recognizing suspicious activities in outdoor perimeter surveilling systems based on infrared video processing. By combining size-, speed-, and appearance-based features, like the local phase quantization and the histograms of oriented gradients, actions of small duration are recognized and used as input, along with spatial information, for modeling target activities using the theory of hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs). HCRFs are used to classify an observation sequence into the most appropriate activity label class, thus discriminating high-risk activities like trespassing from zero risk activities, such as loitering outside the perimeter. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated with experimental results in various scenarios that represent suspicious activities in perimeter surveillance systems.

  17. Beyond Hage: Building Communication Theory by Exploring Three-Variable Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankard, James W., Jr.

    Building communication theory in terms of three-variable relationships is a promising route to developing better theory, because three-variable relationships stand midway between sometimes overly simplistic two-variable relationships, and the more complex path analysis. The analysis of three-variable relationships has been done in many previous…

  18. Elements of mathematics functions of a real variable : elementary theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bourbaki, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    This book is an English translation of the last French edition of Bourbaki’s Fonctions d'une Variable Réelle. The first chapter is devoted to derivatives, Taylor expansions, the finite increments theorem, convex functions. In the second chapter, primitives and integrals (on arbitrary intervals) are studied, as well as their dependence with respect to parameters. Classical functions (exponential, logarithmic, circular and inverse circular) are investigated in the third chapter. The fourth chapter gives a thorough treatment of differential equations (existence and unicity properties of solutions, approximate solutions, dependence on parameters) and of systems of linear differential equations. The local study of functions (comparison relations, asymptotic expansions) is treated in chapter V, with an appendix on Hardy fields. The theory of generalized Taylor expansions and the Euler-MacLaurin formula are presented in the sixth chapter, and applied in the last one to the study of the Gamma function on the real ...

  19. Comparison between OpenFOAM CFD & BEM theory for variable speed – variable pitch HAWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElQatary Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OpenFoam is used to compare computational fluid dynamics (CFD with blade element momentum theory (BEM for a variable speed - variable pitch HAWT (Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine. The wind turbine is first designed using the BEM to determine the blade chord, twist and operating conditions. The wind turbine blade has an outer diameter of 14 m, uses a NACA 63–415 profile for the entire blade and root to tip twist distribution of 15deg (Figure 3. The RPM varies from 20–75 for freestream velocities varying between 3–10.5 m/s (variable speed and a constant RPM of 78.78 for velocities ranging between 11–25 m/s (variable pitch. OpenFOAM is used to investigate the wind turbine performance at several operating points including cut-in wind speed (3 m/s, rated wind speed (10.5 m/s and in the variable pitch zone. Simulation results show that in the variable-speed operating range, both CFD and BEM compare reasonably well. This agreement can be attributed to the fact that the complex three-dimensional flow around the turbine blades can be split into two radial segments. For radii less than the mid-span, the flow is three-dimensional, whereas for radii greater than the mid-span, the flow is approximately two-dimensional. Since the majority of the power is produced from sections beyond the mid-span, the agreement between CFD and BEM is reasonable. For the variable-pitch operating range the CFD results and BEM deviate considerably. In this case the majority of the power is produced from the inner sections in which the flow is three-dimensional and can no longer be predicted by the BEM. The results show that differences in pitch angles up to 10deg can result to regulate the power for high wind speeds in the variable-pitch operation zone.

  20. Theory and Applications of Ignition with Variable Activation Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C.Wake; X.D.Chen; 等

    1992-01-01

    The determination of critical conditions for thermal ingition of combustible materials has been traditionally studied by the use of one overall reaction with bounded parameter values for the activation energy and other chemical constants.Significant errors can occur in the values of the threshold parameters for ignition when there are two(or more)simultaneous reactions present with distinct values of the chemical ocnstantsRecent work with simultaneous parallel reactions showed the thresholds for ignition could be lowered in this case.In this paper,motivated by experimental results for forest litter and cola,it is shown that for sequential reactions (different values of parameters in different temperature ranges)that the threshold conditions are changed(safer for lower ambient temperatures and less safe for higher ambient temperatures).The mathematical analysis is summarised and a detailed analysis is given for the forest litter and crushed coal applications,The experimental results show that variable activation energy dose occur and that this extension of the classical Frank-Kamenetskii theory is needed.Here the analysis is confined to the slab geometry only but the ideas developed can easily be extended to more general systems,including those involving mass transport,consumption and phase changes.

  1. The linear system theory's account of behavior maintained by variable-ratio schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J; Wixted, J T

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical theory of linear systems, which has been used successfully to describe behavior maintained by variable-interval schedules, is extended to describe behavior maintained by variable-ratio schedules. The result of the analysis is a pair of equations, one of which expresses response rate on a variable-ratio schedule as a function of the mean ratio requirement (n) that the schedule arranges. The other equation expresses response rate on a variable-ratio schedule as a function of reinforcement rate. Both equations accurately describe existing data from variable-ratio schedules. The theory accounts for two additional characteristics of behavior maintained by variable-ratio schedules; namely, the appearance of strained, two-valued (i.e., zero or very rapid) responding at large ns, and the abrupt cessation of responding at a boundary n. The theory also accounts for differences between behavior on variable-interval and variable-ratio schedules, including (a) the occurrence of strained responding on variable-ratio but not on variable-interval schedules, (b) the abrupt cessation of responding on occurrence of higher response rates on variable-ratio than on variable-interval schedules. Furthermore, given data from a series of variable-interval schedules and from a series of concurrent variable-ratio variable-interval schedules, the theory permits quantitative prediction of many properties of behavior on single-alternative variable-ratio schedules. The linear system theory's combined account of behavior on variable-interval and variable-ratio schedules is superior to existing versions of six other mathematical theories of variable-interval and variable-ratio responding. PMID:3279150

  2. Variational Hidden Conditional Random Fields with Coupled Dirichlet Process Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, K.; Zafeiriou, S.; Morency, L.P.; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Hidden Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An infinite HCRF is an HCRF with a countably infinite number of hidden states, which rids us not only of the necessit

  3. Single variable refined beam theories for the bending, buckling and free vibration of homogenous beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyad A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, single variable beam theories taking into account effect of transverse shear deformation are developed and applied for the bending, buckling and free vibration analysis of thick isotropic beams. The most important feature of the present beam theories is that unlike any other higher order theory, the proposed class of theories contains only one unknown variable and does not require shear correction factor. The displacement field of the present theories is built upon the classical beam theory. The theories account for parabolic distribution of transverse shear stress using constitutive relations, satisfying the traction free conditions at top and bottom surfaces of the beam. Governing differential equation and boundary conditions of these theories are obtained using the principle of virtual work. Results obtained for the displacements, stresses, fundamental frequencies and critical buckling loads of simply supported isotropic solid beams are compared with those obtained by other theories to validate the accuracy of the present theories.

  4. Stargate of the Hidden Multiverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Antonov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Concept of Monoverse, which corresponds to the existing broad interpretation of the second postulate of the special theory of relativity, is not consistent with the modern astrophysical reality — existence of the dark matter and the dark energy, the total mass-energy of which is ten times greater than the mass-energy of the visible universe (which has been considered as the entire universe until very recent . This concept does not allow to explain their rather unusual properties — invisibility and lack of baryon content — which would seem to even destroy the very modern understanding of the term ‘matter’. However, all numerous alternative concepts of Multiverses, which have been proposed until today, are unable to explain these properties of the dark matter and dark energy. This article describes a new concept: the concept of the hidden Multiverse and hidden Supermultiverse, which mutual invisibility of parallel universes is explained by the physical reality of imaginary numbers. This concept completely explains the phenomenon of the dark matter and the dark energy. Moreover, it is shown that the dark matter and the dark energy are the experimental evidence for the existence of the hidden Multiverse. Described structure of the hidden Multiverse is fully consistent with the data obtained by the space stations WMAP and Planck. An extremely important property of the hidden Multiverse is an actual possibility of its permeation through stargate located on the Earth.

  5. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior Are Associated with Family Meal Frequency among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…

  6. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior Are Associated with Family Meal Frequency among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…

  7. Use of mental simulations to change theory of planned behaviour variables

    OpenAIRE

    Armitage, Christopher J.; Reidy, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. The predictive validity of the theory of planned behaviour iswell established, but much less is known about: (a) whether there are causal relationships between key components of the model and (b) how to go about changing the theory of planned behaviour variables. This study tested the ability of outcome and process simulations to change variables specified in the theory of planned behaviour in relation to blood donation.\\ud Design. Participants (N ¼ 146) were randomized to one of ...

  8. Elementary theory of analytic functions of one or several complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Cartan, Henri

    1995-01-01

    Noted mathematician offers basic treatment of theory of analytic functions of a complex variable, touching on analytic functions of several real or complex variables as well as the existence theorem for solutions of differential systems where data is analytic. Also included is a systematic, though elementary, exposition of theory of abstract complex manifolds of one complex dimension. Topics include power series in one variable, holomorphic functions, Cauchy's integral, more. Exercises. 1973 edition.

  9. Bayesian modeling of measurement error in predictor variables using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Jean-Paul; Glas, Cees A.W.

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that measurement error in predictor variables can be modeled using item response theory (IRT). The predictor variables, that may be defined at any level of an hierarchical regression model, are treated as latent variables. The normal ogive model is used to describe the relation between t

  10. D-Theory: Field Quantization by Dimensional Reduction of Discrete Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Brower, R; Riederer, S; Wiese, U J

    2003-01-01

    D-theory is an alternative non-perturbative approach to quantum field theory formulated in terms of discrete quantized variables instead of classical fields. Classical scalar fields are replaced by generalized quantum spins and classical gauge fields are replaced by quantum links. The classical fields of a d-dimensional quantum field theory reappear as low-energy effective degrees of freedom of the discrete variables, provided the (d+1)-dimensional D-theory is massless. When the extent of the extra Euclidean dimension becomes small in units of the correlation length, an ordinary d-dimensional quantum field theory emerges by dimensional reduction. The D-theory formulation of scalar field theories with various global symmetries and of gauge theories with various gauge groups is constructed explicitly and the mechanism of dimensional reduction is investigated.

  11. Differentiating between precursor and control variables when analyzing reasoned action theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Brown, Larry; Diclemente, Ralph; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Salazar, Laura

    2010-02-01

    This paper highlights the distinction between precursor and control variables in the context of reasoned action theory. Here the theory is combined with structural equation modeling to demonstrate how age and past sexual behavior should be situated in a reasoned action analysis. A two wave longitudinal survey sample of African-American adolescents is analyzed where the target behavior is having vaginal sex. Results differ when age and past behavior are used as control variables and when they are correctly used as precursors. Because control variables do not appear in any form of reasoned action theory, this approach to including background variables is not correct when analyzing data sets based on the theoretical axioms of the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Theory of Planned Behavior, or the Integrative Model.

  12. Recognizing Variable Environments The Theory of Cognitive Prism

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Tiansi

    2012-01-01

    Normal adults do not have any difficulty in recognizing their homes. But can artificial systems do in the same way as humans? This book collects interdisciplinary evidences and presents an answer from the perspective of computing, namely, the theory of cognitive prism. To recognize an environment, an intelligent system only needs to classify objects, structures them based on the connection relation (not through measuring!), subjectively orders the objects, and compares with the target environment, whose knowledge is similarly structured. The intelligent system works, therefore, like a prism: when a beam of light (a scene) reaches (is perceived) to an optical prism (by an intelligent system), some light (objects) is reflected (are neglected), those passed through (the recognized objects) are distorted (are ordered differently). So comes the term 'cognitive prism'! Two fundamental propositions used in the theory can be informally stated as follow: an orientation relation is a kind of distance comparison relatio...

  13. Revealing Relationships among Relevant Climate Variables with Information Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Knuth, Kevin H; Curry, Charles T; Huyser, Karen A; Wheeler, Kevin R; Rossow, William B

    2013-01-01

    A primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist suf...

  14. Revealing Relationships among Relevant Climate Variables with Information Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.

  15. Differentiating Between Precursor and Control Variables When Analyzing Reasoned Action Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; FISHBEIN, MARTIN; Brown, Larry; DiClemente, Ralph; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Salazar, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights the distinction between precursor and control variables in the context of reasoned action theory. Here the theory is combined with structural equation modeling to demonstrate how age and past sexual behavior should be situated in a reasoned action analysis. A two wave longitudinal survey sample of African-American adolescents is analyzed where the target behavior is having vaginal sex. Results differ when age and past behavior are used as control variables and when they ...

  16. Hidden Symmetries, Central Charges and All That

    CERN Document Server

    de Wit, Bernard; Wit, Bernard de; Nicolai, Hermann

    2001-01-01

    In this review we discuss hidden symmetries of toroidal compactifications of eleven-dimensional supergravity. We recall alternative versions of this theory which exhibit traces of the hidden symmetries when still retaining the massive Kaluza-Klein states. We reconsider them in the broader perspective of M-theory which incorporates a more extended variety of BPS states. We also argue for a new geometry that may underly these theories. All our arguments point towards an extension of the number of space-time coordinates beyond eleven.

  17. Newtonian Version of the Variable Mass Theory of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J. C.; Lima, J. A. S.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se presenta una versi6n Newtoniana de los modelos cosmol6gicos espacialmente e isotr6picos con masa variable. La influencia de la variaci6n de masa en la evoluci6n de la funci6n de escala est establecida para el caso de un Universo lieno de polvo bajo Ia suposici6n de que esta variaci6n es un efecto estrictamente cosmol6jico. Se muestra que el hiperb6lico, parab6lico 0 el#ptico dcl movimiento de puede ser modificado a lo larjo de la expansi6n. ABSTRACT. This paper presents a Newtonian version of the spatially homojeneous and isotropic cosmolojical models with variable mass. The influence of the mass variation on the evolution of the scale function is established for the case of a dust-filled Universe under the assumption that this variation is a strict cosmolojical effect. It is shown that the hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic character of the fluid motion can be modified alonj the expansion. Keq : COSMOLOGY

  18. Theory of Thermodynamic Variables of Rubber Band Heat Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharayu, Nurhidayah; Widayani; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    Rubber band heat engine is a heat engine that is easily applied in the experiment. However, to get the data from the experimental results are required a formulation that is able to accommodate the data, so that it will be obtained an accurate value. We show and analyze the variables thermodynamic formulation of rubber band heat engine to accommodate the experimental data, so that the equation of state, heat, work and efficiency are not only studied theoretically but also experimentally. The engine's efficiency is calculated for an idealized but reasonable model. The engine's work cycle is compared with a Carnot cycle, and it is shown to be equivalent to the Carnot cycle as an extremely ideal limiting case. We measured the force law parameters for a working model, and we obtained the efficiency of this model.

  19. Methods of separation of variables in turbulence theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, S.

    1978-01-01

    Two schemes of closing turbulent moment equations are proposed both of which make double correlation equations separated into single-point equations. The first is based on neglected triple correlation, leading to an equation differing from small perturbed gasdynamic equations where the separation constant appears as the frequency. Grid-produced turbulence is described in this light as time-independent, cylindrically-isotropic turbulence. Application to wall turbulence guided by a new asymptotic method for the Orr-Sommerfeld equation reveals a neutrally stable mode of essentially three dimensional nature. The second closure scheme is based on an assumption of identity of the separated variables through which triple and quadruple correlations are formed. The resulting equation adds, to its equivalent of the first scheme, an integral of nonlinear convolution in the frequency describing a role due to triple correlation of direct energy-cascading.

  20. Role Variables VS. Contextual Variables in the Theory of Didactic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Monica; Cirina, Lucia; Paoli, Francesco

    Partisans of the constructivist approach to mathematics education, such as Brousseau or Chevallard, developed an accurate theoretical framework in which didactical systems are viewed in a systemic perspective. What they somewhat fail to draw, however, is a sharp distinction between role variables - concerning the roles played in the didactical interaction by the individual elements of the system (Student-Teacher-Knowledge) - and contextual variables - concerning the action on the learning process of the system as a whole. Our research in progress on 2nd graders' word problem solving strategies applies the previous dichotomy to class management strategies adopted by teachers. Partial evidence collected so far points to the tentative conclusion according to which, contextual variables being equal, differences in teaching styles and methods may deeply reshape the role component of didactical systems. If we take into careful account this distinction, we can shed additional light into some hitherto unexplained phenomena observed in the literature.

  1. Micromechanical aspects of deformation theories based on a state variable formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, S.P.; Korhonen, M.A.; Li, C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the development of a state variable approach is presented emphasizing its micromechanical basis. The physical significance of the parameters and constitutive equations of the state variable formulation is examined. The aspects of the state variable model that are important in future theoretical development are outlined and its connections to existing theories of flow stress as well as to relations found between the flow stress and microstructure are briefly discussed.

  2. The Function and the Utilization of Hidden Curriculum in College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英

    2013-01-01

    Explore the nature of the hidden curriculum, and utilize the positive functions of hidden curriculum with theory on English teaching and psychological linguistics to obtain desirable effects in College English teaching.

  3. The exploration of treating cough variant asthma of children from "hidden wind and stagnation" theory%从"伏风暗瘀"论治小儿咳嗽变异型哮喘探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫永彬; 丁樱

    2009-01-01

    This article comes from abundant experiences of TCM therapy of children cough variant asthma, on basis of theory of "pathogen usually intruding into collateral in prowacted disease" and Treating "hidden stagnation" theory from Peng Bo, and according to physiology characteristic of children and conclusion of pathology experiment, inquires into mechanism and prescription of treating the disease from hidden wind and stagnation. This method demonstrates essence of TCM pathology of cough variant asthma, embodies the marrow of "curing the illness from essence", expects to obtain break-through about both theory of Chinese Medicine and practice.%文章源自小儿咳嗽变异型哮喘的丰富中医辨治经验,基于"久病人络"及彭勃治"暗瘀"说,并结合小儿生理病理特点和病理实验结论,提出并探讨了从伏风暗瘀论治本病的机制和方药,体现"治病求本"之精髓,可望取得本病中医理论和实践上的双重突破.

  4. An internal-variable theory of thermo-viscoelastic constitutive relations at finite strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄筑平; 陈建康; 王文标

    2000-01-01

    Based on the nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory, a new thermo-viscoelastic relation at finite strain is proposed. Under the assumption that the specific heat at a fixed strain and fixed internal variables can be regarded as a constant, a new expression for the free energy which decouples the mechanical and the thermal effects is derived. Through an analysis of the mesoscopic deformation mechanism of solid polymers, a set of internal variables is introduced, and an internal-variable consti-tutive theory in thermo-viscoelasticity at finite strain is formulated. An explicit expression of a thermo-viscoelastic constitutive relation is obtained for solid polymers in the case where their molecular network has a randomly oriented distribution function at reference configuration. Moreover, the relationship be-tween the relaxation time and the temperature is also discussed. The viscoelastic constitutive theory proposed in reference is only a linear approximation of the present theory.

  5. An internal-variable theory of thermo-viscoelastic constitutive relations at finite strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory,a new thermo-viscoelastic relation at finite strain is proposed.Under the assumption that the specific heat at a fixed strain and fixed internal variables can be regarded as a constant,a new expression for the free energy which decouples the mechanical and the thermal effects is derived.Through an analysis of the mesoscopic deformation mechanism of solid polymers,a set of internal variables is introduced,and an internal-variable constitutive theory in thermo-viscoelasticity at finite strain is formulated.An explicit expression of a thermo-viscoelastic constitutive relation is obtained for solid polymers in the case where their molecular network has a randomly oriented distribution function at reference configuration.Moreover,the relationship between the relaxation time and the temperature is also discussed.The viscoelastic constitutive theory proposed in reference is only a linear approximation of the present theory.

  6. Constraining solar hidden photons using HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, R.; Kekez, D., E-mail: Dalibor.Kekez@irb.hr; Krčmar, M.; Krečak, Z.; Ljubičić, A.

    2013-04-25

    In this Letter we report on the results of our search for photons from a U(1) gauge factor in the hidden sector of the full theory. With our experimental setup we observe the single spectrum in a HPGe detector arising as a result of the photoelectric-like absorption of hidden photons emitted from the Sun on germanium atoms inside the detector. The main ingredient of the theory used in our analysis, a severely constrained kinetic mixing from the two U(1) gauge factors and massive hidden photons, entails both photon into hidden state oscillations and a minuscule coupling of hidden photons to visible matter, of which the latter our experimental setup has been designed to observe. On a theoretical side, full account was taken of the effects of refraction and damping of photons while propagating in Sun's interior as well as in the detector. We exclude hidden photons with kinetic couplings χ>(2.2×10{sup −13}–3×10{sup −7}) in the mass region 0.2 eV≲m{sub γ{sup ′}}≲30 keV. Our constraints on the mixing parameter χ in the mass region from 20 eV up to 15 keV prove even slightly better then those obtained recently by using data from the CAST experiment, albeit still somewhat weaker than those obtained from solar and HB stars lifetime arguments.

  7. Coding with partially hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Rissanen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Partially hidden Markov models (PHMM) are introduced. They are a variation of the hidden Markov models (HMM) combining the power of explicit conditioning on past observations and the power of using hidden states. (P)HMM may be combined with arithmetic coding for lossless data compression. A general...... 2-part coding scheme for given model order but unknown parameters based on PHMM is presented. A forward-backward reestimation of parameters with a redefined backward variable is given for these models and used for estimating the unknown parameters. Proof of convergence of this reestimation is given....... The PHMM structure and the conditions of the convergence proof allows for application of the PHMM to image coding. Relations between the PHMM and hidden Markov models (HMM) are treated. Results of coding bi-level images with the PHMM coding scheme is given. The results indicate that the PHMM can adapt...

  8. Film Subtitle Translation Strategies in the Perspective of Relevance Theory A Study on Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon%关联理论下的电影字幕翻译策略——以卧虎藏龙为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丹丹

    2009-01-01

    This thesis tries to apply the relevance theory to guide the subtitles translation of Ang Lee's film Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon.Based on the analysis of relationship between relevance theory and the subtitles translation, the thesis proposes corresponding translation strategies and explains the feasibility of relevance theoretical account of film subtitles translation.

  9. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression wher...

  10. On-line Fault Diagnosis in Industrial Processes Using Variable Moving Window and Hidden Markov Model%基于变长度移动窗口和HMM的工业过程故障在线诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周韶园; 谢磊; 王树青

    2005-01-01

    An integrated framework is presented to represent and classify process data for on-line identifying abnormal operating conditions. It is based on pattern recognition principles and consists of a feature extraction step, by which wavelet transform and principal component analysis are used to capture the inherent characteristics from process measurements, followed by a similarity assessment step using hidden Markov model (HMM) for pattern comparison. In most previous cases, a fixed-length moving window was employed to track dynamic data, and often failed to capture enough information for each fault and sometimes even deteriorated the diagnostic performance. A variable moving window, the length of which is modified with time, is introduced in this paper and case studies on the Tennessee Eastman process illustrate the potential of the proposed method.

  11. Some elements of a theory of multidimensional complex variables. I - General theory. II - Expansions of analytic functions and application to fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E. Dale

    1989-01-01

    The paper introduces a new theory of N-dimensional complex variables and analytic functions which, for N greater than 2, is both a direct generalization and a close analog of the theory of ordinary complex variables. The algebra in the present theory is a commutative ring, not a field. Functions of a three-dimensional variable were defined and the definition of the derivative then led to analytic functions.

  12. The Hidden Subgroup Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    We give an overview of the Hidden Subgroup Problem (HSP) as of July 2010, including new results discovered since the survey of arXiv:quant-ph/0411037v1. We recall how the problem provides a framework for efficient quantum algorithms and present the standard methods based on coset sampling. We study the Dihedral and Symmetric HSPs and how they relate to hard problems on lattices and graphs. Finally, we conclude with the known solutions and techniques, describe connections with efficient algorithms as well as miscellaneous variants of HSP. We also bring various contributions to the topic. We show that in theory, we can solve HSP over a given group inductively: the base case is solving HSP over its simple factor groups and the inductive step is building efficient oracles over a normal subgroup N and over the factor group G/N. We apply this analysis to the Dedekindian HSP to get an alternative abelian HSP algorithm based on a change of the underlying group. We also propose a quotient reduction by the normal group...

  13. Probability, random variables, and random processes theory and signal processing applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shynk, John J

    2012-01-01

    Probability, Random Variables, and Random Processes is a comprehensive textbook on probability theory for engineers that provides a more rigorous mathematical framework than is usually encountered in undergraduate courses. It is intended for first-year graduate students who have some familiarity with probability and random variables, though not necessarily of random processes and systems that operate on random signals. It is also appropriate for advanced undergraduate students who have a strong mathematical background. The book has the following features: Several app

  14. Selected topics in the classical theory of functions of a complex variable

    CERN Document Server

    Heins, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Elegant and concise, this text is geared toward advanced undergraduate students acquainted with the theory of functions of a complex variable. The treatment presents such students with a number of important topics from the theory of analytic functions that may be addressed without erecting an elaborate superstructure. These include some of the theory's most celebrated results, which seldom find their way into a first course. After a series of preliminaries, the text discusses properties of meromorphic functions, the Picard theorem, and harmonic and subharmonic functions. Subsequent topics incl

  15. Lorenz theory of symmetric relative concentration and similarity, incorporating variable array length

    OpenAIRE

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    This paper extends the Lorenz theory, developed in [L. Egghe and R. Rousseau. Symmetric and asymmetric theory of relative concentration and applications. Scientometrics 52(2), 261-290, 2001], so that it can deal with comparing arrays of variable length. We show that in this case we need to divide the Lorenz curves by certain types of increasing functions of the array length N. We then prove that, in this theory, adding zeros to two arrays, increases their similarity, a property that is not...

  16. GY SAMPLING THEORY AND GEOSTATISTICS: ALTERNATE MODELS OF VARIABILITY IN CONTINUOUS MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the sampling theory developed by Pierre Gy, sample variability is modeled as the sum of a set of seven discrete error components. The variogram used in geostatisties provides an alternate model in which several of Gy's error components are combined in a continuous mode...

  17. Bayesian modeling of measurement error in predictor variables using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on handling measurement error in predictor variables using item response theory (IRT). Measurement error is of great important in assessment of theoretical constructs, such as intelligence or the school climate. Measurement error is modeled by treating the predictors as unobserved

  18. Quantum cosmology in Ashtekar variables with non-minimally coupled scalar–tensor theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subenoy Chakraborty

    2002-01-01

    Using non-minimally coupled scalar–tensor theory in homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model, quantum cosmology has been developed for Ashtekar variables. The wave function has been evaluated by solving the Wheeler–Dewitt (WD) equation and also using path integral formulation. Semi-classical limit using WKB approximation has also been discussed. Finally, the quantum Bohmian trajectories has been studied in detail.

  19. Bayesian modeling of measurement error in predictor variables using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Jean-Paul; Glas, Cees A.W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on handling measurement error in predictor variables using item response theory (IRT). Measurement error is of great important in assessment of theoretical constructs, such as intelligence or the school climate. Measurement error is modeled by treating the predictors as unobserved

  20. Impulse-variability theory: implications for ballistic, multijoint motor skill performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbin, M A; Stodden, David F; Fischman, Mark G; Weimar, Wendi H

    2011-01-01

    Impulse-variability theory (R. A. Schmidt, H. N. Zelaznik, B. Hawkins, J. S. Frank, & J. T. Quinn, 1979) accounts for the curvilinear relationship between the magnitude and resulting variability of the muscular forces that influence the success of goal-directed limb movements. The historical roots of impulse-variability theory are reviewed in the 1st part of this article, including the relationship between movement speed and spatial error. The authors then address the relevance of impulse-variability theory for the control of ballistic, multijoint skills, such as throwing, striking, and kicking. These types of skills provide a stark contrast to the relatively simple, minimal degrees of freedom movements that characterized early research. However, the inherent demand for ballistic force generation is a strong parallel between these simple laboratory tasks and multijoint motor skills. Therefore, the authors conclude by recommending experimental procedures for evaluating the adequacy of impulse variability as a theoretical model within the context of ballistic, multijoint motor skill performance.

  1. Latent Variable Modelling and Item Response Theory Analyses in Marketing Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzezińska Justyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Item Response Theory (IRT is a modern statistical method using latent variables designed to model the interaction between a subject’s ability and the item level stimuli (difficulty, guessing. Item responses are treated as the outcome (dependent variables, and the examinee’s ability and the items’ characteristics are the latent predictor (independent variables. IRT models the relationship between a respondent’s trait (ability, attitude and the pattern of item responses. Thus, the estimation of individual latent traits can differ even for two individuals with the same total scores. IRT scores can yield additional benefits and this will be discussed in detail. In this paper theory and application with R software with the use of packages designed for modelling IRT will be presented.

  2. Naturally light hidden photons in LARGE volume string compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodsell, M. [LPTHE, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Jaeckel, J. [Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Univ. Durham (United Kingdom); Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Extra ''hidden'' U(1) gauge factors are a generic feature of string theory that is of particular phenomenological interest. They can kinetically mix with the Standard Model photon and are thereby accessible to a wide variety of astrophysical and cosmological observations and laboratory experiments. In this paper we investigate the masses and the kinetic mixing of hidden U(1)s in LARGE volume compactifications of string theory. We find that in these scenarios the hidden photons can be naturally light and that their kinetic mixing with the ordinary electromagnetic photon can be of a size interesting for near future experiments and observations. (orig.)

  3. Lepton mixing from the hidden sector

    CERN Document Server

    Ludl, P O

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results indicate a possible relation between the lepton and quark mixing matrices of the form U_PMNS \\approx V_CKM^\\dagger U_X, where U_X is a matrix with special structure related to the mechanism of neutrino mass generation. We propose a framework which can realize such a relation. The main ingredients of the framework are the double seesaw mechanism, SO(10) Grand Unification and a hidden sector of theory. The latter is composed of singlets (fermions and bosons) of the GUT symmetry with masses between the GUT and Planck scale. The interactions in this sector obey certain symmetries G_hidden. We explore the conditions under which symmetries G_hidden can produce flavour structures in the visible sector. Here the key elements are the basis-fixing symmetry and mediators which communicate information about properties of the hidden sector to the visible one. The interplay of SO(10) symmetry, basis-fixing symmetry identified as Z2 x Z2 and G_hidden can lead to the required form of U_X. A different kin...

  4. Assessment of spatial structure of groundwater quality variables based on the entropy theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mogheir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental to the spatial sampling design of a groundwater quality monitoring network is the spatial structure of groundwater quality variables. The entropy theory presents an alternative approach to describe this variability. A case study is presented which used groundwater quality observations (13 years; 1987-2000 from groundwater domestic wells in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. The analyses of the spatial structure used the following variables: Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Sodium (Na, Potassium (K, Chloride (Cl, Nitrate (NO3, Sulphate (SO4, alkalinity and hardness. For all these variables the spatial structure is described by means of Transinformation as a function of distance between wells (Transinformation Model and correlation also as a function of distance (Correlation Model. The parameters of the Transinformation Model analysed were: (1 the initial value of the Transinformation; (2 the rate of information decay; (3 the minimum constant value; and (4 the distance at which the Transinformation Model reaches its minimum value. Exponential decay curves were fitted to both models. The Transinformation Model was found to be superior to the Correlation Model in representing the spatial variability (structure. The parameters of the Transinformation Model were different for some variables and similar for others. That leads to a reduction of the variables to be monitored and consequently reduces the cost of monitoring. Keywords: transinformation, correlation, spatial structure, municipal wells, groundwater monitoring, entropy

  5. Hidden circuits and argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Risto; Kesonen, Mikko H. P.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the relevance of DC circuits in everyday life and schools, they have been shown to cause numerous learning difficulties at various school levels. In the course of this article, we present a flexible method for teaching DC circuits at lower secondary level. The method is labelled as hidden circuits, and the essential idea underlying hidden circuits is in hiding the actual wiring of DC circuits, but to make their behaviour evident for pupils. Pupils are expected to find out the wiring of the circuit which should enhance their learning of DC circuits. We present two possible ways to utilise hidden circuits in a classroom. First, they can be used to test and enhance pupils’ conceptual understanding when pupils are expected to find out which one of the offered circuit diagram options corresponds to the actual circuit shown. This method aims to get pupils to evaluate the circuits holistically rather than locally, and as a part of that aim this method highlights any learning difficulties of pupils. Second, hidden circuits can be used to enhance pupils’ argumentation skills with the aid of argumentation sheet that illustrates the main elements of an argument. Based on the findings from our co-operating teachers and our own experiences, hidden circuits offer a flexible and motivating way to supplement teaching of DC circuits.

  6. Hidden symmetries in dilaton-axion gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kechkin, O V

    1996-01-01

    Four--dimensional Einstein--Maxwell--dilaton--axion system restricted to space--times with one non--null Killing symmetry is formulated as the three--dimensional gravity coupled sigma--model. Several alternative representations are discussed and the associated hidden symmetries are revealed. The action of target space isometries on the initial set of (non--dualized ) variables is found. New mulicenter solutions are obtained via generating technique based on the formulation in terms of the non--dualized variables.

  7. How Hidden Can Be Even More Hidden?

    CERN Document Server

    Fraczek, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents Deep Hiding Techniques (DHTs) that define general techniques that can be applied to every network steganography method to improve its undetectability and make steganogram extraction harder to perform. We define five groups of techniques that can make steganogram less susceptible to detection and extraction. For each of the presented group, examples of the usage are provided based on existing network steganography methods. To authors' best knowledge presented approach is the first attempt in the state of the art to systematically describe general solutions that can make steganographic communication more hidden and steganogram extraction harder to perform.

  8. Loop Variables and Gauge Invariant Exact Renormalization Group Equations for (Open) String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sathiapalan, B

    2012-01-01

    An exact renormalization group equation is written down for the world sheet theory describing the bosonic open string in general backgrounds. Loop variable techniques are used to make the equation gauge invariant. This is worked out explicitly up to level 3. The equation is quadratic in the fields and can be viewed as a proposal for a string field theory equation. As in the earlier loop variable approach, the theory has one extra space dimension and mass is obtained by dimensional reduction. Being based on the sigma model RG, it is background independent. It is intriguing that in contrast to BRST string field theory, the gauge transformations are not modified by the interactions up to the level calculated. The interactions can be written in terms of gauge invariant field strengths for the massive higher spin fields and the non zero mass is essential for this. This is reminiscent of Abelian Born-Infeld action (along with derivative corrections) for the massless vector field, which is also written in terms of t...

  9. Search for Hidden Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    The SHiP Experiment is a new general-purpose fixed target facility at the SPS to search for hidden particles as predicted by a very large number of recently elaborated models of Hidden Sectors which are capable of accommodating dark matter, neutrino oscillations, and the origin of the full baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Specifically, the experiment is aimed at searching for very weakly interacting long lived particles including Heavy Neutral Leptons - right-handed partners of the active neutrinos; light supersymmetric particles - sgoldstinos, etc.; scalar, axion and vector portals to the hidden sector. The high intensity of the SPS and in particular the large production of charm mesons with the 400 GeV beam allow accessing a wide variety of light long-lived exotic particles of such models and of SUSY. Moreover, the facility is ideally suited to study the interactions of tau neutrinos.

  10. Collective variables for the study of long-time kinetics from molecular trajectories: theory and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, Frank; Clementi, Cecilia

    2017-04-01

    Collective variables are an important concept to study high-dimensional dynamical systems, such as molecular dynamics of macromolecules, liquids, or polymers, in particular to define relevant metastable states and state-transition or phase-transition. Over the past decade, a rigorous mathematical theory has been formulated to define optimal collective variables to characterize slow dynamical processes. Here we review recent developments, including a variational principle to find optimal approximations to slow collective variables from simulation data, and algorithms such as the time-lagged independent component analysis. Using these concepts, a distance metric can be defined that quantifies how slowly molecular conformations interconvert. Extensions and open questions are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Solar Hidden Photon Search

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Matthias; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas; Wiedemann, Guenter

    2011-01-01

    The Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS) is a joint astroparticle project of the Hamburger Sternwarte and DESY. The main target is to detect the solar emission of a new species of particles, so called Hidden Photons (HPs). Due to kinetic mixing, photons and HPs can convert into each other as they propagate. A small number of solar HPs - originating from photon to HP oscillations in the interior of the Sun - can be converted into photons in a long vacuum pipe pointing to the Sun - the SHIPS helioscope.

  12. Solar Hidden Photon Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Sternwarte; Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS) is a joint astroparticle project of the Hamburger Sternwarte and DESY. The main target is to detect the solar emission of a new species of particles, so called Hidden Photons (HPs). Due to kinetic mixing, photons and HPs can convert into each other as they propagate. A small number of solar HPs - originating from photon to HP oscillations in the interior of the Sun - can be converted into photons in a long vacuum pipe pointing to the Sun - the SHIPS helioscope. (orig.)

  13. Anthropology and/as an applied ethics:Theory and methods "hidden" in the Code of Ethics of the American Anthropology Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Milenković

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the forthcoming reactivation of the Serbian Ethnology and Anthropology Association and the normalization of the work of professional associa- tions, as well as their occasional adoption of their ethical codes in Serbia, we are analyzing the Code of ethics of the wolrd’sargest professional anthropological associ- ation – that of American Anthropological Association (AAA. Starting from the as- sumption that ethic codes are not "pure" moral algorithms of what is desirable/correct, but that they are laden by "hidden" theoretical and methodological assumptions, whether by their direct authors, or on the level of the tacit disciplinary knowledge, we are examining what can Serbian ethnological/anthropological community learn out of the genesis, structure, function and critique directed at AAA Code of Ethics. We are also considering the thesis that such codes could be approached as legitimizing narra- tive practices, not unlike those of magic, through which the discipline is attempting to transform itself from the status of fluid and generally socially unrecognized (and even obscure occupation into a generally recognized, formally licensed and respecta- ble profession. We suggest for anthropology in Serbia to construct its professional sta- tus by forming an alliance with applied ethics offering the services of customization of ethic codes to other professions, through cultural analysis of moral decision-ma- king, instead of legitimizing itself by a contradictory code of ethics, burdened with hollow magic principles and theoretical and methodological issues.

  14. Sub-poissonian statistics as an experimental test for the contextuality of quantum theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnoldus, H.F.; Dieks, Dennis; Nienhuis, G.

    1984-01-01

    It is argued that the phenomenon of sub-poissonian statistics can be regarded as experimental evidence for the contextual character of quantum theory. To this end, it is shown that the statistics predicted by non-contextual hidden-variable theories must satisfy certain inequalities which are a kind

  15. Analytic function theory of several variables elements of Oka’s coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Noguchi, Junjiro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present the classical analytic function theory of several variables as a standard subject in a course of mathematics after learning the elementary materials (sets, general topology, algebra, one complex variable). This includes the essential parts of Grauert–Remmert's two volumes, GL227(236) (Theory of Stein spaces) and GL265 (Coherent analytic sheaves) with a lowering of the level for novice graduate students (here, Grauert's direct image theorem is limited to the case of finite maps). The core of the theory is "Oka's Coherence", found and proved by Kiyoshi Oka. It is indispensable, not only in the study of complex analysis and complex geometry, but also in a large area of modern mathematics. In this book, just after an introductory chapter on holomorphic functions (Chap. 1), we prove Oka's First Coherence Theorem for holomorphic functions in Chap. 2. This defines a unique character of the book compared with other books on this subject, in which the notion of coherence appear...

  16. A note on monotone likelihood ratio of the total score variable in unidimensional item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlü, Ali

    2008-05-01

    This note provides a direct, elementary proof of the fundamental result on monotone likelihood ratio of the total score variable in unidimensional item response theory (IRT). This result is very important for practical measurement in IRT, because it justifies the use of the total score variable to order participants on the latent trait. The proof relies on a basic inequality for elementary symmetric functions which is proved by means of few purely algebraic, straightforward transformations. In particular, flaws in a proof of this result by Huynh [(1994). A new proof for monotone likelihood ratio for the sum of independent Bernoulli random variables. Psychometrika, 59, 77-79] are pointed out and corrected, and a natural generalization of the fundamental result to non-linear (quasi-ordered) latent trait spaces is presented. This may be useful for multidimensional IRT or knowledge space theory, in which the latent 'ability' spaces are partially ordered with respect to, for instance, coordinate-wise vector-ordering or set-inclusion, respectively.

  17. Using HPGe detector for a solar hidden-photons search

    CERN Document Server

    Horvat, R; Krcmar, M; Krecak, Z; Ljubicic, A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the results of our search for photons from a U(1) gauge factor in the hidden sector of the full theory, by observing the single spectrum in a HPGe detector arising as a result of the photoelectric-like absorption of hidden photons emitted from the Sun on germanium atoms inside the detector. The main ingredient of the theory used in our analysis, a severely constrained kinetic mixing from the two U(1) gauge factors and massive hidden photons, leads to both photon into hidden states oscillations and to a minuscule coupling of hidden photons to visible matter, of which the latter our experimental setup has been designed to observe. On a theoretical side, full account was taken of the effects of refraction and damping of photons while propagating in the Sun's interior. We exclude hidden photons with kinetic couplings chi > (1.5x10^{-6}-2.6x10^{-11}) for the mass region 1.7x10^{-4} eV < m_\\gamma' < 3.4 eV. Our constraints on the mixing parameter chi at sub-eV hidden-photon masses p...

  18. Hidden scale invariance of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummel, Felix; Kresse, Georg; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2015-01-01

    available. Hidden scale invariance is demonstrated in detail for magnesium by showing invariance of structure and dynamics. Computed melting curves of period three metals follow curves with invariance (isomorphs). The experimental structure factor of magnesium is predicted by assuming scale invariant...... of metals making the condensed part of the thermodynamic phase diagram effectively one dimensional with respect to structure and dynamics. DFT computed density scaling exponents, related to the Grüneisen parameter, are in good agreement with experimental values for the 16 elements where reliable data were......Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 58 liquid elements at their triple point show that most metals exhibit near proportionality between the thermal fluctuations of the virial and the potential energy in the isochoric ensemble. This demonstrates a general “hidden” scale invariance...

  19. Latent Variable Selection for Multidimensional Item Response Theory Models via [Formula: see text] Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianan; Chen, Yunxiao; Liu, Jingchen; Ying, Zhiliang; Xin, Tao

    2016-12-01

    We develop a latent variable selection method for multidimensional item response theory models. The proposed method identifies latent traits probed by items of a multidimensional test. Its basic strategy is to impose an [Formula: see text] penalty term to the log-likelihood. The computation is carried out by the expectation-maximization algorithm combined with the coordinate descent algorithm. Simulation studies show that the resulting estimator provides an effective way in correctly identifying the latent structures. The method is applied to a real dataset involving the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.

  20. Decision theory for computing variable and value ordering decisions for scheduling problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Theodore A.

    1993-01-01

    Heuristics that guide search are critical when solving large planning and scheduling problems, but most variable and value ordering heuristics are sensitive to only one feature of the search state. One wants to combine evidence from all features of the search state into a subjective probability that a value choice is best, but there has been no solid semantics for merging evidence when it is conceived in these terms. Instead, variable and value ordering decisions should be viewed as problems in decision theory. This led to two key insights: (1) The fundamental concept that allows heuristic evidence to be merged is the net incremental utility that will be achieved by assigning a value to a variable. Probability distributions about net incremental utility can merge evidence from the utility function, binary constraints, resource constraints, and other problem features. The subjective probability that a value is the best choice is then derived from probability distributions about net incremental utility. (2) The methods used for rumor control in Bayesian Networks are the primary way to prevent cycling in the computation of probable net incremental utility. These insights lead to semantically justifiable ways to compute heuristic variable and value ordering decisions that merge evidence from all available features of the search state.

  1. MEANINGFUL VARIABILITY: A SOCIOLINGUISTICALLY-GROUNDED APPROACH TO VARIATION IN OPTIMALITY THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Cutillas Espinosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Most approaches to variability in Optimality Theory have attempted to make variation possible within the OT framework, i.e. to reformulate constraints and rankings to accommodate variable and gradient linguistic facts. Sociolinguists have attempted to apply these theoretical advances to the study of language variation, with an emphasis on language-interna1 variables (Auger 2001, Cardoso 2001. Little attention has been paid to the array of externa1 factors that influence the patterning of variation. In this paper, we argue that some variation pattems-specially those that are socially meaningful- are actually the result of a three-grarnmar system. G, is the standard grammar, which has to be available to the speaker to obtain these variation patterns. G; is the vernacular grammar, which the speaker is likely to have acquired in his local community. Finally, G, is an intergrammar, which is used by the speaker as his 'default' constraint set. G is a continuous ranking (Boersma & Hayes 2001 and domination relations are consciously altered by the speakers to shape the appropriate and variable linguistic output. We illustrate this model with analyses of English and Spanish.

  2. Physical nature of a hidden mass in the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshkevich, A.G.; Khlopov, M.Yu. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Prikladnoj Matematiki)

    1984-04-01

    The problem of an origin of the hidden mass of the Universe is discussed. Observation astronomic data on large-scale Universe structure and hidden mass distribution within the framework of the adiabatic theory of galaxies formation point out the dominance in nowadays Universe of weakly-interacting particles with 15-60 eV mass. Restrictions are obtained for a possible admixture of other relict particles.

  3. Aligning the Hidden Curriculum of Management Education With PRME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that mainstreaming responsible management education in line with the Principles of Responsible Management Education (PRME) requires close attention to the hidden curriculum (HC), that is, the implicit dimensions of educational experiences. Altering formal curricular goals...... combined with transformative learning and communities of practice theory, the article offers an inquiry-based framework for PRME implementation that takes these moral learning and socialization processes into account. It provides suggestions for how to address the hidden curriculum both in the diagnostic...

  4. Hidden neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Riis, Søren Kamaric

    1999-01-01

    A general framework for hybrids of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and neural networks (NNs) called hidden neural networks (HNNs) is described. The article begins by reviewing standard HMMs and estimation by conditional maximum likelihood, which is used by the HNN. In the HNN, the usual HMM probability...... parameters are replaced by the outputs of state-specific neural networks. As opposed to many other hybrids, the HNN is normalized globally and therefore has a valid probabilistic interpretation. All parameters in the HNN are estimated simultaneously according to the discriminative conditional maximum...... likelihood criterion. The HNN can be viewed as an undirected probabilistic independence network (a graphical model), where the neural networks provide a compact representation of the clique functions. An evaluation of the HNN on the task of recognizing broad phoneme classes in the TIMIT database shows clear...

  5. Coupling of Hidden Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Królikowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    A hypothetic Hidden Sector of the Universe, consisting of sterile fermions ("sterinos") and sterile mediating bosons ("sterons") of mass dimension 1 (not 2!) - the last described by an antisymmetric tensor field - requires to exist also a scalar isovector and scalar isoscalar in order to be able to construct electroweak invariant coupling (before spontaneously breaking its symmetry). The introduced scalar isoscalar might be a resonant source for the diphoton excess of 750 GeV, suggested recently by experiment.

  6. A state-dependent noncontextuality inequality in algebraic quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Yuichiro

    2017-08-01

    The noncontextuality condition states that a value of any observable is independent of which other compatible observable is measured jointly with it. Klyachko, Can, Binicioğlu, and Shumovsky have introduced an inequality which holds if there is a noncontextual hidden variable theory. It is called KCBS inequality, which is state-dependent. Its violation shows a contradiction between predictions of quantum theory and noncontextual hidden variable theories. In the present paper, it is shown that there is a state which does not violate KCBS inequality in the case of quantum mechanics of finite degrees of freedom, and that any normal state violates it in the case of algebraic quantum field theory. It is a difference between quantum mechanics of finite degrees of freedom and algebraic quantum field theory from a point of view of KCBS inequality.

  7. CONCEPTION OF CULTURE IN THE RENÉ GIRARD’S THEORY – THINGS AND VALUES IN THE HIDDEN CONTEXT (CHOSES CACHÉES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Mroz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a modest contribution to the reconstruction and systematization of a rich and seminal conception of René Girard. The letter belongs to a group of the most influential philosophers of culture of the XX and XXI century whose theories attempt at explaining the origins of this uniflue and diverse phenomen: culture Girard produces a coherent although a controversial theory of basic, fundament motives of human behavior (e.g. jalousie and strike for excellence and emulation which set in motion a series of symbolic reactions leading to the emergence of organized society and finally social behavior. Those reactions were mainly responsible for the cultural development and progress.

  8. Towards a Predictive Theory of Malaria: Connections to Spatio-temporal Variability of Climate and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, N.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2015-12-01

    Malaria transmission is closely linked to climatology, hydrology, environment, and the biology of local vectors. These factors interact with each other and non-linearly influence malaria transmission dynamics, making prediction and prevention challenging. Our work attempts to find a universality in the multi-dimensional system of malaria transmission and to develop a theory to predict emergence of malaria given a limited set of environmental and biological inputs.A credible malaria transmission dynamics model, HYDREMATS (Bomblies et al., 2008), was used under hypothetical settings to investigate the role of spatial and temporal distribution of vector breeding pools. HYDREMATS is a mechanistic model and capable of simulating the basic reproduction rate (Ro) without bold assumptions even under dynamic conditions. The spatial distribution of pools is mainly governed by hydrological factors; the impact of pool persistence and rainy season length on malaria transmission were investigated. Also analyzed was the impact of the temporal distribution of pools relative to human houses. We developed non-dimensional variables combining the hydrological and biological parameters. Simulated values of Ro from HYDREMATS are presented in a newly-introduced non-dimensional plane, which leads to a some-what universal theory describing the condition for sustainable malaria transmission. The findings were tested against observations both from the West Africa and the Ethiopian Highland, representing diverse hydroclimatological conditions. Predicated Ro values from the theory over the two regions are in good agreement with the observed malaria transmission data.

  9. Lepton mixing from the hidden sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludl, P. O.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2015-10-01

    Experimental results indicate a possible relation between the lepton and quark mixing matrices of the form UPMNS≈VCKM†UX , where UX is a matrix with special structure related to the mechanism of neutrino mass generation. We propose a framework which can realize such a relation. The main ingredients of the framework are the double seesaw mechanism, SO(10) grand unification and a hidden sector of theory. The latter is composed of singlets (fermions and bosons) of the grand unified theory (GUT) symmetry with masses between the GUT and Planck scale. The interactions in this sector obey certain symmetries Ghidden. We explore the conditions under which symmetries Ghidden can produce flavor structures in the visible sector. Here the key elements are the basis-fixing symmetry and mediators which communicate information about properties of the hidden sector to the visible one. The interplay of SO(10) symmetry, basis-fixing symmetry identified as Z2×Z2 and Ghidden can lead to the required form of UX. A different kind of new physics is responsible for generation of the CKM mixing. We present the simplest realizations of the framework which differ by nature of the mediators and by symmetries of the hidden sector.

  10. Search for hidden particles with the SHiP experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Caren; Bick, Daniel; Bieschke, Stefan; Ebert, Joachim; Schmidt-Parzefall, Walter [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Many theories beyond the standard model predict long lived neutral (hidden) particles. There might be a whole Hidden Sector (HS) of weakly interacting particles, which cannot be detected in existing high energy experiments. The SHiP experiment (Search for Hidden Particles) requires a high intensity beam dump, which could be realized by a new facility at the CERN SPS accelerator. New superweakly interacting particles with masses below O(10) GeV could be produced in the beam dump and detected in a general purpose Hidden Sector (HS) detector. In addition there will be a dedicated tau neutrino subdetector. I present the major requirements and technical challenges for the HS detector and discuss how the HS can be accessed through several portals: neutrino portal, scalar portal, vector portal and many more.

  11. Vibrations of blades with variable thickness and curvature by shell theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. K.; Leissa, A. W.; Wang, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure for analyzing the vibrations of rotating turbomachinery blades has been previously developed. This procedure is based upon shallow shell theory, and utilizes the Ritz method to determine frequencies and mode shapes. However, it has been limited heretofore to blades of uniform thickness, uniform curvature, and/or twist and rectangular planform. The present work shows how the procedure may be generalized to eliminate the aforementioned restrictions. Nonrectangular planforms are dealt with by a suitable coordinate transformation. This, as well as variable thickness, curvature and twist, require using numerical integration. The procedure is demonstrated on four examples of cantilevered blades for which theoretical and experimental data have been previously published: (1) flat plate with spanwise taper, (2) flat plate with chordwise taper, (3) twisted plate with chordwise taper, and (4) cylindrical shell with chordwise taper.

  12. Multiple linear regression with correlations among the predictor variables. Theory and computer algorithm ridge (FORTRAN 77)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gaans, P. F. M.; Vriend, S. P.

    Application of ridge regression in geoscience usually is a more appropriate technique than ordinary least-squares regression, especially in the situation of highly intercorrelated predictor variables. A FORTRAN 77 program RIDGE for ridged multiple linear regression is presented. The theory of linear regression and ridge regression is treated, to allow for a careful interpretation of the results and to understand the structure of the program. The program gives various parameters to evaluate the extent of multicollinearity within a given regression problem, such as the correlation matrix, multiple correlations among the predictors, variance inflation factors, eigenvalues, condition number, and the determinant of the predictors correlation matrix. The best method for the optimum choice of the ridge parameter with ridge regression has not been established yet. Estimates of the ridge bias, ridged variance inflation factors, estimates, and norms for the ridge parameter therefore are given as output by RIDGE and should complement inspection of the ridge traces. Application within the earth sciences is discussed.

  13. GENERAL CONSTITUTIVE EQUATIONS OF AN ER SUSPENSION BASED ON THE INTERNAL VARIABLE THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彪; 肖忠民

    2001-01-01

    A microstructural constitutive theory of ER suspensions was formulated in this investigation. The framework was based on the internal variable theory and the mechanism analysis. The ER suspension consists of fine particles with high dielectric constant and the supporting fluid. Under the action of the electric field, the polarized particles will aggregate together to form the chain-like structures along the direction of the electric field.As the size and orientation of the particle aggregates are volatile, and they adjust according to the applied electric field and strain rate, the energy conservation equation and the force equilibrium equation were thus established to determine the orientation and size of the aggregates. Following that, a three-dimensional, explicit form of the constitutive equation was derived based on the interaction energy and the dissipation function of the system. The response of the system under the action of a simple shearing load was considered and discussed in detail. It is found that the shear-thinning viscosity of an ER suspension is well approximated by the power-law ∞ (Mn) -0.82

  14. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henn, Johannes M

    2014-01-01

    At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge.   These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ...

  15. Self-similarity of complex networks and hidden metric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, M Angeles; Boguna, Marian

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that the self-similarity of some scale-free networks with respect to a simple degree-thresholding renormalization scheme finds a natural interpretation in the assumption that network nodes exist in hidden metric spaces. Clustering, i.e., cycles of length three, plays a crucial role in this framework as a topological reflection of the triangle inequality in the hidden geometry. We prove that a class of hidden variable models with underlying metric spaces are able to accurately reproduce the self-similarity properties that we measured in the real networks. Our findings indicate that hidden geometries underlying these real networks are a plausible explanation for their observed topologies and, in particular, for their self-similarity with respect to the degree-based renormalization.

  16. Binary hidden Markov models and varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Critch, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    The technological applications of hidden Markov models have been extremely diverse and successful, including natural language processing, gesture recognition, gene sequencing, and Kalman filtering of physical measurements. HMMs are highly non-linear statistical models, and just as linear models are amenable to linear algebraic techniques, non-linear models are amenable to commutative algebra and algebraic geometry. This paper examines closely those HMMs in which all the random variables, called nodes, are binary. Its main contributions are (1) minimal defining equations for the 4-node model, comprising 21 quadrics and 29 cubics, which were computed using Gr\\"obner bases in the cumulant coordinates of Sturmfels and Zwiernik, and (2) a birational parametrization for every binary HMM, with an explicit inverse for recovering the hidden parameters in terms of observables. The new model parameters in (2) are hence rationally identifiable in the sense of Sullivant, Garcia-Puente, and Spielvogel, and each model's Zar...

  17. Inferring hidden states in Langevin dynamics on large networks: Average case performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, B.; Opper, M.; Sollich, P.

    2017-01-01

    We present average performance results for dynamical inference problems in large networks, where a set of nodes is hidden while the time trajectories of the others are observed. Examples of this scenario can occur in signal transduction and gene regulation networks. We focus on the linear stochastic dynamics of continuous variables interacting via random Gaussian couplings of generic symmetry. We analyze the inference error, given by the variance of the posterior distribution over hidden paths, in the thermodynamic limit and as a function of the system parameters and the ratio α between the number of hidden and observed nodes. By applying Kalman filter recursions we find that the posterior dynamics is governed by an "effective" drift that incorporates the effect of the observations. We present two approaches for characterizing the posterior variance that allow us to tackle, respectively, equilibrium and nonequilibrium dynamics. The first appeals to Random Matrix Theory and reveals average spectral properties of the inference error and typical posterior relaxation times; the second is based on dynamical functionals and yields the inference error as the solution of an algebraic equation.

  18. Hidden Markov Models Incorporating Fuzzy Measures and Integrals for Protein Sequence Identification and Alignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niranjan P.Bidargaddi; Madlhu Chetty; Joarder Kamruzzaman

    2008-01-01

    Profile hidden Markov models (HMMs) based on classical HMMs have been widely applied for protein sequence identification. The formulation of the forward and backward variables in profile HMMs is made under statistical independence assumption of the probability theory. We propose a fuzzy profile HMM to overcome the limitations of that assumption and to achieve an improved alignment for protein sequences belonging to a given family. The proposed model fuzzifies the forward and backward variables by incorporating Sugeno fuzzy measures and Choquet integrals, thus further extends the generalized HMM. Based on the fuzzified forwardand backward variables, we propose a fuzzy Baum-Welch parameter estimation al-gorithm for profiles. The strong correlations and the sequence preference involved in the protein structures make this fuzzy architecture based model as a suitable candidate for building profiles of a given family, since the fuzzy set can handle uncertainties better than classical methods.

  19. What are the Hidden Quantum Processes Behind Newton's Laws?

    OpenAIRE

    Ostoma, Tom; Trushyk, Mike

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the hidden quantum processes that are responsible for Newton's laws of motion and Newton's universal law of gravity. We apply Electro-Magnetic Quantum Gravity or EMQG to investigate Newtonian classical physics. EQMG is a quantum gravity theory that is manifestly compatible with Cellular Automata (CA) theory, a new paradigm for physical reality. EMQG is also based on a theory of inertia proposed by R. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. Puthoff, which we modified and called Quantum Inertia...

  20. The theory of planned behaviour and healthy eating: Examining additive and moderating effects of social influence variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povey, R; Conner, M; Sparks, P; James, R; Shepherd, R

    2000-11-01

    Abstract This paper examines the additive and moderating effects of social influence variables (injunctive norms, descriptive norms, perceived social support) within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The target behaviour is the decision to eat healthily. Questionnaire responses on components of the TPB, descriptive norms, perceived social support, and subsequent healthy eating were obtained from a prospective sample of 235 members of the general public. Good predictions of intentions (42% of variance explained) and behaviour (15% of variance explained) were found using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Neither descriptive norms nor perceived social support added to these predictions of intentions over and above the TPB variables. However, perceived social support was found to act as a moderator variable on the relationship between perceived behavioral control and intention, and the relationship between attitude and intention. Implications for exploring the role of social influence variables on decisions concerning health behavioun an discussed.

  1. Hidden figures are ever present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mens, L H; Leeuwenberg, E L

    1988-11-01

    Preference judgments about alternative interpretations of unambiguous patterns can be explained in terms of a rivalry between a preferred and a second-best interpretation (cf. Leeuwenberg & Buffart, 1983). We tested whether this second-best interpretation corresponds to a suppressed but concurrently present interpretation or whether it merely reflects an alternative view that happens to be preferred less often. Two patterns were present immediately following each other with a very short onset asynchrony: a complete pattern and one out of three possible subpatterns of it, corresponding to the best, the second best, or an odd interpretation of the complete pattern. Subjects indicated which subpattern was presented by choosing among the three subpatterns shown after each trial. The scores, corrected for response-bias effects, indicated a relative facilitation of the second-best interpretation, in agreement with its predicted "hidden" presence. This result is more in line with theories that capitalize on the quality of the finally selected representation than with processing models aimed at reaching one single solution as fast and as economically as possible.

  2. Hidden Local Symmetry and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yamawaki, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Gerry Brown was a godfather of our hidden local symmetry (HLS) for the vector meson from the birth of the theory throughout his life. The HLS is originated from very nature of the nonlinear realization of the symmetry G based on the manifold G/H, and thus is universal to any physics based on the nonlinear realization. Here I focus on the Higgs Lagrangian of the Standard Model (SM), which is shown to be equivalent to the nonlinear sigma model based on G/H= SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R/SU(2)_V with additional symmetry, the nonlinearly realized scale symmetry. Then the SM does have a dynamical gauge boson of the SU(2)_V HLS, "SM rho meson", in addition to the Higgs as a pseudo dilaton as well as the NG bosons to be absorbed into the W and Z. Based on the recent work done with S. Matsuzaki and H. Ohki, I discuss a novel possibility that the SM rho meson acquires kinetic term by the SM dynamics itself, which then stabilizes the skyrmion dormant in the SM as a viable candidate for the dark matter, what we call "Dark SM skyrmi...

  3. Hidden local symmetry and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Koichi

    Gerry Brown was a godfather of our hidden local symmetry (HLS) for the vector meson from the birth of the theory throughout his life. The HLS is originated from very nature of the nonlinear realization of the symmetry G based on the manifold G/H, and thus is universal to any physics based on the nonlinear realization. Here, I focus on the Higgs Lagrangian of the Standard Model (SM), which is shown to be equivalent to the nonlinear sigma model based on G/H = SU(2)L × SU(2)R/SU(2)V with additional symmetry, the nonlinearly-realized scale symmetry. Then, the SM does have a dynamical gauge boson of the SU(2)V HLS, "SM ρ meson", in addition to the Higgs as a pseudo-dilaton as well as the NG bosons to be absorbed in to the W and Z. Based on the recent work done with Matsuzaki and Ohki, I discuss a novel possibility that the SM ρ meson acquires kinetic term by the SM dynamics itself, which then stabilizes the skyrmion dormant in the SM as a viable candidate for the dark matter, what we call "dark SM skyrmion (DSMS)".

  4. Predicting exercise behaviour : extending the theory of planned behaviour with implementation intentions, dispositional variables, and past behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Rognerud, Audhild Meckelborg; Wisting, Line Norøm

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated exercise behaviour over a six-week period in a theory of planned behaviour context, extended with implementation intentions, dispositional variables, and past behaviour. Two waves of questionnaires were used to measure behavioural intention, perceived behavioural control, past behaviour, and three dispositional variables, that is optimism, self-efficacy and action-orientation, as well as actual performance of exercise behaviour. Implementation intentions were ma...

  5. Hidden attractors in dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkowski, Dawid; Jafari, Sajad; Kapitaniak, Tomasz; Kuznetsov, Nikolay V.; Leonov, Gennady A.; Prasad, Awadhesh

    2016-06-01

    Complex dynamical systems, ranging from the climate, ecosystems to financial markets and engineering applications typically have many coexisting attractors. This property of the system is called multistability. The final state, i.e., the attractor on which the multistable system evolves strongly depends on the initial conditions. Additionally, such systems are very sensitive towards noise and system parameters so a sudden shift to a contrasting regime may occur. To understand the dynamics of these systems one has to identify all possible attractors and their basins of attraction. Recently, it has been shown that multistability is connected with the occurrence of unpredictable attractors which have been called hidden attractors. The basins of attraction of the hidden attractors do not touch unstable fixed points (if exists) and are located far away from such points. Numerical localization of the hidden attractors is not straightforward since there are no transient processes leading to them from the neighborhoods of unstable fixed points and one has to use the special analytical-numerical procedures. From the viewpoint of applications, the identification of hidden attractors is the major issue. The knowledge about the emergence and properties of hidden attractors can increase the likelihood that the system will remain on the most desirable attractor and reduce the risk of the sudden jump to undesired behavior. We review the most representative examples of hidden attractors, discuss their theoretical properties and experimental observations. We also describe numerical methods which allow identification of the hidden attractors.

  6. Model for the Assessment of Seawater Environmental Quality Based on Multiobjective Variable Fuzzy Set Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Ke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of marine economy industry, the activities for exploring and exploiting the marine resources are increasing, and there are more and more marine construction projects, which contribute to the growing trend of eutrophication and frequent occurrence of red tide. Thus, seawater quality has become the topic which the people generally cared about. The seawater quality evaluation could be considered as an analysis process which combined the evaluation indexes with certainty and evaluation factors with uncertainty and its changes. This paper built a model for the assessment of seawater environmental quality based on the multiobjective variable fuzzy set theory (VFEM. The Qingdao marine dumping site in China is taken as an evaluation example. Through the quantitative research of water-quality data from 2004 to 2008, the model is more reliable than other traditional methods, in which uncertainty and ambiguity of the seawater quality evaluation are considered, and trade the stable results as the final results of seawater quality evaluation, which effectively solved the impact of the fuzzy boundary of evaluation standard and monitoring error, is more suitable for evaluation of a multi-index, multilevel, and nonlinear marine environment system and has been proved to be an effective tool for seawater quality evaluation.

  7. Entropy Theory of Polymer Glass-Formation in Variable Spatial Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Sheng; Douglas, Jack; Freed, Karl

    The importance of packing frustration is broadly appreciated to be an important aspect of glass-formation. Recently, great interest has focused on using spatial dimensionality () as a theoretical tool for exploring this and other aspects of glass-forming liquids. We explore glass-formation in variable based on the generalized entropy theory, a synthesis of the Adam-Gibbs model with direct computation of the configurational entropy of polymer fluids using an established analytical statistical thermodynamic model. We find that structural relaxation in the fluid state asymptotically becomes Arrhenius in the limit and that the fluid transforms upon sufficient cooling above a critical dimension near into a dense amorphous state with a finite positive residual configurational entropy. The GET also predicts the variation with of measures of fragility and of the characteristic temperatures of glass-formation demarking the onset , middle , and end , of the broad glass transition. Direct computations of the isothermal compressibility and thermal expansion coefficient, which are physical measures of packing frustration, demonstrate that these fluid properties strongly correlate with the fragility of glass-formation. Back to three dimensions, we deduce apparently universal relationships between , a measure of the breadth of the glass-formation and both the isothermal compressibility and thermal expansion coefficient of polymer melts at .

  8. Hidden Statistics Approach to Quantum Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum information theory have inspired an explosion of interest in new quantum algorithms for solving hard computational (quantum and non-quantum) problems. The basic principle of quantum computation is that the quantum properties can be used to represent structure data, and that quantum mechanisms can be devised and built to perform operations with this data. Three basic non-classical properties of quantum mechanics superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability were main reasons for optimism about capabilities of quantum computers that promised simultaneous processing of large massifs of highly correlated data. Unfortunately, these advantages of quantum mechanics came with a high price. One major problem is keeping the components of the computer in a coherent state, as the slightest interaction with the external world would cause the system to decohere. That is why the hardware implementation of a quantum computer is still unsolved. The basic idea of this work is to create a new kind of dynamical system that would preserve the main three properties of quantum physics superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. In other words, such a system would reinforce the advantages and minimize limitations of both quantum and classical aspects. Based upon a concept of hidden statistics, a new kind of dynamical system for simulation of Schroedinger equation is proposed. The system represents a modified Madelung version of Schroedinger equation. It preserves superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such an optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for simulating quantum systems. The model includes a transitional component of quantum potential (that has been overlooked in previous treatment of the Madelung equation). The role of the

  9. Scaling dimensions in hidden Kerr/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, David A; Skanata, Antun

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that a hidden conformal field theory (CFT) governs the dynamics of low frequency scattering in a general Kerr black hole background. We further investigate this correspondence by mapping higher order corrections to the massless wave equations in a Kerr background to an expansion within the CFT in terms of higher dimension operators. This implies the presence of infinite towers of CFT primary operators with positive conformal dimensions compatible with unitarity. The exact Kerr background softly breaks the conformal symmetry and the scaling dimensions of these operators run with frequency. The scale-invariant fixed point is dual to a degenerate case of flat spacetime.

  10. Hidden Kerr/CFT at finite frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, David A; Skanata, Antun

    2013-01-01

    Massless fields propagating in a generic Kerr black hole background enjoy a hidden SL(2,R)xSL(2,R) symmetry. We determine how the exact mode functions decompose into representations of this symmetry group. This extends earlier results on the low frequency limit of the massless scalar case to finite frequencies and general spin. As an application, we numerically determine the parameters of the representations that appear in quasinormal modes. These results represent a first step to formulating a more precise mapping to a holographic dual conformal field theory for generic black holes.

  11. Hidden Scale Invariance in Condensed Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    . This means that the phase diagram becomes effectively one-dimensional with regard to several physical properties. Liquids and solids with isomorphs include most or all van der Waals bonded systems and metals, as well as weakly ionic or dipolar systems. On the other hand, systems with directional bonding...... (hydrogen bonds or covalent bonds) or strong Coulomb forces generally do not exhibit hidden scale invariance. The article reviews the theory behind this picture of condensed matter and the evidence for it coming from computer simulations and experiments...

  12. Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning...

  13. Nonparametric model validations for hidden Markov models with applications in financial econometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhibiao

    2011-06-01

    We address the nonparametric model validation problem for hidden Markov models with partially observable variables and hidden states. We achieve this goal by constructing a nonparametric simultaneous confidence envelope for transition density function of the observable variables and checking whether the parametric density estimate is contained within such an envelope. Our specification test procedure is motivated by a functional connection between the transition density of the observable variables and the Markov transition kernel of the hidden states. Our approach is applicable for continuous time diffusion models, stochastic volatility models, nonlinear time series models, and models with market microstructure noise.

  14. Hidden Markov Model for Stock Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyet Nguyen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hidden Markov model (HMM is typically used to predict the hidden regimes of observation data. Therefore, this model finds applications in many different areas, such as speech recognition systems, computational molecular biology and financial market predictions. In this paper, we use HMM for stock selection. We first use HMM to make monthly regime predictions for the four macroeconomic variables: inflation (consumer price index (CPI, industrial production index (INDPRO, stock market index (S&P 500 and market volatility (VIX. At the end of each month, we calibrate HMM’s parameters for each of these economic variables and predict its regimes for the next month. We then look back into historical data to find the time periods for which the four variables had similar regimes with the forecasted regimes. Within those similar periods, we analyze all of the S&P 500 stocks to identify which stock characteristics have been well rewarded during the time periods and assign scores and corresponding weights for each of the stock characteristics. A composite score of each stock is calculated based on the scores and weights of its features. Based on this algorithm, we choose the 50 top ranking stocks to buy. We compare the performances of the portfolio with the benchmark index, S&P 500. With an initial investment of $100 in December 1999, over 15 years, in December 2014, our portfolio had an average gain per annum of 14.9% versus 2.3% for the S&P 500.

  15. Microgenetic analysis of hidden figures

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Slobodan S.; Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2006-01-01

    In this study the phenomenological and processual aspects of the perception of hidden figures were compared. The question was whether the more probable percepts of hidden figures, compared to the less probable percepts, were generated in earlier stages of the perceptual process. In the pilot study the subjects were asked to say what they see in a complex linear pattern. The three most frequent and the three least frequent perceptual descriptions were selected. In the experiment the microgenes...

  16. On the Consequences of Retaining the General Validity of Locality in Physical Theory

    CERN Document Server

    De Baere, W

    2005-01-01

    The empirical validity of the locality (LOC) principle of relativity is used to argue in favour of a local hidden variable theory (HVT) for individual quantum processes. It is shown that such a HVT may reproduce the statistical predictions of quantum mechanics (QM), provided the reproducibility of initial hidden variable states is limited. This means that in a HVT limits should be set to the validity of the notion of counterfactual definiteness (CFD). This is supported by the empirical evidence that past, present, and future are basically distinct. Our argumentation is contrasted with a recent one by Stapp resulting in the opposite conclusion, i.e. nonlocality or the existence of faster-than-light influences. We argue that Stapp's argumentation still depends in an implicit, but crucial, way on both the notions of hidden variables and of CFD. In addition, some implications of our results for the debate between Bohr and Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen are discussed.

  17. Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs. In......-by-doing process, where hidden costs motivate firms and their employees to search for new and better knowledge on how to successfully manage the organisation. We illustrate this thesis based on the case of the LEGO Group.......This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning...

  18. The Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to explain hidden costs of offshoring, i.e. unexpected costs resulting from the relocation of business tasks and activities outside the home country. We develop a model that highlights the role of complexity, design orientation and experience in explaining hidden costs of offshor...... of our study is to suggest how hidden costs of offshoring can be mitigated through an explicit orientation towards improving organizational processes and structures as well as experience with offshoring.......This study seeks to explain hidden costs of offshoring, i.e. unexpected costs resulting from the relocation of business tasks and activities outside the home country. We develop a model that highlights the role of complexity, design orientation and experience in explaining hidden costs...... of offshoring. Specifically, we propose that hidden costs can be explained by the combination of increasing structural, operational and social complexity of offshoring activities. In addition, we suggest that firm orientation towards organizational design as part of an offshoring strategy and offshoring...

  19. Hidden symmetry of the quantum Calogero-Moser system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzentsov, Vadim b

    1996-01-01

    The hidden symmetry of the quantum Calogero-Moser system with an inverse-square potential is algebraically demonstrated making use of Dunkl's operators. We find the underlying algebra explaining the super-integrability phenomenon for this system. Applications to related multi-variable Bessel...

  20. Boolean approach to dichotomic quantum measurement theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, K.; Nakamura, T.; Batle, J.; Abdalla, S.; Farouk, A.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, a new measurement theory based on truth values was proposed by Nagata and Nakamura [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 55, 3616 (2016)], that is, a theory where the results of measurements are either 0 or 1. The standard measurement theory accepts a hidden variable model for a single Pauli observable. Hence, we can introduce a classical probability space for the measurement theory in this particular case. Additionally, we discuss in the present contribution the fact that projective measurement theories (the results of which are either +1 or -1) imply the Bell, Kochen, and Specker (BKS) paradox for a single Pauli observable. To justify our assertion, we present the BKS theorem in almost all the two-dimensional states by using a projective measurement theory. As an example, we present the BKS theorem in two-dimensions with white noise. Our discussion provides new insight into the quantum measurement problem by using this measurement theory based on the truth values.

  1. Grand unified hidden-sector dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2014-10-01

    We explore G×G unified theories with the visible and the hidden or dark sectors paired under a Z2 symmetry. Developing a system of "asymmetric symmetry breaking" we motivate such models on the basis of their ability to generate dark baryons that are confined with a mass scale just above that of the proton, as motivated by asymmetric dark matter. This difference is achieved from the distinct but related confinement scales that develop in unified theories that have the two factors of G spontaneously breaking in an asymmetric manner. We show how Higgs potentials that admit different gauge group breaking chains in each sector can be constructed, and demonstrate the capacity for generating different fermion mass scales. Lastly we discuss supersymmetric extensions of such schemes.

  2. Hidden Gauge Structure of Supersymmetric Free Differential Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, L; Ravera, L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of the nilpotent fermionic generator Q' introduced in Ref. [3] and appearing in the hidden supergroup underlying the free differential algebra (FDA) of D=11 supergravity. We give a physical explanation of its role by looking at the gauge properties of the theory. We find that its presence is necessary, in order that the extra 1-forms of the hidden supergroup give rise to the correct gauge transformations of the p-forms of the FDA. This interpretation is actually valid for any supergravity containing antisymmetric tensor fields, and any supersymmetric FDA can always be traded for a hidden Lie superalgebra containing extra fermionic nilpotent generators. As an interesting example we construct the hidden superalgebra associated with the FDA of N=2, D=7 supergravity. In this case we are able to parametrize the mutually non local 2- and 3-form B^(2) and B^(3) in terms of hidden 1-forms and find that supersymmetry and gauge invariance require in general the presence of t...

  3. Hidden photons in connection to dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Goodsell, Mark D. [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)

    2013-06-15

    Light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, which reside in a hidden sector have attracted much attention since they are a well motivated feature of many scenarios beyond the Standard Model and furthermore could mediate the interaction with hidden sector dark matter.We review limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay. In addition, we study the possibility of having dark matter in the hidden sector. A simple toy model and different supersymmetric realisations are shown to provide viable dark matter candidates in the hidden sector that are in agreement with recent direct detection limits.

  4. New Canonical Variables for d=11 Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Melosch, S; Melosch, Stephan; Nicolai, Hermann

    1998-01-01

    A set of new canonical variables for $d=11$ supergravity is proposed which renders the supersymmetry variations and the supersymmetry constraint polynomial. The construction is based on the $SO(1,2)\\times SO(16)$ invariant reformulation of $d=11$ supergravity given in previous work, and has some similarities with Ashtekar's reformulation of Einstein's theory. The new bosonic variables fuse the gravitational degrees of freedom with those of the three-index photon $A_{MNP}$ in accordance with the hidden symmetries of the dimensionally reduced theory. Although $E_8$ is not a symmetry of the theory, the bosonic sector exhibits a remarkable $E_8$ structure, hinting at the existence of a novel type of ``exceptional geometry''.

  5. Randomly weighted sums of subexponential random variables with application to ruin theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Q.; Tsitsiashvili, G.

    2003-01-01

    Let {X k , 1 k n} be n independent and real-valued random variables with common subexponential distribution function, and let {k, 1 k n} be other n random variables independent of {X k , 1 k n} and satisfying a k b for some 0 < a b < for all 1 k n. This paper proves that the asymptotic relations P (

  6. Randomly weighted sums of subexponential random variables with application to ruin theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Q.; Tsitsiashvili, G.

    2003-01-01

    Let {X k , 1 k n} be n independent and real-valued random variables with common subexponential distribution function, and let {k, 1 k n} be other n random variables independent of {X k , 1 k n} and satisfying a k b for some 0 < a b < for all 1 k n. This paper proves that the asymptotic relations P (

  7. Extended Lubrication Theory: Estimation of Fluid Flow in Channels with Variable Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Tavakol, Behrouz; Froehlicher, Guillaume; Stone, Howard A

    2014-01-01

    Lubrication theory is broadly applicable to the flow characterization of thin fluid films and the motion of particles near surfaces. We offer an extension to lubrication theory by considering higher-order terms of the analytical approximation to describe the fluid flow in a channel with features of a modest aspect ratio. We find good agreement between our analytical results and numerical simulations. We show that the extended lubrication theory is a robust tool for an accurate estimate of laminar fluid flow in channels with features on the order of the channel height, accounting for both smooth and sharp changes in geometry.

  8. Modelling and Simulation of the Dynamics of the Antigen-Specific T Cell Response Using Variable Structure Control Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anelone, Anet J N; Spurgeon, Sarah K

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and mathematical studies in immunology have revealed that the dynamics of the programmed T cell response to vigorous infection can be conveniently modelled using a sigmoidal or a discontinuous immune response function. This paper hypothesizes strong synergies between this existing work and the dynamical behaviour of engineering systems with a variable structure control (VSC) law. These findings motivate the interpretation of the immune system as a variable structure control system. It is shown that dynamical properties as well as conditions to analytically assess the transition from health to disease can be developed for the specific T cell response from the theory of variable structure control. In particular, it is shown that the robustness properties of the specific T cell response as observed in experiments can be explained analytically using a VSC perspective. Further, the predictive capacity of the VSC framework to determine the T cell help required to overcome chronic Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) infection is demonstrated. The findings demonstrate that studying the immune system using variable structure control theory provides a new framework for evaluating immunological dynamics and experimental observations. A modelling and simulation tool results with predictive capacity to determine how to modify the immune response to achieve healthy outcomes which may have application in drug development and vaccine design.

  9. The Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    experience moderate the relationship between complexity and hidden costs negatively i.e. reduces the cost generating impact of complexity. We develop three hypotheses and test them on comprehensive data from the Offshoring Research Network (ORN). In general, we find support for our hypotheses. A key result...... of offshoring. Specifically, we propose that hidden costs can be explained by the combination of increasing structural, operational and social complexity of offshoring activities. In addition, we suggest that firm orientation towards organizational design as part of an offshoring strategy and offshoring...

  10. Hidden symmetries in jammed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Peter K.; Corwin, Eric I.

    2016-07-01

    There are deep, but hidden, geometric structures within jammed systems, associated with hidden symmetries. These can be revealed by repeated transformations under which these structures lead to fixed points. These geometric structures can be found in the Voronoi tesselation of space defined by the packing. In this paper we examine two iterative processes: maximum inscribed sphere (MIS) inversion and a real-space coarsening scheme. Under repeated iterations of the MIS inversion process we find invariant systems in which every particle is equal to the maximum inscribed sphere within its Voronoi cell. Using a real-space coarsening scheme we reveal behavior in geometric order parameters which is length-scale invariant.

  11. The Consensus String Problem and the Complexity of Comparing Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Rune Bang; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2002-01-01

    The basic theory of hidden Markov models was developed and applied to problems in speech recognition in the late 1960s, and has since then been applied to numerous problems, e.g. biological sequence analysis. Most applications of hidden Markov models are based on efficient algorithms for computing...... the probability of generating a given string, or computing the most likely path generating a given string. In this paper we consider the problem of computing the most likely string, or consensus string, generated by a given model, and its implications on the complexity of comparing hidden Markov models. We show...... that computing the consensus string, and approximating its probability within any constant factor, is NP-hard, and that the same holds for the closely related labeling problem for class hidden Markov models. Furthermore, we establish the NP-hardness of comparing two hidden Markov models under the L∞- and L1...

  12. The Consensus String Problem and the Complexity of Comparing Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Rune Bang; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2002-01-01

    The basic theory of hidden Markov models was developed and applied to problems in speech recognition in the late 1960s, and has since then been applied to numerous problems, e.g. biological sequence analysis. Most applications of hidden Markov models are based on efficient algorithms for computing...... the probability of generating a given string, or computing the most likely path generating a given string. In this paper we consider the problem of computing the most likely string, or consensus string, generated by a given model, and its implications on the complexity of comparing hidden Markov models. We show...... that computing the consensus string, and approximating its probability within any constant factor, is NP-hard, and that the same holds for the closely related labeling problem for class hidden Markov models. Furthermore, we establish the NP-hardness of comparing two hidden Markov models under the L∞- and L1...

  13. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, Johannes M. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Plefka, Jan C. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2014-03-01

    First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.

  14. Hidden Crises and Communication : An Interactional Analysis of Hidden Crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klarenbeek, Annette

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I describe the ways in which the communication discipline can make a hidden crisis transparent. For this purpose I examine the concept of crisis entrepreneurship from a communication point of view. Using discourse analysis, I analyse the discursive practices of crisis entrepreneurs in

  15. Atlas of solar hidden photon emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza,Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2015-07-20

    Hidden photons, gauge bosons of a U(1) symmetry of a hidden sector, can constitute the dark matter of the universe and a smoking gun for large volume compactifications of string theory. In the sub-eV mass range, a possible discovery experiment consists on searching the copious flux of these particles emitted from the Sun in a helioscope setup à la Sikivie. In this paper, we compute in great detail the flux of HPs from the Sun, a necessary ingredient for interpreting such experiments. We provide a detailed exposition of transverse photon-HP oscillations in inhomogenous media, with special focus on resonance oscillations, which play a leading role in many cases. The region of the Sun emitting HPs resonantly is a thin spherical shell for which we justify an averaged-emission formula and which implies a distinctive morphology of the angular distribution of HPs on Earth in many cases. Low mass HPs with energies in the visible and IR have resonances very close to the photosphere where the solar plasma is not fully ionised and requires building a detailed model of solar refraction and absorption. We present results for a broad range of HP masses (from 0–1 keV) and energies (from the IR to the X-ray range), the most complete atlas of solar HP emission to date.

  16. Atlas of solar hidden photon emission

    CERN Document Server

    Redondo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hidden photons, gauge bosons of a U(1) symmetry of a hidden sector, can constitute the dark matter of the universe and a smoking gun for large volume compactifications of string theory. In the sub-eV mass range, a possible discovery experiment consists on searching the copious flux of these particles emitted from the Sun in a helioscope setup \\`a la Sikivie. In this paper, we compute the flux of transversely polarised HPs from the Sun, a necessary ingredient for interpreting such experiments. We provide a detailed exposition of photon-HP oscillations in inhomogenous media, with special focus on resonance oscillations, which play a leading role in many cases. The region of the Sun emitting HPs resonantly is a thin spherical shell for which we justify an averaged-emission formula and which implies a distinctive morphology of the angular distribution of HPs on Earth in many cases. Low mass HPs with energies in the visible and IR have resonances very close to the photosphere where the solar plasma is not fully io...

  17. Multi-Partite EPR Entangled State Representation for Continuous Variables and Its Application in Squeezing Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Nian-Quan

    2005-01-01

    @@ By extending the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) bipartite entanglement to an n-partite case, we construct the common eigenstate of the n-partite total coordinate and relative momenta for the continuous variables. The entanglement property of the state is shown. The classical dilation transform of variables in such a state induces a new n-mode squeezing operator related to an n-mode bosonic operator realization of SU(1,1) Lie algebra.

  18. Modeling Multiple Risks: Hidden Domain of Attraction

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Abhimanyu

    2011-01-01

    Hidden regular variation is a sub-model of multivariate regular variation and facilitates accurate estimation of joint tail probabilities. We generalize the model of hidden regular variation to what we call hidden domain of attraction. We exhibit examples that illustrate the need for a more general model and discuss detection and estimation techniques.

  19. Pentaquark states with hidden charm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijker, Roelof

    2017-07-01

    I develop an extension of the usual three-flavor quark model to four flavors (u, d, s and c), and discuss the classification of pentaquark states with hidden charm. This work is motivated by the recent observation of such states by the LHCb Collatoration at CERN.

  20. Microgenetic analysis of hidden figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the phenomenological and processual aspects of the perception of hidden figures were compared. The question was whether the more probable percepts of hidden figures, compared to the less probable percepts, were generated in earlier stages of the perceptual process. In the pilot study the subjects were asked to say what they see in a complex linear pattern. The three most frequent and the three least frequent perceptual descriptions were selected. In the experiment the microgenesis of the perception of hidden figures was investigated. The primed matching paradigm and the same-different task were used. In each experiment two types of test figures were contrasted: the more frequent and the less frequent ones. There were two prime types: identical (equal to test figures and complex (the pattern with hidden test figures. The prime duration was varied, 50 ms and 400 ms. The main result indicates that in the case of complex priming the more frequent test figures were processed significantly faster than the less frequent ones in both prime duration conditions. These results suggest that the faster the processing of a figure, the more probable the perceptual generation of this figure.

  1. Key Variables of Merging Behaviour: Empirical Comparison between Two Sites and Assessment of Gap Acceptance Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marczak, F.; Daamen, W.; Buisson, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents two empirical trajectory data sets focusing on the merging behaviour on a motorway, both in the Netherlands and in France. A careful review of the literature shows that the main theories explaining this behaviour rely on the hypothesis of gap acceptance, i.e. the fact that each d

  2. RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON GAUGE-INVARIANT VARIABLES IN GAUGE THEORIES, VOLUME 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAN BAAL,P.; ORLAND,P.; PISARSKI,R.

    2000-06-01

    This four-day workshop focused on the wide variety of approaches to the non-perturbative physics of QCD. The main topic was the formulation of non-Abelian gauge theory in orbit space, but some other ideas were discussed, in particular the possible extension of the Maldacena conjecture to nonsupersymmetric gauge theories. The idea was to involve most of the participants in general discussions on the problem. Panel discussions were organized to further encourage debate and understanding. Most of the talks roughly fell into three categories: (1) Variational methods in field theory; (2) Anti-de Sitter space ideas; (3) The fundamental domain, gauge fixing, Gribov copies and topological objects (both in the continuum and on a lattice). In particular some remarkable progress in three-dimensional gauge theories was presented, from the analytic side by V.P. Nair and mostly from the numerical side by O. Philipsen. This work may ultimately have important implications for RHIC experiments on the high-temperature quark-gluon plasma.

  3. Culture's Consequences on Student Motivation: Capturing Cross-Cultural Universality and Variability through Personal Investment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Culture influences basic motivational processes; however, Western theories of achievement motivation seem to have neglected the role of culture. They are inadequate when trying to explain student motivation and engagement across a wide range of cultural groups because they may not have the conceptual tools needed to handle culturally relevant…

  4. Culture's Consequences on Student Motivation: Capturing Cross-Cultural Universality and Variability through Personal Investment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Culture influences basic motivational processes; however, Western theories of achievement motivation seem to have neglected the role of culture. They are inadequate when trying to explain student motivation and engagement across a wide range of cultural groups because they may not have the conceptual tools needed to handle culturally relevant…

  5. An Examination of Date Rape, Victim Dress, and Perceiver Variables within the Context of Attribution Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Jane E.; Freeburg, Elizabeth W.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the influence of victim dress, perceiver gender, situational relevance, and personal relevance on attributions of responsibility for date rape by 632 college students. Attributions of responsibility were significantly influenced by perceiver gender and victim dress. Discusses implications for attribution theory and practical implications,…

  6. Testing theories of dietary behavior change in youth using the mediating variable model with intervention programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our purpose was to review and critique current experimentally based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth, and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) wer...

  7. RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON GAUGE-INVARIANT VARIABLES IN GAUGE THEORIES, VOLUME 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VAN BAAL,P.; ORLAND,P.; PISARSKI,R.

    2000-06-01

    This four-day workshop focused on the wide variety of approaches to the non-perturbative physics of QCD. The main topic was the formulation of non-Abelian gauge theory in orbit space, but some other ideas were discussed, in particular the possible extension of the Maldacena conjecture to nonsupersymmetric gauge theories. The idea was to involve most of the participants in general discussions on the problem. Panel discussions were organized to further encourage debate and understanding. Most of the talks roughly fell into three categories: (1) Variational methods in field theory; (2) Anti-de Sitter space ideas; (3) The fundamental domain, gauge fixing, Gribov copies and topological objects (both in the continuum and on a lattice). In particular some remarkable progress in three-dimensional gauge theories was presented, from the analytic side by V.P. Nair and mostly from the numerical side by O. Philipsen. This work may ultimately have important implications for RHIC experiments on the high-temperature quark-gluon plasma.

  8. Key Variables of Merging Behaviour: Empirical Comparison between Two Sites and Assessment of Gap Acceptance Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marczak, F.; Daamen, W.; Buisson, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents two empirical trajectory data sets focusing on the merging behaviour on a motorway, both in the Netherlands and in France. A careful review of the literature shows that the main theories explaining this behaviour rely on the hypothesis of gap acceptance, i.e. the fact that each

  9. Variability in fricative production and spectra: implications for the hyper- and hypo- and quantal theories of speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabain, M

    2001-03-01

    Fricative spectral data are compared with articulatory data from electropalatographic (EPG) recordings in an investigation of coarticulatory effects on the acoustic signal. Data were taken from CV tokens produced by four female speakers of Australian English. Results are presented for the coronal fricatives /theta s [symbol: see text] z [symbol: see text]/ in seven monophthong vowel contexts. The analysis consists of a comparison of spectral centre of gravity (COG) with EPG centre of gravity measured along the horizontal dimension. The correlation between the articulatory and the acoustic data is quite high. Overall, the sibilant fricatives show very little variability in production, while the nonsibilant dental shows a good deal of variability. This is reflected in the spectral output. It is also shown that the alveolar sibilants show more effect from vowel context than do the postalveolar sibilants. These results are interpreted as showing that coarticulatory resistance is indeed greater for sibilant fricatives, but that degree of tongue body raising inherent in the fricative's production must also be taken into account. The results for overall variability are discussed with reference to the Hyper- and Hypo- and Quantal Theories of speech production. It is suggested that sibilant fricatives do not lend themselves to the articulatory imprecision which, according to these theories, characterizes perceptually salient, and typologically common, speech sounds.

  10. Mixed quantum-classical dynamics using collective electronic variables: A better alternative to electronic friction theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ryabinkin, Ilya G

    2016-01-01

    An accurate description of nonadiabatic dynamics of molecular species on metallic surfaces poses a serious computational challenge associated with a multitude of closely-spaced electronic states. We propose a mixed quantum-classical scheme that addresses this challenge by introducing collective electronic variables. These variables are defined through analytic block-diagonalization applied to the time-dependent Hamiltonian matrix governing the electronic dynamics. We compare our scheme with the Ehrenfest approach and with a full-memory electronic friction model on a one-dimensional "adatom + atomic chain" model. Our simulations demonstrate that collective-mode dynamics with only few (2-3) electronic variables is robust and can describe a variety of situations: from a chemisorbed atom on an insulator to an atom on a metallic surface. Our molecular model also reveals that the friction approach is prone to unpredictable and catastrophic failures.

  11. The exact decomposition of gauge variables in lattice Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Akihiro; Kondo, Kei-Ichi; Shinohara, Toru

    2010-07-01

    In this Letter, we consider lattice versions of the decomposition of the Yang-Mills field a la Cho-Faddeev-Niemi, which was extended by Kondo, Shinohara and Murakami in the continuum formulation. For the SU (N) gauge group, we propose a set of defining equations for specifying the decomposition of the gauge link variable and solve them exactly without using the ansatz adopted in the previous studies for SU (2) and SU (3). As a result, we obtain the general form of the decomposition for SU (N) gauge link variables and confirm the previous results obtained for SU (2) and SU (3).

  12. Nuclear scissors modes and hidden angular momenta

    CERN Document Server

    Balbutsev, E B; Schuck, P

    2016-01-01

    The coupled dynamics of low lying modes and various giant resonances are studied with the help of the Wigner Function Moments method generalized to take into account spin degrees of freedom and pair correlations simultaneously. The method is based on Time Dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations. The model of the harmonic oscillator including spin-orbit potential plus quadrupole-quadrupole and spin-spin interactions is considered. New low lying spin dependent modes are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the scissors modes. A new source of nuclear magnetism, connected with counter-rotation of spins up and down around the symmetry axis (hidden angular momenta), is discovered. Its inclusion into the theory allows one to improve substantially the agreement with experimental data in the description of energies and transition probabilities of scissors modes.

  13. Entropy generation in Gaussian quantum transformations: applying the replica method to continuous-variable quantum information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagatsos, Christos N.; Karanikas, Alexandros I.; Kordas, Georgios; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2016-02-01

    In spite of their simple description in terms of rotations or symplectic transformations in phase space, quadratic Hamiltonians such as those modelling the most common Gaussian operations on bosonic modes remain poorly understood in terms of entropy production. For instance, determining the quantum entropy generated by a Bogoliubov transformation is notably a hard problem, with generally no known analytical solution, while it is vital to the characterisation of quantum communication via bosonic channels. Here we overcome this difficulty by adapting the replica method, a tool borrowed from statistical physics and quantum field theory. We exhibit a first application of this method to continuous-variable quantum information theory, where it enables accessing entropies in an optical parametric amplifier. As an illustration, we determine the entropy generated by amplifying a binary superposition of the vacuum and a Fock state, which yields a surprisingly simple, yet unknown analytical expression.

  14. Impact of Blended Learning Environments Based on Algo-Heuristic Theory on Some Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa AYGÜN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Algo–Heuristic Theory based blended learning environments on students’ computer skills in their preparation of presentations, levels of attitudes towards computers, and levels of motivation regarding the information technology course were investigated. The research sample was composed of 71 students. A semi–empirical design with a pre-test–post-test, and control group was used. Research data was collected using an Academic Achievement Test, the Computer Attitude Scale for Primary School Students and the Motivation Scale for the Information Technology Course. A one way ANOVA was conducted on all the data collected and the results revealed that the achievements and motivation levels of the students who studied in an Algo–Heuristic Theory based blended learning environment in the information technology course increased significantly.

  15. Three-dimensional interfacial wave theory of dendritic growth: (Ⅰ). multiple variables expansion solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yong-Qiang; Tang Xiong-Xin; Xu Jian-Jun

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic pattern formation at the interface between liquid and solid is a commonly observed phenomenon in crystal growth and solidification process. The theoretical investigation of dendritic growth is one of the most profound and highly challenging subjects in the broad areas of intcrfacial pattern formation, condensed matter physics and materials science, preoccupying many researchers from various areas. Some longstanding key issues on this subject finally gained a breakthrough in the late of last century, via the 'Interracial Wave (IFW) Theory' on the ground of systematical global stability analysis of the basic state of dendritic growth. The original form of the IFW theory mainly focus on the investigation of various axi-symmetric unsteady perturbed modes solutions around the axi-symmctric basic state of system of dendritic growth. In reality, the system may allow various non-axi-symmctric, unsteady perturbed states. Whether or not the system of dendritic growth allows some growing non-axi-symmetric modes? Will the stationary dendritic pattern be destroyed by some of such non-axi-symmetric modes? Or, in one word, what is the stability property of the system, once the non-axi-symmetric modes can be evoked? The answers for these questions are important for the solid foundation of IFW theory. The present work attempts to settle down these issues and develop a three-dimensional (3D) interracial wave theory of dendritic growth. Our investigations verify that dendritic growth indeed allows a discrete set of non-axi-symmetric unstable global wave modes, which gives rise to a set of multiple arms spiral waves propagating along the Ivantsov's paraboloid.

  16. Open and Closed World Models in Kaluza-Klein-Theory with Variables G and Λ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashed, Gamal G. L.

    2014-11-01

    The field equation of higher dimensions theory, have been applied in the area of cosmology. The resulting differential equations are solved for open and closed. We derive a relation between the Einstein constant G( t) and the cosmological constant Λ( t) from the conservation law T μ ν ; ν =0. We give a specific form of Λ( t) to solve the non-linear differential equations. Some cosmological parameters are calculated and some relevant cosmological problems are discussed.

  17. The mesoscopic conductance of disordered rings, its random matrix theory and the generalized variable range hopping picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stotland, Alexander; Peer, Tal; Cohen, Doron [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84005 (Israel); Budoyo, Rangga; Kottos, Tsampikos [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)

    2008-07-11

    The calculation of the conductance of disordered rings requires a theory that goes beyond the Kubo-Drude formulation. Assuming 'mesoscopic' circumstances the analysis of the electro-driven transitions shows similarities with a percolation problem in energy space. We argue that the texture and the sparsity of the perturbation matrix dictate the value of the conductance, and study its dependence on the disorder strength, ranging from the ballistic to the Anderson localization regime. An improved sparse random matrix model is introduced to capture the essential ingredients of the problem, and leads to a generalized variable range hopping picture. (fast track communication)

  18. Nonintentional behavioural responses to psi : hidden targets and hidden observers

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Mary-Jane Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Psi is the phenomenon of apparently responding to or receiving information by means other than the recognised senses. Psi information may influence human behaviour, without the individual intending this or even being aware of it. This thesis seeks to investigate nonintentional behavioural responses to psi. We present five empirical studies that investigated nonintentional behavioural responses to psi information. In each study, the psi information was hidden from participants, ...

  19. Physical nature of the hidden mass of the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroshkevich, A.G.; Khlopov, M.Y.

    1984-04-01

    Astronomical observational data on the large-scale structure of the Universe and on the distribution of hidden mass, interpreted within the framework of the adiabatic theory of galaxy formation, point to a dominance of weakly interacting particles with a mass in the range of 15--60 eV in the present Universe. Bounds are derived on the admissible admixtures of other relic particles.

  20. A Hidden Twelve-Dimensional SuperPoincare Symmetry In Eleven Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno

    2003-12-13

    First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional superPoincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve dimensional superPoincare symmetry that governs the theory.

  1. Hidden twelve-dimensional super Poincaré symmetry in eleven dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak; Pasqua, A; Zumino, B; Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional superPoincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve dimensional superPoincare symmetry that governs the theory.

  2. Living on the multi-dimensional edge: seeking hidden risks using regular variation

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Bikramjit; Resnick, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    Multivariate regular variation plays a role assessing tail risk in diverse applications such as finance, telecommunications, insurance and environmental science. The classical theory, being based on an asymptotic model, sometimes leads to inaccurate and useless estimates of probabilities of joint tail regions. This problem can be partly ameliorated by using hidden regular variation [Resnick, 2002, Mitra and Resnick, 2010]. We offer a more flexible definition of hidden regular variation that provides improved risk estimates for a larger class of risk tail regions.

  3. Semiclassical approach to model quantum fluids using the statistical associating fluid theory for systems with potentials of variable range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejos, Víctor M; Gil-Villegas, Alejandro

    2012-05-14

    Thermodynamic properties of quantum fluids are described using an extended version of the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range (SAFT-VR) that takes into account quantum corrections to the Helmholtz free energy A, based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. We present the theoretical background of this approach (SAFT-VRQ), considering two different cases depending on the continuous or discontinuous nature of the particles pair interaction. For the case of continuous potentials, we demonstrate that the standard Wigner-Kirkwood theory for quantum fluids can be derived from the de Broglie-Bohm formalism for quantum mechanics that can be incorporated within the Barker and Henderson perturbation theory for liquids in a straightforward way. When the particles interact via a discontinuous pair potential, the SAFT-VR method can be combined with the perturbation theory developed by Singh and Sinha [J. Chem. Phys. 67, 3645 (1977); and ibid. 68, 562 (1978)]. We present an analytical expression for the first-order quantum perturbation term for a square-well potential, and the theory is applied to model thermodynamic properties of hydrogen, deuterium, neon, and helium-4. Vapor-liquid equilibrium, liquid and vapor densities, isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficients and inversion curves are predicted accurately with respect to experimental data. We find that quantum corrections are important for the global behavior of properties of these fluids and not only for the low-temperature regime. Predictions obtained for hydrogen compare very favorably with respect to cubic equations of state.

  4. Semiclassical approach to model quantum fluids using the statistical associating fluid theory for systems with potentials of variable range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejos, Víctor M.; Gil-Villegas, Alejandro

    2012-05-01

    Thermodynamic properties of quantum fluids are described using an extended version of the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range (SAFT-VR) that takes into account quantum corrections to the Helmholtz free energy A, based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. We present the theoretical background of this approach (SAFT-VRQ), considering two different cases depending on the continuous or discontinuous nature of the particles pair interaction. For the case of continuous potentials, we demonstrate that the standard Wigner-Kirkwood theory for quantum fluids can be derived from the de Broglie-Bohm formalism for quantum mechanics that can be incorporated within the Barker and Henderson perturbation theory for liquids in a straightforward way. When the particles interact via a discontinuous pair potential, the SAFT-VR method can be combined with the perturbation theory developed by Singh and Sinha [J. Chem. Phys. 67, 3645 (1977); Singh and Sinha J. Chem. Phys. 68, 562 (1978)]. We present an analytical expression for the first-order quantum perturbation term for a square-well potential, and the theory is applied to model thermodynamic properties of hydrogen, deuterium, neon, and helium-4. Vapor-liquid equilibrium, liquid and vapor densities, isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficients and inversion curves are predicted accurately with respect to experimental data. We find that quantum corrections are important for the global behavior of properties of these fluids and not only for the low-temperature regime. Predictions obtained for hydrogen compare very favorably with respect to cubic equations of state.

  5. Korean Conference on Several Complex Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Byun, Jisoo; Gaussier, Hervé; Hirachi, Kengo; Kim, Kang-Tae; Shcherbina, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    This volume includes 28 chapters by authors who are leading researchers of the world describing many of the up-to-date aspects in the field of several complex variables (SCV). These contributions are based upon their presentations at the 10th Korean Conference on Several Complex Variables (KSCV10), held as a satellite conference to the International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM) 2014 in Seoul, Korea. SCV has been the term for multidimensional complex analysis, one of the central research areas in mathematics. Studies over time have revealed a variety of rich, intriguing, new knowledge in complex analysis and geometry of analytic spaces and holomorphic functions which were "hidden" in the case of complex dimension one. These new theories have significant intersections with algebraic geometry, differential geometry, partial differential equations, dynamics, functional analysis and operator theory, and sheaves and cohomology, as well as the traditional analysis of holomorphic functions in all dimensions. This...

  6. Seiberg duality versus hidden local symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Steven

    2012-01-01

    It is widely believed that the emergent magnetic gauge symmetry of SQCD is analogous to a hidden local symmetry (HLS). We explore this idea in detail, deriving the entire (spontaneously broken) magnetic theory by applying the HLS formalism to spontaneously broken SU(N) SQCD. We deduce the K\\"ahler potential in the HLS description, and show that gauge and flavour symmetry are smoothly restored along certain scaling directions in moduli space. We propose that it is these symmetry restoring directions, associated with the R-symmetry of the theory, that allow full Seiberg duality. Reconsidering the origin of the magnetic gauge bosons as the rho-mesons of the electric theory, colour-flavour locking allows a simple determination of the parameter "a". Its value continuously interpolates between a=2 on the baryonic branch of moduli space - corresponding to "vector meson dominance" - and a=1 on the mesonic branch. Both limiting values are consistent with previous results in the literature. The HLS formalism is further...

  7. Hidden topological angles and Lefschetz thimbles

    CERN Document Server

    Behtash, Alireza; Schaefer, Thomas; Unsal, Mithat

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of hidden topological angles (HTAs) in a large class of quantum field theories and quantum mechanical systems. HTAs are distinct from theta-parameters in the lagrangian. They arise as invariant angle associated with saddle points of the complexified path integral and their descent manifolds (Lefschetz thimbles). Physical effects of HTAs become most transparent upon analytic continuation in $n_f$ to non-integer number of flavors, reducing in the integer $n_f$ limit to a $\\mathbb Z_2$ valued phase difference between dominant saddles. In ${\\cal N}=1$ super Yang-Mills theory we demonstrate the microscopic mechanism for the vanishing of the gluon condensate. The same effect leads to an anomalously small condensate in a QCD-like $SU(N)$ gauge theory with fermions in the two-index representation. The basic phenomenon is that, contrary to folklore, the gluon condensate can receive both positive and negative contributions in a semi-classical expansion. In quantum mechanics, a HTA leads to ...

  8. Towards Einstein's dream of a unified field theory: Reports from a journey on a long and winding road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.

    2012-05-01

    With general arguments it is motivated that we are still in search of a hidden-variables theory or sub-quantum mechanics. Aspects of a solvable model for quantum measurements are discussed, and a solution of the quantum measurement problem within ordinary quantum theory. The related statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics is advocated. Soliton approaches for elementary particles are proposed and some classical looking aspects of the relativistic hydrogen atom are mentioned. The integration of these solitons with stochastic electrodynamics is sketched.

  9. Discrete variable representation in electronic structure theory: quadrature grids for least-squares tensor hypercontraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Robert M; Hohenstein, Edward G; Martínez, Todd J; Sherrill, C David

    2013-05-21

    We investigate the application of molecular quadratures obtained from either standard Becke-type grids or discrete variable representation (DVR) techniques to the recently developed least-squares tensor hypercontraction (LS-THC) representation of the electron repulsion integral (ERI) tensor. LS-THC uses least-squares fitting to renormalize a two-sided pseudospectral decomposition of the ERI, over a physical-space quadrature grid. While this procedure is technically applicable with any choice of grid, the best efficiency is obtained when the quadrature is tuned to accurately reproduce the overlap metric for quadratic products of the primary orbital basis. Properly selected Becke DFT grids can roughly attain this property. Additionally, we provide algorithms for adopting the DVR techniques of the dynamics community to produce two different classes of grids which approximately attain this property. The simplest algorithm is radial discrete variable representation (R-DVR), which diagonalizes the finite auxiliary-basis representation of the radial coordinate for each atom, and then combines Lebedev-Laikov spherical quadratures and Becke atomic partitioning to produce the full molecular quadrature grid. The other algorithm is full discrete variable representation (F-DVR), which uses approximate simultaneous diagonalization of the finite auxiliary-basis representation of the full position operator to produce non-direct-product quadrature grids. The qualitative features of all three grid classes are discussed, and then the relative efficiencies of these grids are compared in the context of LS-THC-DF-MP2. Coarse Becke grids are found to give essentially the same accuracy and efficiency as R-DVR grids; however, the latter are built from explicit knowledge of the basis set and may guide future development of atom-centered grids. F-DVR is found to provide reasonable accuracy with markedly fewer points than either Becke or R-DVR schemes.

  10. Dynamics of a variable mass system applied to spacecraft rocket attitude theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Jason Dominic

    This research project is a study of the dynamics of a variable mass system. The scope of this research project is to gain understanding as to how a variable mass system will behave. The intent is to bring the level of understanding of variable mass dynamics higher and closer to the level of constant mass dynamics in the area of spacecrafts in particular. A main contribution is the finding of a set of criteria to minimize or eliminate the deviation of the nutation angle (or cone angle or angle of attack) of spacecraft rockets passively, i.e. without active control. The motivation for this research project is the Star 48 anomaly. The Star 48 is a solid rocket motor which has propelled (boosted) communication satellites from lower earth orbit to a higher one during the 1980's. The anomaly is that when the spacecraft rocket is being propelled, the nutation angle may deviate excessively which is considered undesirable. In the first part of this research project, a variable mass system is described and defined and the governing equations are derived. The type of governing equations derived are those that are most useful for analyzing the motion of a spacecraft rocket. The method of derivation makes use of Leibnitz Theorem, Divergence Theorem and Newton's Second Law of Motion. Next, the governing equations are specialized with several assumptions which are generally accepted assumptions applied in the analysis of spacecraft rockets. With these assumptions, the form governing equations is discussed and then the equations are solved analytically for the system's angular velocity. Having solved for the angular velocity of the system, the attitude of the system is obtained using a unique method which circumvents the nonlinearities that exist using Euler Angles and their kinematical equations. The attitude is approximately found analytically and a set of criteria is discussed which will minimize or eliminate the deviation of the nutation angle of a spacecraft rocket. Finally

  11. The Influence of Psychographic Variables on the Theory of Exit, Voice, and Loyalty of Customer Complaints Behaviour in Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preko Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses Customer Complaints Behaviour (CCB using psychographic factors and the Theory of Exit, Voice and Loyalty. Prior studies on the continent of Africa have explored customer dissatisfaction, service failure, complaints handling and complaint attitudes, but not in association with psychographic factors. This research gap is addressed with a new conceptual understanding that integrates psychographic variables and the Theory of Exit, Voice and Loyalty in a single study. In total, 171 valid questionnaires were gathered from customers of two public banks in Accra chosen randomly, and a convenience sampling method was used for the respondents. This study has revealed that assertiveness, conservatism, attitude towards complaints, sense of justice, service attribute significantly influence the theory of Exit, Voice and Loyalty of CCB. What is more, the findings have also shown that there is a statistical difference between complainers and non-complainers. Complainers are more likely to stay loyal, and are less likely to voice out or leave their bankers. We suggest that banks should not only center CCB strategies towards complainers, but should also take into account non-complainers as they are equally important to businesses.

  12. A Study on Evaluation Model of IT Industry's Innovation Capability Based Variable Weight Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zi-biao; WANG lei; HU Bao-min

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, IT Industry's innovation capability is considered to be the innovation output capability after complex operation of industry input in industry system. In this complex process, R&D personnel input and R&D expense input are un-substitutable, and for evaluation of innovation capability, innovation input and innovation output also are un-substitutable. Based on this theory, an evaluation model of sustaining strength index is put forward. Considering both input scale and output contribution of IT industry's innovation system, this model reflects the un-substitutability of every evaluation aspects. The measurement result not only shows the industry innovation capability, but also reflects the support degree to economy. At last the data of IT industry in China are provided between 1994 and 2004 for empirical study.

  13. The greek infinitive in variable deliberative, principally dependent questions: an interpretation in terms of naturalness theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Kavčič

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper I investigate the use of the infinitive in dependent delibera­ tive clauses in Greek, a phenomenon occurring in several (modern languages, cf. Slovene Nisem vedel, kaj storiti. 'I didn't know what to do?', English I didn't know what to do., German Was tun? 'What to do?'l. In the first part I present the development of deliberative infinitive clauses in Post-Classical Greek with a special emphasis on the use of this form in two Early Byzantine prose writings (in Pratum Spirituale and in Vita Theodori Syceotae, both belonging to the 6th;7th century AD, where some peculiarities are observed. In the second part an attempt is made to interpret the basic characteristics of the Greek infinitive in dependent deliberative clauses from the perspective of Naturalness Theory.

  14. A comparison of experiment and theory for sound propagation in variable area ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Kaiser, J. E.; Marshall, R. L.; Hurst, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental and analytical program has been carried out to evaluate sound suppression techniques in ducts that produce refraction effects due to axial velocity gradients. The analytical program employs a computer code based on the method of multiple scales to calculate the influence of axial variations due to slow changes in the cross-sectional area as well as transverse gradients due to the wall boundary layers. Detailed comparisons between the analytical predictions and the experimental measurements have been made. The circumferential variations of pressure amplitudes and phases at several axial positions have been examined in straight and variable area ducts, with hard walls and lined sections, and with and without a mean flow. Reasonable agreement between the theoretical and experimental results has been found.

  15. Behavioral theory of depression: reinforcement as a mediating variable between avoidance and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, John P; Hopko, Derek R

    2011-06-01

    Behavioral theory posits that certain environmental changes and avoidant behaviors inhibit individuals from experiencing environmental reward and reinforcement and subsequently leads to the development and maintenance of depressive symptoms. Using self-report and behavioral (daily diary) indices of environmental reward as proxy measures for positive reinforcement, this investigation examined whether environmental reward mediated the relationship between avoidance and depression. When controlling for anxiety, both indices of environmental reward significantly mediated the relationships of depression with cognitive, behavioral and total avoidance. Post-hoc mediation analyses were conducted to examine potential gender differences. Self-reported environmental reward significantly mediated the relationship between avoidance and depression across both genders. Among females, however, daily diary-measured reward only mediated the relation between cognitive avoidance and depression. In males daily diary reward was a mediator with all three forms of avoidance and depression. This investigation provides initial support for reinforcement as a significant mediator between avoidance and depression and further highlights the relevance of avoidance and reinforcement in behavioral conceptualizations of depression.

  16. Can Protection Motivation Theory explain farmers'adaptation to Climate change/variability decision making in the Gambia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagagnan, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    In the Gambia, Changes in the climate pattern has affected and continue to affect the agriculture sector and therefore calling for effective adaptation policies. The present study aimed to explain farmers' adoption of climate change adaptation measure through the protection motivation theory in The Central River Region of The Gambia. Primary data were collected in all the eight communities of the study area. A transect walk was conducted first followed by a survey with 283 informants. The perception variables were referring to the past 20 years while the stated implementation was addressing the current adaptation practices. Results showed that on one hand, most of the perception variables such as severity, ability to withstand, and internal barriers are significantly correlated to protection motivation and on the other hand Protection motivation and stated implementation for water conservation technique are strongly correlated. Structural Equation Modeling confirms the mediation role of Protection motivation between Farmers stated implementation and their perception of climate variability. Decrease in soil water storage capacity, degradation of the quality of soil surface structure, decrease of the length of the growing season are factors that motivate farmers to implement an adaptation measure. Cost of the implementation and farmers' vulnerability are factors that prevent farmers to implement an adaptation measure. The cost of the implementation is the main barrier to farmers `protection motivation. Therefore the study suggested that farmers' awareness about climate change/variability should be increased through farmers' field school and awareness campaigns, farmers' resilience should be improved and adaptation measures should be made accessible to farmers through loans facilities and subsidizes application.

  17. Theory of resonant tunneling in a variably spaced multiquantum well structure - An Airy function approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, K. F.; Summers, C. J.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical study of resonant tunneling in multilayered heterostructures is presented based on an exact solution of the Schroedinger equation under the application of a constant electric field. By use of the transfer matrix approach, the transmissivity of the structure is determined as a function of the incident electron energy. The approach presented herein is easily extended to many layer structures where it is more accurate than other existing transfer matrix or Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) models. The transmission resonances are compared to the bound-state energies calculated for a finite square well under bias using either an asymmetric square-well model or the exact solution of an infinite square well under the application of an electric field. The results show good agreement with other existing models as well as with the bound-state energies. The calculations were then applied to a new superlattice structure, the variably spaced superlattice energy filter, which is designed such that under bias the spatial quantization levels fully align. Based on these calculations, a new class of resonant tunneling superlattice devices can be designed.

  18. Theory and practice of a variable dome splitter for gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeker, Peter; Haas, Torsten; Schulze Lammers, Peter

    2013-04-19

    For olfactometric measurements in combination with gas chromatography a device is needed to split the GC effluent between the detector and the sniffing port. Fixed split ratios are obtained by simple flow splitters with appropriate restrictions towards the two outlets. Variable split ratios are possible with additional control flows. One such device is a dome splitter with one input flow (the GC effluent), two output flows (to the two outlets) and two control inputs. Preliminary experiments revealed deviations from the expected split ratios of such a device. The dimensioning of the flow restrictors at only one working point was not sufficient to obtain the expected split ratios over the whole temperature range of a GC run. Therefore a physical model of the flow system has been developed, taking into account the temperature dependence of the restrictors and the internal pressure in the dome. This included the solution of the flow (respectively the mass) balance under the condition of a compressible, isothermal and laminar flow regime. The measurements are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. The model can therefore be used to optimise the dimensions of the restrictions and to calculate the effective split ratio at a given temperature during the GC run.

  19. Evolution of learning strategies in temporally and spatially variable environments: a review of theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kenichi; Feldman, Marcus W

    2014-02-01

    The theoretical literature from 1985 to the present on the evolution of learning strategies in variable environments is reviewed, with the focus on deterministic dynamical models that are amenable to local stability analysis, and on deterministic models yielding evolutionarily stable strategies. Individual learning, unbiased and biased social learning, mixed learning, and learning schedules are considered. A rapidly changing environment or frequent migration in a spatially heterogeneous environment favors individual learning over unbiased social learning. However, results are not so straightforward in the context of learning schedules or when biases in social learning are introduced. The three major methods of modeling temporal environmental change--coevolutionary, two-timescale, and information decay--are compared and shown to sometimes yield contradictory results. The so-called Rogers' paradox is inherent in the two-timescale method as originally applied to the evolution of pure strategies, but is often eliminated when the other methods are used. Moreover, Rogers' paradox is not observed for the mixed learning strategies and learning schedules that we review. We believe that further theoretical work is necessary on learning schedules and biased social learning, based on models that are logically consistent and empirically pertinent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. On quantum algorithms for noncommutative hidden subgroups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettinger, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hoeyer, P. [Odense Univ. (Denmark)

    1998-12-01

    Quantum algorithms for factoring and discrete logarithm have previously been generalized to finding hidden subgroups of finite Abelian groups. This paper explores the possibility of extending this general viewpoint to finding hidden subgroups of noncommutative groups. The authors present a quantum algorithm for the special case of dihedral groups which determines the hidden subgroup in a linear number of calls to the input function. They also explore the difficulties of developing an algorithm to process the data to explicitly calculate a generating set for the subgroup. A general framework for the noncommutative hidden subgroup problem is discussed and they indicate future research directions.

  1. New constraints on hidden photons using very high energy gamma-rays from the Crab Nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zechlin, Hannes-Sebastian; Horns, Dieter [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Extensions of the current standard model of particle physics, in particular those based on string theory, typically predict a new U(1) gauge symmetry in a hidden sector. The corresponding gauge boson, often called hidden photon, naturally interacts with the ordinary photon via gauge kinetic mixing, leading to photon - hidden photon oscillations. In this framework, one expects photon disappearance as a function of the mass of the hidden photon and the mixing angle, loosely constrained from theory. Several experiments have been carried out or are planned to provide constraints on the mass-mixing plane. In this contribution we derive new constraints on the hidden photon parameters, using very high energy {gamma}-rays detected from the Crab Nebula, whose broad-band spectral characteristics are well understood. The very high energy {gamma}-ray observations offer the possibility to provide bounds in a broad mass range at a previously unexplored energy and distance scale. Using existing data that were taken with the HEGRA, H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and Whipple Cherenkov telescopes, we discuss our results in the context of current constraints and consider the possibilities of using astrophysical data to search for hidden photon signatures.

  2. Geographic Variability of the Lithospheric Magnetic Power Spectra on Earth and Mars: Theory, Observation, Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, F. J.; Beggan, C.; Saarimaki, J.; Whaler, K. A.; Lewis, K. W.; Plattner, A.

    2012-12-01

    We elucidate "myths and truths concerning the estimation of power spectra", to paraphrase a paper written by G. Efstathiou. A complete theory and software are available to construct and interpret localized power spectral densities from noisy and incomplete data observed on a spherical surface, but such knowledge has not made it into mainstream geophysical practice. Key are the doubly-orthogonal spherical Slepian functions, and their Cartesian and vectorial relatives. There is confusion in the community on whether to use the Slepian functions as a basis for data approximation, as windows for regularization of power spectral estimates, or hybridly. Each of these choices is legitimate but carries consequences to be characterized statistically. We review the options and present them tutorially, to motivate the scientific analysis of the terrestrial magnetic power spectrum, and that of Mars, which follows. The power spectral density of the lithospheric magnetic field on Earth is broken down in to portions that are geographically limited to the oceans, the continents, and various portions thereof. The different overall power levels and varying character of the power spectra contain much diagnostic information about the generation and preservation of magnetic signatures in the Earth's crust. On Mars, we conducted a parameterized inversion for magnetization strength and decorrelation depth, and compared this to independent, gravity-based estimates for crustal thickness. Both the terrestrial and martian examples are different manifestations of how Slepian functions can be used for power-spectral localization, and in both cases, the uncertainty of the spectral estimates, both on the horizontal axis (degree resolution) and the vertical axis (estimation variance), is easily computed via exact and also approximate relationships. The analytical expressions that are involved may look off-puttingly complex, but the result of the theoretical analysis is a set of simple routines

  3. Identifying 'Hidden' Communities of Practice within Electronic Networks: Some Preliminary Premises

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the possibility of discovering 'hidden' (potential) Communities of Practice (CoPs) inside electronic networks, and then using this knowledge to nurture them into a fully developed Virtual Community of Practice (VCoP). Starting from the standpoint of the need to manage knowledge, it discusses several questions related to this subject: the characteristics of 'hidden' communities; the relation between CoPs, Virtual Communities (VCs), Distributed Communities of Practice (DCoPs) and Virtual Communities of Practice (VCoPs); the methods used to search for 'hidden' CoPs; and the possible ways of changing 'hidden' CoPs into fully developed VCoPs. The paper also presents some preliminary findings from a semi-structured interview conducted in The Higher Education Academy Psychology Network (UK). These findings are contrasted against the theory discussed and some additional proposals are suggested at the end.

  4. Wikipedia mining of hidden links between political leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Frahm, Klaus M; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new method of reduced Google matrix which allows to establish direct and hidden links between a subset of nodes of a large directed network. This approach uses parallels with quantum scattering theory, developed for processes in nuclear and mesoscopic physics and quantum chaos. The method is applied to the Wikipedia networks in different language editions analyzing several groups of political leaders of USA, UK, Germany, France, Russia and G20. We demonstrate that this approach allows to recover reliably direct and hidden links among political leaders. We argue that the reduced Google matrix method can form the mathematical basis for studies in social and political sciences analyzing Leader-Members eXchange (LMX).

  5. Wikipedia mining of hidden links between political leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Klaus M.; Jaffrès-Runser, Katia; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-12-01

    We describe a new method of reduced Google matrix which allows to establish direct and hidden links between a subset of nodes of a large directed network. This approach uses parallels with quantum scattering theory, developed for processes in nuclear and mesoscopic physics and quantum chaos. The method is applied to the Wikipedia networks in different language editions analyzing several groups of political leaders of USA, UK, Germany, France, Russia and G20. We demonstrate that this approach allows to recover reliably direct and hidden links among political leaders. We argue that the reduced Google matrix method can form the mathematical basis for studies in social and political sciences analyzing Leader-Members eXchange (LMX).

  6. Skryté kurikulum vo svetle metodologického holizmu a metodologického individualizmu. / Hidden curriculum in the light of methodological holism and methodological individualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Bomba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses theoretical and methodological problem of hidden curriculum at school. It compares individualistic and holistic approach in connection to research, measurement and analysis of hidden curriculum. The goal of the study is to present the inconsistency in understanding and explaining the concept of hidden curriculum. The inconsistency is grounded in the absence of paradigmatical background. The theories of hidden curriculum are devided into two groups. The first group is grounded in individualistic approach and the second group is grounded in holistic approach. The examples of empirical studies are used as tools to grasp hidden curriculum at school. The study concludes that the deϐinitions and understanding of the concept of hidden curriculum are logical conclusions of methodologicalapproach and empirical investigation of hidden curriculum in research. The methodological approach and empirical investigation reversely constitute the theory of hidden curriculum. The individualistic paradigm grasps hidden curriculum as a an implicit socialization of a child through the actions of individuals in the school. The holistic paradigm understands hidden curriculum as institutionalized nature of ideology or the tool for reproduction of society.

  7. Hidden Markov Models for indirect classification of occupant behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liisberg, Jon Anders Reichert; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Bloem, H.

    2016-01-01

    Even for similar residential buildings, a huge variability in the energy consumption can be observed. This variability is mainly due to the different behaviours of the occupants and this impacts the thermal (temperature setting, window opening, etc.) as well as the electrical (appliances, TV....... This paper focuses on the use of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to create methods for indirect observations and characterisation of occupant behaviour. By applying homogeneous HMMs on the electricity consumption of fourteen apartments, three states describing the data were found suitable. The most likely...

  8. Estimating an Activity Driven Hidden Markov Model

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, David A.; Shakeel, Asif

    2015-01-01

    We define a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) in which each hidden state has time-dependent $\\textit{activity levels}$ that drive transitions and emissions, and show how to estimate its parameters. Our construction is motivated by the problem of inferring human mobility on sub-daily time scales from, for example, mobile phone records.

  9. Insight: Exploring Hidden Roles in Collaborative Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into interaction modes between players in co-located, collaborative games. In particular, hidden traitor games, in which one or more players is secretly working against the group mission, has the effect of increasing paranoia and distrust between players, so this paper looks into the opposite of a hidden traitor – a hidden benefactor. Rather than sabotaging the group mission, the hidden benefactor would help the group achieve the end goal while still having a reason to stay hidden. The paper explores what games with such a role can look like and how the role changes player interactions. Finally, the paper addresses the divide between video game and board game interaction modes; hidden roles are not common within video games, but they are of growing prevalence in board games. This fact, combined with the exploration of hidden benefactors, reveals that hidden roles is a mechanic that video games should develop into in order to match board games’ complexity of player interaction modes.

  10. Lagrangian-Only Quantum Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wharton, K B

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of the path integral, there have been relatively few attempts to look to the Lagrangian for a more realistic framework that might underlie quantum theory. While such realism is not available for the standard path integral or quantum field theory, a promising alternative is to only consider field histories for which the Lagrangian density is always zero. With this change, it appears possible to replace amplitudes with equally-weighted probabilities. This paper demonstrates a proof-of-principle for this approach, using a toy Lagrangian that corresponds to an arbitrary spin state. In this restricted framework one can derive both the Born rule and its limits of applicability. The fact that the Lagrangian obeys future boundary constraints also results in the first continuous, spacetime-based, hidden-variable description of a Bell-inequality-violating system.

  11. Theory of planned behaviour variables and objective walking behaviour do not show seasonal variation in a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stefanie L; French, David P

    2014-02-05

    Longitudinal studies have shown that objectively measured walking behaviour is subject to seasonal variation, with people walking more in summer compared to winter. Seasonality therefore may have the potential to bias the results of randomised controlled trials if there are not adequate statistical or design controls. Despite this there are no studies that assess the impact of seasonality on walking behaviour in a randomised controlled trial, to quantify the extent of such bias. Further there have been no studies assessing how season impacts on the psychological predictors of walking behaviour to date. The aim of the present study was to assess seasonal differences in a) objective walking behaviour and b) Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) variables during a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote walking. 315 patients were recruited to a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote walking in primary care. A series of repeated measures ANCOVAs were conducted to examine the effect of season on pedometer measures of walking behaviour and TPB measures, assessed immediately post-intervention and six months later. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess whether season moderated the prediction of intention and behaviour by TPB measures. There were no significant differences in time spent walking in spring/summer compared to autumn/winter. There was no significant seasonal variation in most TPB variables, although the belief that there will be good weather was significantly higher in spring/summer (F = 19.46, p behaviour, or moderate the effects of TPB variables on intention or behaviour. Seasonality does not influence objectively measured walking behaviour or psychological variables during a randomised controlled trial. Consequently physical activity behaviour outcomes in trials will not be biased by the season in which they are measured. Previous studies may have overestimated the extent of

  12. Helioscope bounds on hidden sector photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, J.

    2007-12-15

    The flux of hypothetical ''hidden photons'' from the Sun is computed under the assumption that they interact with normal matter only through kinetic mixing with the ordinary standard model photon. Requiring that the exotic luminosity is smaller than the standard photon luminosity provides limits for the mixing parameter down to {chi} hidden photon mass. Furthermore, it is pointed point out that helioscopes looking for solar axions are also sensitive to hidden photons. The recent results of the CAST collaboration are used to further constrain the mixing parameter {chi} at low masses (m{sub {gamma}}{sub '}<1 eV) where the luminosity bound is weaker. In this regime the solar hidden photon ux has a sizable contribution of longitudinally polarized hidden photons of low energy which are invisible for current helioscopes. (orig.)

  13. Heating up the Galaxy with hidden photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovsky, Sergei [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University,New York, NY, 10003 (United States); Hernández-Chifflet, Guzmán [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University,New York, NY, 10003 (United States); Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de la República,Montevideo, 11300 (Uruguay)

    2015-12-29

    We elaborate on the dynamics of ionized interstellar medium in the presence of hidden photon dark matter. Our main focus is the ultra-light regime, where the hidden photon mass is smaller than the plasma frequency in the Milky Way. We point out that as a result of the Galactic plasma shielding direct detection of ultra-light photons in this mass range is especially challenging. However, we demonstrate that ultra-light hidden photon dark matter provides a powerful heating source for the ionized interstellar medium. This results in a strong bound on the kinetic mixing between hidden and regular photons all the way down to the hidden photon masses of order 10{sup −20} eV.

  14. Helioscope bounds on hidden sector photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, J.

    2007-12-15

    The flux of hypothetical ''hidden photons'' from the Sun is computed under the assumption that they interact with normal matter only through kinetic mixing with the ordinary standard model photon. Requiring that the exotic luminosity is smaller than the standard photon luminosity provides limits for the mixing parameter down to {chi} hidden photon mass. Furthermore, it is pointed point out that helioscopes looking for solar axions are also sensitive to hidden photons. The recent results of the CAST collaboration are used to further constrain the mixing parameter {chi} at low masses (m{sub {gamma}}{sub '}<1 eV) where the luminosity bound is weaker. In this regime the solar hidden photon ux has a sizable contribution of longitudinally polarized hidden photons of low energy which are invisible for current helioscopes. (orig.)

  15. Hidden Web信息获取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珂; 陈小英; 徐科

    2007-01-01

    如今Web上越来越多的信息可以通过查询接口获得,但为了获取某Hidden Web站点的页面,用户不得不键入一系列的关键词.由于没有直接指向Hidden Web页面的静态链接,当前大多搜索引擎不能发现和索引这些页面.然而,研究表明,由Hidden Web站点提供的高质量的信息对许多用户来说非常有价值.文章通过研究针对特定类型的表单,建立一个有效的Hidden Web爬虫,以便获取Hidden Web后台数据库信息.

  16. Local realistic theory for PDC experiments based on the Wigner formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado, A.; Risco-Delgado, R. [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales; Santos, E. [Sevilla Univ. (Spain). Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales; Cantabria Univ., Santander (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Moderna

    2001-02-01

    In this article we present a local hidden variables model for all experiments involving photon pairs produced in parametric down conversion, based on the Wigner representation of the radiation field. A modification of the standard quantum theory of detection is made in order to give a local realistic explanation of the counting rates in photodetectors. This model involves the existence of a real zeropoint field, such that the vacuum level of radiation lies below the threshold of the detectors. (orig.)

  17. Mediation of social cognitive theory variables in the relationship of exercise and improved eating in sedentary adults with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A

    2013-01-01

    Results from behavioral treatments for obesity have been disappointing due to an inability to sustain healthy eating. The concurrent use of theory, research, and practical application has the potential of reducing overeating through innovative treatments. When overweight individuals begin an exercise program their eating tends to improve, however, the basis of this relationship is not determined. If the psychosocial mediators of the relationship between exercise and improved eating are better understood, supported exercise may be a key component for improving the efficacy of behavioral weight management treatments. In Phase 1 of this research, psychosocial variables derived from social cognitive theory were tested as possible mediators of the relationship of exercise participation with increased fruit and vegetable intake in severely obese adults initiating a 26-week treatment of supported exercise and standard nutrition education (n = 161). Change in self-regulation for healthy eating and self-regulation at treatment end was a strong mediator; with the addition of mood and self-efficacy for healthy eating being additional mediators that notably increased effect ratios. In Phase 2, participants in a cognitive-behavioral nutrition treatment tailored to improve the identified mediators (n = 163) were contrasted with the original group. The cognitive-behavioral nutrition treatment was associated with significantly greater increases than standard nutrition education in self-regulation, p = 0.023, CIs [4.69, 6.48], and [3.19, 5.02], respectively; self-efficacy, p = 0.013, CIs [19.72, 29.41], and [11.70, 20.71], respectively; and a marginally significant decrease in negative mood, p = 0.062, CIs [-14.26, -9.36], and [-10.90, -6.45], respectively. Findings served to inform treatment designs concerning the use of supported exercise and cognitive-behavioral means to derive better outcomes related to nutrition and weight loss in individuals with severe

  18. Natural inflation with hidden scale invariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Barrie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new class of natural inflation models based on a hidden scale invariance. In a very generic Wilsonian effective field theory with an arbitrary number of scalar fields, which exhibits scale invariance via the dilaton, the potential necessarily contains a flat direction in the classical limit. This flat direction is lifted by small quantum corrections and inflation is realised without need for an unnatural fine-tuning. In the conformal limit, the effective potential becomes linear in the inflaton field, yielding to specific predictions for the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio, being respectively: ns−1≈−0.025(N⋆60−1 and r≈0.0667(N⋆60−1, where N⋆≈30–65 is a number of efolds during observable inflation. This predictions are in reasonable agreement with cosmological measurements. Further improvement of the accuracy of these measurements may turn out to be critical in falsifying our scenario.

  19. Natural Inflation with Hidden Scale Invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Barrie, Neil D; Liang, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new class of natural inflation models based on a hidden scale invariance. In a very generic Wilsonian effective field theory with an arbitrary number of scalar fields, which exhibits scale invariance via the dilaton, the potential necessarily contains a flat direction in the classical limit. This flat direction is lifted by small quantum corrections and inflation is realised without need for an unnatural fine-tuning. In the conformal limit, the effective potential becomes linear in the inflaton field, yielding to specific predictions for the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio, being respectively: $n_s-1\\approx 0.025\\left(\\frac{N_{\\star}}{60}\\right)^{-1}$ and $r\\approx 0.0667\\left(\\frac{N_{\\star}}{60}\\right)^{-1}$, where $N_{\\star}\\approx 30-65$ is a number of efolds during observable inflation. This predictions are in reasonable agreement with cosmological measurements. Further improvement of the accuracy of these measurements may turn out to be critical in falsifying our scenario.

  20. Hidden Markov models in automatic speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzoskowicz, Adam

    1993-11-01

    This article describes a method for constructing an automatic speech recognition system based on hidden Markov models (HMMs). The author discusses the basic concepts of HMM theory and the application of these models to the analysis and recognition of speech signals. The author provides algorithms which make it possible to train the ASR system and recognize signals on the basis of distinct stochastic models of selected speech sound classes. The author describes the specific components of the system and the procedures used to model and recognize speech. The author discusses problems associated with the choice of optimal signal detection and parameterization characteristics and their effect on the performance of the system. The author presents different options for the choice of speech signal segments and their consequences for the ASR process. The author gives special attention to the use of lexical, syntactic, and semantic information for the purpose of improving the quality and efficiency of the system. The author also describes an ASR system developed by the Speech Acoustics Laboratory of the IBPT PAS. The author discusses the results of experiments on the effect of noise on the performance of the ASR system and describes methods of constructing HMM's designed to operate in a noisy environment. The author also describes a language for human-robot communications which was defined as a complex multilevel network from an HMM model of speech sounds geared towards Polish inflections. The author also added mandatory lexical and syntactic rules to the system for its communications vocabulary.

  1. Dark matter and dark forces from a hidden sector with gravity mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah; Goodsell, Mark; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Hidden sectors arise naturally in various extensions of the standard model and from string compactifications. Scenarios containing a dark matter particle coupled to a hidden U(1) gauge boson which kinetically mixes with the SM photon are of great interest since they could explain recent terrestrial and astrophysical anomalies, like the e{sup +} e{sup -} excesses observed by PAMELA, the annual modulation signal reported by DAMA/LIBRA and the low energy events seen by CoGeNT. The latter two direct detection observations seem to point towards a light dark matter candidate. String theory provides an additional motivation for hidden sectors but interestingly seems to favour models with gravity mediation, rather than gauge mediation which has been generally assumed in the context of light hidden dark matter. Therefore, we construct a light hidden sector in a simple supersymmetric model in which the supersymmetry breaking effects are dominated by gravity mediation and study the phenomenology of the corresponding dark matter particle and the hidden photon, the ''Dark Force''.

  2. Hidden scale in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Giri, Pulak Ranjan

    2007-01-01

    We show that the intriguing localization of a free particle wave-packet is possible due to a hidden scale present in the system. Self-adjoint extensions (SAE) is responsible for introducing this scale in quantum mechanical models through the nontrivial boundary conditions. We discuss a couple of classically scale invariant free particle systems to illustrate the issue. In this context it has been shown that a free quantum particle moving on a full line may have localized wave-packet around the origin. As a generalization, it has also been shown that particles moving on a portion of a plane or on a portion of a three dimensional space can have unusual localized wave-packet.

  3. The Hidden Costs of Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses ways managers can motivate their employees to work and at the same time to increase their performance. Two theories of motivation--Vroom's theory and Atkinson's theory--focus on the use of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards respectively. A managerial strategy that combines the best of both intrinsic and extrinsic approaches to…

  4. The protection motivation theory within the stages of the transtheoretical model - stage-specific interplay of variables and prediction of exercise stage transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippke, Sonia; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2009-05-01

    Two different theories of health behaviour have been chosen with the aim of theory integration: a continuous theory (protection motivation theory, PMT) and a stage model (transtheoretical model, TTM). This is the first study to test whether the stages of the TTM moderate the interrelation of PMT-variables and the mediation of motivation, as well as PMT-variables' interactions in predicting stage transitions. Hypotheses were tested regarding (1) mean patterns, stage pair-comparisons and nonlinear trends using ANOVAs; (2) prediction-patterns for the different stage groups employing multi-group structural equation modelling (MSEM) and nested model analyses; and (3) stage transitions using binary logistic regression analyses. Adults (N=1,602) were assessed over a 6 month period on their physical activity stages, PMT-variables and subsequent behaviour. (1) Particular mean differences and nonlinear trends in all test variables were found. (2) The PMT adequately fitted the five stage groups. The MSEM revealed that covariances within threat appraisal and coping appraisal were invariant and all other constrains were stage-specific, i.e. stage was a moderator. Except for self-efficacy, motivation fully mediated the relationship between the social-cognitive variables and behaviour. (3) Predicting stage transitions with the PMT-variables underscored the importance of self-efficacy. Only when threat appraisal and coping appraisal were high, stage movement was more likely in the preparation stage. Results emphasize stage-specific differences of the PMT mechanisms, and hence, support the stage construct. The findings may guide further theory building and research integrating different theoretical approaches.

  5. Stochastic precipitation generator with hidden state covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongku; Lee, GyuWon

    2017-08-01

    Time series of daily weather such as precipitation, minimum temperature and maximum temperature are commonly required for various fields. Stochastic weather generators constitute one of the techniques to produce synthetic daily weather. The recently introduced approach for stochastic weather generators is based on generalized linear modeling (GLM) with covariates to account for seasonality and teleconnections (e.g., with the El Niño). In general, stochastic weather generators tend to underestimate the observed interannual variance of seasonally aggregated variables. To reduce this overdispersion, we incorporated time series of seasonal dry/wet indicators in the GLM weather generator as covariates. These seasonal time series were local (or global) decodings obtained by a hidden Markov model of seasonal total precipitation and implemented in the weather generator. The proposed method is applied to time series of daily weather from Seoul, Korea and Pergamino, Argentina. This method provides a straightforward translation of the uncertainty of the seasonal forecast to the corresponding conditional daily weather statistics.

  6. Jim Shaw's The Hidden World as a Book of Poetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    documents, ’found’ in pulp publications, in thrift stores, on billboards, and on the Internet. These documents are mostly word-image hybrids, and their original functions may have been as commercials or advertisements, religious propaganda, doomsday prophecies, or other forms of naïve “didactic art...... a book of poetry. Drawing on genre theory, as well as recent work by, among others, Martin Glaz Serup and Thomas Hvid Kromann, I propose to read The Hidden World against its own grain, as it were, as a collection of conceptual poetry, participating in the discourses of belief and testimony....

  7. Return behavior of occasional and multigallon blood donors: the role of theory of planned behavior, self-identity, and organizational variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, A.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Veldhuizen, I.J.T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For blood establishments it is important that blood donors return for a donation. Past research has stressed the importance of theory of planned behavior (TPB) on return behavior, but self-identity (SI) and organizational variables (OVs) might play a role as well. This study added SI and

  8. Cognitive Psychology Meets Psychometric Theory: On the Relation between Process Models for Decision Making and Latent Variable Models for Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, Han L. J.; Molenaar, Dylan; Maris, Gunter; Kievit, Rogier A.; Borsboom, Denny

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes latent variable models from a cognitive psychology perspective. We start by discussing work by Tuerlinckx and De Boeck (2005), who proved that a diffusion model for 2-choice response processes entails a 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model for individual differences in the response data. Following this line…

  9. Evidence Feed Forward Hidden Markov Model: A New Type Of Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Del Rose

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict the intentions of people based solely on their visual actions is a skill only performed by humans and animals. The intelligence of current computer algorithms has not reached this level of complexity, but there are several research efforts that are working towards it. With the number of classification algorithms available, it is hard to determine which algorithm works best for a particular situation. In classification of visual human intent data, Hidden Markov Models (HMM, and their variants, are leading candidates. The inability of HMMs to provide a probability in the observation to observation linkages is a big downfall in this classification technique. If a person is visually identifying an action of another person, they monitor patterns in the observations. By estimating the next observation, people have the ability to summarize the actions, and thus determine, with pretty good accuracy, the intention of the person performing the action. These visual cues and linkages are important in creating intelligent algorithms for determining human actions based on visual observations. The Evidence Feed Forward Hidden Markov Model is a newly developed algorithm which provides observation to observation linkages. The following research addresses the theory behind Evidence Feed Forward HMMs, provides mathematical proofs of their learning of these parameters to optimize the likelihood of observations with a Evidence Feed Forwards HMM, which is important in all computational intelligence algorithm, and gives comparative examples with standard HMMs in classification of both visual action data and measurement data; thus providing a strong base for Evidence Feed Forward HMMs in classification of many types of problems.

  10. Hidden torsion, 3-manifolds, and homology cobordism

    CERN Document Server

    Cha, Jae Choon

    2011-01-01

    This paper continues our exploration of homology cobordism of 3-manifolds using our recent results on Cheeger-Gromov rho-invariants associated to amenable representations. We introduce a new type of torsion in 3-manifold groups we call hidden torsion, and an algebraic approximation we call local hidden torsion. We construct infinitely many hyperbolic 3-manifolds which have local hidden torsion in the transfinite lower central subgroup. By realizing Cheeger-Gromov invariants over amenable groups, we show that our hyperbolic 3-manifolds are not pairwise homology cobordant, yet remain indistinguishable by any prior known homology cobordism invariants.

  11. Visible Effects of Invisible Hidden Valley Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Carloni, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Assuming there is a new gauge group in a Hidden Valley, and a new type of radiation, can we observe it through its effect on the kinematic distributions of recoiling visible particles? Specifically, what are the collider signatures of radiation in a hidden sector? We address these questions using a generic SU(N)-like Hidden Valley model that we implement in Pythia. We find that in both the e+e- and the LHC cases the kinematic distributions of the visible particles can be significantly affected by the valley radiation. Without a proper understanding of such effects, inferred masses of "communicators" and of invisible particles can be substantially off.

  12. Hidden Markov Modeling for Weigh-In-Motion Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Boone, Shane [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a hidden Markov model to assist in the weight measurement error that arises from complex vehicle oscillations of a system of discrete masses. Present reduction of oscillations is by a smooth, flat, level approach and constant, slow speed in a straight line. The model uses this inherent variability to assist in determining the true total weight and individual axle weights of a vehicle. The weight distribution dynamics of a generic moving vehicle were simulated. The model estimation converged to within 1% of the true mass for simulated data. The computational demands of this method, while much greater than simple averages, took only seconds to run on a desktop computer.

  13. Inference in Hidden Markov Models with Explicit State Duration Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Dewar, Michael; Wood, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this letter we borrow from the inference techniques developed for unbounded state-cardinality (nonparametric) variants of the HMM and use them to develop a tuning-parameter free, black-box inference procedure for Explicit-state-duration hidden Markov models (EDHMM). EDHMMs are HMMs that have latent states consisting of both discrete state-indicator and discrete state-duration random variables. In contrast to the implicit geometric state duration distribution possessed by the standard HMM, EDHMMs allow the direct parameterisation and estimation of per-state duration distributions. As most duration distributions are defined over the positive integers, truncation or other approximations are usually required to perform EDHMM inference.

  14. Hidden systematics of fission channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Karl-Heinz

    2013-12-01

    of the fissioning system obey a hidden systematics that can be explained by the number of states in the vicinity of the outer fission barrier as a function of mass asymmetry, if the potential is constructed as the sum of the macroscopic contribution of the compound nucleus and empirically determined fragment shells. This hidden systematics also explains the transition from asymmetric to symmetric fission around 226Th and around 258Fm.

  15. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  16. Faddeev-Jackiw approach to hidden symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Wotzasek, C

    1994-01-01

    The study of hidden symmetries within Dirac's formalism does not possess a systematic procedure due to the lack of first-class constraints to act as symmetry generators. On the other hand, in the Faddeev-Jackiw approach, gauge and reparametrization symmetries are generated by the null eigenvectors of the sympletic matrix and not by constraints, suggesting the possibility of dealing systematically with hidden symmetries through this formalism. It is shown in this paper that indeed hidden symmetries of noninvariant or gauge fixed systems are equally well described by null eigenvectors of the sympletic matrix, just as the explicit invariances. The Faddeev-Jackiw approach therefore provide a systematic algorithm for treating all sorts of symmetries in an unified way. This technique is illustrated here by the SL(2,R) Kac-Moody current algebra of the 2-D induced gravity proposed by Polyakov, which is a hidden symmetry in the canonical approach of constrained systems via Dirac's method, after conformal and reparamet...

  17. Fibroid Tumors in Women: A Hidden Epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Fibroid Tumors in Women: A Hidden Epidemic? Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... fibroids@rics.bwh.harvard.edu , or visit our Web site: www.fibroids.net . You may also write ...

  18. Hidden Regular Variation: Detection and Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Abhimanyu

    2010-01-01

    Hidden regular variation defines a subfamily of distributions satisfying multivariate regular variation on $\\mathbb{E} = [0, \\infty]^d \\backslash \\{(0,0, ..., 0) \\} $ and models another regular variation on the sub-cone $\\mathbb{E}^{(2)} = \\mathbb{E} \\backslash \\cup_{i=1}^d \\mathbb{L}_i$, where $\\mathbb{L}_i$ is the $i$-th axis. We extend the concept of hidden regular variation to sub-cones of $\\mathbb{E}^{(2)}$ as well. We suggest a procedure of detecting the presence of hidden regular variation, and if it exists, propose a method of estimating the limit measure exploiting its semi-parametric structure. We exhibit examples where hidden regular variation yields better estimates of probabilities of risk sets.

  19. Quantum Theory and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Ted

    2009-07-01

    List of participants; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. The function of the colloquium - editorial; 2. The conceptual problem of quantum theory from the experimentalist's point of view O. R. Frisch; Part II. Niels Bohr and Complementarity: The Place of the Classical Language: 3. The Copenhagen interpretation C. F. von Weizsäcker; 4. On Bohr's views concerning the quantum theory D. Bohm; Part III. The Measurement Problem: 5. Quantal observation in statistical interpretation H. J. Groenewold; 6. Macroscopic physics, quantum mechanics and quantum theory of measurement G. M. Prosperi; 7. Comment on the Daneri-Loinger-Prosperi quantum theory of measurement Jeffrey Bub; 8. The phenomenology of observation and explanation in quantum theory J. H. M. Whiteman; 9. Measurement theory and complex systems M. A. Garstens; Part IV. New Directions within Quantum Theory: What does the Quantum Theoretical Formalism Really Tell Us?: 10. On the role of hidden variables in the fundamental structure of physics D. Bohm; 11. Beyond what? Discussion: space-time order within existing quantum theory C. W. Kilmister; 12. Definability and measurability in quantum theory Yakir Aharonov and Aage Petersen; 13. The bootstrap idea and the foundations of quantum theory Geoffrey F. Chew; Part V. A Fresh Start?: 14. Angular momentum: an approach to combinatorial space-time Roger Penrose; 15. A note on discreteness, phase space and cohomology theory B. J. Hiley; 16. Cohomology of observations R. H. Atkin; 17. The origin of half-integral spin in a discrete physical space Ted Bastin; Part VI. Philosophical Papers: 18. The unity of physics C. F. von Weizsäcker; 19. A philosophical obstacle to the rise of new theories in microphysics Mario Bunge; 20. The incompleteness of quantum mechanics or the emperor's missing clothes H. R. Post; 21. How does a particle get from A to B?; Ted Bastin; 22. Informational generalization of entropy in physics Jerome Rothstein; 23. Can life explain quantum mechanics? H. H

  20. Thermodynamic Measurement of Angular Anisotropy at the Hidden Order Transition of URu2 Si2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Jennifer; Brück, Ekkes; Siegrist, Theo; Flint, Rebecca; Chandra, Premala; Coleman, Piers; Ramirez, Arthur P.

    2016-10-01

    The heavy fermion compound URu2 Si2 continues to attract great interest due to the unidentified hidden order it develops below 17.5 K. The unique Ising character of the spin fluctuations and low-temperature quasiparticles is well established. We present detailed measurements of the angular anisotropy of the nonlinear magnetization that reveal a cos4θ Ising anisotropy both at and above the ordering transition. With Landau theory, we show this implies a strongly Ising character of the itinerant hidden order parameter.

  1. Imaginary part of action, Future functioning as hidden variables

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, H B

    2009-01-01

    A model -- by myself and Masao Ninomiya -- which in principle predicts the initial conditions in a way as to minimze a certain functional of the history of the Universe through both past and future -- a functional conceived of as an imaginary part of the action -- is suggested to be also helpful in solving some problems for quantum mechanics. Especially as our model almost makes it possible in principle to calculate the full history of the universe, it even makes it in principle calculable, which one among several measurement results in a quantum experiment will actually be realized! Our "complex action model" thus is a special case of superdeterminism - in Bells way - and does not have true causality, but rather even in some cases true backward causation. In fact we claim in our model that the SSC (Superconducting Supercollider) were stopped by the US Congress due to the backward causation from the big amounts of Higgs particles, which it would have produced, if it had been allowed to run. The noumenon ("das...

  2. Imaginary part of action, Future functioning as hidden variables

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, H.B.

    2009-01-01

    A model -- by myself and Masao Ninomiya -- which in principle predicts the initial conditions in a way as to minimze a certain functional of the history of the Universe through both past and future -- a functional conceived of as an imaginary part of the action -- is suggested to be also helpful in solving some problems for quantum mechanics. Especially as our model almost makes it possible in principle to calculate the full history of the universe, it even makes it in principle calculable, w...

  3. Phase equilibrium of liquid mixtures: Experimental and modeled data using statistical associating fluid theory for potential of variable range approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Beatriz; Bandrés, Isabel; Carmen López, M.; Lafuente, Carlos; Galindo, Amparo

    2007-10-01

    A study of the phase equilibrium (experimental and modeled) of mixtures formed by a cyclic ether and haloalkanes has been derived. Experimental data for the isothermal vapor liquid equilibrium of mixtures formed by tetrahydrofuran and tetrahydropyran and isomeric chlorobutanes at temperatures of 298.15, 313.15, and 328.15K are presented. Experimental results have been discussed in terms of both molecular characteristics of pure compounds and potential intermolecular interaction between them using thermodynamic information of the mixtures obtained earlier. The statistical associating fluid theory for potential of variable range (SAFT-VR) approach together with standard combining rules without adjustable parameters has been used to model the phase equilibrium. Good agreement between experiment and the prediction is found with such a model. Mean absolute deviations for pressures are of the order of 1kPa, while less than 0.013mole fraction for vapor phase compositions. In order to improve the results obtained, a new modeling has been carried out by introducing a unique transferable parameter kij, which modifies the strength of the dispersion interaction between unlike components in the mixtures, and is valid for all the studied mixtures being not temperature or pressure dependent. This parameter together with the SAFT-VR approach provides a description of the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the mixtures that is in excellent agreement with the experimental data for most cases. The absolute deviations are of the order of 0.005mole fraction for vapor phase compositions and less than 0.3kPa for pressure, excepting for mixtures containing 2-chloro-2-methylpropane which deviations for pressure are larger. Results obtained in this work in the modeling of the phase equilibrium with the SAFT-VR equation of state have been compared to the ones obtained in a previous study when the approach was used to model similar mixtures with clear differences in the thermodynamic behavior. We

  4. Probing hidden sector photons through the Higgs window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, M. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics; Jaeckel, J. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics and Phenomenology; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the Standard Model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs Portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light-shining-through-the-wall experiments as well as cosmological, astrophysical, and non-Newtonian force measurements. For hidden-photons receiving their mass from a hidden-Higgs we find in the small mass regime significantly stronger bounds than the bounds on massive hidden sector photons alone. (orig.)

  5. Fitting Hidden Markov Models to Psychological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Visser

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Markov models have been used extensively in psychology of learning. Applications of hidden Markov models are rare however. This is partially due to the fact that comprehensive statistics for model selection and model assessment are lacking in the psychological literature. We present model selection and model assessment statistics that are particularly useful in applying hidden Markov models in psychology. These statistics are presented and evaluated by simulation studies for a toy example. We compare AIC, BIC and related criteria and introduce a prediction error measure for assessing goodness-of-fit. In a simulation study, two methods of fitting equality constraints are compared. In two illustrative examples with experimental data we apply selection criteria, fit models with constraints and assess goodness-of-fit. First, data from a concept identification task is analyzed. Hidden Markov models provide a flexible approach to analyzing such data when compared to other modeling methods. Second, a novel application of hidden Markov models in implicit learning is presented. Hidden Markov models are used in this context to quantify knowledge that subjects express in an implicit learning task. This method of analyzing implicit learning data provides a comprehensive approach for addressing important theoretical issues in the field.

  6. Probing Hidden Sector Photons through the Higgs Window.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlers, M.; Jaeckel, J; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the Standard Model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs Portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light...

  7. Supersymmetric leptogenesis and light hidden sectors

    CERN Document Server

    Weniger, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Thermal leptogenesis and supergravity are attractive scenarios for physics beyond the standard model. However, it is well known that the super-weak interaction of the gravitino often leads to problems with primordial nucleosynthesis in the standard scenario of matter parity conserving MSSM + three right-handed neutrinos. We will present and compare two related solutions to these problems: 1) The conflict between BBN and leptogenesis can be avoided in presence of a hidden sector with light supersymmetric particles which open new decay channels for the dangerous long-lived particles. 2) If there is a condensate in the hidden sector, such additional decay channels can be alternatively opened by dynamical breaking of matter parity in the hidden sector.

  8. Geophysical Investigations at Hidden Dam, Raymond, California Flow Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, Burke J.; Ikard, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Numerical flow modeling and analysis of observation-well data at Hidden Dam are carried out to supplement recent geophysical field investigations at the site (Minsley and others, 2010). This work also is complementary to earlier seepage-related studies at Hidden Dam documented by Cedergren (1980a, b). Known seepage areas on the northwest right abutment area of the downstream side of the dam was documented by Cedergren (1980a, b). Subsequent to the 1980 seepage study, a drainage blanket with a sub-drain system was installed to mitigate downstream seepage. Flow net analysis provided by Cedergren (1980a, b) suggests that the primary seepage mechanism involves flow through the dam foundation due to normal reservoir pool elevations, which results in upflow that intersects the ground surface in several areas on the downstream side of the dam. In addition to the reservoir pool elevations and downstream surface topography, flow is also controlled by the existing foundation geology as well as the presence or absence of a horizontal drain in the downstream portion of the dam. The current modeling study is aimed at quantifying how variability in dam and foundation hydrologic properties influences seepage as a function of reservoir stage. Flow modeling is implemented using the COMSOL Multiphysics software package, which solves the partially saturated flow equations in a two-dimensional (2D) cross-section of Hidden Dam that also incorporates true downstream topography. Use of the COMSOL software package provides a more quantitative approach than the flow net analysis by Cedergren (1980a, b), and allows for rapid evaluation of the influence of various parameters such as reservoir level, dam structure and geometry, and hydrogeologic properties of the dam and foundation materials. Historical observation-well data are used to help validate the flow simulations by comparing observed and predicted water levels for a range of reservoir elevations. The flow models are guided by, and

  9. Hidden Markov models estimation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, Robert J; Moore, John B

    1995-01-01

    As more applications are found, interest in Hidden Markov Models continues to grow. Following comments and feedback from colleagues, students and other working with Hidden Markov Models the corrected 3rd printing of this volume contains clarifications, improvements and some new material, including results on smoothing for linear Gaussian dynamics. In Chapter 2 the derivation of the basic filters related to the Markov chain are each presented explicitly, rather than as special cases of one general filter. Furthermore, equations for smoothed estimates are given. The dynamics for the Kalman filte

  10. Hidden neural networks: application to speech recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren Kamaric

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate the hidden neural network HMM/NN hybrid on two speech recognition benchmark tasks; (1) task independent isolated word recognition on the Phonebook database, and (2) recognition of broad phoneme classes in continuous speech from the TIMIT database. It is shown how hidden neural networks...... (HNNs) with much fewer parameters than conventional HMMs and other hybrids can obtain comparable performance, and for the broad class task it is illustrated how the HNN can be applied as a purely transition based system, where acoustic context dependent transition probabilities are estimated by neural...

  11. Dark Radiation from a hidden U(1)

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the impact of a hidden sector consisting of Minicharged Particles (MCPs) and massless hidden photons on the expansion history of our Universe. We present parameter scans for the amount of extra relativistic particles (Neff) and the abundance of light nuclei for fermionic MCPs with masses between ~100 keV and 10 GeV and minicharges in the range 10^(-11)-1. Current CMB and BBN data significantly constrain the available parameter space of MCPs. The shown results are a valuable indicator for future experimental searches and are presented in a flexible way so that more accurate results on Neff can be easily interpreted.

  12. Hidden Subgroup States are Almost Orthogonal

    CERN Document Server

    Ettinger, M; Knill, E H; Ettinger, Mark; Hoyer, Peter; Knill, Emanuel

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that quantum computers can efficiently find a hidden subgroup $H$ of a finite Abelian group $G$. This implies that after only a polynomial (in $\\log |G|$) number of calls to the oracle function, the states corresponding to different candidate subgroups have exponentially small inner product. We show that this is true for noncommutative groups also. We present a quantum algorithm which identifies a hidden subgroup of an arbitrary finite group $G$ in only a linear (in $\\log |G|$) number of calls to the oracle function. This is exponentially better than the best classical algorithm. However our quantum algorithm requires an exponential amount of time, as in the classical case.

  13. Iterative Learning Control Design and Application for Linear Continuous Systems with Variable Initial States Based on 2-D System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the variable initial states problem in iterative learning control (ILC for linear continuous systems. Firstly, the properties of the trajectory of 2-D continuous-discrete Roesser model are analyzed by using Lyapunov's method. Then, for any variable initial states which absolutely converge to the desired initial state, some ILC design criteria in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMI are given to ensure the convergence of the PD-type ILC rules. The convergence for variable initial states implies that the ILC rules can be used to achieve the perfect tacking for variable initial states, even if the system dynamic is unknown. Finally, the micropropulsion system is considered to illustrate efficiency of the proposed ILC design criteria.

  14. Neural Code-Neural Self-information Theory on How Cell-Assembly Code Rises from Spike Time and Neuronal Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Tsien, Joe Z

    2017-01-01

    A major stumbling block to cracking the real-time neural code is neuronal variability - neurons discharge spikes with enormous variability not only across trials within the same experiments but also in resting states. Such variability is widely regarded as a noise which is often deliberately averaged out during data analyses. In contrast to such a dogma, we put forth the Neural Self-Information Theory that neural coding is operated based on the self-information principle under which variability in the time durations of inter-spike-intervals (ISI), or neuronal silence durations, is self-tagged with discrete information. As the self-information processor, each ISI carries a certain amount of information based on its variability-probability distribution; higher-probability ISIs which reflect the balanced excitation-inhibition ground state convey minimal information, whereas lower-probability ISIs which signify rare-occurrence surprisals in the form of extremely transient or prolonged silence carry most information. These variable silence durations are naturally coupled with intracellular biochemical cascades, energy equilibrium and dynamic regulation of protein and gene expression levels. As such, this silence variability-based self-information code is completely intrinsic to the neurons themselves, with no need for outside observers to set any reference point as typically used in the rate code, population code and temporal code models. Moreover, temporally coordinated ISI surprisals across cell population can inherently give rise to robust real-time cell-assembly codes which can be readily sensed by the downstream neural clique assemblies. One immediate utility of this self-information code is a general decoding strategy to uncover a variety of cell-assembly patterns underlying external and internal categorical or continuous variables in an unbiased manner.

  15. Iterative Learning Control Design and Application for Linear Continuous Systems with Variable Initial States Based on 2-D System Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Guan; Qiao Zhu; Xu-Dong Wang; Xu-Hui Liu

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the variable initial states problem in iterative learning control (ILC) for linear continuous systems. Firstly, the properties of the trajectory of 2-D continuous-discrete Roesser model are analyzed by using Lyapunov's method. Then, for any variable initial states which absolutely converge to the desired initial state, some ILC design criteria in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMI) are given to ensure the convergence of the PD-type ILC rules. The converge...

  16. Review on hidden trouble detection and health diagnosis of hydraulic concrete structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; ZhongRu; LI; Ji; GU; ChongShi; SU; HuaiZhi

    2007-01-01

    A large number of hydraulic concrete structures have hidden defects such as cracks,erosion,freeze and thaw,thermal fatigue,carbonization.These hidden defects seriously affect the strength,stability and durability of structures.These problems are studied mainly by single monitoring or diagnosis methods at present.The integration of multiple monitoring and diagnosis methods is not applied widely.Besides,the analysis theory on these problems is not developed very well.The systemic study on the aging mechanism of hydraulic concrete structures,timevariation model and health diagnosis is still not enough.The support for engineering practice is limited.Aimed at these major scientific and technological problems and combined with specific projects,study on detection of hidden defects and health diagnosis of hydraulic concrete structure has been carried out.This study includes the following content: field non-destructive examination of hidden defects of hydraulic concrete structures,seepage detection,the construction of in-situ sensing system,the combination of field detection and in-situ monitoring,the mechanism of crack,freeze and thaw,erosion and carbonization of hydraulic concrete structure,mechanism of combination aging; time-variation model of hydraulic concrete structure,theories and methods for health diagnosis of hydraulic concrete structures.

  17. Results from the Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Matthias [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Lindner, Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Schneide, Magnus; Susol, Jaroslaw; Wiedemann, Günter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-08-07

    We present the results of a search for transversely polarised hidden photons (HPs) with ∼3 eV energies emitted from the Sun. These hypothetical particles, known also as paraphotons or dark sector photons, are theoretically well motivated for example by string theory inspired extensions of the Standard Model. Solar HPs of sub-eV mass can convert into photons of the same energy (photon ↔ HP oscillations are similar to neutrino flavour oscillations). At SHIPS this would take place inside a long light-tight high-vacuum tube, which tracks the Sun. The generated photons would then be focused into a low-noise photomultiplier at the far end of the tube. Our analysis of 330 h of data (and 330 h of background characterisation) reveals no signal of photons from solar hidden photon conversion. We estimate the rate of newly generated photons due to this conversion to be smaller than 25 mHz/m{sup 2} at the 95% C.L. Using this and a recent model of solar HP emission, we set stringent constraints on χ, the coupling constant between HPs and photons, as a function of the HP mass.

  18. Results from the solar hidden photon search (SHIPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Schneide, Magnus; Susol, Jaroslaw; Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Sternwarte; Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    We present the results of a search for transversely polarised hidden photons (HPs) with ∝3 eV energies emitted from the Sun. These hypothetical particles, known also as paraphotons or dark sector photons, are theoretically well motivated for example by string theory inspired extensions of the Standard Model. Solar HPs of sub-eV mass can convert into photons of the same energy (photon<->HP oscillations are similar to neutrino flavour oscillations). At SHIPS this would take place inside a long light-tight high-vacuum tube, which tracks the Sun. The generated photons would then be focused into a low-noise photomultiplier at the far end of the tube. Our analysis of 330 h of data (and 330 h of background characterisation) reveals no signal of photons from solar hidden photon conversion. We estimate the rate of newly generated photons due to this conversion to be smaller than 25 mHz/m{sup 2} at the 95%C.L. Using this and a recent model of solar HP emission, we set stringent constraints on χ, the coupling constant between HPs and photons, as a function of the HP mass.

  19. Results from the Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS)

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Matthias; Lindner, Axel; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas; Schneide, Magnus; Susol, Jaroslaw; Wiedemann, Günter

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a search for transversely polarised hidden photons (HPs) with $\\sim 3$ eV energies emitted from the Sun. These hypothetical particles, known also as paraphotons or dark sector photons, are theoretically well motivated for example by string theory inspired extensions of the Standard Model. Solar HPs of sub-eV mass can convert into photons of the same energy (photon$\\leftrightarrow$HP oscillations are similar to neutrino flavour oscillations). At SHIPS this would take place inside a long light-tight high-vacuum tube, which tracks the Sun. The generated photons would then be focused into a low-noise photomultiplier at the far end of the tube. Our analysis of 330 h of data (and {330 h} of background characterisation) reveals no signal of photons from solar hidden photon conversion. We estimate the rate of newly generated photons due to this conversion to be smaller than 25 mHz/m$^2$ at the 95$%$ C.L. Using this and a recent model of solar HP emission, we set stringent constraints on $\\ch...

  20. Permutation Complexity and Coupling Measures in Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taichi Haruna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the duality between values (words and orderings (permutations has been proposed by the authors as a basis to discuss the relationship between information theoretic measures for finite-alphabet stationary stochastic processes and their permutatio nanalogues. It has been used to give a simple proof of the equality between the entropy rate and the permutation entropy rate for any finite-alphabet stationary stochastic process and to show some results on the excess entropy and the transfer entropy for finite-alphabet stationary ergodic Markov processes. In this paper, we extend our previous results to hidden Markov models and show the equalities between various information theoretic complexity and coupling measures and their permutation analogues. In particular, we show the following two results within the realm of hidden Markov models with ergodic internal processes: the two permutation analogues of the transfer entropy, the symbolic transfer entropy and the transfer entropy on rank vectors, are both equivalent to the transfer entropy if they are considered as the rates, and the directed information theory can be captured by the permutation entropy approach.

  1. Searching for hidden sectors in multiparticle production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchis-Lozano, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Picot, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of a hidden sector beyond the Standard Model, e.g. a Hidden Valley model, on factorial moments and cumulants of multiplicity distributions in multiparticle production with a special emphasis on the prospects for LHC results.

  2. Entropy Rate for Hidden Markov Chains with rare transitions

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We consider Hidden Markov Chains obtained by passing a Markov Chain with rare transitions through a noisy memoryless channel. We obtain asymptotic estimates for the entropy of the resulting Hidden Markov Chain as the transition rate is reduced to zero.

  3. The Corporate Illiterates: The Hidden Illiterates of Silicon Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    Describes the writing and business communication problems of college-educated workers in Silicon Valley. Discusses hidden illiterates in the universities and in the workplace. Offers solutions for professors and managers faced with the problem of hidden illiterates. (PRA)

  4. Design and Implementation of Domain based Semantic Hidden Web Crawler

    OpenAIRE

    Manvi; Bhatia, Komal Kumar; Dixit, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Web is a wide term which mainly consists of surface web and hidden web. One can easily access the surface web using traditional web crawlers, but they are not able to crawl the hidden portion of the web. These traditional crawlers retrieve contents from web pages, which are linked by hyperlinks ignoring the information hidden behind form pages, which cannot be extracted using simple hyperlink structure. Thus, they ignore large amount of data hidden behind search forms. This paper emphasizes o...

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Environmental Data and Models. Volume 1. Theory and Methodology Based Upon Bootstrap Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, H. Christopher [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Rhodes, David S. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1999-04-30

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume set of reports describing work conducted at North Carolina State University sponsored by Grant Number DE-FG05-95ER30250 by the U.S. Department of Energy. The title of the project is “Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Acid Rain Assessments.” The work conducted under sponsorship of this grant pertains primarily to two main topics: (1) development of new methods for quantitative analysis of variability and uncertainty applicable to any type of model; and (2) analysis of variability and uncertainty in the performance, emissions, and cost of electric power plant combustion-based NOx control technologies. These two main topics are reported separately in Volumes 1 and 2.

  6. Perceptual consequences of "hidden" hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plack, Christopher J; Barker, Daphne; Prendergast, Garreth

    2014-09-09

    Dramatic results from recent animal experiments show that noise exposure can cause a selective loss of high-threshold auditory nerve fibers without affecting absolute sensitivity permanently. This cochlear neuropathy has been described as hidden hearing loss, as it is not thought to be detectable using standard measures of audiometric threshold. It is possible that hidden hearing loss is a common condition in humans and may underlie some of the perceptual deficits experienced by people with clinically normal hearing. There is some evidence that a history of noise exposure is associated with difficulties in speech discrimination and temporal processing, even in the absence of any audiometric loss. There is also evidence that the tinnitus experienced by listeners with clinically normal hearing is associated with cochlear neuropathy, as measured using Wave I of the auditory brainstem response. To date, however, there has been no direct link made between noise exposure, cochlear neuropathy, and perceptual difficulties. Animal experiments also reveal that the aging process itself, in the absence of significant noise exposure, is associated with loss of auditory nerve fibers. Evidence from human temporal bone studies and auditory brainstem response measures suggests that this form of hidden loss is common in humans and may have perceptual consequences, in particular, regarding the coding of the temporal aspects of sounds. Hidden hearing loss is potentially a major health issue, and investigations are ongoing to identify the causes and consequences of this troubling condition.

  7. The structural strength of glass: hidden damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss “hidden damage” of glass by the rolling process, which results in heterogeneous distribution of microcracks on the edge surface of glass element, which are the fracture source deteriorating glass element strength. It is shown that removal of this damage on the edges of glass elements

  8. Discovering Hidden Treasures with GPS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Paul; Palmer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    "I found it!" Addison proudly proclaimed, as she used an iPhone and Global Positioning System (GPS) software to find the hidden geocache along the riverbank. Others in Lisa Bostick's fourth grade class were jealous, but there would be other geocaches to find. With the excitement of movies like "Pirates of the Caribbean" and…

  9. Hidden Markov Models for Human Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren; Chauvin, Yves

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the sequential structure of human genomic DNA by hidden Markov models. We apply models of widely different design: conventional left-right constructs and models with a built-in periodic architecture. The models are trained on segments of DNA sequences extracted such that they cover...

  10. Dermatologic hazards from hidden contacts with penicillin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonk, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The unbridled use of penicillin after its discovery by Fleming has resulted in possible hazards to human health due to traces of the drug being present in food and other hidden sources. These hazards may include toxic effects, hypersensitivity reactions and possibly a raising of the frequency and duration of allergy to penicillin.

  11. The structural strength of glass: hidden damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss “hidden damage” of glass by the rolling process, which results in heterogeneous distribution of microcracks on the edge surface of glass element, which are the fracture source deteriorating glass element strength. It is shown that removal of this damage on the edges of glass elements incr

  12. Computerized Testing: The Hidden Figures Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ronald L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study adapted the Hidden Figures Test for use on PLATO and determined the reliability of the computerized version compared to the paper and pencil version. Results indicate the test was successfully adapted with some modifications, and it was judged reliable although it may be measuring additional constructs. (MBR)

  13. Towards gauge unified, supersymmetric hidden strong dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Ye, Fang

    2016-01-01

    We consider a class of models with extra complex scalars that are charged under both the Standard Model and a hidden strongly coupled $SU(N)_H$ gauge sector, and discuss the scenarios where the new scalars are identified as the messenger fields that mediate the spontaneously broken supersymmetries from the hidden sector to the visible sector. The new scalars are embedded into 5-plets and 10-plets of an $SU(5)_V$ gauge group that potentially unifies the Standard Model gauge groups. They also form a tower of bound states via hidden strong dynamics around the TeV scale. The Higgs bosons remain as elementary particles. Quadratically divergent contributions to the Higgs mass from the Standard Model fermions are canceled by the new scalar contributions to alleviate the fine-tuning problem. We also discuss a supersymmetrized version of this class of models, consisting of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model plus extra chiral multiplets where the new scalars reside. Due to the hidden strong force, the new low-en...

  14. Hidden Costs and Challenges of Servitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yifan; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    of these labels, the potential benefits of servitization are often overshadowed by costs associated with it. By using the cases of Chinese and Danish manufacturing firms, this study takes a closer look at possible hidden costs of servitization and contributes to our understanding of servitization performance...

  15. Theory review: Line-driven instability and other causes of structure and variability in hot-star winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owocki, Stanley P.

    1994-01-01

    The winds of the hot, luminous, OB stars are driven by the line-scattering of the star's continuum radiation flux. Several kinds of observational evidence indicate that such winds are highly structured and variable. This paper will review possible theoretical causes of such wind structure. For relatively small-scale, stochastic variability, I review the role of the strong intrinsic instability of the line-driving process itself. for larger scale structure, I describe recent efforts to examine how disturbances from the underlying, rotating star can be translated outward into propagating features in the wind.

  16. Fuzzy Theory Based Control Method for an In-pipe Robot to Move in Variable Resistance Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Te; MA Shugen; LI Bin; WANG Minghui; WANG Yuechao

    2015-01-01

    Most of the existing screw drive in-pipe robots cannot actively adjust the maximum traction capacity, which limits the adaptability to the wide range of variable environment resistance, especially in curved pipes. In order to solve this problem, a screw drive in-pipe robot based on adaptive linkage mechanism is proposed. The differential property of the adaptive linkage mechanism allows the robot to move without motion interference in the straight and varied curved pipes by adjusting inclining angles of rollers self-adaptively. The maximum traction capacity of the robot can be changed by actively adjusting the inclining angles of rollers. In order to improve the adaptability to the variable resistance, a torque control method based on the fuzzy controller is proposed. For the variable environment resistance, the proposed control method can not only ensure enough traction force, but also limit the output torque in a feasible region. In the simulations, the robot with the proposed control method is compared to the robot with fixed inclining angles of rollers. The results show that the combination of the torque control method and the proposed robot achieves the better adaptability to the variable resistance in the straight and curved pipes.

  17. A 5-D hyperchaotic Rikitake dynamo system with hidden attractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Pham, V.-T.; Volos, C. K.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a 5-D hyperchaotic Rikitake dynamo system with three positive Lyapunov exponents which is derived by adding two state feedback controls to the famous 3-D Rikitake two-disk dynamo system. It is noted that the proposed hyperchaotic system has no equilibrium points and hence it exhibits hidden attractors. In addition, the qualitative properties, as well as the adaptive synchronization of the hyperchaotic Rikitake dynamo system with unknown system parameters, are discussed in details. The main results are proved using Lyapunov stability theory and numerical simulations are shown using MATLAB. Moreover, an electronic circuit realization in SPICE has been detailed to confirm the feasibility of the theoretical 5-D hyperchaotic Rikitake dynamo model.

  18. Characterization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters using hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Baldi, P.; Chauvin, Y.

    1996-01-01

    that bind to them. We find that HMMs trained on such subclasses of Escherichia coli promoters (specifically, the so-called sigma 70 and sigma 54 classes) give an excellent classification of unknown promoters with respect to sigma-class. HMMs trained on eukaryotic sequences from human genes also model nicely......In this paper we utilize hidden Markov models (HMMs) and information theory to analyze prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters. We perform this analysis with special emphasis on the fact that promoters are divided into a number of different classes, depending on which polymerase-associated factors...... have at the same time the ability to find clusters and the ability to model the sequential structure in the input data. This is highly relevant in situations where the variance in the data is high, as is the case for the subclass structure in for example promoter sequences....

  19. Enhancement of hidden symmetries and Chern-Simons couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Lekeu, Victor

    2015-01-01

    We study the role of Chern--Simons couplings for the appearance of enhanced symmetries of Cremmer--Julia type in various theories. It is shown explicitly that for generic values of the Chern--Simons coupling there is only a parabolic Lie subgroup of symmetries after reduction to three space-time dimensions but that this parabolic Lie group gets enhanced to the full and larger Cremmer--Julia Lie group of hidden symmetries if the coupling takes a specific value. This is heralded by an enhanced isotropy group of the metric on the scalar manifold. Examples of this phenomenon are discussed as well as the relation to supersymmetry. Our results are also connected with rigidity theorems of Borel-like algebras.

  20. Self-accelerating Massive Gravity: Hidden Constraints and Characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Motloch, Pavel; Motohashi, Hayato

    2016-01-01

    Self-accelerating backgrounds in massive gravity provide an arena to explore the Cauchy problem for derivatively coupled fields that obey complex constraints which reduce the phase space degrees of freedom. We present here an algorithm based on the Kronecker form of a matrix pencil that finds all hidden constraints, for example those associated with derivatives of the equations of motion, and characteristic curves for any 1+1 dimensional system of linear partial differential equations. With the Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli decomposition of metric perturbations into angular momentum and parity states, this technique applies to fully 3+1 dimensional perturbations of massive gravity around any isotropic self-accelerating background. Five spin modes of the massive graviton propagate once the constraints are imposed: two spin-2 modes with luminal characteristics present in the massless theory as well as two spin-1 modes and one spin-0 mode. Although the new modes all possess the same - typically spacelike - characteristi...

  1. LHCb - Search for hidden-sector bosons at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A search is presented for a hidden-sector boson, $\\chi$, produced in the decay $B^0 \\rightarrow K^* (892)^0 \\chi$, with $K^* (892)^0 \\rightarrow K^+ \\pi^-$ and $\\chi \\rightarrow \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ . The search is performed using a $pp$-collision data sample collected at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 1 and 2 fb$^{-1}$ respectively. No significant signal is observed in the mass range $214 \\le m_\\chi \\le 4350$ MeV, and upper limits are placed on the branching fraction product $\\mathcal{B}(B^0 \\rightarrow K^* (892)^0 \\chi) \\times \\mathcal{B}(\\chi \\rightarrow \\mu^+ \\mu^- )$ as a function of the mass and lifetime of the $\\chi$ boson. These limits place the most stringent constraints to date on many theories that predict the existence of additional low-mass dark bosons.

  2. New Tests of Macroscopic Local Realism using Continuous Variable Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, M D

    2001-01-01

    We show that quantum mechanics predicts an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox (EPR), and also a contradiction with local hidden variable theories, for photon number measurements which have limited resolving power, to the point of imposing an uncertainty in the photon number result which is macroscopic in absolute terms. We show how this can be interpreted as a failure of a new, very strong premise, called macroscopic local realism. We link this premise to the Schrodinger-cat paradox. Our proposed experiments ensure all fields incident on each measurement apparatus are macroscopic. We show that an alternative measurement scheme corresponds to balanced homodyne detection of quadrature phase amplitudes. The implication is that where either EPR correlations or failure of local realism is predicted for continuous variable (quadrature phase amplitude) measurements, one can perform a modified experiment which would lead to conclusions about the much stronger premise of macroscopic local realism.

  3. The hidden simplicity of biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Paul C. W.; Imari Walker, Sara

    2016-10-01

    Life is so remarkable, and so unlike any other physical system, that it is tempting to attribute special factors to it. Physics is founded on the assumption that universal laws and principles underlie all natural phenomena, but is it far from clear that there are ‘laws of life’ with serious descriptive or predictive power analogous to the laws of physics. Nor is there (yet) a ‘theoretical biology’ in the same sense as theoretical physics. Part of the obstacle in developing a universal theory of biological organization concerns the daunting complexity of living organisms. However, many attempts have been made to glimpse simplicity lurking within this complexity, and to capture this simplicity mathematically. In this paper we review a promising new line of inquiry to bring coherence and order to the realm of biology by focusing on ‘information’ as a unifying concept.

  4. A Convergent Differential Evolution Algorithm with Hidden Adaptation Selection for Engineering Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongbo Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many improved differential Evolution (DE algorithms have emerged as a very competitive class of evolutionary computation more than a decade ago. However, few improved DE algorithms guarantee global convergence in theory. This paper developed a convergent DE algorithm in theory, which employs a self-adaptation scheme for the parameters and two operators, that is, uniform mutation and hidden adaptation selection (haS operators. The parameter self-adaptation and uniform mutation operator enhance the diversity of populations and guarantee ergodicity. The haS can automatically remove some inferior individuals in the process of the enhancing population diversity. The haS controls the proposed algorithm to break the loop of current generation with a small probability. The breaking probability is a hidden adaptation and proportional to the changes of the number of inferior individuals. The proposed algorithm is tested on ten engineering optimization problems taken from IEEE CEC2011.

  5. Hidden OSp(N,2) symmetries in superconformal field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershadsky, Michael; Ooguri, Hirosi

    1989-10-01

    It is shown that th representation space of the OSp(N,2) current algebra reduces to that of the N-extended superconformal algebra by imposing constraints on currents. In the classical limit, this results gives the relation between the Wess-Zumino-Witten model for the OSp(N,2) group and the geometric action for the superconformal algebra. On leave of absence from Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan. Address after September 1, 1989: The Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

  6. Chaos, solitons and fractals in hidden symmetry models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccari, Attilio [Technical Institute ' G. Cardano' , Piazza della Resistenza 1, 00015 Monterotondo, Rome (Italy)] e-mail: solitone@yahoo.it

    2006-01-01

    A spontaneous symmetry breaking (or hidden symmetry) model is reduced to a system nonlinear evolution equations integrable via an appropriate change of variables, by means of the asymptotic perturbation (AP) method, based on spatio-temporal rescaling and Fourier expansion. It is demonstrated the existence of coherent solutions as well as chaotic and fractal patterns, due to the possibility of selecting appropriately some arbitrary functions. Dromion, lump, breather, instanton and ring soliton solutions are derived and the interaction between these coherent solutions are completely elastic, because they pass through each other and preserve their shapes and velocities, the only change being a phase shift. Finally, one can construct lower dimensional chaotic patterns such as chaotic-chaotic patterns, periodic-chaotic patterns, chaotic soliton and dromion patterns. In a similar way, fractal dromion and lump patterns as well as stochastic fractal excitations can appear in the solution.

  7. Applying theories and interventions from behavioral medicine to understand and reduce visual field variability in patients with vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Collin; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Dagnelie, Gislin; Bittner, Ava K

    2014-08-01

    Visual field (VF) test results are often unreliable in visually impaired patients, but continue to be a cornerstone of clinical trials and play a vital role in clinical decision making since they are the primary method to determine patients' functional vision loss or progression. Currently, patients are typically asked to perform VF tasks with minimal instruction or consideration of their psychological experience during the test. The gradual loss of vision due to retinal diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), or glaucoma can contribute to the experience of negative psychosocial states, such as anxiety, stress, and depression, as well as diminished quality of life. We hypothesize that VF testing elicits test performance anxiety and perception of functional losses of vision, which induces distracting negative thoughts that result in increased VF test variability. Resources for processing and responding to vision-related information may be diverted from task-relevant VF stimuli to task-irrelevant ones, such as internal worry and test anxiety, thereby resulting in VF test performance decrements. We present a theoretical model to support the hypothesis that VF variability is linked to patients' negative thoughts during VF testing. This conceptual framework provides a basis for the development of coping strategies and mindfulness-based interventions to be evaluated in future research aimed at improving psychosocial states and VF reliability in visually-impaired patients. It would be highly significant to intervene by modifying negative thoughts during VF testing to reduce test variability in glaucoma patients who are progressively losing vision to a blinding eye disease, but whose vision loss has not been accurately identified and treated early enough due to variable VF results. In clinical trials of potential interventions for RP and non-neovascular AMD, reducing VF variability would effectively increase the precision for

  8. Applying Theories and Interventions from Behavioral Medicine to Understand and Reduce Visual Field Variability in Patients with Vision Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Collin; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Dagnelie, Gislin; Bittner, Ava K.

    2014-01-01

    Visual field (VF) test results are often unreliable in visually impaired patients, but continue to be a cornerstone of clinical trials and play a vital role in clinical decision making since they are the primary method to determine patients’ functional vision loss or progression. Currently, patients are typically asked to perform VF tasks with minimal instruction or consideration of their psychological experience during the test. The gradual loss of vision due to retinal diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), or glaucoma can contribute to the experience of negative psychosocial states, such as anxiety, stress, and depression, as well as diminished quality of life. We hypothesize that VF testing elicits test performance anxiety and perception of functional losses of vision, which induces distracting negative thoughts that result in increased VF test variability. Resources for processing and responding to vision-related information may be diverted from task-relevant VF stimuli to task-irrelevant ones, such as internal worry and test anxiety, thereby resulting in VF test performance decrements. We present a theoretical model to support the hypothesis that VF variability is linked to patients’ negative thoughts during VF testing. This conceptual framework provides a basis for the development of coping strategies and mindfulness-based interventions to be evaluated in future research aimed at improving psychosocial states and VF reliability in visually-impaired patients. It would be highly significant to intervene by modifying negative thoughts during VF testing to reduce test variability in glaucoma patients who are progressively losing vision to a blinding eye disease, but whose vision loss has not been accurately identified and treated early enough due to variable VF results. In clinical trials of potential interventions for RP and non-neovascular AMD, reducing VF variability would effectively increase the precision

  9. Living on the multidimensional edge: seeking hidden risks using regular variation

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Bikramjit; Mitra, Abhimanyu; Resnick, Sidney

    2013-01-01

    Multivariate regular variation plays a role in assessing tail risk in diverse applications such as finance, telecommunications, insurance, and environmental science. The classical theory, being based on an asymptotic model, sometimes leads to inaccurate and useless estimates of probabilities of joint tail regions. This problem can be partly ameliorated by using hidden regular variation (see Resnick (2002) and Mitra and Resnick (2011)). We offer a more flexible definition ...

  10. Hidden force opposing ice compression

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Chang Q; Zheng, Weitao

    2012-01-01

    Coulomb repulsion between the unevenly-bound bonding and nonbonding electron pairs in the O:H-O hydrogen-bond is shown to originate the anomalies of ice under compression. Consistency between experimental observations, density functional theory and molecular dynamics calculations confirmed that the resultant force of the compression, the repulsion, and the recovery of electron-pair dislocations differentiates ice from other materials in response to pressure. The compression shortens and strengthens the longer-and-softer intermolecular O:H lone-pair virtual-bond; the repulsion pushes the bonding electron pair away from the H+/p and hence lengthens and weakens the intramolecular H-O real-bond. The virtual-bond compression and the real-bond elongation symmetrize the O:H-O as observed at ~60 GPa and result in the abnormally low compressibility of ice. The virtual-bond stretching phonons ( 3000 cm-1) softened upon compression. The cohesive energy of the real-bond dominates and its loss lowers the critical temperat...

  11. Single-hidden-layer feed-forward quantum neural network based on Grover learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Chein; Chang, Ching-Ter; Shih, Lun-Min

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, a novel single-hidden-layer feed-forward quantum neural network model is proposed based on some concepts and principles in the quantum theory. By combining the quantum mechanism with the feed-forward neural network, we defined quantum hidden neurons and connected quantum weights, and used them as the fundamental information processing unit in a single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network. The quantum neurons make a wide range of nonlinear functions serve as the activation functions in the hidden layer of the network, and the Grover searching algorithm outstands the optimal parameter setting iteratively and thus makes very efficient neural network learning possible. The quantum neuron and weights, along with a Grover searching algorithm based learning, result in a novel and efficient neural network characteristic of reduced network, high efficient training and prospect application in future. Some simulations are taken to investigate the performance of the proposed quantum network and the result show that it can achieve accurate learning.

  12. Scale-invariant hidden local symmetry, topology change, and dense baryonic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeng, Won-Gi; Kuo, Thomas T. S.; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Rho, Mannque

    2016-05-01

    When scale symmetry is implemented into hidden local symmetry in low-energy strong interactions to arrive at a scale-invariant hidden local symmetric (HLS) theory, the scalar f0(500 ) may be interpreted as pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone (pNG) boson, i.e., dilaton, of spontaneously broken scale invariance, joining the pseudoscalar pNG bosons π and the matter fields V =(ρ ,ω ) as relevant degrees of freedom. Implementing the skyrmion-half-skyrmion transition predicted at large Nc in QCD at a density roughly twice the nuclear matter density found in the crystal simulation of dense skyrmion matter, we determine the intrinsically density-dependent "bare parameters" of the scale-invariant HLS Lagrangian matched to QCD at a matching scale ΛM. The resulting effective Lagrangian, with the parameters scaling with the density of the system, is applied to nuclear matter and dense baryonic matter relevant to massive compact stars by means of the double-decimation renormalization-group Vlow k formalism. We satisfactorily postdict the properties of normal nuclear matter and more significantly predict the equation of state of dense compact-star matter that quantitatively accounts for the presently available data coming from both the terrestrial and space laboratories. We interpret the resulting structure of compact-star matter as revealing how the combination of hidden-scale symmetry and hidden local symmetry manifests itself in compressed baryonic matter.

  13. Verification of relationships between anthropometric variables among ureteral stents recipients and ureteric lengths: a challenge for Vitruvian-da Vinci theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acelam PA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip A Acelam Walden University, College of Health Sciences, Minneapolis, MN, USA Objective: To determine and verify how anthropometric variables correlate to ureteric lengths and how well statistical models approximate the actual ureteric lengths. Materials and methods: In this work, 129 charts of endourological patients (71 females and 58 males were studied retrospectively. Data were gathered from various research centers from North and South America. Continuous data were studied using descriptive statistics. Anthropometric variables (age, body surface area, body weight, obesity, and stature were utilized as predictors of ureteric lengths. Linear regressions and correlations were used for studying relationships between the predictors and the outcome variables (ureteric lengths; P-value was set at 0.05. To assess how well statistical models were capable of predicting the actual ureteric lengths, percentages (or ratios of matched to mismatched results were employed. Results: The results of the study show that anthropometric variables do not correlate well to ureteric lengths. Statistical models can partially estimate ureteric lengths. Out of the five anthropometric variables studied, three of them: body frame, stature, and weight, each with a P<0.0001, were significant. Two of the variables: age (R2=0.01; P=0.20 and obesity (R2=0.03; P=0.06, were found to be poor estimators of ureteric lengths. None of the predictors reached the expected (match:above:below ratio of 1:0:0 to qualify as reliable predictors of ureteric lengths. Conclusion: There is not sufficient evidence to conclude that anthropometric variables can reliably predict ureteric lengths. These variables appear to lack adequate specificity as they failed to reach the expected (match:above:below ratio of 1:0:0. Consequently, selections of ureteral stents continue to remain a challenge. However, height (R2=0.68 with the (match:above:below ratio of 3:3:4 appears suited for use as

  14. Analyzing development of working models for disrupted attachments: the case of hidden family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Catherine C; Fischer, Kurt W; O'Connor, Erin E

    2003-06-01

    This article offers a developmental model of attachment theory rooted in dynamic skill theory. Dynamic skill theory is based on the assumption that people do not have integrated, fundamentally logical minds, but instead develop along naturally fractionated strands of a web. Contrary to traditional interpretations of attachment theory, dynamic skill theory proposes that individuals continue to modify their working models of attachments throughout the lifespan. In particular, working models of close relationships develop systematically through a series of skill levels such that the skills vary across strands in the web and will not automatically form a unified whole. The continual modification of working models is particularly pertinent for the consequences of hidden family violence for individuals' development. Dynamic skill theory shows how trauma can produce not developmental delay or fixation, as has been proposed previously, but instead the construction of advanced, complex working models.

  15. Hidden penis release: adjunctive suprapubic lipectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, C E; Vorstman, B; Teasley, D; Winslow, B

    1987-08-01

    We believe the hidden penis may be caused and concealed by a prominent suprapubic fat pad in addition to the restrictive fibrous bands of the dartos fascia fixing the shaft of the penis proximally while loose skin folds prolapse distally over the phallus. A penis of inadequate length or appearance may affect body image. Patients with this problem often require psychological support. Hidden penis may be distinguished from micropenis by palpating adequate corpora and showing a stretched penile length within 2 SD of normal. Excision of suprapubic fat with sectioning of the tethering dartos bands will release and increase the length of the penis. Suprapubic fat pad resection may also be helpful to elongate a short penis in cases of adult microphallus, or after partial penectomy because of trauma or cancer. Circumcision is contraindicated.

  16. Laser experiments explore the hidden sector

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlers, M; Jaeckel, J; Redondo, J; Ringwald, A

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the laser experiments BMV and GammeV, searching for light shining through walls, have published data and calculated new limits on the allowed masses and couplings for axion-like particles. In this note we point out that these experiments can serve to constrain a much wider variety of hidden-sector particles such as, e.g., minicharged particles and hidden-sector photons. The new experiments improve the existing bounds from the older BFRT experiment by a factor of two. Moreover, we use the new PVLAS constraints on a possible rotation and ellipticity of light after it has passed through a strong magnetic field to constrain pure minicharged particle models. For masses <~0.05 eV, the charge is now restricted to be less than (3-4)x10^(-7) times the electron electric charge. This is the best laboratory bound and comparable to bounds inferred from the energy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background.

  17. Extended abstract of a hidden agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goguen, J.; Malcolm, G. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The initial goal of our hidden research programme was both straightforward and ambitious: give a semantics for software engineering, and in particular for the object paradigm, supporting correctness proofs that are as simple and mechanical as possible. This emphasizes proofs rather than models, and thus suggests an equational approach, rather than one based on higher order logic, denotational semantics, or any kind of model, because equational proofs achieve maximal simplicity and mechanization, and yet are fully expressive. We introduce powerful coinduction techniques for proving behavioral properties of complex systems. We make the no doubt outrageous claim that our hidden approach gives simpler proofs than other formalisms; this is because we exploit algebraic structure that most other approaches discard.

  18. Hidden geometric correlations in real multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián; Ángeles Serrano, M.; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos

    2016-11-01

    Real networks often form interacting parts of larger and more complex systems. Examples can be found in different domains, ranging from the Internet to structural and functional brain networks. Here, we show that these multiplex systems are not random combinations of single network layers. Instead, they are organized in specific ways dictated by hidden geometric correlations between the layers. We find that these correlations are significant in different real multiplexes, and form a key framework for answering many important questions. Specifically, we show that these geometric correlations facilitate the definition and detection of multidimensional communities, which are sets of nodes that are simultaneously similar in multiple layers. They also enable accurate trans-layer link prediction, meaning that connections in one layer can be predicted by observing the hidden geometric space of another layer. And they allow efficient targeted navigation in the multilayer system using only local knowledge, outperforming navigation in the single layers only if the geometric correlations are sufficiently strong.

  19. The Hidden Gifts of Quiet Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trierweiler, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    The author relates that she was an introvert child. It has always taken her time and energy to find her place in a group. As a grown-up, she still needed quiet time to regroup during a busy day. In this article, the author presents an interview with Marti Olsen Laney, author of "The Hidden Gifts of the Introverted Child." During the interview,…

  20. Finite State Transducers Approximating Hidden Markov Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kempe, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the conversion of a Hidden Markov Model into a sequential transducer that closely approximates the behavior of the stochastic model. This transformation is especially advantageous for part-of-speech tagging because the resulting transducer can be composed with other transducers that encode correction rules for the most frequent tagging errors. The speed of tagging is also improved. The described methods have been implemented and successfully tested on six languages.

  1. Caldera rim collapse: A hidden volcanic hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Merle, Olivier; Michon, Laurent; Bachèlery, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Following the emblematic flank collapse of Mount St Helens in 1981, numerous models of flank sliding have been proposed. These models have allowed to largely improve the understanding of mechanisms involved in such landslides, which represent a tremendous risk for populations living around volcanoes. In this article, a new mode of landslide formation, related to buried calderas, is described. The model emphasizes the paramount importance of the hidden ring fault that, ...

  2. Killing and letting die: hidden value assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G

    1983-01-01

    In this paper I argue for several related theses: first, that the distinction between killing and letting die, as it is drawn by ordinary persons in ordinary contexts, is more complex than is generally understood; second, that the key feature of this complexity lies in the presence of a hidden normative component in what appears to be a straightforwardly descriptive distinction; and, third, that this complexity renders the killing/letting die distinction an inadequate and hazardous guide for moral reasoning.

  3. Online Learning in Discrete Hidden Markov Models

    OpenAIRE

    Alamino, Roberto C.; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-01-01

    We present and analyse three online algorithms for learning in discrete Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and compare them with the Baldi-Chauvin Algorithm. Using the Kullback-Leibler divergence as a measure of generalisation error we draw learning curves in simplified situations. The performance for learning drifting concepts of one of the presented algorithms is analysed and compared with the Baldi-Chauvin algorithm in the same situations. A brief discussion about learning and symmetry breaking b...

  4. Motivational processes from expectancy-value theory are associated with variability in the error positivity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Matthew H; Marulis, Loren M; Grammer, Jennie K; Morrison, Frederick J; Gehring, William J

    2017-03-01

    Motivational beliefs and values influence how children approach challenging activities. The current study explored motivational processes from an expectancy-value theory framework by studying children's mistakes and their responses to them by focusing on two event-related potential (ERP) components: the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe). Motivation was assessed using a child-friendly challenge puzzle task and a brief interview measure prior to ERP testing. Data from 50 4- to 6-year-old children revealed that greater perceived competence beliefs were related to a larger Pe, whereas stronger intrinsic task value beliefs were associated with a smaller Pe. Motivation was unrelated to the ERN. Individual differences in early motivational processes may reflect electrophysiological activity related to conscious error awareness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Theory of Variable Light Speed and Its Related Issues%光速可变理论及其相关问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晋曦

    2011-01-01

    None of the experiments available have directly proved that the light speed is irrelevant to direction. On the contrary, several cosmological experiments have resulted in the opposite conclusion. Therefore, the theory of invariance of light speed, as the foundation of special relativity, is doubtful. In the previous papers, the writer has proved that the light speed is variable through theoretical analyses based on the experimental facts available.The paper intends to argue if the theory of variable light speed is accepted, it will cause a series of related issues and conclusions: the theory of relativity is not universally applicable; the absolute motion is observable; the light speed is both variable and invariable; the absolute frame defined by the light speed can be established; etc. Thus, the long existence of specious and perplexing situation,caused by the requirement of coexistence of the theory of relativity and the theory of invariance of light speed, will be eliminated, hence liberation of physics.It should be pointed out that the concept of variable light speed discussed in the paper is essentially different from the VSL theory of light speed varying with time and the theory of superluminal motion (not excluding the possibility of the existence of such phenomenon) reported currently, because the concept of variable light speed involves the absolute frame, a more fundamental issue of physics. The only criterion to prove the truth of an idea is by experiment. It is suggested that the State Departments concerned organize and financially support the experts, on the basis of discussion and verification, to carry out the experiments of one-way variable speed of light and two-way variable speed of light proposed previously by the writer in order to prove if the variable light speed is verifiable.%现有实验均未直接证实光速与方向无关这一论断,几个天文实验反倒证实了与其相反的结论.因此作为狭义相对论基础的光速不

  6. Otoendoscopic treatment of hidden lesions in otomastoiditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; SUN Jian-jun; LIN Yong-sheng; ZHAO Dan-heng; ZHAO Jing; LEI Fei

    2010-01-01

    Background Surgical treatments for chronic suppurative and cholesteatoma otitis media have been discussed for several decades, but recurrences still occur because of the complex dissection required and hidden lesions associated with otomastoiditis. This study investigated the technology and strategy behind the use of otoendoscopic-assisted otosurgery.Methods We reported on hidden lesions in 32 ears of patients with otomastoiditis between November 2006 and January 2009. All the patients were treated with the aid of an otoendoscope. The advantages of otoendoscopy, including multi-angle light scattering, aperture illumination, and magnification of the local operative field, were utilized in otologic microsurgery, and otoendoscopic operative techniques were introduced for operative sites such as the epitympanum, aditus of the antrum, facial recess, sinus tympani and the mastoid tip.Results All patients were followed up from 3 months to 2 years after surgery. All patients recovered well within 3 months following surgery, except for one case of epithelialization of the mastoid cavity occurring 6 months after surgery for cholesteatoma on the cerebellar surface and another case with Bezold's abscess, hyperplastic granulation tissue developed at the antrum.Conclusions Otoendoscopy can overcome the technical deficiency of rectilinearity of the visual axis associated with otomicroscopic illumination, which presents a problem when dealing with otomastoiditis lesions in hidden areas. This technique allows such lesions within the complex three-dimensional structure to be visualized and cleaned. Otoendoscopy thus has significant potential for improving the quality of surgery and reducing the risk of postoperative recurrence.

  7. L² approaches in several complex variables development of Oka–Cartan theory by L² estimates for the d-bar operator

    CERN Document Server

    Ohsawa, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to present the current status of a rapidly developing part of several complex variables, motivated by the applicability of effective results to algebraic geometry and differential geometry. Highlighted are the new precise results on the L² extension of holomorphic functions. In Chapter 1, the classical questions of several complex variables motivating the development of this field are reviewed after necessary preparations from the basic notions of those variables and of complex manifolds such as holomorphic functions, pseudoconvexity, differential forms, and cohomology. In Chapter 2, the L² method of solving the d-bar equation is presented emphasizing its differential geometric aspect. In Chapter 3, a refinement of the Oka–Cartan theory is given by this method. The L² extension theorem with an optimal constant is included, obtained recently by Z. Błocki and by Q.-A. Guan and X.-Y. Zhou separately. In Chapter 4, various results on the Bergman kernel are presented, includi...

  8. Behavioral variability and consistency: Experimental bases for a psychological theory of personality (Variabilidad y Consistencia individual: Bases experimentales de la teoría de la personalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Santacreu Mas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain how and why individual differences emerge despite accounting for biological andsocio-cultural differences, why people behave differently in the same context, and how behavior becomes stable and consistent. We review the experimental work on variability and stereotypy. In animal research, in contrast to expectations, there is interindividual variability in behavior under extreme environmental control. In addition, intraindividual consistency (stereotypy is detected in animals whose behavior is not fully adjusted to the contingencies. The differences in what is learned (the kind of contingency relations among laboratory animals can be explained by: a the differences between effective contingencies and programmed contingencies, and b the relationship between exploration and rate of reinforcement. In experimental studies in humans, learning differences in identical environments depend, further to the above, onwhat was previously learned by the individual (experience and education and the thoroughness and internal consistency of task instructions. From these concepts, we propose a psychological theory of personality that explains: (a how we learn different relationships from the same experience; (b how behavioral individual differences emerge (variability; and (cwhy each individual’s behavior becomes stable and consistent.

  9. Clustering Multivariate Time Series Using Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Ghassempour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe an algorithm for clustering multivariate time series with variables taking both categorical and continuous values. Time series of this type are frequent in health care, where they represent the health trajectories of individuals. The problem is challenging because categorical variables make it difficult to define a meaningful distance between trajectories. We propose an approach based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs, where we first map each trajectory into an HMM, then define a suitable distance between HMMs and finally proceed to cluster the HMMs with a method based on a distance matrix. We test our approach on a simulated, but realistic, data set of 1,255 trajectories of individuals of age 45 and over, on a synthetic validation set with known clustering structure, and on a smaller set of 268 trajectories extracted from the longitudinal Health and Retirement Survey. The proposed method can be implemented quite simply using standard packages in R and Matlab and may be a good candidate for solving the difficult problem of clustering multivariate time series with categorical variables using tools that do not require advanced statistic knowledge, and therefore are accessible to a wide range of researchers.

  10. On the relation between boundary proposals and hidden symmetries of the extended pre-big bang quantum cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalalzadeh, S.; Rostami, T. [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moniz, P.V. [Centro de Matematica e Aplicacoes-UBI, Covilha (Portugal); Universidade da Beira Interior, Departamento de Fisica, Covilha (Portugal)

    2015-01-01

    A framework associating quantum cosmological boundary conditions to minisuperspace hidden symmetries has been introduced in Jalalzadeh and Moniz (Phys Rev D 89:083504, 2014). The scope of the application was, notwithstanding the novelty, restrictive because it lacked a discussion involving realistic matter fields. Therefore, in the present letter, we extend the framework scope to encompass elements from a scalar-tensor theory in the presence of a cosmological constant. More precisely, it is shown that hidden minisuperspace symmetries present in a pre-big bang model suggest a process from which boundary conditions can be selected. (orig.)

  11. Comprehensive theory of the Deans' switch as a variable flow splitter: fluid mechanics, mass balance, and system behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeker, Peter; Leppert, Jan; Mysliwietz, Bodo; Lammers, Peter Schulze

    2013-10-01

    The Deans' switch is an effluent switching device based on controlling flows of carrier gas instead of mechanical valves in the analytical flow path. This technique offers high inertness and a wear-free operation. Recently new monolithic microfluidic devices have become available. In these devices the whole flow system is integrated into a small metal device with low thermal mass and leak-tight connections. In contrast to a mechanical valve-based system, a flow-controlled system is more difficult to calculate. Usually the Deans' switch is used to switch one inlet to one of two outlets, by means of two auxiliary flows. However, the Deans' switch can also be used to deliver the GC effluent with a specific split ratio to both outlets. The calculation of the split ratio of the inlet flow to the two outlets is challenging because of the asymmetries of the flow resistances. This is especially the case, if one of the outlets is a vacuum device, such as a mass spectrometer, and the other an atmospheric detector, e.g. a flame ionization detector (FID) or an olfactory (sniffing) port. The capillary flows in gas chromatography are calculated with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation of the laminar, isothermal and compressible flow in circular tubes. The flow resistances in the new microfluidic devices have to be calculated with the corresponding equation for rectangular cross-section microchannels. The Hagen-Poiseuille equation underestimates the flow to a vacuum outlet. A corrected equation originating from the theory of rarefied flows is presented. The calculation of pressures and flows of a Deans' switch based chromatographic system is done by the solution of mass balances. A specific challenge is the consideration of the antidiffusion resistor between the two auxiliary gas lines of the Deans' switch. A full solution for the calculation of the Deans' switch including this restrictor is presented. Results from validation measurements are in good accordance with the developed

  12. Kinetic mixing of the photon with hidden U(1)s in string phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, S.A.; Khoze, V.V. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Goodsell, M.D. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, Paris (France); Jaeckel, J. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology]|[Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Embeddings of the standard model in type II string theory typically contain a variety of U(1) gauge factors arising from D-branes in the bulk. In general, there is no reason why only one of these - the one corresponding to weak hypercharge - should be massless. Observations require that standard model particles must be neutral (or have an extremely small charge) under additional massless U(1)s, i.e. the latter have to belong to a so called hidden sector. The exchange of heavy messengers, however, can lead to a kinetic mixing between the hypercharge and the hidden-sector U(1)s, that is testable with near future experiments. This provides a powerful probe of the hidden sectors and, as a consequence, of the string theory realisation itself. In the present paper, we show, using a variety of methods, how the kinetic mixing can be derived from the underlying type II string compactification, involving supersymmetric and nonsupersymmetric configurations of D-branes, both in large volumes and in warped backgrounds with fluxes. We first demonstrate by explicit example that kinetic mixing occurs in a completely supersymmetric set-up where we can use conformal field theory techniques. We then develop a supergravity approach which allows us to examine the phenomenon in more general backgrounds, where we find that kinetic mixing is natural in the context of flux compactifications. We discuss the phenomenological consequences for experiments at the low-energy frontier, searching for signatures of light, sub-electronvolt or even massless hidden-sector U(1) gauge bosons and minicharged particles. (orig.)

  13. Prediction of protein binding sites in protein structures using hidden Markov support vector machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lei

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting the binding sites between two interacting proteins provides important clues to the function of a protein. Recent research on protein binding site prediction has been mainly based on widely known machine learning techniques, such as artificial neural networks, support vector machines, conditional random field, etc. However, the prediction performance is still too low to be used in practice. It is necessary to explore new algorithms, theories and features to further improve the performance. Results In this study, we introduce a novel machine learning model hidden Markov support vector machine for protein binding site prediction. The model treats the protein binding site prediction as a sequential labelling task based on the maximum margin criterion. Common features derived from protein sequences and structures, including protein sequence profile and residue accessible surface area, are used to train hidden Markov support vector machine. When tested on six data sets, the method based on hidden Markov support vector machine shows better performance than some state-of-the-art methods, including artificial neural networks, support vector machines and conditional random field. Furthermore, its running time is several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the compared methods. Conclusion The improved prediction performance and computational efficiency of the method based on hidden Markov support vector machine can be attributed to the following three factors. Firstly, the relation between labels of neighbouring residues is useful for protein binding site prediction. Secondly, the kernel trick is very advantageous to this field. Thirdly, the complexity of the training step for hidden Markov support vector machine is linear with the number of training samples by using the cutting-plane algorithm.

  14. A Tropical Ocean Recharge Mechanism for Climate Variability. Part II: A Unified Theory for Decadal and ENSO Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochun; Jin, Fei-Fei; Wang, Yuqing

    2003-11-01

    Decadal to interdecadal timescale variability in the Pacific region, commonly referred to as the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), is studied in this research using analytical and numerical models. A coupled analytical model is formulated to analyze the physical mechanism of both the PDO and ENSO. It has the equatorial β-plane dynamics of a reduced-gravity model coupled with the wind stress of fixed spatial patterns. The amplitude of the latter is proportional to the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the eastern equatorial Pacific. The SST anomaly is governed by a simple thermal dynamic equation used for ENSO modeling. It is found that when a warm SST is coupled with cyclonic wind stress patterns in the eastern subtropical Pacific, an oscillation with a timescale of around 10 15 yr could be generated. In contrast, when a warm SST is coupled with only a westerly wind stress in the central equatorial Pacific, an ENSO-like oscillation could be generated with a timescale of around 3 5 yr. Thus the present research is potentially relevant to aspects of the PDO and the mechanism of the PDO may be understood as a weakly coupled decadal recharge oscillator similar to the recharge oscillator dynamics of ENSO. The sensitivity of these two kinds of coupled modes to different parameters is tested. Numerical integrations with the reduced-gravity shallow-water model in a rectangular basin and a similar coupled framework confirm the results of the analytical model.

  15. The Determination of Feasible Control Variables for Geoengineering and Weather Modification Based on the Theory of Sensitivity in Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A. Soldatenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical cybernetics allows for exploring weather and climate modification (geoengineering as an optimal control problem in which the Earth’s climate system is considered as a control system and the role of controller is given to human operators. In mathematical models used in climate studies control actions that manipulate the weather and climate can be expressed via variations in model parameters that act as controls. In this paper, we propose the “instability-sensitivity” approach that allows for determining feasible control variables in geoengineering. The method is based on the sensitivity analysis of mathematical models that describe various types of natural instability phenomena. The applicability of this technique is illustrated by a model of atmospheric baroclinic instability since this physical mechanism plays a significant role in the general circulation of the atmosphere and, consequently, in climate formation. The growth rate of baroclinic unstable waves is taken as an indicator of control manipulations. The information obtained via calculated sensitivity coefficients is very beneficial for assessing the physical feasibility of methods of control of the large-scale atmospheric dynamics and for designing optimal control systems for climatic processes. It also provides insight into potential future changes in baroclinic waves, as a result of a changing climate.

  16. Hidden laser communications through matter. An application of meV-scale hidden photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics and Phenomenology; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    Currently, there are a number of light-shining-through-walls experiments searching for hidden photons - light, sub-eV-scale, abelian gauge bosons beyond the standard model which mix kinetically with the standard photon. We show that in the case that one of these experiments finds evidence for hidden photons, laser communications through matter, using methods from free-space optics, can be realized in the very near future, with a channel capacity of more than 1 bit per second, for a distance up to the Earth's diameter. (orig.)

  17. Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirizzi, Alessandro [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-12-15

    Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle {chi}{sub 0} hidden photon masses between 10{sup -14} eV and 10{sup -7} eV. This low-mass and low-mixing region of the hidden photon parameter space was previously unconstrained. (orig.)

  18. 'Hidden poverty' of teachers: Status, consequences and overcoming strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Blanka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of reduced financial and other possibilities in the period of social transition are reflected on the quality of life and work of teachers, and thereby indirectly on education of pupils as well. Aims: (1 to determine teachers' estimation of their own financial status and subjective perception of teachers' poverty; (2 to examine in which way the personal perception of poverty of teachers is linked with the quality of their engagement in curricular and extracurricular activities; (3 to examine which economic and psychological strategies teachers use in overcoming stress because of the lower financial status; (4 to examine whether there are differences between teachers with regard to socio-demographic variables and the previously established goals. Sample consists of 141 teachers of music and general education schools in Belgrade and the interior of the country. Method: research is explorative and uses qualitative and psychometric methods of analysis. Results point out to the structure of 'hidden poverty' of teachers: average and poor financial status, financial and logistic support of the extended family, additional job, unfulfilled financial expectations regarding the educational status and ungratified higher needs. Teachers estimate that real poverty of educational system and 'hidden poverty' of teachers are reflected on the quality of certain aspects of educational process as a whole and in certain elements: teacher's personal life and work motivation, authority in school, quality of teacher's engagement in tuition and the possibility of professional specialization. Teachers use financial and psychological strategies for overcoming stress that can be determined as: moralist compensatory, evasive, inappropriate, emotional, relying on family and friendly supportive systems and activist. Conclusion: primarily subjective and spiritual impoverishment of the stratum of highly educated people, who are, in addition to this, the bearers

  19. VISIBLE COSTS AND HIDDEN COSTS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criveanu Maria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hidden costs are present in the activity of any company, hardly identified in the traditional administrative accounting. The high levels of the hidden costs and their unknown presence have serious consequences on the decisions made by the managers. This paper aims at presenting some aspects related to the hidden costs that occur in the activity of the companies in the baking industry and the possibilities to reduce their level.

  20. Hidden History: A Mobile Application for Discovering Surrounding Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis work describes the design, development and evaluation of a mobile application called Hidden History. This application lets users discover and explore three types of landscapes (Historic, Scenic and Cultural) using three different modes of discovery (Route, Explore and Tour). Before designing Hidden History, the feature set of other applications that help users explore surrounding landscapes were identified and analyzed. Hidden History was then designed to implement the best fea...

  1. HIDDEN WEB EXTRACTOR DYNAMIC WAY TO UNCOVER THE DEEP WEB

    OpenAIRE

    DR. ANURADHA; BABITA AHUJA

    2012-01-01

    In this era of digital tsunami of information on the web, everyone is completely dependent on the WWW for information retrieval. This has posed a challenging problem in extracting relevant data. Traditional web crawlers focus only on the surface web while the deep web keeps expanding behind the scene. The web databases are hidden behind the query interfaces. In this paper, we propose a Hidden Web Extractor (HWE) that can automatically discover and download data from the Hidden Web databases. ...

  2. ADAPTIVE LEARNING OF HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS FOR EMOTIONAL SPEECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tkachenia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An on-line unsupervised algorithm for estimating the hidden Markov models (HMM parame-ters is presented. The problem of hidden Markov models adaptation to emotional speech is solved. To increase the reliability of estimated HMM parameters, a mechanism of forgetting and updating is proposed. A functional block diagram of the hidden Markov models adaptation algorithm is also provided with obtained results, which improve the efficiency of emotional speech recognition.

  3. Hidden Photons in Aharonov-Bohm-Type Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Paola; Diaz, Christian; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Jaeckel, Joerg; Koch, Benjamin; Redondo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the presence of hidden photons kinetically mixed with the ordinary electromagnetic photons. The hidden photon field causes a slight phase shift in the observable interference pattern. It is then shown how the limited sensitivity of this experiment can be largely improved. The key observation is that the hidden photon field causes a leakage of the ordinary magnetic field into the supposedly field-free region. The direct measurement of this magnetic field ...

  4. VISIBLE COSTS AND HIDDEN COSTS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Criveanu Maria; Ţaicu Marian

    2013-01-01

    Hidden costs are present in the activity of any company, hardly identified in the traditional administrative accounting. The high levels of the hidden costs and their unknown presence have serious consequences on the decisions made by the managers. This paper aims at presenting some aspects related to the hidden costs that occur in the activity of the companies in the baking industry and the possibilities to reduce their level.

  5. Static stability analysis of smart magneto-electro-elastic heterogeneous nanoplates embedded in an elastic medium based on a four-variable refined plate theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a nonlocal four-variable refined plate theory is developed to examine the buckling behavior of nanoplates made of magneto-electro-elastic functionally graded (MEE-FG) materials resting on Winkler-Pasternak foundation. Material properties of nanoplate change in spatial coordinate based on power-law distribution. The nonlocal governing equations are deduced by employing the Hamilton principle. For various boundary conditions, the analytical solutions of nonlocal MEE-FG plates for buckling problem will be obtained based on an exact solution approach. Finally, dependency of buckling response of MEE-FG nanoplate on elastic foundation parameters, magnetic potential, external electric voltage, various boundary conditions, small scale parameter, power-law index, plate side-to-thickness ratio and aspect ratio will be figure out. These results can be advantageous for the mechanical analysis and design of intelligent nanoscale structures constructed from magneto-electro-thermo-elastic functionally graded materials.

  6. Application of variable structure system theory to aircraft flight control. [AV-8A and the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calise, A. J.; Kadushin, I.; Kramer, F.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of variable structure system (VSS) theory to design aircraft flight control systems is summarized. Two aircraft types are currently being investigated: the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA), and AV-8A Harrier. The AWJSRA design considers automatic control of longitudinal dynamics during the landing phase. The main task for the AWJSRA is to design an automatic landing system that captures and tracks a localizer beam. The control task for the AV-8A is to track velocity commands in a hovering flight configuration. Much effort was devoted to developing computer programs that are needed to carry out VSS design in a multivariable frame work, and in becoming familiar with the dynamics and control problems associated with the aircraft types under investigation. Numerous VSS design schemes were explored, particularly for the AWJSRA. The approaches that appear best suited for these aircraft types are presented. Examples are given of the numerical results currently being generated.

  7. Hidden Attraction - The History and Mystery of Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    1996-04-01

    Long one of nature's most fascinating phenomena, magnetism was once the subject of many superstitions. Magnets were thought useful to thieves, effective as a love potion, and as a cure for gout or spasms. They could remove sorcery from women and put demons to flight and even reconcile married couples. It was said that a lodestone pickled in the salt of sucking fish had the power to attract gold. Today, these beliefs have been put aside, but magnetism is no less remarkable for our modern understanding of it. In Hidden Attraction , Gerrit L. Verschuur, a noted astronomer and National Book Award nominee for The Invisible Universe , traces the history of our fascination with magnetism, from the mystery and superstition that propelled the first alchemical experiments with lodestone, through the more tangible works of Faraday, Maxwell, Hertz and other great pioneers of magnetism (scientists responsible for the extraordinary advances in modern science and technology, including radio, the telephone, and computers, that characterize the twentieth century), to state-of-the-art theories that see magnetism as a basic force in the universe. Boasting many informative illustrations, this is an adventure of the mind, using the specific phenomenon of magnetism to show how we have moved from an era of superstitions to one in which the Theory of Everything looms on the horizon.

  8. Hidden Connectivity in Networks with Vulnerable Classes of Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sebastian M.; Danziger, Michael M.; Zlatić, Vinko

    2016-10-01

    In many complex systems representable as networks, nodes can be separated into different classes. Often these classes can be linked to a mutually shared vulnerability. Shared vulnerabilities may be due to a shared eavesdropper or correlated failures. In this paper, we show the impact of shared vulnerabilities on robust connectivity and how the heterogeneity of node classes can be exploited to maintain functionality by utilizing multiple paths. Percolation is the field of statistical physics that is generally used to analyze connectivity in complex networks, but in its existing forms, it cannot treat the heterogeneity of multiple vulnerable classes. To analyze the connectivity under these constraints, we describe each class as a color and develop a "color-avoiding" percolation. We present an analytic theory for random networks and a numerical algorithm for all networks, with which we can determine which nodes are color-avoiding connected and whether the maximal set percolates in the system. We find that the interaction of topology and color distribution implies a rich critical behavior, with critical values and critical exponents depending both on the topology and on the color distribution. Applying our physics-based theory to the Internet, we show how color-avoiding percolation can be used as the basis for new topologically aware secure communication protocols. Beyond applications to cybersecurity, our framework reveals a new layer of hidden structure in a wide range of natural and technological systems.

  9. Hidden Connectivity in Networks with Vulnerable Classes of Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M. Krause

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In many complex systems representable as networks, nodes can be separated into different classes. Often these classes can be linked to a mutually shared vulnerability. Shared vulnerabilities may be due to a shared eavesdropper or correlated failures. In this paper, we show the impact of shared vulnerabilities on robust connectivity and how the heterogeneity of node classes can be exploited to maintain functionality by utilizing multiple paths. Percolation is the field of statistical physics that is generally used to analyze connectivity in complex networks, but in its existing forms, it cannot treat the heterogeneity of multiple vulnerable classes. To analyze the connectivity under these constraints, we describe each class as a color and develop a “color-avoiding” percolation. We present an analytic theory for random networks and a numerical algorithm for all networks, with which we can determine which nodes are color-avoiding connected and whether the maximal set percolates in the system. We find that the interaction of topology and color distribution implies a rich critical behavior, with critical values and critical exponents depending both on the topology and on the color distribution. Applying our physics-based theory to the Internet, we show how color-avoiding percolation can be used as the basis for new topologically aware secure communication protocols. Beyond applications to cybersecurity, our framework reveals a new layer of hidden structure in a wide range of natural and technological systems.

  10. Application of a renormalization-group treatment to the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range (SAFT-VR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Esther; Llovell, Felix; Vega, Lourdes F; Trusler, J P Martin; Galindo, Amparo

    2011-04-21

    An accurate prediction of phase behavior at conditions far and close to criticality cannot be accomplished by mean-field based theories that do not incorporate long-range density fluctuations. A treatment based on renormalization-group (RG) theory as developed by White and co-workers has proven to be very successful in improving the predictions of the critical region with different equations of state. The basis of the method is an iterative procedure to account for contributions to the free energy of density fluctuations of increasing wavelengths. The RG method has been combined with a number of versions of the statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT), by implementing White's earliest ideas with the improvements of Prausnitz and co-workers. Typically, this treatment involves two adjustable parameters: a cutoff wavelength L for density fluctuations and an average gradient of the wavelet function Φ. In this work, the SAFT-VR (variable range) equation of state is extended with a similar crossover treatment which, however, follows closely the most recent improvements introduced by White. The interpretation of White's latter developments allows us to establish a straightforward method which enables Φ to be evaluated; only the cutoff wavelength L then needs to be adjusted. The approach used here begins with an initial free energy incorporating only contributions from short-wavelength fluctuations, which are treated locally. The contribution from long-wavelength fluctuations is incorporated through an iterative procedure based on attractive interactions which incorporate the structure of the fluid following the ideas of perturbation theories and using a mapping that allows integration of the radial distribution function. Good agreement close and far from the critical region is obtained using a unique fitted parameter L that can be easily related to the range of the potential. In this way the thermodynamic properties of a square-well (SW) fluid are given by the same

  11. Simple estimates of the hidden beauty pentaquarks masses

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeliovich, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The masses of cryptoexotic pentaquarks with hidden beauty are estimated phenomenologically using the results by the LHCb collaboration which discovered recently the cryptoexotic pentaquarks with hidden charm. The expected masses of the hidden beauty pentaquarks are about $10.8\\, GeV$ and $10.7\\,GeV$ in the limit of some kind of heavy quark symmetry. The states with hidden strangeness considered in similar way have masses above $2\\, Gev$, by several hundreds of $MeV$ higher than states discussed previously in connection with the relatively light positive strangeness pentaquark $\\theta^+$.

  12. Critical scaling in hidden state inference for linear Langevin dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bravi, Barbara; Sollich, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of inferring the dynamics of unknown (i.e. hidden) nodes from a set of observed trajectories and we study analytically the average prediction error given by the Extended Plefka Expansion applied to it, as presented in [1]. We focus on a stochastic linear dynamics of continuous degrees of freedom interacting via random Gaussian couplings in the infinite network size limit. The expected error on the hidden time courses can be found as the equal-time hidden-to-hidden cova...

  13. PREDICTION OF LOCATION OF HIDDEN ORE DEPOSITS IN THE AGED ORE FIELDS:AN EXAMPLE FROM FENGHUANGSHAN ORE FIELD,TONGLING,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Liang-ming; PENG; Sheng-lin; YIANG; Qun-zhou; SHAO; Yong-jun; WANG; Zhi-qiang

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategy for successfully predicting the location of potential hidden ore bodies in aged ore field,and presents the result of location prediction of hidden ore bodies in Fenghuangshan ore field,Tongling.Innovative conceptual targeting procedures based on a genetic understanding of mineralization systems,carefully geological investigation and correct deduction,together with new geochemical and geophysical technology and integrating of comprehensive information are all very important for the successful prediction.In the aged Fenghuangshan ore field,through researching by application of the metallogenic theory of polygenetic compound ore deposits and triple-frequency induced polarization method and exploration tectono-geochemical method,we predicted location and quality of hidden ore bodies.According to the prediction,hidden high quality Cu-Au ore bodies of skarn type and porphyry type have been discovered.

  14. Explaining adolescents' smoking and drinking behavior: the concept of smoker and drinker prototypes in relation to variables of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spijkerman, Renske; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vitale, Salvatore; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2004-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that social image factors play an important role in the course of adolescent's substance use, that is, smoking and drinking. The concept of social images or prototypes is embedded into a theoretical model called the prototype/willingness model. The present study addresses the relative value of the prototype/willingness model in relation to the theory of planned behavior. To study relations between prototypes and adolescents' willingness and intention to engage in smoking and drinking behavior, cross-sectional data among 2814 adolescents (12-16 years) were gathered. Results show that adolescents describe daily-smoking and weekly-drinking peers generally as slightly well adjusted, slightly rebellious, not really cool, and not really attractive. Positive relations were observed between smoker and drinker prototypes and adolescents' intention and willingness to smoke and drink in the future. Furthermore, regression analyses showed that prototypes of daily-smoking and weekly-drinking peers explained a significant part of the variance in intention and willingness to smoke and drink, and added significantly to the variance explained by the variables of the theory of planned behavior.

  15. Diphoton excess from hidden U(1) gauge symmetry with large kinetic mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yamada, Masaki; Yokozaki, Norimi

    2016-09-01

    We show that the 750 GeV diphoton excess can be explained by introducing vector-like quarks and hidden fermions charged under a hidden U(1) gauge symmetry, which has a relatively large coupling constant as well as a significant kinetic mixing with U(1)Y. With the large kinetic mixing, the standard model gauge couplings unify around 1017 GeV, suggesting the grand unified theory without too rapid proton decay. Our scenario predicts events with a photon and missing transverse momentum, and its cross section is related to that for the diphoton excess through the kinetic mixing. We also discuss other possible collider signatures and cosmology, including various ways to evade constraints on exotic stable charged particles. In some cases where the 750 GeV diphoton excess is due to diaxion decays, our scenario also predicts triphoton and tetraphoton signals.

  16. A search for non-hidden broad-line region Seyfert 2 galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Georgi P

    2016-01-01

    According to the unified model of active galactic nuclei, Seyfert 2 galaxies are physically the same as Seyfert 1 objects and they possess a broad-line region (BLR), but it is hidden from the observer due to their orientation. In the past few years, various authors reported that not all Seyfert 2 galaxies harbor a BLR. We compiled a sample of 38 Seyfert 2 galaxies to find non-hidden broad-line region (non-HBLR) objects. Using the theory of Nicastro et al. which suggests the existence of a critical value of the Eddington ratio below which BLR can't be formed, we found 26 non-HBLR Seyfert 2 candidates. We found also that 5 of these 26 non-HBLR objects could be low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs).

  17. A Stochastic Flows Approach for Asset Allocation with Hidden Economic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Kuen Siu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal asset allocation problem for a quite general class of utility functions is discussed in a simple two-state Markovian regime-switching model, where the appreciation rate of a risky share changes over time according to the state of a hidden economy. As usual, standard filtering theory is used to transform a financial model with hidden information into one with complete information, where a martingale approach is applied to discuss the optimal asset allocation problem. Using a martingale representation coupled with stochastic flows of diffeomorphisms for the filtering equation, the integrand in the martingale representation is identified which gives rise to an optimal portfolio strategy under some differentiability conditions.

  18. Hidden Markov Model of atomic quantum jump dynamics in an optically probed cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, S.; Molmer, K.; Alt, W.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the quantum jumps of an atom interacting with a cavity field. The strong atom- field interaction makes the cavity transmission depend on the time dependent atomic state, and we present a Hidden Markov Model description of the atomic state dynamics which is conditioned in a Bayesian......, the atomic state is determined in a Bayesian manner from the measurement data, and we present an iterative protocol, which determines both the atomic state and the model parameters. As a new element in the treatment of observed quantum systems, we employ a Bayesian approach that conditions the atomic state...... manner on the detected signal. We suggest that small variations in the observed signal may be due to spatial motion of the atom within the cavity, and we represent the atomic system by a number of hidden states to account for both the small variations and the internal state jump dynamics. In our theory...

  19. Diphoton excess from hidden U(1 gauge symmetry with large kinetic mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminobu Takahashi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We show that the 750 GeV diphoton excess can be explained by introducing vector-like quarks and hidden fermions charged under a hidden U(1 gauge symmetry, which has a relatively large coupling constant as well as a significant kinetic mixing with U(1Y. With the large kinetic mixing, the standard model gauge couplings unify around 1017 GeV, suggesting the grand unified theory without too rapid proton decay. Our scenario predicts events with a photon and missing transverse momentum, and its cross section is related to that for the diphoton excess through the kinetic mixing. We also discuss other possible collider signatures and cosmology, including various ways to evade constraints on exotic stable charged particles. In some cases where the 750 GeV diphoton excess is due to diaxion decays, our scenario also predicts triphoton and tetraphoton signals.

  20. Detection technology and application of electromagnetic method for hidden danger of water gushing at coal face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian-xin Shi; Shu Yan; Ming-sheng Chen; Jun-mei Fu [China Coal Research Institute, Xi' an (China). Xi' an Research Institute

    2009-06-15

    The principles, methods, technologies and application effects of several electromagnetic methods for the detection of the hidden danger of water gushing at the coal face were introduced. Also, emphasis was laid on expounding the methods, principles and effects of down-hole detections by electric transmission tomography and transient electromagnetic method. The potential of point power supplied in the underground homogeneous semi-space, as well as the response to a low-resistivity abnormal body in the homogeneous semi-space, was simulated by adopting 3-D finite element method to interpret the basic theory of the electric transmission tomography. The results of actual measurement show that the mine electromagnetic method is sensitive to water-bearing low-resistivity bodies and can play a unique role in detecting the hidden danger of water gushing at the coal face. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Detection technology and application of electromagnetic method for hidden danger of water gushing at coal face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xian-xin; YAN Shu; CHEN Ming-sheng; FU Jun-mei

    2009-01-01

    The principles, methods, technologies and application effects of several elec-tromagnetic methods for the detection of the hidden danger of water gushing at the coal face were introduced. Also, emphasis was laid on expounding the methods, principles and effects of down-hole detections by electric transmission tomography and transient elec-tromagnetic method. The potential of point power supplied in the underground homoge-neous semi-space, as well as the response to a low-resistivity abnormal body in the ho-mogeneous semi-space, was simulated by adopting 3-D finite element method to interpret the basic theory of the electric transmission tomography. The results of actual measure-ment show that the mine electromagnetic method is sensitive to water-bearing low-resistivity bodies and can play a unique role in detecting the hidden danger of water gushing at the coal face.

  2. Hidden momentum in a hydrogen atom and the Lorentz-force law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, J. S. Oliveira; Saldanha, Pablo L.

    2015-11-01

    By using perturbation theory, we show that a hydrogen atom with magnetic moment due to the orbital angular momentum of the electron has so-called hidden momentum in the presence of an external electric field. This means that the atomic electronic cloud has a nonzero linear momentum in its center-of-mass rest frame due to a relativistic effect. This is completely analogous to the hidden momentum that a classical current loop has in the presence of an external electric field. We discuss how this effect is essential for the validity of the Lorentz-force law in quantum systems. We also connect our results to the long-standing Abraham-Minkowski debate about the momentum of light in material media.

  3. Hidden momentum in a hydrogen atom and the Lorentz force law

    CERN Document Server

    Filho, J S Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    By using perturbation theory, we show that an hydrogen atom with magnetic moment due to the orbital angular momentum of the electron has hidden momentum in the presence of an external electric field. This means that the atomic electronic cloud has a nonzero linear momentum in its center of mass rest frame due to a relativistic effect. This is completely analogous to the hidden momentum that a classical current loop has in the presence of an external electric field. We discuss that this effect is essential for the validity of the Lorentz force law in quantum systems. We also connect our results to the secular Abraham-Minkowski debate about the momentum of light in material media.

  4. Hidden Markov Model of atomic quantum jump dynamics in an optically probed cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, S.; Molmer, K.; Alt, W.

    2014-01-01

    manner on the detected signal. We suggest that small variations in the observed signal may be due to spatial motion of the atom within the cavity, and we represent the atomic system by a number of hidden states to account for both the small variations and the internal state jump dynamics. In our theory......We analyze the quantum jumps of an atom interacting with a cavity field. The strong atom- field interaction makes the cavity transmission depend on the time dependent atomic state, and we present a Hidden Markov Model description of the atomic state dynamics which is conditioned in a Bayesian......, the atomic state is determined in a Bayesian manner from the measurement data, and we present an iterative protocol, which determines both the atomic state and the model parameters. As a new element in the treatment of observed quantum systems, we employ a Bayesian approach that conditions the atomic state...

  5. 计划行为理论相关变量测量研究%Study on the Method of Variables Measurement in the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明

    2012-01-01

    Based on the methods of literature review,this paper makes a deep analysis on the perspective of measuring correlated variables in the Theory of Planned Behavior,structure of the dimensions and measurement scale.It can be concluded that emotion and cognitive beliefs are important dimensions of measuring attitude to behavior and also choosing reference groups and detailing regulatory variables are the main methods of measuring subjective norms.Finally,Perceived Behavioral Control can be divided into two dimensions: self-efficacy and facilitating conditions.%基于文献综述法,对计划行为理论相关变量测量的视角、维度构成及测量量表进行深入分析,研究发现:情感与认知信念是行为态度测量的重要维度;选择参考群体及细化规范变量是主观规范进行测量的主要方法;行为控制认知测量可划分为自我效能与便利条件两个测量维度。

  6. Error statistics of hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newberg Lee A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hidden Markov models and hidden Boltzmann models are employed in computational biology and a variety of other scientific fields for a variety of analyses of sequential data. Whether the associated algorithms are used to compute an actual probability or, more generally, an odds ratio or some other score, a frequent requirement is that the error statistics of a given score be known. What is the chance that random data would achieve that score or better? What is the chance that a real signal would achieve a given score threshold? Results Here we present a novel general approach to estimating these false positive and true positive rates that is significantly more efficient than are existing general approaches. We validate the technique via an implementation within the HMMER 3.0 package, which scans DNA or protein sequence databases for patterns of interest, using a profile-HMM. Conclusion The new approach is faster than general naïve sampling approaches, and more general than other current approaches. It provides an efficient mechanism by which to estimate error statistics for hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results.

  7. Error statistics of hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberg, Lee A

    2009-01-01

    Background Hidden Markov models and hidden Boltzmann models are employed in computational biology and a variety of other scientific fields for a variety of analyses of sequential data. Whether the associated algorithms are used to compute an actual probability or, more generally, an odds ratio or some other score, a frequent requirement is that the error statistics of a given score be known. What is the chance that random data would achieve that score or better? What is the chance that a real signal would achieve a given score threshold? Results Here we present a novel general approach to estimating these false positive and true positive rates that is significantly more efficient than are existing general approaches. We validate the technique via an implementation within the HMMER 3.0 package, which scans DNA or protein sequence databases for patterns of interest, using a profile-HMM. Conclusion The new approach is faster than general naïve sampling approaches, and more general than other current approaches. It provides an efficient mechanism by which to estimate error statistics for hidden Markov model and hidden Boltzmann model results. PMID:19589158

  8. Evolving the structure of hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    won, K. J.; Prugel-Bennett, A.; Krogh, A.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed for finding the structure of hidden Markov Models (HMMs) used for biological sequence analysis. The GA is designed to preserve biologically meaningful building blocks. The search through the space of HMM structures is combined with optimization of the emission...... and transition probabilities using the classic Baum-Welch algorithm. The system is tested on the problem of finding the promoter and coding region of C. jejuni. The resulting HMM has a superior discrimination ability to a handcrafted model that has been published in the literature....

  9. OFDM System Channel Estimation with Hidden Pilot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Feng; LIN Cheng-yu; ZHANG Wen-jun

    2007-01-01

    Channel estimation using pilot is common used in OFDM system. The pilot is usually time division multiplexed with the informative sequence. One of the main drawbacks is bandwidth losing. In this paper, a new method was proposed to perform channel estimation in OFDM system. The pilot is arithmetically added to the output of OFDM modulator. Receiver uses the hidden pilot to get an accurate estimation of the channel. Then pilot is removed after channel estimation. The Cramer-Rao lower bound for this method was deprived. The performance of the algorithm is then shown. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed algorithm increases the bandwidth efficiency dramatically.

  10. Pruning Boltzmann networks and hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With; Stork, D.

    1996-01-01

    We present sensitivity-based pruning algorithms for general Boltzmann networks. Central to our methods is the efficient calculation of a second-order approximation to the true weight saliencies in a cross-entropy error. Building upon previous work which shows a formal correspondence between linear...... Boltzmann chains and hidden Markov models (HMMs), we argue that our method can be applied to HMMs as well. We illustrate pruning on Boltzmann zippers, which are equivalent to two HMMs with cross-connection links. We verify that our second-order approximation preserves the rank ordering of weight saliencies...

  11. Hidden photon CDM search at Tokyo

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Jun'ya; Horie, Tomoki; Minowa, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    We report on a search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a novel technique with a dish antenna. We constructed two independent apparatus: one is aiming at the detection of the HP with a mass of $\\sim\\,\\rm{eV}$ which employs optical instruments, and the other is for a mass of $\\sim5\\times10^{-5}\\, \\rm{eV}$ utilizing a commercially available parabolic antenna facing on a plane reflector. From the result of the measurements, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set upper limits on the photon-HP mixing parameter $\\chi$.

  12. Maurice Halbwachs: Official and hidden memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carretero, Angel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to show, in general terms, how Maurice Halbwachs has discovered presence and vitality in the collective memorieswhich have been excluded from the socially-institutionalized world. In order to decipher his opaque writing, one should try for a sociology of the depths, for a sociological look that, separating itself from the dominant positivism of the social sciences, manages to penetrate the hidden logic that permanently underlies social life. This article seeks to uncover the nature of a collective memory that respects the vicissitudes of time, as well as its difficult relations both with official memory and with the dominant historical record.

  13. Die Beharrlichkeit im Verborgenen Hidden Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Irene Villa

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Karin Flaake geht in ihrer psychoanalytischen Interpretation innerfamilialer Konstellationen der Frage nach, wie das Zur-Frau-Werden von jungen Frauen erlebt wird. Dabei kommt den körperliche Wandlungsprozessen der Pubertät und den darin eingelagerten expliziten sowie verborgenen Deutungen des Weiblichen – vor allem des weiblichen Körpers – durch die Eltern eine prominente Rolle zu.Karin Flaake’s psychoanalytical intepretations of family constellations explore how young women experience their coming of age and entering womanhood. Her analysis focuses on the bodily changes which women undergo during puberty and the explicit as well as hidden meanings assigned to them by the parents.

  14. A New Hidden Web Crawling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    L.Saoudi; A.Boukerram; S.Mhamedi

    2015-01-01

    Traditional search engines deal with the Surface Web which is a set of Web pages directly accessible through hyperlinks and ignores a large part of the Web called hidden Web which is a great amount of valuable information of online database which is “hidden” behind the query forms. To access to those information the crawler have to fill the forms with a valid data, for this reason we propose a new approach which use SQLI technique in order to find the most promising keywords of a specific dom...

  15. Genetic Algorithms Principles Towards Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M. Hewahi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a general approach based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs to evolve Hidden Markov Models (HMM. The problem appears when experts assign probability values for HMM, they use only some limited inputs. The assigned probability values might not be accurate to serve in other cases related to the same domain. We introduce an approach based on GAs to find
    out the suitable probability values for the HMM to be mostly correct in more cases than what have been used to assign the probability values.

  16. Fifty Years After, Hidden Children Speak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Marcou

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available “For fifty years, I have not spoken of my childhood years in France during the second world war. A hidden child, I lived under a false name amongst unknown people, being careful – as I had been taught – not to reveal, by a gesture or by a word, that I was Jewish. I knew I was in danger, still not understanding why and I was constantly afraid. I didn't know whether I would see again one day my parents from whom I had been suddenly taken away. Nonetheless what were my pains compared to those of...

  17. Detecting Structural Breaks using Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntantamis, Christos

    Testing for structural breaks and identifying their location is essential for econometric modeling. In this paper, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach is used in order to perform these tasks. Breaks are defined as the data points where the underlying Markov Chain switches from one state to another....... The locations of the breaks are subsequently obtained by assigning states to data points according to the Maximum Posterior Mode (MPM) algorithm. The Integrated Classification Likelihood-Bayesian Information Criterion (ICL-BIC) allows for the determination of the number of regimes by taking into account...... in the monetary policy of United States, the dierent functional form being variants of the Taylor (1993) rule....

  18. Uncovering the Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates estimation errors due to hidden costs—the costs of implementation that are neglected in strategic decision-making processes—in the context of services offshoring. Based on data from the Offshoring Research Network, we find that decision makers are more likely to make cost......-estimation errors given increasing configuration and task complexity in captive offshoring and offshore outsourcing, respectively. Moreover, we show that experience and a strong orientation toward organizational design in the offshoring strategy reduce the cost-estimation errors that follow from complexity. Our...

  19. Modeling Movement Primitives with Hidden Markov Models for Robotic and Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karg, Michelle; Kulić, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Movement primitives are elementary motion units and can be combined sequentially or simultaneously to compose more complex movement sequences. A movement primitive timeseries consist of a sequence of motion phases. This progression through a set of motion phases can be modeled by Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). HMMs are stochastic processes that model time series data as the evolution of a hidden state variable through a discrete set of possible values, where each state value is associated with an observation (emission) probability. Each motion phase is represented by one of the hidden states and the sequential order by their transition probabilities. The observations of the MP-HMM are the sensor measurements of the human movement, for example, motion capture or inertial measurements. The emission probabilities are modeled as Gaussians. In this chapter, the MP-HMM modeling framework is described and applications to motion recognition and motion performance assessment are discussed. The selected applications include parametric MP-HMMs for explicitly modeling variability in movement performance and the comparison of MP-HMMs based on the loglikelihood, the Kullback-Leibler divergence, the extended HMM-based F-statistic, and gait-specific reference-based measures.

  20. Hidden Tree Structure is a Key to the Emergence of Scaling in the World Wide Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Bo-Jin; WANG Jian-Min; CHEN Gui-Sheng; JIANG Jian; SHEN Xian-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Preferential attachment is the most popular explanation for the emergence of scaling behavior in the World Wide Web, but this explanation has been challenged by the global information hypothesis, the existence of linear preference and the emergence of new big internet companies in the real world. We notice that most websites have an obvious feature that their pages are organized as a tree (namely hidden tree) and hence propose a new model that introduces a hidden tree structure into the Erd(o)s-Rényi model by adding a new rule: when one node connects to another, it should also connect to all nodes in the path between these two nodes in the hidden tree. The experimental results show that the degree distribution of the generated graphs would obey power law distributions and have variable high clustering coefficients and variable small average lengths of shortest paths. The proposed model provides an alternative explanation to the emergence of scaling in the World Wide Web without the above-mentioned difficulties, and also explains the "preferential attachment" phenomenon.

  1. Hidden Tree Structure is a Key to the Emergence of Scaling in the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bo-Jin; Wang, Jian-Min; Chen, Gui-Sheng; Jiang, Jian; Shen, Xian-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Preferential attachment is the most popular explanation for the emergence of scaling behavior in the World Wide Web, but this explanation has been challenged by the global information hypothesis, the existence of linear preference and the emergence of new big internet companies in the real world. We notice that most websites have an obvious feature that their pages are organized as a tree (namely hidden tree) and hence propose a new model that introduces a hidden tree structure into the Erdös—Rényi model by adding a new rule: when one node connects to another, it should also connect to all nodes in the path between these two nodes in the hidden tree. The experimental results show that the degree distribution of the generated graphs would obey power law distributions and have variable high clustering coefficients and variable small average lengths of shortest paths. The proposed model provides an alternative explanation to the emergence of scaling in the World Wide Web without the above-mentioned difficulties, and also explains the “preferential attachment" phenomenon.

  2. Free energy and hidden barriers of the β-sheet structure of prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, S Alexis; Abrams, Cameron F

    2015-10-13

    On-the-fly free-energy parametrization is a new collective variable biasing approach akin to metadynamics with one important distinction: rather than acquiring an accelerated distribution via a history-dependent bias potential, sampling on this distribution is achieved from the beginning of the simulation using temperature-accelerated molecular dynamics. In the present work, we compare the performance of both approaches to compute the free-energy profile along a scalar collective variable measuring the H-bond registry of the β-sheet structure of the mouse Prion protein. Both methods agree on the location of the free-energy minimum, but free-energy profiles from well-tempered metadynamics are subject to a much higher degree of statistical noise due to hidden barriers. The sensitivity of metadynamics to hidden barriers is shown to be a consequence of the history dependence of the bias potential, and we detail the nature of these barriers for the prion β-sheet. In contrast, on-the-fly parametrization is much less sensitive to these barriers and thus displays improved convergence behavior relative to that of metadynamics. While hidden barriers are a frequent and central issue in free-energy methods, on-the-fly free-energy parametrization appears to be a robust and preferable method to confront this issue.

  3. Reverse engineering the world: a commentary on Hoffman, Singh, and Prakash, "The interface theory of perception".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Chris

    2015-12-01

    Does perception hide the truth? Information theory, computer science, and quantum theory all suggest that the answer is "yes." They suggest, indeed, that useful perception is only feasible because the truth can be hidden.

  4. Does violence affect the use of contraception? Identifying the hidden factors from rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishikant Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this study is to investigates the relationship between domestic violence and use of contraception among married women in rural India. Data: Third round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-III. Methodology: Cross tabulation as bivariate analysis and Binary Logistic Regression as multivariate analysis has been employed to fulfill the objective. Findings: The result shows that there are several hidden factors. between physical violence and contraception use. Alternate explanatory variables are significantly affected the use of contraception. With physical violence which reflects that there is a relationship between physical violence and socioeconomic status such as education, awareness, empowerment of women and subsequently the use of contraception. Originality/value: The paper throws light on the hidden factors which are obstacle in use of contraception with physical violence. Results of this study have potentially important implications for programs aimed at preventing violence and promoting family planning programs.

  5. Learning to Automatically Detect Features for Mobile Robots Using Second-Order Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Aycard

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new method based on Hidden Markov Models to interpret temporal sequences of sensor data from mobile robots to automatically detect features. Hidden Markov Models have been used for a long time in pattern recognition, especially in speech recognition. Their main advantages over other methods (such as neural networks are their ability to model noisy temporal signals of variable length. We show in this paper that this approach is well suited for interpretation of temporal sequences of mobile-robot sensor data. We present two distinct experiments and results: the first one in an indoor environment where a mobile robot learns to detect features like open doors or T-intersections, the second one in an outdoor environment where a different mobile robot has to identify situations like climbing a hill or crossing a rock.

  6. Measuring a hidden coordinate: Rate-exchange kinetics from 3D correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Mark A.; Darvin, Jason R.

    2016-08-01

    Nonexponential kinetics imply the existence of at least one slow variable other than the observable, that is, the system has a "hidden" coordinate. We develop a simple, but general, model that allows multidimensional correlation functions to be calculated for these systems. Homogeneous and heterogeneous mechanisms are both included, and slow exchange of the rates is allowed. This model shows that 2D and 3D correlation functions of the observable measure the distribution and kinetics of the hidden coordinate controlling the rate exchange. Both the mean exchange time and the shape of the exchange relaxation are measurable. However, complications arise because higher correlation functions are sums of multiple "pathways," each of which measures different dynamics. Only one 3D pathway involves exchange dynamics. Care must be used to extract exchange dynamics without contamination from other processes.

  7. Systematic detection of hidden complexities in the unfolding mechanism of a cytosine-rich DNA strand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiatek, Jens; Janssen-Müller, Daniel; Friedrich, Rudolf; Heuer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the unfolding pathway of a cytosine-rich DNA structure via molecular dynamics simulations. By the study of the essential dynamics, we are able to identify a hidden complexity in the description of the dynamics in terms of the first two eigenvectors which are used as collective variables. This complexity can be mainly explained by non-Gaussian fluctuations due to contributions arising from the disregarded set of eigenvectors. We introduce the local non-Gaussian parameter as a tool for the detection of hidden complexities. The usage of this parameter allows a fast and reliable investigation for the determination of the important minimal number of eigenvectors which is needed for a sufficient description of molecular unfolding motion.

  8. Measuring a hidden coordinate: Rate-exchange kinetics from 3D correlation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Mark A; Darvin, Jason R

    2016-08-07

    Nonexponential kinetics imply the existence of at least one slow variable other than the observable, that is, the system has a "hidden" coordinate. We develop a simple, but general, model that allows multidimensional correlation functions to be calculated for these systems. Homogeneous and heterogeneous mechanisms are both included, and slow exchange of the rates is allowed. This model shows that 2D and 3D correlation functions of the observable measure the distribution and kinetics of the hidden coordinate controlling the rate exchange. Both the mean exchange time and the shape of the exchange relaxation are measurable. However, complications arise because higher correlation functions are sums of multiple "pathways," each of which measures different dynamics. Only one 3D pathway involves exchange dynamics. Care must be used to extract exchange dynamics without contamination from other processes.

  9. Learning to Automatically Detect Features for Mobile Robots Using Second-Order Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Washington

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new method based on Hidden Markov Models to interpret temporal sequences of sensor data from mobile robots to automatically detect features. Hidden Markov Models have been used for a long time in pattern recognition, especially in speech recognition. Their main advantages over other methods (such as neural networks are their ability to model noisy temporal signals of variable length. We show in this paper that this approach is well suited for interpretation of temporal sequences of mobile-robot sensor data. We present two distinct experiments and results: the first one in an indoor environment where a mobile robot learns to detect features like open doors or T- intersections, the second one in an outdoor environment where a different mobile robot has to identify situations like climbing a hill or crossing a rock.

  10. Women's hidden transcripts about abortion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nations, M K; Misago, C; Fonseca, W; Correia, L L; Campbell, O M

    1997-06-01

    Two folk medical conditions, "delayed" (atrasada) and "suspended" (suspendida) menstruation, are described as perceived by poor Brazilian women in Northeast Brazil. Culturally prescribed methods to "regulate" these conditions and provoke menstrual bleeding are also described, including ingesting herbal remedies, patent drugs, and modern pharmaceuticals. The ingestion of such self-administered remedies is facilitated by the cognitive ambiguity, euphemisms, folklore, etc., which surround conception and gestation. The authors argue that the ethnomedical conditions of "delayed" and "suspended" menstruation and subsequent menstrual regulation are part of the "hidden reproductive transcript" of poor and powerless Brazilian women. Through popular culture, they voice their collective dissent to the official, public opinion about the illegality and immorality of induced abortion and the chronic lack of family planning services in Northeast Brazil. While many health professionals consider women's explanations of menstrual regulation as a "cover-up" for self-induced abortions, such popular justifications may represent either an unconscious or artful manipulation of hegemonic, anti-abortion ideology expressed in prudent, unobtrusive and veiled ways. The development of safer abortion alternatives should consider women's hidden reproductive transcripts.

  11. Epitope discovery with phylogenetic hidden Markov models.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lacerda, Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Existing methods for the prediction of immunologically active T-cell epitopes are based on the amino acid sequence or structure of pathogen proteins. Additional information regarding the locations of epitopes may be acquired by considering the evolution of viruses in hosts with different immune backgrounds. In particular, immune-dependent evolutionary patterns at sites within or near T-cell epitopes can be used to enhance epitope identification. We have developed a mutation-selection model of T-cell epitope evolution that allows the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype of the host to influence the evolutionary process. This is one of the first examples of the incorporation of environmental parameters into a phylogenetic model and has many other potential applications where the selection pressures exerted on an organism can be related directly to environmental factors. We combine this novel evolutionary model with a hidden Markov model to identify contiguous amino acid positions that appear to evolve under immune pressure in the presence of specific host immune alleles and that therefore represent potential epitopes. This phylogenetic hidden Markov model provides a rigorous probabilistic framework that can be combined with sequence or structural information to improve epitope prediction. As a demonstration, we apply the model to a data set of HIV-1 protein-coding sequences and host HLA genotypes.

  12. Quantum Hidden Subgroup Problems A Mathematical Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Lomonaco, S J; Lomonaco, Samuel J.; Kauffman, Louis H.

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate objective of this paper is to create a stepping stone to the development of new quantum algorithms. The strategy chosen is to begin by focusing on the class of abelian quantum hidden subgroup algorithms, i.e., the class of abelian algorithms of the Shor/Simon genre. Our strategy is to make this class of algorithms as mathematically transparent as possible. By the phrase "mathematically transparent" we mean to expose, to bring to the surface, and to make explicit the concealed mathematical structures that are inherently and fundamentally a part of such algorithms. In so doing, we create symbolic abelian quantum hidden subgroup algorithms that are analogous to the those symbolic algorithms found within such software packages as Axiom, Cayley, Maple, Mathematica, and Magma. As a spin-off of this effort, we create three different generalizations of Shor's quantum factoring algorithm to free abelian groups of finite rank. We refer to these algorithms as wandering (or vintage Z_Q) Shor algorithms. They...

  13. ESO's Hidden Treasures Brought to Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition attracted nearly 100 entries, and ESO is delighted to announce the winners. Hidden Treasures gave amateur astronomers the opportunity to search ESO's vast archives of astronomical data for a well-hidden cosmic gem. Astronomy enthusiast Igor Chekalin from Russia won the first prize in this difficult but rewarding challenge - the trip of a lifetime to ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal, Chile. The pictures of the Universe that can be seen in ESO's releases are impressive. However, many hours of skilful work are required to assemble the raw greyscale data captured by the telescopes into these colourful images, correcting them for distortions and unwanted signatures of the instrument, and enhancing them so as to bring out the details contained in the astronomical data. ESO has a team of professional image processors, but for the ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 competition, the experts decided to give astronomy and photography enthusiasts the opportunity to show the world what they could do with the mammoth amount of data contained in ESO's archives. The enthusiasts who responded to the call submitted nearly 100 entries in total - far exceeding initial expectations, given the difficult nature of the challenge. "We were completely taken aback both by the quantity and the quality of the images that were submitted. This was not a challenge for the faint-hearted, requiring both an advanced knowledge of data processing and an artistic eye. We are thrilled to have discovered so many talented people," said Lars Lindberg Christensen, Head of ESO's education and Public Outreach Department. Digging through many terabytes of professional astronomical data, the entrants had to identify a series of greyscale images of a celestial object that would reveal the hidden beauty of our Universe. The chance of a great reward for the lucky winner was enough to spur on the competitors; the first prize being a trip to ESO's Very Large

  14. Hidden charm molecules in finite volume

    CERN Document Server

    Albaladejo, Miguel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we address the interaction of pairs of charmed mesons with hidden charm in a finite box. We use the interaction from a recent model based on heavy quark spin symmetry that predicts molecules of hidden charm in the infinite volume. The energy levels in the box are generated within this model, and from them some synthetic data are generated. These data are then employed to study the inverse problem of getting the energies of the bound states and phase shifts for $D \\bar D$ or $D^* {\\bar D}^*$. Different strategies are investigated using the lowest two levels for different values of the box size, carrying a study of the errors produced. Starting from the upper level, fits to the synthetic data are carried out to determine the scattering length and effective range plus the binding energy of the ground state. A similar strategy using the effective range formula is considered with a simultaneous fit to the two levels, one above and the other one below threshold. This method turns out to be more...

  15. Laser experiments explore the hidden sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, M. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics; Gies, H. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Jaeckel, J. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Recently, the laser experiments BMV and GammeV, searching for light shining through walls, have published data and calculated new limits on the allowed masses and couplings for axion-like particles. In this note we point out that these experiments can serve to constrain a much wider variety of hidden-sector particles such as, e.g., minicharged particles and hidden-sector photons. The new experiments improve the existing bounds from the older BFRT experiment by a factor of two. Moreover, we use the new PVLAS constraints on a possible rotation and ellipticity of light after it has passed through a strong magnetic field to constrain pure minicharged particle models. For masses

  16. Bayesian structural inference for hidden processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelioff, Christopher C; Crutchfield, James P

    2014-04-01

    We introduce a Bayesian approach to discovering patterns in structurally complex processes. The proposed method of Bayesian structural inference (BSI) relies on a set of candidate unifilar hidden Markov model (uHMM) topologies for inference of process structure from a data series. We employ a recently developed exact enumeration of topological ε-machines. (A sequel then removes the topological restriction.) This subset of the uHMM topologies has the added benefit that inferred models are guaranteed to be ε-machines, irrespective of estimated transition probabilities. Properties of ε-machines and uHMMs allow for the derivation of analytic expressions for estimating transition probabilities, inferring start states, and comparing the posterior probability of candidate model topologies, despite process internal structure being only indirectly present in data. We demonstrate BSI's effectiveness in estimating a process's randomness, as reflected by the Shannon entropy rate, and its structure, as quantified by the statistical complexity. We also compare using the posterior distribution over candidate models and the single, maximum a posteriori model for point estimation and show that the former more accurately reflects uncertainty in estimated values. We apply BSI to in-class examples of finite- and infinite-order Markov processes, as well to an out-of-class, infinite-state hidden process.

  17. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  18. Quantum algorithm for identifying hidden polynomial function graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decker, T.; Draisma, J.; Wocjan, P.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a natural generalization of an abelian Hidden Subgroup Problem where the subgroups and their cosets correspond to graphs of linear functions over a finite field F with d elements. The hidden functions of the generalized problem are not restricted to be linear but can also be m-variate po

  19. Hidden attractor in the Rabinovich system, Chua circuits and PLL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. V.; Leonov, G. A.; Mokaev, T. N.; Seledzhi, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    In this report the existence of hidden attractors in Rabinovich system, phase-locked loop and coupled Chua circuits is considered. It is shown that the existence of hidden attractors may complicate the analysis of the systems and significantly affect the synchronization.

  20. Hidden Curriculum as One of Current Issue of Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2015-01-01

    There are several issues in the education system, especially in the curriculum field that affect education. Hidden curriculum is one of current controversial curriculum issues. Many hidden curricular issues are the result of assumptions and expectations that are not formally communicated, established, or conveyed within the learning environment.…

  1. Searching for hidden sector in multiparticle production at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel-Angel Sanchis-Lozano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the impact of a hidden sector beyond the Standard Model, e.g. a Hidden Valley model, on factorial moments and cumulants of multiplicity distributions in multiparticle production with a special emphasis on the prospects for LHC results.

  2. Secret Codes: The Hidden Curriculum of Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Carmichael, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    There is a long tradition in education of examination of the hidden curriculum, those elements which are implicit or tacit to the formal goals of education. This article draws upon that tradition to open up for investigation the hidden curriculum and assumptions about students and knowledge that are embedded in the coding undertaken to facilitate…

  3. Secret Codes: The Hidden Curriculum of Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Carmichael, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    There is a long tradition in education of examination of the hidden curriculum, those elements which are implicit or tacit to the formal goals of education. This article draws upon that tradition to open up for investigation the hidden curriculum and assumptions about students and knowledge that are embedded in the coding undertaken to facilitate…

  4. Seuss's Butter Battle Book: Is There Hidden Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleaf, David W.; Martin, Rita J.

    1986-01-01

    Examines whether elementary school children relate to the "harmful hidden message" about nuclear war in Dr. Seuss's THE BUTTER BATTLE BOOK. After ascertaining the children's cognitive level, they participated in activities to find hidden meanings in stories, including Seuss's book. Students failed to identify the nuclear war message in Seuss's…

  5. An introduction to hidden Markov models for biological sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    1998-01-01

    A non-matematical tutorial on hidden Markov models (HMMs) plus a description of one of the applications of HMMs: gene finding.......A non-matematical tutorial on hidden Markov models (HMMs) plus a description of one of the applications of HMMs: gene finding....

  6. Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Non Hierarchical Terrorist Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah

    to analyze terrorist networks and prioritize their targets. Applying recently introduced mathematical methods for constructing the hidden hierarchy of "nonhierarchical" terrorist networks; we present case studies of the terrorist attacks occurred / planned in the past, in order to identify hidden hierarchy...

  7. A Radio for Hidden-Photon Dark Matter Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Saptarshi; Irwin, Kent; Mardon, Jeremy; Rajendran, Surjeet; Zhao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    We propose a resonant electromagnetic detector to search for hidden-photon dark matter over an extensive range of masses. Hidden-photon dark matter can be described as a weakly coupled "hidden electric field," oscillating at a frequency fixed by the mass, and able to penetrate any shielding. At low frequencies (compared to the inverse size of the shielding), we find that observable effect of the hidden photon inside any shielding is a real, oscillating magnetic field. We outline experimental setups designed to search for hidden-photon dark matter, using a tunable, resonant LC circuit designed to couple to this magnetic field. Our "straw man" setups take into consideration resonator design, readout architecture and noise estimates. At high frequencies,there is an upper limit to the useful size of a single resonator set by $1/\

  8. Secluded Dark Matter Coupled to a Hidden CFT

    CERN Document Server

    von Harling, Benedict

    2012-01-01

    Models of secluded dark matter offer a variant on the standard WIMP picture and can modify our expectations for hidden sector phenomenology and detection. In this work we extend a minimal model of secluded dark matter, comprised of a U(1)'-charged dark matter candidate, to include a confining hidden-sector CFT. This provides a technically natural explanation for the hierarchically small mediator-scale, with hidden-sector confinement generating m_{gamma'}>0. Furthermore, the thermal history of the universe can differ markedly from the WIMP picture due to (i) new annihilation channels, (ii) a (potentially) large number of hidden-sector degrees of freedom, and (iii) a hidden-sector phase transition at temperatures T << M_{dm} after freeze out. The mediator allows both the dark matter and the Standard Model to communicate with the CFT, thus modifying the low-energy phenomenology and cosmic-ray signals from the secluded sector.

  9. Abelian Hidden Sectors at a GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, David E.; Poland, David; /Harvard U.; Zurek, Kathryn; /Fermilab /Michigan U.

    2009-04-16

    We discuss mechanisms for naturally generating GeV-scale hidden sectors in the context of weak-scale supersymmetry. Such low mass scales can arise when hidden sectors are more weakly coupled to supersymmetry breaking than the visible sector, as happens when supersymmetry breaking is communicated to the visible sector by gauge interactions under which the hidden sector is uncharged, or if the hidden sector is sequestered from gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking. We study these mechanisms in detail in the context of gauge and gaugino mediation, and present specific models of Abelian GeV-scale hidden sectors. In particular, we discuss kinetic mixing of a U(1){sub x} gauge force with hypercharge, singlets or bi-fundamentals which couple to both sectors, and additional loop effects. Finally, we investigate the possible relevance of such sectors for dark matter phenomenology, as well as for low- and high-energy collider searches.

  10. HIDDEN WEB EXTRACTOR DYNAMIC WAY TO UNCOVER THE DEEP WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. ANURADHA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this era of digital tsunami of information on the web, everyone is completely dependent on the WWW for information retrieval. This has posed a challenging problem in extracting relevant data. Traditional web crawlers focus only on the surface web while the deep web keeps expanding behind the scene. The web databases are hidden behind the query interfaces. In this paper, we propose a Hidden Web Extractor (HWE that can automatically discover and download data from the Hidden Web databases. Since the only “entry point” to a Hidden Web site is a query interface, the main challenge that a Hidden WebExtractor has to face is how to automatically generate meaningful queries for the unlimited number of website pages.

  11. Gauge Coupling Unification with Hidden Photon, and Minicharged Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Daido, Ryuji; Yokozaki, Norimi

    2016-01-01

    We show that gauge coupling unification is realized with a greater accuracy in the presence of a massless hidden photon which has a large kinetic mixing with hypercharge. We solve the renormalization group equations at two-loop level and find that the GUT unification scale is around $10^{16.5}$ GeV which sufficiently suppresses the proton decay rate, and that the unification depends only on the kinetic mixing, but not on the hidden gauge coupling nor the presence of vector-like matter fields charged under U(1)$_H$ and/or SU(5). Matter fields charged under the unbroken hidden U(1)$_H$ are stable and they contribute to dark matter. Interestingly, they become minicharged dark matter which carries a small but non-zero electric charge, if the hidden gauge coupling is tiny. The minicharged dark matter is a natural outcome of the gauge coupling unification with a hidden photon.

  12. A Hidden-Removal Model of Dam Perspective Drawing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zi-ru; ZHOU Hui-cheng; LI Ming-qiu

    2011-01-01

    Aming at water conservancy project visualization, a hidden-removal method of dam perspective drawings is realized by building a hidden-removal mathematical model for overlapping points location to set up the hidden relationship among point and plane, plane and plane in space. On this basis, as an example of panel rockfill dam, a dam hidden-removal perspective drawing is generated in different directions and different visual angles through adapting VC++ and OpenGL visualizing technology. The results show that the data construction of the model is simple which can overcome the disadvantages of considerable and complicated calculation. This method also provides the new means to draw hidden-removal perspective drawings for those landforms and ground objects.

  13. Modelling of the thermodynamic and solvation properties of electrolyte solutions with the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreckenberg, Jens M. A.; Dufal, Simon; Haslam, Andrew J.; Adjiman, Claire S.; Jackson, George; Galindo, Amparo

    2014-09-01

    An improved formulation of the extension of the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range to electrolytes (SAFT-VRE) is presented, incorporating a representation for the dielectric constant of the solution that takes into account the temperature, density and composition of the solvent. The proposed approach provides an excellent correlation of the dielectric-constant data available for a number of solvents including water, representative alcohols and carbon dioxide, and it is shown that the methodology can be used to treat mixed-solvent electrolyte solutions. Models for strong electrolytes of the metal-halide family are considered here. The salts are treated as fully dissociated and ion-specific interaction parameters are presented. Vapour pressure, density, and mean ionic activity coefficient data are used to determine the ion-ion and solvent-ion parameters, and mixed-salt electrolyte solutions (brines) are then treated predictively. We find that the resulting intermolecular potential models follow physical trends in terms of energies and ion sizes with a close relationship observed with well-established ionic diameters. A good description is obtained for the densities, mean ionic activity coefficients, and vapour pressures of the electrolyte solutions studied. The theory is also seen to provide excellent predictions of the osmotic coefficient and of the depression of the freezing temperature, and provides a qualitative estimate of the solvation free energy. The vapour pressure of aqueous brines is predicted accurately, as is the density of these solutions, although not at the highest pressures considered. Calculations for the vapour-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria of salts in water+methanol and water+n-butan-1-ol are presented. In addition, it is shown that the salting-out of carbon dioxide in sodium chloride solutions is captured well using a predictive model.

  14. Identifying hidden sexual bridging communities in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Yoosik; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Williams, Chyvette T; Ouellet, Lawrence J

    2009-07-01

    Bridge populations can play a central role in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by providing transmission links between higher and lower prevalence populations. While social network methods are well suited to the study of bridge populations, analyses tend to focus on dyads (i.e., risk between drug and/or sex partners) and ignore bridges between distinct subpopulations. This study takes initial steps toward moving the analysis of sexual network linkages beyond individual and risk group levels to a community level in which Chicago's 77 community areas are examined as subpopulations for the purpose of identifying potential bridging communities. Of particular interest are "hidden" bridging communities; that is, areas with above-average levels of sexual ties with other areas but whose below-average AIDS prevalence may hide their potential importance for HIV prevention. Data for this analysis came from the first wave of recruiting at the Chicago Sexual Acquisition and Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Program site. Between August 2005 through October 2006, respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit users of heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine, men who have sex with men regardless of drug use, the sex partners of these two groups, and sex partners of the sex partners. In this cross-sectional study of the sexual transmission of HIV, participants completed a network-focused computer-assisted self-administered interview, which included questions about the geographic locations of sexual contacts with up to six recent partners. Bridging scores for each area were determined using a matrix representing Chicago's 77 community areas and were assessed using two measures: non-redundant ties and flow betweenness. Bridging measures and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case prevalence rates were plotted for each community area on charts representing four conditions: below-average bridging and AIDS prevalence, below-average bridging and above

  15. Shielding Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion N.Chiuta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper determines relations for shieldingeffectiveness relative to several variables, includingmetal type, metal properties, thickness, distance,frequency, etc. It starts by presenting some relationshipsregarding magnetic, electric and electromagnetic fieldsas a pertinent background to understanding and applyingfield theory. Since literature about electromagneticcompatibility is replete with discussions about Maxwellequations and field theory only a few aspects arepresented.

  16. Study of the discovery potential for hidden photon emission at future electron scattering fixed target experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Beranek, T

    2013-01-01

    Electron scattering fixed target experiments are a versatile tool to explore various physics phenomena. Recently these experiments came into focus to search for $U(1)$ extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics at low energies. These extensions are motivated from anomalies in astrophysical observations as well as from deviations from Standard Model predictions, such as the discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical determination of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. They also arise naturally when the Standard Model is embedded into a more general theory. In the considered $U(1)$ extensions a new, light messenger particle $\\gamma^\\prime$, the hidden photon, couples to the hidden sector as well as to the electromagnetic current of the Standard Model by kinetic mixing, which allows for a search for this particle e.g. in the invariant mass distribution of the process $e (A,\\,Z)\\rightarrow e (A,\\,Z) l^+ l^-$. In this process the hidden photon is emitted by bremsstrahlung and decays into...

  17. Research on identification method of heavy vehicle rollover based on hidden Markov model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiguo; Wang, Yeqin; Hu, Xiaoming; Tao, Yukai; Wang, Jinsheng

    2017-07-01

    Aiming at the problem of early warning credibility degradation as the heavy vehicle load and its center of gravity change greatly; the heavy vehicle rollover state identification method based on the Hidden Markov Model (HMM, is introduced to identify heavy vehicle lateral conditions dynamically in this paper. In this method, the lateral acceleration and roll angle are taken as the observation values of the model base. The Viterbi algorithm is used to predict the state sequence with the highest probability in the observed sequence, and the Markov prediction algorithm is adopted to calculate the state transition law and to predict the state of the vehicle in a certain period of time in the future. According to combination conditions of Double lane change and steering, applying Trucksim and Matlab trained hidden Markov model, the model is applied to the online identification of heavy vehicle rollover states. The identification results show that the model can accurately and efficiently identify the vehicle rollover state, and has good applicability. This study provides a novel method and a general strategy for active safety early warning and control of vehicles, which has reference significance for the application of the Hidden Markov theory in collision, rear-end and lane departure warning system.

  18. Differentiating hidden sector dark matter from light WIMPs with Germanium detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, R.

    2013-06-01

    Light WIMP dark matter and hidden sector dark matter have been proposed to explain the DAMA, CoGeNT and CRESST-II data. Both of these approaches feature spin independent elastic scattering of dark matter particles on nuclei. Light WIMP dark matter invokes a single particle species which interacts with ordinary matter via contact interactions. By contrast hidden sector dark matter is typically multi-component and is assumed to interact via the exchange of a massless mediator. Such hidden sector dark matter thereby predicts a sharply rising nuclear recoil spectrum, dR/dER∼1/ER2 due to this dynamics, while WIMP dark matter predicts a spectrum which depends sensitively on the WIMP mass, mχ. We compare and contrast these two very different possible origins of the CoGeNT low energy excess. In the relevant energy range, the recoil spectra predicted by these two theories approximately agree provided mχ ≃ 8.5 GeV - close to the value favoured from fits to the CoGeNT and CDMS low energy data. Forthcoming experiments including C-4, CDEX, and the MAJORANA demonstrator, are expected to provide reasonably precise measurements of the low energy Germanium recoil spectrum, including the annual modulation amplitude, which should differentiate between these two theoretical possibilities.

  19. Differentiating hidden sector dark matter from light WIMPs with Germanium detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, R

    2012-01-01

    Light WIMP dark matter and hidden sector dark matter have been proposed to explain the DAMA, CoGeNT and CRESST-II data. Both of these approaches feature spin independent elastic scattering of dark matter particles on nuclei. Light WIMP dark matter invokes a single particle species which interacts with ordinary matter via contact interactions. By contrast hidden sector dark matter is typically multi-component and is assumed to interact via the exchange of a massless mediator. Such hidden sector dark matter thereby predicts a sharply rising nuclear recoil spectrum, $dR/dE_R \\sim 1/E_R^2$ due to this dynamics, while WIMP dark matter predicts a spectrum which depends sensitively on the WIMP mass, $m_\\chi$. We compare and contrast these two very different possible origins of the CoGeNT low energy excess. In the relevant energy range, the recoil spectra predicted by these two theories approximately agree provided $m_\\chi \\simeq 8.5$ GeV - close to the value favoured from fits to the CoGeNT and CDMS low energy data....

  20. Hidden Markov models and other machine learning approaches in computational molecular biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, P. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. Computational tools are increasingly needed to process the massive amounts of data, to organize and classify sequences, to detect weak similarities, to separate coding from non-coding regions, and reconstruct the underlying evolutionary history. The fundamental problem in machine learning is the same as in scientific reasoning in general, as well as statistical modeling: to come up with a good model for the data. In this tutorial four classes of models are reviewed. They are: Hidden Markov models; artificial Neural Networks; Belief Networks; and Stochastic Grammars. When dealing with DNA and protein primary sequences, Hidden Markov models are one of the most flexible and powerful alignments and data base searches. In this tutorial, attention is focused on the theory of Hidden Markov Models, and how to apply them to problems in molecular biology.

  1. Hidden attraction the history and mystery of magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Verschuur, Gerrit L

    1996-01-01

    Long one of nature''s most fascinating phenomena, magnetism was once the subject of many superstitions. Magnets were thought useful to thieves, effective as a love potion or as a cure for gout or spasms. They could remove sorcery from women and put demons to flight and even reconcile married couples. It was said that a lodestone pickled in the salt of sucking fish had the power to attract gold. Today, these beliefs have been put aside, but magnetism is no less remarkable for our modern understanding of it. In Hidden Attraction, Gerrit L. Verschuur, a noted astronomer and National Book Award nominee for The Invisible Universe, traces the history of our fascination with magnetism, from the first discovery of magnets in Greece, to state-of-the-art theories that see magnetism as a basic force in the universe. The book begins with the early debunking of superstitions by Peter Peregrinus (Pierre de Maricourt), whom Roger Bacon hailed as one of the world''s first experimental scientists (Perigrinus held that "experi...

  2. Self-accelerating massive gravity: Hidden constraints and characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motloch, Pavel; Hu, Wayne; Motohashi, Hayato

    2016-05-01

    Self-accelerating backgrounds in massive gravity provide an arena to explore the Cauchy problem for derivatively coupled fields that obey complex constraints which reduce the phase space degrees of freedom. We present here an algorithm based on the Kronecker form of a matrix pencil that finds all hidden constraints, for example those associated with derivatives of the equations of motion, and characteristic curves for any 1 +1 dimensional system of linear partial differential equations. With the Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli decomposition of metric perturbations into angular momentum and parity states, this technique applies to fully 3 +1 dimensional perturbations of massive gravity around any spherically symmetric self-accelerating background. Five spin modes of the massive graviton propagate once the constraints are imposed: two spin-2 modes with luminal characteristics present in the massless theory as well as two spin-1 modes and one spin-0 mode. Although the new modes all possess the same—typically spacelike—characteristic curves, the spin-1 modes are parabolic while the spin-0 modes are hyperbolic. The joint system, which remains coupled by nonderivative terms, cannot be solved as a simple Cauchy problem from a single noncharacteristic surface. We also illustrate the generality of the algorithm with other cases where derivative constraints reduce the number of propagating degrees of freedom or order of the equations.

  3. Predicting the Perceptual Consequences of Hidden Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Oxenham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent physiological studies in several rodent species have revealed that permanent damage can occur to the auditory system after exposure to a noise that produces only a temporary shift in absolute thresholds. The damage has been found to occur in the synapses between the cochlea’s inner hair cells and the auditory nerve, effectively severing part of the connection between the ear and the brain. This synaptopathy has been termed hidden hearing loss because its effects are not thought to be revealed in standard clinical, behavioral, or physiological measures of absolute threshold. It is currently unknown whether humans suffer from similar deficits after noise exposure. Even if synaptopathy occurs in humans, it remains unclear what the perceptual consequences might be or how they should best be measured. Here, we apply a simple theoretical model, taken from signal detection theory, to provide some predictions for what perceptual effects could be expected for a given loss of synapses. Predictions are made for a number of basic perceptual tasks, including tone detection in quiet and in noise, frequency discrimination, level discrimination, and binaural lateralization. The model’s predictions are in line with the empirical observations that a 50% loss of synapses leads to changes in threshold that are too small to be reliably measured. Overall, the model provides a simple initial quantitative framework for understanding and predicting the perceptual effects of synaptopathy in humans.

  4. Magneto-Radar Hidden Metal Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Las Vegas, NV)

    2005-07-05

    A varying magnetic field excites slight vibrations in an object and a radar sensor detects the vibrations at a harmonic of the excitation frequency. The synergy of the magnetic excitation and radar detection provides increased detection range compared to conventional magnetic metal detectors. The radar rejects background clutter by responding only to reflecting objects that are vibrating at a harmonic excitation field, thereby significantly improving detection reliability. As an exemplary arrangement, an ultra-wideband micropower impulse radar (MIR) is capable of being employed to provide superior materials penetration while providing range information. The magneto-radar may be applied to pre-screening magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patients, landmine detection and finding hidden treasures.

  5. Effect of Noise on hidden data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Tomar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper simulates an effective data hiding technique i.e. steganography based on LSB insertion and RSA encryption in order to provide seven million times better security than the previous work. The Main idea of proposed scheme is to encrypt secret data by RSA 1024 algorithm, convert it in to binary sequence bit and then embedded into each cover pixels by modifying the least significant bits (LSBs of cover pixels. The result image is also known as steganography image. The PSNR value of this steganography image is 54.34 db. In this paper Baboon image is used for experimental purpous.This steganography image is transmitted through AWGN channel, and performance is simulated. The image and hidden data are reconstructed with the SNR level ≥9 dB.

  6. Sending Hidden Data via Google Suggest

    CERN Document Server

    Bialczak, Piotr; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Google Suggest is a service incorporated within Google Web Search which was created to help user find the right search phrase by proposing the autocompleting popular phrases while typing. The paper presents a new network steganography method called StegSuggest which utilizes suggestions generated by Google Suggest as a hidden data carrier. The detailed description of the method's idea is backed up with the analysis of the network traffic generated by the Google Suggest to prove its feasibility. The traffic analysis was also performed to discover the occurrence of two TCP options: Window Scale and Timestamp which StegSuggest uses to operate. Estimation of method steganographic bandwidth proves that it is possible to insert 100 bits of steganogram into every suggestions list sent by Google Suggest service.

  7. Hidden caries’ challenge diagnosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mara de Paiva Bertoli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hidden caries is a term used to describe occlusal dentine caries that is missed on a visual examination, but is large and demineralised enough to be detected by another exam for example, radiographs. Case report: This article reports a case of large dentine caries, which presented as to be a small pit-and-fissure carious lesion on the occlusal surface of the right mandibular permanent first molar in a 10-year-old girl. The treatment included root canal treatment and the sealing of the cavity with composite resin. Conclusion: Careful visual examination, with cleaning and drying of teeth, associated to bitewing radiographs may improve occlusal caries detection. Dentists should examine bitewing radiographs carefully for proximal caries and occlusal demineralization. Radiographs are an effective method of caries diagnosis that can avoid large destruction and allows less invasive treatment.

  8. Hidden expectations within the Danish VET system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort-Madsen, Peder

    Researching the pressing retention and dropout problems of the Danish VET system (app. 20 pct. of a year group never achieve an upper secondary education) this paper takes its point of departure in the hypothesis that low performing students are kept in a marginal position (at the risk of dropping...... out) within the VET system, because of hidden expectations related to e.g. individualized responsibility, a certain student behavior (sitting still, participating actively), etc. By approaching the VET system as a cultural context (cultural praxis) the subtle reproductive mechanisms of the VET system...... are shown. With empirical examples from different introductory VET courses, it is shown how the school, the teachers and the students themselves are reproducing poor school performance and student background – being it gendered, ethnical or social – and hereby proving to the students, that school...

  9. Hidden expectations within the Danish VET system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort-Madsen, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Researching the pressing retention and dropout problems of the Danish VET system (app. 20 pct. of a year group never achieve an upper secondary education) this paper takes its point of departure in the hypothesis that low performing students are kept in a marginal position (at the risk of dropping...... out) within the VET system, because of hidden expectations related to e.g. individualized responsibility, a certain student behavior (sitting still, participating actively), etc. By approaching the VET system as a cultural context (cultural praxis) the subtle reproductive mechanisms of the VET system...... are shown. With empirical examples from different introductory VET courses, it is shown how the school, the teachers and the students themselves are reproducing poor school performance and student background – being it gendered, ethnical or social – and hereby proving to the students, that school...

  10. Hidden expectations within the Danish VET system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort-Madsen, Peder

    2011-01-01

    out) within the VET system, because of hidden expectations related to e.g. individualized responsibility, a certain student behavior (sitting still, participating actively), etc. By approaching the VET system as a cultural context (cultural praxis) the subtle reproductive mechanisms of the VET system...... are shown. With empirical examples from different introductory VET courses, it is shown how the school, the teachers and the students themselves are reproducing poor school performance and student background – being it gendered, ethnical or social – and hereby proving to the students, that school......Researching the pressing retention and dropout problems of the Danish VET system (app. 20 pct. of a year group never achieve an upper secondary education) this paper takes its point of departure in the hypothesis that low performing students are kept in a marginal position (at the risk of dropping...

  11. Hidden baryons: The physics of Compton composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Frederick J.

    2016-06-01

    A large fraction of the mass-energy of the Universe appears to be composed of Compton composites. How is it then that these composites are not frequently observed in experiments? This paper addresses this question, and others, by reviewing recent publications that: 1) introduced Compton composites, 2) showed how and where they are formed and 3) explained how they interact with other systems. Though ubiquitous in many physical situations, Compton composites are almost completely hidden in experiments due to their unique interaction characteristics. Still, their presence has been indirectly observed, though not interpreted as such until recently. Looking to the future, direct-detection experiments are proposed that could verify the composites' components. It is with deep sadness that I dedicate this paper to my mentor, collaborator, and friend, Dr. John R. Reitz, who passed away within days of the publication of our paper “Compton Composites Late in the Early Universe”.

  12. Hidden realities inside PBL design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2015-01-01

    Design Process, but is a group-based architecture and design education better than that which is individually based? How does PBL affect space, form, and creative processes? Hans Kiib, professor and one of the founders of the Department of Architecture and Design in Aalborg, describes his intentions...... within the group work, as it is closer related to the actual PBL process”. Is the Integrated Design Process (Knudstrup 2004) and is Colb (1975) still current and valid? Can we still use these methodologies when we must create “learning for an unknown future,” as Ronald Barnett (2004) claims that we...... investigates the creative processes of the collective and the individual and clarifies some of the hidden realities behind the PBL-based creative processes, both through an inquiry with the students and a more methodological and theoretical approach. The paper also explores how to integrate artistic...

  13. Aluminium Diphosphamethanides: Hidden Frustrated Lewis Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styra, Steffen; Radius, Michael; Moos, Eric; Bihlmeier, Angela; Breher, Frank

    2016-07-04

    The synthesis and characterisation of two aluminium diphosphamethanide complexes, [Al(tBu)2 {κ(2) P,P'-Mes*PCHPMes*}] (3) and [Al(C6 F5 )2 {κ(2) P,P'-Mes*PCHPMes*}] (4), and the silylated analogue, Mes*PCHP(SiMe3 )Mes* (5), are reported. The aluminium complexes feature four-membered PCPAl core structures consisting of diphosphaallyl ligands. The silylated phosphine 5 was found to be a valuable precursor for the synthesis of 4 as it cleanly reacts with the diaryl aluminium chloride [(C6 F5 )2 AlCl]2 . The aluminium complex 3 reacts with molecular dihydrogen at room temperature under formation of the acyclic σ(2) λ(3) ,σ(3) λ(3) -diphosphine Mes*PCHP(H)Mes* and the corresponding dialkyl aluminium hydride [tBu2 AlH]3 . Thus, 3 belongs to the family of so-called hidden frustrated Lewis pairs.

  14. Wavelet domain hidden markovian bayesian document segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Junxi; Xiao Changyan; Zhang Su; Chen Yazhu

    2005-01-01

    A novel algorithm for Bayesian document segmentation is proposed based on the wavelet domain hidden Markov tree (HMT) model. Once the parameters of model are known, according to the sequential maximum a posterior probability (SMAP) rule, firstly, the likelihood probability of HMT model for each pattern is computed from fine to coarse procedure. Then, the interscale state transition probability is solved using Expectation Maximum (EM) algorithm based on hybrid-quadtree and multiscale context information is fused from coarse to fine procedure. In order to get pixellevel segmentation, the redundant wavelet domain Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is employed to formulate pixel-level statistical property. The experiment results show that the proposed scheme is feasible and robust.

  15. The Detection of Hidden Periodicities in EEG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Rong-yi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract.A novel method for detecting the hidden periodicities in EEG is proposed.By using a width-varying window in the time domain, the structure function of EEG time series is defined. It is found that the minima of the structure function, within a finite window width, can be found regularly, which indicate that there are some certain periodicities associated with EEG time series. Based on the structure function, a further quadratic structure function of EEG time series is defined. By quadratic structure function, it can be seen that the periodicities of EEG become more obvious, moreover, the period of EEG can be determined accurately. These results will be meaningful for studying the neuron activity inside the human brain.

  16. Hidden fungi, emergent properties: endophytes and microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Bayman, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing symptoms of disease. They are important components of plant microbiomes. Endophytes interact with, and overlap in function with, other core microbial groups that colonize plant tissues, e.g., mycorrhizal fungi, pathogens, epiphytes, and saprotrophs. Some fungal endophytes affect plant growth and plant responses to pathogens, herbivores, and environmental change; others produce useful or interesting secondary metabolites. Here, we focus on new techniques and approaches that can provide an integrative understanding of the role of fungal endophytes in the plant microbiome. Clavicipitaceous endophytes of grasses are not considered because they have unique properties distinct from other endophytes. Hidden from view and often overlooked, endophytes are emerging as their diversity, importance for plant growth and survival, and interactions with other organisms are revealed.

  17. A New Hidden Web Crawling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Saoudi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional search engines deal with the Surface Web which is a set of Web pages directly accessible through hyperlinks and ignores a large part of the Web called hidden Web which is a great amount of valuable information of online database which is “hidden” behind the query forms. To access to those information the crawler have to fill the forms with a valid data, for this reason we propose a new approach which use SQLI technique in order to find the most promising keywords of a specific domain for automatic form submission. The effectiveness of proposed framework has been evaluated through experiments using real web sites and encouraging preliminary results were obtained

  18. Probabilistic Resilience in Hidden Markov Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panerati, Jacopo; Beltrame, Giovanni; Schwind, Nicolas; Zeltner, Stefan; Inoue, Katsumi

    2016-05-01

    Originally defined in the context of ecological systems and environmental sciences, resilience has grown to be a property of major interest for the design and analysis of many other complex systems: resilient networks and robotics systems other the desirable capability of absorbing disruption and transforming in response to external shocks, while still providing the services they were designed for. Starting from an existing formalization of resilience for constraint-based systems, we develop a probabilistic framework based on hidden Markov models. In doing so, we introduce two new important features: stochastic evolution and partial observability. Using our framework, we formalize a methodology for the evaluation of probabilities associated with generic properties, we describe an efficient algorithm for the computation of its essential inference step, and show that its complexity is comparable to other state-of-the-art inference algorithms.

  19. Identifying Exotic Hidden-Charm Pentaquarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Liu, Xiang; Li, Xue-Qian; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2015-09-25

    The LHCb Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN discovered two pentaquark states P_{c}(4380) and P_{c}(4450). These two hidden-charm states are interpreted as the loosely bound Σ_{c}(2455)D^{*} and Σ_{c}^{*}(2520)D^{*} molecular states in the boson exchange interaction model, which provides an explanation for why the experimental width of P_{c}(4450) is much narrower than that of P_{c}(4380). The discovery of the new resonances P_{c}(4380) and P_{c}(4450), indeed, opens a new page for hadron physics. The partners of P_{c}(4380) and P_{c}(4450) should be pursued in future experiments.

  20. A Duration Hidden Markov Model for the Identification of Regimes in Stock Market Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntantamis, Christos

    This paper introduces a Duration Hidden Markov Model to model bull and bear market regime switches in the stock market; the duration of each state of the Markov Chain is a random variable that depends on a set of exogenous variables. The model not only allows the endogenous determination...... of the different regimes and but also estimates the effect of the explanatory variables on the regimes' durations. The model is estimated here on NYSE returns using the short-term interest rate and the interest rate spread as exogenous variables. The bull market regime is assigned to the identified state...... with the higher mean and lower variance; bull market duration is found to be negatively dependent on short-term interest rates and positively on the interest rate spread, while bear market duration depends positively the short-term interest rate and negatively on the interest rate spread....

  1. Religion, Spirituality, and the Hidden Curriculum: Medical Student and Faculty Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Michael J.; Bandini, Julia; Mitchell, Christine; Epstein-Peterson, Zachary D.; Amobi, Ada; Cahill, Jonathan; Enzinger, Andrea C.; Peteet, John; Balboni, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Context Religion and spirituality play an important role in physicians’ medical practice, but little research has examined their influence within the socialization of medical trainees and the hidden curriculum. Objectives The objective is to explore the role of religion and spirituality as they intersect with aspects of medicine’s hidden curriculum. Methods Semiscripted, one-on-one interviews and focus groups (n = 33 respondents) were conducted to assess Harvard Medical School student and faculty experiences of religion/spirituality and the professionalization process during medical training. Using grounded theory, theme extraction was performed with interdisciplinary input (medicine, sociology, and theology), yielding a high inter-rater reliability score (kappa = 0.75). Results Three domains emerged where religion and spirituality appear as a factor in medical training. First, religion/spirituality may present unique challenges and benefits in relation to the hidden curriculum. Religious/spiritual respondents more often reported to struggle with issues of personal identity, increased self-doubt, and perceived medical knowledge inadequacy. However, religious/spiritual participants less often described relationship conflicts within the medical team, work-life imbalance, and emotional stress arising from patient suffering. Second, religion/spirituality may influence coping strategies during encounters with patient suffering. Religious/spiritual trainees described using prayer, faith, and compassion as means for coping whereas nonreligious/nonspiritual trainees discussed compartmentalization and emotional repression. Third, levels of religion/spirituality appear to fluctuate in relation to medical training, with many trainees experiencing an increase in religiousness/spirituality during training. Conclusion Religion/spirituality has a largely unstudied but possibly influential role in medical student socialization. Future study is needed to characterize its

  2. Religion, Spirituality, and the Hidden Curriculum: Medical Student and Faculty Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Michael J; Bandini, Julia; Mitchell, Christine; Epstein-Peterson, Zachary D; Amobi, Ada; Cahill, Jonathan; Enzinger, Andrea C; Peteet, John; Balboni, Tracy

    2015-10-01

    Religion and spirituality play an important role in physicians' medical practice, but little research has examined their influence within the socialization of medical trainees and the hidden curriculum. The objective is to explore the role of religion and spirituality as they intersect with aspects of medicine's hidden curriculum. Semiscripted, one-on-one interviews and focus groups (n = 33 respondents) were conducted to assess Harvard Medical School student and faculty experiences of religion/spirituality and the professionalization process during medical training. Using grounded theory, theme extraction was performed with interdisciplinary input (medicine, sociology, and theology), yielding a high inter-rater reliability score (kappa = 0.75). Three domains emerged where religion and spirituality appear as a factor in medical training. First, religion/spirituality may present unique challenges and benefits in relation to the hidden curriculum. Religious/spiritual respondents more often reported to struggle with issues of personal identity, increased self-doubt, and perceived medical knowledge inadequacy. However, religious/spiritual participants less often described relationship conflicts within the medical team, work-life imbalance, and emotional stress arising from patient suffering. Second, religion/spirituality may influence coping strategies during encounters with patient suffering. Religious/spiritual trainees described using prayer, faith, and compassion as means for coping whereas nonreligious/nonspiritual trainees discussed compartmentalization and emotional repression. Third, levels of religion/spirituality appear to fluctuate in relation to medical training, with many trainees experiencing an increase in religiousness/spirituality during training. Religion/spirituality has a largely unstudied but possibly influential role in medical student socialization. Future study is needed to characterize its function within the hidden curriculum. Copyright

  3. Spinon excitations in the spin-1 XXZ chain and hidden supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Matsui, Chihiro

    2016-01-01

    We study spinon excitations of the integrable spin-1 (Fateev-Zamolodchikov; FZ) chain and their relation to the hidden supersymmetry. Using the notion of the supercharges earlier introduced to the spin chains, which change the system length by one, we found that they nontrivially act on one of two kinds of the degrees of freedom for the FZ chain. Their actions were obtained to be the same as those of the supercharges defined on the supersymmetric sine-Gordon model, the low-energy effective field theory of the FZ chain. Moreover, we construct the eigenstates which are invariant under the supersymmetric Hamiltonian given as the anti-commutator of the supercharges.

  4. Hidden photon dark matter search with large metallic mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebrich, Babette; Lindner, Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Daumiller, Kai; Engel, Ralph; Roth, Markus [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Kowalski, Marek [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Redondo, Javier [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    If Dark Matter is composed of hidden-sector photons that kinetically mix with photons of the visible sector, then Dark Matter has a tiny oscillating electric field component. Its presence would lead to a small amount of visible radiation being emitted from a conducting surface, with the photon frequency given approximately by the mass of the hidden photon. Here, we report on experimental efforts that have started recently to search for such hidden photon Dark Matter in the (sub-)eV regime with a prototype mirror for the Auger fluorescence detector at the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology.

  5. Suppressing the QCD axion abundance by hidden monopoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tokyo Univ., Miyagi (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; Yamada, Masaki [Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS; DESY Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    We study the Witten effect of hidden monopoles on the QCD axion dynamics, and show that its abundance as well as isocurvature perturbations can be significantly suppressed if there is a sufficient amount of hidden monopoles. When the hidden monopoles make up a significant fraction of dark matter, the Witten effect suppresses the abundance of axion with the decay constant smaller than 10{sup 12} GeV. The cosmological domain wall problem of the QCD axion can also be avoided, relaxing the upper bound on the decay constant when the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is spontaneously broken after inflation.

  6. Suppressing the QCD axion abundance by hidden monopoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kawasaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the Witten effect of hidden monopoles on the QCD axion dynamics, and show that its abundance as well as isocurvature perturbations can be significantly suppressed if there is a sufficient amount of hidden monopoles. When the hidden monopoles make up a significant fraction of dark matter, the Witten effect suppresses the abundance of axion with the decay constant smaller than 1012GeV. The cosmological domain wall problem of the QCD axion can also be avoided, relaxing the upper bound on the decay constant when the Peccei–Quinn symmetry is spontaneously broken after inflation.

  7. Application of the Viterbi Algorithm in Hidden Markov Models for Exploring Irrigation Decision Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyas, S.; McKee, M.

    2014-12-01

    Anticipating farmers' irrigation decisions can provide the possibility of improving the efficiency of canal operations in on-demand irrigation systems. Although multiple factors are considered during irrigation decision making, for any given farmer there might be one factor playing a major role. Identification of that biophysical factor which led to a farmer deciding to irrigate is difficult because of high variability of those factors during the growing season. Analysis of the irrigation decisions of a group of farmers for a single crop can help to simplify the problem. We developed a hidden Markov model (HMM) to analyze irrigation decisions and explore the factor and level at which the majority of farmers decide to irrigate. The model requires observed variables as inputs and the hidden states. The chosen model inputs were relatively easily measured, or estimated, biophysical data, including such factors (i.e., those variables which are believed to affect irrigation decision-making) as cumulative evapotranspiration, soil moisture depletion, soil stress coefficient, and canal flows. Irrigation decision series were the hidden states for the model. The data for the work comes from the Canal B region of the Lower Sevier River Basin, near Delta, Utah. The main crops of the region are alfalfa, barley, and corn. A portion of the data was used to build and test the model capability to explore that factor and the level at which the farmer takes the decision to irrigate for future irrigation events. Both group and individual level behavior can be studied using HMMs. The study showed that the farmers cannot be classified into certain classes based on their irrigation decisions, but vary in their behavior from irrigation-to-irrigation across all years and crops. HMMs can be used to analyze what factor and, subsequently, what level of that factor on which the farmer most likely based the irrigation decision. The study shows that the HMM is a capable tool to study a process

  8. S-matrix Theory and Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Fujikawa, Kazuo; Zhang, Chengjie

    2013-01-01

    The entanglement is studied in the framework of Dyson's S-matrix theory in relativistic quantum field theory, which leads to the natural definitions of entangled states of a particle-antiparticle pair and the associated spin operator from a Noether current. The decay of a massive pseudo-scalar particle into a pair of electron and positron is analyzed. The entanglement measured by spin correlation becomes maximal at the threshold of the decay where the electron-positron pair is extremely non-relativistic, while we argue that the entanglement is replaced by the maximal correlation for the ultra-relativistic electron-positron pair by analogy to the case of neutrinos, for which a hidden-variables-type description is possible. The possible use of weak interactions in the analysis of entanglement at high energies is suggested. No issues of space-time non-locality and causality appear in this S-matrix theory, and the perfect consistency of the S-matrix description of entanglement with the uncertainty principle is em...

  9. Isovector and hidden-beauty partners of the X(3872)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Høgaasen, Hallstein, E-mail: hallstein.hogasen@fys.uio.no [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Box 1048, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Kou, Emi, E-mail: kou@lal.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire de l' Accélérateur Linéaire, Université Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, Centre Scientifique d' Orsay, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Richard, Jean-Marc, E-mail: j-m.richard@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Université de Lyon, Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, UCBL–IN2P3-CNRS, 4, rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Sorba, Paul, E-mail: paul.sorba@lapth.cnrs.fr [LAPTh, Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique Théorique, CNRS, Université de Savoie, BP 110, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France)

    2014-05-01

    The isovector partners of the X(3872), recently found at BES III, Belle and CLEO-c were predicted in a simple model based on the chromomagnetic interaction among quarks. The extension to the hidden-beauty sector is discussed.

  10. Modelling proteins' hidden conformations to predict antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kathryn M.; Ho, Chris M. W.; Dutta, Supratik; Gross, Michael L.; Bowman, Gregory R.

    2016-10-01

    TEM β-lactamase confers bacteria with resistance to many antibiotics and rapidly evolves activity against new drugs. However, functional changes are not easily explained by differences in crystal structures. We employ Markov state models to identify hidden conformations and explore their role in determining TEM's specificity. We integrate these models with existing drug-design tools to create a new technique, called Boltzmann docking, which better predicts TEM specificity by accounting for conformational heterogeneity. Using our MSMs, we identify hidden states whose populations correlate with activity against cefotaxime. To experimentally detect our predicted hidden states, we use rapid mass spectrometric footprinting and confirm our models' prediction that increased cefotaxime activity correlates with reduced Ω-loop flexibility. Finally, we design novel variants to stabilize the hidden cefotaximase states, and find their populations predict activity against cefotaxime in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we expect this framework to have numerous applications in drug and protein design.

  11. Recent Applications of Hidden Markov Models in Computational Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khar Heng Choo; Joo Chuan Tong; Louxin Zhang

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines recent developments and applications of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to various problems in computational biology, including multiple sequence alignment, homology detection, protein sequences classification, and genomic annotation.

  12. Hidden Symmetry from Supersymmetry in One-Dimensional Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Andrianov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When several inequivalent supercharges form a closed superalgebra in Quantum Mechanics it entails the appearance of hidden symmetries of a Super-Hamiltonian. We examine this problem in one-dimensional QM for the case of periodic potentials and potentials with finite number of bound states. After the survey of the results existing in the subject the algebraic and analytic properties of hidden-symmetry differential operators are rigorously elaborated in the Theorems and illuminated by several examples.

  13. Stabilization of stochastic systems with hidden Markovian jumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers the adaptive control of discrete-time hybrid stochastic systems with unknown randomly jumping parameters described by a finite-state hidden Markov chain. An intuitive yet longstanding conjecture in this area is that such hybrid systems can be adaptively stabilized whenever the rate of transition of the hidden Markov chain is small enough. This paper provides a rigorous positive answer to this conjecture by establishing the global stability of a gradient-algorithm-based adaptive linear-quadratic control.

  14. Extracting hidden trails and roads under canopy using LIDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Krougios, Prokopios

    2008-01-01

    The field of Remote Sensing has been greatly benefited by the development of LIDAR. The extraction of bare earth under tree canopies and especially the identification of hidden trails are important tools for military and civilian operations in dense forests. LIDAR data from Sequoia National Park in California (2008) and Fort Belvoir Military Base in Virginia (2007) were two areas that were selected for analysis. Quick Terrain Modeler software was used in order to recognize hidden trails....

  15. Hidden Markov Models with Factored Gaussian Mixtures Densities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hao-zheng; LIU Zhi-qiang; ZHU Xiang-hua

    2004-01-01

    We present a factorial representation of Gaussian mixture models for observation densities in Hidden Markov Models(HMMs), which uses the factorial learning in the HMM framework. We derive the reestimation formulas for estimating the factorized parameters by the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. We conduct several experiments to compare the performance of this model structure with Factorial Hidden Markov Models(FHMMs) and HMMs, some conclusions and promising empirical results are presented.

  16. Reduced-Rank Hidden Markov Models

    CERN Document Server

    Siddiqi, Sajid M; Gordon, Geoffrey J

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the Reduced-Rank Hidden Markov Model (RR-HMM), a generalization of HMMs that can model smooth state evolution as in Linear Dynamical Systems (LDSs) as well as non-log-concave predictive distributions as in continuous-observation HMMs. RR-HMMs assume an m-dimensional latent state and n discrete observations, with a transition matrix of rank k <= m. This implies the dynamics evolve in a k-dimensional subspace, while the shape of the set of predictive distributions is determined by m. Latent state belief is represented with a k-dimensional state vector and inference is carried out entirely in R^k, making RR-HMMs as computationally efficient as k-state HMMs yet more expressive. To learn RR-HMMs, we relax the assumptions of a recently proposed spectral learning algorithm for HMMs (Hsu, Kakade and Zhang 2009) and apply it to learn k-dimensional observable representations of rank-k RR-HMMs. The algorithm is consistent and free of local optima, and we extend its performance guarantees to cover the RR-...

  17. Search algorithms, hidden labour and information control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paško Bilić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines some of the processes of the closely knit relationship between Google’s ideologies of neutrality and objectivity and global market dominance. Neutrality construction comprises an important element sustaining the company’s economic position and is reflected in constant updates, estimates and changes to utility and relevance of search results. Providing a purely technical solution to these issues proves to be increasingly difficult without a human hand in steering algorithmic solutions. Search relevance fluctuates and shifts through continuous tinkering and tweaking of the search algorithm. The company also uses third parties to hire human raters for performing quality assessments of algorithmic updates and adaptations in linguistically and culturally diverse global markets. The adaptation process contradicts the technical foundations of the company and calculations based on the initial Page Rank algorithm. Annual market reports, Google’s Search Quality Rating Guidelines, and reports from media specialising in search engine optimisation business are analysed. The Search Quality Rating Guidelines document provides a rare glimpse into the internal architecture of search algorithms and the notions of utility and relevance which are presented and structured as neutral and objective. Intertwined layers of ideology, hidden labour of human raters, advertising revenues, market dominance and control are discussed throughout the paper.

  18. A hidden classical symmetry of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Glozman, L Ya

    2016-01-01

    The classical part of the QCD partition function (the integrand) has, ignoring irrelevant exact zero modes of the Dirac operator, a local SU(2N_F) \\supset SU(N_F)_L \\times SU(N_F)_R \\times U(1)_A symmetry which is absent at the Lagrangian level. This symmetry is broken anomalously and spontaneously. Effects of spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry are contained in the near-zero modes of the Dirac operator. If physics of anomaly is also encoded in the same near-zero modes, then their truncation on the lattice should recover a hidden classical SU(2N_F) symmetry in correlators and spectra. This naturally explains observation on the lattice of a large degeneracy of hadrons, that is higher than the SU(N_F)_L \\times SU(N_F)_R \\times U(1)_A chiral symmetry, upon elimination by hands of the lowest-lying modes of the Dirac operator. We also discuss an implication of this symmetry for the high temperature QCD.

  19. Search algorithms, hidden labour and information control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paško Bilić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines some of the processes of the closely knit relationship between Google’s ideologies of neutrality and objectivity and global market dominance. Neutrality construction comprises an important element sustaining the company’s economic position and is reflected in constant updates, estimates and changes to utility and relevance of search results. Providing a purely technical solution to these issues proves to be increasingly difficult without a human hand in steering algorithmic solutions. Search relevance fluctuates and shifts through continuous tinkering and tweaking of the search algorithm. The company also uses third parties to hire human raters for performing quality assessments of algorithmic updates and adaptations in linguistically and culturally diverse global markets. The adaptation process contradicts the technical foundations of the company and calculations based on the initial Page Rank algorithm. Annual market reports, Google’s Search Quality Rating Guidelines, and reports from media specialising in search engine optimisation business are analysed. The Search Quality Rating Guidelines document provides a rare glimpse into the internal architecture of search algorithms and the notions of utility and relevance which are presented and structured as neutral and objective. Intertwined layers of ideology, hidden labour of human raters, advertising revenues, market dominance and control are discussed throughout the paper.

  20. Academic mobbing: hidden health hazard at workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Sb

    2010-01-01

    Academic mobbing is a non-violent, sophisticated, 'ganging up' behaviour adopted by academicians to "wear and tear" a colleague down emotionally through unjustified accusation, humiliation, general harassment and emotional abuse. These are directed at the target under a veil of lies and justifications so that they are "hidden" to others and difficult to prove. Bullies use mobbing activities to hide their own weaknesses and incompetence. Targets selected are often intelligent, innovative high achievers, with good integrity and principles. Mobbing activities appear trivial and innocuous on its own but the frequency and pattern of their occurrence over long period of time indicates an aggressive manipulation to "eliminate" the target. Mobbing activities typically progress through five stereotypical phases that begins with an unsolved minor conflict between two workers and ultimately escalates into a senseless mobbing whereby the target is stigmatized and victimized to justify the behaviours of the bullies. The result is always physical, mental, social distress or illness and, most often, expulsion of target from the workplace. Organizations are subjected to great financial loss, loss of key workers and a tarnished public image and reputation. Public awareness, education, effective counselling, establishment of anti-bullying policies and legislations at all levels are necessary to curb academic mobbing. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in supporting patients subjected to mental and physical health injury caused by workplace bullying and mobbing.