A survey of hidden-variables theories
Belinfante, F J
1973-01-01
A Survey of Hidden-Variables Theories is a three-part book on the hidden-variable theories, referred in this book as """"theories of the first kind"""". Part I reviews the motives in developing different types of hidden-variables theories. The quest for determinism led to theories of the first kind; the quest for theories that look like causal theories when applied to spatially separated systems that interacted in the past led to theories of the second kind. Parts II and III further describe the theories of the first kind and second kind, respectively. This book is written to make the literat
Hidden variables and locality in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiva, Vandana.
1978-12-01
The status of hidden variables in quantum theory has been debated since the 1920s. The author examines the no-hidden-variable theories of von Neumann, Kochen, Specker and Bell, and finds that they all share one basic assumption: averaging over the hidden variables should reproduce the quantum mechanical probabilities. Von Neumann also makes a linearity assumption, Kochen and Specker require the preservation of certain functional relations between magnitudes, and Bell proposes a locality condition. It has been assumed that the extrastatistical requirements are needed to serve as criteria of success for the introduction of hidden variables because the statistical condition is trivially satisfied, and that Bell's result is based on a locality condition that is physically motivated. The author shows that the requirement of weak locality, which is not physically motivated, is enough to give Bell's result. The proof of Bell's inequality works equally well for any pair of commuting magnitudes satisfying a condition called the degeneracy principle. None of the no-hidden-variable proofs apply to a class of hidden variable theories that are not phase-space reconstructions of quantum mechanics. The author discusses one of these theories, the Bohm-Bub theory, and finds that hidden variable theories that re all the quantum statistics, for single and sequential measurements, must introduce a randomization process for the hidden variables after each measurement. The philosophical significance of this theory lies in the role it can play in solving the conceptual puzzles posed by quantum theory
The incompatibility between local hidden variable theories and the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
I discuss in detail the result that the Bell's inequalities derived in the context of local hidden variable theories for discrete quantized observables can be satisfied only if a fundamental conservation law is violated on the average. This result shows that such theories are physically nonviable, and makes the demarcating criteria ...
Low-intensity interference effects and hidden-variable theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buonomano, V [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica
1978-05-11
The double-slit interference experiment and other similar experiments in the low-intensity limit (that is, one photon in the apparatus at a time) are examined in the spirit of Bell's work from the point of view of hidden-variable theories. It is found that there exists a class of hidden-variable theories which disagrees with quantum mechanics for a certain type of interference experiment. A manufactured conceptualization of this class, which is a particle view of interference, is described. An experiment, which appears to be feasible, is proposed to examine this disagreement.
Hidden variable interpretation of spontaneous localization theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bedingham, Daniel J, E-mail: d.bedingham@imperial.ac.uk [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)
2011-07-08
The spontaneous localization theory of Ghirardi, Rimini, and Weber (GRW) is a theory in which wavepacket reduction is treated as a genuine physical process. Here it is shown that the mathematical formalism of GRW can be given an interpretation in terms of an evolving distribution of particles on configuration space similar to Bohmian mechanics (BM). The GRW wavefunction acts as a pilot wave for the set of particles. In addition, a continuous stream of noisy information concerning the precise whereabouts of the particles must be specified. Nonlinear filtering techniques are used to determine the dynamics of the distribution of particles conditional on this noisy information and consistency with the GRW wavefunction dynamics is demonstrated. Viewing this development as a hybrid BM-GRW theory, it is argued that, besides helping to clarify the relationship between the GRW theory and BM, its merits make it worth considering in its own right.
An impossibility theorem for parameter independent hidden variable theories
Leegwater, Gijs
2016-05-01
Recently, Roger Colbeck and Renato Renner (C&R) have claimed that '[n]o extension of quantum theory can have improved predictive power' (Colbeck & Renner, 2011, 2012b). If correct, this is a spectacular impossibility theorem for hidden variable theories, which is more general than the theorems of Bell (1964) and Leggett (2003). Also, C&R have used their claim in attempt to prove that a system's quantum-mechanical wave function is in a one-to-one correspondence with its 'ontic' state (Colbeck & Renner, 2012a). C&R's claim essentially means that in any hidden variable theory that is compatible with quantum-mechanical predictions, probabilities of measurement outcomes are independent of these hidden variables. This makes such variables otiose. On closer inspection, however, the generality and validity of the claim can be contested. First, it is based on an assumption called 'Freedom of Choice'. As the name suggests, this assumption involves the independence of an experimenter's choice of measurement settings. But in the way C&R define this assumption, a no-signalling condition is surreptitiously presupposed, making the assumption less innocent than it sounds. When using this definition, any hidden variable theory violating parameter independence, such as Bohmian Mechanics, is immediately shown to be incompatible with quantum-mechanical predictions. Also, the argument of C&R is hard to follow and their mathematical derivation contains several gaps, some of which cannot be closed in the way they suggest. We shall show that these gaps can be filled. The issue with the 'Freedom of Choice' assumption can be circumvented by explicitly assuming parameter independence. This makes the result less general, but better founded. We then obtain an impossibility theorem for hidden variable theories satisfying parameter independence only. As stated above, such hidden variable theories are impossible in the sense that any supplemental variables have no bearing on outcome probabilities
Quantum interference of probabilities and hidden variable theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srinivas, M.D.
1984-01-01
One of the fundamental contributions of Louis de Broglie, which does not get cited often, has been his analysis of the basic difference between the calculus of the probabilities as predicted by quantum theory and the usual calculus of probabilities - the one employed by most mathematicians, in its standard axiomatised version due to Kolmogorov. This paper is basically devoted to a discussion of the 'quantum interference of probabilities', discovered by de Broglie. In particular, it is shown that it is this feature of the quantum theoretic probabilities which leads to some serious constraints on the possible 'hidden-variable formulations' of quantum mechanics, including the celebrated theorem of Bell. (Auth.)
Research on hidden variable theories: A review of recent progresses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Genovese, Marco
2005-01-01
Quantum Mechanics (QM) is one of the pillars of modern physics: an impressive amount of experiments have confirmed this theory and many technological applications are based on it. Nevertheless, at one century since its development, various aspects concerning its very foundations still remain to be clarified. Among them, the transition from a microscopic probabilistic world into a macroscopic deterministic one and quantum non-locality. A possible way out from these problems would be if QM represents a statistical approximation of an unknown deterministic theory. This review is addressed to present the most recent progresses on the studies related to hidden variable theories (HVT), both from an experimental and a theoretical point of view, giving a larger emphasis to results with a direct experimental application. More in details, the first part of the review is a historical introduction to this problem. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument and the first discussions about HVT are introduced, describing the fundamental Bell's proposal for a general experimental test of every local HVT and the first attempts to realise it. The second part of the review is devoted to elucidate the recent progresses toward a conclusive Bell inequalities experiment obtained with entangled photons and other physical systems. Finally, the last sections are targeted to shortly discuss non-local HVT
Research on hidden variable theories: A review of recent progresses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Genovese, Marco [Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)]. E-mail: genovese@ien.it
2005-07-01
Quantum Mechanics (QM) is one of the pillars of modern physics: an impressive amount of experiments have confirmed this theory and many technological applications are based on it. Nevertheless, at one century since its development, various aspects concerning its very foundations still remain to be clarified. Among them, the transition from a microscopic probabilistic world into a macroscopic deterministic one and quantum non-locality. A possible way out from these problems would be if QM represents a statistical approximation of an unknown deterministic theory. This review is addressed to present the most recent progresses on the studies related to hidden variable theories (HVT), both from an experimental and a theoretical point of view, giving a larger emphasis to results with a direct experimental application. More in details, the first part of the review is a historical introduction to this problem. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument and the first discussions about HVT are introduced, describing the fundamental Bell's proposal for a general experimental test of every local HVT and the first attempts to realise it. The second part of the review is devoted to elucidate the recent progresses toward a conclusive Bell inequalities experiment obtained with entangled photons and other physical systems. Finally, the last sections are targeted to shortly discuss non-local HVT.
Einstein-Bohr controversy and theory of hidden variables
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lokajíček, Miloš V.
2010-01-01
Roč. 8, č. 4 (2010), s. 638-645 ISSN 1303-5150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : Schroedinger equation * EPR paradox * hidden variables Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.697, year: 2010 http://arxiv.org/abs/1004.3005
The incompatibility between local hidden variable theories and the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Thus, any theory with a different correlation function, like any ... the conservation laws goes to the core of the theories of quantized observables and ... that theories or models allowing perpetual motion are ruled out on first principles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stairs, Allen
2007-01-01
Recent results by Paul Busch and Adan Cabello claim to show that by appealing to POVMs, non-contextual hidden variables can be ruled out in two dimensions. While the results of Busch and Cabello are mathematically correct, interpretive problems render them problematic as no hidden variable proofs
Interpretation of non-Markovian stochastic Schroedinger equations as a hidden-variable theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gambetta, Jay; Wiseman, H.M.
2003-01-01
Do diffusive non-Markovian stochastic Schroedinger equations (SSEs) for open quantum systems have a physical interpretation? In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. A 66, 012108 (2002)] we investigated this question using the orthodox interpretation of quantum mechanics. We found that the solution of a non-Markovian SSE represents the state the system would be in at that time if a measurement was performed on the environment at that time, and yielded a particular result. However, the linking of solutions at different times to make a trajectory is, we concluded, a fiction. In this paper we investigate this question using the modal (hidden variable) interpretation of quantum mechanics. We find that the noise function z(t) appearing in the non-Markovian SSE can be interpreted as a hidden variable for the environment. That is, some chosen property (beable) of the environment has a definite value z(t) even in the absence of measurement on the environment. The non-Markovian SSE gives the evolution of the state of the system 'conditioned' on this environment hidden variable. We present the theory for diffusive non-Markovian SSEs that have as their Markovian limit SSEs corresponding to homodyne and heterodyne detection, as well as one which has no Markovian limit
On the significance of bell's inequality for hidden-variable theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Baere, W.
1984-01-01
It is explicitly shown that Bell's derivation of the generalized Bell inequality and its subsequent interpretation depend on an implicit hypothesis concerning the reproducibility of some set of hidden variables in different runs of the same experiment
Feasibility of testing local hidden variable theories in a Charm factory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Junli; Qiao Congfeng
2006-01-01
It is commonly believed that the local hidden variable theories (LHVTs) can be tested through measuring the Bell inequalities. This scheme, for the massive particle system, was originally set up for the entangled K 0 K 0 pair system from the φ factory. In this paper we show that the J/Ψ→K 0 K 0 process is even more realistic for this goal. We analyze the unique properties of J/Ψ in the detection of basic quantum effects, and find that it is possible to use J/Ψ decay as a test of LHVTs in the future τ-charm factory. Our analyses and conclusions are generally also true for other heavy onium decays
Has Bell's inequality a general meaning for hidden-variable theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lochak, G.
1976-01-01
The proof given by J. S. Bell of an inequality between mean values of measurement results which, according to him, would be characteristic of any local hidden-parameter theory, is analyzed. It is shown that Bell's proof is based upon a hypothesis already contained in von Neumann's famous theorem: It consists in the admission that hidden values of parameters must obey the same statistical laws as observed values. This hypothesis contradicts in advance well known and certainly correct statistical relations in measurement results: one must therefore reject the type of theory considered by Bell, and his inequality has no general meaning
State-space dimensionality in short-memory hidden-variable theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montina, Alberto
2011-01-01
Recently we have presented a hidden-variable model of measurements for a qubit where the hidden-variable state-space dimension is one-half the quantum-state manifold dimension. The absence of a short memory (Markov) dynamics is the price paid for this dimensional reduction. The conflict between having the Markov property and achieving the dimensional reduction was proved by Montina [A. Montina, Phys. Rev. A 77, 022104 (2008)] using an additional hypothesis of trajectory relaxation. Here we analyze in more detail this hypothesis introducing the concept of invertible process and report a proof that makes clearer the role played by the topology of the hidden-variable space. This is accomplished by requiring suitable properties of regularity of the conditional probability governing the dynamics. In the case of minimal dimension the set of continuous hidden variables is identified with an object living an N-dimensional Hilbert space whose dynamics is described by the Schroedinger equation. A method for generating the economical non-Markovian model for the qubit is also presented.
Kožnjak, Boris
2018-05-01
In this paper, I analyze the historical context, scientific and philosophical content, and the implications of the thus far historically largely neglected Ninth Symposium of the Colston Research Society held in Bristol at the beginning of April 1957, the first major international event after World War II gathering eminent physicists and philosophers to discuss the foundational questions of quantum mechanics, in respect to the early reception of the causal quantum theory program mapped and defended by David Bohm during the five years preceding the Symposium. As will be demonstrated, contrary to the almost unanimously negative and even hostile reception of Bohm's ideas on hidden variables in the early 1950s, in the close aftermath of the 1957 Colston Research Symposium Bohm's ideas received a more open-minded and ideologically relaxed critical rehabilitation, in which the Symposium itself played a vital and essential part.
A classification of hidden-variable properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandenburger, Adam; Yanofsky, Noson
2008-01-01
Hidden variables are extra components added to try to banish counterintuitive features of quantum mechanics. We start with a quantum-mechanical model and describe various properties that can be asked of a hidden-variable model. We present six such properties and a Venn diagram of how they are related. With two existence theorems and three no-go theorems (EPR, Bell and Kochen-Specker), we show which properties of empirically equivalent hidden-variable models are possible and which are not. Formally, our treatment relies only on classical probability models, and physical phenomena are used only to motivate which models to choose
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad.
1976-01-01
The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox is briefly exposed with the Bell theorem on hidden variables and the locality principle. The conditions for an ideal experiment are discussed and the results from γ-γ correlation experiments are given. The principle of an experimental measurement of the spin correlation function predicted by the quantum mechanics theory is derived, new hypotheses to be introduced are discussed. The formula giving the dependence of the counting asymmetry on the spin correlation function, polarimeter analyzing power, and geometric correlation is developed. The principle of a Monte Carlo calculation is also exposed. The experimental device is described with the methods for measuring the subsidiary quantities and experimental results are analyzed [fr
Hidden simplicity of gauge theory amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drummond, J M, E-mail: drummond@lapp.in2p3.f [LAPTH, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux, Cedex (France)
2010-11-07
These notes were given as lectures at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge Theory 2010. We describe the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, focussing on the maximally supersymmetric theory to highlight the hidden symmetries which appear. Using the Britto, Cachzo, Feng and Witten (BCFW) recursion relations we solve the tree-level S-matrix in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and describe how it produces a sum of invariants of a large symmetry algebra. We review amplitudes in the planar theory beyond tree level, describing the connection between amplitudes and Wilson loops, and discuss the implications of the hidden symmetries.
Generalized inequalities for quantum correlations with hidden variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vinduska, M.
1991-01-01
Renowned inequalities for quantum correlations are generalized for the case when quantum system cannot be described with an absolute independent measure of the probability. Such a formulation appears to be suitable for the formulation of the hidden variables theory in terms of non-Euclidean geometry. 10 refs
Hidden Variables and Placebo Effects
Goradia, Shantilal
2006-03-01
God's response to prayers and placebo leads to a question. How does He respond deterministically? He may be controlling at least one of the two variables of the uncertainty principle by extending His invisible soul to each body particle locally. Amazingly, many Vedic verses support this answer. One describes the size of the soul as arithmetically matching the size of the nucleons as if a particle is a soul. One gives a name meaning particle soul (anu-atma), consistent with particle's indeterministic behavior like that of (soulful) bird’s flying in any directions irrespective of the direction of throw. One describes souls as eternal consistent with the conservation of baryon number. One links the souls to the omnipresent (param- atma) like Einstein Rosen bridges link particles to normal spacetime. One claims eternal coexistence of matter and soul as is inflationary universe in physics/0210040 V2. The implicit scientific consistency of such verses makes the relationship of particle source of consciousness to the omnipresent Supreme analogous to the relationship of quantum source of gravitons in my gr-qc/0507130 to normal spacetime This frees us from the postulation of quantum wormholes and quantum foam. Dr. Hooft's view in ``Does God play dice,'' Physicsword, Dec 2005 seems consistent with my progressive conference presentations in Russia, Europe, India, and USA (Hindu University) in 2004/05. I see implications for nanoscience.
Compressing the hidden variable space of a qubit
Montina, Alberto
2010-01-01
In previously exhibited hidden variable models of quantum state preparation and measurement, the number of continuous hidden variables describing the actual state of a single realization is never smaller than the quantum state manifold dimension. We introduce a simple model for a qubit whose hidden variable space is one-dimensional, i.e., smaller than the two-dimensional Bloch sphere. The hidden variable probability distributions associated with the quantum states satisfy reasonable criteria ...
About hidden influence of predictor variables: Suppressor and mediator variables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milovanović Boško
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper procedure for researching hidden influence of predictor variables in regression models and depicting suppressor variables and mediator variables is shown. It is also shown that detection of suppressor variables and mediator variables could provide refined information about the research problem. As an example for applying this procedure, relation between Atlantic atmospheric centers and air temperature and precipitation amount in Serbia is chosen. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007
Hidden measurements, hidden variables and the volume representation of transition probabilities
Oliynyk, Todd A.
2005-01-01
We construct, for any finite dimension $n$, a new hidden measurement model for quantum mechanics based on representing quantum transition probabilities by the volume of regions in projective Hilbert space. For $n=2$ our model is equivalent to the Aerts sphere model and serves as a generalization of it for dimensions $n \\geq 3$. We also show how to construct a hidden variables scheme based on hidden measurements and we discuss how joint distributions arise in our hidden variables scheme and th...
Compressing the hidden variable space of a qubit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montina, Alberto
2011-01-01
In previously exhibited hidden variable models of quantum state preparation and measurement, the number of continuous hidden variables describing the actual state of single realizations is never smaller than the quantum state manifold dimension. We introduce a simple model for a qubit whose hidden variable space is one-dimensional, i.e., smaller than the two-dimensional Bloch sphere. The hidden variable probability distributions associated with quantum states satisfy reasonable criteria of regularity. Possible generalizations of this shrinking to an N-dimensional Hilbert space are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aharonov, Y.; Scully, M.
2001-01-01
The folklore notion of the ''Non-Locality of Quantum Mechanics'' is examined from the point of view of hidden-variables theories according to Belinfante's classification in his Survey of Hidden Variables Theories. It is here shown that in the case of EPR, there exist hidden variables theories that successfully reproduce quantum-mechanical predictions, but which are explicitly local. Since such theories do not fall into Belinfante's classification, we propose an expanded classification which includes similar theories, which we term as theories of the ''third'' kind. Causal implications of such theories are explored. (orig.)
Optimal no-go theorem on hidden-variable predictions of effect expectations
Blass, Andreas; Gurevich, Yuri
2018-03-01
No-go theorems prove that, under reasonable assumptions, classical hidden-variable theories cannot reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics. Traditional no-go theorems proved that hidden-variable theories cannot predict correctly the values of observables. Recent expectation no-go theorems prove that hidden-variable theories cannot predict the expectations of observables. We prove the strongest expectation-focused no-go theorem to date. It is optimal in the sense that the natural weakenings of the assumptions and the natural strengthenings of the conclusion make the theorem fail. The literature on expectation no-go theorems strongly suggests that the expectation-focused approach is more general than the value-focused one. We establish that the expectation approach is not more general.
Completing Quantum Mechanics with Quantized Hidden Variables
van Enk, S. J.
2015-01-01
I explore the possibility that a quantum system S may be described completely by the combination of its standard quantum state $|\\psi\\rangle$ and a (hidden) quantum state $|\\phi\\rangle$ (that lives in the same Hilbert space), such that the outcome of any standard projective measurement on the system S is determined once the two quantum states are specified. I construct an algorithm that retrieves the standard quantum-mechanical probabilities, which depend only on $|\\psi\\rangle$, by assuming t...
Context Tree Estimation in Variable Length Hidden Markov Models
Dumont, Thierry
2011-01-01
We address the issue of context tree estimation in variable length hidden Markov models. We propose an estimator of the context tree of the hidden Markov process which needs no prior upper bound on the depth of the context tree. We prove that the estimator is strongly consistent. This uses information-theoretic mixture inequalities in the spirit of Finesso and Lorenzo(Consistent estimation of the order for Markov and hidden Markov chains(1990)) and E.Gassiat and S.Boucheron (Optimal error exp...
Local models and hidden nonlocality in Quantum Theory
Guerini, Leonardo
2014-01-01
This Master's thesis has two central subjects: the simulation of correlations generated by local measurements on entangled quantum states by local hidden-variables models and the revelation of hidden nonlocality. We present and detail the Werner's local model and the hidden nonlocality of some Werner states of dimension $d\\geq5$, the Gisin-Degorre's local model for a Werner state of dimension $d=2$ and the local model of Hirsch et al. for mixtures of the singlet state and noise, all of them f...
Exploring inequality violations by classical hidden variables numerically
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vongehr, Sascha
2013-01-01
There are increasingly suggestions for computer simulations of quantum statistics which try to violate Bell type inequalities via classical, common cause correlations. The Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) inequality is very robust. However, we argue that with the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen setup, the CHSH is inferior to the Bell inequality, although and because the latter must assume anti-correlation of entangled photon singlet states. We simulate how often quantum behavior violates both inequalities, depending on the number of photons. Violating Bell 99% of the time is argued to be an ideal benchmark. We present hidden variables that violate the Bell and CHSH inequalities with 50% probability, and ones which violate Bell 85% of the time when missing 13% anti-correlation. We discuss how to present the quantum correlations to a wide audience and conclude that, when defending against claims of hidden classicality, one should demand numerical simulations and insist on anti-correlation and the full amount of Bell violation. -- Highlights: •The widely assumed superiority of the CHSH fails in the EPR problem. •We simulate Bell type inequalities behavior depending on the number of photons. •The core of Bell’s theorem in the EPR setup is introduced in a simple way understandable to a wide audience. •We present hidden variables that violate both inequalities with 50% probability. •Algorithms have been supplied in form of Mathematica programs
Entanglement properties of kaons and tests of hidden-variable models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Genovese, M.
2004-01-01
In this paper we discuss entanglement properties of neutral kaons systems and their use for testing local realism. In particular, we analyze a Hardy-type scheme [A. Bramon and G. Garbarino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 160401 (2002)] recently suggested for performing a test of hidden-variable theories against standard quantum mechanics. Our result is that this scheme could, in principle, lead to a conclusive test of local realism, but only if higher identification efficiencies than in today's experiments will be reached
Hidden QCD in Chiral Gauge Theories
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ryttov, Thomas; Sannino, Francesco
2005-01-01
The 't Hooft and Corrigan-Ramond limits of massless one-flavor QCD consider the two Weyl fermions to be respectively in the fundamental representation or the two index antisymmetric representation of the gauge group. We introduce a limit in which one of the two Weyl fermions is in the fundamental...... representation and the other in the two index antisymmetric representation of a generic SU(N) gauge group. This theory is chiral and to avoid gauge anomalies a more complicated chiral theory is needed. This is the generalized Georgi-Glashow model with one vector like fermion. We show that there is an interesting...... phase in which the considered chiral gauge theory, for any N, Higgses via a bilinear condensate: The gauge interactions break spontaneously to ordinary massless one-flavor SU(3) QCD. The additional elementary fermionic matter is uncharged under this SU(3) gauge theory. It is also seen that when...
The hidden fermions in Z(2) theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srednicki, M.
1983-01-01
Low dimensional Z(2) gauge theories have been rewritten in terms of locally coupled fermionic degrees of freedom by means of the Jordan-Wigner transformation. In this paper it is shown that higher dimensional Z(2) gauge theories are also fermionic theories in disguise. The SML solution to the 1+1 dimension Ising model is reviewed. Psi operators are represented pictorially as arrows, psi 1 points to the left, psi 2 to the right, each site of H a multiple of two operators. The 2+1 dimension Ising model is then considered. A fermion plaquette operator is introduced as the generator of a gauge symmetry for the fermionic H. Findings in 1+1 and 2+1 are then applied to 3+1 dimensional Z(2) gauge theory. A construction of this lattice is undertaken. Psi formalism replaces sigma formalism, as it permits extremely simple duality transformations to be made on any Z(2) Hamiltonian. It is shown that the fermionic formalism will lead to new ideas in Z(2) theories
Hidden symmetries of Kaluza-Klein theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popov, A.D.
1987-01-01
It is shown that the introduction of dynamical torsion in Kaluza-Klein theories makes it possible to increase the number of gauge fields extracted from the Lagrangian without increasing the number of additional dimensions. An example of spontaneous compactification of a studied model is considered
Hidden Markov latent variable models with multivariate longitudinal data.
Song, Xinyuan; Xia, Yemao; Zhu, Hongtu
2017-03-01
Cocaine addiction is chronic and persistent, and has become a major social and health problem in many countries. Existing studies have shown that cocaine addicts often undergo episodic periods of addiction to, moderate dependence on, or swearing off cocaine. Given its reversible feature, cocaine use can be formulated as a stochastic process that transits from one state to another, while the impacts of various factors, such as treatment received and individuals' psychological problems on cocaine use, may vary across states. This article develops a hidden Markov latent variable model to study multivariate longitudinal data concerning cocaine use from a California Civil Addict Program. The proposed model generalizes conventional latent variable models to allow bidirectional transition between cocaine-addiction states and conventional hidden Markov models to allow latent variables and their dynamic interrelationship. We develop a maximum-likelihood approach, along with a Monte Carlo expectation conditional maximization (MCECM) algorithm, to conduct parameter estimation. The asymptotic properties of the parameter estimates and statistics for testing the heterogeneity of model parameters are investigated. The finite sample performance of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by simulation studies. The application to cocaine use study provides insights into the prevention of cocaine use. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.
Nonlocal hidden variables and nonlocal gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boiteux, M.
1984-01-01
A possible unification of classical fundamental interactions together with quantum interactions is proposed, based on an extension of the concept of local gauge invariance to a nonlocal gauge invariance. As an example this new concept is developed for the particular case of the electromagnetic field. (Auth.)
Pre-quantum mechanics. Introduction to models with hidden variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grea, J.
1976-01-01
Within the context of formalism of hidden variable type, the author considers the models used to describe mechanical systems before the introduction of the quantum model. An account is given of the characteristics of the theoretical models and their relationships with experimental methodology. The models of analytical, pre-ergodic, stochastic and thermodynamic mechanics are studied in succession. At each stage the physical hypothesis is enunciated by postulate corresponding to the type of description of the reality of the model. Starting from this postulate, the physical propositions which are meaningful for the model under consideration are defined and their logical structure is indicated. It is then found that on passing from one level of description to another, one can obtain successively Boolean lattices embedded in lattices of continuous geometric type, which are themselves embedded in Boolean lattices. It is therefore possible to envisage a more detailed description than that given by the quantum lattice and to construct it by analogy. (Auth.)
Hidden Markov processes theory and applications to biology
Vidyasagar, M
2014-01-01
This book explores important aspects of Markov and hidden Markov processes and the applications of these ideas to various problems in computational biology. The book starts from first principles, so that no previous knowledge of probability is necessary. However, the work is rigorous and mathematical, making it useful to engineers and mathematicians, even those not interested in biological applications. A range of exercises is provided, including drills to familiarize the reader with concepts and more advanced problems that require deep thinking about the theory. Biological applications are t
New infinite-dimensional hidden symmetries for heterotic string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Yajun
2007-01-01
The symmetry structures of two-dimensional heterotic string theory are studied further. A (2d+n)x(2d+n) matrix complex H-potential is constructed and the field equations are extended into a complex matrix formulation. A pair of Hauser-Ernst-type linear systems are established. Based on these linear systems, explicit formulations of new hidden symmetry transformations for the considered theory are given and then these symmetry transformations are verified to constitute infinite-dimensional Lie algebras: the semidirect product of the Kac-Moody o(d,d+n-circumflex) and Virasoro algebras (without center charges). These results demonstrate that the heterotic string theory under consideration possesses more and richer symmetry structures than previously expected
Dimensional reduction in field theory and hidden symmetries in extended supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kremmer, E.
1985-01-01
Dimensional reduction in field theories is discussed both in theories which do not include gravity and in gravity theories. In particular, 11-dimensional supergravity and its reduction to 4 dimensions is considered. Hidden symmetries of supergravity with N=8 in 4 dimensions, global E 7 and local SU(8)-invariances in particular are detected. The hidden symmmetries permit to interpret geometrically the scalar fields
Inferring topologies of complex networks with hidden variables.
Wu, Xiaoqun; Wang, Weihan; Zheng, Wei Xing
2012-10-01
Network topology plays a crucial role in determining a network's intrinsic dynamics and function, thus understanding and modeling the topology of a complex network will lead to greater knowledge of its evolutionary mechanisms and to a better understanding of its behaviors. In the past few years, topology identification of complex networks has received increasing interest and wide attention. Many approaches have been developed for this purpose, including synchronization-based identification, information-theoretic methods, and intelligent optimization algorithms. However, inferring interaction patterns from observed dynamical time series is still challenging, especially in the absence of knowledge of nodal dynamics and in the presence of system noise. The purpose of this work is to present a simple and efficient approach to inferring the topologies of such complex networks. The proposed approach is called "piecewise partial Granger causality." It measures the cause-effect connections of nonlinear time series influenced by hidden variables. One commonly used testing network, two regular networks with a few additional links, and small-world networks are used to evaluate the performance and illustrate the influence of network parameters on the proposed approach. Application to experimental data further demonstrates the validity and robustness of our method.
Measurement problem and local hidden variables with entangled photons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muchowski Eugen
2017-12-01
Full Text Available It is shown that there is no remote action with polarization measurements of photons in singlet state. A model is presented introducing a hidden parameter which determines the polarizer output. This model is able to explain the polarization measurement results with entangled photons. It is not ruled out by Bell’s Theorem.
A non-local hidden-variable model that violates Leggett-type inequalities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zela, F de [Departamento de Ciencias, Seccion Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Apartado 1761, Lima (Peru)
2008-12-19
Recent experiments of Groeblacher et al proved the violation of a Leggett-type inequality that was claimed to be valid for a broad class of non-local hidden-variable theories. The impossibility of constructing a non-local and realistic theory, unless it entails highly counterintuitive features, seems thus to have been experimentally proved. This would bring us close to a definite refutation of realism. Indeed, realism was proved to be also incompatible with locality, according to a series of experiments testing Bell inequalities. The present paper addresses the said experiments of Groeblacher et al and presents an explicit, contextual and realistic, model that reproduces the predictions of quantum mechanics. It thus violates the Leggett-type inequality that was established with the aim of ruling out a supposedly broad class of non-local models. We can thus conclude that plausible contextual, realistic, models are still tenable. This restates the possibility of a future completion of quantum mechanics by a realistic and contextual theory which is not in a class containing only highly counterintuitive models. The class that was ruled out by the experiments of Groeblacher et al is thus proved to be a limited one, arbitrarily separating models that physically belong in the same class.
A non-local hidden-variable model that violates Leggett-type inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zela, F de
2008-01-01
Recent experiments of Groeblacher et al proved the violation of a Leggett-type inequality that was claimed to be valid for a broad class of non-local hidden-variable theories. The impossibility of constructing a non-local and realistic theory, unless it entails highly counterintuitive features, seems thus to have been experimentally proved. This would bring us close to a definite refutation of realism. Indeed, realism was proved to be also incompatible with locality, according to a series of experiments testing Bell inequalities. The present paper addresses the said experiments of Groeblacher et al and presents an explicit, contextual and realistic, model that reproduces the predictions of quantum mechanics. It thus violates the Leggett-type inequality that was established with the aim of ruling out a supposedly broad class of non-local models. We can thus conclude that plausible contextual, realistic, models are still tenable. This restates the possibility of a future completion of quantum mechanics by a realistic and contextual theory which is not in a class containing only highly counterintuitive models. The class that was ruled out by the experiments of Groeblacher et al is thus proved to be a limited one, arbitrarily separating models that physically belong in the same class
Higher-dimensional black holes: hidden symmetries and separation of variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, Valeri P; Kubiznak, David
2008-01-01
In this paper, we discuss hidden symmetries in rotating black hole spacetimes. We start with an extended introduction which mainly summarizes results on hidden symmetries in four dimensions and introduces Killing and Killing-Yano tensors, objects responsible for hidden symmetries. We also demonstrate how starting with a principal CKY tensor (that is a closed non-degenerate conformal Killing-Yano 2-form) in 4D flat spacetime one can 'generate' the 4D Kerr-NUT-(A)dS solution and its hidden symmetries. After this we consider higher-dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics and demonstrate that they possess a principal CKY tensor which allows one to generate the whole tower of Killing-Yano and Killing tensors. These symmetries imply complete integrability of geodesic equations and complete separation of variables for the Hamilton-Jacobi, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations in the general Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amin Kuncoro
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This research aims to know the influence of entrepreneurship subject on students’ interest in entrepreneurship at Institute of Mathaliul Falah (IPMAFA in Pati by hidden curriculum as intervening variable. The research used WarpsPls analysis to test model directly and directly. Samples of the study were 30 Islamic banking students who got entrepreneurship subject and Islamic community development who did not get the entrepreneurship subject. Findings show that the entrepreneurship subject influences students’ interest in entrepreneurship and the second model test results showed that hidden curriculum is not able to become the intervening variable for students’ interest in entrepreneurship subject on students’ interest in entrepreneurship.
Heisenberg (and Schrödinger, and Pauli) on hidden variables
Bacciagaluppi, Guido; Crull, Elise
In this paper, we discuss various aspects of Heisenberg's thought on hidden variables in the period 1927-1935. We also compare Heisenberg's approach to others current at the time, specifically that embodied by von Neumann's impossibility proof, but also views expressed mainly in correspondence by Pauli and by Schrödinger. We shall base ourselves mostly on published and unpublished materials that are known but little-studied, among others Heisenberg's own draft response to the EPR paper. Our aim will be not only to clarify Heisenberg's thought on the hidden-variables question, but in part also to clarify how this question was understood more generally at the time.
A Proposal for Testing Local Realism Without Using Assumptions Related to Hidden Variable States
Ryff, Luiz Carlos
1996-01-01
A feasible experiment is discussed which allows us to prove a Bell's theorem for two particles without using an inequality. The experiment could be used to test local realism against quantum mechanics without the introduction of additional assumptions related to hidden variables states. Only assumptions based on direct experimental observation are needed.
Kim, S. Y.; Oh, H. S.; Park, E. S.
2017-10-01
Herein, we elucidate a hidden variable in a shear transformation zone (STZ) volume (Ω) versus Poisson's ratio (ν) relation and clarify the correlation between STZ characteristics and the plasticity of metallic glasses (MGs). On the basis of cooperative shear model and atomic stress theories, we carefully formulate Ω as a function of molar volume (Vm) and ν. The twofold trend in Ω and ν is attributed to a relatively large variation of Vm as compared to that of ν as well as an inverse relation between Vm and ν. Indeed, the derived equation reveals that the number of atoms in an STZ instead of Ω is a microstructural characteristic which has a close relationship with plasticity since it reflects the preference of atomistic behaviors between cooperative shearing and the generation of volume strain fluctuation under stress. The results would deepen our understanding of the correlation between microscopic behaviors (STZ activation) and macroscopic properties (plasticity) in MGs and enable a quantitative approach in associating various STZ-related macroscopic behaviors with intrinsic properties of MGs.
On E(11) of M-theory: 1. Hidden Symmetries of Maximal Supergravities and Lego of Dynkin Diagrams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nurmagambetov, A.J.
2007-01-01
We review a graphical way of classifying hidden symmetry algebras and groups of D=11, 10 maximal supergravities in terms of Dynkin diagrams, the shapes of which are determined by the bosonic field content of supergravities supermultiplets. The approach we follow is tightly related to the West's conjecture on a hidden symmetry of M-theory, and we discuss benefits of the approach in compare to other ways of searching for hidden symmetries of String Theory
Identification of chaotic systems with hidden variables (modified Bock's algorithm)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.; Sysoev, Ilya V.
2006-01-01
We address the problem of estimating parameters of chaotic dynamical systems from a time series in a situation when some of state variables are not observed and/or the data are very noisy. Using specially developed quantitative criteria, we compare performance of the original multiple shooting approach (Bock's algorithm) and its modified version. The latter is shown to be significantly superior for long chaotic time series. In particular, it allows to obtain accurate estimates for much worse starting guesses for the estimated parameters
Hidden gravity in open-string field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siegel, W.
1994-01-01
We clarify the nature of the graviton as a bound state in open-string field theory: The flat metric in the action appears as the vacuum value of an open string field. The bound state appears as a composite field in the free field theory
Genuine tripartite entangled states with a local hidden-variable model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toth, Geza; Acin, Antonio
2006-01-01
We present a family of three-qubit quantum states with a basic local hidden-variable model. Any von Neumann measurement can be described by a local model for these states. We show that some of these states are genuine three-partite entangled and also distillable. The generalization for larger dimensions or higher number of parties is also discussed. As a by-product, we present symmetric extensions of two-qubit Werner states
Hidden symmetries of the Kaluza-Klein-type theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popov, A.D.
1987-01-01
It is shown that introduction of dynamical torsion in Kaluza-Klein theories makes is possible to increase the number of gauge fields extracted from the Lagrangian without increasing the number of extra dimentions. An example of spontaneous compactification of the model investigated is considered
Hidden worlds in quantum physics
Gouesbet, Gérard
2014-01-01
The past decade has witnessed a resurgence in research and interest in the areas of quantum computation and entanglement. This new book addresses the hidden worlds or variables of quantum physics. Author Gérard Gouesbet studied and worked with a former student of Louis de Broglie, a pioneer of quantum physics. His presentation emphasizes the history and philosophical foundations of physics, areas that will interest lay readers as well as professionals and advanced undergraduate and graduate students of quantum physics. The introduction is succeeded by chapters offering background on relevant concepts in classical and quantum mechanics, a brief history of causal theories, and examinations of the double solution, pilot wave, and other hidden-variables theories. Additional topics include proofs of possibility and impossibility, contextuality, non-locality, classification of hidden-variables theories, and stochastic quantum mechanics. The final section discusses how to gain a genuine understanding of quantum mec...
Ordered random variables theory and applications
Shahbaz, Muhammad Qaiser; Hanif Shahbaz, Saman; Al-Zahrani, Bander M
2016-01-01
Ordered Random Variables have attracted several authors. The basic building block of Ordered Random Variables is Order Statistics which has several applications in extreme value theory and ordered estimation. The general model for ordered random variables, known as Generalized Order Statistics has been introduced relatively recently by Kamps (1995).
Xu, Wenhu; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel
2013-07-19
We investigate the transport properties of a correlated metal within dynamical mean-field theory. Canonical Fermi liquid behavior emerges only below a very low temperature scale T(FL). Surprisingly the quasiparticle scattering rate follows a quadratic temperature dependence up to much higher temperatures and crosses over to saturated behavior around a temperature scale T(sat). We identify these quasiparticles as constituents of the hidden Fermi liquid. The non-Fermi-liquid transport above T(FL), in particular the linear-in-T resistivity, is shown to be a result of a strongly temperature dependent band dispersion. We derive simple expressions for the resistivity, Hall angle, thermoelectric power and Nernst coefficient in terms of a temperature dependent renormalized band structure and the quasiparticle scattering rate. We discuss possible tests of the dynamical mean-field theory picture of transport using ac measurements.
Sex allocation theory reveals a hidden cost of neonicotinoid exposure in a parasitoid wasp.
Whitehorn, Penelope R; Cook, Nicola; Blackburn, Charlotte V; Gill, Sophie M; Green, Jade; Shuker, David M
2015-05-22
Sex allocation theory has proved to be one the most successful theories in evolutionary ecology. However, its role in more applied aspects of ecology has been limited. Here we show how sex allocation theory helps uncover an otherwise hidden cost of neonicotinoid exposure in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Female N. vitripennis allocate the sex of their offspring in line with Local Mate Competition (LMC) theory. Neonicotinoids are an economically important class of insecticides, but their deployment remains controversial, with evidence linking them to the decline of beneficial species. We demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge, that neonicotinoids disrupt the crucial reproductive behaviour of facultative sex allocation at sub-lethal, field-relevant doses in N. vitripennis. The quantitative predictions we can make from LMC theory show that females exposed to neonicotinoids are less able to allocate sex optimally and that this failure imposes a significant fitness cost. Our work highlights that understanding the ecological consequences of neonicotinoid deployment requires not just measures of mortality or even fecundity reduction among non-target species, but also measures that capture broader fitness costs, in this case offspring sex allocation. Our work also highlights new avenues for exploring how females obtain information when allocating sex under LMC. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
On hidden symmetries of a super gauge theory and twistor string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolf, Martin
2005-01-01
We discuss infinite-dimensional hidden symmetry algebras (and hence an infinite number of conserved nonlocal charges) of the N-extented self-dual super Yang-Mills equations for general N=4 by using the supertwistor correspondence. Furthermore, by enhancing the supertwistor space, we construct the N-extended self-dual super Yang-Mills hierarchies, which describe infinite sets of graded abelian symmetries. We also show that the open topological B-model with the enhanced supertwistor space as target manifold will describe the hierarchies. Furthermore, these hierarchies will in turn - by a supersymmetric extension of Ward's conjecture - reduce to the super hierarchies of integrable models in D<4 dimensions. (author)
Local hidden variable modelling, classicality, quantum separability and the original Bell inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loubenets, Elena R
2011-01-01
We introduce a general condition sufficient for the validity of the original Bell inequality (1964) in a local hidden variable (LHV) frame. This condition can be checked experimentally and incorporates only as a particular case the assumption on perfect correlations or anticorrelations usually argued for this inequality in the literature. Specifying this general condition for a quantum bipartite case, we introduce the whole class of bipartite quantum states, separable and nonseparable, that (i) admit an LHV description under any bipartite measurements with two settings per site; (ii) do not necessarily exhibit perfect correlations and may even have a negative correlation function if the same quantum observable is measured at both sites, but (iii) satisfy the 'perfect correlation' version of the original Bell inequality for any three bounded quantum observables A 1 , A 2 = B 1 , B 2 at sites 'A' and 'B', respectively. Analysing the validity of this general LHV condition under classical and quantum correlation scenarios with the same physical context, we stress that, unlike the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality, the original Bell inequality distinguishes between classicality and quantum separability.
Schoonhoven, Clausia Bird
1981-01-01
Discusses problems in contingency theory, which relates organizational structure to the tasks performed and the information needed. Analysis of data from 17 hospitals suggests that traditional contingency theory underrepresents the complexity of relations among technological uncertainty, structure, and organizational effectiveness. (Author/RW)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foot, Robert; Kobakhidze, Archil; Volkas, Raymond R.; McDonald, Kristian L.
2008-01-01
If scale invariance is a classical symmetry then both the Planck scale and the weak scale should emerge as quantum effects. We show that this can be realized in simple scale invariant theories with a hidden sector. The weak/Planck scale hierarchy emerges in the (technically natural) limit in which the hidden sector decouples from the ordinary sector. In this limit, finite corrections to the weak scale are consequently small, while quadratic divergences are absent by virtue of classical scale invariance, so there is no hierarchy problem
Fermion zero modes in the vortex background of a Chern-Simons-Higgs theory with a hidden sector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lozano, Gustavo [Departamento de Física, FCEYN Universidad de Buenos Aires & IFIBA CONICET,Pabellón 1 Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mohammadi, Azadeh [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba,58.059-970, Caixa Postal 5.008, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Schaposnik, Fidel A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de La Plata/IFLP/CICBA,CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2015-11-06
In this paper we study a 2+1 dimensional system in which fermions are coupled to the self-dual topological vortex in U(1)×U(1) Chern-Simons theory, where both U(1) gauge symmetries are spontaneously broken. We consider two Abelian Higgs scalars with visible and hidden sectors coupled to a fermionic field through three interaction Lagrangians, where one of them violates the fermion number. Using a fine tuning procedure, we could obtain the number of the fermionic zero modes which is equal to the absolute value of the sum of the vortex numbers in the visible and hidden sectors.
Incremental discovery of hidden structure: Applications in theory of elementary particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zytkow, J.M.; Fischer, P.J.
1996-01-01
Discovering hidden structure is a challenging, universal research task in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and other disciplines. Not only must the elements of hidden structure be postulated by the discoverer, but they can only be verified by indirect evidence, at the level of observable objects. In this paper we describe a framework for hidden structure discovery, built on a constructive definition of hidden structure. This definition leads to operators that build models of hidden structure step by step, postulating hidden objects, their combinations and properties, reactions described in terms of hidden objects, and mapping between the hidden and the observed structure. We introduce the operator dependency diagram, which shows the order of operator application and model evaluation. Different observational knowledge supports different evaluation criteria, which lead to different search systems with verifiable sequences of operator applications. Isomorph-free structure generation is another issue critical for efficiency of search. We apply our framework in the system GELL-MANN, that hypothesizes hidden structure for elementary particles and we present the results of a large scale search for quark models
Sociology of Hidden Curriculum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alireza Moradi
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of hidden curriculum in the sociological theories and wants to explain sociological aspects of formation of hidden curriculum. The main question concentrates on the theoretical approaches in which hidden curriculum is explained sociologically.For this purpose it was applied qualitative research methodology. The relevant data include various sociological concepts and theories of hidden curriculum collected by the documentary method. The study showed a set of rules, procedures, relationships and social structure of education have decisive role in the formation of hidden curriculum. A hidden curriculum reinforces by existed inequalities among learners (based on their social classes or statues. There is, in fact, a balance between the learner's "knowledge receptions" with their "inequality proportion".The hidden curriculum studies from different major sociological theories such as Functionalism, Marxism and critical theory, Symbolic internationalism and Feminism. According to the functionalist perspective a hidden curriculum has a social function because it transmits social values. Marxists and critical thinkers correlate between hidden curriculum and the totality of social structure. They depicts that curriculum prepares learners for the exploitation in the work markets. Symbolic internationalism rejects absolute hegemony of hidden curriculum on education and looks to the socialization as a result of interaction between learner and instructor. Feminism theory also considers hidden curriculum as a vehicle which legitimates gender stereotypes.
Function theory of several complex variables
Krantz, Steven G
2001-01-01
The theory of several complex variables can be studied from several different perspectives. In this book, Steven Krantz approaches the subject from the point of view of a classical analyst, emphasizing its function-theoretic aspects. He has taken particular care to write the book with the student in mind, with uniformly extensive and helpful explanations, numerous examples, and plentiful exercises of varying difficulty. In the spirit of a student-oriented text, Krantz begins with an introduction to the subject, including an insightful comparison of analysis of several complex variables with th
Cepheid pulsation theory and multiperiodic cepheid variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cox, A.N.; Cox, J.P.
1975-01-01
In this review of the multiperiodic Cepheid variables, the subject matter is divided into four parts. The first discusses general causes of pulsation of Cepheids and other variable stars, and their locations on the H-R diagram. In the second section, the linear adiabatic and nonadiabatic theory calculation of radial pulsation periods and their application to the problem of masses and double-mode Cepheids are reviewed. Periodic solutions, and their stability, of the nonlinear radial pulsation equations for Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars are considered in the third section. The last section provides the latest results on nonlinear, nonperiodic, radial pulsations for Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars. (BJG)
Discrete variable theory of triatomic photodissociation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heather, R.W.; Light, J.C.
1983-01-01
The coupled equations describing the photodissociation process are expressed in the discrete variable representation (DVR) in which the coupled equations are labeled by quadrature points rather than by internal basis functions. A large reduction in the dimensionality of the coupled equations can be realized since the spatially localized bound state nuclear wave function vanishes at most of the quadrature points, making only certain orientations of the fragments important in the region of strong interaction (small separation). The discrete variable theory of photodissociation is applied to the model dissociation of bent HCN in which the CN fragment is treated as a rigid rotor. The truncated DVR rotational distributions are compared with the exact close coupled rotational distributions, and excellent agreement with greatly reduced dimensionality of the equations is found
Collective variables method in relativistic theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shurgaya, A.V.
1983-01-01
Classical theory of N-component field is considered. The method of collective variables accurately accounting for conservation laws proceeding from invariance theory under homogeneous Lorentz group is developed within the frames of generalized hamiltonian dynamics. Hyperboloids are invariant surfaces Under the homogeneous Lorentz group. Proceeding from this, field transformation is introduced, and the surface is parametrized so that generators of the homogeneous Lorentz group do not include components dependent on interaction and their effect on the field function is reduced to geometrical. The interaction is completely included in the expression for the energy-momentum vector of the system which is a dynamical value. Gauge is chosen where parameters of four-dimensional translations and their canonically-conjugated pulses are non-physical and thus phase space is determined by parameters of the homogeneous Lorentz group, field function and their canonically-conjugated pulses. So it is managed to accurately account for conservation laws proceeding from the requirement of lorentz-invariance
Group field theory with noncommutative metric variables.
Baratin, Aristide; Oriti, Daniele
2010-11-26
We introduce a dual formulation of group field theories as a type of noncommutative field theories, making their simplicial geometry manifest. For Ooguri-type models, the Feynman amplitudes are simplicial path integrals for BF theories. We give a new definition of the Barrett-Crane model for gravity by imposing the simplicity constraints directly at the level of the group field theory action.
Shama, Lisa N S
2017-08-21
Increasing climate variability may pose an even greater risk to species than climate warming because temperature fluctuations can amplify adverse impacts of directional warming on fitness-related traits. Here, the influence of directional warming and increasing climate variability on marine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) offspring size variation was investigated by simulating changes to the mean and variance of ocean temperatures predicted under climate change. Reproductive traits of mothers and offspring size reaction norms across four climate scenarios were examined to assess the roles of standing genetic variation, transgenerational and within-generation plasticity in adaptive potential. Mothers acclimated to directional warming produced smaller eggs than mothers in constant, ambient temperatures, whereas mothers in a predictably variable environment (weekly change between temperatures) produced a range of egg sizes, possibly reflecting a diversified bet hedging strategy. Offspring size post-hatch was mostly influenced by genotype by environment interactions and not transgenerational effects. Offspring size reaction norms also differed depending on the type of environmental predictability (predictably variable vs. stochastic), with offspring reaching the largest sizes in the stochastic environment. Release of cryptic genetic variation for offspring size in the stochastic environment suggests hidden evolutionary potential in this wild population to respond to changes in environmental predictability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Raifeartaigh, L.
1979-01-01
This review describes the principles of hidden gauge symmetry and of its application to the fundamental interactions. The emphasis is on the structure of the theory rather than on the technical details and, in order to emphasise the structure, gauge symmetry and hidden symmetry are first treated as independent phenomena before being combined into a single (hidden gauge symmetric) theory. The main application of the theory is to the weak and electromagnetic interactions of the elementary particles, and although models are used for comparison with experiment and for illustration, emphasis is placed on those features of the application which are model-independent. (author)
Comment on ‘Hidden variable interpretation of spontaneous localization theory’
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tumulka, Roderich
2011-01-01
In a recent paper, Bedingham (2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 275303) discussed a hybrid between a theory of spontaneous wavefunction collapse and Bohmian mechanics. I offer a simpler way of conveying the substance of Bedingham’s paper. (comments and replies)
Grozdanov, Tasko P.; Solov'ev, Evgeni A.
2018-04-01
Within the framework of dynamical adiabatic approach the hidden crossing theory of inelastic transitions is applied to charge exchange in H+ + He+(1 s) collisions in the wide range of center of mass collision energies E cm = (1.6 -70) keV. The good agreement with experiment and molecular close coupling calculations is obtained. At low energies our 4-state results are closest to the experiment and correctly reproduce the shoulder in energy dependence of the cross section around E cm = 6 keV. The 2-state results correctly predict the position of the maximum of the cross section at E cm ≈ 40 keV, whereas 4-state results fail to correctly describe the region around the maximum. The reason for this is the fact that adiabatic approximation for a given two-state hidden crossing is applicable for values of the Schtueckelberg parameter >1. But with increase of principal quantum number N the Schtueckelberg parameter decreases as N -3. That is why the 4-state approach involving higher excited states fails at smaller collision energies E cm ≈ 15 keV, while the 2-state approximation which involves low lying states can be extended to higher collision energies.
The Properties of Model Selection when Retaining Theory Variables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendry, David F.; Johansen, Søren
Economic theories are often fitted directly to data to avoid possible model selection biases. We show that embedding a theory model that specifies the correct set of m relevant exogenous variables, x{t}, within the larger set of m+k candidate variables, (x{t},w{t}), then selection over the second...... set by their statistical significance can be undertaken without affecting the estimator distribution of the theory parameters. This strategy returns the theory-parameter estimates when the theory is correct, yet protects against the theory being under-specified because some w{t} are relevant....
Fujita, Masahiko
2013-06-01
A new supervised learning theory is proposed for a hierarchical neural network with a single hidden layer of threshold units, which can approximate any continuous transformation, and applied to a cerebellar function to suppress the end-point variability of saccades. In motor systems, feedback control can reduce noise effects if the noise is added in a pathway from a motor center to a peripheral effector; however, it cannot reduce noise effects if the noise is generated in the motor center itself: a new control scheme is necessary for such noise. The cerebellar cortex is well known as a supervised learning system, and a novel theory of cerebellar cortical function developed in this study can explain the capability of the cerebellum to feedforwardly reduce noise effects, such as end-point variability of saccades. This theory assumes that a Golgi-granule cell system can encode the strength of a mossy fiber input as the state of neuronal activity of parallel fibers. By combining these parallel fiber signals with appropriate connection weights to produce a Purkinje cell output, an arbitrary continuous input-output relationship can be obtained. By incorporating such flexible computation and learning ability in a process of saccadic gain adaptation, a new control scheme in which the cerebellar cortex feedforwardly suppresses the end-point variability when it detects a variation in saccadic commands can be devised. Computer simulation confirmed the efficiency of such learning and showed a reduction in the variability of saccadic end points, similar to results obtained from experimental data.
Hidden Markov Item Response Theory Models for Responses and Response Times.
Molenaar, Dylan; Oberski, Daniel; Vermunt, Jeroen; De Boeck, Paul
2016-01-01
Current approaches to model responses and response times to psychometric tests solely focus on between-subject differences in speed and ability. Within subjects, speed and ability are assumed to be constants. Violations of this assumption are generally absorbed in the residual of the model. As a result, within-subject departures from the between-subject speed and ability level remain undetected. These departures may be of interest to the researcher as they reflect differences in the response processes adopted on the items of a test. In this article, we propose a dynamic approach for responses and response times based on hidden Markov modeling to account for within-subject differences in responses and response times. A simulation study is conducted to demonstrate acceptable parameter recovery and acceptable performance of various fit indices in distinguishing between different models. In addition, both a confirmatory and an exploratory application are presented to demonstrate the practical value of the modeling approach.
Hidden symmetries and critical dimensions in the theory of modulated structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babich, A.V.; Berezovsky, S.V.; Klepikov, V.F.
2009-01-01
Some aspects of the theory of the critical phenomena in systems with spontaneous symmetry breaking are considered. The applicability range of the mean field approximation for the systems with modulated structures is discussed. Connection between symmetries of a corresponding model and the existence of exact solutions is showed. The role of symmetries in the theory of dynamic long range ordering is discussed
The Other Side of the Hidden Curriculum: Correspondence Theories and the Labor Process.
Apple, Michael W.
1980-01-01
Discusses the inadequacy of correspondence as a theory of the relationship both among all social institutions and between the school and other powerful socioeconomic forces. Notes implications for educational action. (Author/MK)
Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields
Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin
2015-01-01
Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of
The interplay between affect and theory of planned behavior variables
Keer, M.; van den Putte, B.; Neijens, P.
2012-01-01
Objectives: To assess whether affective evaluations of health behaviors moderate or mediate the influence of theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables on intention. Methods: For each of 20 health behaviors, respondents (N=300) completed questionnaire measures of affective evaluation, attitude,
A single variable shear deformable nonlocal theory for transversely ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Rameshchandra P Shimpi
2018-05-11
May 11, 2018 ... Abstract. In this paper, a simple single variable shear deformable nonlocal theory for bending of micro- and ... the models based upon continuum mechanics are widely .... of the body. ...... Elsevier Science Ltd, Oxford, UK. pp.
Illuminating the hidden sector of string theory by shining light through a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abel, S.A.; Khoze, V.V.
2006-08-01
It has recently been shown that the observation by the PVLAS collaboration of an anomalously large rotation of the polarization plane of light in the presence of a magnetic field in vacuum may originate from pair production of light, m f ∝0.1 eV, millicharged, Q f ∝3 x 10 -6 e, fermions. Such millicharges arise generically from kinetic-mixing in theories containing at least two U(1) gauge factors. In this letter, we point out that the required multiple U(1) factors, the size of kinetic-mixing, and suitable matter representations to explain the PVLAS data occur very naturally in the context of realistic extensions of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particle physics based on string theory. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loubenets, Elena R.
2015-01-01
We prove the existence for each Hilbert space of the two new quasi hidden variable (qHV) models, statistically noncontextual and context-invariant, reproducing all the von Neumann joint probabilities via non-negative values of real-valued measures and all the quantum product expectations—via the qHV (classical-like) average of the product of the corresponding random variables. In a context-invariant model, a quantum observable X can be represented by a variety of random variables satisfying the functional condition required in quantum foundations but each of these random variables equivalently models X under all joint von Neumann measurements, regardless of their contexts. The proved existence of this model negates the general opinion that, in terms of random variables, the Hilbert space description of all the joint von Neumann measurements for dimH≥3 can be reproduced only contextually. The existence of a statistically noncontextual qHV model, in particular, implies that every N-partite quantum state admits a local quasi hidden variable model introduced in Loubenets [J. Math. Phys. 53, 022201 (2012)]. The new results of the present paper point also to the generality of the quasi-classical probability model proposed in Loubenets [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45, 185306 (2012)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ruggero Gramatica
Full Text Available We introduce a methodology to efficiently exploit natural-language expressed biomedical knowledge for repurposing existing drugs towards diseases for which they were not initially intended. Leveraging on developments in Computational Linguistics and Graph Theory, a methodology is defined to build a graph representation of knowledge, which is automatically analysed to discover hidden relations between any drug and any disease: these relations are specific paths among the biomedical entities of the graph, representing possible Modes of Action for any given pharmacological compound. We propose a measure for the likeliness of these paths based on a stochastic process on the graph. This measure depends on the abundance of indirect paths between a peptide and a disease, rather than solely on the strength of the shortest path connecting them. We provide real-world examples, showing how the method successfully retrieves known pathophysiological Mode of Action and finds new ones by meaningfully selecting and aggregating contributions from known bio-molecular interactions. Applications of this methodology are presented, and prove the efficacy of the method for selecting drugs as treatment options for rare diseases.
Gramatica, Ruggero; Di Matteo, T; Giorgetti, Stefano; Barbiani, Massimo; Bevec, Dorian; Aste, Tomaso
2014-01-01
We introduce a methodology to efficiently exploit natural-language expressed biomedical knowledge for repurposing existing drugs towards diseases for which they were not initially intended. Leveraging on developments in Computational Linguistics and Graph Theory, a methodology is defined to build a graph representation of knowledge, which is automatically analysed to discover hidden relations between any drug and any disease: these relations are specific paths among the biomedical entities of the graph, representing possible Modes of Action for any given pharmacological compound. We propose a measure for the likeliness of these paths based on a stochastic process on the graph. This measure depends on the abundance of indirect paths between a peptide and a disease, rather than solely on the strength of the shortest path connecting them. We provide real-world examples, showing how the method successfully retrieves known pathophysiological Mode of Action and finds new ones by meaningfully selecting and aggregating contributions from known bio-molecular interactions. Applications of this methodology are presented, and prove the efficacy of the method for selecting drugs as treatment options for rare diseases.
Cebiroglu, Gökhan; Horst, Ulrich
2012-01-01
We cross-sectionally analyze the presence of aggregated hidden depth and trade volume in the S&P 500 and identify its key determinants. We find that the spread is the main predictor for a stock’s hidden dimension, both in terms of traded and posted liquidity. Our findings moreover suggest that large hidden orders are associated with larger transaction costs, higher price impact and increased volatility. In particular, as large hidden orders fail to attract (latent) liquidity to the market, hi...
Hidden selection rules, M5-instantons and fluxes in F-theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martucci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ‘Galileo Galilei’, Università di Padova, & I.N.F.N. Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Weigand, Timo [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2015-10-21
We introduce a new approach to investigate the selection rules governing the contributions of fluxed M5-instantons to the F-theory four-dimensional effective action, with emphasis on the generation of charged matter F-terms. The structure of such couplings is unraveled by exploiting the perturbative and non-perturbative homological relations, introduced in our companion paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP09(2015)198, which encode the interplay between the self-dual 3-form flux on the M5-brane, the background 4-form flux and certain fibral curves. The latter are wrapped by time-like M2-branes representing matter insertions in the instanton path integral. In particular, we clarify how fluxed M5-instantons detect the presence of geometrically massive U(1)s which are responsible for ‘hidden’ selection rules. We discuss how for non-generic embeddings the M5-instanton can probe ‘locally massless’ U(1) symmetries if the rank of its Mordell-Weil group is enhanced compared to that of the bulk. As a phenomenological off-spring we propose a new type of non-perturbative corrections to Yukawa couplings which may change the rank of the Yukawa matrix. Along the way, we also gain new insights into the structure of massive U(1) gauge fluxes in the stable degeneration limit.
Polarization correlations of S-1(0) proton pairs as tests of hidden-variable theories
Polachic, C; Rangacharyulu, C; van den Berg, AM; Hamieh, S; Harakeh, MN; Hunyadi, M; de Huu, MA; Wortche, HJ; Heyse, J; Baumer, C; Frekers, D; Brooke, JA; Busch, P
2004-01-01
We are investigating the feasibility of nuclear physics experiments designed to overcome the loopholes of observer-dependent reality and satisfying the counterfactuality condition. In a first approach, we have measured polarization correlations of S-1(0) proton pairs produced in C-12(d, He-2) and
State variable theories based on Hart's formulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korhonen, M.A.; Hannula, S.P.; Li, C.Y.
1985-01-01
In this paper a review of the development of a state variable theory for nonelastic deformation is given. The physical and phenomenological basis of the theory and the constitutive equations describing macroplastic, microplastic, anelastic and grain boundary sliding enhanced deformation are presented. The experimental and analytical evaluation of different parameters in the constitutive equations are described in detail followed by a review of the extensive experimental work on different materials. The technological aspects of the state variable approach are highlighted by examples of the simulative and predictive capabilities of the theory. Finally, a discussion of general capabilities, limitations and future developments of the theory and particularly the possible extensions to cover an even wider range of deformation or deformation-related phenomena is presented.
Real-variable theory of Musielak-Orlicz Hardy spaces
Yang, Dachun; Ky, Luong Dang
2017-01-01
The main purpose of this book is to give a detailed and complete survey of recent progress related to the real-variable theory of Musielak–Orlicz Hardy-type function spaces, and to lay the foundations for further applications. The real-variable theory of function spaces has always been at the core of harmonic analysis. Recently, motivated by certain questions in analysis, some more general Musielak–Orlicz Hardy-type function spaces were introduced. These spaces are defined via growth functions which may vary in both the spatial variable and the growth variable. By selecting special growth functions, the resulting spaces may have subtler and finer structures, which are necessary in order to solve various endpoint or sharp problems. This book is written for graduate students and researchers interested in function spaces and, in particular, Hardy-type spaces.
Theories of Variable Mass Particles and Low Energy Nuclear Phenomena
Davidson, Mark
2014-02-01
Variable particle masses have sometimes been invoked to explain observed anomalies in low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). Such behavior has never been observed directly, and is not considered possible in theoretical nuclear physics. Nevertheless, there are covariant off-mass-shell theories of relativistic particle dynamics, based on works by Fock, Stueckelberg, Feynman, Greenberger, Horwitz, and others. We review some of these and we also consider virtual particles that arise in conventional Feynman diagrams in relativistic field theories. Effective Lagrangian models incorporating variable mass particle theories might be useful in describing anomalous nuclear reactions by combining mass shifts together with resonant tunneling and other effects. A detailed model for resonant fusion in a deuterium molecule with off-shell deuterons and electrons is presented as an example. Experimental means of observing such off-shell behavior directly, if it exists, is proposed and described. Brief explanations for elemental transmutation and formation of micro-craters are also given, and an alternative mechanism for the mass shift in the Widom-Larsen theory is presented. If variable mass theories were to find experimental support from LENR, then they would undoubtedly have important implications for the foundations of quantum mechanics, and practical applications may arise.
Stochastic variables in N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lechtenfeld, O.
1984-06-01
The stochastic structure of N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory is rederived by using a previously developed method for the construction of the (nonlocal) Nicolai map. The stochastic variables correspond to the fixed points of this mapping. The relations are derived in a light cone gauge and in general covariant gauges. (orig.)
An infinite-dimensional weak KAM theory via random variables
Gomes, Diogo A.; Nurbekyan, Levon
2016-01-01
We develop several aspects of the infinite-dimensional Weak KAM theory using a random variables' approach. We prove that the infinite-dimensional cell problem admits a viscosity solution that is a fixed point of the Lax-Oleinik semigroup. Furthermore, we show the existence of invariant minimizing measures and calibrated curves defined on R.
An infinite-dimensional weak KAM theory via random variables
Gomes, Diogo A.
2016-08-31
We develop several aspects of the infinite-dimensional Weak KAM theory using a random variables\\' approach. We prove that the infinite-dimensional cell problem admits a viscosity solution that is a fixed point of the Lax-Oleinik semigroup. Furthermore, we show the existence of invariant minimizing measures and calibrated curves defined on R.
Thermodynamic approach to the inelastic state variable theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dashner, P.A.
1978-06-01
A continuum model is proposed as a theoretical foundation for the inelastic state variable theory of Hart. The model is based on the existence of a free energy function and the assumption that a strained material element recalls two other local configurations which are, in some specified manner, descriptive of prior deformation. A precise formulation of these material hypotheses within the classical thermodynamical framework leads to the recovery of a generalized elastic law and the specification of evolutionary laws for the remembered configurations which are frame invariant and formally valid for finite strains. Moreover, the precise structure of Hart's theory is recovered when strains are assumed to be small
Geometric theory of functions of a complex variable
Goluzin, G M
1969-01-01
This book is based on lectures on geometric function theory given by the author at Leningrad State University. It studies univalent conformal mapping of simply and multiply connected domains, conformal mapping of multiply connected domains onto a disk, applications of conformal mapping to the study of interior and boundary properties of analytic functions, and general questions of a geometric nature dealing with analytic functions. The second Russian edition upon which this English translation is based differs from the first mainly in the expansion of two chapters and in the addition of a long survey of more recent developments. The book is intended for readers who are already familiar with the basics of the theory of functions of one complex variable.
The Hidden Reason Behind Children's Misbehavior.
Nystul, Michael S.
1986-01-01
Discusses hidden reason theory based on the assumptions that: (1) the nature of people is positive; (2) a child's most basic psychological need is involvement; and (3) a child has four possible choices in life (good somebody, good nobody, bad somebody, or severely mentally ill.) A three step approach for implementing hidden reason theory is…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bach, A.
1981-01-01
A representation of quantum mechanics in terms of classical probability theory by means of integration in Hilbert space is discussed. This formal hidden-variables representation is analysed in the context of impossibility proofs concerning hidden-variables theories. The structural analogy of this formulation of quantum theory with classical statistical mechanics is used to elucidate the difference between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics. (author)
Discovering Hidden Controlling Parameters using Data Analytics and Dimensional Analysis
Del Rosario, Zachary; Lee, Minyong; Iaccarino, Gianluca
2017-11-01
Dimensional Analysis is a powerful tool, one which takes a priori information and produces important simplifications. However, if this a priori information - the list of relevant parameters - is missing a relevant quantity, then the conclusions from Dimensional Analysis will be incorrect. In this work, we present novel conclusions in Dimensional Analysis, which provide a means to detect this failure mode of missing or hidden parameters. These results are based on a restated form of the Buckingham Pi theorem that reveals a ridge function structure underlying all dimensionless physical laws. We leverage this structure by constructing a hypothesis test based on sufficient dimension reduction, allowing for an experimental data-driven detection of hidden parameters. Both theory and examples will be presented, using classical turbulent pipe flow as the working example. Keywords: experimental techniques, dimensional analysis, lurking variables, hidden parameters, buckingham pi, data analysis. First author supported by the NSF GRFP under Grant Number DGE-114747.
Hidden Statistics of Schroedinger Equation
Zak, Michail
2011-01-01
Work was carried out in determination of the mathematical origin of randomness in quantum mechanics and creating a hidden statistics of Schr dinger equation; i.e., to expose the transitional stochastic process as a "bridge" to the quantum world. The governing equations of hidden statistics would preserve such properties of quantum physics as superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods.
Elements of mathematics functions of a real variable : elementary theory
Bourbaki, Nicolas
2004-01-01
This book is an English translation of the last French edition of Bourbaki’s Fonctions d'une Variable Réelle. The first chapter is devoted to derivatives, Taylor expansions, the finite increments theorem, convex functions. In the second chapter, primitives and integrals (on arbitrary intervals) are studied, as well as their dependence with respect to parameters. Classical functions (exponential, logarithmic, circular and inverse circular) are investigated in the third chapter. The fourth chapter gives a thorough treatment of differential equations (existence and unicity properties of solutions, approximate solutions, dependence on parameters) and of systems of linear differential equations. The local study of functions (comparison relations, asymptotic expansions) is treated in chapter V, with an appendix on Hardy fields. The theory of generalized Taylor expansions and the Euler-MacLaurin formula are presented in the sixth chapter, and applied in the last one to the study of the Gamma function on the real ...
Comparison between OpenFOAM CFD & BEM theory for variable speed – variable pitch HAWT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ElQatary Islam
2014-01-01
Full Text Available OpenFoam is used to compare computational fluid dynamics (CFD with blade element momentum theory (BEM for a variable speed - variable pitch HAWT (Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine. The wind turbine is first designed using the BEM to determine the blade chord, twist and operating conditions. The wind turbine blade has an outer diameter of 14 m, uses a NACA 63–415 profile for the entire blade and root to tip twist distribution of 15deg (Figure 3. The RPM varies from 20–75 for freestream velocities varying between 3–10.5 m/s (variable speed and a constant RPM of 78.78 for velocities ranging between 11–25 m/s (variable pitch. OpenFOAM is used to investigate the wind turbine performance at several operating points including cut-in wind speed (3 m/s, rated wind speed (10.5 m/s and in the variable pitch zone. Simulation results show that in the variable-speed operating range, both CFD and BEM compare reasonably well. This agreement can be attributed to the fact that the complex three-dimensional flow around the turbine blades can be split into two radial segments. For radii less than the mid-span, the flow is three-dimensional, whereas for radii greater than the mid-span, the flow is approximately two-dimensional. Since the majority of the power is produced from sections beyond the mid-span, the agreement between CFD and BEM is reasonable. For the variable-pitch operating range the CFD results and BEM deviate considerably. In this case the majority of the power is produced from the inner sections in which the flow is three-dimensional and can no longer be predicted by the BEM. The results show that differences in pitch angles up to 10deg can result to regulate the power for high wind speeds in the variable-pitch operation zone.
Chen, Zhili
2013-01-01
The study of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has exhausted its primary analytic framework based on corporate social performance, stakeholder theory and business ethics, and needs to re-orient its centre from business to society. Given this direction, a formal grounded theory is adopted to embrace a pluralistic perspective in the research. Instead of trying to fix the definition responsibility and irresponsibility, this paper captures the dynamics of the ir/responsible continuum and trie...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig
2013-01-01
to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to listen to and learn from children showing high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms after parental acquired brain injury (ABI), in order to achieve an in-depth understanding of the difficulties the children face in their everyday lives...... finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...
Hidden supersymmetry and Fermion number fractionalization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhoury, R.
1985-01-01
This paper discusses how a hidden supersymmetry of the underlying field theories can be used to interpret and to calculate fermion number fractionalization in different dimensions. This is made possible by relating it to a corresponding Witten index of the hidden supersymmetry. The closely related anomalies in odd dimensions are also discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagnoud, Maxime; Carlevaro, Luca
2006-01-01
We study T 11-D-q x T q /Z n orbifold compactifications of eleven-dimensional supergravity and M-theory using a purely algebraic method. Given the description of maximal supergravities reduced on square tori as non-linear coset σ-models, we exploit the mapping between scalar fields of the reduced theory and directions in the tangent space over the coset to construct the orbifold action as a non-Cartan preserving finite order inner automorphism of the complexified U-duality algebra. Focusing on the exceptional serie of Cremmer-Julia groups, we compute the residual U-duality symmetry after orbifold projection and determine the reality properties of their corresponding Lie algebras. We carry out this analysis as far as the hyperbolic e 10 algebra, conjectured to be a symmetry of M-theory. In this case the residual subalgebras are shown to be described by a special class of Borcherds and Kac-Moody algebras, modded out by their centres and derivations. Furthermore, we construct an alternative description of the orbifold action in terms of equivalence classes of shift vectors, and, in D 1, we show that a root of e 10 can always be chosen as the class representative. Then, in the framework of the E 10/10 /K(E 10/10 ) effective σ-model approach to M-theory near a spacelike singularity, we identify these roots with brane configurations stabilizing the corresponding orbifolds. In the particular case of Z 2 orbifolds of M-theory descending to type 0' orientifolds, we argue that these roots can be interpreted as pairs of magnetized D9- and D9'-branes, carrying the lower-dimensional brane charges required for tadpole cancellation. More generally, we provide a classification of all such roots generating Z n product orbifolds for n≤6, and hint at their possible interpretation
Fluid Mechanics and Complex Variable Theory: Getting Past the 19th Century
Newton, Paul K.
2017-01-01
The subject of fluid mechanics is a rich, vibrant, and rapidly developing branch of applied mathematics. Historically, it has developed hand-in-hand with the elegant subject of complex variable theory. The Westmont College NSF-sponsored workshop on the revitalization of complex variable theory in the undergraduate curriculum focused partly on…
Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki
2011-01-01
Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…
Test of arbitrage pricing theory using macroeconomic variables
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Eyerusalem
variables; namely, exchange rate, an index of industrial production, nominal money supply ... Key Words: Arbitrage Pricing, Macroeconomic variables, Stock Market ... or theoretical market indices, where sensitivity to changes in each factor is represented ... Ethiopian Journal of Economics, Volume XXI, No 1, April 2012. 3.
Stargate of the Hidden Multiverse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Antonov
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Concept of Monoverse, which corresponds to the existing broad interpretation of the second postulate of the special theory of relativity, is not consistent with the modern astrophysical reality — existence of the dark matter and the dark energy, the total mass-energy of which is ten times greater than the mass-energy of the visible universe (which has been considered as the entire universe until very recent . This concept does not allow to explain their rather unusual properties — invisibility and lack of baryon content — which would seem to even destroy the very modern understanding of the term ‘matter’. However, all numerous alternative concepts of Multiverses, which have been proposed until today, are unable to explain these properties of the dark matter and dark energy. This article describes a new concept: the concept of the hidden Multiverse and hidden Supermultiverse, which mutual invisibility of parallel universes is explained by the physical reality of imaginary numbers. This concept completely explains the phenomenon of the dark matter and the dark energy. Moreover, it is shown that the dark matter and the dark energy are the experimental evidence for the existence of the hidden Multiverse. Described structure of the hidden Multiverse is fully consistent with the data obtained by the space stations WMAP and Planck. An extremely important property of the hidden Multiverse is an actual possibility of its permeation through stargate located on the Earth.
Polarization correlations of {sup 1}S{sub 0} proton pairs as tests of hidden-variable theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Polachic, C.; Rangacharyulu, C.; Berg, A.M. van den; Hamieh, S.; Harakeh, M.N.; Hunyadi, M.; Huu, M.A. de; Woertche, H.J.; Heyse, J.; Baeumer, C.; Frekers, D.; Rakers, S.; Brooke, J.A.; Busch, P
2004-03-22
We are investigating the feasibility of nuclear physics experiments designed to overcome the loopholes of observer-dependent reality and satisfying the counterfactuality condition. In a first approach, we have measured polarization correlations of {sup 1}S{sub 0} proton pairs produced in {sup 12}C(d, {sup 2}He) and {sup 1}H(d, {sup 2}He) reactions in one setting. The results of these measurements are used to test the Bell and Wigner-Belinfante inequalities against the predictions of quantum mechanics.
Differentiating between precursor and control variables when analyzing reasoned action theories.
Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Brown, Larry; Diclemente, Ralph; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Salazar, Laura
2010-02-01
This paper highlights the distinction between precursor and control variables in the context of reasoned action theory. Here the theory is combined with structural equation modeling to demonstrate how age and past sexual behavior should be situated in a reasoned action analysis. A two wave longitudinal survey sample of African-American adolescents is analyzed where the target behavior is having vaginal sex. Results differ when age and past behavior are used as control variables and when they are correctly used as precursors. Because control variables do not appear in any form of reasoned action theory, this approach to including background variables is not correct when analyzing data sets based on the theoretical axioms of the Theory of Reasoned Action, the Theory of Planned Behavior, or the Integrative Model.
Recognizing Variable Environments The Theory of Cognitive Prism
Dong, Tiansi
2012-01-01
Normal adults do not have any difficulty in recognizing their homes. But can artificial systems do in the same way as humans? This book collects interdisciplinary evidences and presents an answer from the perspective of computing, namely, the theory of cognitive prism. To recognize an environment, an intelligent system only needs to classify objects, structures them based on the connection relation (not through measuring!), subjectively orders the objects, and compares with the target environment, whose knowledge is similarly structured. The intelligent system works, therefore, like a prism: when a beam of light (a scene) reaches (is perceived) to an optical prism (by an intelligent system), some light (objects) is reflected (are neglected), those passed through (the recognized objects) are distorted (are ordered differently). So comes the term 'cognitive prism'! Two fundamental propositions used in the theory can be informally stated as follow: an orientation relation is a kind of distance comparison relatio...
Revealing Relationships among Relevant Climate Variables with Information Theory
Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.
2005-01-01
The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.
A Thermodynamical Theory with Internal Variables Describing Thermal Effects in Viscous Fluids
Ciancio, Vincenzo; Palumbo, Annunziata
2018-04-01
In this paper the heat conduction in viscous fluids is described by using the theory of classical irreversible thermodynamics with internal variables. In this theory, the deviation from the local equilibrium is characterized by vectorial internal variables and a generalized entropy current density expressed in terms of so-called current multipliers. Cross effects between heat conduction and viscosity are also considered and some phenomenological generalizations of Fourier's and Newton's laws are obtained.
Differentiating Between Precursor and Control Variables When Analyzing Reasoned Action Theories
Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Brown, Larry; DiClemente, Ralph; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Salazar, Laura
2009-01-01
This paper highlights the distinction between precursor and control variables in the context of reasoned action theory. Here the theory is combined with structural equation modeling to demonstrate how age and past sexual behavior should be situated in a reasoned action analysis. A two wave longitudinal survey sample of African-American adolescents is analyzed where the target behavior is having vaginal sex. Results differ when age and past behavior are used as control variables and when they ...
Hidden supersymmetry and large N
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfaro, J.
1988-01-01
In this paper we present a new method to deal with the leading order in the large-N expansion of a quantum field theory. The method uses explicitly the hidden supersymmetry that is present in the path-integral formulation of a stochastic process. In addition to this we derive a new relation that is valid in the leading order of the large-N expansion of the hermitian-matrix model for any spacetime dimension. (orig.)
Labour market participants’ competitiveness assessment based on latent variables theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. V. Sabetova
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The article suggests innovative model for assessment of labour market subjects’ competitiveness, or successfulness. The authors state that general complex indicator for individual competitiveness within the labour market cannot be identified. Instead, precise enough assessment of such competitiveness can be based on some variables, though different for in-house and external labour market. The model of latent variables’ assessment based on Rasch’s method was selected as the base for the suggested method. The assessment model gives unbiased generalized values of subjects’ competitiveness on the linear non-dimensional scale based on the partial estimates of the selected criteria. The free choice of these criteria allows the model’s appliance for various labour market segments. The article demonstrates the mathematical grounding for the model; methodic of the assessment criteria selection; the way of assessment performance using MS Excel. It also analyses the features of the obtained estimates and shows their comparison with the estimates obtained by traditional methods. The model suggested by the authors can introduce any quantitative parameter of competitiveness as a variable after analysis of the factors affecting it. The quantitative estimates of these factors become the model’s criteria, but the assessment precision does not alter.
Newtonian Version of the Variable Mass Theory of Gravity
Carvalho, J. C.; Lima, J. A. S.
1990-11-01
RESUMEN. Se presenta una versi6n Newtoniana de los modelos cosmol6gicos espacialmente e isotr6picos con masa variable. La influencia de la variaci6n de masa en la evoluci6n de la funci6n de escala est establecida para el caso de un Universo lieno de polvo bajo Ia suposici6n de que esta variaci6n es un efecto estrictamente cosmol6jico. Se muestra que el hiperb6lico, parab6lico 0 el#ptico dcl movimiento de puede ser modificado a lo larjo de la expansi6n. ABSTRACT. This paper presents a Newtonian version of the spatially homojeneous and isotropic cosmolojical models with variable mass. The influence of the mass variation on the evolution of the scale function is established for the case of a dust-filled Universe under the assumption that this variation is a strict cosmolojical effect. It is shown that the hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic character of the fluid motion can be modified alonj the expansion. Keq : COSMOLOGY
Role Variables VS. Contextual Variables in the Theory of Didactic Systems
Alberti, Monica; Cirina, Lucia; Paoli, Francesco
Partisans of the constructivist approach to mathematics education, such as Brousseau or Chevallard, developed an accurate theoretical framework in which didactical systems are viewed in a systemic perspective. What they somewhat fail to draw, however, is a sharp distinction between role variables - concerning the roles played in the didactical interaction by the individual elements of the system (Student-Teacher-Knowledge) - and contextual variables - concerning the action on the learning process of the system as a whole. Our research in progress on 2nd graders' word problem solving strategies applies the previous dichotomy to class management strategies adopted by teachers. Partial evidence collected so far points to the tentative conclusion according to which, contextual variables being equal, differences in teaching styles and methods may deeply reshape the role component of didactical systems. If we take into careful account this distinction, we can shed additional light into some hitherto unexplained phenomena observed in the literature.
Engelhardt, Benjamin; Kschischo, Maik; Fröhlich, Holger
2017-06-01
Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are a popular approach to quantitatively model molecular networks based on biological knowledge. However, such knowledge is typically restricted. Wrongly modelled biological mechanisms as well as relevant external influence factors that are not included into the model are likely to manifest in major discrepancies between model predictions and experimental data. Finding the exact reasons for such observed discrepancies can be quite challenging in practice. In order to address this issue, we suggest a Bayesian approach to estimate hidden influences in ODE-based models. The method can distinguish between exogenous and endogenous hidden influences. Thus, we can detect wrongly specified as well as missed molecular interactions in the model. We demonstrate the performance of our Bayesian dynamic elastic-net with several ordinary differential equation models from the literature, such as human JAK-STAT signalling, information processing at the erythropoietin receptor, isomerization of liquid α -Pinene, G protein cycling in yeast and UV-B triggered signalling in plants. Moreover, we investigate a set of commonly known network motifs and a gene-regulatory network. Altogether our method supports the modeller in an algorithmic manner to identify possible sources of errors in ODE-based models on the basis of experimental data. © 2017 The Author(s).
Interferometric Computation Beyond Quantum Theory
Garner, Andrew J. P.
2018-03-01
There are quantum solutions for computational problems that make use of interference at some stage in the algorithm. These stages can be mapped into the physical setting of a single particle travelling through a many-armed interferometer. There has been recent foundational interest in theories beyond quantum theory. Here, we present a generalized formulation of computation in the context of a many-armed interferometer, and explore how theories can differ from quantum theory and still perform distributed calculations in this set-up. We shall see that quaternionic quantum theory proves a suitable candidate, whereas box-world does not. We also find that a classical hidden variable model first presented by Spekkens (Phys Rev A 75(3): 32100, 2007) can also be used for this type of computation due to the epistemic restriction placed on the hidden variable.
Coding with partially hidden Markov models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Rissanen, J.
1995-01-01
Partially hidden Markov models (PHMM) are introduced. They are a variation of the hidden Markov models (HMM) combining the power of explicit conditioning on past observations and the power of using hidden states. (P)HMM may be combined with arithmetic coding for lossless data compression. A general...... 2-part coding scheme for given model order but unknown parameters based on PHMM is presented. A forward-backward reestimation of parameters with a redefined backward variable is given for these models and used for estimating the unknown parameters. Proof of convergence of this reestimation is given....... The PHMM structure and the conditions of the convergence proof allows for application of the PHMM to image coding. Relations between the PHMM and hidden Markov models (HMM) are treated. Results of coding bi-level images with the PHMM coding scheme is given. The results indicate that the PHMM can adapt...
Martin, E. Dale
1989-01-01
The paper introduces a new theory of N-dimensional complex variables and analytic functions which, for N greater than 2, is both a direct generalization and a close analog of the theory of ordinary complex variables. The algebra in the present theory is a commutative ring, not a field. Functions of a three-dimensional variable were defined and the definition of the derivative then led to analytic functions.
Partially Hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma
1996-01-01
Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression where...
Probability, random variables, and random processes theory and signal processing applications
Shynk, John J
2012-01-01
Probability, Random Variables, and Random Processes is a comprehensive textbook on probability theory for engineers that provides a more rigorous mathematical framework than is usually encountered in undergraduate courses. It is intended for first-year graduate students who have some familiarity with probability and random variables, though not necessarily of random processes and systems that operate on random signals. It is also appropriate for advanced undergraduate students who have a strong mathematical background. The book has the following features: Several app
Bayesian modeling of measurement error in predictor variables using item response theory
Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.
2000-01-01
This paper focuses on handling measurement error in predictor variables using item response theory (IRT). Measurement error is of great important in assessment of theoretical constructs, such as intelligence or the school climate. Measurement error is modeled by treating the predictors as unobserved
GY SAMPLING THEORY AND GEOSTATISTICS: ALTERNATE MODELS OF VARIABILITY IN CONTINUOUS MEDIA
In the sampling theory developed by Pierre Gy, sample variability is modeled as the sum of a set of seven discrete error components. The variogram used in geostatisties provides an alternate model in which several of Gy's error components are combined in a continuous mode...
Independent SU(2)-loop variables and the reduced configuration space of SU(2)-lattice gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loll, R.
1992-01-01
We give a reduction procedure for SU(2)-trace variables and an explicit description of the reduced configuration sace of pure SU(2)-gauge theory on the hypercubic lattices in two, three and four dimensions, using an independent subset of the gauge-invariant Wilson loops. (orig.)
Impulse-variability theory: implications for ballistic, multijoint motor skill performance.
Urbin, M A; Stodden, David F; Fischman, Mark G; Weimar, Wendi H
2011-01-01
Impulse-variability theory (R. A. Schmidt, H. N. Zelaznik, B. Hawkins, J. S. Frank, & J. T. Quinn, 1979) accounts for the curvilinear relationship between the magnitude and resulting variability of the muscular forces that influence the success of goal-directed limb movements. The historical roots of impulse-variability theory are reviewed in the 1st part of this article, including the relationship between movement speed and spatial error. The authors then address the relevance of impulse-variability theory for the control of ballistic, multijoint skills, such as throwing, striking, and kicking. These types of skills provide a stark contrast to the relatively simple, minimal degrees of freedom movements that characterized early research. However, the inherent demand for ballistic force generation is a strong parallel between these simple laboratory tasks and multijoint motor skills. Therefore, the authors conclude by recommending experimental procedures for evaluating the adequacy of impulse variability as a theoretical model within the context of ballistic, multijoint motor skill performance. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Disney, M.
1985-01-01
Astronomer Disney has followed a somewhat different tack than that of most popular books on cosmology by concentrating on the notion of hidden (as in not directly observable by its own radiation) matter in the universe
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Oeverlier, Lasse; Syverson, Paul F
2006-01-01
.... Announced properties include server resistance to distributed DoS. Both the EFF and Reporters Without Borders have issued guides that describe using hidden services via Tor to protect the safety of dissidents as well as to resist censorship...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng, Jonathan L.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo
2009-01-01
Can dark matter be stabilized by charge conservation, just as the electron is in the standard model? We examine the possibility that dark matter is hidden, that is, neutral under all standard model gauge interactions, but charged under an exact (\\rm U)(1) gauge symmetry of the hidden sector. Such candidates are predicted in WIMPless models, supersymmetric models in which hidden dark matter has the desired thermal relic density for a wide range of masses. Hidden charged dark matter has many novel properties not shared by neutral dark matter: (1) bound state formation and Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation after chemical freeze out may reduce its relic density, (2) similar effects greatly enhance dark matter annihilation in protohalos at redshifts of z ∼ 30, (3) Compton scattering off hidden photons delays kinetic decoupling, suppressing small scale structure, and (4) Rutherford scattering makes such dark matter self-interacting and collisional, potentially impacting properties of the Bullet Cluster and the observed morphology of galactic halos. We analyze all of these effects in a WIMPless model in which the hidden sector is a simplified version of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the dark matter is a hidden sector stau. We find that charged hidden dark matter is viable and consistent with the correct relic density for reasonable model parameters and dark matter masses in the range 1 GeV ∼ X ∼< 10 TeV. At the same time, in the preferred range of parameters, this model predicts cores in the dark matter halos of small galaxies and other halo properties that may be within the reach of future observations. These models therefore provide a viable and well-motivated framework for collisional dark matter with Sommerfeld enhancement, with novel implications for astrophysics and dark matter searches
Yang, Chen
2018-05-01
The transitions from classical theories to quantum theories have attracted many interests. This paper demonstrates the analogy between the electromagnetic potentials and wave-like dynamic variables with their connections to quantum theory for audiences at advanced undergraduate level and above. In the first part, the counterpart relations in the classical electrodynamics (e.g. gauge transform and Lorenz condition) and classical mechanics (e.g. Legendre transform and free particle condition) are presented. These relations lead to similar governing equations of the field variables and dynamic variables. The Lorenz gauge, scalar potential and vector potential manifest a one-to-one similarity to the action, Hamiltonian and momentum, respectively. In the second part, the connections between the classical pictures of electromagnetic field and particle to quantum picture are presented. By characterising the states of electromagnetic field and particle via their (corresponding) variables, their evolution pictures manifest the same algebraic structure (isomorphic). Subsequently, pictures of the electromagnetic field and particle are compared to the quantum picture and their interconnections are given. A brief summary of the obtained results are presented at the end of the paper.
Eastwood, John Graeme; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Phung, Hai Ngoc
2014-01-01
We have previously reported in this journal on an ecological study of perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney. In that article, we briefly reported on a factor analysis that was utilized to identify empirical indicators for analysis. In this article, we report on the mixed method approach that was used to identify those latent variables. Social epidemiology has been slow to embrace a latent variable approach to the study of social, political, economic, and cultural structures and mechanisms, partly for philosophical reasons. Critical realist ontology and epistemology have been advocated as an appropriate methodological approach to both theory building and theory testing in the health sciences. We describe here an emergent mixed method approach that uses qualitative methods to identify latent constructs followed by factor analysis using empirical indicators chosen to measure identified qualitative codes. Comparative analysis of the findings is reported together with a limited description of realist approaches to abstract reasoning.
Naturally light hidden photons in LARGE volume string compactifications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodsell, M.; Jaeckel, J.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A.
2009-09-01
Extra ''hidden'' U(1) gauge factors are a generic feature of string theory that is of particular phenomenological interest. They can kinetically mix with the Standard Model photon and are thereby accessible to a wide variety of astrophysical and cosmological observations and laboratory experiments. In this paper we investigate the masses and the kinetic mixing of hidden U(1)s in LARGE volume compactifications of string theory. We find that in these scenarios the hidden photons can be naturally light and that their kinetic mixing with the ordinary electromagnetic photon can be of a size interesting for near future experiments and observations. (orig.)
Are particle rest masses variable: Theory and constraints from solar system experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bekenstein, J.D.
1977-01-01
Particle rest mass variation in spacetime is considered. According to Dicke, if this is the case various null experiments indicate that all masses vary in the same way. Their variation relative to the Planck-Wheeler mass defines a universal scalar rest-mass field. We construct the relativistic dynamics for this field based on very general assumptions. In addition, we assume Einstein's equations to be valid in Planck-Wheeler units. A special case of the theory coincides with Dicke's reformulation of Brans-Dicke theory as general relativity with variable rest masses. In the general case the rest-mass field is some power r of a scalar field which obeys an ordinary scalar equation with coupling to the curvature of strength q. The r and q are the only parameters of the theory. Comparison with experiment is facilitated by recasting the theory into units in which rest masses are constant, the Planck-Wheeler mass varies, and the metric satisfies the equations of a small subset of the scalar-tensor theories of gravitation. The results of solar system experiments, usually used to test general relativity, are here used to delimit the acceptable values of r and q. We conclude that if cosmological considerations are not invoked, then the solar system experiments do not rule out the possibility of rest-mass variability. That is, there are theories which agree with all null and solar system experiments, and yet contradict the strong equivalence principle by allowing rest masses to vary relative to the Planck-Wheeler mass. We show that the field theory of the rest-mass field can be quantized and interpreted in terms of massless scalar quanta which interact very weakly with matter. This explains why they have not turned up in high-energy experiments. In future reports we shall investigate the implications of various cosmological and astrophysical data for the theory of variable rest masses. The ultimate goal is a firm decision on whether rest masses vary or not
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, V.; Mukherjee, S.
1977-01-01
In the present paper a general time-dependent inelastic analysis procedure for three-dimensional bodies subjected to arbitrary time varying mechanical and thermal loads using these state variable theories is presented. For the purpose of illustrations, the problems of hollow spheres, cylinders and solid circular shafts subjected to various combinations of internal and external pressures, axial force (or constraint) and torque are analyzed using the proposed solution procedure. Various cyclic thermal and mechanical loading histories with rectangular or sawtooth type waves with or without hold-time are considered. Numerical results for these geometrical shapes for various such loading histories are presented using Hart's theory (Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology 1976). The calculations are performed for nickel in the temperature range of 25 0 C to 400 0 C. For integrating forward in time, a method of solving a stiff system of ordinary differential equations is employed which corrects the step size and order of the method automatically. The limit loads for hollow spheres and cylinders are calculated using the proposed method and Hart's theory, and comparisons are made against the known theoretical results. The numerical results for other loading histories are discussed in the context of Hart's state variable type constitutive relations. The significance of phenomena such as strain rate sensitivity, Bauschinger's effect, crep recovery, history dependence and material softening with regard to these multiaxial problems are discussed in the context of Hart's theory
Solovev, V
The SHiP Experiment is a new general-purpose fixed target facility at the SPS to search for hidden particles as predicted by a very large number of recently elaborated models of Hidden Sectors which are capable of accommodating dark matter, neutrino oscillations, and the origin of the full baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Specifically, the experiment is aimed at searching for very weakly interacting long lived particles including Heavy Neutral Leptons - right-handed partners of the active neutrinos; light supersymmetric particles - sgoldstinos, etc.; scalar, axion and vector portals to the hidden sector. The high intensity of the SPS and in particular the large production of charm mesons with the 400 GeV beam allow accessing a wide variety of light long-lived exotic particles of such models and of SUSY. Moreover, the facility is ideally suited to study the interactions of tau neutrinos.
Hidden gauge structure of supersymmetric free differential algebras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrianopoli, Laura [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino,Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino,Torino (Italy); D’Auria, Riccardo [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino,Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy); Ravera, Lucrezia [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino,Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino,Torino (Italy)
2016-08-16
The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of the nilpotent fermionic generator Q{sup ′} introduced in http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(82)90376-5 and appearing in the hidden supergroup underlying the free differential algebra (FDA) of D=11 supergravity. We give a physical explanation of its role by looking at the gauge properties of the theory. We find that its presence is necessary, in order that the extra 1-forms of the hidden supergroup give rise to the correct gauge transformations of the p-forms of the FDA. This interpretation is actually valid for any supergravity containing antisymmetric tensor fields, and any supersymmetric FDA can always be traded for a hidden Lie superalgebra containing extra fermionic nilpotent generators. As an interesting example we construct the hidden superalgebra associated with the FDA of N=2, D=7 supergravity. In this case we are able to parametrize the mutually non local 2- and 3-form B{sup (2)} and B{sup (3)} in terms of hidden 1-forms and find that supersymmetry and gauge invariance require in general the presence of two nilpotent fermionic generators in the hidden algebra. We propose that our approach, where all the invariances of the FDA are expressed as Lie derivatives of the p-forms in the hidden supergroup manifold, could be an appropriate framework to discuss theories defined in enlarged versions of superspace recently considered in the literature, such us double field theory and its generalizations.
Analytic function theory of several variables elements of Oka’s coherence
Noguchi, Junjiro
2016-01-01
The purpose of this book is to present the classical analytic function theory of several variables as a standard subject in a course of mathematics after learning the elementary materials (sets, general topology, algebra, one complex variable). This includes the essential parts of Grauert–Remmert's two volumes, GL227(236) (Theory of Stein spaces) and GL265 (Coherent analytic sheaves) with a lowering of the level for novice graduate students (here, Grauert's direct image theorem is limited to the case of finite maps). The core of the theory is "Oka's Coherence", found and proved by Kiyoshi Oka. It is indispensable, not only in the study of complex analysis and complex geometry, but also in a large area of modern mathematics. In this book, just after an introductory chapter on holomorphic functions (Chap. 1), we prove Oka's First Coherence Theorem for holomorphic functions in Chap. 2. This defines a unique character of the book compared with other books on this subject, in which the notion of coherence appear...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabolic, D.
2016-01-01
This paper evaluates validity of modern portfolio theory (MPT) for planning of installation of new wind plants with the lowest possible generation variability for given expected yearly generation. Suppose a Planner had historic meteorological data on wind speeds at a finite number of locations over longer time periods, and that they were technically convertible to time series of forecasted generation powers per megawatt of installed capacity. Suppose further that she intended to upgrade existing system with certain fixed amount of new wind plant capacity. Then she would be able to allocate shares in that total capacity to the available locations in a way that suits her policy goals regarding relation between total expected annual generation and total variability of generation best. Minimization of variability is a legitimate policy goal because it increases total costs of energy supply, so that leaving generation to vary more than technically necessary is economically inefficient. This article focuses on applicability of portfolio theory to such a problem. In the presented research, measured 15-minute data of wind generation in existing Croatian wind plants were used.(author).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Birgitte; Jensen, Karsten Klint
“The Hidden Values - Transparency in Decision-Making Processes Dealing with Hazardous Activities”. The report seeks to shed light on what is needed to create a transparent framework for political and administrative decisions on the use of GMOs and chemical products. It is our hope that the report...
To the theory of the first-type phase transformations for many variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fateev, M.P.
2002-01-01
The multidimensional theory on the first-type phase transitions near the one-dimensional saddle point is considered. The transformations of the variables, describing the new phase nucleation, making it possible to achieve their complex separation in the Fokker-Planck equation, and thus to reduce the problem to the one-dimensional one, are proposed. The distribution function and nucleation velocity are determined both for the stationary and nonstationary nucleation stages. The problem on volatile liquid boiling is considered as an example for the case when there are two parameters, characterizing the new phase nucleation [ru
Research on the Diesel Engine with Sliding Mode Variable Structure Theory
Ma, Zhexuan; Mao, Xiaobing; Cai, Le
2018-05-01
This study constructed the nonlinear mathematical model of the diesel engine high-pressure common rail (HPCR) system through two polynomial fitting which was treated as a kind of affine nonlinear system. Based on sliding-mode variable structure control (SMVSC) theory, a sliding-mode controller for affine nonlinear systems was designed for achieving the control of common rail pressure and the diesel engine’s rotational speed. Finally, on the simulation platform of MATLAB, the designed nonlinear HPCR system was simulated. The simulation results demonstrated that sliding-mode variable structure control algorithm shows favourable control performances which are overcoming the shortcomings of traditional PID control in overshoot, parameter adjustment, system precision, adjustment time and ascending time.
Hidden scale invariance of metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hummel, Felix; Kresse, Georg; Dyre, Jeppe C.
2015-01-01
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 58 liquid elements at their triple point show that most metals exhibit near proportionality between the thermal fluctuations of the virial and the potential energy in the isochoric ensemble. This demonstrates a general “hidden” scale invariance...... of metals making the condensed part of the thermodynamic phase diagram effectively one dimensional with respect to structure and dynamics. DFT computed density scaling exponents, related to the Grüneisen parameter, are in good agreement with experimental values for the 16 elements where reliable data were...... available. Hidden scale invariance is demonstrated in detail for magnesium by showing invariance of structure and dynamics. Computed melting curves of period three metals follow curves with invariance (isomorphs). The experimental structure factor of magnesium is predicted by assuming scale invariant...
MEANINGFUL VARIABILITY: A SOCIOLINGUISTICALLY-GROUNDED APPROACH TO VARIATION IN OPTIMALITY THEORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Antonio Cutillas Espinosa
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Most approaches to variability in Optimality Theory have attempted to make variation possible within the OT framework, i.e. to reformulate constraints and rankings to accommodate variable and gradient linguistic facts. Sociolinguists have attempted to apply these theoretical advances to the study of language variation, with an emphasis on language-interna1 variables (Auger 2001, Cardoso 2001. Little attention has been paid to the array of externa1 factors that influence the patterning of variation. In this paper, we argue that some variation pattems-specially those that are socially meaningful- are actually the result of a three-grarnmar system. G, is the standard grammar, which has to be available to the speaker to obtain these variation patterns. G; is the vernacular grammar, which the speaker is likely to have acquired in his local community. Finally, G, is an intergrammar, which is used by the speaker as his 'default' constraint set. G is a continuous ranking (Boersma & Hayes 2001 and domination relations are consciously altered by the speakers to shape the appropriate and variable linguistic output. We illustrate this model with analyses of English and Spanish.
Hidden photons in beam dump experiments and in connection with dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreas, Sarah
2012-12-15
Hidden sectors with light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so-called hidden photons, recently received much interest as natural feature of beyond standard model scenarios like string theory and SUSY and because of their possible connection to dark matter. This paper presents limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from experiments at KEK and Orsay. Additionally, various hidden sector models containing both a hidden photon and a dark matter candidate are discussed with respect to their viability and potential signatures in direct detection.
Hidden photons in beam dump experiments and in connection with dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreas, Sarah
2012-12-01
Hidden sectors with light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so-called hidden photons, recently received much interest as natural feature of beyond standard model scenarios like string theory and SUSY and because of their possible connection to dark matter. This paper presents limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from experiments at KEK and Orsay. Additionally, various hidden sector models containing both a hidden photon and a dark matter candidate are discussed with respect to their viability and potential signatures in direct detection.
Local deterministic theory surviving the violation of Bell's inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cormier-Delanoue, C.
1984-01-01
Bell's theorem which asserts that no deterministic theory with hidden variables can give the same predictions as quantum theory, is questioned. Such a deterministic theory is presented and carefully applied to real experiments performed on pairs of correlated photons, derived from the EPR thought experiment. The ensuing predictions violate Bell's inequalities just as quantum mechanics does, and it is further shown that this discrepancy originates in the very nature of radiations. Complete locality is therefore restored while separability remains more limited [fr
Update on hidden sectors with dark forces and dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreas, Sarah
2012-11-15
Recently there has been much interest in hidden sectors, especially in the context of dark matter and ''dark forces'', since they are a common feature of beyond standard model scenarios like string theory and SUSY and additionally exhibit interesting phenomenological aspects. Various laboratory experiments place limits on the so-called hidden photon and continuously further probe and constrain the parameter space; an updated overview is presented here. Furthermore, for several hidden sector models with light dark matter we study the viability with respect to the relic abundance and direct detection experiments.
Annesi, James J; Walsh, Stephanie M; Greenwood, Brittney L
2016-10-01
Volume of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity completed during the elementary school day is insufficient, and associated with health risks. Improvements in theory-based psychosocial factors might facilitate increased out-of-school physical activity. A behaviorally based after-school care protocol, Youth Fit 4 Life, was tested for its association with increased voluntary, out-of-school physical activity and improvements in its theory-based psychosocial predictors in 9- to 12-year-olds. Increases over 12 weeks in out-of-school physical activity, and improvements in self-regulation for physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and mood, were significantly greater in the Youth Fit 4 Life group (n = 88) when contrasted with a typical care control group (n = 57). Changes in the 3 psychosocial variables significantly mediated the group-physical activity change relationship (R(2) = .31, P theory-based psychosocial changes within a structured after-school care physical activity program was associated with increases in children's overall time being physically active. After replication, large scale application will be warranted. © The Author(s) 2016.
Hidden twelve-dimensional super Poincare symmetry in eleven dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno
2004-01-01
First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional super Poincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve-dimensional super Poincare symmetry that governs the theory
Hidden symmetries in five-dimensional supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poessel, M.
2003-05-01
This thesis is concerned with the study of hidden symmetries in supergravity, which play an important role in the present picture of supergravity and string theory. Concretely, the appearance of a hidden G 2(+2) /SO(4) symmetry is studied in the dimensional reduction of d=5, N=2 supergravity to three dimensions - a parallel model to the more famous E 8(+8) /SO(16) case in eleven-dimensional supergravity. Extending previous partial results for the bosonic part, I give a derivation that includes fermionic terms. This sheds new light on the appearance of the local hidden symmetry SO(4) in the reduction, and shows up an unusual feature which follows from an analysis of the R-symmetry associated with N=4 supergravity and of the supersymmetry variations, and which has no parallel in the eleven-dimensional case: The emergence of an additional SO(3) as part of the enhanced local symmetry, invisible in the dimensional reduction of the gravitino, and corresponding to the fact that, of the SO(4) used in the coset model, only the diagonal SO(3) is visible immediately upon dimensional reduction. The uncovering of the hidden symmetries proceeds via the construction of the proper coset gravity in three dimensions, and matching it with the Lagrangian obtained from the reduction. (orig.)
Discovering hidden sectors with monophoton Z' searches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gershtein, Yuri; Petriello, Frank; Quackenbush, Seth; Zurek, Kathryn M.
2008-01-01
In many theories of physics beyond the standard model, from extra dimensions to Hidden Valleys and models of dark matter, Z ' bosons mediate between standard model particles and hidden sector states. We study the feasibility of observing such hidden states through an invisibly decaying Z ' at the LHC. We focus on the process pp→γZ ' →γXX † , where X is any neutral, (quasi-) stable particle, whether a standard model neutrino or a new state. This complements a previous study using pp→ZZ ' →l + l - XX † . Only the Z ' mass and two effective charges are needed to describe this process. If the Z ' decays invisibly only to standard model neutrinos, then these charges are predicted by observation of the Z ' through the Drell-Yan process, allowing discrimination between Z ' decays to standard model ν's and invisible decays to new states. We carefully discuss all backgrounds and systematic errors that affect this search. We find that hidden sector decays of a 1 TeV Z ' can be observed at 5σ significance with 50 fb -1 at the LHC. Observation of a 1.5 TeV state requires super-LHC statistics of 1 ab -1 . Control of the systematic errors, in particular, the parton distribution function uncertainty of the dominant Zγ background, is crucial to maximize the LHC search reach.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Riis, Søren Kamaric
1999-01-01
A general framework for hybrids of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and neural networks (NNs) called hidden neural networks (HNNs) is described. The article begins by reviewing standard HMMs and estimation by conditional maximum likelihood, which is used by the HNN. In the HNN, the usual HMM probability...... parameters are replaced by the outputs of state-specific neural networks. As opposed to many other hybrids, the HNN is normalized globally and therefore has a valid probabilistic interpretation. All parameters in the HNN are estimated simultaneously according to the discriminative conditional maximum...... likelihood criterion. The HNN can be viewed as an undirected probabilistic independence network (a graphical model), where the neural networks provide a compact representation of the clique functions. An evaluation of the HNN on the task of recognizing broad phoneme classes in the TIMIT database shows clear...
Peppers, Emily
2008-01-01
The Cultural Collections Audit project began at the University of Edinburgh in 2004, searching for hidden treasures in its 'distributed heritage collections' across the university. The objects and collections recorded in the Audit ranged widely from fine art and furniture to historical scientific and teaching equipment and personalia relating to key figures in the university's long tradition of academic excellence. This information was gathered in order to create a central database of informa...
Distinguishing Hidden Markov Chains
Kiefer, Stefan; Sistla, A. Prasad
2015-01-01
Hidden Markov Chains (HMCs) are commonly used mathematical models of probabilistic systems. They are employed in various fields such as speech recognition, signal processing, and biological sequence analysis. We consider the problem of distinguishing two given HMCs based on an observation sequence that one of the HMCs generates. More precisely, given two HMCs and an observation sequence, a distinguishing algorithm is expected to identify the HMC that generates the observation sequence. Two HM...
Królikowski, Wojciech
2016-01-01
A hypothetic Hidden Sector of the Universe, consisting of sterile fer\\-mions (``sterinos'') and sterile mediating bosons (``sterons'') of mass dimension 1 (not 2!) --- the last described by an antisymmetric tensor field --- requires to exist also a scalar isovector and scalar isoscalar in order to be able to construct electroweak invariant coupling (before spontaneously breaking its symmetry). The introduced scalar isoscalar might be a resonant source for the diphoton excess of 750 GeV, sugge...
Learning and inference in a nonequilibrium Ising model with hidden nodes.
Dunn, Benjamin; Roudi, Yasser
2013-02-01
We study inference and reconstruction of couplings in a partially observed kinetic Ising model. With hidden spins, calculating the likelihood of a sequence of observed spin configurations requires performing a trace over the configurations of the hidden ones. This, as we show, can be represented as a path integral. Using this representation, we demonstrate that systematic approximate inference and learning rules can be derived using dynamical mean-field theory. Although naive mean-field theory leads to an unstable learning rule, taking into account Gaussian corrections allows learning the couplings involving hidden nodes. It also improves learning of the couplings between the observed nodes compared to when hidden nodes are ignored.
The role of the control variable in the heuristically based generalized perturbation theory (HGPT)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gandini, A.
1995-01-01
The heuristically based generalized perturbation theory (HGPT) applied to the neutron field of a reactor system is discussed in relation to the criticality reset procedure. This procedure is implicit within the GPT methodology, corresponding to the so called filtering of the importance function relevant to the neutron field from the fundamental mode contamination. It is common practice to use the so called γ-mode filter. In order to account for any possible reset option, a general definition is introduced of an intensive control variable (ρ) entering into the governing equations, and correspondingly a fundamental ρ-mode filtering of the importance function is defined, relevant to the real criticality reset mechanism (control) adopted. A simple example illustrates the need in many circumstances of interest of taking into proper account the correct filtering so to avoid significant inaccuracies in the sensitivity calculation results
The elliptic genus and Hidden symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaffe, A.
2001-01-01
We study the elliptic genus (a partition function) in certain interacting, twist quantum field theories. Without twists, these theories have N=2 supersymmetry. The twists provide a regularization, and also partially break the supersymmetry. In spite of the regularization, one can establish a homotopy of the elliptic genus in a coupling parameter. Our construction relies on a priori estimates and other methods from constructive quantum field theory; this mathematical underpinning allows us to justify evaluating the elliptic genus at one endpoint of the homotopy. We obtain a version of Witten's proposed formula for the elliptic genus in terms of classical theta functions. As a consequence, the elliptic genus has a hidden SL(2,Z) symmetry characteristic of conformal theory, even though the underlying theory is not conformal. (orig.)
Localization of hidden Chua's attractors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leonov, G.A.; Kuznetsov, N.V.; Vagaitsev, V.I.
2011-01-01
The classical attractors of Lorenz, Rossler, Chua, Chen, and other widely-known attractors are those excited from unstable equilibria. From computational point of view this allows one to use numerical method, in which after transient process a trajectory, started from a point of unstable manifold in the neighborhood of equilibrium, reaches an attractor and identifies it. However there are attractors of another type: hidden attractors, a basin of attraction of which does not contain neighborhoods of equilibria. In the present Letter for localization of hidden attractors of Chua's circuit it is suggested to use a special analytical-numerical algorithm. -- Highlights: → There are hidden attractors: basin doesn't contain neighborhoods of equilibria. → Hidden attractors cannot be reached by trajectory from neighborhoods of equilibria. → We suggested special procedure for localization of hidden attractors. → We discovered hidden attractor in Chua's system, L. Chua in his work didn't expect this.
Probability and logical structure of statistical theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, M.J.W.
1988-01-01
A characterization of statistical theories is given which incorporates both classical and quantum mechanics. It is shown that each statistical theory induces an associated logic and joint probability structure, and simple conditions are given for the structure to be of a classical or quantum type. This provides an alternative for the quantum logic approach to axiomatic quantum mechanics. The Bell inequalities may be derived for those statistical theories that have a classical structure and satisfy a locality condition weaker than factorizability. The relation of these inequalities to the issue of hidden variable theories for quantum mechanics is discussed and clarified
Quantitative estimation of time-variable earthquake hazard by using fuzzy set theory
Deyi, Feng; Ichikawa, M.
1989-11-01
In this paper, the various methods of fuzzy set theory, called fuzzy mathematics, have been applied to the quantitative estimation of the time-variable earthquake hazard. The results obtained consist of the following. (1) Quantitative estimation of the earthquake hazard on the basis of seismicity data. By using some methods of fuzzy mathematics, seismicity patterns before large earthquakes can be studied more clearly and more quantitatively, highly active periods in a given region and quiet periods of seismic activity before large earthquakes can be recognized, similarities in temporal variation of seismic activity and seismic gaps can be examined and, on the other hand, the time-variable earthquake hazard can be assessed directly on the basis of a series of statistical indices of seismicity. Two methods of fuzzy clustering analysis, the method of fuzzy similarity, and the direct method of fuzzy pattern recognition, have been studied is particular. One method of fuzzy clustering analysis is based on fuzzy netting, and another is based on the fuzzy equivalent relation. (2) Quantitative estimation of the earthquake hazard on the basis of observational data for different precursors. The direct method of fuzzy pattern recognition has been applied to research on earthquake precursors of different kinds. On the basis of the temporal and spatial characteristics of recognized precursors, earthquake hazards in different terms can be estimated. This paper mainly deals with medium-short-term precursors observed in Japan and China.
Hidden Liquidity: Determinants and Impact
Gökhan Cebiroglu; Ulrich Horst
2012-01-01
We cross-sectionally analyze the presence of aggregated hidden depth and trade volume in the S&P 500 and identify its key determinants. We find that the spread is the main predictor for a stockâ€™s hidden dimension, both in terms of traded and posted liquidity. Our findings moreover suggest that large hidden orders are associated with larger transaction costs, higher price impact and increased volatility. In particular, as large hidden orders fail to attract (latent) liquidity to the market, ...
Adaptive filtering for hidden node detection and tracking in networks.
Hamilton, Franz; Setzer, Beverly; Chavez, Sergio; Tran, Hien; Lloyd, Alun L
2017-07-01
The identification of network connectivity from noisy time series is of great interest in the study of network dynamics. This connectivity estimation problem becomes more complicated when we consider the possibility of hidden nodes within the network. These hidden nodes act as unknown drivers on our network and their presence can lead to the identification of false connections, resulting in incorrect network inference. Detecting the parts of the network they are acting on is thus critical. Here, we propose a novel method for hidden node detection based on an adaptive filtering framework with specific application to neuronal networks. We consider the hidden node as a problem of missing variables when model fitting and show that the estimated system noise covariance provided by the adaptive filter can be used to localize the influence of the hidden nodes and distinguish the effects of different hidden nodes. Additionally, we show that the sequential nature of our algorithm allows for tracking changes in the hidden node influence over time.
New limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dumps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreas, Sarah; Niebuhr, Carsten; Ringwald, Andreas
2012-09-01
Hidden sectors with light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, have recently attracted some attention because they are a common feature of physics beyond the Standard Model like string theory and SUSY and additionally are phenomenologically of great interest regarding recent astrophysical observations. The hidden photon is already constrained by various laboratory experiments and presently searched for in running as well as upcoming experiments. We summarize the current status of limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay that have so far not been considered. All our limits take into account the experimental acceptances obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.
Search for hidden particles with the SHiP experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hagner, Caren; Bick, Daniel; Bieschke, Stefan; Ebert, Joachim; Schmidt-Parzefall, Walter [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)
2016-07-01
Many theories beyond the standard model predict long lived neutral (hidden) particles. There might be a whole Hidden Sector (HS) of weakly interacting particles, which cannot be detected in existing high energy experiments. The SHiP experiment (Search for Hidden Particles) requires a high intensity beam dump, which could be realized by a new facility at the CERN SPS accelerator. New superweakly interacting particles with masses below O(10) GeV could be produced in the beam dump and detected in a general purpose Hidden Sector (HS) detector. In addition there will be a dedicated tau neutrino subdetector. I present the major requirements and technical challenges for the HS detector and discuss how the HS can be accessed through several portals: neutrino portal, scalar portal, vector portal and many more.
New limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dumps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreas, Sarah; Niebuhr, Carsten; Ringwald, Andreas
2012-09-15
Hidden sectors with light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, have recently attracted some attention because they are a common feature of physics beyond the Standard Model like string theory and SUSY and additionally are phenomenologically of great interest regarding recent astrophysical observations. The hidden photon is already constrained by various laboratory experiments and presently searched for in running as well as upcoming experiments. We summarize the current status of limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay that have so far not been considered. All our limits take into account the experimental acceptances obtained from Monte Carlo simulations.
Supersymmetry, p-brane duality, and hidden spacetime dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bars, I.
1996-01-01
A global superalgebra with 32 supercharges and all possible central extensions is studied in order to extract some general properties of duality and hidden dimensions in a theory that treats p-branes democratically. The maximal number of dimensions is 12, with signature (10,2), containing one space and one time dimension that are hidden from the point of view of perturbative ten-dimensional string theory or its compactifications. When the theory is compactified on R d-1,1 circle-times T c+1,1 with d+c+2=12, there are isometry groups that relate to the hidden dimensions as well as to duality. Their combined intersecting classification schemes provide some properties of nonperturbative states and their couplings. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories
Henn, Johannes M
2014-01-01
At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ...
Preko Alexander; Agbanu Kwami Samuel
2015-01-01
This paper analyses Customer Complaints Behaviour (CCB) using psychographic factors and the Theory of Exit, Voice and Loyalty. Prior studies on the continent of Africa have explored customer dissatisfaction, service failure, complaints handling and complaint attitudes, but not in association with psychographic factors. This research gap is addressed with a new conceptual understanding that integrates psychographic variables and the Theory of Exit, Voice and Loyalty in a single ...
Sharp Contradiction for Local-Hidden-State Model in Quantum Steering
Chen, Jing-Ling; Su, Hong-Yi; Xu, Zhen-Peng; Pati, Arun Kumar
2016-08-01
In quantum theory, no-go theorems are important as they rule out the existence of a particular physical model under consideration. For instance, the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) theorem serves as a no-go theorem for the nonexistence of local hidden variable models by presenting a full contradiction for the multipartite GHZ states. However, the elegant GHZ argument for Bell’s nonlocality does not go through for bipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) state. Recent study on quantum nonlocality has shown that the more precise description of EPR’s original scenario is “steering”, i.e., the nonexistence of local hidden state models. Here, we present a simple GHZ-like contradiction for any bipartite pure entangled state, thus proving a no-go theorem for the nonexistence of local hidden state models in the EPR paradox. This also indicates that the very simple steering paradox presented here is indeed the closest form to the original spirit of the EPR paradox.
... A.S.T. Quiz Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Nov 22,2016 Excerpted from "What Women Need To Know About The Hidden Risk Factors ... 2012) This year, more than 100,000 U.S. women under 65 will have a stroke. Stroke is ...
Higgs Portal into Hidden Sectors
CERN. Geneva
2007-01-01
Several attractive theoretical ideas suggest the existence of one or more 'hidden sectors' consisting of standard model singlet fields, some of which may not be too heavy. There is a profound reason to think that the Higgs sector might provide the first access to these hidden sectors. This scenario could affect Higgs phenomenology in drastic ways.
What are the Hidden Quantum Processes Behind Newton's Laws?
Ostoma, Tom; Trushyk, Mike
1999-01-01
We investigate the hidden quantum processes that are responsible for Newton's laws of motion and Newton's universal law of gravity. We apply Electro-Magnetic Quantum Gravity or EMQG to investigate Newtonian classical physics. EQMG is a quantum gravity theory that is manifestly compatible with Cellular Automata (CA) theory, a new paradigm for physical reality. EMQG is also based on a theory of inertia proposed by R. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. Puthoff, which we modified and called Quantum Inertia...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gandini, A.
1996-01-01
The heuristically based generalized perturbation theory (HGPT), to first and higher order, applied to the neutron field of a reactor system, is discussed in relation to the criticality reset procedure. This procedure is implicit within the GPT methodology, corresponding to the so called filtering of the importance function relevant to the neutron field from the fundamental mode contamination. It is common practice to use the so called ''lambda''-mode filter. In order to account for any possible reset option, a general definition is introduced of an intensive control variable (ρ) entering into the governing equations, and correspondingly a fundamental ρ-mode filtering of the importance function is defined, relevant to the real criticality reset (control) mechanism adopted. A simple example illustrates the need to take into account the correct filtering, so as to avoid significant inaccuracies in the sensitivity calculation results. The extension of this filtering technique to other functions entering into the GPT perturbative formulations at first and higher order is also discussed. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lina Ke
2013-01-01
Full Text Available With the rapid development of marine economy industry, the activities for exploring and exploiting the marine resources are increasing, and there are more and more marine construction projects, which contribute to the growing trend of eutrophication and frequent occurrence of red tide. Thus, seawater quality has become the topic which the people generally cared about. The seawater quality evaluation could be considered as an analysis process which combined the evaluation indexes with certainty and evaluation factors with uncertainty and its changes. This paper built a model for the assessment of seawater environmental quality based on the multiobjective variable fuzzy set theory (VFEM. The Qingdao marine dumping site in China is taken as an evaluation example. Through the quantitative research of water-quality data from 2004 to 2008, the model is more reliable than other traditional methods, in which uncertainty and ambiguity of the seawater quality evaluation are considered, and trade the stable results as the final results of seawater quality evaluation, which effectively solved the impact of the fuzzy boundary of evaluation standard and monitoring error, is more suitable for evaluation of a multi-index, multilevel, and nonlinear marine environment system and has been proved to be an effective tool for seawater quality evaluation.
Hidden slow pulsars in binaries
Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh
1993-01-01
The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul
Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... ante (“hidden characteristics”) as well as ex post information asymmetry (“hidden action”), and examines conditions under which various kinds of incentive instruments and monitoring arrangements can be deployed to minimize the welfare loss. Its clear predictions and broad applicability have allowed...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul
2015-01-01
Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... ante (‘hidden characteristics’) as well as ex post information asymmetry (‘hidden action’), and examines conditions under which various kinds of incentive instruments and monitoring arrangements can be deployed to minimize the welfare loss. Its clear predictions and broad applicability have allowed...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....
Quantum Theory finally reconciled with Special Relativity
Tommasini, Daniele
2001-01-01
In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) pointed out that Quantum Mechanics apparently implied some mysterious, instantaneous action at a distance. This paradox is supposed to be related to the probabilistic nature of the theory, but since deterministic alternatives involving "Hidden Variables" hardly agree with the experiments, the scientific community is now accepting this ``quantum nonlocality" as if it were a reality. However, I have argued recently that Quantum Electrodynamics is free ...
Theory-Based Evaluation Meets Ambiguity: The Role of Janus Variables
Dahler-Larsen, Peter
2018-01-01
As theory-based evaluation (TBE) engages in situations where multiple stakeholders help develop complex program theory about dynamic phenomena in politically contested settings, it becomes difficult to develop and use program theory without ambiguity. The purpose of this article is to explore ambiguity as a fruitful perspective that helps TBE face…
Hidden attractors in dynamical systems
Dudkowski, Dawid; Jafari, Sajad; Kapitaniak, Tomasz; Kuznetsov, Nikolay V.; Leonov, Gennady A.; Prasad, Awadhesh
2016-06-01
Complex dynamical systems, ranging from the climate, ecosystems to financial markets and engineering applications typically have many coexisting attractors. This property of the system is called multistability. The final state, i.e., the attractor on which the multistable system evolves strongly depends on the initial conditions. Additionally, such systems are very sensitive towards noise and system parameters so a sudden shift to a contrasting regime may occur. To understand the dynamics of these systems one has to identify all possible attractors and their basins of attraction. Recently, it has been shown that multistability is connected with the occurrence of unpredictable attractors which have been called hidden attractors. The basins of attraction of the hidden attractors do not touch unstable fixed points (if exists) and are located far away from such points. Numerical localization of the hidden attractors is not straightforward since there are no transient processes leading to them from the neighborhoods of unstable fixed points and one has to use the special analytical-numerical procedures. From the viewpoint of applications, the identification of hidden attractors is the major issue. The knowledge about the emergence and properties of hidden attractors can increase the likelihood that the system will remain on the most desirable attractor and reduce the risk of the sudden jump to undesired behavior. We review the most representative examples of hidden attractors, discuss their theoretical properties and experimental observations. We also describe numerical methods which allow identification of the hidden attractors.
Hidden Scale Invariance in Condensed Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dyre, J. C.
2014-01-01
. This means that the phase diagram becomes effectively one-dimensional with regard to several physical properties. Liquids and solids with isomorphs include most or all van der Waals bonded systems and metals, as well as weakly ionic or dipolar systems. On the other hand, systems with directional bonding...... (hydrogen bonds or covalent bonds) or strong Coulomb forces generally do not exhibit hidden scale invariance. The article reviews the theory behind this picture of condensed matter and the evidence for it coming from computer simulations and experiments...
Hidden Statistics Approach to Quantum Simulations
Zak, Michail
2010-01-01
Recent advances in quantum information theory have inspired an explosion of interest in new quantum algorithms for solving hard computational (quantum and non-quantum) problems. The basic principle of quantum computation is that the quantum properties can be used to represent structure data, and that quantum mechanisms can be devised and built to perform operations with this data. Three basic non-classical properties of quantum mechanics superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability were main reasons for optimism about capabilities of quantum computers that promised simultaneous processing of large massifs of highly correlated data. Unfortunately, these advantages of quantum mechanics came with a high price. One major problem is keeping the components of the computer in a coherent state, as the slightest interaction with the external world would cause the system to decohere. That is why the hardware implementation of a quantum computer is still unsolved. The basic idea of this work is to create a new kind of dynamical system that would preserve the main three properties of quantum physics superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. In other words, such a system would reinforce the advantages and minimize limitations of both quantum and classical aspects. Based upon a concept of hidden statistics, a new kind of dynamical system for simulation of Schroedinger equation is proposed. The system represents a modified Madelung version of Schroedinger equation. It preserves superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such an optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for simulating quantum systems. The model includes a transitional component of quantum potential (that has been overlooked in previous treatment of the Madelung equation). The role of the
Causal quantum theory and the collapse locality loophole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kent, Adrian
2005-01-01
Causal quantum theory is an umbrella term for ordinary quantum theory modified by two hypotheses: state vector reduction is a well-defined process, and strict local causality applies. The first of these holds in some versions of Copenhagen quantum theory and need not necessarily imply practically testable deviations from ordinary quantum theory. The second implies that measurement events which are spacelike separated have no nonlocal correlations. To test this prediction, which sharply differs from standard quantum theory, requires a precise definition of state vector reduction. Formally speaking, any precise version of causal quantum theory defines a local hidden variable theory. However, causal quantum theory is most naturally seen as a variant of standard quantum theory. For that reason it seems a more serious rival to standard quantum theory than local hidden variable models relying on the locality or detector efficiency loopholes. Some plausible versions of causal quantum theory are not refuted by any Bell experiments to date, nor is it evident that they are inconsistent with other experiments. They evade refutation via a neglected loophole in Bell experiments--the collapse locality loophole--which exists because of the possible time lag between a particle entering a measurement device and a collapse taking place. Fairly definitive tests of causal versus standard quantum theory could be made by observing entangled particles separated by ≅0.1 light seconds
Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben
2014-01-01
This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning......-by-doing process, where hidden costs motivate firms and their employees to search for new and better knowledge on how to successfully manage the organisation. We illustrate this thesis based on the case of the LEGO Group....
The Hidden Costs of Offshoring
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller Larsen, Marcus; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben
2011-01-01
of offshoring. Specifically, we propose that hidden costs can be explained by the combination of increasing structural, operational and social complexity of offshoring activities. In addition, we suggest that firm orientation towards organizational design as part of an offshoring strategy and offshoring......This study seeks to explain hidden costs of offshoring, i.e. unexpected costs resulting from the relocation of business tasks and activities outside the home country. We develop a model that highlights the role of complexity, design orientation and experience in explaining hidden costs...... experience moderate the relationship between complexity and hidden costs negatively i.e. reduces the cost generating impact of complexity. We develop three hypotheses and test them on comprehensive data from the Offshoring Research Network (ORN). In general, we find support for our hypotheses. A key result...
Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises
... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises No. 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...
Hidden Curriculum: An Analytical Definition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Reza Andarvazh
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Background: The concept of hidden curriculum was first used by Philip Jackson in 1968, and Hafferty brought this concept to the medical education. Many of the subjects that medical students learn are attributed to this curriculum. So far several definitions have been presented for the hidden curriculum, which on the one hand made this concept richer, and on the other hand, led to confusion and ambiguity.This paper tries to provide a clear and comprehensive definition of it.Methods: In this study, concept analysis of McKenna method was used. Using keywords and searching in the databases, 561 English and 26 Persian references related to the concept was found, then by limitingthe research scope, 125 abstracts and by finding more relevant references, 55 articles were fully studied.Results: After analyzing the definitions by McKenna method, the hidden curriculum is defined as follows: The hidden curriculum is a hidden, powerful, intrinsic in organizational structure and culture and sometimes contradictory message, conveyed implicitly and tacitly in the learning environment by structural and human factors and its contents includes cultural habits and customs, norms, values, belief systems, attitudes, skills, desires and behavioral and social expectations can have a positive or negative effect, unplanned, neither planners nor teachers, nor learners are aware of it. The ultimate consequence of the hidden curriculum includes reproducing the existing class structure, socialization, and familiarizing learners for transmission and joining the professional world.Conclusion: Based on the concept analysis, we arrived at an analytical definition of the hidden curriculum that could be useful for further studies in this area.Keywords: CONCEPT ANALYSIS, HIDDEN CURRICULUM, MCKENNA’S METHOD
Hidden Markov Model for Stock Selection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nguyet Nguyen
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The hidden Markov model (HMM is typically used to predict the hidden regimes of observation data. Therefore, this model finds applications in many different areas, such as speech recognition systems, computational molecular biology and financial market predictions. In this paper, we use HMM for stock selection. We first use HMM to make monthly regime predictions for the four macroeconomic variables: inflation (consumer price index (CPI, industrial production index (INDPRO, stock market index (S&P 500 and market volatility (VIX. At the end of each month, we calibrate HMM’s parameters for each of these economic variables and predict its regimes for the next month. We then look back into historical data to find the time periods for which the four variables had similar regimes with the forecasted regimes. Within those similar periods, we analyze all of the S&P 500 stocks to identify which stock characteristics have been well rewarded during the time periods and assign scores and corresponding weights for each of the stock characteristics. A composite score of each stock is calculated based on the scores and weights of its features. Based on this algorithm, we choose the 50 top ranking stocks to buy. We compare the performances of the portfolio with the benchmark index, S&P 500. With an initial investment of $100 in December 1999, over 15 years, in December 2014, our portfolio had an average gain per annum of 14.9% versus 2.3% for the S&P 500.
Zhao, Zhibiao
2011-06-01
We address the nonparametric model validation problem for hidden Markov models with partially observable variables and hidden states. We achieve this goal by constructing a nonparametric simultaneous confidence envelope for transition density function of the observable variables and checking whether the parametric density estimate is contained within such an envelope. Our specification test procedure is motivated by a functional connection between the transition density of the observable variables and the Markov transition kernel of the hidden states. Our approach is applicable for continuous time diffusion models, stochastic volatility models, nonlinear time series models, and models with market microstructure noise.
Boolean Approach to Dichotomic Quantum Measurement Theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagata, K. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nakamura, T. [Keio University, Yokohama (Japan); Batle, J. [Universitat de les Illes Balears, Balearic Islands (Spain); Abdalla, S. [King Abdulaziz University Jeddah, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Farouk, A. [Al-Zahra College for Women, Muscat (Egypt)
2017-02-15
Recently, a new measurement theory based on truth values was proposed by Nagata and Nakamura [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 55, 3616 (2016)], that is, a theory where the results of measurements are either 0 or 1. The standard measurement theory accepts a hidden variable model for a single Pauli observable. Hence, we can introduce a classical probability space for the measurement theory in this particular case. Additionally, we discuss in the present contribution the fact that projective measurement theories (the results of which are either +1 or −1) imply the Bell, Kochen, and Specker (BKS) paradox for a single Pauli observable. To justify our assertion, we present the BKS theorem in almost all the two-dimensional states by using a projective measurement theory. As an example, we present the BKS theorem in two-dimensions with white noise. Our discussion provides new insight into the quantum measurement problem by using this measurement theory based on the truth values.
Hidden ion population: Revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsen, R.C.; Chappell, C.R.; Gallagher, D.L.; Green, J.L.; Gurnett, D.A.
1985-01-01
Satellite potentials in the outer plasmasphere range from near zero to +5 to +10 V. Under such conditions ion measurements may not include the low energy core of the plasma population. In eclipse, the photoelectron current drops to zero, and the spacecraft potential can drop to near zero volts. In regions where the ambient plasma density is below 100 cm -3 , previously unobserved portions of the ambient plasma distribution function can become visible in eclipse. A survey of the data obtained from the retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) on Dynamics Explorer 1 shows that the RIMS detector generally measured the isotropic background in both sunlight and eclipse in the plasma-sphere. Absolute density measurements for the ''hidden'' ion population are obtained for the first time using the plasma wave instrument observations of the upper hybrid resonance. Agreement in total density is found in sunlight and eclipse measurements at densities above 80 cm -3 . In eclipse, agreement is found at densities as low as 20 cm -3 . The isotropic plasma composition is primarily H + , with approx.10% He + , and 0.1 to 1.0% O + . A low energy field-aligned ion population appears in eclipse measurements outside the plasmasphere, which is obscured in sunlight. These field-aligned ions can be interpreted as field-aligned flows with densities of a few particles per cubic centimeter, flowing at 5-20 km/s. The problem in measuring these field-aligned flows in sunlight is the masking of the high energy tail of the field-aligned distribution by the isotropic background. Effective measurement of the core of the magnetospheric plasma distribution awaits satellites with active means of controlling the satellite potential
Hidden symmetry of the quantum Calogero-Moser system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuzentsov, Vadim b
1996-01-01
The hidden symmetry of the quantum Calogero-Moser system with an inverse-square potential is algebraically demonstrated making use of Dunkl's operators. We find the underlying algebra explaining the super-integrability phenomenon for this system. Applications to related multi-variable Bessel...... functions are also discussed....
Hidden Markov Model for quantitative prediction of snowfall
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) has been developed for prediction of quantitative snowfall in Pir-Panjal and Great Himalayan mountain ranges of Indian Himalaya. The model predicts snowfall for two days in advance using daily recorded nine meteorological variables of past 20 winters from 1992–2012. There are six ...
Frank, T.D.; Patanarapeelert, K.; Beek, P.J.
2008-01-01
We derive a fundamental relationship between the mean and the variability of isometric force. The relationship arises from an optimal collection of active motor units such that the force variability assumes a minimum (optimal isometric force). The relationship is shown to be independent of the
Kumari, K.; Oberheide, J.
2017-12-01
Nonmigrating tidal diagnostics of SABER temperature observations in the ionospheric dynamo region reveal a large amount of variability on time-scales of a few days to weeks. In this paper, we discuss the physical reasons for the observed short-term tidal variability using a novel approach based on Information theory and Bayesian statistics. We diagnose short-term tidal variability as a function of season, QBO, ENSO, and solar cycle and other drivers using time dependent probability density functions, Shannon entropy and Kullback-Leibler divergence. The statistical significance of the approach and its predictive capability is exemplified using SABER tidal diagnostics with emphasis on the responses to the QBO and solar cycle. Implications for F-region plasma density will be discussed.
Hidden photons in connection to dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreas, Sarah; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Goodsell, Mark D. [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)
2013-06-15
Light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, which reside in a hidden sector have attracted much attention since they are a well motivated feature of many scenarios beyond the Standard Model and furthermore could mediate the interaction with hidden sector dark matter.We review limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay. In addition, we study the possibility of having dark matter in the hidden sector. A simple toy model and different supersymmetric realisations are shown to provide viable dark matter candidates in the hidden sector that are in agreement with recent direct detection limits.
Hidden photons in connection to dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreas, Sarah; Ringwald, Andreas; Goodsell, Mark D.
2013-06-01
Light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, which reside in a hidden sector have attracted much attention since they are a well motivated feature of many scenarios beyond the Standard Model and furthermore could mediate the interaction with hidden sector dark matter.We review limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay. In addition, we study the possibility of having dark matter in the hidden sector. A simple toy model and different supersymmetric realisations are shown to provide viable dark matter candidates in the hidden sector that are in agreement with recent direct detection limits.
Frank, T. D.; Patanarapeelert, K.; Beek, P. J.
2008-05-01
We derive a fundamental relationship between the mean and the variability of isometric force. The relationship arises from an optimal collection of active motor units such that the force variability assumes a minimum (optimal isometric force). The relationship is shown to be independent of the explicit motor unit properties and of the dynamical features of isometric force production. A constant coefficient of variation in the asymptotic regime and a nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem for optimal isometric force are predicted.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frank, T.D.; Patanarapeelert, K.; Beek, P.J.
2008-01-01
We derive a fundamental relationship between the mean and the variability of isometric force. The relationship arises from an optimal collection of active motor units such that the force variability assumes a minimum (optimal isometric force). The relationship is shown to be independent of the explicit motor unit properties and of the dynamical features of isometric force production. A constant coefficient of variation in the asymptotic regime and a nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem for optimal isometric force are predicted
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barut, A.O.; Pavsic, M.
1988-05-01
A remarkable equivalence is established between the theories of spinning particles or superparticles using anticommuting Grassmann variables on the one hand and commuting c-number spinors on the other. We consider both real and complex Grassmann variables and map the equations of motion and the supersymmetry transformation from one theory to another. The more intuitive c-number theory allows us to generalize the notion of Zitterbewegung to strings and membranes. (A hidden supersymmetry exists in the classical model of the Dirac electron.) (author). 12 refs
Infinite hidden conditional random fields for human behavior analysis.
Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja
2013-01-01
Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models that have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem (provided an appropriate validation of the number of hidden states). In this brief, we present the infinite HCRF (iHCRF), which is a nonparametric model based on hierarchical Dirichlet processes and is capable of automatically learning the optimal number of hidden states for a classification task. We show how we learn the model hyperparameters with an effective Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling technique, and we explain the process that underlines our iHCRF model with the Restaurant Franchise Rating Agencies analogy. We show that the iHCRF is able to converge to a correct number of represented hidden states, and outperforms the best finite HCRFs--chosen via cross-validation--for the difficult tasks of recognizing instances of agreement, disagreement, and pain. Moreover, the iHCRF manages to achieve this performance in significantly less total training, validation, and testing time.
Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henn, Johannes M. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Plefka, Jan C. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik
2014-03-01
First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.
Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henn, Johannes M.; Plefka, Jan C.
2014-01-01
First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.
Gauging hidden symmetries in two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samtleben, Henning; Weidner, Martin
2007-01-01
We initiate the systematic construction of gauged matter-coupled supergravity theories in two dimensions. Subgroups of the affine global symmetry group of toroidally compactified supergravity can be gauged by coupling vector fields with minimal couplings and a particular topological term. The gauge groups typically include hidden symmetries that are not among the target-space isometries of the ungauged theory. The gaugings constructed in this paper are described group-theoretically in terms of a constant embedding tensor subject to a number of constraints which parametrizes the different theories and entirely encodes the gauged Lagrangian. The prime example is the bosonic sector of the maximally supersymmetric theory whose ungauged version admits an affine e 9 global symmetry algebra. The various parameters (related to higher-dimensional p-form fluxes, geometric and non-geometric fluxes, etc.) which characterize the possible gaugings, combine into an embedding tensor transforming in the basic representation of e 9 . This yields an infinite-dimensional class of maximally supersymmetric theories in two dimensions. We work out and discuss several examples of higher-dimensional origin which can be systematically analyzed using the different gradings of e 9
King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.
2014-01-01
Culture influences basic motivational processes; however, Western theories of achievement motivation seem to have neglected the role of culture. They are inadequate when trying to explain student motivation and engagement across a wide range of cultural groups because they may not have the conceptual tools needed to handle culturally relevant…
Marczak, F.; Daamen, W.; Buisson, C.
2013-01-01
This paper presents two empirical trajectory data sets focusing on the merging behaviour on a motorway, both in the Netherlands and in France. A careful review of the literature shows that the main theories explaining this behaviour rely on the hypothesis of gap acceptance, i.e. the fact that each
RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON GAUGE-INVARIANT VARIABLES IN GAUGE THEORIES, VOLUME 20
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
VAN BAAL,P.; ORLAND,P.; PISARSKI,R.
2000-06-01
This four-day workshop focused on the wide variety of approaches to the non-perturbative physics of QCD. The main topic was the formulation of non-Abelian gauge theory in orbit space, but some other ideas were discussed, in particular the possible extension of the Maldacena conjecture to nonsupersymmetric gauge theories. The idea was to involve most of the participants in general discussions on the problem. Panel discussions were organized to further encourage debate and understanding. Most of the talks roughly fell into three categories: (1) Variational methods in field theory; (2) Anti-de Sitter space ideas; (3) The fundamental domain, gauge fixing, Gribov copies and topological objects (both in the continuum and on a lattice). In particular some remarkable progress in three-dimensional gauge theories was presented, from the analytic side by V.P. Nair and mostly from the numerical side by O. Philipsen. This work may ultimately have important implications for RHIC experiments on the high-temperature quark-gluon plasma.
Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Baranowski, Tom
2009-01-01
Objective: To review and critique current experimentally-based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Methods: Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) were identified via electronic database searches…
Our purpose was to review and critique current experimentally based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth, and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) wer...
Detecting hidden particles with MATHUSLA
Evans, Jared A.
2018-03-01
A hidden sector containing light long-lived particles provides a well-motivated place to find new physics. The recently proposed MATHUSLA experiment has the potential to be extremely sensitive to light particles originating from rare meson decays in the very long lifetime region. In this work, we illustrate this strength with the specific example of a light scalar mixed with the standard model-like Higgs boson, a model where MATHUSLA can further probe unexplored parameter space from exotic Higgs decays. Design augmentations should be considered in order to maximize the ability of MATHUSLA to discover very light hidden sector particles.
Hidden Crises and Communication: An Interactional Analysis of Hidden Crises
dr. Annette Klarenbeek
2011-01-01
In this paper I describe the ways in which the communication discipline can make a hidden crisis transparent. For this purpose I examine the concept of crisis entrepreneurship from a communication point of view. Using discourse analysis, I analyse the discursive practices of crisis entrepreneurs in
Hidden Crises and Communication : An Interactional Analysis of Hidden Crises
dr. Annette Klarenbeek
2011-01-01
In this paper I describe the ways in which the communication discipline can make a hidden crisis transparent. For this purpose I examine the concept of crisis entrepreneurship from a communication point of view. Using discourse analysis, I analyse the discursive practices of crisis entrepreneurs in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Yinghui; Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Aydin, Kültegin; Botta, Giovanni; Verlinde, Johannes
2013-01-01
Using the Generalized Multi-particle Mie-method (GMM), Botta et al. (in this issue) [7] created a database of backscattering cross sections for 412 different ice crystal dendrites at X-, Ka- and W-band wavelengths for different incident angles. The Rayleigh–Gans theory, which accounts for interference effects but ignores interactions between different parts of an ice crystal, explains much, but not all, of the variability in the database of backscattering cross sections. Differences between it and the GMM range from −3.5 dB to +2.5 dB and are highly dependent on the incident angle. To explain the residual variability a physically intuitive iterative method was developed to estimate the internal electric field within an ice crystal that accounts for interactions between the neighboring regions within it. After modifying the Rayleigh–Gans theory using this estimated internal electric field, the difference between the estimated backscattering cross sections and those from the GMM method decreased to within 0.5 dB for most of the ice crystals. The largest percentage differences occur when the form factor from the Rayleigh–Gans theory is close to zero. Both interference effects and neighbor interactions are sensitive to the morphology of ice crystals. Improvements in ice-microphysical models are necessary to predict or diagnose internal structures within ice crystals to aid in more accurate interpretation of radar returns. Observations of the morphology of ice crystals are, in turn, necessary to guide the development of such ice-microphysical models and to better understand the statistical properties of ice crystal morphologies in different environmental conditions. -- Highlights: • Significant variability exists in radar backscattering cross sections of dendrites. • Source of variability depends upon detailed distribution of mass within dendrites. • The Rayleigh–Gans theory (RG) captures most of the variability. • Improving RG by estimating dendrite
The Consensus String Problem and the Complexity of Comparing Hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyngsø, Rune Bang; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm
2002-01-01
The basic theory of hidden Markov models was developed and applied to problems in speech recognition in the late 1960s, and has since then been applied to numerous problems, e.g. biological sequence analysis. Most applications of hidden Markov models are based on efficient algorithms for computing...... the probability of generating a given string, or computing the most likely path generating a given string. In this paper we consider the problem of computing the most likely string, or consensus string, generated by a given model, and its implications on the complexity of comparing hidden Markov models. We show...... that computing the consensus string, and approximating its probability within any constant factor, is NP-hard, and that the same holds for the closely related labeling problem for class hidden Markov models. Furthermore, we establish the NP-hardness of comparing two hidden Markov models under the L∞- and L1...
Molina, Sergio L; Stodden, David F
2018-04-01
This study examined variability in throwing speed and spatial error to test the prediction of an inverted-U function (i.e., impulse-variability [IV] theory) and the speed-accuracy trade-off. Forty-five 9- to 11-year-old children were instructed to throw at a specified percentage of maximum speed (45%, 65%, 85%, and 100%) and hit the wall target. Results indicated no statistically significant differences in variable error across the target conditions (p = .72), failing to support the inverted-U hypothesis. Spatial accuracy results indicated no statistically significant differences with mean radial error (p = .18), centroid radial error (p = .13), and bivariate variable error (p = .08) also failing to support the speed-accuracy trade-off in overarm throwing. As neither throwing performance variability nor accuracy changed across percentages of maximum speed in this sample of children as well as in a previous adult sample, current policy and practices of practitioners may need to be reevaluated.
Atlas of solar hidden photon emission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza,Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)
2015-07-20
Hidden photons, gauge bosons of a U(1) symmetry of a hidden sector, can constitute the dark matter of the universe and a smoking gun for large volume compactifications of string theory. In the sub-eV mass range, a possible discovery experiment consists on searching the copious flux of these particles emitted from the Sun in a helioscope setup à la Sikivie. In this paper, we compute in great detail the flux of HPs from the Sun, a necessary ingredient for interpreting such experiments. We provide a detailed exposition of transverse photon-HP oscillations in inhomogenous media, with special focus on resonance oscillations, which play a leading role in many cases. The region of the Sun emitting HPs resonantly is a thin spherical shell for which we justify an averaged-emission formula and which implies a distinctive morphology of the angular distribution of HPs on Earth in many cases. Low mass HPs with energies in the visible and IR have resonances very close to the photosphere where the solar plasma is not fully ionised and requires building a detailed model of solar refraction and absorption. We present results for a broad range of HP masses (from 0–1 keV) and energies (from the IR to the X-ray range), the most complete atlas of solar HP emission to date.
Atlas of solar hidden photon emission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redondo, Javier, E-mail: redondo@mpp.mpg.de [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza, España (Spain)
2015-07-01
Hidden photons, gauge bosons of a U(1) symmetry of a hidden sector, can constitute the dark matter of the universe and a smoking gun for large volume compactifications of string theory. In the sub-eV mass range, a possible discovery experiment consists on searching the copious flux of these particles emitted from the Sun in a helioscope setup à la Sikivie. In this paper, we compute in great detail the flux of HPs from the Sun, a necessary ingredient for interpreting such experiments. We provide a detailed exposition of transverse photon-HP oscillations in inhomogenous media, with special focus on resonance oscillations, which play a leading role in many cases. The region of the Sun emitting HPs resonantly is a thin spherical shell for which we justify an averaged-emission formula and which implies a distinctive morphology of the angular distribution of HPs on Earth in many cases. Low mass HPs with energies in the visible and IR have resonances very close to the photosphere where the solar plasma is not fully ionised and requires building a detailed model of solar refraction and absorption. We present results for a broad range of HP masses (from 0–1 keV) and energies (from the IR to the X-ray range), the most complete atlas of solar HP emission to date.
Low energy theorems of hidden local symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harada, Masayasu; Kugo, Taichiro; Yamawaki, Koichi.
1994-01-01
We prove to all orders of the loop expansion the low energy theorems of hidden local symmetries in four-dimensional nonlinear sigma models based on the coset space G/H, with G and H being arbitrary compact groups. Although the models are non-renormalizable, the proof is done in an analogous manner to the renormalization proof of gauge theories and two-dimensional nonlinear sigma models by restricting ourselves to the operators with two derivatives (counting a hidden gauge boson field as one derivative), i.e., with dimension 2, which are the only operators relevant to the low energy limit. Through loop-wise mathematical induction based on the Ward-Takahashi identity for the BRS symmetry, we solve renormalization equation for the effective action up to dimension-2 terms plus terms with the relevant BRS sources. We then show that all the quantum corrections to the dimension-2 operators, including the finite parts as well as the divergent ones, can be entirely absorbed into a re-definition (renormalization) of the parameters and the fields in the dimension-2 part of the tree-level Lagrangian. (author)
Bell inequalities for continuous-variable measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.; Drummond, P. D.; Cavalcanti, E. G.
2010-01-01
Tests of local hidden-variable theories using measurements with continuous-variable (CV) outcomes are developed, and a comparison of different methods is presented. As examples, we focus on multipartite entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and cluster states. We suggest a physical process that produces the states proposed here, and investigate experiments both with and without binning of the continuous variable. In the former case, the Mermin-Klyshko inequalities can be used directly. For unbinned outcomes, the moment-based Cavalcanti-Foster-Reid-Drummond inequalities are extended to functional inequalities by consideration of arbitrary functions of the measurements at each site. By optimizing these functions, we obtain more robust violations of local hidden-variable theories than with either binning or moments. Recent inequalities based on the algebra of quaternions and octonions are compared with these methods. Since the prime advantage of CV experiments is to provide a route to highly efficient detection via homodyne measurements, we analyze the effect of noise and detection losses in both binned and unbinned cases. The CV moment inequalities with an optimal function have greater robustness to both loss and noise. This could permit a loophole-free test of Bell inequalities.
Although empirical models have been developed previously, a mechanistic model is needed for estimating electrical conductivity (EC) using time domain reflectometry (TDR) with variable lengths of coaxial cable. The goals of this study are to: (1) derive a mechanistic model based on multisection tra...
Entry deterrence and hidden competition
Lavrutich, Maria; Huisman, Kuno; Kort, Peter
This paper studies strategic investment behavior of firms facing an uncertain demand in a duopoly setting. Firms choose both investment timing and the capacity level while facing additional uncertainty about market participants, which is introduced via the concept of hidden competition. We focus on
Adaptive Partially Hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rasmussen, Tage
1996-01-01
Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding....
The Hidden Dimensions of Databases.
Jacso, Peter
1994-01-01
Discusses methods of evaluating commercial online databases and provides examples that illustrate their hidden dimensions. Topics addressed include size, including the number of records or the number of titles; the number of years covered; and the frequency of updates. Comparisons of Readers' Guide Abstracts and Magazine Article Summaries are…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stotland, Alexander; Peer, Tal; Cohen, Doron; Budoyo, Rangga; Kottos, Tsampikos
2008-01-01
The calculation of the conductance of disordered rings requires a theory that goes beyond the Kubo-Drude formulation. Assuming 'mesoscopic' circumstances the analysis of the electro-driven transitions shows similarities with a percolation problem in energy space. We argue that the texture and the sparsity of the perturbation matrix dictate the value of the conductance, and study its dependence on the disorder strength, ranging from the ballistic to the Anderson localization regime. An improved sparse random matrix model is introduced to capture the essential ingredients of the problem, and leads to a generalized variable range hopping picture. (fast track communication)
Nuclear scissors modes and hidden angular momenta
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balbutsev, E. B., E-mail: balbuts@theor.jinr.ru; Molodtsova, I. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Schuck, P. [Université Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3–CNRS (France)
2017-01-15
The coupled dynamics of low-lying modes and various giant resonances are studied with the help of the Wigner Function Moments method generalized to take into account spin degrees of freedom and pair correlations simultaneously. The method is based on Time-Dependent Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov equations. The model of the harmonic oscillator including spin–orbit potential plus quadrupole–quadrupole and spin–spin interactions is considered. New low-lying spin-dependent modes are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the scissors modes. A new source of nuclear magnetism, connected with counter-rotation of spins up and down around the symmetry axis (hidden angular momenta), is discovered. Its inclusion into the theory allows one to improve substantially the agreement with experimental data in the description of energies and transition probabilities of scissors modes.
Hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Bin; Long Jiang; Zhang Jiaju
2010-01-01
We study the hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes. We introduce a new set of conformal coordinates to write the SL(2,R) generators. We find that the Laplacian of the scalar field in many extremal black holes, including Kerr(-Newman), Reissner-Nordstrom, warped AdS 3 , and null warped black holes, could be written in terms of the SL(2,R) quadratic Casimir. This suggests that there exist dual conformal field theory (CFT) descriptions of these black holes. From the conformal coordinates, the temperatures of the dual CFTs could be read directly. For the extremal black hole, the Hawking temperature is vanishing. Correspondingly, only the left (right) temperature of the dual CFT is nonvanishing, and the excitations of the other sector are suppressed. In the probe limit, we compute the scattering amplitudes of the scalar off the extremal black holes and find perfect agreement with the CFT prediction.
A possible realization of Einstein's causal theory underlying quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yussouff, M.
1979-06-01
It is shown that a new microscopic mechanics formulated earlier can be looked upon as a possible causal theory underlying quantum mechanics, which removes Einstein's famous objections against quantum theory. This approach is free from objections raised against Bohm's hidden variable theory and leads to a clear physical picture in terms of familiar concepts, if self interactions are held responsible for deviations from classical behaviour. The new level of physics unfolded by this approach may reveal novel frontiers in high-energy physics. (author)
The Consensus String Problem and the Complexity of Comparing Hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lyngsø, Rune Bang; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm
2002-01-01
The basic theory of hidden Markov models was developed and applied to problems in speech recognition in the late 1960s, and has since then been applied to numerous problems, e.g. biological sequence analysis. Most applications of hidden Markov models are based on efficient algorithms for computing......-norms. We discuss the applicability of the technique used for proving the hardness of comparing two hidden Markov models under the L1-norm to other measures of distance between probability distributions. In particular, we show that it cannot be used for proving NP-hardness of determining the Kullback...
Anomalies of hidden local chiral symmetries in sigma-models and extended supergravities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vecchia, P. di; Ferrara, S.; Girardello, L.
1985-01-01
Non-linear sigma-models with hidden gauge symmetries are anomalous, at the quantum level, when coupled to chiral fermions in not anomaly free representations of the hidden chiral symmetry. These considerations generally apply to supersymmetric kaehlerian sigma-models on coset spaces with hidden chiral symmetries as well as to extended supergravities in four dimensions with local SU(N) symmetry. The presence of the anomaly implies that the scenario of dynamical generation of gauge vector bosons has to be reconsidered in these theories. (orig.)
Spin chain and duality between string theory and gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorskij, A.S.
2005-01-01
One discusses a string pattern hidden by the integrable spin chains describing the evolution equations in the Yang- Mills theory. It is shown that the single-loop correction to the dilatation operator in N = 4 theory may be expressed in terms of two-point correlation functions at two-dimensional world surface of a string. Correspondence between the Neumann integrable systems and the spin chains leads us to believe that passing to the finite values of the coupling constants in the gauge theory corresponds to the quantization of the world surface. The model of string bits for the digitized world surface is assumed to be in line with representation of the integrable spin chains in terms of the separable variables [ru
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Preko Alexander
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper analyses Customer Complaints Behaviour (CCB using psychographic factors and the Theory of Exit, Voice and Loyalty. Prior studies on the continent of Africa have explored customer dissatisfaction, service failure, complaints handling and complaint attitudes, but not in association with psychographic factors. This research gap is addressed with a new conceptual understanding that integrates psychographic variables and the Theory of Exit, Voice and Loyalty in a single study. In total, 171 valid questionnaires were gathered from customers of two public banks in Accra chosen randomly, and a convenience sampling method was used for the respondents. This study has revealed that assertiveness, conservatism, attitude towards complaints, sense of justice, service attribute significantly influence the theory of Exit, Voice and Loyalty of CCB. What is more, the findings have also shown that there is a statistical difference between complainers and non-complainers. Complainers are more likely to stay loyal, and are less likely to voice out or leave their bankers. We suggest that banks should not only center CCB strategies towards complainers, but should also take into account non-complainers as they are equally important to businesses.
A Hidden Twelve-Dimensional SuperPoincare Symmetry In Eleven Dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno
2003-12-13
First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional superPoincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve dimensional superPoincare symmetry that governs the theory.
Tengattini, Alessandro; Das, Arghya; Nguyen, Giang D.; Viggiani, Gioacchino; Hall, Stephen A.; Einav, Itai
2014-10-01
This is the first of two papers introducing a novel thermomechanical continuum constitutive model for cemented granular materials. Here, we establish the theoretical foundations of the model, and highlight its novelties. At the limit of no cement, the model is fully consistent with the original Breakage Mechanics model. An essential ingredient of the model is the use of measurable and micro-mechanics based internal variables, describing the evolution of the dominant inelastic processes. This imposes a link between the macroscopic mechanical behavior and the statistically averaged evolution of the microstructure. As a consequence this model requires only a few physically identifiable parameters, including those of the original breakage model and new ones describing the cement: its volume fraction, its critical damage energy and bulk stiffness, and the cohesion.
Hidden and generalized conformal symmetry of Kerr–Sen spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghezelbash, A M; Siahaan, H M
2013-01-01
It is recently conjectured that generic non-extremal Kerr black hole could be holographically dual to a hidden conformal field theory (CFT) in two dimensions. Moreover, it is known that there are two CFT duals (pictures) to describe the charged rotating black holes which correspond to angular momentum J and electric charge Q of the black hole. Furthermore these two pictures can be incorporated by the CFT duals (general picture) that are generated by SL(2,Z) modular group. The general conformal structure can be revealed by looking at charged scalar wave equation in some appropriate values of frequency and charge. In this regard, we consider the wave equation of a charged massless scalar field in the background of Kerr–Sen black hole and show that in the ‘near region’, the wave equation can be reproduced by the Casimir operator of a local SL(2,R) L ×SL(2,R) R hidden conformal symmetry. We find the exact agreement between macroscopic and microscopic physical quantities like entropy and absorption cross section of scalars for Kerr–Sen black hole. We then find an extension of vector fields that in turn yields an extended local family of SL(2,R) L ×SL(2,R) R hidden conformal symmetry, parameterized by one parameter. For some special values of the parameter, we find a copy of SL(2,R) hidden conformal algebra for the charged Gibbons–Maeda–Garfinkle–Horowitz–Strominger black hole in the strong deflection limit. (paper)
Korean Conference on Several Complex Variables
Byun, Jisoo; Gaussier, Hervé; Hirachi, Kengo; Kim, Kang-Tae; Shcherbina, Nikolay
2015-01-01
This volume includes 28 chapters by authors who are leading researchers of the world describing many of the up-to-date aspects in the field of several complex variables (SCV). These contributions are based upon their presentations at the 10th Korean Conference on Several Complex Variables (KSCV10), held as a satellite conference to the International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM) 2014 in Seoul, Korea. SCV has been the term for multidimensional complex analysis, one of the central research areas in mathematics. Studies over time have revealed a variety of rich, intriguing, new knowledge in complex analysis and geometry of analytic spaces and holomorphic functions which were "hidden" in the case of complex dimension one. These new theories have significant intersections with algebraic geometry, differential geometry, partial differential equations, dynamics, functional analysis and operator theory, and sheaves and cohomology, as well as the traditional analysis of holomorphic functions in all dimensions. This...
Aoki, Kenichi; Feldman, Marcus W
2014-02-01
The theoretical literature from 1985 to the present on the evolution of learning strategies in variable environments is reviewed, with the focus on deterministic dynamical models that are amenable to local stability analysis, and on deterministic models yielding evolutionarily stable strategies. Individual learning, unbiased and biased social learning, mixed learning, and learning schedules are considered. A rapidly changing environment or frequent migration in a spatially heterogeneous environment favors individual learning over unbiased social learning. However, results are not so straightforward in the context of learning schedules or when biases in social learning are introduced. The three major methods of modeling temporal environmental change--coevolutionary, two-timescale, and information decay--are compared and shown to sometimes yield contradictory results. The so-called Rogers' paradox is inherent in the two-timescale method as originally applied to the evolution of pure strategies, but is often eliminated when the other methods are used. Moreover, Rogers' paradox is not observed for the mixed learning strategies and learning schedules that we review. We believe that further theoretical work is necessary on learning schedules and biased social learning, based on models that are logically consistent and empirically pertinent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aoki, Kenichi; Feldman, Marcus W.
2013-01-01
The theoretical literature from 1985 to the present on the evolution of learning strategies in variable environments is reviewed, with the focus on deterministic dynamical models that are amenable to local stability analysis, and on deterministic models yielding evolutionarily stable strategies. Individual learning, unbiased and biased social learning, mixed learning, and learning schedules are considered. A rapidly changing environment or frequent migration in a spatially heterogeneous environment favors individual learning over unbiased social learning. However, results are not so straightforward in the context of learning schedules or when biases in social learning are introduced. The three major methods of modeling temporal environmental change – coevolutionary, two-timescale, and information decay – are compared and shown to sometimes yield contradictory results. The so-called Rogers’ paradox is inherent in the two-timescale method as originally applied to the evolution of pure strategies, but is often eliminated when the other methods are used. Moreover, Rogers’ paradox is not observed for the mixed learning strategies and learning schedules that we review. We believe that further theoretical work is necessary on learning schedules and biased social learning, based on models that are logically consistent and empirically pertinent. PMID:24211681
Chechlacz, Magdalena; Gillebert, Celine R; Vangkilde, Signe A; Petersen, Anders; Humphreys, Glyn W
2015-07-29
Visuospatial attention allows us to select and act upon a subset of behaviorally relevant visual stimuli while ignoring distraction. Bundesen's theory of visual attention (TVA) (Bundesen, 1990) offers a quantitative analysis of the different facets of attention within a unitary model and provides a powerful analytic framework for understanding individual differences in attentional functions. Visuospatial attention is contingent upon large networks, distributed across both hemispheres, consisting of several cortical areas interconnected by long-association frontoparietal pathways, including three branches of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF I-III) and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF). Here we examine whether structural variability within human frontoparietal networks mediates differences in attention abilities as assessed by the TVA. Structural measures were based on spherical deconvolution and tractography-derived indices of tract volume and hindrance-modulated orientational anisotropy (HMOA). Individual differences in visual short-term memory (VSTM) were linked to variability in the microstructure (HMOA) of SLF II, SLF III, and IFOF within the right hemisphere. Moreover, VSTM and speed of information processing were linked to hemispheric lateralization within the IFOF. Differences in spatial bias were mediated by both variability in microstructure and volume of the right SLF II. Our data indicate that the microstructural and macrostrucutral organization of white matter pathways differentially contributes to both the anatomical lateralization of frontoparietal attentional networks and to individual differences in attentional functions. We conclude that individual differences in VSTM capacity, processing speed, and spatial bias, as assessed by TVA, link to variability in structural organization within frontoparietal pathways. Copyright © 2015 Chechlacz et al.
Bagagnan, A. R.
2016-12-01
In the Gambia, Changes in the climate pattern has affected and continue to affect the agriculture sector and therefore calling for effective adaptation policies. The present study aimed to explain farmers' adoption of climate change adaptation measure through the protection motivation theory in The Central River Region of The Gambia. Primary data were collected in all the eight communities of the study area. A transect walk was conducted first followed by a survey with 283 informants. The perception variables were referring to the past 20 years while the stated implementation was addressing the current adaptation practices. Results showed that on one hand, most of the perception variables such as severity, ability to withstand, and internal barriers are significantly correlated to protection motivation and on the other hand Protection motivation and stated implementation for water conservation technique are strongly correlated. Structural Equation Modeling confirms the mediation role of Protection motivation between Farmers stated implementation and their perception of climate variability. Decrease in soil water storage capacity, degradation of the quality of soil surface structure, decrease of the length of the growing season are factors that motivate farmers to implement an adaptation measure. Cost of the implementation and farmers' vulnerability are factors that prevent farmers to implement an adaptation measure. The cost of the implementation is the main barrier to farmers `protection motivation. Therefore the study suggested that farmers' awareness about climate change/variability should be increased through farmers' field school and awareness campaigns, farmers' resilience should be improved and adaptation measures should be made accessible to farmers through loans facilities and subsidizes application.
Time-dependence in relativistic collisionless shocks: theory of the variable
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spitkovsky, A
2004-02-05
We describe results from time-dependent numerical modeling of the collisionless reverse shock terminating the pulsar wind in the Crab Nebula. We treat the upstream relativistic wind as composed of ions and electron-positron plasma embedded in a toroidal magnetic field, flowing radially outward from the pulsar in a sector around the rotational equator. The relativistic cyclotron instability of the ion gyrational orbit downstream of the leading shock in the electron-positron pairs launches outward propagating magnetosonic waves. Because of the fresh supply of ions crossing the shock, this time-dependent process achieves a limit-cycle, in which the waves are launched with periodicity on the order of the ion Larmor time. Compressions in the magnetic field and pair density associated with these waves, as well as their propagation speed, semi-quantitatively reproduce the behavior of the wisp and ring features described in recent observations obtained using the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. By selecting the parameters of the ion orbits to fit the spatial separation of the wisps, we predict the period of time variability of the wisps that is consistent with the data. When coupled with a mechanism for non-thermal acceleration of the pairs, the compressions in the magnetic field and plasma density associated with the optical wisp structure naturally account for the location of X-ray features in the Crab. We also discuss the origin of the high energy ions and their acceleration in the equatorial current sheet of the pulsar wind.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maestrini, A.P.
1979-04-01
Several problems related to the application of the theory of random by means of state variables are studied. The well-known equations that define the propagation of the mean and the variance for linear and non-linear systems are first presented. The Monte Carlo method is next resorted to in order to determine the applicability of the hypothesis of a normally distributed output in case of linear systems subjected to non-Gaussian excitations. Finally, attention is focused on the properties of linear filters and modulation functions proposed to simulate seismic excitations as non stationary random processes. Acceleration spectra obtained by multiplying rms spectra by a constant factor are compared with design spectra suggested by several authors for various soil conditions. In every case, filter properties are given. (Author) [pt
Skyrmions with holography and hidden local symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nawa, Kanabu; Hosaka, Atsushi; Suganuma, Hideo
2009-01-01
We study baryons as Skyrmions in holographic QCD with D4/D8/D8 multi-D brane system in type IIA superstring theory, and also in the nonlinear sigma model with hidden local symmetry. Comparing these two models, we find that the extra dimension and its nontrivial curvature can largely change the role of (axial) vector mesons for baryons in four-dimensional space-time. In the hidden local symmetry approach, the ρ-meson field as a massive Yang-Mills field has a singular configuration in Skyrmion, which gives a strong repulsion for the baryon as a stabilizer. When the a 1 meson is added in this approach, the stability of Skyrmion is lost by the cancellation of ρ and a 1 contributions. On the contrary, in holographic QCD, the ρ-meson field does not appear as a massive Yang-Mills field due to the extra dimension and its nontrivial curvature. We show that the ρ-meson field has a regular configuration in Skyrmion, which gives a weak attraction for the baryon in holographic QCD. We argue that Skyrmion with π, ρ, and a 1 mesons become stable due to the curved extra dimension and also the presence of the Skyrme term in holographic QCD. From this result, we also discuss the features of our truncated-resonance analysis on baryon properties with π and ρ mesons below the cutoff scale M KK ∼1 GeV in holographic QCD, which is compared with other 5D instanton analysis.
Hidden particle production at the ILC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujii, Keisuke; Itoh, Hideo; Okada, Nobuchika; Hano, Hitoshi; Yoshioka, Tamaki
2008-01-01
In a class of new physics models, the new physics sector is completely or partly hidden, namely, a singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group. Hidden fields included in such new physics models communicate with the standard model sector through higher-dimensional operators. If a cutoff lies in the TeV range, such hidden fields can be produced at future colliders. We consider a scalar field as an example of the hidden fields. Collider phenomenology on this hidden scalar is similar to that of the SM Higgs boson, but there are several features quite different from those of the Higgs boson. We investigate productions of the hidden scalar at the International Linear Collider (ILC) and study the feasibility of its measurements, in particular, how well the ILC distinguishes the scalar from the Higgs boson, through realistic Monte Carlo simulations.
Dissipative hidden sector dark matter
Foot, R.; Vagnozzi, S.
2015-01-01
A simple way of explaining dark matter without modifying known Standard Model physics is to require the existence of a hidden (dark) sector, which interacts with the visible one predominantly via gravity. We consider a hidden sector containing two stable particles charged under an unbroken U (1 )' gauge symmetry, hence featuring dissipative interactions. The massless gauge field associated with this symmetry, the dark photon, can interact via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. In fact, such an interaction of strength ε ˜10-9 appears to be necessary in order to explain galactic structure. We calculate the effect of this new physics on big bang nucleosynthesis and its contribution to the relativistic energy density at hydrogen recombination. We then examine the process of dark recombination, during which neutral dark states are formed, which is important for large-scale structure formation. Galactic structure is considered next, focusing on spiral and irregular galaxies. For these galaxies we modeled the dark matter halo (at the current epoch) as a dissipative plasma of dark matter particles, where the energy lost due to dissipation is compensated by the energy produced from ordinary supernovae (the core-collapse energy is transferred to the hidden sector via kinetic mixing induced processes in the supernova core). We find that such a dynamical halo model can reproduce several observed features of disk galaxies, including the cored density profile and the Tully-Fisher relation. We also discuss how elliptical and dwarf spheroidal galaxies could fit into this picture. Finally, these analyses are combined to set bounds on the parameter space of our model, which can serve as a guideline for future experimental searches.
Hidden magnetism in periodically modulated one dimensional dipolar fermions
Fazzini, S.; Montorsi, A.; Roncaglia, M.; Barbiero, L.
2017-12-01
The experimental realization of time-dependent ultracold lattice systems has paved the way towards the implementation of new Hubbard-like Hamiltonians. We show that in a one-dimensional two-components lattice dipolar Fermi gas the competition between long range repulsion and correlated hopping induced by periodically modulated on-site interaction allows for the formation of hidden magnetic phases, with degenerate protected edge modes. The magnetism, characterized solely by string-like nonlocal order parameters, manifests in the charge and/or in the spin degrees of freedom. Such behavior is enlighten by employing Luttinger liquid theory and numerical methods. The range of parameters for which hidden magnetism is present can be reached by means of the currently available experimental setups and probes.
Williams, Stefanie L; French, David P
2014-02-05
Longitudinal studies have shown that objectively measured walking behaviour is subject to seasonal variation, with people walking more in summer compared to winter. Seasonality therefore may have the potential to bias the results of randomised controlled trials if there are not adequate statistical or design controls. Despite this there are no studies that assess the impact of seasonality on walking behaviour in a randomised controlled trial, to quantify the extent of such bias. Further there have been no studies assessing how season impacts on the psychological predictors of walking behaviour to date. The aim of the present study was to assess seasonal differences in a) objective walking behaviour and b) Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) variables during a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote walking. 315 patients were recruited to a two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial of an intervention to promote walking in primary care. A series of repeated measures ANCOVAs were conducted to examine the effect of season on pedometer measures of walking behaviour and TPB measures, assessed immediately post-intervention and six months later. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess whether season moderated the prediction of intention and behaviour by TPB measures. There were no significant differences in time spent walking in spring/summer compared to autumn/winter. There was no significant seasonal variation in most TPB variables, although the belief that there will be good weather was significantly higher in spring/summer (F = 19.46, p behaviour, or moderate the effects of TPB variables on intention or behaviour. Seasonality does not influence objectively measured walking behaviour or psychological variables during a randomised controlled trial. Consequently physical activity behaviour outcomes in trials will not be biased by the season in which they are measured. Previous studies may have overestimated the extent of
Hidden inventory and safety considerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, A.R.; James, R.H.; Morgan, F.
1976-01-01
Preliminary results are described of the evaluation of residual plutonium in a process line used for the production of experimental fast reactor fuel. Initial attention has been focussed on a selection of work boxes used for processing powders and solutions. Amounts of material measured as ''hidden inventory'' are generally less than 0.1 percent of throughput but in one box containing very complex equipment the amount was exceptionally about 0.5 percent. The total surface area of the box and the installed equipment appears to be the most significant factor in determining the amount of plutonium held-up as ''hidden inventory,'' representing an average of about 4 x 10 -4 g cm -2 . Present results are based on gamma spectrometer measurements but neutron techniques are being developed to overcome some of the inherent uncertainties in the gamma method. It is suggested that the routine use of sample plates of known surface area would be valuable in monitoring the deposition of plutonium in work boxes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
England, R.W.
1979-01-01
Mr. England contends that these hidden costs add up to a figure much higher than those that appear in the electric utilities' profit and loss account - costs that are borne by Federal taxpayers, by nuclear industry workers, and by all those people who must share their environment with nuclear facilities. Costs he details are additional deaths and illnesses resulting from exposure to radiation, and the use of tax dollars to clean up the lethal garbage produced by those activities. He asserts that careless handling of uranium ore and mill tailings in past years has apparently resulted in serious public health problems in those mining communities. In another example, Mr. England states that the failure to isolate uranium tailings physically from their environment has probably contributed to an acute leukemia rate in Mesa County, Colorado. He mentions much of the technology development for power reactors being done by the Federal government, not by private reactor manufacturers - thus, again, hidden costs that do not show up in electric bills of customers. The back end of the nuclear fuel cycle as a place for Federally subsidized research and development is discussed briefly. 1 figure, 2 tables
Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A
2013-01-01
Results from behavioral treatments for obesity have been disappointing due to an inability to sustain healthy eating. The concurrent use of theory, research, and practical application has the potential of reducing overeating through innovative treatments. When overweight individuals begin an exercise program their eating tends to improve, however, the basis of this relationship is not determined. If the psychosocial mediators of the relationship between exercise and improved eating are better understood, supported exercise may be a key component for improving the efficacy of behavioral weight management treatments. In Phase 1 of this research, psychosocial variables derived from social cognitive theory were tested as possible mediators of the relationship of exercise participation with increased fruit and vegetable intake in severely obese adults initiating a 26-week treatment of supported exercise and standard nutrition education (n = 161). Change in self-regulation for healthy eating and self-regulation at treatment end was a strong mediator; with the addition of mood and self-efficacy for healthy eating being additional mediators that notably increased effect ratios. In Phase 2, participants in a cognitive-behavioral nutrition treatment tailored to improve the identified mediators (n = 163) were contrasted with the original group. The cognitive-behavioral nutrition treatment was associated with significantly greater increases than standard nutrition education in self-regulation, p = 0.023, CIs [4.69, 6.48], and [3.19, 5.02], respectively; self-efficacy, p = 0.013, CIs [19.72, 29.41], and [11.70, 20.71], respectively; and a marginally significant decrease in negative mood, p = 0.062, CIs [-14.26, -9.36], and [-10.90, -6.45], respectively. Findings served to inform treatment designs concerning the use of supported exercise and cognitive-behavioral means to derive better outcomes related to nutrition and weight loss in individuals with severe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Battistin, C; Roudi, Y; Hertz, J; Tyrcha, J
2015-01-01
We propose a new algorithm for inferring the state of hidden spins and reconstructing the connections in a synchronous kinetic Ising model, given the observed history. Focusing on the case in which the hidden spins are conditionally independent of each other given the state of observable spins, we show that calculating the likelihood of the data can be simplified by introducing a set of replicated auxiliary spins. Belief propagation (BP) and susceptibility propagation (SusP) can then be used to infer the states of hidden variables and to learn the couplings. We study the convergence and performance of this algorithm for networks with both Gaussian-distributed and binary bonds. We also study how the algorithm behaves as the fraction of hidden nodes and the amount of data are changed, showing that it outperforms the Thouless–Anderson–Palmer (TAP) equations for reconstructing the connections. (paper)
Hidden neural networks: application to speech recognition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Riis, Søren Kamaric
1998-01-01
We evaluate the hidden neural network HMM/NN hybrid on two speech recognition benchmark tasks; (1) task independent isolated word recognition on the Phonebook database, and (2) recognition of broad phoneme classes in continuous speech from the TIMIT database. It is shown how hidden neural networks...
Insight: Exploring Hidden Roles in Collaborative Play
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tricia Shi
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper looks into interaction modes between players in co-located, collaborative games. In particular, hidden traitor games, in which one or more players is secretly working against the group mission, has the effect of increasing paranoia and distrust between players, so this paper looks into the opposite of a hidden traitor – a hidden benefactor. Rather than sabotaging the group mission, the hidden benefactor would help the group achieve the end goal while still having a reason to stay hidden. The paper explores what games with such a role can look like and how the role changes player interactions. Finally, the paper addresses the divide between video game and board game interaction modes; hidden roles are not common within video games, but they are of growing prevalence in board games. This fact, combined with the exploration of hidden benefactors, reveals that hidden roles is a mechanic that video games should develop into in order to match board games’ complexity of player interaction modes.
Helioscope bounds on hidden sector photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redondo, J.
2008-01-01
The flux of hypothetical ''hidden photons'' from the Sun is computed under the assumption that they interact with normal matter only through kinetic mixing with the ordinary standard model photon. Requiring that the exotic luminosity is smaller than the standard photon luminosity provides limits for the mixing parameter down to χ -14 , depending on the hidden photon mass. Furthermore, it is pointed point out that helioscopes looking for solar axions are also sensitive to hidden photons. The recent results of the CAST collaboration are used to further constrain the mixing parameter χ at low masses (m γ' <1 eV) where the luminosity bound is weaker. In this regime the solar hidden photon ux has a sizable contribution of longitudinally polarized hidden photons of low energy which are invisible for current helioscopes. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Hyo Sung; WooTae Ho
2016-01-01
Maruhn-Greiner theory is investigated for the low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in the aspect of the energy productions. Conventional nuclear reactions could give the hints in another kind of the nuclear theoretical utilizations. The results of simulations show the ranges of the configurations for H-ion to Pd with 10; 000 ions as 10 and 180 keV. The most probable ranges are 30 and 600 nanometers respectively. In the simulation result of broad energy regions, the cutoff energy, 350 keV , is very significant in analyzing the LENR, because the range usually depends on the entering particle, target particle, and energy of the entering particle. Therefore, the 350 keV shows there is priority for hydrogen interaction from the energy. In the analysis, the water (H_2O) has the better possibility in LENR after the 350 keV . Following the simulation for searching LENRs, the possible conditions that include the energy based variables of atomic ranges, Debye length, and reaction time has been investigated for the designed energy productions
Cazé, Ana Luiza R; Mäder, Geraldo; Nunes, Teonildes S; Queiroz, Luciano P; de Oliveira, Guilherme; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B
2016-08-01
The Atlantic Forest is one of the most species-rich ecoregions in the world. The historical origins of this richness and the evolutionary processes that produced diversification and promoted speciation in this ecosystem remain poorly understood. In this context, focusing on Passiflora contracta, an endemic species from the Atlantic Forest distributed exclusively at sea level along forest edges, this study aimed to characterize the patterns of genetic variability and explore two hypotheses that attempt to explain the possible causes of the genetic diversity in this region: the refuge and riverine barrier theories. We employed Bayesian methods combined with niche modeling to identify genetically homogeneous groups, to determine the diversification age, and identify long-term climate stability areas to species survival. The analyses were performed using molecular markers from nuclear and plastid genomes, with samples collected throughout the entire geographic distribution of the species, and comparisons with congeners species. The results indicated that populations were genetically structured and provided evidence of demographic stability. The molecular markers indicated the existence of a clear structure and the presence of five homogeneous groups. Interestingly, the separation of the groups coincides with the geographical locations of local rivers, corroborating the hypothesis of rivers acting as barriers to gene flow in this species. The highest levels of genetic diversity and the areas identified as having long-term climate stability were found in the same region reported for other species as a possible refuge area during the climatic changes of the Quaternary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Universality of State-Independent Violation of Correlation Inequalities for Noncontextual Theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badziag, Piotr; Bengtsson, Ingemar; Cabello, Adan; Pitowsky, Itamar
2009-01-01
We show that the state-independent violation of inequalities for noncontextual hidden variable theories introduced in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 210401 (2008)] is universal, i.e., occurs for any quantum mechanical system in which noncontextuality is meaningful. We describe a method to obtain state-independent violations for any system of dimension d≥3. This universality proves that, according to quantum mechanics, there are no 'classical' states.
Lippke, Sonia; Plotnikoff, Ronald C
2009-05-01
Two different theories of health behaviour have been chosen with the aim of theory integration: a continuous theory (protection motivation theory, PMT) and a stage model (transtheoretical model, TTM). This is the first study to test whether the stages of the TTM moderate the interrelation of PMT-variables and the mediation of motivation, as well as PMT-variables' interactions in predicting stage transitions. Hypotheses were tested regarding (1) mean patterns, stage pair-comparisons and nonlinear trends using ANOVAs; (2) prediction-patterns for the different stage groups employing multi-group structural equation modelling (MSEM) and nested model analyses; and (3) stage transitions using binary logistic regression analyses. Adults (N=1,602) were assessed over a 6 month period on their physical activity stages, PMT-variables and subsequent behaviour. (1) Particular mean differences and nonlinear trends in all test variables were found. (2) The PMT adequately fitted the five stage groups. The MSEM revealed that covariances within threat appraisal and coping appraisal were invariant and all other constrains were stage-specific, i.e. stage was a moderator. Except for self-efficacy, motivation fully mediated the relationship between the social-cognitive variables and behaviour. (3) Predicting stage transitions with the PMT-variables underscored the importance of self-efficacy. Only when threat appraisal and coping appraisal were high, stage movement was more likely in the preparation stage. Results emphasize stage-specific differences of the PMT mechanisms, and hence, support the stage construct. The findings may guide further theory building and research integrating different theoretical approaches.
Deci, Edward L.
1976-01-01
This paper discusses ways managers can motivate their employees to work and at the same time to increase their performance. Two theories of motivation--Vroom's theory and Atkinson's theory--focus on the use of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards respectively. A managerial strategy that combines the best of both intrinsic and extrinsic approaches to…
Hidden Markov models in automatic speech recognition
Wrzoskowicz, Adam
1993-11-01
This article describes a method for constructing an automatic speech recognition system based on hidden Markov models (HMMs). The author discusses the basic concepts of HMM theory and the application of these models to the analysis and recognition of speech signals. The author provides algorithms which make it possible to train the ASR system and recognize signals on the basis of distinct stochastic models of selected speech sound classes. The author describes the specific components of the system and the procedures used to model and recognize speech. The author discusses problems associated with the choice of optimal signal detection and parameterization characteristics and their effect on the performance of the system. The author presents different options for the choice of speech signal segments and their consequences for the ASR process. The author gives special attention to the use of lexical, syntactic, and semantic information for the purpose of improving the quality and efficiency of the system. The author also describes an ASR system developed by the Speech Acoustics Laboratory of the IBPT PAS. The author discusses the results of experiments on the effect of noise on the performance of the ASR system and describes methods of constructing HMM's designed to operate in a noisy environment. The author also describes a language for human-robot communications which was defined as a complex multilevel network from an HMM model of speech sounds geared towards Polish inflections. The author also added mandatory lexical and syntactic rules to the system for its communications vocabulary.
Natural inflation with hidden scale invariance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neil D. Barrie
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We propose a new class of natural inflation models based on a hidden scale invariance. In a very generic Wilsonian effective field theory with an arbitrary number of scalar fields, which exhibits scale invariance via the dilaton, the potential necessarily contains a flat direction in the classical limit. This flat direction is lifted by small quantum corrections and inflation is realised without need for an unnatural fine-tuning. In the conformal limit, the effective potential becomes linear in the inflaton field, yielding to specific predictions for the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio, being respectively: ns−1≈−0.025(N⋆60−1 and r≈0.0667(N⋆60−1, where N⋆≈30–65 is a number of efolds during observable inflation. This predictions are in reasonable agreement with cosmological measurements. Further improvement of the accuracy of these measurements may turn out to be critical in falsifying our scenario.
Verducci, M
2011-01-01
A number of extensions of the Standard Model result in neutral and weakly-coupled particles that decay to multi hadrons or multi leptons with macroscopic decay lengths. These particles with decay paths that can be comparable with ATLAS detector dimensions represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS detector. We will present a set of signature driven triggers for the ATLAS detector that target such displaced decays and evaluate their performances for some benchmark models and describe analysis strategies and limits on the production of such long-lived particles. A first estimation of the Hidden Valley trigger rates has been evaluated with 6 pb-1 of data collected at ATLAS during the data taking of 2010.
van der Maas, H.L.J.; Molenaar, D.; Maris, G.; Kievit, R.A.; Borsboom, D.
2011-01-01
This article analyzes latent variable models from a cognitive psychology perspective. We start by discussing work by Tuerlinckx and De Boeck (2005), who proved that a diffusion model for 2-choice response processes entails a 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model for individual
van der Maas, Han L. J.; Molenaar, Dylan; Maris, Gunter; Kievit, Rogier A.; Borsboom, Denny
2011-01-01
This article analyzes latent variable models from a cognitive psychology perspective. We start by discussing work by Tuerlinckx and De Boeck (2005), who proved that a diffusion model for 2-choice response processes entails a 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model for individual differences in the response data. Following this line…
APPLICATION OF HIDDEN MARKOV CHAINS IN QUALITY CONTROL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hanife DEMIRALP
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The ever growing technological innovations and sophistication in industrial processes require adequate checks on quality. Thus, there is an increasing demand for simple and efficient quality control methods. In this regard the control charts stand out in simplicity and efficiency. In this paper, we propose a method of controlling quality based on the theory of hidden Markov chains. Based on samples drawn at different times from the production process, the method obtains the state of the process probabilistically. The main advantage of the method is that it requires no assumption on the normality of the process output.
Characterization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters using hidden Markov models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Baldi, P.; Chauvin, Y.
1996-01-01
In this paper we utilize hidden Markov models (HMMs) and information theory to analyze prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters. We perform this analysis with special emphasis on the fact that promoters are divided into a number of different classes, depending on which polymerase-associated factors...... that bind to them. We find that HMMs trained on such subclasses of Escherichia coli promoters (specifically, the so-called sigma 70 and sigma 54 classes) give an excellent classification of unknown promoters with respect to sigma-class. HMMs trained on eukaryotic sequences from human genes also model nicely...
Scaling dimensions in hidden Kerr/CFT correspondence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lowe, David A.; Messamah, Ilies; Skanata, Antun
2011-01-01
It has been proposed that a hidden conformal field theory (CFT) governs the dynamics of low frequency scattering in a general Kerr black hole background. We further investigate this correspondence by mapping higher order corrections to the massless wave equations in a Kerr background to an expansion within the CFT in terms of higher dimension operators. This implies the presence of infinite towers of CFT primary operators with positive conformal dimensions compatible with unitarity. The exact Kerr background softly breaks the conformal symmetry and the scaling dimensions of these operators run with frequency. The scale-invariant fixed point is dual to a degenerate case of flat spacetime.
Hidden Symmetries for Thermodynamics and Emergence of Relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Liu
2010-01-01
Erik Verlinde recently proposed an idea about the thermodynamic origin of gravity. Though this is a beautiful idea, which may resolve many long standing problems in the theories of gravity, it also raises many other problems. In this article I will comment on some of the problems of Verlinde's proposal with special emphasis on the thermodynamical origin of the principle of relativity. It is found that there is a large group of hidden symmetries of thermodynamics, which contains the Poincare group of the spacetime for which space is emergent. This explains the thermodynamic origin of the principle of relativity. (general)
Shnip, A. I.
2018-01-01
Based on the entropy-free thermodynamic approach, a generalized theory of thermodynamic systems with internal variables of state is being developed. For the case of nonlinear thermodynamic systems with internal variables of state and linear relaxation, the necessary and sufficient conditions have been proved for fulfillment of the second law of thermodynamics in entropy-free formulation which, according to the basic theorem of the theory, are also necessary and sufficient for the existence of a thermodynamic potential. Moreover, relations of correspondence between thermodynamic systems with memory and systems with internal variables of state have been established, as well as some useful relations in the spaces of states of both types of systems.
Contiguity and quantum theory of measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Green, H.S. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). Dept. of Mathematical Physics]|[Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). Dept. of Physics
1995-12-31
This paper presents a comprehensive treatment of the problem of measurement in microscopic physics, consistent with the indeterministic Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and information theory. It is pointed out that there are serious difficulties in reconciling the deterministic interpretations of quantum mechanics, based on the concepts of a universal wave function or hidden variables, with the principle of contiguity. Quantum mechanics is reformulated entirely in terms of observables, represented by matrices, including the statistical matrix, and the utility of information theory is illustrated by a discussion of the EPR paradox. The principle of contiguity is satisfied by all conserved quantities. A theory of the operation of macroscopic measuring devices is given in the interaction representation, and the attenuation of the indeterminacy of a microscopic observable in the process of measurement is related to observable changes of entropy. 28 refs.
Contiguity and quantum theory of measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, H.S.; Adelaide Univ., SA
1995-01-01
This paper presents a comprehensive treatment of the problem of measurement in microscopic physics, consistent with the indeterministic Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and information theory. It is pointed out that there are serious difficulties in reconciling the deterministic interpretations of quantum mechanics, based on the concepts of a universal wave function or hidden variables, with the principle of contiguity. Quantum mechanics is reformulated entirely in terms of observables, represented by matrices, including the statistical matrix, and the utility of information theory is illustrated by a discussion of the EPR paradox. The principle of contiguity is satisfied by all conserved quantities. A theory of the operation of macroscopic measuring devices is given in the interaction representation, and the attenuation of the indeterminacy of a microscopic observable in the process of measurement is related to observable changes of entropy. 28 refs
Bastin, Ted
2009-07-01
List of participants; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. The function of the colloquium - editorial; 2. The conceptual problem of quantum theory from the experimentalist's point of view O. R. Frisch; Part II. Niels Bohr and Complementarity: The Place of the Classical Language: 3. The Copenhagen interpretation C. F. von Weizsäcker; 4. On Bohr's views concerning the quantum theory D. Bohm; Part III. The Measurement Problem: 5. Quantal observation in statistical interpretation H. J. Groenewold; 6. Macroscopic physics, quantum mechanics and quantum theory of measurement G. M. Prosperi; 7. Comment on the Daneri-Loinger-Prosperi quantum theory of measurement Jeffrey Bub; 8. The phenomenology of observation and explanation in quantum theory J. H. M. Whiteman; 9. Measurement theory and complex systems M. A. Garstens; Part IV. New Directions within Quantum Theory: What does the Quantum Theoretical Formalism Really Tell Us?: 10. On the role of hidden variables in the fundamental structure of physics D. Bohm; 11. Beyond what? Discussion: space-time order within existing quantum theory C. W. Kilmister; 12. Definability and measurability in quantum theory Yakir Aharonov and Aage Petersen; 13. The bootstrap idea and the foundations of quantum theory Geoffrey F. Chew; Part V. A Fresh Start?: 14. Angular momentum: an approach to combinatorial space-time Roger Penrose; 15. A note on discreteness, phase space and cohomology theory B. J. Hiley; 16. Cohomology of observations R. H. Atkin; 17. The origin of half-integral spin in a discrete physical space Ted Bastin; Part VI. Philosophical Papers: 18. The unity of physics C. F. von Weizsäcker; 19. A philosophical obstacle to the rise of new theories in microphysics Mario Bunge; 20. The incompleteness of quantum mechanics or the emperor's missing clothes H. R. Post; 21. How does a particle get from A to B?; Ted Bastin; 22. Informational generalization of entropy in physics Jerome Rothstein; 23. Can life explain quantum mechanics? H. H
Hidden Dimensions in the So-Called Reality of a Mathematics Classroom.
Bauersfeld, Heinrich
1980-01-01
Teaching and learning mathematics in classrooms is interpreted as human interaction in an institutionalized setting. Using theories and categories from different disciplines, a classroom episode is reanalyzed. Four hidden dimensions in the classroom process and thus deficient areas of research are identified. Consequences for teacher training are…
Bosonization, dual transformation and non-local hidden symmetry in two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hata, Hiroyuki
1985-01-01
The non-local hidden symmetry is investigated in the bosonized non-abelian Thirring model and the dual representation of the chiral model. In these representations the first non-local symmetry is spontaneously broken in naive pertubation theory. (orig.)
UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage
... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...
Hidden costs, value lost: uninsurance in America
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance
2003-01-01
Hidden Cost, Value Lost , the fifth of a series of six books on the consequences of uninsurance in the United States, illustrates some of the economic and social losses to the country of maintaining...
The hidden epidemic: confronting sexually transmitted diseases
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Eng, Thomas R; Butler, William T
.... In addition, STDs increase the risk of HIV transmission. The Hidden Epidemic examines the scope of sexually transmitted infections in the United States and provides a critical assessment of the nation's response to this public health crisis...
Perspective: Disclosing hidden sources of funding.
Resnik, David B
2009-09-01
In this article, the author discusses ethical and policy issues related to the disclosure of hidden sources of funding in research. The author argues that authors have an ethical obligation to disclose hidden sources of funding and that journals should adopt policies to enforce this obligation. Journal policies should require disclosure of hidden sources of funding that authors know about and that have a direct relation to their research. To stimulate this discussion, the author describes a recent case: investigators who conducted a lung cancer screening study had received funding from a private foundation that was supported by a tobacco company, but they did not disclose this relationship to the journal. Investigators and journal editors must be prepared to deal with these issues in a manner that promotes honesty, transparency, fairness, and accountability in research. The development of well-defined, reasonable policies pertaining to hidden sources of funding can be a step in this direction.
Hidden symmetries in one-dimensional quantum Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curado, E.M.F.; Rego-Monteiro, M.A.; Nazareno, H.N.
2000-11-01
We construct a Heisenberg-like algebra for the one dimensional infinite square-well potential in quantum mechanics. The number-type and ladder operators are realized in terms of physical operators of the system as in the harmonic oscillator algebra. These physical operators are obtained with the help of variables used in a recently developed non commutative differential calculus. This square-well algebra is an example of an algebra in large class of generalized Heisenberg algebras recently constructed. This class of algebras also contains q-oscillators as a particular case. We also show here how this general algebra can address hidden symmetries present in several quantum systems. (author)
Petro Rents, Political Institutions, and Hidden Wealth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jørgen Juel; Johannesen, Niels; Lassen, David Dreyer
2017-01-01
Do political institutions limit rent seeking by politicians? We study the transformation of petroleum rents, almost universally under direct government control, into hidden wealth using unique data on bank deposits in offshore financial centers that specialize in secrecy and asset protection. Our...... rulers is diverted to secret accounts. We find very limited evidence that shocks to other types of income not directly controlled by governments affect hidden wealth....
Hidden charm molecules in a finite volume
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albaladejo, M.; Hidalgo-Duque, C.; Nieves, J.; Oset, E.
2014-01-01
In the present paper we address the interaction of charmed mesons in hidden charm channels in a finite box. We use the interaction from a recent model based on heavy quark spin symmetry that predicts molecules of hidden charm in the infinite volume. The energy levels in the box are generated within this model, and several methods for the analysis of these levels ("inverse problem") are investigated. (author)
Workplace ageism: discovering hidden bias.
Malinen, Sanna; Johnston, Lucy
2013-01-01
BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Research largely shows no performance differences between older and younger employees, or that older workers even outperform younger employees, yet negative attitudes towards older workers can underpin discrimination. Unfortunately, traditional "explicit" techniques for assessing attitudes (i.e., self-report measures) have serious drawbacks. Therefore, using an approach that is novel to organizational contexts, the authors supplemented explicit with implicit (indirect) measures of attitudes towards older workers, and examined the malleability of both. This research consists of two studies. The authors measured self-report (explicit) attitudes towards older and younger workers with a survey, and implicit attitudes with a reaction-time-based measure of implicit associations. In addition, to test whether attitudes were malleable, the authors measured attitudes before and after a mental imagery intervention, where the authors asked participants in the experimental group to imagine respected and valued older workers from their surroundings. Negative, stable implicit attitudes towards older workers emerged in two studies. Conversely, explicit attitudes showed no age bias and were more susceptible to change intervention, such that attitudes became more positive towards older workers following the experimental manipulation. This research demonstrates the unconscious nature of bias against older workers, and highlights the utility of implicit attitude measures in the context of the workplace. In the current era of aging workforce and skill shortages, implicit measures may be necessary to illuminate hidden workplace ageism.
On history dependence of stress-strain diagrams and creep curves under variable repeated loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gokhfeld, D.A.; Sadakov, O.S.; Martynenko, M.E.
1979-01-01
The ability of structural alloys to 'keep in memory' the loading prehistory becomes of special importance when inelastic variable repeated loading is considered. There are two main approaches to the development of the mathematical description of this phenomenon: the inclusion of hidden state variables in the incremental theory constitutive equations (a) and construction of proper hereditary functionals (b). In this respect the assumption that the 'memory' regarding the previous deformation history is due to structural nonhomogeneity of actual materials proves to be fruitful. (orig.)
Nicolini, Paola; Ciulla, Michele M; De Asmundis, Carlo; Magrini, Fabio; Brugada, Pedro
2012-05-01
Heart rate variability (HRV) is the temporal beat-to-beat variation in successive RR intervals on an electrocardiographic (ECG) recording and it reflects the regulation of the heart rate (HR) by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). HRV analysis is a noninvasive tool for the assessment of autonomic function that gained momentum in the late 1980s when its clinical relevance as a predictor of mortality was established by a milestone study by Kleiger et al. in patients with postacute myocardial infarction. In the last few decades, the increasing availability of commercial ECG devices offering HRV analysis has made HRV a favorite marker for risk stratification in the setting of cardiovascular disease. The rapid aging of the world population and the growing popularity of HRV have also fueled interest for the prognostic value of HRV in the elderly, outside a specific cardiological context. However, the discussion of HRV measures in the elderly is still very much centered on the rather reductionistic model of sympathovagal balance, with the orthosympathetic and parasympathetic limbs of the ANS exercising opposing effects on the heart via autonomic tone. The expanding application of nonlinear dynamics to medicine has brought to the forefront the notion of system complexity, embedded in the mathematical concepts of chaos theory and fractals, and provides an opportunity to suggest a broader interpretation for the prognostic significance of HRV, especially in the elderly. Although the use of novel indices of HRV may be hampered by practical issues, a more holistic approach to HRV may still be safeguarded if traditional time- and frequency-domain measures are viewed in terms of autonomic modulation. This review focuses on HRV in geriatric populations. It considers studies on the prognostic value of HRV in elderly subjects, discussing the potential confounding effect of erratic rhythm, and concentrates on the conceptual distinction between autonomic tone and autonomic modulation
Backward causation, hidden variables and the meaning of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
relation to the issue as to whether quantum mechanics provides a complete ..... The moral of this discussion for HV approaches — especially for those .... should simply recognise that they are different, and get on with the business of exploring.
Hidden Markov Model of atomic quantum jump dynamics in an optically probed cavity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, S.; Molmer, K.; Alt, W.
2014-01-01
We analyze the quantum jumps of an atom interacting with a cavity field. The strong atom- field interaction makes the cavity transmission depend on the time dependent atomic state, and we present a Hidden Markov Model description of the atomic state dynamics which is conditioned in a Bayesian...... manner on the detected signal. We suggest that small variations in the observed signal may be due to spatial motion of the atom within the cavity, and we represent the atomic system by a number of hidden states to account for both the small variations and the internal state jump dynamics. In our theory...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhoury, R.; Comtet, A.
1986-01-01
We discuss how a ''hidden supersymmetry'' of the underlying field theories can be used to interpret and to calculate fermion number fractionization, axial anomalies, and anomalies in odd dimensions. All of the above effects can be related to a corresponding Witten index Δ(β) defined using the hidden sypersymmetry: thus providing a unified treatment for them. The relevance of the β dependence of the Witten index in the different cases is also discussed. Further, for the three-dimensional case, an expression for the parity violating part of the effective action at finite temperatures is obtained. copyright 1986 Academic Press, Inc
Lunardi, Alessandra
2018-01-01
This book is the third edition of the 1999 lecture notes of the courses on interpolation theory that the author delivered at the Scuola Normale in 1998 and 1999. In the mathematical literature there are many good books on the subject, but none of them is very elementary, and in many cases the basic principles are hidden below great generality. In this book the principles of interpolation theory are illustrated aiming at simplification rather than at generality. The abstract theory is reduced as far as possible, and many examples and applications are given, especially to operator theory and to regularity in partial differential equations. Moreover the treatment is self-contained, the only prerequisite being the knowledge of basic functional analysis.
Hydrogeophysical investigations at Hidden Dam, Raymond, California
Minsley, Burke J.; Burton, Bethany L.; Ikard, Scott; Powers, Michael H.
2011-01-01
Self-potential and direct current resistivity surveys are carried out at the Hidden Dam site in Raymond, California to assess present-day seepage patterns and better understand the hydrogeologic mechanisms that likely influence seepage. Numerical modeling is utilized in conjunction with the geophysical measurements to predict variably-saturated flow through typical two-dimensional dam cross-sections as a function of reservoir elevation. Several different flow scenarios are investigated based on the known hydrogeology, as well as information about typical subsurface structures gained from the resistivity survey. The flow models are also used to simulate the bulk electrical resistivity in the subsurface under varying saturation conditions, as well as the self-potential response using petrophysical relationships and electrokinetic coupling equations.The self-potential survey consists of 512 measurements on the downstream area of the dam, and corroborates known seepage areas on the northwest side of the dam. Two direct-current resistivity profiles, each approximately 2,500 ft (762 m) long, indicate a broad sediment channel under the northwest side of the dam, which may be a significant seepage pathway through the foundation. A focusing of seepage in low-topography areas downstream of the dam is confirmed from the numerical flow simulations, which is also consistent with past observations. Little evidence of seepage is identified from the self-potential data on the southeast side of the dam, also consistent with historical records, though one possible area of focused seepage is identified near the outlet works. Integration of the geophysical surveys, numerical modeling, and observation well data provides a framework for better understanding seepage at the site through a combined hydrogeophysical approach.
2018-01-01
Signaling pathways represent parts of the global biological molecular network which connects them into a seamless whole through complex direct and indirect (hidden) crosstalk whose structure can change during development or in pathological conditions. We suggest a novel methodology, called Googlomics, for the structural analysis of directed biological networks using spectral analysis of their Google matrices, using parallels with quantum scattering theory, developed for nuclear and mesoscopic physics and quantum chaos. We introduce analytical “reduced Google matrix” method for the analysis of biological network structure. The method allows inferring hidden causal relations between the members of a signaling pathway or a functionally related group of genes. We investigate how the structure of hidden causal relations can be reprogrammed as a result of changes in the transcriptional network layer during cancerogenesis. The suggested Googlomics approach rigorously characterizes complex systemic changes in the wiring of large causal biological networks in a computationally efficient way. PMID:29370181
Probing hidden sector photons through the Higgs window
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahlers, M.
2008-07-01
We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the Standard Model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs Portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light-shining-through-the-wall experiments as well as cosmological, astrophysical, and non-Newtonian force measurements. For hidden-photons receiving their mass from a hidden-Higgs we find in the small mass regime significantly stronger bounds than the bounds on massive hidden sector photons alone. (orig.)
Probing hidden sector photons through the Higgs window
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahlers, Markus; Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas
2008-01-01
We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the standard model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light-shining-through-the-wall experiments as well as cosmological, astrophysical, and non-Newtonian force measurements. For hidden-photons receiving their mass from a hidden-Higgs, we find in the small mass regime significantly stronger bounds than the bounds on massive hidden sector photons alone.
Fitting Hidden Markov Models to Psychological Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ingmar Visser
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Markov models have been used extensively in psychology of learning. Applications of hidden Markov models are rare however. This is partially due to the fact that comprehensive statistics for model selection and model assessment are lacking in the psychological literature. We present model selection and model assessment statistics that are particularly useful in applying hidden Markov models in psychology. These statistics are presented and evaluated by simulation studies for a toy example. We compare AIC, BIC and related criteria and introduce a prediction error measure for assessing goodness-of-fit. In a simulation study, two methods of fitting equality constraints are compared. In two illustrative examples with experimental data we apply selection criteria, fit models with constraints and assess goodness-of-fit. First, data from a concept identification task is analyzed. Hidden Markov models provide a flexible approach to analyzing such data when compared to other modeling methods. Second, a novel application of hidden Markov models in implicit learning is presented. Hidden Markov models are used in this context to quantify knowledge that subjects express in an implicit learning task. This method of analyzing implicit learning data provides a comprehensive approach for addressing important theoretical issues in the field.
Geometric phases and hidden local gauge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujikawa, Kazuo
2005-01-01
The analysis of geometric phases associated with level crossing is reduced to the familiar diagonalization of the Hamiltonian in the second quantized formulation. A hidden local gauge symmetry, which is associated with the arbitrariness of the phase choice of a complete orthonormal basis set, becomes explicit in this formulation (in particular, in the adiabatic approximation) and specifies physical observables. The choice of a basis set which specifies the coordinate in the functional space is arbitrary in the second quantization, and a subclass of coordinate transformations, which keeps the form of the action invariant, is recognized as the gauge symmetry. We discuss the implications of this hidden local gauge symmetry in detail by analyzing geometric phases for cyclic and noncyclic evolutions. It is shown that the hidden local symmetry provides a basic concept alternative to the notion of holonomy to analyze geometric phases and that the analysis based on the hidden local gauge symmetry leads to results consistent with the general prescription of Pancharatnam. We however note an important difference between the geometric phases for cyclic and noncyclic evolutions. We also explain a basic difference between our hidden local gauge symmetry and a gauge symmetry (or equivalence class) used by Aharonov and Anandan in their definition of generalized geometric phases
Datta, Subhra; Ghosal, Sandip; Patankar, Neelesh A
2006-02-01
Electroosmotic flow in a straight micro-channel of rectangular cross-section is computed numerically for several situations where the wall zeta-potential is not constant but has a specified spatial variation. The results of the computation are compared with an earlier published asymptotic theory based on the lubrication approximation: the assumption that any axial variations take place on a long length scale compared to a characteristic channel width. The computational results are found to be in excellent agreement with the theory even when the scale of axial variations is comparable to the channel width. In the opposite limit when the wavelength of fluctuations is much shorter than the channel width, the lubrication theory fails to describe the solution either qualitatively or quantitatively. In this short wave limit the solution is well described by Ajdari's theory for electroosmotic flow between infinite parallel plates (Ajdari, A., Phys. Rev. E 1996, 53, 4996-5005.) The infinitely thin electric double layer limit is assumed in the theory as well as in the simulation.
Siegler, Robert S.
2007-01-01
Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…
Excluding joint probabilities from quantum theory
Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Danageozian, Arshag
2018-03-01
Quantum theory does not provide a unique definition for the joint probability of two noncommuting observables, which is the next important question after the Born's probability for a single observable. Instead, various definitions were suggested, e.g., via quasiprobabilities or via hidden-variable theories. After reviewing open issues of the joint probability, we relate it to quantum imprecise probabilities, which are noncontextual and are consistent with all constraints expected from a quantum probability. We study two noncommuting observables in a two-dimensional Hilbert space and show that there is no precise joint probability that applies for any quantum state and is consistent with imprecise probabilities. This contrasts with theorems by Bell and Kochen-Specker that exclude joint probabilities for more than two noncommuting observables, in Hilbert space with dimension larger than two. If measurement contexts are included into the definition, joint probabilities are not excluded anymore, but they are still constrained by imprecise probabilities.
Massive hidden photons as lukewarm dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redondo, Javier; Postma, Marieke
2008-11-01
We study the possibility that a keV-MeV mass hidden photon (HP), i.e. a hidden sector U(1) gauge boson, accounts for the observed amount of dark matter. We focus on the case where the HP interacts with the standard model sector only through kinetic mixing with the photon. The relic abundance is computed including all relevant plasma effects into the photon's self-energy, which leads to a resonant yield almost independent of the HP mass. The HP can decay into three photons. Moreover, if light enough it can be copiously produced in stars. Including bounds from cosmic photon backgrounds and stellar evolution, we find that the hidden photon can only give a subdominant contribution to the dark matter. This negative conclusion may be avoided if another production mechanism besides kinetic mixing is operative. (orig.)
Massive hidden photons as lukewarm dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Postma, Marieke [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2008-11-15
We study the possibility that a keV-MeV mass hidden photon (HP), i.e. a hidden sector U(1) gauge boson, accounts for the observed amount of dark matter. We focus on the case where the HP interacts with the standard model sector only through kinetic mixing with the photon. The relic abundance is computed including all relevant plasma effects into the photon's self-energy, which leads to a resonant yield almost independent of the HP mass. The HP can decay into three photons. Moreover, if light enough it can be copiously produced in stars. Including bounds from cosmic photon backgrounds and stellar evolution, we find that the hidden photon can only give a subdominant contribution to the dark matter. This negative conclusion may be avoided if another production mechanism besides kinetic mixing is operative. (orig.)
Religious Tolerance in the Hidden Curriculum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kevin Nobel Kurniawan
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Religious intolerance is spreading within the Indonesian institution of education. Previous studies have shown that the growth of intolerance is due to the state’s regulation and pedagogical apparatus. In contrast to the previous studies, I argue that the intolerance is related to hidden curriculum applied by the institution of education. Normatively, the hidden curriculum contains the value of religious tolerance. However, factually, the author found that there are practices of intolerance, through the formal and informal spheres in the school’s structure, within the hidden curriculum. This article applies a qualitative approach with a mixed method research strategy to analyze data collected from students, teachers, and alumnis through field observation, in-depth interview, and survey.
Hidden treasures - 50 km points of interests
Lommi, Matias; Kortelainen, Jaana
2015-04-01
Tampere is third largest city in Finland and a regional centre. During 70's there occurred several communal mergers. Nowadays this local area has both strong and diversed identity - from wilderness and agricultural fields to high density city living. Outside the city center there are interesting geological points unknown for modern city settlers. There is even a local proverb, "Go abroad to Teisko!". That is the area the Hidden Treasures -student project is focused on. Our school Tammerkoski Upper Secondary School (or Gymnasium) has emphasis on visual arts. We are going to offer our art students scientific and artistic experiences and knowledge about the hidden treasures of Teisko area and involve the Teisko inhabitants into this project. Hidden treasures - Precambrian subduction zone and a volcanism belt with dense bed of gold (Au) and arsenic (As), operating goldmines and quarries of minerals and metamorphic slates. - North of subduction zone a homogenic precambrian magmastone area with quarries, products known as Kuru Grey. - Former ashores of post-glasial Lake Näsijärvi and it's sediments enabled the developing agriculture and sustained settlement. Nowadays these ashores have both scenery and biodiversity values. - Old cattle sheds and dairy buildings made of local granite stones related to cultural stonebuilding inheritance. - Local active community of Kapee, about 100 inhabitants. Students will discover information of these "hidden" phenomena, and rendering this information trough Enviromental Art Method. Final form of this project will be published in several artistic and informative geocaches. These caches are achieved by a GPS-based special Hidden Treasures Cycling Route and by a website guiding people to find these hidden points of interests.
Algesheimer, René; Bagozzi, Richard P.; Dholakia, Utpal M.
2018-01-01
We offer a new conceptualization and measurement models for constructs at the group-level of analysis in small group research. The conceptualization starts with classical notions of group behavior proposed by Tönnies, Simmel, and Weber and then draws upon plural subject theory by philosophers Gilbert and Tuomela to frame a new perspective…
Molenaar, P.C.M.; Huizenga, H.M.; Nesselroade, J.R.; Staudinger, U.M.
2003-01-01
(from the chapter) Proponents of the developmental systems theory (DST) have questioned the relevance of behavior genetics for the study of developmental processes. In this chapter, the criticism of DST will be reformulated in a way that is consistent with Wohlwill's thesis that the study of
Valas, Harald; Sovik, Nils
1993-01-01
Effects of the controlling strategies of the mathematics teacher on student achievement, interest, and mathematics self-concept were demonstrated in a longitudinal study involving 161 seventh graders and 164 eighth graders. This empirical test of the self-determination theory of Deci and Ryan provides insight into student motivation. (SLD)
The origin of the hidden supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jakubsky, Vit; Nieto, Luis-Miguel; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.
2010-01-01
The hidden supersymmetry and related tri-supersymmetric structure of the free particle system, the Dirac delta potential problem and the Aharonov-Bohm effect (planar, bound state, and tubule models) are explained by a special nonlocal unitary transformation, which for the usual N=2 supercharges has a nature of Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. We show that in general case, the bosonized supersymmetry of nonlocal, parity even systems emerges in the same construction, and explain the origin of the unusual N=2 supersymmetry of electron in three-dimensional parity even magnetic field. The observation extends to include the hidden superconformal symmetry.
Signatures of a hidden cosmic microwave background.
Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas
2008-09-26
If there is a light Abelian gauge boson gamma' in the hidden sector its kinetic mixing with the photon can produce a hidden cosmic microwave background (HCMB). For meV masses, resonant oscillations gammagamma' happen after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) but before CMB decoupling, increasing the effective number of neutrinos Nnu(eff) and the baryon to photon ratio, and distorting the CMB blackbody spectrum. The agreement between BBN and CMB data provides new constraints. However, including Lyman-alpha data, Nnu(eff) > 3 is preferred. It is tempting to attribute this effect to the HCMB. The interesting parameter range will be tested in upcoming laboratory experiments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frey, H. Christopher [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Rhodes, David S. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)
1999-04-30
This is Volume 1 of a two-volume set of reports describing work conducted at North Carolina State University sponsored by Grant Number DE-FG05-95ER30250 by the U.S. Department of Energy. The title of the project is “Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Acid Rain Assessments.” The work conducted under sponsorship of this grant pertains primarily to two main topics: (1) development of new methods for quantitative analysis of variability and uncertainty applicable to any type of model; and (2) analysis of variability and uncertainty in the performance, emissions, and cost of electric power plant combustion-based NOx control technologies. These two main topics are reported separately in Volumes 1 and 2.
Results from the solar hidden photon search (SHIPS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwarz, Matthias; Schneide, Magnus; Susol, Jaroslaw; Wiedemann, Guenter; Redondo, Javier
2015-02-01
We present the results of a search for transversely polarised hidden photons (HPs) with ∝3 eV energies emitted from the Sun. These hypothetical particles, known also as paraphotons or dark sector photons, are theoretically well motivated for example by string theory inspired extensions of the Standard Model. Solar HPs of sub-eV mass can convert into photons of the same energy (photon<->HP oscillations are similar to neutrino flavour oscillations). At SHIPS this would take place inside a long light-tight high-vacuum tube, which tracks the Sun. The generated photons would then be focused into a low-noise photomultiplier at the far end of the tube. Our analysis of 330 h of data (and 330 h of background characterisation) reveals no signal of photons from solar hidden photon conversion. We estimate the rate of newly generated photons due to this conversion to be smaller than 25 mHz/m 2 at the 95%C.L. Using this and a recent model of solar HP emission, we set stringent constraints on χ, the coupling constant between HPs and photons, as a function of the HP mass.
Results from the Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwarz, Matthias [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Lindner, Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Schneide, Magnus; Susol, Jaroslaw; Wiedemann, Günter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)
2015-08-07
We present the results of a search for transversely polarised hidden photons (HPs) with ∼3 eV energies emitted from the Sun. These hypothetical particles, known also as paraphotons or dark sector photons, are theoretically well motivated for example by string theory inspired extensions of the Standard Model. Solar HPs of sub-eV mass can convert into photons of the same energy (photon ↔ HP oscillations are similar to neutrino flavour oscillations). At SHIPS this would take place inside a long light-tight high-vacuum tube, which tracks the Sun. The generated photons would then be focused into a low-noise photomultiplier at the far end of the tube. Our analysis of 330 h of data (and 330 h of background characterisation) reveals no signal of photons from solar hidden photon conversion. We estimate the rate of newly generated photons due to this conversion to be smaller than 25 mHz/m{sup 2} at the 95% C.L. Using this and a recent model of solar HP emission, we set stringent constraints on χ, the coupling constant between HPs and photons, as a function of the HP mass.
Results from the Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwarz, Matthias; Schneide, Magnus; Susol, Jaroslaw; Wiedemann, Günter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier, E-mail: mschwarz@hs.uni-hamburg.de, E-mail: ernst-axel.knabbe@desy.de, E-mail: Axel-lindner@desy.de, E-mail: jredondo@unizar.es, E-mail: Andreas.Ringwald@desy.de, E-mail: mschneide@hs.uni-hamburg.de, E-mail: jsusol@hs.uni-hamburg.de, E-mail: gwiedemann@hs.uni-hamburg.de [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain)
2015-08-01
We present the results of a search for transversely polarised hidden photons (HPs) with ∼ 3 eV energies emitted from the Sun. These hypothetical particles, known also as paraphotons or dark sector photons, are theoretically well motivated for example by string theory inspired extensions of the Standard Model. Solar HPs of sub-eV mass can convert into photons of the same energy (photon ↔ HP oscillations are similar to neutrino flavour oscillations). At SHIPS this would take place inside a long light-tight high-vacuum tube, which tracks the Sun. The generated photons would then be focused into a low-noise photomultiplier at the far end of the tube. Our analysis of 330 h of data (and 330 h of background characterisation) reveals no signal of photons from solar hidden photon conversion. We estimate the rate of newly generated photons due to this conversion to be smaller than 25 mHz/m{sup 2} at the 95% C.L . Using this and a recent model of solar HP emission, we set stringent constraints on χ, the coupling constant between HPs and photons, as a function of the HP mass.
Results from the solar hidden photon search (SHIPS)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwarz, Matthias; Schneide, Magnus; Susol, Jaroslaw; Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Sternwarte; Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)
2015-02-15
We present the results of a search for transversely polarised hidden photons (HPs) with ∝3 eV energies emitted from the Sun. These hypothetical particles, known also as paraphotons or dark sector photons, are theoretically well motivated for example by string theory inspired extensions of the Standard Model. Solar HPs of sub-eV mass can convert into photons of the same energy (photon<->HP oscillations are similar to neutrino flavour oscillations). At SHIPS this would take place inside a long light-tight high-vacuum tube, which tracks the Sun. The generated photons would then be focused into a low-noise photomultiplier at the far end of the tube. Our analysis of 330 h of data (and 330 h of background characterisation) reveals no signal of photons from solar hidden photon conversion. We estimate the rate of newly generated photons due to this conversion to be smaller than 25 mHz/m{sup 2} at the 95%C.L. Using this and a recent model of solar HP emission, we set stringent constraints on χ, the coupling constant between HPs and photons, as a function of the HP mass.
Wu, Qiang; Zhao, Dekang; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianjun; Mu, Wenping; Liu, Honglei
2017-11-01
Water inrush from coal-seam floors greatly threatens mining safety in North China and is a complex process controlled by multiple factors. This study presents a mathematical assessment system for coal-floor water-inrush risk based on the variable-weight model (VWM) and unascertained measure theory (UMT). In contrast to the traditional constant-weight model (CWM), which assigns a fixed weight to each factor, the VWM varies with the factor-state value. The UMT employs the confidence principle, which is more effective in ordered partition problems than the maximum membership principle adopted in the former mathematical theory. The method is applied to the Datang Tashan Coal Mine in North China. First, eight main controlling factors are selected to construct the comprehensive evaluation index system. Subsequently, an incentive-penalty variable-weight model is built to calculate the variable weights of each factor. Then, the VWM-UMT model is established using the quantitative risk-grade divide of each factor according to the UMT. On this basis, the risk of coal-floor water inrush in Tashan Mine No. 8 is divided into five grades. For comparison, the CWM is also adopted for the risk assessment, and a differences distribution map is obtained between the two methods. Finally, the verification of water-inrush points indicates that the VWM-UMT model is powerful and more feasible and reasonable. The model has great potential and practical significance in future engineering applications.
Searching for hidden sectors in multiparticle production at the LHC
Sanchis-Lozano, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Picot, Salvador
2016-01-01
We study the impact of a hidden sector beyond the Standard Model, e.g. a Hidden Valley model, on factorial moments and cumulants of multiplicity distributions in multiparticle production with a special emphasis on the prospects for LHC results.
Hidden beauty in multiloop amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cachazo, Freddy; Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia
2006-01-01
Planar L-loop maximally helicity violating amplitudes in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are believed to possess the remarkable property of satisfying iteration relations in L. We propose a simple new method for studying iteration relations for four-particle amplitudes which involves the use of certain linear differential operators and eliminates the need to fully evaluate any loop integrals. We carry out this procedure in explicit detail for the two-loop amplitude and prove that this method can be applied to any multiloop integral, allowing a conjectured iteration relation for any given amplitude to be tested up to polynomials in logarithms
Hunting the hidden standard Higgs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhundov, A.A.; Bardin, D.Yu.; Riemann, T.
1985-01-01
In the framework of the standard theory of electroweak interactions the Msub(Z) t(the weak neutral gauge form mass) sin sup(2)THETAsub(W) interdependence with account of radiative corrections is investigated as a function of the Higgs boson mass Msub(H) at fixed m sub(t) (mass of heavy up-type quarn). It is shown that precision measurements of Msub(XZ) and sub sup(2)THETAsub(W) at SLC and LEP will allow one to estimate Msub(H) with an accuracy of about 100 GeV
Hidden Markov Models for Human Genes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren; Chauvin, Yves
1997-01-01
We analyse the sequential structure of human genomic DNA by hidden Markov models. We apply models of widely different design: conventional left-right constructs and models with a built-in periodic architecture. The models are trained on segments of DNA sequences extracted such that they cover com...
The Hidden Cost of Buying a Computer.
Johnson, Michael
1983-01-01
In order to process data in a computer, application software must be either developed or purchased. Costs for modifications of the software package and maintenance are often hidden. The decision to buy or develop software packages should be based upon factors of time and maintenance. (MLF)
Hidden Markov models for labeled sequences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krogh, Anders Stærmose
1994-01-01
A hidden Markov model for labeled observations, called a class HMM, is introduced and a maximum likelihood method is developed for estimating the parameters of the model. Instead of training it to model the statistics of the training sequences it is trained to optimize recognition. It resembles MMI...
Stergiou, George S; Palatini, Paolo; Asmar, Roland; Bilo, Grzegorz; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Head, Geoff; Kario, Kazuomi; Mihailidou, Anastasia; Wang, Jiguang; Mancia, Giuseppe; O'Brien, Eoin; Parati, Gianfranco
2018-02-01
The European Society of Hypertension (ESH) Working Group on Blood Pressure (BP) Monitoring and Cardiovascular Variability organized a Teaching Course on 'Blood Pressure Monitoring: Theory and Practice' during the 2017 ESH Meeting in Milan, Italy. This course performed by 11 international BP monitoring experts covered key topics of BP monitoring, including office BP measurement, ambulatory BP monitoring, home BP monitoring, ambulatory versus home BP, white-coat and masked hypertension, cuff use, and BP variability. This article presents a summary of the proceedings of the ESH BP Monitoring Teaching Course, including essential information, practical issues, and recommendations on the clinical application of BP monitoring methods, aiming to the optimal management of patients with suspected or diagnosed hypertension.
Graham, Wendy D.; Tankersley, Claude D.
1994-05-01
Stochastic methods are used to analyze two-dimensional steady groundwater flow subject to spatially variable recharge and transmissivity. Approximate partial differential equations are developed for the covariances and cross-covariances between the random head, transmissivity and recharge fields. Closed-form solutions of these equations are obtained using Fourier transform techniques. The resulting covariances and cross-covariances can be incorporated into a Bayesian conditioning procedure which provides optimal estimates of the recharge, transmissivity and head fields given available measurements of any or all of these random fields. Results show that head measurements contain valuable information for estimating the random recharge field. However, when recharge is treated as a spatially variable random field, the value of head measurements for estimating the transmissivity field can be reduced considerably. In a companion paper, the method is applied to a case study of the Upper Floridan Aquifer in NE Florida.
Is Hidden Crossings Theory a New MOCC Method?
Krstić, Predrag; Schultz, David
1998-05-01
We find un unitary transformation of the scaled adiabatic Hamiltonian of a two-center, one-electron collision system which yields a new representation for the matrix elements of nonadiabatic radial coupling, valid for low-to-intermediate collision velocities. These are given in analytic form once the topology of the branch points of the adiabatic Hamiltonian in the plane of complex internuclear distance R is known. The matrix elements do not depend on origin of electronic coordinates and properly vanish at large internuclear distances. The role of the rotational couplings in the new representation is also discussed. The aproach is appropriately extended and compared with the PSS treatment in the fully quantal description of the collision. We apply new radial and rotational matrix elements in the standard Molecular Orbital Close Coupling (MOCC) approach to describe excitation and ionization in collisions of antiprotons with He^+ and of alpha-particles with hydrogen(P.S. Krstić et al, J. Phys. B. 31, in press (1998).). The results are compared with those obtained from the standard MOCC method and from the direct solutions of the Schrödinger equation on lattice (LTDSE)(D.R. Schultz et al, Phys. Rev. A 56, 3710 (1997)).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schabinger, Robert; Wells, James D.
2005-01-01
Little experimental data bears on the question of whether there is a spontaneously broken hidden sector that has no Standard Model quantum numbers. Here we discuss the prospects of finding evidence for such a hidden sector through renormalizable interactions of the Standard Model Higgs boson with a Higgs boson of the hidden sector. We find that the lightest Higgs boson in this scenario has smaller rates in standard detection channels, and it can have a sizeable invisible final state branching fraction. Details of the hidden sector determine whether the overall width of the lightest state is smaller or larger than the Standard Model width. We compute observable rates, total widths and invisible decay branching fractions within the general framework. We also introduce the 'A-Higgs Model', which corresponds to the limit of a hidden sector Higgs boson weakly mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson. This model has only one free parameter in addition to the mass of the light Higgs state and it illustrates most of the generic phenomenology issues, thereby enabling it to be a good benchmark theory for collider searches. We end by presenting an analogous supersymmetry model with similar phenomenology, which involves hidden sector Higgs bosons interacting with MSSM Higgs bosons through D-terms
Aligning the Hidden Curriculum of Management Education With PRME
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blasco, Maribel
2012-01-01
and content alone is not enough to improve students’ sense of social responsibility. Business schools are conceptualized in this article as multilevel learning environments comprising various message sites where students undergo moral learning and socialization processes. Using perspectives from HC research...... combined with transformative learning and communities of practice theory, the article offers an inquiry-based framework for PRME implementation that takes these moral learning and socialization processes into account. It provides suggestions for how to address the hidden curriculum both in the diagnostic...... phase of assessing a school’s PRME needs and in the implementation phase where PRME is integrated into business school learning environments. The concept of meta-messages is introduced to account for how students apprehend the HC at business schools....
Asymmetric dark matter and the hadronic spectra of hidden QCD
Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Schroor, Martine; Volkas, Raymond R.
2017-09-01
The idea that dark matter may be a composite state of a hidden non-Abelian gauge sector has received great attention in recent years. Frameworks such as asymmetric dark matter motivate the idea that dark matter may have similar mass to the proton, while mirror matter and G ×G grand unified theories provide rationales for additional gauge sectors which may have minimal interactions with standard model particles. In this work we explore the hadronic spectra that these dark QCD models can allow. The effects of the number of light colored particles and the value of the confinement scale on the lightest stable state, the dark matter candidate, are examined in the hyperspherical constituent quark model for baryonic and mesonic states.
LHCb - Search for hidden-sector bosons at LHCb
Mauri, Andrea
2016-01-01
A search is presented for a hidden-sector boson, $\\chi$, produced in the decay $B^0 \\rightarrow K^* (892)^0 \\chi$, with $K^* (892)^0 \\rightarrow K^+ \\pi^-$ and $\\chi \\rightarrow \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ . The search is performed using a $pp$-collision data sample collected at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 1 and 2 fb$^{-1}$ respectively. No significant signal is observed in the mass range $214 \\le m_\\chi \\le 4350$ MeV, and upper limits are placed on the branching fraction product $\\mathcal{B}(B^0 \\rightarrow K^* (892)^0 \\chi) \\times \\mathcal{B}(\\chi \\rightarrow \\mu^+ \\mu^- )$ as a function of the mass and lifetime of the $\\chi$ boson. These limits place the most stringent constraints to date on many theories that predict the existence of additional low-mass dark bosons.
Gauge theories in particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aitchison, I.J.R.; Hey, A.J.G.
1982-01-01
The first theory, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is known to give a successful account of electromagnetic interactions. Weak and strong interactions are described by gauge theories which are generalisations of QED. The electro-weak gauge theory of Glashow Salam and Weinberg unites electromagnetic and weak interactions. Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the gauge theory of strong interactions. This approach to these theories, designed for the non-specialist, is based on a straightforward generalisation of non-relativistic quantum-mechanical perturbation theory to the relativistic case, leading to an intuitive introduction to Feynman graphs. Spontaneously broken-or 'hidden'-symmetries are given particular attention, with the physics of hidden gauge invariance and the role of the vacuum (essential to the unified theories) being illustrated by an extended but elementary discussion of the non-relativistic example of superconductivity. Throughout, emphasis is placed both on realistic calculations and on physical understanding. (author)
Vonroos, O. H.
1982-01-01
A theory of deep point defects imbedded in otherwise perfect semiconductor crystals is developed with the aid of pseudopotentials. The dominant short-range forces engendered by the impurity are sufficiently weakened in all cases where the cancellation theorem of the pseudopotential formalism is operative. Thus, effective-mass-like equations exhibiting local effective potentials derived from nonlocal pseudopotentials are shown to be valid for a large class of defects. A two-band secular determinant for the energy eigenvalues of deep defects is also derived from the set of integral equations which corresponds to the set of differential equations of the effective-mass type. Subsequently, the theory in its simplest form, is applied to the system Al(x)Ga(1-x)As:Se. It is shown that the one-electron donor level of Se within the forbidden gap of Al(x)Ga(1-x)As as a function of the AlAs mole fraction x reaches its maximum of about 300 meV (as measured from the conduction band edge) at the cross-over from the direct to the indirect band-gap at x = 0.44 in agreement with experiments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhongbo Hu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Many improved differential Evolution (DE algorithms have emerged as a very competitive class of evolutionary computation more than a decade ago. However, few improved DE algorithms guarantee global convergence in theory. This paper developed a convergent DE algorithm in theory, which employs a self-adaptation scheme for the parameters and two operators, that is, uniform mutation and hidden adaptation selection (haS operators. The parameter self-adaptation and uniform mutation operator enhance the diversity of populations and guarantee ergodicity. The haS can automatically remove some inferior individuals in the process of the enhancing population diversity. The haS controls the proposed algorithm to break the loop of current generation with a small probability. The breaking probability is a hidden adaptation and proportional to the changes of the number of inferior individuals. The proposed algorithm is tested on ten engineering optimization problems taken from IEEE CEC2011.
Krstacic, Goran; Krstacic, Antonija; Smalcelj, Anton; Milicic, Davor; Jembrek-Gostovic, Mirjana
2007-04-01
Dynamic analysis techniques may quantify abnormalities in heart rate variability (HRV) based on nonlinear and fractal analysis (chaos theory). The article emphasizes clinical and prognostic significance of dynamic changes in short-time series applied on patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) during the exercise electrocardiograph (ECG) test. The subjects were included in the series after complete cardiovascular diagnostic data. Series of R-R and ST-T intervals were obtained from exercise ECG data after sampling digitally. The range rescaled analysis method determined the fractal dimension of the intervals. To quantify fractal long-range correlation's properties of heart rate variability, the detrended fluctuation analysis technique was used. Approximate entropy (ApEn) was applied to quantify the regularity and complexity of time series, as well as unpredictability of fluctuations in time series. It was found that the short-term fractal scaling exponent (alpha(1)) is significantly lower in patients with CHD (0.93 +/- 0.07 vs 1.09 +/- 0.04; P chaos theory during the exercise ECG test point out the multifractal time series in CHD patients who loss normal fractal characteristics and regularity in HRV. Nonlinear analysis technique may complement traditional ECG analysis.
Kim, Matthew H; Marulis, Loren M; Grammer, Jennie K; Morrison, Frederick J; Gehring, William J
2017-03-01
Motivational beliefs and values influence how children approach challenging activities. The current study explored motivational processes from an expectancy-value theory framework by studying children's mistakes and their responses to them by focusing on two event-related potential (ERP) components: the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe). Motivation was assessed using a child-friendly challenge puzzle task and a brief interview measure prior to ERP testing. Data from 50 4- to 6-year-old children revealed that greater perceived competence beliefs were related to a larger Pe, whereas stronger intrinsic task value beliefs were associated with a smaller Pe. Motivation was unrelated to the ERN. Individual differences in early motivational processes may reflect electrophysiological activity related to conscious error awareness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alexandrov, Mikhail Dmitrievic; Geogdzhayev, Igor V.; Tsigaridis, Konstantinos; Marshak, Alexander; Levy, Robert; Cairns, Brian
2016-01-01
A novel model for the variability in aerosol optical thickness (AOT) is presented. This model is based on the consideration of AOT fields as realizations of a stochastic process, that is the exponent of an underlying Gaussian process with a specific autocorrelation function. In this approach AOT fields have lognormal PDFs and structure functions having the correct asymptotic behavior at large scales. The latter is an advantage compared with fractal (scale-invariant) approaches. The simple analytical form of the structure function in the proposed model facilitates its use for the parameterization of AOT statistics derived from remote sensing data. The new approach is illustrated using a month-long global MODIS AOT dataset (over ocean) with 10 km resolution. It was used to compute AOT statistics for sample cells forming a grid with 5deg spacing. The observed shapes of the structure functions indicated that in a large number of cases the AOT variability is split into two regimes that exhibit different patterns of behavior: small-scale stationary processes and trends reflecting variations at larger scales. The small-scale patterns are suggested to be generated by local aerosols within the marine boundary layer, while the large-scale trends are indicative of elevated aerosols transported from remote continental sources. This assumption is evaluated by comparison of the geographical distributions of these patterns derived from MODIS data with those obtained from the GISS GCM. This study shows considerable potential to enhance comparisons between remote sensing datasets and climate models beyond regional mean AOTs.
The unconscious at work; how hidden patterns in organizations may hamper social innovation
Andriessen, Daan
2010-01-01
Social innovation is the renewal of labour organisation that leads to improved performance by the organisation. The innovations that are promoted under the heading of social innovation often require substantive behavioural change on the part of employees and managers. However, in many organisations there are hidden, often unconscious forces at work that make it difficult to implement these new ways of working. In this paper Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs and transactional analysis theory are use...
Geolocating fish using Hidden Markov Models and Data Storage Tags
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Madsen, Henrik
2009-01-01
Geolocation of fish based on data from archival tags typically requires a statistical analysis to reduce the effect of measurement errors. In this paper we present a novel technique for this analysis, one based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM's). We assume that the actual path of the fish is generated...... by a biased random walk. The HMM methodology produces, for each time step, the probability that the fish resides in each grid cell. Because there is no Monte Carlo step in our technique, we are able to estimate parameters within the likelihood framework. The method does not require the distribution...... of inference in state-space models of animals. The technique can be applied to geolocation based on light, on tidal patterns, or measurement of other variables that vary with space. We illustrate the method through application to a simulated data set where geolocation relies on depth data exclusively....
Boeker, Peter; Leppert, Jan; Mysliwietz, Bodo; Lammers, Peter Schulze
2013-10-01
The Deans' switch is an effluent switching device based on controlling flows of carrier gas instead of mechanical valves in the analytical flow path. This technique offers high inertness and a wear-free operation. Recently new monolithic microfluidic devices have become available. In these devices the whole flow system is integrated into a small metal device with low thermal mass and leak-tight connections. In contrast to a mechanical valve-based system, a flow-controlled system is more difficult to calculate. Usually the Deans' switch is used to switch one inlet to one of two outlets, by means of two auxiliary flows. However, the Deans' switch can also be used to deliver the GC effluent with a specific split ratio to both outlets. The calculation of the split ratio of the inlet flow to the two outlets is challenging because of the asymmetries of the flow resistances. This is especially the case, if one of the outlets is a vacuum device, such as a mass spectrometer, and the other an atmospheric detector, e.g. a flame ionization detector (FID) or an olfactory (sniffing) port. The capillary flows in gas chromatography are calculated with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation of the laminar, isothermal and compressible flow in circular tubes. The flow resistances in the new microfluidic devices have to be calculated with the corresponding equation for rectangular cross-section microchannels. The Hagen-Poiseuille equation underestimates the flow to a vacuum outlet. A corrected equation originating from the theory of rarefied flows is presented. The calculation of pressures and flows of a Deans' switch based chromatographic system is done by the solution of mass balances. A specific challenge is the consideration of the antidiffusion resistor between the two auxiliary gas lines of the Deans' switch. A full solution for the calculation of the Deans' switch including this restrictor is presented. Results from validation measurements are in good accordance with the developed
Single-hidden-layer feed-forward quantum neural network based on Grover learning.
Liu, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Chein; Chang, Ching-Ter; Shih, Lun-Min
2013-09-01
In this paper, a novel single-hidden-layer feed-forward quantum neural network model is proposed based on some concepts and principles in the quantum theory. By combining the quantum mechanism with the feed-forward neural network, we defined quantum hidden neurons and connected quantum weights, and used them as the fundamental information processing unit in a single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network. The quantum neurons make a wide range of nonlinear functions serve as the activation functions in the hidden layer of the network, and the Grover searching algorithm outstands the optimal parameter setting iteratively and thus makes very efficient neural network learning possible. The quantum neuron and weights, along with a Grover searching algorithm based learning, result in a novel and efficient neural network characteristic of reduced network, high efficient training and prospect application in future. Some simulations are taken to investigate the performance of the proposed quantum network and the result show that it can achieve accurate learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Santacreu Mas
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain how and why individual differences emerge despite accounting for biological andsocio-cultural differences, why people behave differently in the same context, and how behavior becomes stable and consistent. We review the experimental work on variability and stereotypy. In animal research, in contrast to expectations, there is interindividual variability in behavior under extreme environmental control. In addition, intraindividual consistency (stereotypy is detected in animals whose behavior is not fully adjusted to the contingencies. The differences in what is learned (the kind of contingency relations among laboratory animals can be explained by: a the differences between effective contingencies and programmed contingencies, and b the relationship between exploration and rate of reinforcement. In experimental studies in humans, learning differences in identical environments depend, further to the above, onwhat was previously learned by the individual (experience and education and the thoroughness and internal consistency of task instructions. From these concepts, we propose a psychological theory of personality that explains: (a how we learn different relationships from the same experience; (b how behavioral individual differences emerge (variability; and (cwhy each individual’s behavior becomes stable and consistent.
Ohsawa, Takeo
2015-01-01
The purpose of this monograph is to present the current status of a rapidly developing part of several complex variables, motivated by the applicability of effective results to algebraic geometry and differential geometry. Highlighted are the new precise results on the L² extension of holomorphic functions. In Chapter 1, the classical questions of several complex variables motivating the development of this field are reviewed after necessary preparations from the basic notions of those variables and of complex manifolds such as holomorphic functions, pseudoconvexity, differential forms, and cohomology. In Chapter 2, the L² method of solving the d-bar equation is presented emphasizing its differential geometric aspect. In Chapter 3, a refinement of the Oka–Cartan theory is given by this method. The L² extension theorem with an optimal constant is included, obtained recently by Z. Błocki and by Q.-A. Guan and X.-Y. Zhou separately. In Chapter 4, various results on the Bergman kernel are presented, includi...
Extended abstract of a hidden agenda
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goguen, J.; Malcolm, G. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)
1996-12-31
The initial goal of our hidden research programme was both straightforward and ambitious: give a semantics for software engineering, and in particular for the object paradigm, supporting correctness proofs that are as simple and mechanical as possible. This emphasizes proofs rather than models, and thus suggests an equational approach, rather than one based on higher order logic, denotational semantics, or any kind of model, because equational proofs achieve maximal simplicity and mechanization, and yet are fully expressive. We introduce powerful coinduction techniques for proving behavioral properties of complex systems. We make the no doubt outrageous claim that our hidden approach gives simpler proofs than other formalisms; this is because we exploit algebraic structure that most other approaches discard.
Laser experiments explore the hidden sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahlers, M.
2007-11-01
Recently, the laser experiments BMV and GammeV, searching for light shining through walls, have published data and calculated new limits on the allowed masses and couplings for axion-like particles. In this note we point out that these experiments can serve to constrain a much wider variety of hidden-sector particles such as, e.g., minicharged particles and hidden-sector photons. The new experiments improve the existing bounds from the older BFRT experiment by a factor of two. Moreover, we use the new PVLAS constraints on a possible rotation and ellipticity of light after it has passed through a strong magnetic field to constrain pure minicharged particle models. For masses -7 times the electron electric charge. This is the best laboratory bound and comparable to bounds inferred from the energy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background. (orig.)
Quantum mechanics and hidden superconformal symmetry
Bonezzi, R.; Corradini, O.; Latini, E.; Waldron, A.
2017-12-01
Solvability of the ubiquitous quantum harmonic oscillator relies on a spectrum generating osp (1 |2 ) superconformal symmetry. We study the problem of constructing all quantum mechanical models with a hidden osp (1 |2 ) symmetry on a given space of states. This problem stems from interacting higher spin models coupled to gravity. In one dimension, we show that the solution to this problem is the Vasiliev-Plyushchay family of quantum mechanical models with hidden superconformal symmetry obtained by viewing the harmonic oscillator as a one dimensional Dirac system, so that Grassmann parity equals wave function parity. These models—both oscillator and particlelike—realize all possible unitary irreducible representations of osp (1 |2 ).
Hidden Costs and the Role of Modularity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Marcus M.
2013-01-01
that the inability to effectively estimate the costs of implementing an activity in a foreign location has a negative impact on the process performance of that activity. Performance is deterred as operations are likely to be disrupted by opportunity costs and managerial responses. However, this relationship......This paper addresses estimation errors in strategic decision-making processes due to hidden costs. While previous research has investigated the antecedents of hidden costs, this paper investigates performance consequences. Using unique data on 221 offshoring implementations, it is argued...... is mitigated by the degree of modularity in the activity as it reduces the need for costly coordination in offshoring. This paper contributes to research on offshoring and strategic decision-making by emphasizing the importance of organizational design and of estimating the costs of internal organizational...
The Misapplication of Probability Theory in Quantum Mechanics
Racicot, Ronald
2014-03-01
This article is a revision of two papers submitted to the APS in the past two and a half years. In these papers, arguments and proofs are summarized for the following: (1) The wrong conclusion by EPR that Quantum Mechanics is incomplete, perhaps requiring the addition of ``hidden variables'' for completion. Theorems that assume such ``hidden variables,'' such as Bell's theorem, are also wrong. (2) Quantum entanglement is not a realizable physical phenomenon and is based entirely on assuming a probability superposition model for quantum spin. Such a model directly violates conservation of angular momentum. (3) Simultaneous multiple-paths followed by a quantum particle traveling through space also cannot possibly exist. Besides violating Noether's theorem, the multiple-paths theory is based solely on probability calculations. Probability calculations by themselves cannot possibly represent simultaneous physically real events. None of the reviews of the submitted papers actually refuted the arguments and evidence that was presented. These analyses should therefore be carefully evaluated since the conclusions reached have such important impact in quantum mechanics and quantum information theory.
The Hidden Gifts of Quiet Kids
Trierweiler, Hannah
2006-01-01
The author relates that she was an introvert child. It has always taken her time and energy to find her place in a group. As a grown-up, she still needed quiet time to regroup during a busy day. In this article, the author presents an interview with Marti Olsen Laney, author of "The Hidden Gifts of the Introverted Child." During the interview,…
Hidden neuronal correlations in cultured networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segev, Ronen; Baruchi, Itay; Hulata, Eyal; Ben-Jacob, Eshel
2004-01-01
Utilization of a clustering algorithm on neuronal spatiotemporal correlation matrices recorded during a spontaneous activity of in vitro networks revealed the existence of hidden correlations: the sequence of synchronized bursting events (SBEs) is composed of statistically distinguishable subgroups each with its own distinct pattern of interneuron spatiotemporal correlations. These findings hint that each of the SBE subgroups can serve as a template for coding, storage, and retrieval of a specific information
A masking index for quantifying hidden glitches
Berti-Equille, Laure; Loh, J. M.; Dasu, T.
2015-01-01
Data glitches are errors in a dataset. They are complex entities that often span multiple attributes and records. When they co-occur in data, the presence of one type of glitch can hinder the detection of another type of glitch. This phenomenon is called masking. In this paper, we define two important types of masking and propose a novel, statistically rigorous indicator called masking index for quantifying the hidden glitches. We outline four cases of masking: outliers masked by missing valu...
Cold dark matter from the hidden sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arias, Paola; Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago
2012-02-01
Weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs) such as hidden photons (HP) and axion-like particles (ALPs) have been proposed as cold dark matter candidates. They might be produced non-thermally via the misalignment mechanism, similarly to cold axions. In this talk we review the main processes of thermalisation of HP and we compute the parameter space that may survive as cold dark matter population until today. Our findings are quite encouraging for experimental searches in the laboratory in the near future.
Cold dark matter from the hidden sector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica
2012-02-15
Weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs) such as hidden photons (HP) and axion-like particles (ALPs) have been proposed as cold dark matter candidates. They might be produced non-thermally via the misalignment mechanism, similarly to cold axions. In this talk we review the main processes of thermalisation of HP and we compute the parameter space that may survive as cold dark matter population until today. Our findings are quite encouraging for experimental searches in the laboratory in the near future.
Hidden histories: challenges for pedagogy and participation
Morrice, Linda
2013-01-01
Higher Education has become and an increasingly diverse and globalised system in which the binaries between ‘traditional’ and ‘non-traditional’ students, exclusion and inclusion have less resonance and analytical purchase. Drawing on research with refugees Linda will suggest that higher education can be marked simultaneously by belonging and recognition, deficit and exclusion. Complex differences and inequalities remain hidden and unspoken, raising new questions and challenges for pedagogy an...
Hidden sector behind the CKM matrix
Okawa, Shohei; Omura, Yuji
2017-08-01
The small quark mixing, described by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix in the standard model, may be a clue to reveal new physics around the TeV scale. We consider a simple scenario that extra particles in a hidden sector radiatively mediate the flavor violation to the quark sector around the TeV scale and effectively realize the observed CKM matrix. The lightest particle in the hidden sector, whose contribution to the CKM matrix is expected to be dominant, is a good dark matter (DM) candidate. There are many possible setups to describe this scenario, so that we investigate some universal predictions of this kind of model, focusing on the contribution of DM to the quark mixing and flavor physics. In this scenario, there is an explicit relation between the CKM matrix and flavor violating couplings, such as four-quark couplings, because both are radiatively induced by the particles in the hidden sector. Then, we can explicitly find the DM mass region and the size of Yukawa couplings between the DM and quarks, based on the study of flavor physics and DM physics. In conclusion, we show that DM mass in our scenario is around the TeV scale, and the Yukawa couplings are between O (0.01 ) and O (1 ). The spin-independent DM scattering cross section is estimated as O (10-9) [pb]. An extra colored particle is also predicted at the O (10 ) TeV scale.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koizumi, Hiroyasu
2013-01-01
When Schrödinger solved the Schrödinger equation for the hydrogen atom, he assumed the single-valuedness of the electronic wave function. Thereafter, this assumption has been one of the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics. When wave functions are multi-component, however, the imposing of the single-valued condition may become nontrivial. The spin-degree-of-freedom of electron makes electronic wave functions two-component. When spin-vortices are created by the conduction electrons and they move in the self-consistent field with the spin-vortices, the twisting of the spin basis occurs; then, the imposing of the single-valued condition becomes nontrivial, and a vector potential is induced. As a consequence, the effective vector potential becomes the sum of the vector potential from the induced one and that originates from the electric current. This effective vector potential is gauge invariant and the persistent current is generated by it. In the present work, we argue that if interactions that are omitted in the BCS reduced Hamiltonian are included, spin-vortices may be generated upon the application of a magnetic field. Then, the vector potential is induced and provides with the phase variable, θ, of the electron pair amplitude. The appearance of the spin-vortex provides with a new origin of θ; it originates from the induced gauge potential. This origin is compatible with the superselection rule for charge in contrast to the currently-accepted origin.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergei A. Soldatenko
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Geophysical cybernetics allows for exploring weather and climate modification (geoengineering as an optimal control problem in which the Earth’s climate system is considered as a control system and the role of controller is given to human operators. In mathematical models used in climate studies control actions that manipulate the weather and climate can be expressed via variations in model parameters that act as controls. In this paper, we propose the “instability-sensitivity” approach that allows for determining feasible control variables in geoengineering. The method is based on the sensitivity analysis of mathematical models that describe various types of natural instability phenomena. The applicability of this technique is illustrated by a model of atmospheric baroclinic instability since this physical mechanism plays a significant role in the general circulation of the atmosphere and, consequently, in climate formation. The growth rate of baroclinic unstable waves is taken as an indicator of control manipulations. The information obtained via calculated sensitivity coefficients is very beneficial for assessing the physical feasibility of methods of control of the large-scale atmospheric dynamics and for designing optimal control systems for climatic processes. It also provides insight into potential future changes in baroclinic waves, as a result of a changing climate.
Kinetic mixing of the photon with hidden U(1)s in string phenomenology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abel, S.A.; Khoze, V.V.; Jaeckel, J.
2008-03-01
Embeddings of the standard model in type II string theory typically contain a variety of U(1) gauge factors arising from D-branes in the bulk. In general, there is no reason why only one of these - the one corresponding to weak hypercharge - should be massless. Observations require that standard model particles must be neutral (or have an extremely small charge) under additional massless U(1)s, i.e. the latter have to belong to a so called hidden sector. The exchange of heavy messengers, however, can lead to a kinetic mixing between the hypercharge and the hidden-sector U(1)s, that is testable with near future experiments. This provides a powerful probe of the hidden sectors and, as a consequence, of the string theory realisation itself. In the present paper, we show, using a variety of methods, how the kinetic mixing can be derived from the underlying type II string compactification, involving supersymmetric and nonsupersymmetric configurations of D-branes, both in large volumes and in warped backgrounds with fluxes. We first demonstrate by explicit example that kinetic mixing occurs in a completely supersymmetric set-up where we can use conformal field theory techniques. We then develop a supergravity approach which allows us to examine the phenomenon in more general backgrounds, where we find that kinetic mixing is natural in the context of flux compactifications. We discuss the phenomenological consequences for experiments at the low-energy frontier, searching for signatures of light, sub-electronvolt or even massless hidden-sector U(1) gauge bosons and minicharged particles. (orig.)
Kinetic mixing of the photon with hidden U(1)s in string phenomenology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abel, S.A.; Khoze, V.V. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Goodsell, M.D. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, Paris (France); Jaeckel, J. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology]|[Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2008-03-15
Embeddings of the standard model in type II string theory typically contain a variety of U(1) gauge factors arising from D-branes in the bulk. In general, there is no reason why only one of these - the one corresponding to weak hypercharge - should be massless. Observations require that standard model particles must be neutral (or have an extremely small charge) under additional massless U(1)s, i.e. the latter have to belong to a so called hidden sector. The exchange of heavy messengers, however, can lead to a kinetic mixing between the hypercharge and the hidden-sector U(1)s, that is testable with near future experiments. This provides a powerful probe of the hidden sectors and, as a consequence, of the string theory realisation itself. In the present paper, we show, using a variety of methods, how the kinetic mixing can be derived from the underlying type II string compactification, involving supersymmetric and nonsupersymmetric configurations of D-branes, both in large volumes and in warped backgrounds with fluxes. We first demonstrate by explicit example that kinetic mixing occurs in a completely supersymmetric set-up where we can use conformal field theory techniques. We then develop a supergravity approach which allows us to examine the phenomenon in more general backgrounds, where we find that kinetic mixing is natural in the context of flux compactifications. We discuss the phenomenological consequences for experiments at the low-energy frontier, searching for signatures of light, sub-electronvolt or even massless hidden-sector U(1) gauge bosons and minicharged particles. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoerhammer, C.
2007-01-01
In this thesis, non-Markovian dynamics, decoherence and entanglement in dissipative quantum systems are studied. In particular, applications to quantum information theory of continuous variable systems are considered. The non-Markovian dynamics are described by the Hu-Paz-Zhang master equation of quantum Brownian motion. In this context the focus is on non-Markovian effects on decoherence and separability time scales of various single- mode and two-mode continuous variable states. It is verified that moderate non-Markovian influences slow down the decay of interference fringes and quantum correlations, while strong non-Markovian effects resulting from an out-of-resonance bath can even accelerate the loss of coherence, compared to predictions of Markovian approximations. Qualitatively different scenarios including exponential, Gaussian or algebraic decay of the decoherence function are analyzed. It is shown that partial recurrence of coherence can occur in case of non-Lindblad-type dynamics. The time evolution of quantum correlations of entangled two-mode continuous variable states is examined in single-reservoir and two-reservoir models, representing noisy correlated or uncorrelated non-Markovian quantum channels. For this purpose the model of quantum Brownian motion is extended. Various separability criteria for Gaussian and non-Gaussian continuous variable systems are applied. In both types of reservoir models moderate non-Markovian effects prolong the separability time scales. However, in these models the properties of the stationary state may differ. In the two-reservoir model the initial entanglement is completely lost and both modes are finally uncorrelated. In a common reservoir both modes interact indirectly via the coupling to the same bath variables. Therefore, new quantum correlations may emerge between the two modes. Below a critical bath temperature entanglement is preserved even in the steady state. A separability criterion is derived, which depends
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jalalzadeh, S.; Rostami, T. [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moniz, P.V. [Centro de Matematica e Aplicacoes-UBI, Covilha (Portugal); Universidade da Beira Interior, Departamento de Fisica, Covilha (Portugal)
2015-01-01
A framework associating quantum cosmological boundary conditions to minisuperspace hidden symmetries has been introduced in Jalalzadeh and Moniz (Phys Rev D 89:083504, 2014). The scope of the application was, notwithstanding the novelty, restrictive because it lacked a discussion involving realistic matter fields. Therefore, in the present letter, we extend the framework scope to encompass elements from a scalar-tensor theory in the presence of a cosmological constant. More precisely, it is shown that hidden minisuperspace symmetries present in a pre-big bang model suggest a process from which boundary conditions can be selected. (orig.)
Calise, A. J.; Kadushin, I.; Kramer, F.
1981-01-01
The current status of research on the application of variable structure system (VSS) theory to design aircraft flight control systems is summarized. Two aircraft types are currently being investigated: the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA), and AV-8A Harrier. The AWJSRA design considers automatic control of longitudinal dynamics during the landing phase. The main task for the AWJSRA is to design an automatic landing system that captures and tracks a localizer beam. The control task for the AV-8A is to track velocity commands in a hovering flight configuration. Much effort was devoted to developing computer programs that are needed to carry out VSS design in a multivariable frame work, and in becoming familiar with the dynamics and control problems associated with the aircraft types under investigation. Numerous VSS design schemes were explored, particularly for the AWJSRA. The approaches that appear best suited for these aircraft types are presented. Examples are given of the numerical results currently being generated.
Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza
2016-10-01
In this article, a nonlocal four-variable refined plate theory is developed to examine the buckling behavior of nanoplates made of magneto-electro-elastic functionally graded (MEE-FG) materials resting on Winkler-Pasternak foundation. Material properties of nanoplate change in spatial coordinate based on power-law distribution. The nonlocal governing equations are deduced by employing the Hamilton principle. For various boundary conditions, the analytical solutions of nonlocal MEE-FG plates for buckling problem will be obtained based on an exact solution approach. Finally, dependency of buckling response of MEE-FG nanoplate on elastic foundation parameters, magnetic potential, external electric voltage, various boundary conditions, small scale parameter, power-law index, plate side-to-thickness ratio and aspect ratio will be figure out. These results can be advantageous for the mechanical analysis and design of intelligent nanoscale structures constructed from magneto-electro-thermo-elastic functionally graded materials.
Forte, Esther; Llovell, Felix; Vega, Lourdes F; Trusler, J P Martin; Galindo, Amparo
2011-04-21
An accurate prediction of phase behavior at conditions far and close to criticality cannot be accomplished by mean-field based theories that do not incorporate long-range density fluctuations. A treatment based on renormalization-group (RG) theory as developed by White and co-workers has proven to be very successful in improving the predictions of the critical region with different equations of state. The basis of the method is an iterative procedure to account for contributions to the free energy of density fluctuations of increasing wavelengths. The RG method has been combined with a number of versions of the statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT), by implementing White's earliest ideas with the improvements of Prausnitz and co-workers. Typically, this treatment involves two adjustable parameters: a cutoff wavelength L for density fluctuations and an average gradient of the wavelet function Φ. In this work, the SAFT-VR (variable range) equation of state is extended with a similar crossover treatment which, however, follows closely the most recent improvements introduced by White. The interpretation of White's latter developments allows us to establish a straightforward method which enables Φ to be evaluated; only the cutoff wavelength L then needs to be adjusted. The approach used here begins with an initial free energy incorporating only contributions from short-wavelength fluctuations, which are treated locally. The contribution from long-wavelength fluctuations is incorporated through an iterative procedure based on attractive interactions which incorporate the structure of the fluid following the ideas of perturbation theories and using a mapping that allows integration of the radial distribution function. Good agreement close and far from the critical region is obtained using a unique fitted parameter L that can be easily related to the range of the potential. In this way the thermodynamic properties of a square-well (SW) fluid are given by the same
Clustering Multivariate Time Series Using Hidden Markov Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shima Ghassempour
2014-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper we describe an algorithm for clustering multivariate time series with variables taking both categorical and continuous values. Time series of this type are frequent in health care, where they represent the health trajectories of individuals. The problem is challenging because categorical variables make it difficult to define a meaningful distance between trajectories. We propose an approach based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs, where we first map each trajectory into an HMM, then define a suitable distance between HMMs and finally proceed to cluster the HMMs with a method based on a distance matrix. We test our approach on a simulated, but realistic, data set of 1,255 trajectories of individuals of age 45 and over, on a synthetic validation set with known clustering structure, and on a smaller set of 268 trajectories extracted from the longitudinal Health and Retirement Survey. The proposed method can be implemented quite simply using standard packages in R and Matlab and may be a good candidate for solving the difficult problem of clustering multivariate time series with categorical variables using tools that do not require advanced statistic knowledge, and therefore are accessible to a wide range of researchers.
Preface to a GUT (Grand Unified Theory)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Honig, W.
1982-01-01
A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is proposed exhibiting relativistic invariance and based on a physical model for vacuum space consisting of the superposition of oppositely charged continuous fluids. Models for the photon, electron, neutrino, proton, etc., consist of separate unique variations in the relative densities of the fluids and their flow patterns. This GUT is also based on the use of transfinite axiomatic number forms and on a concept of metrical relativity which hopefully reconciles the many logical dichotomies in and between Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. These ideas result in a number of experimental proposals and predicted results which appear to be underivable from present paradigms, first among which is a physical model for the hidden variable of Quantum Mechanics. It is on these features that attention should rest. (Auth.)
Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirizzi, Alessandro; Redondo, Javier; Sigl, Guenter
2008-12-01
Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle χ 0 -7 - 10 -5 for hidden photon masses between 10 -14 eV and 10 -7 eV. This low-mass and low-mixing region of the hidden photon parameter space was previously unconstrained. (orig.)
Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mirizzi, Alessandro [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2008-12-15
Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle {chi}{sub 0}
Khoshgoftar, M. J.; Mirzaali, M. J.; Rahimi, G. H.
2015-11-01
Recently application of functionally graded materials(FGMs) have attracted a great deal of interest. These materials are composed of various materials with different micro-structures which can vary spatially in FGMs. Such composites with varying thickness and non-uniform pressure can be used in the aerospace engineering. Therefore, analysis of such composite is of high importance in engineering problems. Thermoelastic analysis of functionally graded cylinder with variable thickness under non-uniform pressure is considered. First order shear deformation theory and total potential energy approach is applied to obtain the governing equations of non-homogeneous cylinder. Considering the inner and outer solutions, perturbation series are applied to solve the governing equations. Outer solution for out of boundaries and more sensitive variable in inner solution at the boundaries are considered. Combining of inner and outer solution for near and far points from boundaries leads to high accurate displacement field distribution. The main aim of this paper is to show the capability of matched asymptotic solution for different non-homogeneous cylinders with different shapes and different non-uniform pressures. The results can be used to design the optimum thickness of the cylinder and also some properties such as high temperature residence by applying non-homogeneous material.
'Hidden poverty' of teachers: Status, consequences and overcoming strategies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bogunović Blanka
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The consequences of reduced financial and other possibilities in the period of social transition are reflected on the quality of life and work of teachers, and thereby indirectly on education of pupils as well. Aims: (1 to determine teachers' estimation of their own financial status and subjective perception of teachers' poverty; (2 to examine in which way the personal perception of poverty of teachers is linked with the quality of their engagement in curricular and extracurricular activities; (3 to examine which economic and psychological strategies teachers use in overcoming stress because of the lower financial status; (4 to examine whether there are differences between teachers with regard to socio-demographic variables and the previously established goals. Sample consists of 141 teachers of music and general education schools in Belgrade and the interior of the country. Method: research is explorative and uses qualitative and psychometric methods of analysis. Results point out to the structure of 'hidden poverty' of teachers: average and poor financial status, financial and logistic support of the extended family, additional job, unfulfilled financial expectations regarding the educational status and ungratified higher needs. Teachers estimate that real poverty of educational system and 'hidden poverty' of teachers are reflected on the quality of certain aspects of educational process as a whole and in certain elements: teacher's personal life and work motivation, authority in school, quality of teacher's engagement in tuition and the possibility of professional specialization. Teachers use financial and psychological strategies for overcoming stress that can be determined as: moralist compensatory, evasive, inappropriate, emotional, relying on family and friendly supportive systems and activist. Conclusion: primarily subjective and spiritual impoverishment of the stratum of highly educated people, who are, in addition to this, the bearers
VISIBLE COSTS AND HIDDEN COSTS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Criveanu Maria
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Hidden costs are present in the activity of any company, hardly identified in the traditional administrative accounting. The high levels of the hidden costs and their unknown presence have serious consequences on the decisions made by the managers. This paper aims at presenting some aspects related to the hidden costs that occur in the activity of the companies in the baking industry and the possibilities to reduce their level.
Hidden Connectivity in Networks with Vulnerable Classes of Nodes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sebastian M. Krause
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In many complex systems representable as networks, nodes can be separated into different classes. Often these classes can be linked to a mutually shared vulnerability. Shared vulnerabilities may be due to a shared eavesdropper or correlated failures. In this paper, we show the impact of shared vulnerabilities on robust connectivity and how the heterogeneity of node classes can be exploited to maintain functionality by utilizing multiple paths. Percolation is the field of statistical physics that is generally used to analyze connectivity in complex networks, but in its existing forms, it cannot treat the heterogeneity of multiple vulnerable classes. To analyze the connectivity under these constraints, we describe each class as a color and develop a “color-avoiding” percolation. We present an analytic theory for random networks and a numerical algorithm for all networks, with which we can determine which nodes are color-avoiding connected and whether the maximal set percolates in the system. We find that the interaction of topology and color distribution implies a rich critical behavior, with critical values and critical exponents depending both on the topology and on the color distribution. Applying our physics-based theory to the Internet, we show how color-avoiding percolation can be used as the basis for new topologically aware secure communication protocols. Beyond applications to cybersecurity, our framework reveals a new layer of hidden structure in a wide range of natural and technological systems.
Hidden Attraction - The History and Mystery of Magnetism
Verschuur, Gerrit L.
1996-04-01
Long one of nature's most fascinating phenomena, magnetism was once the subject of many superstitions. Magnets were thought useful to thieves, effective as a love potion, and as a cure for gout or spasms. They could remove sorcery from women and put demons to flight and even reconcile married couples. It was said that a lodestone pickled in the salt of sucking fish had the power to attract gold. Today, these beliefs have been put aside, but magnetism is no less remarkable for our modern understanding of it. In Hidden Attraction , Gerrit L. Verschuur, a noted astronomer and National Book Award nominee for The Invisible Universe , traces the history of our fascination with magnetism, from the mystery and superstition that propelled the first alchemical experiments with lodestone, through the more tangible works of Faraday, Maxwell, Hertz and other great pioneers of magnetism (scientists responsible for the extraordinary advances in modern science and technology, including radio, the telephone, and computers, that characterize the twentieth century), to state-of-the-art theories that see magnetism as a basic force in the universe. Boasting many informative illustrations, this is an adventure of the mind, using the specific phenomenon of magnetism to show how we have moved from an era of superstitions to one in which the Theory of Everything looms on the horizon.
Hidden conformal symmetry of a rotating black hole with four charges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shao Kainan; Zhang Zhibai
2011-01-01
Kerr/CFT correspondence exhibits many remarkable connections between the near-horizon Kerr black hole and a conformal field theory (CFT). Recently, Castro, Maloney, and Strominger showed that a hidden conformal symmetry exists in the solution space of a Kerr black hole. In this paper we investigate a rotating black hole with four independent U(1) charges derived from string theory which is known as the four-dimensional Cvetic-Youm solution, and we prove that the same hidden conformal symmetry also holds. We obtain the exact black hole entropy using the temperatures derived. The entropy and absorption cross section agree with the previous results [M. Cvetic and F. Larsen, Nucl. Phys. B506, 107 (1997).] and [M. Cvetic and F. Larsen, J. High Energy Phys. 09 (2009) 088.]. In addition, we clarify a previous explanation on the temperatures of the Cvetic-Youm solution's dual CFT. This work provides more robust derivation of the hidden conformal symmetry of Kerr-like black holes and as well as Kerr/CFT correspondence.
Zipf exponent of trajectory distribution in the hidden Markov model
Bochkarev, V. V.; Lerner, E. Yu
2014-03-01
This paper is the first step of generalization of the previously obtained full classification of the asymptotic behavior of the probability for Markov chain trajectories for the case of hidden Markov models. The main goal is to study the power (Zipf) and nonpower asymptotics of the frequency list of trajectories of hidden Markov frequencys and to obtain explicit formulae for the exponent of the power asymptotics. We consider several simple classes of hidden Markov models. We prove that the asymptotics for a hidden Markov model and for the corresponding Markov chain can be essentially different.
Zipf exponent of trajectory distribution in the hidden Markov model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bochkarev, V V; Lerner, E Yu
2014-01-01
This paper is the first step of generalization of the previously obtained full classification of the asymptotic behavior of the probability for Markov chain trajectories for the case of hidden Markov models. The main goal is to study the power (Zipf) and nonpower asymptotics of the frequency list of trajectories of hidden Markov frequencys and to obtain explicit formulae for the exponent of the power asymptotics. We consider several simple classes of hidden Markov models. We prove that the asymptotics for a hidden Markov model and for the corresponding Markov chain can be essentially different
Hidden acoustic information revealed by intentional nonlinearity
Dowling, David R.
2017-11-01
Acoustic waves are omnipresent in modern life and are well described by the linearized equations of fluid dynamics. Once generated, acoustic waves carry and collect information about their source and the environment through which they propagate, respectively, and this information may be retrieved by analyzing recordings of these waves. Because of this, acoustics is the primary means for observation, surveillance, reconnaissance, and remote sensing in otherwise opaque environments, such as the Earth's oceans and crust, and the interior of the human body. For such information-retrieval tasks, acoustic fields are nearly always interrogated within their recorded frequency range or bandwidth. However, this frequency-range restriction is not general; acoustic fields may also carry (hidden) information at frequencies outside their bandwidth. Although such a claim may seem counter intuitive, hidden acoustic-field information can be revealed by re-introducing a marquee trait of fluid dynamics: nonlinearity. In particular, an intentional quadratic nonlinearity - a form of intra-signal heterodyning - can be used to obtain acoustic field information at frequencies outside a recorded acoustic field's bandwidth. This quadratic nonlinearity enables a variety of acoustic remote sensing applications that were long thought to be impossible. In particular, it allows the detrimental effects of sparse recordings and random scattering to be suppressed when the original acoustic field has sufficient bandwidth. In this presentation, the topic is developed heuristically, with a just brief exposition of the relevant mathematics. Hidden acoustic field information is then revealed from simulated and measured acoustic fields in simple and complicated acoustic environments involving frequencies from a few Hertz to more than 100 kHz, and propagation distances from tens of centimeters to hundreds of kilometers. Sponsored by ONR, NAVSEA, and NSF.
Fields, Chris
2015-12-01
Does perception hide the truth? Information theory, computer science, and quantum theory all suggest that the answer is "yes." They suggest, indeed, that useful perception is only feasible because the truth can be hidden.
Diphoton excess from hidden U(1 gauge symmetry with large kinetic mixing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fuminobu Takahashi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We show that the 750 GeV diphoton excess can be explained by introducing vector-like quarks and hidden fermions charged under a hidden U(1 gauge symmetry, which has a relatively large coupling constant as well as a significant kinetic mixing with U(1Y. With the large kinetic mixing, the standard model gauge couplings unify around 1017 GeV, suggesting the grand unified theory without too rapid proton decay. Our scenario predicts events with a photon and missing transverse momentum, and its cross section is related to that for the diphoton excess through the kinetic mixing. We also discuss other possible collider signatures and cosmology, including various ways to evade constraints on exotic stable charged particles. In some cases where the 750 GeV diphoton excess is due to diaxion decays, our scenario also predicts triphoton and tetraphoton signals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang Fang
2008-01-01
In the field of secure communication, it is very important to demodulate the message hidden in chaotic signals. In this paper, an adaptive synchronization strategy based on active control is proposed, which is used to design an active controller and an appropriate adaptive demodulator at the receiver to recover the transmitted message hidden in chaotic signals of a drive system. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, it is shown that the transmitted message can be theoretically recovered by using the proposed strategy. Numerical simulations based on the Chua's circuit are also presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. In addition, it is shown via simulations that, by increasing the gain of the active controller the message error caused by the external noise and the discontinuous property of the message can be reduced
A Stochastic Flows Approach for Asset Allocation with Hidden Economic Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tak Kuen Siu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An optimal asset allocation problem for a quite general class of utility functions is discussed in a simple two-state Markovian regime-switching model, where the appreciation rate of a risky share changes over time according to the state of a hidden economy. As usual, standard filtering theory is used to transform a financial model with hidden information into one with complete information, where a martingale approach is applied to discuss the optimal asset allocation problem. Using a martingale representation coupled with stochastic flows of diffeomorphisms for the filtering equation, the integrand in the martingale representation is identified which gives rise to an optimal portfolio strategy under some differentiability conditions.
Recovering a hidden polarization by ghost polarimetry.
Janassek, Patrick; Blumenstein, Sébastien; Elsäßer, Wolfgang
2018-02-15
By exploiting polarization correlations of light from a broadband fiber-based amplified spontaneous emission source we succeed in reconstructing a hidden polarization in a ghost polarimetry experiment in close analogy to ghost imaging and ghost spectroscopy. Thereby, an original linear polarization state in the object arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration which has been camouflaged by a subsequent depolarizer is recovered by correlating it with light from a reference beam. The variation of a linear polarizer placed inside the reference beam results in a Malus law type second-order intensity correlation with high contrast, thus measuring a ghost polarigram.
Pruning Boltzmann networks and hidden Markov models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Morten With; Stork, D.
1996-01-01
We present sensitivity-based pruning algorithms for general Boltzmann networks. Central to our methods is the efficient calculation of a second-order approximation to the true weight saliencies in a cross-entropy error. Building upon previous work which shows a formal correspondence between linear...... Boltzmann chains and hidden Markov models (HMMs), we argue that our method can be applied to HMMs as well. We illustrate pruning on Boltzmann zippers, which are equivalent to two HMMs with cross-connection links. We verify that our second-order approximation preserves the rank ordering of weight saliencies...
Uncovering the Hidden Costs of Offshoring
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Marcus M.; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben
2013-01-01
This study investigates estimation errors due to hidden costs—the costs of implementation that are neglected in strategic decision-making processes—in the context of services offshoring. Based on data from the Offshoring Research Network, we find that decision makers are more likely to make cost......-estimation errors given increasing configuration and task complexity in captive offshoring and offshore outsourcing, respectively. Moreover, we show that experience and a strong orientation toward organizational design in the offshoring strategy reduce the cost-estimation errors that follow from complexity. Our...
The hidden face of the petroleum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laurent, E.
2006-02-01
For the first time, a book reveals what that was hidden to the public opinions: why the petroleum crisis of 1973 what only a manipulation, an arrangement between the OPEC and the petroleum companies, why the data concerning the petroleum reserves are wrong and increased by the producers countries, how Washington used the Saudi petroleum weapon to create the Soviet Union fall, and why from march 2001 maps of the Iraq (where were drawn the future petroleum explorations) were working documents for the vice President Cheney and petroleum managers for the ''secret society''. (A.L.B.)
Evolving the structure of hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
won, K. J.; Prugel-Bennett, A.; Krogh, A.
2006-01-01
A genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed for finding the structure of hidden Markov Models (HMMs) used for biological sequence analysis. The GA is designed to preserve biologically meaningful building blocks. The search through the space of HMM structures is combined with optimization of the emission...... and transition probabilities using the classic Baum-Welch algorithm. The system is tested on the problem of finding the promoter and coding region of C. jejuni. The resulting HMM has a superior discrimination ability to a handcrafted model that has been published in the literature....
The hidden costs of nuclear power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keough, C.
1981-01-01
The two basic hidden costs of nuclear power are public money and public health. Nuclear power appears to be economical because many of the costs of producins electricity in these plants are paid by the federal government. So, like it or not, the citizens are footing the bill with their taxes. Design and development of plants have been paid for with public money, and disposal and cleanup costs will also be paid in this manner. The economic and health costs associated with nuclear accidents are staggering
Genetic Algorithms Principles Towards Hidden Markov Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nabil M. Hewahi
2011-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper we propose a general approach based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs to evolve Hidden Markov Models (HMM. The problem appears when experts assign probability values for HMM, they use only some limited inputs. The assigned probability values might not be accurate to serve in other cases related to the same domain. We introduce an approach based on GAs to find
out the suitable probability values for the HMM to be mostly correct in more cases than what have been used to assign the probability values.
Detecting Structural Breaks using Hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ntantamis, Christos
Testing for structural breaks and identifying their location is essential for econometric modeling. In this paper, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach is used in order to perform these tasks. Breaks are defined as the data points where the underlying Markov Chain switches from one state to another....... The estimation of the HMM is conducted using a variant of the Iterative Conditional Expectation-Generalized Mixture (ICE-GEMI) algorithm proposed by Delignon et al. (1997), that permits analysis of the conditional distributions of economic data and allows for different functional forms across regimes...
Global Update and Trends of Hidden Hunger, 1995-2011: The Hidden Hunger Index
Stevens, Gretchen A.; Ezzati, Majid; Black, Robert E.; Kraemer, Klaus
2015-01-01
Background Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals–also termed hidden hunger–are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children. Methods This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator–the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI)–using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from the Nutrition Impact Model Study for anemia due to iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and stunting (used as a proxy indicator for zinc deficiency). Net changes from 1995–2011 and population weighted regional means for various time periods are measured. Findings Globally, hidden hunger improved (-6.7 net change in HHI) from 1995–2011. Africa was the only region to see a deterioration in hidden hunger (+1.9) over the studied time period; East Asia and the Pacific performed exceptionally well (-13.0), while other regions improved only slightly. Improvements in HHI were mostly due to reductions in zinc and vitamin A deficiencies, while anemia due to iron deficiency persisted and even increased. Interpretation This analysis is critical for informing and tracking the impact of policy and programmatic efforts to reduce micronutrient deficiencies, to advance the global nutrition agenda, and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, there remains an unmet need to invest in gathering frequent, nationally representative, high-quality micronutrient data as we renew our efforts to scale up nutrition, and as we enter the post-2015 development agenda. Funding Preparation of this manuscript was funded by Sight and Life. There was no funding involved in the study design, data collection, analysis, or decision to publish. PMID:26673631
Global Update and Trends of Hidden Hunger, 1995-2011: The Hidden Hunger Index.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julie C Ruel-Bergeron
Full Text Available Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals-also termed hidden hunger-are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children.This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator-the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI-using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from the Nutrition Impact Model Study for anemia due to iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and stunting (used as a proxy indicator for zinc deficiency. Net changes from 1995-2011 and population weighted regional means for various time periods are measured.Globally, hidden hunger improved (-6.7 net change in HHI from 1995-2011. Africa was the only region to see a deterioration in hidden hunger (+1.9 over the studied time period; East Asia and the Pacific performed exceptionally well (-13.0, while other regions improved only slightly. Improvements in HHI were mostly due to reductions in zinc and vitamin A deficiencies, while anemia due to iron deficiency persisted and even increased.This analysis is critical for informing and tracking the impact of policy and programmatic efforts to reduce micronutrient deficiencies, to advance the global nutrition agenda, and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. However, there remains an unmet need to invest in gathering frequent, nationally representative, high-quality micronutrient data as we renew our efforts to scale up nutrition, and as we enter the post-2015 development agenda.Preparation of this manuscript was funded by Sight and Life. There was no funding involved in the study design, data collection, analysis, or decision to publish.
Hidden in plain sight: the formal, informal, and hidden curricula of a psychiatry clerkship.
Wear, Delese; Skillicorn, Jodie
2009-04-01
To examine perceptions of the formal, informal, and hidden curricula in psychiatry as they are observed and experienced by (1) attending physicians who have teaching responsibilities for residents and medical students, (2) residents who are taught by those same physicians and who have teaching responsibilities for medical students, and (3) medical students who are taught by attendings and residents during their psychiatry rotation. From June to November 2007, the authors conducted focus groups with attendings, residents, and students in one midwestern academic setting. The sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed for themes surrounding the formal, informal, and hidden curricula. All three groups offered a similar belief that the knowledge, skills, and values of the formal curriculum focused on building relationships. Similarly, all three suggested that elements of the informal and hidden curricula were expressed primarily as the values arising from attendings' role modeling, as the nature and amount of time attendings spend with patients, and as attendings' advice arising from experience and intuition versus "textbook learning." Whereas students and residents offered negative values arising from the informal and hidden curricula, attendings did not, offering instead the more positive values they intended to encourage through the informal and hidden curricula. The process described here has great potential in local settings across all disciplines. Asking teachers and learners in any setting to think about how they experience the educational environment and what sense they make of all curricular efforts can provide a reality check for educators and a values check for learners as they critically reflect on the meanings of what they are learning.
Testing the non-locality of quantum theory in two-kaon systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eberhard, P.H. (California Univ., Berkeley (United States). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.)
1993-06-07
An idea for testing the non-local character of quantum theory in systems made of two neutral kaons is suggested. Such tests require detecting two long-lived or two short-lived neutral kaons in coincidence, when copper slabs are either interposed on or removed from their paths. They may be performed at an asymmetric [Phi][sup 0]-factory. They could answer some questions raised by the EPR paradox and Bell's inequalities. If such tests are performed and if predictions of quantum mechanics and standard theory of kaon regeneration are verified experimentally, all descriptions of the relevant phenomena in terms of local interactions will be ruled out in principle with the exception of very peculiar ones, which imply the existence of hidden variables, of different kinds of kaons corresponding to different values of the hidden variables, and, for some of these kaons, of regeneration probabilities enhanced by a factor of the order of 400 or more over the average. Of course, the experiment may also reveal a break down of quantum theory. (orig.)
Bayesian structural inference for hidden processes
Strelioff, Christopher C.; Crutchfield, James P.
2014-04-01
We introduce a Bayesian approach to discovering patterns in structurally complex processes. The proposed method of Bayesian structural inference (BSI) relies on a set of candidate unifilar hidden Markov model (uHMM) topologies for inference of process structure from a data series. We employ a recently developed exact enumeration of topological ɛ-machines. (A sequel then removes the topological restriction.) This subset of the uHMM topologies has the added benefit that inferred models are guaranteed to be ɛ-machines, irrespective of estimated transition probabilities. Properties of ɛ-machines and uHMMs allow for the derivation of analytic expressions for estimating transition probabilities, inferring start states, and comparing the posterior probability of candidate model topologies, despite process internal structure being only indirectly present in data. We demonstrate BSI's effectiveness in estimating a process's randomness, as reflected by the Shannon entropy rate, and its structure, as quantified by the statistical complexity. We also compare using the posterior distribution over candidate models and the single, maximum a posteriori model for point estimation and show that the former more accurately reflects uncertainty in estimated values. We apply BSI to in-class examples of finite- and infinite-order Markov processes, as well to an out-of-class, infinite-state hidden process.
Hidden ion population of the magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsen, R.C.
1982-01-01
Particle data from two geosynchronous satellites (Applied Technology Satellite 6 and SCATHA) show a normally hidden ion population appearing when the satellites are in the earth's shadow. Ion and electron data show the spacecraft potential dropping from +10 V in sunlight to +4 and +5 V in eclipse at local midnight, in low-energy (T/sub e/ -2 ), isotropic ion population appears which was invisible in sunlight because of the larger positive spacecraft potential. Higher-energy populations generally cover the tails of the hidden ion populations, so they cannot be inferred from daylight data. The isotropic populations appears only in a few percent of the spacecraft eclipse events, appearing only at times of low Kp (2 or less, preceded by a day with Σ Kp< or =20). A low-energy (T = 1--2 eV) field-aligned population often appears with and without the isotropic population, at slightly higher flux levels. These fluxes are visible in sunlight, but again the distribution functions obtained in eclipse differ from those that would be inferred from daylight data. Measurement of the thermal plasma population on a consistent basis, particularly in the plasma sheet, will require some method of controlling the detector potential with respect to the ambient plamsa
ESO's Hidden Treasures Brought to Light
2011-01-01
ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition attracted nearly 100 entries, and ESO is delighted to announce the winners. Hidden Treasures gave amateur astronomers the opportunity to search ESO's vast archives of astronomical data for a well-hidden cosmic gem. Astronomy enthusiast Igor Chekalin from Russia won the first prize in this difficult but rewarding challenge - the trip of a lifetime to ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal, Chile. The pictures of the Universe that can be seen in ESO's releases are impressive. However, many hours of skilful work are required to assemble the raw greyscale data captured by the telescopes into these colourful images, correcting them for distortions and unwanted signatures of the instrument, and enhancing them so as to bring out the details contained in the astronomical data. ESO has a team of professional image processors, but for the ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 competition, the experts decided to give astronomy and photography enthusiasts the opportunity to show the world what they could do with the mammoth amount of data contained in ESO's archives. The enthusiasts who responded to the call submitted nearly 100 entries in total - far exceeding initial expectations, given the difficult nature of the challenge. "We were completely taken aback both by the quantity and the quality of the images that were submitted. This was not a challenge for the faint-hearted, requiring both an advanced knowledge of data processing and an artistic eye. We are thrilled to have discovered so many talented people," said Lars Lindberg Christensen, Head of ESO's education and Public Outreach Department. Digging through many terabytes of professional astronomical data, the entrants had to identify a series of greyscale images of a celestial object that would reveal the hidden beauty of our Universe. The chance of a great reward for the lucky winner was enough to spur on the competitors; the first prize being a trip to ESO's Very Large
Epitope discovery with phylogenetic hidden Markov models.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Lacerda, Miguel
2010-05-01
Existing methods for the prediction of immunologically active T-cell epitopes are based on the amino acid sequence or structure of pathogen proteins. Additional information regarding the locations of epitopes may be acquired by considering the evolution of viruses in hosts with different immune backgrounds. In particular, immune-dependent evolutionary patterns at sites within or near T-cell epitopes can be used to enhance epitope identification. We have developed a mutation-selection model of T-cell epitope evolution that allows the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype of the host to influence the evolutionary process. This is one of the first examples of the incorporation of environmental parameters into a phylogenetic model and has many other potential applications where the selection pressures exerted on an organism can be related directly to environmental factors. We combine this novel evolutionary model with a hidden Markov model to identify contiguous amino acid positions that appear to evolve under immune pressure in the presence of specific host immune alleles and that therefore represent potential epitopes. This phylogenetic hidden Markov model provides a rigorous probabilistic framework that can be combined with sequence or structural information to improve epitope prediction. As a demonstration, we apply the model to a data set of HIV-1 protein-coding sequences and host HLA genotypes.
Pentaquarks with hidden charm as hadroquarkonia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eides, Michael I. [University of Kentucky, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, KY (United States); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Petrov, Victor Yu. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Polyakov, Maxim V. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Bochum (Germany)
2018-01-15
We consider hidden charm pentaquarks as hadroquarkonium states in a QCD inspired approach. Pentaquarks arise naturally as bound states of quarkonia excitations and ordinary baryons. The LHCb P{sub c}(4450) pentaquark is interpreted as a ψ{sup '}-nucleon bound state with spin-parity J{sup P} = 3/2{sup -}. The partial decay width Γ(P{sub c}(4450) → J/ψ + N) ∼ 11 MeV is calculated and turned out to be in agreement with the experimental data for P{sub c}(4450). The P{sub c}(4450) pentaquark is predicted to be a member of one of the two almost degenerate hidden-charm baryon octets with spin-parities J{sup P} = 1/2{sup -}, 3/2{sup -}. The masses and decay widths of the octet pentaquarks are calculated. The widths are small and comparable with the width of the P{sub c}(4450) pentaquark, and the masses of the octet pentaquarks satisfy the Gell-Mann-Okubo relation. Interpretation of pentaquarks as loosely bound Σ{sub c} anti D* and Σ{sub c}{sup *} anti D* deuteronlike states is also considered. We determine quantum numbers of these bound states and calculate their masses in the one-pion exchange scenario. The hadroquarkonium and molecular approaches to exotic hadrons are compared and the relative advantages and drawbacks of each approach are discussed. (orig.)
Black holes, hidden symmetries, and complete integrability.
Frolov, Valeri P; Krtouš, Pavel; Kubizňák, David
2017-01-01
The study of higher-dimensional black holes is a subject which has recently attracted vast interest. Perhaps one of the most surprising discoveries is a realization that the properties of higher-dimensional black holes with the spherical horizon topology and described by the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics are very similar to the properties of the well known four-dimensional Kerr metric. This remarkable result stems from the existence of a single object called the principal tensor. In our review we discuss explicit and hidden symmetries of higher-dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS black hole spacetimes. We start with discussion of the Killing and Killing-Yano objects representing explicit and hidden symmetries. We demonstrate that the principal tensor can be used as a "seed object" which generates all these symmetries. It determines the form of the geometry, as well as guarantees its remarkable properties, such as special algebraic type of the spacetime, complete integrability of geodesic motion, and separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi, Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations. The review also contains a discussion of different applications of the developed formalism and its possible generalizations.
Variable rules meet Impoverishment theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parrott, Jeffrey K.; Nevins, Andrew
2010-01-01
case studies of three English varieties: be-leveling in Monmouthshire (Orton 1962-1971) induced by marked [+author], was-leveling in Buckie (Adger and Smith 2005, Adger 2006) induced by marked [+participant], and weren’t- and ain’t-leveling on Smith Island (Wolfram and Schilling-Estes 2003...
CULTURAL VARIABILITY WITHIN POLITENESS THEORY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
OANA COSMAN
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Debido a su omnipresencia en la comunicación humana, la cortesía es considerada como un tema de interés para muchos investigadores perteneciendo éstos a una amplia variedad de disciplinas. Su naturaleza ya situada ha implicado en la investigación sobre cortesía, la cultura, considerándola a menudo como una dimensión analítica definitoria. El presente artículo situará nuestra investigación en el contexto de los debates actuales sobre la investigación de la cortesía en todas las culturas y presenta brevemente las maneras en las que está representada la cultura en los estudios contemporáneos de cortesía. El propósito del autor no es resolver los problemas de la cortesía lingüística, sino más bien poner de relieve algunas cuestiones que existen y que deben ser abordadas desde una perspectiva intercultural. Por lo tanto, este artículo se centrará en la relatividad cultural de la cortesía.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Alexis Paz
2018-03-01
Full Text Available In this work, we study the influence of hidden barriers on the convergence behavior of three free-energy calculation methods: well-tempered metadynamics (WTMD, adaptive-biasing forces (ABF, and on-the-fly parameterization (OTFP. We construct a simple two-dimensional potential-energy surfaces (PES that allows for an exact analytical result for the free-energy in any one-dimensional order parameter. Then we chose different CV definitions and PES parameters to create three different systems with increasing sampling challenges. We find that all three methods are not greatly affected by the hidden-barriers in the simplest case considered. The adaptive sampling methods show faster sampling while the auxiliary high-friction requirement of OTFP makes it slower for this case. However, a slight change in the CV definition has a strong impact in the ABF and WTMD performance, illustrating the importance of choosing suitable collective variables.
Learning to Automatically Detect Features for Mobile Robots Using Second-Order Hidden Markov Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olivier Aycard
2004-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new method based on Hidden Markov Models to interpret temporal sequences of sensor data from mobile robots to automatically detect features. Hidden Markov Models have been used for a long time in pattern recognition, especially in speech recognition. Their main advantages over other methods (such as neural networks are their ability to model noisy temporal signals of variable length. We show in this paper that this approach is well suited for interpretation of temporal sequences of mobile-robot sensor data. We present two distinct experiments and results: the first one in an indoor environment where a mobile robot learns to detect features like open doors or T-intersections, the second one in an outdoor environment where a different mobile robot has to identify situations like climbing a hill or crossing a rock.
Hidden Markov models for zero-inflated Poisson counts with an application to substance use.
DeSantis, Stacia M; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar
2011-06-30
Paradigms for substance abuse cue-reactivity research involve pharmacological or stressful stimulation designed to elicit stress and craving responses in cocaine-dependent subjects. It is unclear as to whether stress induced from participation in such studies increases drug-seeking behavior. We propose a 2-state Hidden Markov model to model the number of cocaine abuses per week before and after participation in a stress-and cue-reactivity study. The hypothesized latent state corresponds to 'high' or 'low' use. To account for a preponderance of zeros, we assume a zero-inflated Poisson model for the count data. Transition probabilities depend on the prior week's state, fixed demographic variables, and time-varying covariates. We adopt a Bayesian approach to model fitting, and use the conditional predictive ordinate statistic to demonstrate that the zero-inflated Poisson hidden Markov model outperforms other models for longitudinal count data. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fisher, Stephen D
1999-01-01
The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic
An introduction to hidden Markov models for biological sequences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krogh, Anders Stærmose
1998-01-01
A non-matematical tutorial on hidden Markov models (HMMs) plus a description of one of the applications of HMMs: gene finding.......A non-matematical tutorial on hidden Markov models (HMMs) plus a description of one of the applications of HMMs: gene finding....
Asymptotics for Estimating Equations in Hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv; Jensen, Jens Ledet
Results on asymptotic normality for the maximum likelihood estimate in hidden Markov models are extended in two directions. The stationarity assumption is relaxed, which allows for a covariate process influencing the hidden Markov process. Furthermore a class of estimating equations is considered...
Secret Codes: The Hidden Curriculum of Semantic Web Technologies
Edwards, Richard; Carmichael, Patrick
2012-01-01
There is a long tradition in education of examination of the hidden curriculum, those elements which are implicit or tacit to the formal goals of education. This article draws upon that tradition to open up for investigation the hidden curriculum and assumptions about students and knowledge that are embedded in the coding undertaken to facilitate…
Searching for hidden sector in multiparticle production at LHC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel-Angel Sanchis-Lozano
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We study the impact of a hidden sector beyond the Standard Model, e.g. a Hidden Valley model, on factorial moments and cumulants of multiplicity distributions in multiparticle production with a special emphasis on the prospects for LHC results.
Hidden Agendas in Marriage: Affective and Longitudinal Dimensions.
Krokoff, Lowell J.
1990-01-01
Examines how couples' discussions of troublesome problems reveal hidden agendas (issues not directly discussed or explored). Finds disgust and contempt are at the core of both love and respect agendas for husbands and wives. Finds that wives' more than husbands' hidden agendas are directly predictive of how negatively they argue at home. (SR)
Hidden symmetries in minimal five-dimensional supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poessel, Markus; Silva, Sebastian
2004-01-01
We study the hidden symmetries arising in the dimensional reduction of d=5, N=2 supergravity to three dimensions. Extending previous partial results for the bosonic part, we give a derivation that includes fermionic terms, shedding light on the appearance of the local hidden symmetry SO(4) in the reduction
Abelian hidden sectors at a GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morrissey, David E.; Poland, David; Zurek, Kathryn M.
2009-01-01
We discuss mechanisms for naturally generating GeV-scale hidden sectors in the context of weak-scale supersymmetry. Such low mass scales can arise when hidden sectors are more weakly coupled to supersymmetry breaking than the visible sector, as happens when supersymmetry breaking is communicated to the visible sector by gauge interactions under which the hidden sector is uncharged, or if the hidden sector is sequestered from gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking. We study these mechanisms in detail in the context of gauge and gaugino mediation, and present specific models of Abelian GeV-scale hidden sectors. In particular, we discuss kinetic mixing of a U(1) x gauge force with hypercharge, singlets or bi-fundamentals which couple to both sectors, and additional loop effects. Finally, we investigate the possible relevance of such sectors for dark matter phenomenology, as well as for low- and high-energy collider searches.
van der Maas, Han L J; Molenaar, Dylan; Maris, Gunter; Kievit, Rogier A; Borsboom, Denny
2011-04-01
This article analyzes latent variable models from a cognitive psychology perspective. We start by discussing work by Tuerlinckx and De Boeck (2005), who proved that a diffusion model for 2-choice response processes entails a 2-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) model for individual differences in the response data. Following this line of reasoning, we discuss the appropriateness of IRT for measuring abilities and bipolar traits, such as pro versus contra attitudes. Surprisingly, if a diffusion model underlies the response processes, IRT models are appropriate for bipolar traits but not for ability tests. A reconsideration of the concept of ability that is appropriate for such situations leads to a new item response model for accuracy and speed based on the idea that ability has a natural zero point. The model implies fundamentally new ways to think about guessing, response speed, and person fit in IRT. We discuss the relation between this model and existing models as well as implications for psychology and psychometrics. 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Identifying hidden sexual bridging communities in Chicago.
Youm, Yoosik; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Williams, Chyvette T; Ouellet, Lawrence J
2009-07-01
Bridge populations can play a central role in the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by providing transmission links between higher and lower prevalence populations. While social network methods are well suited to the study of bridge populations, analyses tend to focus on dyads (i.e., risk between drug and/or sex partners) and ignore bridges between distinct subpopulations. This study takes initial steps toward moving the analysis of sexual network linkages beyond individual and risk group levels to a community level in which Chicago's 77 community areas are examined as subpopulations for the purpose of identifying potential bridging communities. Of particular interest are "hidden" bridging communities; that is, areas with above-average levels of sexual ties with other areas but whose below-average AIDS prevalence may hide their potential importance for HIV prevention. Data for this analysis came from the first wave of recruiting at the Chicago Sexual Acquisition and Transmission of HIV Cooperative Agreement Program site. Between August 2005 through October 2006, respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit users of heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine, men who have sex with men regardless of drug use, the sex partners of these two groups, and sex partners of the sex partners. In this cross-sectional study of the sexual transmission of HIV, participants completed a network-focused computer-assisted self-administered interview, which included questions about the geographic locations of sexual contacts with up to six recent partners. Bridging scores for each area were determined using a matrix representing Chicago's 77 community areas and were assessed using two measures: non-redundant ties and flow betweenness. Bridging measures and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case prevalence rates were plotted for each community area on charts representing four conditions: below-average bridging and AIDS prevalence, below-average bridging and above
Anti-pairing in learning of a neural network with redundant hidden units
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, Chulan; Kim, Hyong Kyun
2005-01-01
We study the statistical mechanics of learning from examples between the two-layered committee machines with different numbers of hidden units using the replica theory. The number M of hidden units of the student network is larger than the number M T of those of the target network called the teacher. We choose the networks to have binary synaptic weights, ±1, which makes it possible to compare the calculation with the Monte Carlo simulation. We propose an effective teacher as a virtual target network which has the same M hidden units as the student and gives identical outputs with those of the original teacher. This is a way of making a conjecture for a ground state of a thermodynamic system, given by the weights of the effective teacher in our study. We suppose that the weights on M T hidden units of the effective teacher are the same as those of the original teacher while those on M - M T redundant hidden units are composed of anti-pairs, {1, - 1}, with probability 1 - p in the limit p → 0. For p = 0 exact, there are no terms related to the effective teacher in the calculation, for the contributions of anti-pairs to outputs are exactly cancelled. In the limit p → 0, however, we find that the learnt weights of the student are actually equivalent to those of the suggested effective teacher, which is not possible from the calculation for p = 0. p plays the role of a symmetry breaking parameter for anti-pairing ordering, which is analogous to the magnetic field for the Ising model. A first-order phase transition is found to be signalled by breaking of symmetry in permuting hidden units. Above a critical number of examples, the student is shown to learn perfectly the effective teacher. Anti-pairing can be measured by a set of order parameters; zero in the permutation-symmetric phase and nonzero in the permutation symmetry breaking phase. Results from the Monte Carlo simulation are shown to be in good agreement with those from the replica calculation
Gauge theories as string theories: the first results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorsky, Aleksandr S
2005-01-01
The gauge/string theory duality in curved space is discussed mainly using a non-Abelian conformal N = 4 supersymmetric gauge theory and the theory of a closed superstring in the AdS 5 x S 5 metric as an example. It is shown that in the supergravity approximation, string duality yields the characteristics of a strong-coupling gauge theory. For a special shape of the contour, a Wilson loop expression is derived in the classical superstring approximation. The role of the hidden integrability in lower-loop calculations in gauge theory and in different approximations of string theory is discussed. It is demonstrated that in the large quantum-number limit, gauge theory operators can be described in terms of the dual string picture. Examples of metrics providing the dual description of gauge theories with broken conformal symmetry are presented, and formulations of the vacuum structure of such theories in terms of gravity are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)
Predicting the Perceptual Consequences of Hidden Hearing Loss
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew J. Oxenham
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Recent physiological studies in several rodent species have revealed that permanent damage can occur to the auditory system after exposure to a noise that produces only a temporary shift in absolute thresholds. The damage has been found to occur in the synapses between the cochlea’s inner hair cells and the auditory nerve, effectively severing part of the connection between the ear and the brain. This synaptopathy has been termed hidden hearing loss because its effects are not thought to be revealed in standard clinical, behavioral, or physiological measures of absolute threshold. It is currently unknown whether humans suffer from similar deficits after noise exposure. Even if synaptopathy occurs in humans, it remains unclear what the perceptual consequences might be or how they should best be measured. Here, we apply a simple theoretical model, taken from signal detection theory, to provide some predictions for what perceptual effects could be expected for a given loss of synapses. Predictions are made for a number of basic perceptual tasks, including tone detection in quiet and in noise, frequency discrimination, level discrimination, and binaural lateralization. The model’s predictions are in line with the empirical observations that a 50% loss of synapses leads to changes in threshold that are too small to be reliably measured. Overall, the model provides a simple initial quantitative framework for understanding and predicting the perceptual effects of synaptopathy in humans.
Hidden attraction the history and mystery of magnetism
Verschuur, Gerrit L
1996-01-01
Long one of nature''s most fascinating phenomena, magnetism was once the subject of many superstitions. Magnets were thought useful to thieves, effective as a love potion or as a cure for gout or spasms. They could remove sorcery from women and put demons to flight and even reconcile married couples. It was said that a lodestone pickled in the salt of sucking fish had the power to attract gold. Today, these beliefs have been put aside, but magnetism is no less remarkable for our modern understanding of it. In Hidden Attraction, Gerrit L. Verschuur, a noted astronomer and National Book Award nominee for The Invisible Universe, traces the history of our fascination with magnetism, from the first discovery of magnets in Greece, to state-of-the-art theories that see magnetism as a basic force in the universe. The book begins with the early debunking of superstitions by Peter Peregrinus (Pierre de Maricourt), whom Roger Bacon hailed as one of the world''s first experimental scientists (Perigrinus held that "experi...
Modelling and evaluation of surgical performance using hidden Markov models.
Megali, Giuseppe; Sinigaglia, Stefano; Tonet, Oliver; Dario, Paolo
2006-10-01
Minimally invasive surgery has become very widespread in the last ten years. Since surgeons experience difficulties in learning and mastering minimally invasive techniques, the development of training methods is of great importance. While the introduction of virtual reality-based simulators has introduced a new paradigm in surgical training, skill evaluation methods are far from being objective. This paper proposes a method for defining a model of surgical expertise and an objective metric to evaluate performance in laparoscopic surgery. Our approach is based on the processing of kinematic data describing movements of surgical instruments. We use hidden Markov model theory to define an expert model that describes expert surgical gesture. The model is trained on kinematic data related to exercises performed on a surgical simulator by experienced surgeons. Subsequently, we use this expert model as a reference model in the definition of an objective metric to evaluate performance of surgeons with different abilities. Preliminary results show that, using different topologies for the expert model, the method can be efficiently used both for the discrimination between experienced and novice surgeons, and for the quantitative assessment of surgical ability.
Hidden Markov models and other machine learning approaches in computational molecular biology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baldi, P. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States)
1995-12-31
This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. Computational tools are increasingly needed to process the massive amounts of data, to organize and classify sequences, to detect weak similarities, to separate coding from non-coding regions, and reconstruct the underlying evolutionary history. The fundamental problem in machine learning is the same as in scientific reasoning in general, as well as statistical modeling: to come up with a good model for the data. In this tutorial four classes of models are reviewed. They are: Hidden Markov models; artificial Neural Networks; Belief Networks; and Stochastic Grammars. When dealing with DNA and protein primary sequences, Hidden Markov models are one of the most flexible and powerful alignments and data base searches. In this tutorial, attention is focused on the theory of Hidden Markov Models, and how to apply them to problems in molecular biology.
… To be hidden does not mean to be merely revealed – Part 1 Artistic research on hidden curriculum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Annette Krause
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This text revisits the long-term project Hidden Curriculum, initiated by Annette Krauss. The project addresses unquestioned routines, hierarchies of knowledge (part 1, and the role of the body in learning processes (part 2 from the perspective of secondary/high school education (in the research on a hidden curriculum. A deeper analysis of educational studies on the phenomenon of ‘hidden curriculum’ in relation to the feminist and critical pedagogies of bell hooks, Paulo Freire, and Jacques Rancière brings forward important insights generated through the artistic research within hidden curriculum. The aim of this text is to address academic canons, corporeality, and investigate everyday norms through revisiting the framework, results, and processes of the collaborative research into hidden curriculum with secondary high school students.
Dynamic portfolio optimization across hidden market regimes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nystrup, Peter; Madsen, Henrik; Lindström, Erik
2017-01-01
Regime-based asset allocation has been shown to add value over rebalancing to static weights and, in particular, reduce potential drawdowns by reacting to changes in market conditions. The predominant approach in previous studies has been to specify in advance a static decision rule for changing...... the allocation based on the state of financial markets or the economy. In this article, model predictive control (MPC) is used to dynamically optimize a portfolio based on forecasts of the mean and variance of financial returns from a hidden Markov model with time-varying parameters. There are computational...... than a buy-and-hold investment in various major stock market indices. This is after accounting for transaction costs, with a one-day delay in the implementation of allocation changes, and with zero-interest cash as the only alternative to the stock indices. Imposing a trading penalty that reduces...
Supersymmetric leptogenesis with a light hidden sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Simone, Andrea
2010-04-01
Supersymmetric scenarios incorporating thermal leptogenesis as the origin of the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry generically predict abundances of the primordial elements which are in conflict with observations. In this paper we pro- pose a simple way to circumvent this tension and accommodate naturally ther- mal leptogenesis and primordial nucleosynthesis. We postulate the existence of a light hidden sector, coupled very weakly to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, which opens up new decay channels for the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle, thus diluting its abundance during nucleosynthesis. We present a general model-independent analysis of this mechanism as well as two concrete realizations, and describe the relevant cosmological and astrophysical bounds and implications for this dark matter scenario. Possible experimental signatures at colliders and in cosmic-ray observations are also discussed. (orig.)
Neuroevolution Mechanism for Hidden Markov Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nabil M. Hewahi
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Hidden Markov Model (HMM is a statistical model based on probabilities. HMM is becoming one of the major models involved in many applications such as natural language
processing, handwritten recognition, image processing, prediction systems and many more. In this research we are concerned with finding out the best HMM for a certain application domain. We propose a neuroevolution process that is based first on converting the HMM to a neural network, then generating many neural networks at random where each represents a HMM. We proceed by
applying genetic operators to obtain new set of neural networks where each represents HMMs, and updating the population. Finally select the best neural network based on a fitness function.
Improved hidden Markov model for nosocomial infections.
Khader, Karim; Leecaster, Molly; Greene, Tom; Samore, Matthew; Thomas, Alun
2014-12-01
We propose a novel hidden Markov model (HMM) for parameter estimation in hospital transmission models, and show that commonly made simplifying assumptions can lead to severe model misspecification and poor parameter estimates. A standard HMM that embodies two commonly made simplifying assumptions, namely a fixed patient count and binomially distributed detections is compared with a new alternative HMM that does not require these simplifying assumptions. Using simulated data, we demonstrate how each of the simplifying assumptions used by the standard model leads to model misspecification, whereas the alternative model results in accurate parameter estimates. © The Authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.
Exact solution of the hidden Markov processes
Saakian, David B.
2017-11-01
We write a master equation for the distributions related to hidden Markov processes (HMPs) and solve it using a functional equation. Thus the solution of HMPs is mapped exactly to the solution of the functional equation. For a general case the latter can be solved only numerically. We derive an exact expression for the entropy of HMPs. Our expression for the entropy is an alternative to the ones given before by the solution of integral equations. The exact solution is possible because actually the model can be considered as a generalized random walk on a one-dimensional strip. While we give the solution for the two second-order matrices, our solution can be easily generalized for the L values of the Markov process and M values of observables: We should be able to solve a system of L functional equations in the space of dimension M -1 .
Social exclusion, health and hidden homelessness.
Watson, J; Crawley, J; Kane, D
2016-10-01
Homelessness and poverty are extreme forms of social exclusion which extend beyond the lack of physical or material needs. The purpose of this study was to explore and expand the concept of social exclusion within the social determinants of health perspective - to understand how the social environment, health behaviours and health status are associated with material and social deprivation. Fundamental qualitative description with tones of focused ethnography. Participants who identified as hidden homeless described their everyday living conditions and how these everyday conditions were impacted and influenced by their social environments, coping/health behaviours and current health status. Research Ethics Board approval was granted and informed consents were obtained from 21 participants prior to the completion of individual interviews. Qualitative content analysis examined the descriptions of men and women experiencing hidden homelessness. Participants described the 'lack of quality social interactions and supports' and their 'daily struggles of street life'. They also shared the 'pain of addiction' and how coping strategies influenced health. Participants were hopeful that their insights would 'better the health of homeless people' by helping shape public policy and funding of community resources that would reduce barriers and improve overall health. Health professionals who understand health behaviours as coping mechanisms for poor quality social environments can provide more comprehensive and holistic care. The findings of this study can be used to support the importance of housing as a key factor in the health and well-being of people experiencing poverty, homelessness and social exclusion; and consequently, reinforces the need for a national housing strategy. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Religion, Spirituality, and the Hidden Curriculum: Medical Student and Faculty Reflections.
Balboni, Michael J; Bandini, Julia; Mitchell, Christine; Epstein-Peterson, Zachary D; Amobi, Ada; Cahill, Jonathan; Enzinger, Andrea C; Peteet, John; Balboni, Tracy
2015-10-01
Religion and spirituality play an important role in physicians' medical practice, but little research has examined their influence within the socialization of medical trainees and the hidden curriculum. The objective is to explore the role of religion and spirituality as they intersect with aspects of medicine's hidden curriculum. Semiscripted, one-on-one interviews and focus groups (n = 33 respondents) were conducted to assess Harvard Medical School student and faculty experiences of religion/spirituality and the professionalization process during medical training. Using grounded theory, theme extraction was performed with interdisciplinary input (medicine, sociology, and theology), yielding a high inter-rater reliability score (kappa = 0.75). Three domains emerged where religion and spirituality appear as a factor in medical training. First, religion/spirituality may present unique challenges and benefits in relation to the hidden curriculum. Religious/spiritual respondents more often reported to struggle with issues of personal identity, increased self-doubt, and perceived medical knowledge inadequacy. However, religious/spiritual participants less often described relationship conflicts within the medical team, work-life imbalance, and emotional stress arising from patient suffering. Second, religion/spirituality may influence coping strategies during encounters with patient suffering. Religious/spiritual trainees described using prayer, faith, and compassion as means for coping whereas nonreligious/nonspiritual trainees discussed compartmentalization and emotional repression. Third, levels of religion/spirituality appear to fluctuate in relation to medical training, with many trainees experiencing an increase in religiousness/spirituality during training. Religion/spirituality has a largely unstudied but possibly influential role in medical student socialization. Future study is needed to characterize its function within the hidden curriculum. Copyright
A Framework for Bioacoustic Vocalization Analysis Using Hidden Markov Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ebenezer Out-Nyarko
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Using Hidden Markov Models (HMMs as a recognition framework for automatic classification of animal vocalizations has a number of benefits, including the ability to handle duration variability through nonlinear time alignment, the ability to incorporate complex language or recognition constraints, and easy extendibility to continuous recognition and detection domains. In this work, we apply HMMs to several different species and bioacoustic tasks using generalized spectral features that can be easily adjusted across species and HMM network topologies suited to each task. This experimental work includes a simple call type classification task using one HMM per vocalization for repertoire analysis of Asian elephants, a language-constrained song recognition task using syllable models as base units for ortolan bunting vocalizations, and a stress stimulus differentiation task in poultry vocalizations using a non-sequential model via a one-state HMM with Gaussian mixtures. Results show strong performance across all tasks and illustrate the flexibility of the HMM framework for a variety of species, vocalization types, and analysis tasks.
A hidden markov model derived structural alphabet for proteins.
Camproux, A C; Gautier, R; Tufféry, P
2004-06-04
Understanding and predicting protein structures depends on the complexity and the accuracy of the models used to represent them. We have set up a hidden Markov model that discretizes protein backbone conformation as series of overlapping fragments (states) of four residues length. This approach learns simultaneously the geometry of the states and their connections. We obtain, using a statistical criterion, an optimal systematic decomposition of the conformational variability of the protein peptidic chain in 27 states with strong connection logic. This result is stable over different protein sets. Our model fits well the previous knowledge related to protein architecture organisation and seems able to grab some subtle details of protein organisation, such as helix sub-level organisation schemes. Taking into account the dependence between the states results in a description of local protein structure of low complexity. On an average, the model makes use of only 8.3 states among 27 to describe each position of a protein structure. Although we use short fragments, the learning process on entire protein conformations captures the logic of the assembly on a larger scale. Using such a model, the structure of proteins can be reconstructed with an average accuracy close to 1.1A root-mean-square deviation and for a complexity of only 3. Finally, we also observe that sequence specificity increases with the number of states of the structural alphabet. Such models can constitute a very relevant approach to the analysis of protein architecture in particular for protein structure prediction.
Temporal framing and the hidden-zero effect: rate-dependent outcomes on delay discounting.
Naudé, Gideon P; Kaplan, Brent A; Reed, Derek D; Henley, Amy J; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D
2018-05-01
Recent research suggests that presenting time intervals as units (e.g., days) or as specific dates, can modulate the degree to which humans discount delayed outcomes. Another framing effect involves explicitly stating that choosing a smaller-sooner reward is mutually exclusive to receiving a larger-later reward, thus presenting choices as an extended sequence. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 201) recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire in a 2 (delay framing) by 2 (zero framing) design. Regression suggested a main effect of delay, but not zero, framing after accounting for other demographic variables and manipulations. We observed a rate-dependent effect for the date-framing group, such that those with initially steep discounting exhibited greater sensitivity to the manipulation than those with initially shallow discounting. Subsequent analyses suggest these effects cannot be explained by regression to the mean. Experiment 2 addressed the possibility that the null effect of zero framing was due to within-subject exposure to the hidden- and explicit-zero conditions. A new Amazon Mechanical Turk sample completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire in either hidden- or explicit-zero formats. Analyses revealed a main effect of reward magnitude, but not zero framing, suggesting potential limitations to the generality of the hidden-zero effect. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Sociocultural Dimension of Hidden Content in a Professional Language Curriculum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ekaterina E. Shishlova
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Introduction: studying curriculum as a pedagogical problem has traditionally been reduced to the analysis of its explicit content, set in official educational documents. However, a much less studied hidden content plays a significant role in education. So, what is the role of the hidden curriculum during professional language training? The purpose of the article is to determine the potential impact of hidden curriculum on students’ conceptual worldview. Comparing the worldview presented in textbooks with students’ one has allowed us to estimate the rate of influence of hidden curr iculum. Materials and Methods: the methodological basis of the work is the cultural concept of personalityoriented education. The methodology for studying the role of hidden curriculum includes four stages: at the first stage, the authors set the criteria for selecting textbooks for analysis and do the selection; at the second stage, the authors select sociocultural concepts for analysis; at the third stage, the scheme of analysis is designed and the analysis of textbooks is done; at the fourth stage, the authors identify the potential influence of hidden curriculum on students’ conceptual worldview. Results: the structure of hidden curriculum has been determined and the scheme for analysing its subject component has been developed. The authors have identified a significant influence of hidden curriculum on students’ worldview, which represents the scientific novelty of the article. Discussion and Conclusions: the article gives the definition of a hidden curriculum which is new for Russian pedagogy and presents a methodology for its analysis in EFL textbooks. That analysis is recommended to be conducted when selecting teaching materials both i n languages and other humanities.
A Duration Hidden Markov Model for the Identification of Regimes in Stock Market Returns
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ntantamis, Christos
This paper introduces a Duration Hidden Markov Model to model bull and bear market regime switches in the stock market; the duration of each state of the Markov Chain is a random variable that depends on a set of exogenous variables. The model not only allows the endogenous determination...... of the different regimes and but also estimates the effect of the explanatory variables on the regimes' durations. The model is estimated here on NYSE returns using the short-term interest rate and the interest rate spread as exogenous variables. The bull market regime is assigned to the identified state...... with the higher mean and lower variance; bull market duration is found to be negatively dependent on short-term interest rates and positively on the interest rate spread, while bear market duration depends positively the short-term interest rate and negatively on the interest rate spread....
Observation of hidden Fermi surface nesting in a two dimensional conductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breuer, K.; Stagerescu, C.; Smith, K.E.; Greenblatt, M.; Ramanujachary, K.
1996-01-01
We report the first direct measurement of hidden Fermi surface nesting in a two dimensional conductor. The system studied was Na 0.9 Mo 6 O 17 , and the measured Fermi surface consists of electron and hole pockets that can be combined to form sets of pseudo-one-dimensional Fermi surfaces, exhibiting the nesting necessary to drive a Peierls transition to a charge density wave state. The observed nesting vector is shown to be in excellent agreement with theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Wevers, Anne; Wigboldus, Daniël H J; van Baaren, Rick; Veldhuizen, Ingrid J T
2014-03-01
For blood establishments it is important that blood donors return for a donation. Past research has stressed the importance of theory of planned behavior (TPB) on return behavior, but self-identity (SI) and organizational variables (OVs) might play a role as well. This study added SI and OVs to the TPB to identify the determinants for return behavior. Whole blood donors (n = 2005) completed a questionnaire assessing TPB, SI, and OVs. OVs contained "perceived satisfaction with the blood bank" and "feeling pressure from the blood bank to donate blood." Return behavior over the past 2 years was dichotomized as low return (0%-50%) versus high return (51%-100%). Logistic regression analyses assessed the effects of TPB, SI, and OVs on high return, separately for occasional donors (two to 10 lifetime donations) and multigallon donors (>10 lifetime donations). Results showed that, for all donors, affective attitude was positively associated with return behavior, whereas pressure to donate blood was negatively associated with return behavior. The point estimates of self-efficacy, SI, and perceived satisfaction are high for multigallon donors, but do not reach significance. For all donors, positive feelings about donating blood stimulate return behavior, while experiencing a pressure to donate blood emanating from the blood bank was not beneficial. Results suggest that multigallon donors are more stimulated to return when they score higher on self-efficacy, SI, and perceived satisfaction. Interventions aiming at donor retention need to be carefully formulated to avoid negative effects of feeling pressure to donate blood. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
Multilayer Neural Networks with Extensively Many Hidden Units
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosen-Zvi, Michal; Engel, Andreas; Kanter, Ido
2001-01-01
The information processing abilities of a multilayer neural network with a number of hidden units scaling as the input dimension are studied using statistical mechanics methods. The mapping from the input layer to the hidden units is performed by general symmetric Boolean functions, whereas the hidden layer is connected to the output by either discrete or continuous couplings. Introducing an overlap in the space of Boolean functions as order parameter, the storage capacity is found to scale with the logarithm of the number of implementable Boolean functions. The generalization behavior is smooth for continuous couplings and shows a discontinuous transition to perfect generalization for discrete ones
Hidden photon dark matter search with large metallic mirror
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doebrich, Babette; Lindner, Axel; Daumiller, Kai; Engel, Ralph; Roth, Markus; Kowalski, Marek
2014-10-01
If Dark Matter is composed of hidden-sector photons that kinetically mix with photons of the visible sector, then Dark Matter has a tiny oscillating electric field component. Its presence would lead to a small amount of visible radiation being emitted from a conducting surface, with the photon frequency given approximately by the mass of the hidden photon. Here, we report on experimental efforts that have started recently to search for such hidden photon Dark Matter in the (sub-)eV regime with a prototype mirror for the Auger fluorescence detector at the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology.
Hidden Area and Mechanical Nonlinearities in Freestanding Graphene
Nicholl, Ryan J. T.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Bolotin, Kirill I.
2017-06-01
We investigated the effect of out-of-plane crumpling on the mechanical response of graphene membranes. In our experiments, stress was applied to graphene membranes using pressurized gas while the strain state was monitored through two complementary techniques: interferometric profilometry and Raman spectroscopy. By comparing the data obtained through these two techniques, we determined the geometric hidden area which quantifies the crumpling strength. While the devices with hidden area ˜0 % obeyed linear mechanics with biaxial stiffness 428 ±10 N /m , specimens with hidden area in the range 0.5%-1.0% were found to obey an anomalous nonlinear Hooke's law with an exponent ˜0.1 .
Suppressing the QCD axion abundance by hidden monopoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawasaki, Masahiro
2015-11-01
We study the Witten effect of hidden monopoles on the QCD axion dynamics, and show that its abundance as well as isocurvature perturbations can be significantly suppressed if there is a sufficient amount of hidden monopoles. When the hidden monopoles make up a significant fraction of dark matter, the Witten effect suppresses the abundance of axion with the decay constant smaller than 10 12 GeV. The cosmological domain wall problem of the QCD axion can also be avoided, relaxing the upper bound on the decay constant when the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is spontaneously broken after inflation.
Opanchuk, B.; Arnaud, L.; Reid, M. D.
2014-06-01
We demonstrate the principle of one-sided device-independent continuous-variable (CV) quantum information. In situations of no trust, we show by enactment how the use of standard CV entanglement criteria can mislead Charlie into thinking that Alice and Bob share entanglement, when the data are actually generated classically using a local-hidden-variable theory based on the Wigner function. We distinguish between criteria that demonstrate CV entanglement, and criteria that demonstrate the CV Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering paradox. We show that the latter, but not the former, are necessarily one-sided device-independent entanglement witnesses, and can be used by Charlie to signify genuine EPR entanglement, if he trusts only Alice. A monogamy result for the EPR steering paradox confirms the security of the shared amplitude values in that case.
High Energy Colliders and Hidden Sectors
Dror, Asaf Jeff
This thesis explores two dominant frontiers of theoretical physics, high energy colliders and hidden sectors. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is just starting to reach its maximum operational capabilities. However, already with the current data, large classes of models are being put under significant pressure. It is crucial to understand whether the (thus far) null results are a consequence of a lack of solution to the hierarchy problem around the weak scale or requires expanding the search strategy employed at the LHC. It is the duty of the current generation of physicists to design new searches to ensure that no stone is left unturned. To this end, we study the sensitivity of the LHC to the couplings in the Standard Model top sector. We find it can significantly improve the measurements on ZtRtR coupling by a novel search strategy, making use of an implied unitarity violation in such models. Analogously, we show that other couplings in the top sector can also be measured with the same technique. Furthermore, we critically analyze a set of anomalies in the LHC data and how they may appear from consistent UV completions. We also propose a technique to measure lifetimes of new colored particles with non-trivial spin. While the high energy frontier will continue to take data, it is likely the only collider of its kind for the next couple decades. On the other hand, low-energy experiments have a promising future with many new proposed experiments to probe the existence of particles well below the weak scale but with small couplings to the Standard Model. In this work we survey the different possibilities, focusingon the constraints as well as possible new hidden sector dynamics. In particular, we show that vector portals which couple to an anomalous current, e.g., baryon number, are significantly constrained from flavor changing meson decays and rare Z decays. Furthermore, we present a new mechanism for dark matter freezeout which depletes the dark sector through an
Alleviating hidden hunger. Approaches that work
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kennedy, E.; Mannar, V.; Iyengar, V.
2003-01-01
The world has come a long way in understanding the nature, magnitude and range of solutions to micronutrient malnutrition - often called 'hidden hunger'. The most sustainable solutions - that is those that are likely to be maintained in the long term - almost surely will include food-based approaches including diet diversity, food fortification and biofortification. Food fortification and biofortification could be some of the most cost-effective of all public health interventions and thus within the economic reach of even the world's poorest. In order to implement them in a sustainable manner, a combination of technical, operational, economic, behavioural and political factors need to be addressed. In some ways the technological issues are the easiest. Because of attention to research, we now have a variety of ways for both single and multiple micronutrients to reach the target population. We also know what is needed in order to ensure delivery systems. The key factor for continued success in reducing micronutrient malnutrition through fortification is a political commitment at the national and international level and creating effective public-private partnerships at the national level. The payoff for eliminating hidden hunger through nutrient fortification is enormous and few other public health interventions offer such a promising health, nutrition and economic success story. Nuclear and isotopic techniques are valuable tools in helping to meet the multifaceted challenges posed by nutritional disorders affecting the entire human life span (embryonic to elderly). Among the numerous applications available, isotopic techniques are uniquely well suited for targeting and tracking progress in food and nutrition development programmes (See box: How Nutrients are Tracked). These include: use of the stable isotopes of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) as a kind of gold standard in studies of their bioavailability from foods; trace element bioavailability and pool sizes for
Prediction of Annual Rainfall Pattern Using Hidden Markov Model ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ADOWIE PERE
Hidden Markov model is very influential in stochastic world because of its ... the earth from the clouds. The usual ... Rainfall modelling and ... Markov Models have become popular tools ... environment sciences, University of Jos, plateau state,.
Cosmological abundance of the QCD axion coupled to hidden photons
Kitajima, Naoya; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu; Takahashi, Fuminobu
2018-06-01
We study the cosmological evolution of the QCD axion coupled to hidden photons. For a moderately strong coupling, the motion of the axion field leads to an explosive production of hidden photons by tachyonic instability. We use lattice simulations to evaluate the cosmological abundance of the QCD axion. In doing so, we incorporate the backreaction of the produced hidden photons on the axion dynamics, which becomes significant in the non-linear regime. We find that the axion abundance is suppressed by at most O (102) for the decay constant fa =1016GeV, compared to the case without the coupling. For a sufficiently large coupling, the motion of the QCD axion becomes strongly damped, and as a result, the axion abundance is enhanced. Our results show that the cosmological upper bound on the axion decay constant can be relaxed by a few hundred for a certain range of the coupling to hidden photons.
Dopamine reward prediction errors reflect hidden state inference across time
Starkweather, Clara Kwon; Babayan, Benedicte M.; Uchida, Naoshige; Gershman, Samuel J.
2017-01-01
Midbrain dopamine neurons signal reward prediction error (RPE), or actual minus expected reward. The temporal difference (TD) learning model has been a cornerstone in understanding how dopamine RPEs could drive associative learning. Classically, TD learning imparts value to features that serially track elapsed time relative to observable stimuli. In the real world, however, sensory stimuli provide ambiguous information about the hidden state of the environment, leading to the proposal that TD learning might instead compute a value signal based on an inferred distribution of hidden states (a ‘belief state’). In this work, we asked whether dopaminergic signaling supports a TD learning framework that operates over hidden states. We found that dopamine signaling exhibited a striking difference between two tasks that differed only with respect to whether reward was delivered deterministically. Our results favor an associative learning rule that combines cached values with hidden state inference. PMID:28263301
Optimisation of Hidden Markov Model using Baum–Welch algorithm ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The present work is a part of development of Hidden Markov Model. (HMM) based ... the Himalaya. In this work, HMMs have been developed for forecasting of maximum and minimum ..... data collection teams of Snow and Avalanche Study.
On the LHC sensitivity for non-thermalised hidden sectors
Kahlhoefer, Felix
2018-04-01
We show under rather general assumptions that hidden sectors that never reach thermal equilibrium in the early Universe are also inaccessible for the LHC. In other words, any particle that can be produced at the LHC must either have been in thermal equilibrium with the Standard Model at some point or must be produced via the decays of another hidden sector particle that has been in thermal equilibrium. To reach this conclusion, we parametrise the cross section connecting the Standard Model to the hidden sector in a very general way and use methods from linear programming to calculate the largest possible number of LHC events compatible with the requirement of non-thermalisation. We find that even the HL-LHC cannot possibly produce more than a few events with energy above 10 GeV involving states from a non-thermalised hidden sector.
Risk from the frontlines of a hidden epidemic sexuality, masculinities ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Risk from the frontlines of a hidden epidemic sexuality, masculinities and social pressures ... It frames risk in the context of the dynamics governing sexuality, underlined ... MSM risk and practice, in these contexts, are consequently shaped by ...
A Novel Method for Decoding Any High-Order Hidden Markov Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fei Ye
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method for decoding any high-order hidden Markov model. First, the high-order hidden Markov model is transformed into an equivalent first-order hidden Markov model by Hadar’s transformation. Next, the optimal state sequence of the equivalent first-order hidden Markov model is recognized by the existing Viterbi algorithm of the first-order hidden Markov model. Finally, the optimal state sequence of the high-order hidden Markov model is inferred from the optimal state sequence of the equivalent first-order hidden Markov model. This method provides a unified algorithm framework for decoding hidden Markov models including the first-order hidden Markov model and any high-order hidden Markov model.
A two particle hidden sector and the oscillations with photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez, Pedro D. [Universidad de Antofagasta, Departamento de Fisica, Antofagasta (Chile); Arias, Paola; Maldonado, Carlos [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departmento de Fisica, Santiago (Chile)
2018-01-15
We present a detailed study of the oscillations and optical properties for vacuum, in a model for the dark sector that contains axion-like particles and hidden photons. We provide bounds for the couplings versus the mass, using current results from ALPS-I and PVLAS. We also discuss the challenges for the detection of models with more than one hidden particle in light shining trough wall-like experiments. (orig.)
Rare Z boson decays to a hidden sector
Blinov, Nikita; Izaguirre, Eder; Shuve, Brian
2018-01-01
We demonstrate that rare decays of the Standard Model Z boson can be used to discover and characterize the nature of new hidden-sector particles. We propose new searches for these particles in soft, high-multiplicity leptonic final states at the Large Hadron Collider. The proposed searches are sensitive to low-mass particles produced in Z decays, and we argue that these striking signatures can shed light on the hidden-sector couplings and mechanism for mass generation.
Anticipating hidden text salting in emails (extended abstract)
Lioma, Christina; Moens, Marie-Francine; Gomez, Juan Carlos; De Beer, Jan; Bergholz, Andre; Paass, Gerhard; Horkan, Patrick
2008-01-01
Salting is the intentional addition or distortion of content, aimed to evade automatic filtering. Salting is usually found in spam emails. Salting can also be hidden in phishing emails, which aim to steal personal information from users. We present a novel method that detects hidden salting tricks as visual anomalies in text. We solely use these salting tricks to successfully classify emails as phishing (F-measure >90%).
Hidden charged dark matter and chiral dark radiation
Ko, P.; Nagata, Natsumi; Tang, Yong
2017-10-01
In the light of recent possible tensions in the Hubble constant H0 and the structure growth rate σ8 between the Planck and other measurements, we investigate a hidden-charged dark matter (DM) model where DM interacts with hidden chiral fermions, which are charged under the hidden SU(N) and U(1) gauge interactions. The symmetries in this model assure these fermions to be massless. The DM in this model, which is a Dirac fermion and singlet under the hidden SU(N), is also assumed to be charged under the U(1) gauge symmetry, through which it can interact with the chiral fermions. Below the confinement scale of SU(N), the hidden quark condensate spontaneously breaks the U(1) gauge symmetry such that there remains a discrete symmetry, which accounts for the stability of DM. This condensate also breaks a flavor symmetry in this model and Nambu-Goldstone bosons associated with this flavor symmetry appear below the confinement scale. The hidden U(1) gauge boson and hidden quarks/Nambu-Goldstone bosons are components of dark radiation (DR) above/below the confinement scale. These light fields increase the effective number of neutrinos by δNeff ≃ 0.59 above the confinement scale for N = 2, resolving the tension in the measurements of the Hubble constant by Planck and Hubble Space Telescope if the confinement scale is ≲1 eV. DM and DR continuously scatter with each other via the hidden U(1) gauge interaction, which suppresses the matter power spectrum and results in a smaller structure growth rate. The DM sector couples to the Standard Model sector through the exchange of a real singlet scalar mixing with the Higgs boson, which makes it possible to probe our model in DM direct detection experiments. Variants of this model are also discussed, which may offer alternative ways to investigate this scenario.
Search algorithms, hidden labour and information control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paško Bilić
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The paper examines some of the processes of the closely knit relationship between Google’s ideologies of neutrality and objectivity and global market dominance. Neutrality construction comprises an important element sustaining the company’s economic position and is reflected in constant updates, estimates and changes to utility and relevance of search results. Providing a purely technical solution to these issues proves to be increasingly difficult without a human hand in steering algorithmic solutions. Search relevance fluctuates and shifts through continuous tinkering and tweaking of the search algorithm. The company also uses third parties to hire human raters for performing quality assessments of algorithmic updates and adaptations in linguistically and culturally diverse global markets. The adaptation process contradicts the technical foundations of the company and calculations based on the initial Page Rank algorithm. Annual market reports, Google’s Search Quality Rating Guidelines, and reports from media specialising in search engine optimisation business are analysed. The Search Quality Rating Guidelines document provides a rare glimpse into the internal architecture of search algorithms and the notions of utility and relevance which are presented and structured as neutral and objective. Intertwined layers of ideology, hidden labour of human raters, advertising revenues, market dominance and control are discussed throughout the paper.
Hidden Structural Codes in Protein Intrinsic Disorder.
Borkosky, Silvia S; Camporeale, Gabriela; Chemes, Lucía B; Risso, Marikena; Noval, María Gabriela; Sánchez, Ignacio E; Alonso, Leonardo G; de Prat Gay, Gonzalo
2017-10-17
Intrinsic disorder is a major structural category in biology, accounting for more than 30% of coding regions across the domains of life, yet consists of conformational ensembles in equilibrium, a major challenge in protein chemistry. Anciently evolved papillomavirus genomes constitute an unparalleled case for sequence to structure-function correlation in cases in which there are no folded structures. E7, the major transforming oncoprotein of human papillomaviruses, is a paradigmatic example among the intrinsically disordered proteins. Analysis of a large number of sequences of the same viral protein allowed for the identification of a handful of residues with absolute conservation, scattered along the sequence of its N-terminal intrinsically disordered domain, which intriguingly are mostly leucine residues. Mutation of these led to a pronounced increase in both α-helix and β-sheet structural content, reflected by drastic effects on equilibrium propensities and oligomerization kinetics, and uncovers the existence of local structural elements that oppose canonical folding. These folding relays suggest the existence of yet undefined hidden structural codes behind intrinsic disorder in this model protein. Thus, evolution pinpoints conformational hot spots that could have not been identified by direct experimental methods for analyzing or perturbing the equilibrium of an intrinsically disordered protein ensemble.
Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.
Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H
2014-10-01
Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Detecting hidden sources-STUK/HUT team
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nikkinen, M.; Aarnio, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)
1997-12-31
The task of the team was to locate and to identify hidden sources in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used AB-420 helicopter of the Finnish Frontier Guard. The team had two measuring systems: HPGe system (relative efficiency 18%) and 5`x5` NaI system. The team found two sources in real-time and additional two sources after 24 h analysis time. After the locations and characteristics of the sources were announced it was found out that altogether six sources would have been possible to find using the measured data. The total number of sources was ten. The NaI detector was good at detecting and locating the sources and HPGe was most useful in identification and calculation of the activity estimates. The following development should be made: 1) larger detectors are needed, 2) the software has to be improved. (This has been performed after the exercise) and 3) the navigation must be based on DGPS. visual navigation causes easily gaps between the flight lines and some sources may not be detected. (au).
Academic mobbing: hidden health hazard at workplace.
Khoo, Sb
2010-01-01
Academic mobbing is a non-violent, sophisticated, 'ganging up' behaviour adopted by academicians to "wear and tear" a colleague down emotionally through unjustified accusation, humiliation, general harassment and emotional abuse. These are directed at the target under a veil of lies and justifications so that they are "hidden" to others and difficult to prove. Bullies use mobbing activities to hide their own weaknesses and incompetence. Targets selected are often intelligent, innovative high achievers, with good integrity and principles. Mobbing activities appear trivial and innocuous on its own but the frequency and pattern of their occurrence over long period of time indicates an aggressive manipulation to "eliminate" the target. Mobbing activities typically progress through five stereotypical phases that begins with an unsolved minor conflict between two workers and ultimately escalates into a senseless mobbing whereby the target is stigmatized and victimized to justify the behaviours of the bullies. The result is always physical, mental, social distress or illness and, most often, expulsion of target from the workplace. Organizations are subjected to great financial loss, loss of key workers and a tarnished public image and reputation. Public awareness, education, effective counselling, establishment of anti-bullying policies and legislations at all levels are necessary to curb academic mobbing. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in supporting patients subjected to mental and physical health injury caused by workplace bullying and mobbing.
Detecting hidden sources-STUK/HUT team
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nikkinen, M; Aarnio, P [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Honkamaa, T; Tiilikainen, H [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)
1998-12-31
The task of the team was to locate and to identify hidden sources in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used AB-420 helicopter of the Finnish Frontier Guard. The team had two measuring systems: HPGe system (relative efficiency 18%) and 5`x5` NaI system. The team found two sources in real-time and additional two sources after 24 h analysis time. After the locations and characteristics of the sources were announced it was found out that altogether six sources would have been possible to find using the measured data. The total number of sources was ten. The NaI detector was good at detecting and locating the sources and HPGe was most useful in identification and calculation of the activity estimates. The following development should be made: 1) larger detectors are needed, 2) the software has to be improved. (This has been performed after the exercise) and 3) the navigation must be based on DGPS. visual navigation causes easily gaps between the flight lines and some sources may not be detected. (au).
Hidden-Sector Dynamics and the Supersymmetric Seesaw
Campbell, Bruce A; Maybury, David W
2008-01-01
In light of recent analyses that have shown that nontrivial hidden-sector dynamics in models of supersymmetry breaking can lead to a significant impact on the predicted low-energy supersymmetric spectrum, we extend these studies to consider hidden-sector effects in extensions of the MSSM to include a seesaw model for neutrino masses. A dynamical hidden sector in an interval of mass scales below the seesaw scale would yield renormalization-group running involving both the anomalous dimension from the hidden sector and the seesaw-extended MSSM renormalization group equations (RGEs). These effects interfere in general, altering the generational mixing of the sleptons, and allowing for a substantial change to the expected level of charged-lepton flavour violation in seesaw-extended MSSM models. These results provide further support for recent theoretical observations that knowledge of the hidden sector is required in order to make concrete low-energy predictions, if the hidden sector is strongly coupled. In parti...
Tao, C.-S.; Chen, S.-W.; Li, Y.-Z.; Xiao, S.-P.
2017-09-01
Land cover classification is an important application for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data utilization. Rollinvariant polarimetric features such as H / Ani / text-decoration: overline">α / Span are commonly adopted in PolSAR land cover classification. However, target orientation diversity effect makes PolSAR images understanding and interpretation difficult. Only using the roll-invariant polarimetric features may introduce ambiguity in the interpretation of targets' scattering mechanisms and limit the followed classification accuracy. To address this problem, this work firstly focuses on hidden polarimetric feature mining in the rotation domain along the radar line of sight using the recently reported uniform polarimetric matrix rotation theory and the visualization and characterization tool of polarimetric coherence pattern. The former rotates the acquired polarimetric matrix along the radar line of sight and fully describes the rotation characteristics of each entry of the matrix. Sets of new polarimetric features are derived to describe the hidden scattering information of the target in the rotation domain. The latter extends the traditional polarimetric coherence at a given rotation angle to the rotation domain for complete interpretation. A visualization and characterization tool is established to derive new polarimetric features for hidden information exploration. Then, a classification scheme is developed combing both the selected new hidden polarimetric features in rotation domain and the commonly used roll-invariant polarimetric features with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Comparison experiments based on AIRSAR and multi-temporal UAVSAR data demonstrate that compared with the conventional classification scheme which only uses the roll-invariant polarimetric features, the proposed classification scheme achieves both higher classification accuracy and better robustness. For AIRSAR data, the overall classification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C.-S. Tao
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Land cover classification is an important application for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR data utilization. Rollinvariant polarimetric features such as H / Ani / α / Span are commonly adopted in PolSAR land cover classification. However, target orientation diversity effect makes PolSAR images understanding and interpretation difficult. Only using the roll-invariant polarimetric features may introduce ambiguity in the interpretation of targets’ scattering mechanisms and limit the followed classification accuracy. To address this problem, this work firstly focuses on hidden polarimetric feature mining in the rotation domain along the radar line of sight using the recently reported uniform polarimetric matrix rotation theory and the visualization and characterization tool of polarimetric coherence pattern. The former rotates the acquired polarimetric matrix along the radar line of sight and fully describes the rotation characteristics of each entry of the matrix. Sets of new polarimetric features are derived to describe the hidden scattering information of the target in the rotation domain. The latter extends the traditional polarimetric coherence at a given rotation angle to the rotation domain for complete interpretation. A visualization and characterization tool is established to derive new polarimetric features for hidden information exploration. Then, a classification scheme is developed combing both the selected new hidden polarimetric features in rotation domain and the commonly used roll-invariant polarimetric features with a support vector machine (SVM classifier. Comparison experiments based on AIRSAR and multi-temporal UAVSAR data demonstrate that compared with the conventional classification scheme which only uses the roll-invariant polarimetric features, the proposed classification scheme achieves both higher classification accuracy and better robustness. For AIRSAR data, the overall classification accuracy
Laubichler, Manfred D; Prohaska, Sonja J; Stadler, Peter F
2018-01-01
Reconciling different underlying ontologies and explanatory contexts has been one of the main challenges and impediments for theory integration in biology. Here, we analyze the challenge of developing an inclusive and integrative theory of phenotypic evolution as an example for the broader challenge of developing a theory of theory integration within the life sciences and suggest a number of necessary formal steps toward the resolution of often incompatible (hidden) assumptions. Theory integration in biology requires a better formal understanding of the structure of biological theories The strategy for integrating theories crucially depends on the relationships of the underlying ontologies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Guliyev , Namig; Ismailov , Vugar
2016-01-01
The possibility of approximating a continuous function on a compact subset of the real line by a feedforward single hidden layer neural network with a sigmoidal activation function has been studied in many papers. Such networks can approximate an arbitrary continuous function provided that an unlimited number of neurons in a hidden layer is permitted. In this paper, we consider constructive approximation on any finite interval of $\\mathbb{R}$ by neural networks with only one neuron in the hid...
Categorification and higher representation theory
Beliakova, Anna
2017-01-01
The emergent mathematical philosophy of categorification is reshaping our view of modern mathematics by uncovering a hidden layer of structure in mathematics, revealing richer and more robust structures capable of describing more complex phenomena. Categorified representation theory, or higher representation theory, aims to understand a new level of structure present in representation theory. Rather than studying actions of algebras on vector spaces where algebra elements act by linear endomorphisms of the vector space, higher representation theory describes the structure present when algebras act on categories, with algebra elements acting by functors. The new level of structure in higher representation theory arises by studying the natural transformations between functors. This enhanced perspective brings into play a powerful new set of tools that deepens our understanding of traditional representation theory. This volume exhibits some of the current trends in higher representation theory and the diverse te...
Danuta OPOZDA
2017-01-01
The article deals with the problem of the topicality of parenting style in the family and its meaning in the theory and practice of family pedagogy. It is an attempt to provide an answer to what is constant and what is variable in parenting styles. The answer takes into account the issues: the understanding of the term, the criteria and classifications of the parenting style, kinds of the parenting style and the determinants of changes. The main classifications of parenting style are presente...
Hidden burden of malaria in Indian women
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sharma Vinod P
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Malaria is endemic in India with an estimated 70-100 million cases each year (1.6-1.8 million reported by NVBDCP; of this 50-55% are Plasmodium vivax and 45-50% Plasmodium falciparum. A recent study on malaria in pregnancy reported from undivided Madhya Pradesh state (includes Chhattisgarh state, that an estimated over 220,000 pregnant women contract malaria infection each year. Malaria in pregnancy caused- abortions 34.5%; stillbirths 9%; and maternal deaths 0.45%. Bulk of this tragic outcome can be averted by following the Roll Back Malaria/WHO recommendations of the use of malaria prevention i.e. indoor residual spraying (IRS/insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN preferably long-lasting treated bed nets (LLIN; intermittent preventive therapy (IPT; early diagnosis, prompt and complete treatment using microscopic/malaria rapid diagnostics test (RDT and case management. High incidence in pregnancy has arisen because of malaria surveillance lacking coverage, lack of age and sex wise data, staff shortages, and intermittent preventive treatment (IPT applicable in high transmission states/pockets is not included in the national drug policy- an essential component of fighting malaria in pregnancy in African settings. Inadequate surveillance and gross under-reporting has been highlighted time and again for over three decades. As a result the huge problem of malaria in pregnancy reported occasionally by researchers has remained hidden. Malaria in pregnancy may quicken severity in patients with drug resistant parasites, anaemia, endemic poverty, and malnutrition. There is, therefore, urgent need to streamline malaria control strategies to make a difference in tackling this grim scenario in human health.
'Hidden messages' emerging from Afrocentric management perspectives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Van den Heuvel
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to examine how 'African management' discourse has emerged in South Africa. Altogether, it has stimulated debates - sometimes in controversial ways - on 'taboo issues', e.g. relating to 'cultural diversity' and 'ethnicity'. The stimulation of such debates within organisations is probably a more valuable contribution than a static, essentialised 'African identity' that it proclaims. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper draws on a qualitative research project conducted in South Africa in 2003-2004. Its relevance lies in gaining in-depth insights into ('non-western' local management discourse. It seeks to contribute to the body of knowledge on political and cultural contexts in which South African organizations operate, and how they impact on local management perspectives, and vice versa. Findings: The research findings make clear how and under what circumstances 'African management' discourse has come about in South Africa, and how it could be interpreted. Implications: 'African management' advocates allegedly attempt to revise dominant management thinking and promote 'humane-ness' and participatory decision-making in South African organisations, in search of a contextualised management approach. Amongst others, it has produced new meanings of 'Africanness' and has opened up space for 'hidden messages', resentments and aspirations to become openly articulated. This throws another light on phenomena such as cultural diversity and ethnicity that usually tend to be 'neutralised'. This may turn out to be far healthier for blooming organisational cultures in South Africa than relentlessly hammering on prescribed 'corporate values'. Originality/Value: This paper informs the reader in detail about the emergence and evolvement of 'African management' discourse in South Africa. It is a unique attempt to develop an interpretative viewpoint on this intriguing phenomenon that offers a potentially valuable contribution in reading
Identifying hidden voice and video streams
Fan, Jieyan; Wu, Dapeng; Nucci, Antonio; Keralapura, Ram; Gao, Lixin
2009-04-01
Given the rising popularity of voice and video services over the Internet, accurately identifying voice and video traffic that traverse their networks has become a critical task for Internet service providers (ISPs). As the number of proprietary applications that deliver voice and video services to end users increases over time, the search for the one methodology that can accurately detect such services while being application independent still remains open. This problem becomes even more complicated when voice and video service providers like Skype, Microsoft, and Google bundle their voice and video services with other services like file transfer and chat. For example, a bundled Skype session can contain both voice stream and file transfer stream in the same layer-3/layer-4 flow. In this context, traditional techniques to identify voice and video streams do not work. In this paper, we propose a novel self-learning classifier, called VVS-I , that detects the presence of voice and video streams in flows with minimum manual intervention. Our classifier works in two phases: training phase and detection phase. In the training phase, VVS-I first extracts the relevant features, and subsequently constructs a fingerprint of a flow using the power spectral density (PSD) analysis. In the detection phase, it compares the fingerprint of a flow to the existing fingerprints learned during the training phase, and subsequently classifies the flow. Our classifier is not only capable of detecting voice and video streams that are hidden in different flows, but is also capable of detecting different applications (like Skype, MSN, etc.) that generate these voice/video streams. We show that our classifier can achieve close to 100% detection rate while keeping the false positive rate to less that 1%.
Increased taxon sampling reveals thousands of hidden orthologs in flatworms
2017-01-01
Gains and losses shape the gene complement of animal lineages and are a fundamental aspect of genomic evolution. Acquiring a comprehensive view of the evolution of gene repertoires is limited by the intrinsic limitations of common sequence similarity searches and available databases. Thus, a subset of the gene complement of an organism consists of hidden orthologs, i.e., those with no apparent homology to sequenced animal lineages—mistakenly considered new genes—but actually representing rapidly evolving orthologs or undetected paralogs. Here, we describe Leapfrog, a simple automated BLAST pipeline that leverages increased taxon sampling to overcome long evolutionary distances and identify putative hidden orthologs in large transcriptomic databases by transitive homology. As a case study, we used 35 transcriptomes of 29 flatworm lineages to recover 3427 putative hidden orthologs, some unidentified by OrthoFinder and HaMStR, two common orthogroup inference algorithms. Unexpectedly, we do not observe a correlation between the number of putative hidden orthologs in a lineage and its “average” evolutionary rate. Hidden orthologs do not show unusual sequence composition biases that might account for systematic errors in sequence similarity searches. Instead, gene duplication with divergence of one paralog and weak positive selection appear to underlie hidden orthology in Platyhelminthes. By using Leapfrog, we identify key centrosome-related genes and homeodomain classes previously reported as absent in free-living flatworms, e.g., planarians. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that hidden orthologs comprise a significant proportion of the gene repertoire in flatworms, qualifying the impact of gene losses and gains in gene complement evolution. PMID:28400424
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warnock, R.L.
1996-02-01
Ordinary quantum theory is a statistical theory without an underlying probability space. The Wiener-Siegel theory provides a probability space, defined in terms of the usual wave function and its ''stochastic coordinates''; i.e., projections of its components onto differentials of complex Wiener processes. The usual probabilities of quantum theory emerge as measures of subspaces defined by inequalities on stochastic coordinates. Since each point α of the probability space is assigned values (or arbitrarily small intervals) of all observables, the theory gives a pseudo-classical or ''hidden-variable'' view in which normally forbidden concepts are allowed. Joint probabilities for values of noncommuting variables are well-defined. This paper gives a brief description of the theory, including a new generalization to incorporate spin, and reports the first concrete calculation of a joint probability for noncommuting components of spin of a single particle. Bohm's form of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Gedankenexperiment is discussed along the lines of Carlen's paper at this Congress. It would seem that the ''EPR Paradox'' is avoided, since to each α the theory assigns opposite values for spin components of two particles in a singlet state, along any axis. In accordance with Bell's ideas, the price to pay for this attempt at greater theoretical detail is a disagreement with usual quantum predictions. The disagreement is computed and found to be large
Universal moduli space and string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwarz, A.S.
1989-09-01
The construction of the universal supermoduli space is given. The super-Mumford form (the holomorphic square root from the string measure) is extended to the universal supermoduli space and expressed through the superanalog of Sato's τ-function. The hidden N=2 superconformal symmetry in the string theory is considered. (author). 13 refs
Kodaira, Kunihiko
2017-01-01
This book deals with the classical theory of Nevanlinna on the value distribution of meromorphic functions of one complex variable, based on minimum prerequisites for complex manifolds. The theory was extended to several variables by S. Kobayashi, T. Ochiai, J. Carleson, and P. Griffiths in the early 1970s. K. Kodaira took up this subject in his course at The University of Tokyo in 1973 and gave an introductory account of this development in the context of his final paper, contained in this book. The first three chapters are devoted to holomorphic mappings from C to complex manifolds. In the fourth chapter, holomorphic mappings between higher dimensional manifolds are covered. The book is a valuable treatise on the Nevanlinna theory, of special interests to those who want to understand Kodaira's unique approach to basic questions on complex manifolds.
Relating c 0 conformal field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guruswamy, S.; Ludwig, A.W.W.
1998-03-01
A 'canonical mapping' is established between the c = -1 system of bosonic ghosts at the c = 2 complex scalar theory and, a similar mapping between the c = -2 system of fermionic ghosts and the c = 1 Dirac theory. The existence of this mapping is suggested by the identity of the characters of the respective theories. The respective c 0 theories share the same space of states, whereas the spaces of conformal fields are different. Upon this mapping from their c 0) complex scalar and the Dirac theories inherit hidden nonlocal sl(2) symmetries. (author)
An introduction to information theory
Reza, Fazlollah M
1994-01-01
Graduate-level study for engineering students presents elements of modern probability theory, information theory, coding theory, more. Emphasis on sample space, random variables, capacity, etc. Many reference tables and extensive bibliography. 1961 edition.
Hidden beauty baryon states in the local hidden gauge approach with heavy quark spin symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiao, C.W.; Oset, E. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Valencia (Spain)
2013-11-15
Using a coupled-channel unitary approach, combining the heavy quark spin symmetry and the dynamics of the local hidden gauge, we investigate the meson-baryon interaction with hidden beauty and obtain several new states of N around 11 GeV. We consider the basis of states {eta}{sub b} N, {Upsilon};N, B {Lambda}{sub b}, B {Sigma}{sub b}, B{sup *}{Lambda}{sub b}, B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}, B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}{sup *} and find four basic bound states which correspond to B {Sigma}{sub b}, B {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *}, B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b} and B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}{sup *}, decaying mostly into {eta}{sub b} N and {Upsilon}N and with a binding energy about 50-130 MeV with respect to the thresholds of the corresponding channel. All of them have isospin I = 1/2, and we find no bound states or resonances in I = 3/2. The B {Sigma}{sub b} state appears in J = 1/2, the B {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *} in J = 3/2, the B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b} appears nearly degenerate in J = 1/2, 3/2 and the B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}{sup *} appears nearly degenerate in J = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2. These states have a width from 2-110 MeV, with conservative estimates of uncertainties, except for the one in J = 5/2 which has zero width since it cannot decay into any of the states of the basis chosen. We make generous estimates of the uncertainties and find that within very large margins these states appear bound. (orig.)
Fibroid Tumors in Women: A Hidden Epidemic?
... not only shuts down the body's production of progesterone. It also shuts down production of estrogen, another sex hormone. Since abruptly depriving the body of estrogen causes hot flashes and prolonged estrogen deprivation can ... would block progesterone while leaving estrogen alone. In theory, such a ...
Confinement, hidden color and multibaryon states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicolescu, B.
1979-01-01
Ideas and theoretical results on multiquark states are reviewed. The measuring of concepts such as 'quarks', 'color' and 'confinement' is analysed first then the possible existence of multiquark states is discussed. the example of dibaryons is used to study their properties in the bag model and in the Dual Topological Unitarization theory [fr
Gauge mediation scenario with hidden sector renormalization in MSSM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arai, Masato; Kawai, Shinsuke; Okada, Nobuchika
2010-01-01
We study the hidden sector effects on the mass renormalization of a simplest gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenario. We point out that possible hidden sector contributions render the soft scalar masses smaller, resulting in drastically different sparticle mass spectrum at low energy. In particular, in the 5+5 minimal gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with high messenger scale (that is favored by the gravitino cold dark matter scenario), we show that a stau can be the next lightest superparticle for moderate values of hidden sector self-coupling. This provides a very simple theoretical model of long-lived charged next lightest superparticles, which imply distinctive signals in ongoing and upcoming collider experiments.
Gauge mediation scenario with hidden sector renormalization in MSSM
Arai, Masato; Kawai, Shinsuke; Okada, Nobuchika
2010-02-01
We study the hidden sector effects on the mass renormalization of a simplest gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenario. We point out that possible hidden sector contributions render the soft scalar masses smaller, resulting in drastically different sparticle mass spectrum at low energy. In particular, in the 5+5¯ minimal gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with high messenger scale (that is favored by the gravitino cold dark matter scenario), we show that a stau can be the next lightest superparticle for moderate values of hidden sector self-coupling. This provides a very simple theoretical model of long-lived charged next lightest superparticles, which imply distinctive signals in ongoing and upcoming collider experiments.
Multivariate longitudinal data analysis with mixed effects hidden Markov models.
Raffa, Jesse D; Dubin, Joel A
2015-09-01
Multiple longitudinal responses are often collected as a means to capture relevant features of the true outcome of interest, which is often hidden and not directly measurable. We outline an approach which models these multivariate longitudinal responses as generated from a hidden disease process. We propose a class of models which uses a hidden Markov model with separate but correlated random effects between multiple longitudinal responses. This approach was motivated by a smoking cessation clinical trial, where a bivariate longitudinal response involving both a continuous and a binomial response was collected for each participant to monitor smoking behavior. A Bayesian method using Markov chain Monte Carlo is used. Comparison of separate univariate response models to the bivariate response models was undertaken. Our methods are demonstrated on the smoking cessation clinical trial dataset, and properties of our approach are examined through extensive simulation studies. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.
Applications of hidden symmetries to black hole physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, Valeri
2011-01-01
This work is a brief review of applications of hidden symmetries to black hole physics. Symmetry is one of the most important concepts of the science. In physics and mathematics the symmetry allows one to simplify a problem, and often to make it solvable. According to the Noether theorem symmetries are responsible for conservation laws. Besides evident (explicit) spacetime symmetries, responsible for conservation of energy, momentum, and angular momentum of a system, there also exist what is called hidden symmetries, which are connected with higher order in momentum integrals of motion. A remarkable fact is that black holes in four and higher dimensions always possess a set ('tower') of explicit and hidden symmetries which make the equations of motion of particles and light completely integrable. The paper gives a general review of the recently obtained results. The main focus is on understanding why at all black holes have something (symmetry) to hide.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Melnyk, R.; Orea, P.; Nezbeda, Ivo; Trokhymchuk, A.
2010-01-01
Roč. 132, č. 13 (2010), 134504-1-8 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : liquid-vapour transformations * meson field theory * monte carlo methods Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.920, year: 2010
Hagger, Martin S.; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.
2002-01-01
Examined relations between behavior, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, and past behaviors using the Theories of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Planned Behavior (TPB) in physical activity. This quantitative integration of the physical activity literature supported the major relationships of the…
Rodríguez, Carmen; Inda, Mercedes; Fernández, Carmen Mª
2016-01-01
This study tested social cognitive career theory (SCCT) in the technological domain with 2,359 high-school students in Asturias (Spain). Path analyses were run to determine the influence of gender on the SCCT model and to explain the influence of personal (emotional state, gender-role attitudes), contextual (perceived social supports and…
Analysing the hidden curriculum: use of a cultural web.
Mossop, Liz; Dennick, Reg; Hammond, Richard; Robbé, Iain
2013-02-01
Major influences on learning about medical professionalism come from the hidden curriculum. These influences can contribute positively or negatively towards the professional enculturation of clinical students. The fact that there is no validated method for identifying the components of the hidden curriculum poses problems for educators considering professionalism. The aim of this study was to analyse whether a cultural web, adapted from a business context, might assist in the identification of elements of the hidden curriculum at a UK veterinary school. A qualitative approach was used. Seven focus groups consisting of three staff groups and four student groups were organised. Questioning was framed using the cultural web, which is a model used by business owners to assess their environment and consider how it affects their employees and customers. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of a priori and emergent themes. The cultural web identified elements of the hidden curriculum for both students and staff. These included: core assumptions; routines; rituals; control systems; organisational factors; power structures, and symbols. Discussions occurred about how and where these issues may affect students' professional identity development. The cultural web framework functioned well to help participants identify elements of the hidden curriculum. These aspects aligned broadly with previously described factors such as role models and institutional slang. The influence of these issues on a student's development of a professional identity requires discussion amongst faculty staff, and could be used to develop learning opportunities for students. The framework is promising for the analysis of the hidden curriculum and could be developed as an instrument for implementation in other clinical teaching environments. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.
QCD sum rule study of hidden-charm pentaquarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Hua-Xing; Cui, Er-Liang [Beihang University, School of Physics and Beijing Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Materials and Physics, Beijing (China); Chen, Wei; Steele, T.G. [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Liu, Xiang [Lanzhou University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University and Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou (China); Zhu, Shi-Lin [Peking University, School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Peking University, Center of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)
2016-10-15
We study the mass spectra of hidden-charm pentaquarks having spin J = (1)/(2)/(3)/(2)/(5)/(2) and quark contents uudc anti c. We systematically construct all the relevant local hidden-charm pentaquark currents, and we select some of them to perform QCD sum rule analyses. We find that the P{sub c}(4380) and P{sub c}(4450) can be identified as hidden-charm pentaquark states composed of an anti-charmed meson and a charmed baryon. Besides them, we also find (a) the lowest-lying hidden-charm pentaquark state of J{sup P} = 1/2{sup -} has the mass 4.33{sup +0.17}{sub -0.13} GeV, while the one of J{sup P} = 1/2{sup +} is significantly higher, that is, around 4.7-4.9 GeV; (b) the lowest-lying hidden-charm pentaquark state of J{sup P} = 3/2{sup -} has the mass 4.37{sup +0.18}{sub -0.13} GeV, consistent with the P{sub c}(4380) of J{sup P} = 3/2{sup -}, while the one of J{sup P} = 3/2{sup +} is also significantly higher, that is, above 4.6 GeV; (c) the hidden-charm pentaquark state of J{sup P} = 5/2{sup -} has a mass around 4.5-4.6 GeV, slightly larger than the P{sub c}(4450) of J{sup P} = 5/2{sup +}. (orig.)
Explaining anomalies in intertemporal choice : a mental zooming theory
Holden, Stein Terje
2014-01-01
I present a theory that can explain hyperbolic discounting and magnitude effects in intertemporal choice. This approach builds on theories of narrow framing and reference dependence and expands these theories in a novel way by examining hidden mental zooming in base consumption adjustment in decisions regarding intertemporal prospects of varying magnitudes and time horizons. Data from a field experiment were used to assess the theory with an incentivecompatible multiple price list approach in...
Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Non Hierarchical Terrorist Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Memon, Nasrullah
measures (and combinations of them) to identify key players (important nodes) in terrorist networks. Our recently introduced techniques and algorithms (which are also implemented in the investigative data mining toolkit known as iMiner) will be particularly useful for law enforcement agencies that need...... to analyze terrorist networks and prioritize their targets. Applying recently introduced mathematical methods for constructing the hidden hierarchy of "nonhierarchical" terrorist networks; we present case studies of the terrorist attacks occurred / planned in the past, in order to identify hidden hierarchy...
Application of Hidden Markov Models in Biomolecular Simulations.
Shukla, Saurabh; Shamsi, Zahra; Moffett, Alexander S; Selvam, Balaji; Shukla, Diwakar
2017-01-01
Hidden Markov models (HMMs) provide a framework to analyze large trajectories of biomolecular simulation datasets. HMMs decompose the conformational space of a biological molecule into finite number of states that interconvert among each other with certain rates. HMMs simplify long timescale trajectories for human comprehension, and allow comparison of simulations with experimental data. In this chapter, we provide an overview of building HMMs for analyzing bimolecular simulation datasets. We demonstrate the procedure for building a Hidden Markov model for Met-enkephalin peptide simulation dataset and compare the timescales of the process.
Enhanced axion-photon coupling in GUT with hidden photon
Daido, Ryuji; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yokozaki, Norimi
2018-05-01
We show that the axion coupling to photons can be enhanced in simple models with a single Peccei-Quinn field, if the gauge coupling unification is realized by a large kinetic mixing χ = O (0.1) between hypercharge and unbroken hidden U(1)H. The key observation is that the U(1)H gauge coupling should be rather strong to induce such large kinetic mixing, leading to enhanced contributions of hidden matter fields to the electromagnetic anomaly. We find that the axion-photon coupling is enhanced by about a factor of 10-100 with respect to the GUT-axion models with E / N = 8 / 3.
Hidden Neural Networks: A Framework for HMM/NN Hybrids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Riis, Søren Kamaric; Krogh, Anders Stærmose
1997-01-01
This paper presents a general framework for hybrids of hidden Markov models (HMM) and neural networks (NN). In the new framework called hidden neural networks (HNN) the usual HMM probability parameters are replaced by neural network outputs. To ensure a probabilistic interpretation the HNN is nor...... HMMs on TIMIT continuous speech recognition benchmarks. On the task of recognizing five broad phoneme classes an accuracy of 84% is obtained compared to 76% for a standard HMM. Additionally, we report a preliminary result of 69% accuracy on the TIMIT 39 phoneme task...
Search for hidden Higgs decay in ATLAS detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabrielli, A.
2013-01-01
In this paper, a brief overview of the search for the Higgs boson in Hidden Valley models is given. Hidden Valley models predict Higgs decays to neutral particles, which can be also long lived with decay paths comparable to the LHC detectors dimensions. Decay final states consist of collimated leptons (Lepton Jets). Results are presented of a search for Higgs decays to long lived particles in the ATLAS detector at the LHC, based on 1.92 fb −1 data collected during 2011 at a 7TeV center-of-mass energy.
Detecting Faults By Use Of Hidden Markov Models
Smyth, Padhraic J.
1995-01-01
Frequency of false alarms reduced. Faults in complicated dynamic system (e.g., antenna-aiming system, telecommunication network, or human heart) detected automatically by method of automated, continuous monitoring. Obtains time-series data by sampling multiple sensor outputs at discrete intervals of t and processes data via algorithm determining whether system in normal or faulty state. Algorithm implements, among other things, hidden first-order temporal Markov model of states of system. Mathematical model of dynamics of system not needed. Present method is "prior" method mentioned in "Improved Hidden-Markov-Model Method of Detecting Faults" (NPO-18982).
From the solar system fo hidden cosmic structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benes, K
1987-01-01
The development of experimental astrophysics showed that in the evolution of planets, natural processes of a common nature take place. They include, e.g., radiogenic heat, the production of magmas, volcanic activity, degassing, etc. The solar system is a cosmic formation in an advanced stage of development and it is a realistic assumption that in the Galaxy other hidden planetary systems in various stages of development exist. The views on the possibility of the origination of life in other systems differ; life, however, is seen as a hidden property of cosmic matter. (M.D.).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sofia Siachalou
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Vegetation monitoring and mapping based on multi-temporal imagery has recently received much attention due to the plethora of medium-high spatial resolution satellites and the improved classification accuracies attained compared to uni-temporal approaches. Efficient image processing strategies are needed to exploit the phenological information present in temporal image sequences and to limit data redundancy and computational complexity. Within this framework, we implement the theory of Hidden Markov Models in crop classification, based on the time-series analysis of phenological states, inferred by a sequence of remote sensing observations. More specifically, we model the dynamics of vegetation over an agricultural area of Greece, characterized by spatio-temporal heterogeneity and small-sized fields, using RapidEye and Landsat ETM+ imagery. In addition, the classification performance of image sequences with variable spatial and temporal characteristics is evaluated and compared. The classification model considering one RapidEye and four pan-sharpened Landsat ETM+ images was found superior, resulting in a conditional kappa from 0.77 to 0.94 per class and an overall accuracy of 89.7%. The results highlight the potential of the method for operational crop mapping in Euro-Mediterranean areas and provide some hints for optimal image acquisition windows regarding major crop types in Greece.
Collective variables and dissipation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balian, R.
1984-09-01
This is an introduction to some basic concepts of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We emphasize in particular the relevant entropy relative to a given set of collective variables, the meaning of the projection method in the Liouville space, its use to establish the generalized transport equations for these variables, and the interpretation of dissipation in the framework of information theory
Biofuels: The hidden cause of deforestation?
Smith, Alison; Lebensohn, Ignacio; Lickacz, Lindsay; Clarke, Louise
2009-01-01
The objective of the project is to establish a causal relationship between the biofuel market in the USA and the Amazonic Deforestation. The project parts from an objectivist approach and uses economic as well as environmental theories as a starting point. It attempts to demonstrate that biofuels are not as environmentally friendly as advertised, but instead have a detrimental effect on the Amazon Rainforest. The project utilizes statistics as a main source for empirical data, as well various...