WorldWideScience

Sample records for hidden energy concept

  1. Key concepts in energy

    CERN Document Server

    Madureira, Nuno Luis

    2014-01-01

    Highlights how key energy concepts surfaced, tracing their evolution throughout history to encompasses four economic concepts and four technological-engineering concepts developed through their history to conclude with current economic and environmental sciences Considers the process of energy-substitutions through complementary usages, hybridization and technological mixes Combines a conceptual approach with key theoretical concepts from engineering, geological and economic sciences providing cross disciplinary overview of energy fundamentals in a short and focused reading

  2. The Crowd Energy Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephanie Teufel; Bernd Teufel

    2014-01-01

    ⎯After the Fukushima disaster, European politicians began to reassess the energy strategy for their countries. The focus is now on renewable energy sources and as a result on decentralization. The decentralized generation, storage, and of course the consumption of energy is the central point. Now with the new develop-ments under the roof of energy turnaround the way back from the centralized architecture of our energy system to a more decentralized one is predetermined. Decentralization implies the change in the role of today’s consumers. They become energy prosumers. This is the basis for the crowd energy concept. In this position paper the crowd energy concept is introduced and necessary research fields are identified.

  3. Analysis of changing hidden energy flow in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Thi Anh Tuyet [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: a_tuyet@yahoo.com; Ishihara, Keiichi N. [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: ishihara@energy.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-09-15

    The energy consumption in production process is changing especially in developing countries by substituting technology. Input-output analysis for energy flows has been developing and is one of the best solutions for investigating macroscopic exchanges of both economy and energy. Since each element in the Leontief inverse contains both direct and indirect effects of any change in final demand, to separate those direct and indirect effects, the power series expansion is available. In this work, the changes of embodied energy intensity in Vietnam from 1996 to 2000 were analyzed using the structural decomposition and its power series expansion. By illustrating the change of causal relationship between direct energy consumption and embodied energy consumption, the change of hidden energy flow, which indicates how the changing embodied energy builds up the change of direct energy consumption in every sector, can be seen. In the case study, the rice processing sector, which is one of the important food processing sectors in Vietnam, is focused. By drawing a diagrammatic map for the change of hidden energy flow, it is clarified that in the case of raising embodied energy intensity, cultivation sector and trade and repaired service sector are the main contributors, and, on the contrary, in the case of reducing embodied energy intensity, paper pulp sector is the main contributor.

  4. In Brief: Hidden environment and health costs of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-10-01

    The hidden costs of energy production and use in the United States amounted to an estimated $120 billion in 2005, according to a 19 October report by the U.S. National Research Council. The report, “Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use,” examines hidden costs, including the cost of air pollution damage to human health, which are not reflected in market prices of energy sources, electricity, or gasoline. The report found that in 2005, the total annual external damages from sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter created by coal-burning power plants that produced 95% of the nation's coal-generated electricity were about $62 billion, with nonclimate damages averaging about 3.2 cents for every kilowatt-hour of energy produced. It is estimated that by 2030, nonclimate damages will fall to 1.7 cents per kilowatt-hour. The 2030 figure assumes that new policies already slated for implementation are put in place.

  5. California School Energy Concepts, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askin, Ralph J.; And Others

    This publication is one of the major efforts of a project designed to promote energy conservation in California schools. Suggestions are provided that can be adapted at individual school facilities to reduce energy consumption. The guide also focuses on the major concepts of the new state standards for energy conservation for new nonresidential…

  6. Energy Literacy : Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education presents energy concepts that, if understood and applied, will help individuals and communities make informed energy decisions.

  7. Energy Literacy : Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-03-01

    Energy Literacy: Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Energy Education presents energy concepts that, if understood and applied, will help individuals and communities make informed energy decisions.

  8. Concept of Lunar Energy Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Masayuki; Kisara, Katsuto; Chen, Lidong

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents a new concept of energy supply system named Lunar Energy Park (LEP) as one of the next-generation clean energy sources. In this concept, electricity is generated by nuclear power plants built on the moon and then transmitted to receiving stations on the earth by laser beam through transporting systems situated in geostationary orbit. The lunar nuclear power plants use a high-efficiency composite energy conversion system consisting of thermionic and thermoelectric generators to change nuclear thermal energy into electricity directly. The nuclear resources are considered to be available from the moon, and nuclear fuel transport from earth to moon is not necessary. Because direct energy conversion systems are employed, the lunar nuclear plants can be operated and controlled by robots and are maintenance-free, and so will cause no pollution to humans. The key technologies for LEP include improvements of conversion efficiency of both thermionic and thermoelectric converters, and developments of laser-beam power transmission technology as well. The details, including the construction of lunar nuclear plants, energy conversion and energy transmission systems, as well as the research plan strategies for this concept are reviewed.

  9. New constraints on hidden photons using very high energy gamma-rays from the Crab Nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zechlin, Hannes-Sebastian; Horns, Dieter [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Extensions of the current standard model of particle physics, in particular those based on string theory, typically predict a new U(1) gauge symmetry in a hidden sector. The corresponding gauge boson, often called hidden photon, naturally interacts with the ordinary photon via gauge kinetic mixing, leading to photon - hidden photon oscillations. In this framework, one expects photon disappearance as a function of the mass of the hidden photon and the mixing angle, loosely constrained from theory. Several experiments have been carried out or are planned to provide constraints on the mass-mixing plane. In this contribution we derive new constraints on the hidden photon parameters, using very high energy {gamma}-rays detected from the Crab Nebula, whose broad-band spectral characteristics are well understood. The very high energy {gamma}-ray observations offer the possibility to provide bounds in a broad mass range at a previously unexplored energy and distance scale. Using existing data that were taken with the HEGRA, H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and Whipple Cherenkov telescopes, we discuss our results in the context of current constraints and consider the possibilities of using astrophysical data to search for hidden photon signatures.

  10. Stargate of the Hidden Multiverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Antonov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Concept of Monoverse, which corresponds to the existing broad interpretation of the second postulate of the special theory of relativity, is not consistent with the modern astrophysical reality — existence of the dark matter and the dark energy, the total mass-energy of which is ten times greater than the mass-energy of the visible universe (which has been considered as the entire universe until very recent . This concept does not allow to explain their rather unusual properties — invisibility and lack of baryon content — which would seem to even destroy the very modern understanding of the term ‘matter’. However, all numerous alternative concepts of Multiverses, which have been proposed until today, are unable to explain these properties of the dark matter and dark energy. This article describes a new concept: the concept of the hidden Multiverse and hidden Supermultiverse, which mutual invisibility of parallel universes is explained by the physical reality of imaginary numbers. This concept completely explains the phenomenon of the dark matter and the dark energy. Moreover, it is shown that the dark matter and the dark energy are the experimental evidence for the existence of the hidden Multiverse. Described structure of the hidden Multiverse is fully consistent with the data obtained by the space stations WMAP and Planck. An extremely important property of the hidden Multiverse is an actual possibility of its permeation through stargate located on the Earth.

  11. Physics students` conceptions of energy and technological development in energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zain, A.N.M. [University of Science Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia). School of Educational Studies; Sulaiman, F. [University of Science Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia). School of Physics

    1998-05-01

    This study was designed to find out students` conceptions of the relationship of energy use and technological development in energy. It was conducted by administering a questionnaire to 133 first year physics students at a University. The results were analyzed to identify students` conceptions on energy use and technological development in energy. Finally, implications on teaching of energy is discussed in this paper. (author)

  12. Free energy and hidden barriers of the β-sheet structure of prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, S Alexis; Abrams, Cameron F

    2015-10-13

    On-the-fly free-energy parametrization is a new collective variable biasing approach akin to metadynamics with one important distinction: rather than acquiring an accelerated distribution via a history-dependent bias potential, sampling on this distribution is achieved from the beginning of the simulation using temperature-accelerated molecular dynamics. In the present work, we compare the performance of both approaches to compute the free-energy profile along a scalar collective variable measuring the H-bond registry of the β-sheet structure of the mouse Prion protein. Both methods agree on the location of the free-energy minimum, but free-energy profiles from well-tempered metadynamics are subject to a much higher degree of statistical noise due to hidden barriers. The sensitivity of metadynamics to hidden barriers is shown to be a consequence of the history dependence of the bias potential, and we detail the nature of these barriers for the prion β-sheet. In contrast, on-the-fly parametrization is much less sensitive to these barriers and thus displays improved convergence behavior relative to that of metadynamics. While hidden barriers are a frequent and central issue in free-energy methods, on-the-fly free-energy parametrization appears to be a robust and preferable method to confront this issue.

  13. Isomer Energy System Design Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, D

    2003-09-01

    Isomer energy supplies offer the potential to increase the output power over time to accommodate varying power needs. Other materials with similar energy density (for example isotopic energy sources such as {sup 238}Pu) do not offer the potential to increase power with time. Often the design life of an energy source is significant when compared to the half-life of the isotope. As a result, the conventional isotopic energy supplies operate with significant excess power at start of life to meet the power needs at end-of-life. For example a {sup 238}Pu radioisotope energy supply with a 35-year design life must account for radioactive decay losses of about 25% of the plutonium present at the start of life. This decay loss is significant if the required output power from the device is constant with time. If the required power output from the device increases with time (such as some space applications), significant increases in power supply weight are required to meet design power requirements. Isomer energy supplies offer the potential to increase the output power over time to meet varying power needs, thereby offering a significant advantage over conventional systems. Isomer energy supplies also offer the possibility of being ''turned on'' based on need at a specific time. These characteristics offer distinct advantages to isomer energy supplies. This report examines the basic engineering characteristics of a hypothetical isomer energy supply in order to gain insight into properties of isomers that will make them potentially useful as energy sources in engineered systems. These isomer properties provide a basis for identification of candidate isomers and provide a basis for an isomer search.

  14. Energy Blocks--A Physical Model for Teaching Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertting, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Most physics educators would agree that energy is a very useful, albeit abstract topic. It is therefore important to use various methods to help the student internalize the concept of energy itself and its related ideas. These methods include using representations such as energy bar graphs, energy pie charts, or energy tracking diagrams.…

  15. Discussion of the classification concept and definition of the hidden accident%事故隐患分级概念与定义商榷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史宗保; 史聪聪; 冯文刚; 张椿婷

    2015-01-01

    针对安全隐患与事故隐患概念的理解各不同的问题,对安全隐患和事故隐患进行了准确定义。认为在实际的安全生产和安全监管工作中,为实现安全关口前移,实现早防早治,把事故隐患和安全隐患统称为安全隐患是比较合适的。对安全隐患分级提出了更为合理的分级标准。%Aiming at the problem that the concept of the hidden danger and the hidden acci-dent was differently understood,this paper accurately defined the hidden danger and the hidden accident.It was appropriate that the hidden accident and hidden danger were collectively referred to as the hidden danger to achieve safety gate moved forward as well as early prevention and treatment at the work of the actual safety production and safety supervision.The more reasonable classification standard of the hidden danger was proposed.

  16. ENERGY CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT USING THE U SLOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlinah Ispal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an important concept in life, and is a basic theme of the three natural sciences; biology, chemistry, and physics. The concept of energy is introduced into the science curriculum at an early stage. The science education studies have shown that there are serious difficulties in understanding energy and its related concepts among students of all ages. This article reported a research on the conceptual development of energy in secondary school physics. This short-term learning progression research employs a method called developmental maieutics in order to answer the research question about how does a student develop an understanding of the concept of energy. There were six participants of 16 years old physics students involved in this research. The interview conducted was to analyze two developmental paths. First, it was on their levels of cognitive development based on Dawson’s developmental sequence in four stages: representational mappings, representational systems, single abstractions and abstract mapping level. The second path was, their conceptual content development addressing to form and source of energy, transformation of energy, energy transfer and conservation of energy. Overall, each participant showed a development in both of the paths. Their conceptual understanding of energy increased to the higher levels, but some of them still had misconception although after attending the instruction. The researchers found that some participants’ conception of energy were near to the scientific view of energy and almost had a complete understanding of energy conservation. Finally, this research contributed to a new perspective, particularly, in the conceptual development of energy research and, generally, in the learning progression study.

  17. Nanostructured energy devices equilibrium concepts and kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Bisquert, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Due to the pressing needs of society, low cost materials for energy devices have experienced an outstanding development in recent times. In this highly multidisciplinary area, chemistry, material science, physics, and electrochemistry meet to develop new materials and devices that perform required energy conversion and storage processes with high efficiency, adequate capabilities for required applications, and low production cost. Nanostructured Energy Devices: Equilibrium Concepts and Kinetics introduces the main physicochemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices. It inclu

  18. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomou, V.; Becchis, F.; Steg, L.; Russolillo, D.

    2009-01-01

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between en

  19. Energy Concepts for the Shahre Javan Community

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Zugleich gedruckt veröffentlicht im Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin unter der ISBN 978-3-7983-2548-7. The aim of the Young Cities Team 2 sub-project “Energy Infrastructure systems” consists of the development and the design of energy efficient buildings and energy supply systems for new Towns in Iran. This document gives an overview over the design and the development of the energy supply systems for the 35 ha pilot area in Hashtgerd New Town. In general, these energy concepts are suitabl...

  20. 隐性课程的概念探析%Analysis of The Concept of Hidden Curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟二萍

    2011-01-01

    The hidden curriculum is after in the 1960 of the 20th century,gradually causing a world-wide education topics of interest.Although its history is not long,but soon caused great interest of many experts and scholars.This article from the perspective of curriculum theory,the predecessors of research results on the basis of learning and reference,the concept of hidden curriculum has been defined.%隐性课程是20世纪60年代以后,逐渐引起世界范围关注的教育课题。我国对其研究历史不长,但很快引起众多专家学者的极大兴趣。从课程理论的视角,在对前人研究成果的学习和借鉴基础上,隐性课程可界定为,教育者为了实现教育目标,在课堂内外的教育情景中,有计划地以间接、内隐的方式,通过受教育者无意识的非特定心理反应,使受教育者获得知情意行等整体性教育经验的那些内容和要素的总和。

  1. Energy Blocks — A Physical Model for Teaching Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertting, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Most physics educators would agree that energy is a very useful, albeit abstract topic. It is therefore important to use various methods to help the student internalize the concept of energy itself and its related ideas. These methods include using representations such as energy bar graphs, energy pie charts, or energy tracking diagrams. Activities and analogies like Energy Theater and Richard Feynman's blocks, as well as the popular money (or wealth) analogy, can also be very effective. The goal of this paper is to describe a physical model of Feynman's blocks that can be employed by instructors to help students learn the following energy-related concepts: 1. The factors affecting each individual mechanical energy storage mode (this refers to what has been traditionally called a form of energy, and while the Modeling Method of instruction is not the focus of this paper, much of the energy related language used is specific to the Modeling Method). For example, how mass or height affects gravitational energy; 2. Energy conservation; and 3. The graphical relationships between the energy storage mode and a factor affecting it. For example, the graphical relationship between elastic energy and the change in length of a spring.

  2. Annual Cycle Energy System concept and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, J. C.; Hise, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES), under development at ERDA's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, promises to provide space heating, air conditioning, and water heating at a significantly lower expenditure of energy than conventional space conditioning and water heating systems. The ACES embodies heat pumping, thermal storage and, where climate dictates, solar assistance. The concept is described, along with variations in design that permit flexibility to maximize energy conservation or to provide load management capabilities. Installations that exist or are under construction are described and variations that are incorporated to meet specific objectives are discussed.

  3. A novel bistable energy harvesting concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarselli, G.; Nicassio, F.; Pinto, F.; Ciampa, F.; Iervolino, O.; Meo, M.

    2016-05-01

    Bistable energy harvesting has become a major field of research due to some unique features for converting mechanical energy into electrical power. When properly loaded, bistable structures snap-through from one stable configuration to another, causing large strains and consequently power generation. Moreover, bistable structures can harvest energy across a broad-frequency bandwidth due to their nonlinear characteristics. Despite the fact that snap-through may be triggered regardless of the form or frequency of exciting vibration, the external force must reach a specific snap-through activation threshold value to trigger the transition from one stable state to another. This aspect is a limiting factor for realistic vibration energy harvesting application with bistable devices. This paper presents a novel power harvesting concept for bistable composites based on a ‘lever effect’ aimed at minimising the activation force to cause the snap through by choosing properly the bistable structures’ constraints. The concept was demonstrated with the help of numerical simulation and experimental testing. The results showed that the actuation force is one order of magnitude smaller (3%-6%) than the activation force of conventionally constrained bistable devices. In addition, it was shown that the output voltage was higher than the conventional configuration, leading to a significant increase in power generation. This novel concept could lead to a new generation of more efficient bistable energy harvesters for realistic vibration environments.

  4. Implications of the Hidden Spatiotemporal Vulnerability of US Building Energy Demand to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Gurney, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Energy consumption in US buildings, accounting for 41% of primary energy consumption in 2010, is particularly vulnerable to climate change due to the direct relationship between space heating/cooling and outside temperature. Past assessments of climate change impacts on building energy consumption have neglected spatial variations in the "balance point" temperature and the extremes at smaller spatiotemporal scales, making the implications of local-scale vulnerability incomplete. Here we develop state-specific empirical relationships between building energy consumption and temperature to explore the vulnerability of building energy supply and demand under climate change. We find increases in summertime electricity demand exceeding 20% and decreases in wintertime non-electric energy demand of more than 30% in some states by the end of the century. When examined annually at the national scale, these extremes are hidden by numerical cancellation. The financial implications vary spatially with increases in total net building energy expenditures in some states (as much as 3 billion/year) while in others, costs decline (as much as 1 billion/year). Integrated across the contiguous US, these variations result in a net savings of roughly 1.4 billion/year. However, this must be weighed against the cost of adding electricity generation capacity ranging from 13.9 billion/year to 52.2 billion/year in order to maintain the electricity grid's reliability in summer. These results have wide implications for climate policy, the social cost of carbon and energy supply planning. It also demonstrates the importance of representing the climate change impacts on energy consumption at scales relevant to human decisions and actions.Energy consumption in US buildings, accounting for 41% of primary energy consumption in 2010, is particularly vulnerable to climate change due to the direct relationship between space heating/cooling and outside temperature. Past assessments of climate change

  5. Weak-scale hidden sector and energy transport in fireball models of gamma-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, Durmus A. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica de Altas Energias (LAFEX)

    2000-12-01

    The annihilation of pairs of very weakly interacting particles in the neighborhood of gamma-ray sources is introduced here as a plausible mechanism to overcome the baryon load problem. This way we can explain how these very high energy gamma-ray bursts can be powered at the onset of very energetic events like supernovae (collapsars) explosions or coalescences of binary neutron stars. Our approach uses the weak-scale hidden sector models in which the Higgs sector of the standard model is extended to include a gauge singlet that only interacts with the Higgs particle. These particles would be produced either during the implosion of the red supergiant star core or at the aftermath of a neutron star binary merger. The whole energetics and timescales of the relativistic blast wave, the fireball, are reproduced. (author)

  6. Weak-scale hidden sector and energy transport in fireball models of gamma-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, Durmus A. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica de Altas Energias (LAFEX)

    2000-12-01

    The annihilation of pairs of very weakly interacting particles in the neighborhood of gamma-ray sources is introduced here as a plausible mechanism to overcome the baryon load problem. This way we can explain how these very high energy gamma-ray bursts can be powered at the onset of very energetic events like supernovae (collapsars) explosions or coalescences of binary neutron stars. Our approach uses the weak-scale hidden sector models in which the Higgs sector of the standard model is extended to include a gauge singlet that only interacts with the Higgs particle. These particles would be produced either during the implosion of the red supergiant star core or at the aftermath of a neutron star binary merger. The whole energetics and timescales of the relativistic blast wave, the fireball, are reproduced. (author)

  7. The Hidden Burden of Food Waste: The Double Energy Waste in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vittuari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The energy intensity of modern food systems represents a major issue in a scenario of decreasing oil resources and increasing population. Beside the use of renewable energy, an increased efficiency in food systems could contribute to reduce fossil fuels dependence. In this sense, food losses and waste (FLW have crucial consequences on the energy balance. Based on the concept of “embodied energy”, food wastage can be framed as a double waste of energy, both in terms of non-consumed food energy and the inputs used for production. Secondary data regarding direct and indirect energy inputs and FLW have been collected for the Italian food chain to estimate the embodied energy of food waste. Since in 2011 the production and distribution of food implied the use of 822 PJ and 18 Mt of food was discarded, 67 PJ of food energy and 100 PJ of embodied energy were wasted. These figures are equivalent to 12.2% of the total nutritional energy output and to 1.3% of the final energy use in Italy, respectively. The concept of double energy waste sheds new light on the intertwined relationship between energy and food security, suggesting that appropriate food waste reduction policies could result in a higher food production level and relevant energy savings.

  8. Human Energy Field: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Deborah; Fuller, Ann; Resnicoff, Marci; Butcher, Howard K; Frisch, Noreen

    2016-11-23

    The human energy field (HEF) as a phenomenon of interest across disciplines has gained increased attention over the 20th and 21st centuries. However, a concern has arisen that there is a lack of evidence to support the concept of the HEF as a phenomenon of interest to professional nurses and nursing practice. Using Chinn and Kramer's method of creating conceptual meaning, a concept analysis was conducted for the purpose of developing a conceptual definition of HEF. A systematic review of the literature using the CINAHL database yielded a total of 81 articles and text sources that were determined to be relevant to the concept analysis. The HEF is defined as a luminous field of energy that comprises a person, extends beyond the physical body, and is in a continuous mutual process with the environmental energy field. It is a vital energy that is a continuous whole and is recognized by its unique pattern; it is dynamic, creative, nonlinear, unpredictable, and flows in lower and higher frequencies. The balanced HEF is characterized by flow, rhythm, symmetry, and gentle vibration.

  9. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, V. [SOM, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Becchis, F. [POLIS Department, University of East Piedmont, via Duomo, 6-13100 Vercelli (Italy); Steg, L. [Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 72 9700 AB (Netherlands); Russolillo, D. [Fondazione per l' Ambiente ' T. Fenoglio' , Via Gaudenzio Ferrari 1, I-10124 Torino (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies. (author)

  10. Learning energy literacy concepts from energy-efficient homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Frederick Eugene

    The purpose of this study is to understand ways that occupants' and visitors' interaction with energy efficient home design affects Energy Literacy. Using a case study approach including interviews, surveys, and observations, I examined the potential for affordable energy efficient homes in the Greenville South Carolina area to "teach" concepts from an Energy Literacy framework developed by dozens of educational partners and federal agencies that comprise the U.S. Global Change Research Program Partners. I paid particular attention to concepts from the framework that are transferable to energy decisions beyond a home's walls. My research reveals ways that interaction with high efficiency homes can effect understanding of the following Energy Literacy concepts: human use of energy is subject to limits and constraints, conservation is one way to manage energy resources, electricity is generated in multiple ways, social and technological innovations effect the amount of energy used by society, and energy use can be calculated and monitored. Examples from my case studies show how the at-home examples can make lessons on energy more personally relevant, easy to understand, and applicable. Specifically, I found that: • Home occupants learn the limits of energy in relation to the concrete and constricting costs associated with their consumption. • Heating and cooling techniques showcase the limits and constraints on different sources of energy. • Relatable systems make it easier to understand energy's limits and constraints. • Indistinct and distant power utilities allow consumers to overlook the root of electricity sources. • Visible examples of electricity generation systems make it clear that electricity is generated in multiple ways. • Small and interactive may mean inefficient electricity generation, but efficient energy education. • Perceptions of expense and complexity create a disconnect between residential energy consumers and renewable electricity

  11. Energy Star Concepts for Highway Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-06-24

    The authors of this report, under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program, have investigated the possible application of Energy Star ratings to passenger cars and light trucks. This study establishes a framework for formulating and evaluating Energy Star rating methods that is comprised of energy- and environmental-based metrics, potential vehicle classification systems, vehicle technology factors, and vehicle selection criteria. The study tests several concepts and Energy Star rating methods using model-year 2000 vehicle data--a spreadsheet model has been developed to facilitate these analyses. This study tests two primary types of rating systems: (1) an outcome-based system that rates vehicles based on fuel economy, GHG emissions, and oil use and (2) a technology-based system that rates vehicles based on the energy-saving technologies they use. Rating methods were evaluated based on their ability to select vehicles with high fuel economy, low GHG emissions, and low oil use while preserving a full range of service (size and acceleration) and body style choice. This study concludes that an Energy Star rating for passenger cars and light trucks is feasible and that several methods could be used to achieve reasonable tradeoffs between low energy use and emissions and diversity in size, performance, and body type. It also shows that methods that consider only fuel economy, GHG emissions, or oil use will not select a diverse mix of vehicles. Finally, analyses suggest that methods that encourage the use of technology only, may result in increases in acceleration power and weight rather than reductions in oil use and GHG emissions and improvements in fuel economy.

  12. PERSONAL NETWORK SAMPLING, OUTDEGREE ANALYSIS AND MULTILEVEL ANALYSIS - INTRODUCING THE NETWORK CONCEPT IN STUDIES OF HIDDEN POPULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SPREEN, M; ZWAAGSTRA, R

    1994-01-01

    Populations, such as heroin and cocaine users, the homeless and the like (hidden populations), are among the most difficult populations to which to apply classic random sampling procedures. A frequently used data collection method for these hidden populations is the snowball procedure. The prerequis

  13. Physics Teachers' Views on Teaching the Concept of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezen, Sevim; Bayrak, Celal; Aykutlu, Isil

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: With the advancement of technology, energy as a concept has become part of the every aspects of life, and it becomes more and more important day by day. Since 2013, the concept of energy has become part of the updated physics education program in Turkey. Teaching the concept of energy is a significant undertaking; most students…

  14. Hidden variables and hidden time in quantum theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kurakin, Pavel V.

    2005-01-01

    Bell's theorem proves only that hidden variables evolving in true physical time can't exist; still the theorem's meaning is usually interpreted intolerably wide. The concept of hidden time (and, in general, hidden space-time) is introduced. Such concept provides a whole new class of physical theories, fully compatible with current knowledge, but giving new tremendous possibilities. Those theories do not violate Bell's theorem.

  15. House Embodied Energy and Zero Energy Building Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita MILUTIENĖ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Seeking to mitigate climate change it is impossible to avoid radical changes in construction sector, because it accounts for 40% of primary energy use for buildings operation in Europe and other countries.  Production of building materials also affects climate change and environment quality.  The concept of zero energy building (ZEB emphasizes energy efficiency, energy saving and renewable energy use during the operation of buildings and it is a necessary step in changing the present situation. Nevertheless there are more possibilities for improving building sector sustainability. The article presents analysis of embodied energy reduction using straw bales and other local materials for wall construction. Estimations have shown that replacing a structural component as bricks with local wood, and thermal insulation material - stone wool with straw bales, it is possible to reduce embodied energy and embodied carbon of a wall more than 7 times. Pressed straw being a building material with good thermal properties, straw bale buildings could meet the passive houses standard or help fulfilling the concept of zero energy building without additional harm to the nature of extra thermal

  16. Evaluation of Students' Energy Conception in Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mihwa; Johnson, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    While significant research has been conducted on students' conceptions of energy, alternative conceptions of energy have not been actively explored in the area of environmental science. The purpose of this study is to examine students' alternative conceptions in the environmental science discipline through the analysis of responses of first year…

  17. The Sports Hidden Curriculum Based on Nurturance Education Concept%基于养成教育理念的体育隐性课程的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟晓敏

    2015-01-01

    近年来体育隐性课程开发研究逐渐深入,但现有的研究对隐性课程教育性并未重视,基于养成教育理念来研究体育隐性课程开发,不仅能从体育课堂要素中挖掘出具有教育价值的课程,更能体现隐性课程的教育性本质。%In recent years,the recessive curriculum research of sports is developing,but the existing research doesn't pay atten-tion to it.Studying sports hidden curriculum development based on the formative education concept can not only excavate ele-ments from the sports course,course of education value,but also reflect the educational essence of hidden curriculum.

  18. Dark energy and dark matter from hidden symmetry of gravity model with a non-Riemannian volume form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guendelman, Eduardo [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Physics, Beersheba (Israel); Nissimov, Emil; Pacheva, Svetlana [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-10-15

    We show that dark energy and dark matter can be described simultaneously by ordinary Einstein gravity interacting with a single scalar field provided the scalar field Lagrangian couples in a symmetric fashion to two different spacetime volume forms (covariant integration measure densities) on the spacetime manifold - one standard Riemannian given by √(-g) (square root of the determinant of the pertinent Riemannian metric) and another non-Riemannian volume form independent of the Riemannian metric, defined in terms of an auxiliary antisymmetric tensor gauge field of maximal rank. Integration of the equations of motion of the latter auxiliary gauge field produce an a priori arbitrary integration constant that plays the role of a dynamically generated cosmological constant or dark energy. Moreover, the above modified scalar field action turns out to possess a hidden Noether symmetry whose associated conserved current describes a pressureless ''dust'' fluid which we can identify with the dark matter completely decoupled from the dark energy. The form of both the dark energy and dark matter that results from the above class of models is insensitive to the specific form of the scalar field Lagrangian. By adding an appropriate perturbation, which breaks the above hidden symmetry and along with this couples dark matter and dark energy, we also suggest a way to obtain growing dark energy in the present universe's epoch without evolution pathologies. (orig.)

  19. Ideas for a Teaching Sequence for the Concept of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duit, Reinders; Neumann, Knut

    2014-01-01

    The energy concept is one of the most important ideas for students to understand. Looking at phenomena through the lens of energy provides powerful tools to model, analyse and predict phenomena in the scientific disciplines. The cross-disciplinary nature of the energy concept enables students to look at phenomena from different angles, helping…

  20. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  1. Unified Technical Concepts. Module 7: Potential and Kinetic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This concept module on potential and kinetic energy is one of thirteen modules that provide a flexible, laboratory-based physics instructional package designed to meet the specialized needs of students in two-year, postsecondary technical schools. Each of the thirteen concept modules discusses a single physics concept and how it is applied to each…

  2. Institutional aspects of the energy centers concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser, George H.

    1977-03-01

    Information is presented concerning the socio-economic impacts of nuclear energy centers; equity considerations relating to taxation and revenue distribution; report on jurisdictional authorities of state and local government related to centralized and decentralized alternative energy systems; federal-state conflicts and cooperation in the siting of nuclear energy facilities; the energy park experience in Pennsylvania; and a socio-economic institution summary of energy centers in Washington State.

  3. Single-Molecule FRET Reveals Hidden Complexity in a Protein Energy Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Tsytlonok, Maksym; Ibrahim, Shehu M.; Rowling, Pamela J.E.; Xu, Wenshu; Ruedas-Rama, Maria J.; Orte, Angel; Klenerman, David; Itzhaki, Laura S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Here, using single-molecule FRET, we reveal previously hidden conformations of the ankyrin-repeat domain of AnkyrinR, a giant adaptor molecule that anchors integral membrane proteins to the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton through simultaneous binding of multiple partner proteins. We show that the ankyrin repeats switch between high-FRET and low-FRET states, controlled by an unstructured “safety pin” or “staple” from the adjacent domain of AnkyrinR. Opening of the safety pin leads to unrav...

  4. Energy. The concept - the resources - the demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawe, Joachim

    2007-04-15

    After giving a short historical review of how mankind has been using natural forces throughout its evolution, Energy elaborates on the physical attributes of energy. The rise in use of fossil and regenerative fuels is the third main subject. A detailed discussion about the interactions between energy requirements and standards of living completes the booklet. [German] Energy arbeitet nach einem kurzen historischen Exkurs, wie Menschen Naturkraefte in ihrer Entstehungsgeschichte nutzten und nutzen, die physi-kalischen Kennzeichen der Energie heraus. Die Entstehung fossiler und regenerativer Energietraeger ist der dritte Schwerpunkt. Abschliessend werden die Wechselwirkungen zwischen Energiebedarf und Lebensstan-dard ausfuehrlich diskutiert.

  5. Building concepts for a transition towards energy neutrality in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, B.J.; Paauw, J. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Delft (Netherlands); Opstelten, I.J.; Bakker, E.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    In this paper building concepts for the near future are described which enable the transition towards a net energy neutral building sector in the Netherlands by the year 2050. With 'net energy neutrality' is meant that, on a yearly basis, the total energy consumption in the built environment is compensated by local renewable energy production e.g. by using solar thermal (T), photovoltaic (PV), PVT and/or wind. A study concerning the feasibility of a 'net energy neutral built environment by 2050' set the energetic ambitions for the building concepts to be developed. This resulted in different concepts for residential buildings and for office-buildings. The building concepts are based on passive house technology to minimise the heating and cooling demand, and make optimal use of active and passive solar energy. Concepts for new to build domestic buildings are in fact energy producing to compensate for the remaining energy demand of existing, renovated dwellings. In all concepts the 'trias energetica' or 'energy pyramid' served as a general guideline, striving for minimisation of energy demand, maximal usage of renewable energy and usage of fossil fuels as efficiently as possible. Different full roof integrated options for using solar energy (PV, T or PVT) with variable storage options have been compared by making simulations with a dynamic simulation programme, to gain insight on their impact on energy, building engineering and economic impact. Also different possibilities for installations to fulfil the heating demand for the space heating and DHW demand are compared. For each concept, the resulting primary energy profiles for space heating and cooling, domestic hot water, electricity consumption for lighting, ventilation and household appliances are given.

  6. Dark Energy and Dark Matter From Hidden Symmetry of Gravity Model with a Non-Riemannian Volume Form

    CERN Document Server

    Guendelman, Eduardo; Pacheva, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    We show that dark energy and dark matter can be described simultaneously by ordinary Einstein gravity interacting with a single scalar field provided the scalar field Lagrangian couples in a symmetric fashion to two different spacetime volume-forms (covariant integration measure densities) on the spacetime manifold - one standard Riemannian given by the square-root of the determinant of the pertinent Riemannian metric and another non-Riemannian volume-form independent of the Riemannian metric, defined in terms of an auxiliary antisymmetric tensor gauge field of maximal rank. Integration of the equations of motion of the latter auxiliary gauge field produce an a priori arbitrary integration constant that plays the role of a dynamically generated cosmological constant or dark energy. Moreover, the above modified scalar field action turns out to possess a hidden Noether symmetry whose associated conserved current describes a pressureless "dust" fluid which we can identify with the dark matter completely decouple...

  7. Student Use of Energy Concepts from Physics in Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Megan L.; Lindsey, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an interdisciplinary investigation of students' usage of ideas about energy from physics in the context of introductory chemistry. We focus on student understanding of the idea that potential energy is a function of distance between interacting objects, a concept relevant to understanding potential energy in both physical and…

  8. Modeling Energy and Development : An Evaluation of Models and Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijven, Bas van; Urban, Frauke; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.; Sluijs, Jeroen P. van der; Vries, Bert de; Vuuren, Detlef P. van

    2008-01-01

    Most global energy models are developed by institutes from developed countries focusing primarily oil issues that are important in industrialized countries. Evaluation of the results for Asia of the IPCC/SRES models shows that broad concepts of energy and development. the energy ladder and the envir

  9. Development of concepts for a zero-fossil-energy greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooster, A. van 't; Henten, E.J. van; Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Bot, G.P.A.; Dekker, E.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch government and greenhouse horticultural practice aim for strongly reduced fossil energy use and of environmental loads in 2010 and energy neutral greenhouses in 2020. This research aims to design a greenhouse concept with minimal use of fossil energy and independent of nearby greenhouses. The

  10. Development of concepts for a zero-fossil-energy greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooster, A. van 't; Henten, E.J. van; Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Bot, G.P.A.; Dekker, E.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch government and greenhouse horticultural practice aim for strongly reduced fossil energy use and of environmental loads in 2010 and energy neutral greenhouses in 2020. This research aims to design a greenhouse concept with minimal use of fossil energy and independent of nearby greenhouses. The

  11. The Statewide Energy Consortium: A California Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G. Cleve; Giacosie, Robert V.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the formation and organization of a statewide energy consortium consisting of faculty from 19 campuses of the California State University and Colleges system. Also describes three major consortium activities and reasons for its success. (SK)

  12. The Statewide Energy Consortium: A California Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G. Cleve; Giacosie, Robert V.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the formation and organization of a statewide energy consortium consisting of faculty from 19 campuses of the California State University and Colleges system. Also describes three major consortium activities and reasons for its success. (SK)

  13. The modified Poynting theorem and the concept of mutual energy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Shuang-ren; Yang, Kang; Yang, Xingang; Yang, Xintie

    2015-01-01

    The Poynting theorem is generalized to the modified Poynting theorem. In the modified Poynting theorem the electromagnetic field is superimposition of different electromagnetic fields including the field of retarded potential and advanced potential. The media epsilon (permittivity) and mu (permeability) can also be different in the different fields. The concept of mutual energy is introduced which is the difference between the total energy and self-energy. Using the modified Poynting theorem with the concept of the mutual energy the modified mutual energy theorem is derived. Applying time-offset transform and time integral to the modified mutual energy theorem, the time-correlation modified mutual energy theorem is obtained. Assume there are only two fields which are retarded potential, and there is only one media, the modified time-correlation energy theorem becomes the time-correlation energy theorem, which is also referred as the time-correlation reciprocity theorem. Assume there are two electromagnetic fi...

  14. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, C.; Page, L.; Morreale, B.; Owens, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) manages its low-level waste (LLW), regulated by DOE Order 5820.2A by using an overall systems approach. This systems approach provides an improved and consistent management system for all DOE LLW waste, from generation to disposal. This paper outlines six basic disposal concepts used in the systems approach, discusses issues associated with each of the concepts, and outlines both present and future disposal concepts used at six DOE sites. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Helping Students Reconstruct Conceptions of Thermodynamics: Energy and Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummel, Russell; Sunal, Dennis W.; Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski

    2007-01-01

    Thermodynamics, specifically energy and heat, is a major concept in the foundations of physics and physical science. To determine a strategy to teach thermodynamics meaningfully, the authors conducted classroom action research using interviews to determine secondary physics students' current conceptions of thermodynamics. On the basis of the…

  16. Helping Students Reconstruct Conceptions of Thermodynamics: Energy and Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummel, Russell; Sunal, Dennis W.; Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski

    2007-01-01

    Thermodynamics, specifically energy and heat, is a major concept in the foundations of physics and physical science. To determine a strategy to teach thermodynamics meaningfully, the authors conducted classroom action research using interviews to determine secondary physics students' current conceptions of thermodynamics. On the basis of the…

  17. Concept Study of Foundation Systems for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina, Salvador Devant; Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Analysis of possible foundation solution for Wave Energy Converters (WEC) is presented by investigating and optimizing novel foundation systems recently developed for offshore wind turbines. Gravity based, pile and bucket foundations are innovative foundation systems that are analyzed. Concept...

  18. Ambiguities in representing the concept of energy: a semiotic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAMIEN GIVRY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many researches in science education have shown the importance of the concept of energy and the learning difficulties that students face. Based on a semiotic approach, the current study focuses on the different ways in representing the concept of energy. It examines the ambiguities appear in written text, diagram, photo, graph, corporal acts etc. as vehicles of conveying some aspects of the energy concept. Video of a regular Greek lesson about energy and an usual Greek physics school textbook composed our database. The first results show a conceptual blending between the concepts 'transfer' and 'transformation' due to the lack of specification of which are exactly the physical systems studied in these modes of representation.

  19. Concepts of radial and angular kinetic energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens Peder; Schleich, W.P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider a general central-field system in D dimensions and show that the division of the kinetic energy into radial and angular parts proceeds differently in the wave-function picture and the Weyl-Wigner phase-space picture, Thus, the radial and angular kinetic energies are different quantiti...... in the two pictures, containing different physical information, but the relation between them is well defined. We discuss this relation and illustrate its nature by examples referring to a free particle and to a ground-state hydrogen atom....

  20. Status report of the energy amplifier concept

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo

    1997-01-01

    We report the main results of study performed at CERN over the last three years by few people and with shoe-string funding on the potential impact of new Accelerators technologies in the field of Energy production from nuclei. Accelerators have been universal tools to nuclear reactions : why not using them to produce practical, sizeable amounts of nuclear transmutations, i.e. to: 1. eliminate unwanted long-lived, radioactive Waste from LWR's; 2. (eventually to produce energy in non-critical conditions, similar to the promises of Fusion and 3. as a substitution of Reactors for the neutron activation of short-lived radioactive elements for industrial and medical applications. - We have studied at the CERN-PS both the energy (heat) produced in nuclear cascades in a sub-critical environment (k=0.90) and the transmutation of unwanted waste in a small lethargy, transparent medium (lead). These experiments have been driven by conceptual studies and elaborate computer simulations of nuclear cascades and extend the we...

  1. Single-molecule FRET reveals hidden complexity in a protein energy landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsytlonok, Maksym; Ibrahim, Shehu M; Rowling, Pamela J E; Xu, Wenshu; Ruedas-Rama, Maria J; Orte, Angel; Klenerman, David; Itzhaki, Laura S

    2015-01-06

    Here, using single-molecule FRET, we reveal previously hidden conformations of the ankyrin-repeat domain of AnkyrinR, a giant adaptor molecule that anchors integral membrane proteins to the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton through simultaneous binding of multiple partner proteins. We show that the ankyrin repeats switch between high-FRET and low-FRET states, controlled by an unstructured "safety pin" or "staple" from the adjacent domain of AnkyrinR. Opening of the safety pin leads to unravelling of the ankyrin repeat stack, a process that will dramatically affect the relative orientations of AnkyrinR binding partners and, hence, the anchoring of the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton to the membrane. Ankyrin repeats are one of the most ubiquitous molecular recognition platforms in nature, and it is therefore important to understand how their structures are adapted for function. Our results point to a striking mechanism by which the order-disorder transition and, thereby, the activity of repeat proteins can be regulated.

  2. Hidden-Sector Higgs Bosons at a High-Energy Electron-Positron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of a scalar messenger that can couple the Standard Model (SM) to a hidden sector has been discussed in a variety of contexts in the literature in recent years. We consider the case that a new scalar singlet charged under an exotic spontaneously broken Abelian gauge symmetry mixes weakly with the SM Higgs resulting in two scalar mass states, one of which has heavily suppressed couplings to the SM particles. Previous phenomenological studies have focussed on potential signatures for such a model at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). However, there are interesting regions of the parameter space in which the heavier Higgs state would be just out of reach for LHC searches if its mass is & 1 TeV. We therefore investigate the discovery potential for such a particle at a 3 TeV electron-positron collider, which is motivated by the recent R&D developments of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). We find that such an experiment could substantially extend our discovery reach for a heavy, weakly couple...

  3. Hidden-Sector Higgs Bosons at High-Energy Electron-Positron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Jack H

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of a scalar messenger that can couple the Standard Model (SM) to a hidden sector has been discussed in a variety of contexts in the literature in recent years. We consider the case that a new scalar singlet charged under an exotic spontaneously broken Abelian gauge symmetry mixes weakly with the SM Higgs resulting in two scalar mass states, one of which has heavily suppressed couplings to the SM particles. Previous phenomenological studies have focussed on potential signatures for such a model at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). However, there are interesting regions of the parameter space in which the heavier Higgs state would be out of reach for LHC searches if its mass is greater than 1 TeV. We therefore investigate the discovery potential for such a particle at a 3 TeV electron-positron collider, which is motivated by the recent developments of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). We find that such an experiment could substantially extend our discovery reach for a heavy, weakly coupled Higg...

  4. Multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We investigate student understanding of energy and momentum concepts at the level of introductory physics by designing and administering a 25-item multiple choice test and conducting individual interviews. We find that most students have difficulty in qualitatively interpreting basic principles related to energy and momentum and in applying them in physical situations.

  5. Students' Conceptions about Energy and the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael; Treagust, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Students' understanding of energy has been primarily within the domain of physics. This study sought to examine students' understanding of concepts relating to energy and the human body using pencil and paper questionnaires administered to 610 students in Years 8-12. From students' responses to the questionnaires, conceptual patterns were…

  6. Integral energy concepts for housing estates; Integrale Energiekonzepte fuer Wohnsiedlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, M.N.; Kuehl, L. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    Integral energy concepts for housing estates require an early cooperation between architects, planners, and specialist engineers on the basis of a holistic planning approach. This is how future-oriented, sustainable concepts evolve which do justice to the multifarious requirements on the integral energy system of a housing estate. The present paper elucidates different approaches to optimising the energy efficiency of buildings such as the implementation of low-energy house concepts, building site and architectural planning, and detailed planning of heat insulation concepts, ventilation and air tightness concepts, and adapted heating systems. The solarisation of development plans has an influence on the arrangement of buildings, which are now planned to give the greatest possible passive and active solar energy gains. The authors also describe solar-assisted district heating systems for housing estates. [Deutsch] Integrale Energiekonzepte fuer Wohnsiedlungen erfordern die fruehe Zusammenarbeit von Architekten, Planern und Fachingenieuren im Rahmen einer ganzheitlichen Planung. So entstehen zukunftsweisende und tragfaehige Konzepte, die den vielschichtigen Anforderungen des Gesamtenergiesystems ``Wohnsiedlung`` gerecht werden. Im Folgenden wird die energetische Optimierung von Gebaeuden wie die Umsetzung von Niedrigenergiehaus-Konzepten, Standort und Gebaeudeplanung sowie Detailplanung in Bezug auf das Waermedaemmkonzept, Lueftungs-/Dichtheitskonzept und auf angepasste Waermeversorgungssysteme erl autert. Die Solarisierung von Bebauungsplaenen beeinflusste Anordnung der Gebaeude hinsichtlich der Nutzung passivsolarer Gewinne sowie des Einsatzes von Systemen der aktiven Solarenergienutzung. Solarunterstuetzte Nahwaermenetze fuer Wohnsiedlungen werden ebenfalls beschrieben.

  7. CONCEPT OF THE MINIMUM ENERGY PASSENGER CAR WITH USE OF UNCONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V. A. Gabrinets; I. V. Tytarenko

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The paper is aimed to consider the concept of creation of the minimum energy passenger car with use of nonconventional energy sources and the walls that have enhanced thermal insulation properties. Мethodology...

  8. Energy-Filtered Tunnel Transistor: A New Device Concept Toward Extremely-Low Energy Consumption Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    New Device Concept Toward Extremely-Low Energy Consumption Electronics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00014-12-1-0492 5c. PROGRAM... energy consumption transistors. We have experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, that a quantum well energy level can filter out energetic...Concept Toward Extremely-Low Energy Consumption Electronics (Grant No: N00014-12-1-0492) PI: Seong Jin Koh Department of Materials Science and

  9. Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senglaub, M.

    1996-06-01

    This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

  10. Systems engineering analysis of kinetic energy weapon concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senglaub, M.

    1996-06-01

    This study examines, from a systems engineering design perspective, the potential of kinetic energy weapons being used in the role of a conventional strategic weapon. Within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, strategic weapon experience falls predominantly in the nuclear weapons arena. The techniques developed over the years may not be the most suitable methodologies for use in a new design/development arena. For this reason a more fundamental approach was pursued with the objective of developing an information base from which design decisions might be made concerning the conventional strategic weapon system concepts. The study examined (1) a number of generic missions, (2) the effects of a number of damage mechanisms from a physics perspective, (3) measures of effectiveness (MOE`s), and (4) a design envelope for kinetic energy weapon concepts. With the base of information a cut at developing a set of high-level system requirements was made, and a number of concepts were assessed against these requirements.

  11. Designing an energy planning concept for enhancing the dissemination of renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    2014-01-01

    This paper stresses the need for adapting a sustainable energy planning concept, which can support the implementation of renewable energy in developing countries; exemplified by a Vietnamese case. Many developing countries heavily rely on fossil fuel resources and will face energy supply security...... challenges in the future. At the same time their policies on renewable energy, tools and action plans supporting renewables are weak. Thus, to support a local dissemination of renewable energy we suggest applying the sustainable energy planning concept to speed up the utilization of renewables in developing...... countries, while relevant policies, tools and plans etc. simultaneously are being deployed, enhancing the framework conditions for renewable energy implementation...

  12. Designing an energy planning concept for enhancing the dissemination of renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    This paper stresses the need for adapting a sustainable energy planning concept, which can support the implementation of renewable energy in developing countries; exemplified by a Vietnamese case. Many developing countries heavily rely on fossil fuel resources and will face energy supply security...... challenges in the future. At the same time their policies on renewable energy, tools and action plans supporting renewables are weak. Thus, to support a local dissemination of renewable energy we suggest applying the sustainable energy planning concept to speed up the utilization of renewables in developing...... countries, while relevant policies, tools and plans etc. simultaneously are being deployed, enhancing the framework conditions for renewable energy implementation...

  13. General business model patterns for Local Energy Management concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele eFacchinetti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition towards a more sustainable global energy system, significantly relying on renewable energies and decentralized energy systems, requires a deep reorganization of the energy sector. The way how energy services are generated, delivered and traded is expected to be very different in the coming years. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver for the successful implementation of the energy turnaround. This work contributes to this topic by introducing a heuristic methodology easing the identification of general business model patterns best suited for Local Energy Management concepts such as Energy Hubs. A conceptual framework characterizing the Local Energy Management business model solution space is developed. Three reference business model patterns providing orientation across the defined solution space are identified, analyzed and compared. Through a market review a number of successfully implemented innovative business models have been analyzed and allocated within the defined solution space. The outcomes of this work offer to potential stakeholders a starting point and guidelines for the business model innovation process, as well as insights for policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management concepts.

  14. Earth energies a quest for the hidden power of the planet

    CERN Document Server

    King, Serge Kahili

    1992-01-01

    Examinations and accounts of experimentation with subtle energies. In addition to the scientifically accepted forces of electricity, magnetism, and gravity, there are, according to the author, "psychoenergetic" forces, those that interact with the mind as well as the body. His research deals with the energies behind extraordinary phenomena like non-physical healing, levitation, telekinesis, superstrength, and many others in which the mind is always an important factor. He touches on pyramid power, dowsing, feng shui, and the use of magnets for healing. These, and many more sources may have a single energy in common; the same way different physical elements all have electrons in common. Leave skepticism behind, and be fascinated by his examples and observations that may someday prove to be of practical value, and no more "strange" than bread mold being used to cure disease.

  15. Momentum and Kinetic Energy: Confusable Concepts in Secondary School Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, T. G. K.; MacMillan, K.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners alike express concerns about the conceptual difficulties associated with the concepts of momentum and kinetic energy currently taught in school physics. This article presents an in-depth analysis of the treatment given to them in 44 published textbooks written for UK secondary school certificate courses. This is set…

  16. Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning...

  17. Mining Interest Navigation Concepts Based on Hidden Markov Model%基于隐马尔可夫模型的Web用户访问序列挖掘

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦相

    2013-01-01

      Web挖掘的一个研究方向是发现用户对网页的兴趣。用户的浏览网页意味着用户对该网页上的某种概念感兴趣。文中提出基于隐马尔可夫模型,对用户访问网页的序列进行分析,发现用户感兴趣的概念,然后把蕴含用户感兴趣概念程度最大的网页推荐给用户。这种模式实质上是一种Web服务设计,给用户提供个性化的优质服务,提高网站的服务质量。%Mining the interest of the users is an important research direction in web mining. A user accesses a web site with some intentions means that he is interest in some conceptions. In this paper, we present a new method for mining browse sequence based on the Hidden Markov model in order to discover users’ interest, and then recommend the new pages with max interest to the user. This is essentially a Web service design, to provide personalized service and improve the service quality of website.

  18. Beyond consensus: statistical free energies reveal hidden interactions in the design of a TPR motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliery, Thomas J; Regan, Lynne

    2004-10-22

    Consensus design methods have been used successfully to engineer proteins with a particular fold, and moreover to engineer thermostable exemplars of particular folds. Here, we consider how a statistical free energy approach can expand upon current methods of phylogenetic design. As an example, we have analyzed the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motif, using multiple sequence alignment to identify the significance of each position in the TPR. The results provide information above and beyond that revealed by consensus design alone, especially at poorly conserved positions. A particularly striking finding is that certain residues, which TPR-peptide co-crystal structures show are in direct contact with the ligand, display a marked hypervariability. This suggests a novel means of identifying ligand-binding sites, and also implies that TPRs generally function as ligand-binding domains. Using perturbation analysis (or statistical coupling analysis), we examined site-site interactions within the TPR motif. Correlated occurrences of amino acid residues at poorly conserved positions explain how TPRs achieve their near-neutral surface charge distributions, and why a TPR designed from straight consensus has an unusually high net charge. Networks of interacting sites revealed that TPRs fall into two unrecognized families with distinct sets of interactions related to the identity of position 7 (Leu or Lys/Arg). Statistical free energy analysis provides a more complete description of "What makes a TPR a TPR?" than consensus alone, and it suggests general approaches to extend and improve the phylogenetic design of proteins.

  19. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    settings. The current case study presents a community energy concept for the inner-city of Elmshorn. By estimating the energy demand, consideration of local energy saving potentials, and available energy potentials within the community, it was possible to develop several energy system variants...... that virtually allow a heating energy and electricity supply fully based on local, renewable energy resources. The most feasible and cost-efficient variant is the use of local food production waste in a CHP plant feeding a district heating grid. The overall aim is to show that a self-sufficient heat...

  20. Integration of Lignocellulosic Biomass into Renewable Energy Generation Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSCH Sigrid

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In all European countries various lignocellulosic biomasses such as agricultural residues (straw, strawcontaining dung or fractions from municipal solid waste are available in large amounts, but currently hardly any of thispotential is being used for energy generation. This paper reviews the different options for including lignocellulosicbiomass into renewable energy generation schemes. Not all wastes are suitable to be treated by principally availabletechniques such as anaerobic digestion, ethanol production or thermal valorisation. The present paper gives an overviewof utilisation options for lignocellulosic biomass to either produce biofuels or to integrate such biomass into anaerobicdigestion. Biorefinery concepts are discussed as well.

  1. Energy Cane: Its Concept, Development, Characteristics, and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizuo Matsuoka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike conventional sugar cane (Saccharum spp. energy cane is a cane selected to have more fiber than sucrose in its composition. This is obtained simply by altering the genetic contribution of the ancestral species of sugarcane using traditional breeding methods. The resulting key feature is a significant increase in biomass yield. This happens because accumulating sugar is not physiologically a simple process and results in penalty in the side of fiber and yield. This review paper describes the initial conception of fuel cane in Puerto Rico in the second half of 1970s, the present resurgence of interest in it, how to breed energy cane, and the main characteristics that make it one of the most favorable dedicated bioenergy crops. The present status of breeding for energy cane in the world is also reviewed. Its potential contribution to the renewable energy market is discussed briefly.

  2. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main...... the ill parent. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the traumatic process of parental ABI that some children experience and emphasize the importance of family-centred interventions that include the children....

  3. Applications of hidden symmetries to black hole physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, Valeri, E-mail: vfrolov@ualberta.ca [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G7 (Canada)

    2011-02-01

    This work is a brief review of applications of hidden symmetries to black hole physics. Symmetry is one of the most important concepts of the science. In physics and mathematics the symmetry allows one to simplify a problem, and often to make it solvable. According to the Noether theorem symmetries are responsible for conservation laws. Besides evident (explicit) spacetime symmetries, responsible for conservation of energy, momentum, and angular momentum of a system, there also exist what is called hidden symmetries, which are connected with higher order in momentum integrals of motion. A remarkable fact is that black holes in four and higher dimensions always possess a set ('tower') of explicit and hidden symmetries which make the equations of motion of particles and light completely integrable. The paper gives a general review of the recently obtained results. The main focus is on understanding why at all black holes have something (symmetry) to hide.

  4. Applications of hidden symmetries to black hole physics

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, Valeri

    2010-01-01

    This work is a brief review of applications of hidden symmetries to black hole physics. Symmetry is one of the most important concepts of the science. In physics and mathematics the symmetry allows one to simplify a problem, and often to make it solvable. According to the Noether theorem symmetries are responsible for conservation laws. Besides evident (explicit) spacetime symmetries, responsible for conservation of energy, momentum, and angular momentum of a system, there also exist what is called hidden symmetries, which are connected with higher order in momentum integrals of motion. A remarkable fact is that black holes in four and higher dimensions always possess a set (`tower') of explicit and hidden symmetries which make the equations of motion of particles and light completely integrable. The paper gives a general review of the recently obtained results. The main focus is on understanding why at all black holes have something (symmetry) to hide.

  5. Study on core concept for commercial LMFBR plant toward self-consistent nuclear energy system concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toukura, A. [Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan); Yamazaki, M. [Toshiba Corp., Fuchu, Tokyo (Japan). Fuchu Works; Ohashi, M. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Works; Ikeda, K. [Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Saito, M.; Fujiie, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors

    1995-12-31

    Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) is expected to be commercialized in Japan to overcome foreseeable problems such as reactor safety, increasing energy demand, final disposal of high level radioactive waste and fuel resource shortage. We have been studying three FBR core concepts enhancing its potential abilities; ultra-large type, simplified type and friendly to fuel cycle type core. This study is sponsored by Ministry of International Trade and Industry. (author).

  6. Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs. In......-by-doing process, where hidden costs motivate firms and their employees to search for new and better knowledge on how to successfully manage the organisation. We illustrate this thesis based on the case of the LEGO Group.......This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning...

  7. Concept of an Accelerator-Driven Advanced Nuclear Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Yan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of clean energy is a matter of primary importance for sustainable development as well as a vital approach for solving worldwide energy-related issues. If the low utilization rate of nuclear fuel, nuclear proliferation, and insufficient nuclear safety can be solved, nuclear fission energy could be used as a sustainable and low-carbon clean energy form for thousands of years, providing steady and base-load electrical resources. To address these challenges, we propose an accelerator-driven advanced nuclear energy system (ADANES, consisting of a burner system and a fuel recycle system. In ADANES, the ideal utilization rate of nuclear fuel will be >95%, and the final disposal of nuclear waste will be minimized. The design of a high-temperature ceramic reactor makes the burner system safer. Part of fission products (FPs are removed during the simple reprocessing in the fuel recycle system, significantly reducing the risks of nuclear proliferation of nuclear technology and materials. The ADANES concept integrates nuclear waste transmutation, nuclear fuel breeding, and safety power production, with an ideal closed loop operation of nuclear fission energy, constituting a major innovation of great potential interest for future energy applications.

  8. Concept of proton radiography using energy resolved dose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentefour, El H.; Schnuerer, Roland; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Energy resolved dosimetry offers a potential path to single detector based proton imaging using scanned proton beams. This is because energy resolved dose functions encrypt the radiological depth at which the measurements are made. When a set of predetermined proton beams ‘proton imaging field’ are used to deliver a well determined dose distribution in a specific volume, then, at any given depth x of this volume, the behavior of the dose against the energies of the proton imaging field is unique and characterizes the depth x. This concept applies directly to proton therapy scanning delivery methods (pencil beam scanning and uniform scanning) and it can be extended to the proton therapy passive delivery methods (single and double scattering) if the delivery of the irradiation is time-controlled with a known time-energy relationship. To derive the water equivalent path length (WEPL) from the energy resolved dose measurement, one may proceed in two different ways. A first method is by matching the measured energy resolved dose function to a pre-established calibration database of the behavior of the energy resolved dose in water, measured over the entire range of radiological depths with at least 1 mm spatial resolution. This calibration database can also be made specific to the patient if computed using the patient x-CT data. A second method to determine the WEPL is by using the empirical relationships between the WEPL and the integral dose or the depth at 80% of the proximal fall off of the energy resolved dose functions in water. In this note, we establish the evidence of the fundamental relationship between the energy resolved dose and the WEPL at the depth of the measurement. Then, we illustrate this relationship with experimental data and discuss its imaging dynamic range for 230 MeV protons.

  9. Concept of proton radiography using energy resolved dose measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentefour, El H; Schnuerer, Roland; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2016-08-21

    Energy resolved dosimetry offers a potential path to single detector based proton imaging using scanned proton beams. This is because energy resolved dose functions encrypt the radiological depth at which the measurements are made. When a set of predetermined proton beams 'proton imaging field' are used to deliver a well determined dose distribution in a specific volume, then, at any given depth x of this volume, the behavior of the dose against the energies of the proton imaging field is unique and characterizes the depth x. This concept applies directly to proton therapy scanning delivery methods (pencil beam scanning and uniform scanning) and it can be extended to the proton therapy passive delivery methods (single and double scattering) if the delivery of the irradiation is time-controlled with a known time-energy relationship. To derive the water equivalent path length (WEPL) from the energy resolved dose measurement, one may proceed in two different ways. A first method is by matching the measured energy resolved dose function to a pre-established calibration database of the behavior of the energy resolved dose in water, measured over the entire range of radiological depths with at least 1 mm spatial resolution. This calibration database can also be made specific to the patient if computed using the patient x-CT data. A second method to determine the WEPL is by using the empirical relationships between the WEPL and the integral dose or the depth at 80% of the proximal fall off of the energy resolved dose functions in water. In this note, we establish the evidence of the fundamental relationship between the energy resolved dose and the WEPL at the depth of the measurement. Then, we illustrate this relationship with experimental data and discuss its imaging dynamic range for 230 MeV protons.

  10. Commercial concepts for adiabatic compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, Sebastian [General Electric Global Research, Garching (Germany); Schainker, Robert [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Moreau, Robert [General Electric Oil and Gas, Florence (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Adiabatic compressed air energy storage (ACAES) systems offer the potential for efficient large-scale energy storage, almost approaching values typical for pumped hydro. In an ACAES plant, the heat of compression is stored and utilized during the expansion of the air instead of firing natural gas like in commercial CAES. However, no ACAES plants have been commercialized due to challenges with respect to the cost and the heat storage technology. In this study, conducted by EPRI, GE Global Research and GE Oil and Gas, several concepts for ACAES plants are analyzed and their efficiency, complexity and technical risk compared. The components selected for the plants are available either off-the-shelf or near-commercial within a short development time and without the high costs associated with developing a new generation of large custom-made compressors and turbines. The most promising concept for near-term commercialization and low costs turns out to be a two-stage, low-temperature ACAES system. A regenerative (solid) and a recuperative (liquid) thermal storage system have been designed and analyzed for this concept, with the result that the liquid-recuperative system offers a much lower cost and comparable performance. Performance and cost targets for the concepts are 100 MW output per plant for 6 h with a round-trip efficiency above 60% and a capital cost of about $1000/kW. Selections of the turbomachinery for the compression and expansion train from General Electric Oil and Gas are presented for several plant options along with their expansion power range (25..100 MW), round-trip efficiency (66%..70%) and preliminary capital cost estimates (1100..1200 $/kW).

  11. The total flow concept for geothermal energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    A geothermal development project has been initiated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) to emphasize development of methods for recovery and conversion of the energy in geothermal deposits of hot brines. Temperatures of these waters vary from 150 C to more than 300 C with dissolved solids content ranging from less than 0.1% to over 25% by weight. Of particular interest are the deposits of high-temperature/high-salinity brines, as well as less saline brines, known to occur in the Salton Trough of California. Development of this resource will depend on resolution of the technical problems of brine handling, scale and precipitation control, and corrosion/erosion resistant systems for efficient conversion of thermal to electrical energy. Research experience to date has shown these problems to be severe. Hence, the LLL program emphasizes development of an entirely different approach called the Total Flow concept.

  12. Hidden Crises and Communication : An Interactional Analysis of Hidden Crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klarenbeek, Annette

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I describe the ways in which the communication discipline can make a hidden crisis transparent. For this purpose I examine the concept of crisis entrepreneurship from a communication point of view. Using discourse analysis, I analyse the discursive practices of crisis entrepreneurs in

  13. The DESTINY concept for the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jon A.; Lauer, Tod R.; Woodruff, Robert A.

    2004-10-01

    The Destiny space telescope is a candidate architecture for the NASA-DOE Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM). This paper describes some of the scientific and observational issues that will be explored as part of our mission concept study. The Destiny ~1.8-meter near-infrared (NIR) grism-mode space telescope would gather a census of type Ia and type II supernovae (SN) over the redshift range 0.5 the Universe as a function of time and characterizing the nature of dark energy. The central concept is a wide-field, all-grism NIR survey camera. Grism spectra with 2-pixel resolving power R~70-100 will provide broad-band spectrophotometry, redshifts, SN classification, as well as valuable time-resolved diagnostic data for understanding the SN explosion physics. Spectra from all objects within the 1° x 0.25° FOV will be obtained on a large HgCdTe focal plane array. Our methodology requires only a single mode of operation, a single detector technology, and a single instrument.

  14. Praxeological analysis of the teaching conditions of the energy concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Altan Kurnaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Since there is disagreement with regard to a single definition of energy in the literature, knowing how a discipline introducesenergy, because of the direct effects of teaching conditions on students’ learning, maintains its importance. From this point ofview, the objective of this research is to determine the teaching conditions with regard to energy of a discipline in a universityin Turkey. In order to achieve this, an institutional analysis was conducted based on the Praxeological Approach. Severalimportant results were obtained from the study such as the fact that the teaching of energy processes at the year 1 level in aTurkish University is performed from a restricted perspective, using an operational approach. The results of this studyemphasize the need for an interdisciplinary approach and multiple representations, including conceptual activities as a meansof introducing energy concepts. As a general recommendation, it is also recommended that the analysis of the interactionbetween teaching and learning conditions may be useful for the development of a new approach with regard to energyconcepts.

  15. To teach the concept of energy; Enseignement de l`energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, G. [Lycee Louis Aragon, 69 - Givors (France); Clavel, Ch. [Lycee Condorcet, 69 - Saint-Priest (France); Gaidioz, P. [Lycee Edouard Branly, 69 - Lyon (France); Tiberghien, A. [CNRS UMR GRIC, equipe COAST Ecole Normale Superieure, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1998-04-01

    This article presents the work made by a team of sciences teachers and pedagogy experts to explain the concept of energy to a grammar-school audience. Energy can be another way to interpret a phenomenon: an electric circuit can be studied in terms of electrokinetics but also from a point of view of energy as a system interacting with its surroundings.The necessity to define the main actors of the energy interpretation: energy tank, transformers and receptors comes naturally. The conservation of energy is a powerful tool to draw relations and links between macroscopic parameters such as voltage, intensity or temperature. The notion of power appears as a rate of energy transfer. Some examples of practical works about the energetic interpretations of different systems are given. (A.C.) 5 refs.

  16. Fossil energy in the German energy concept; Die fossilen Energien im deutschen Energiekonzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecker, Dietrich

    2012-07-01

    A politically desired drastic reduction of fossil energy sources in Germany contrasts with a clear increase in world consumption. Perception and reality diverge from each other. The 2 degree climate target is questionable: the focus on CO{sub 2} reduction and decarbonisation produces a conceptual skewing. In a balanced reality-orientated energy concept by contrast security of supply, profitability and cost-benefit orientation must be adopted to an increasing extent. Science has an important task in this respect. (orig.)

  17. Inventing an Energy Internet: Concepts, Architectures, and Protocols for Smart Energy Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoukalas, Lefteri (Purdue University)

    2009-04-29

    In recent years, the Internet is revolutionizing information availability much like the Power Grid revolutionized energy availability a century earlier. We will explore the differences and similarities of these two critical infrastructures and identify ways for convergence which may lead to an energy internet. Pricing signals, nodal forecasting, and short-term elasticities are key concepts in smart energy flows respecting the delicate equilibrium involved in generation-demand and aiming at higher efficiencies. We will discuss how intelligent forecasting approaches operating at multiple levels (including device or nodal levels) can ameliorate the challenges of power storage. In addition to higher efficiencies, an energy internet may achieve significant reliability and security improvements and offer greater flexibility and transparency in the overall energy-environmental relation.

  18. Hidden worlds in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gouesbet, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a resurgence in research and interest in the areas of quantum computation and entanglement. This new book addresses the hidden worlds or variables of quantum physics. Author Gérard Gouesbet studied and worked with a former student of Louis de Broglie, a pioneer of quantum physics. His presentation emphasizes the history and philosophical foundations of physics, areas that will interest lay readers as well as professionals and advanced undergraduate and graduate students of quantum physics. The introduction is succeeded by chapters offering background on relevant concepts in classical and quantum mechanics, a brief history of causal theories, and examinations of the double solution, pilot wave, and other hidden-variables theories. Additional topics include proofs of possibility and impossibility, contextuality, non-locality, classification of hidden-variables theories, and stochastic quantum mechanics. The final section discusses how to gain a genuine understanding of quantum mec...

  19. Students' Energy Concepts at the Transition between Primary and Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Sebastian T.; Harms, Ute; Neumann, Knut; Kowalzik, Kristin; Frank, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Energy is considered both a core idea and a crosscutting concept in science education. A thorough understanding of the energy concept is thought to help students learn about other (related) concepts within and across science subjects, thereby fostering scientific literacy. This study investigates students' progression in understanding the energy…

  20. CONCEPT OF THE MINIMUM ENERGY PASSENGER CAR WITH USE OF UNCONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gabrinets

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is aimed to consider the concept of creation of the minimum energy passenger car with use of nonconventional energy sources and the walls that have enhanced thermal insulation properties. Мethodology. The types of heat losses, as well as their value were analyzed. The alternative sources of energy are considered for heating. Their potential contribution to the overall energy balance of the passenger car is analyzed. Impact on the car design of the enhanced wall thermal insulation, solar energy inflow through the transparent windows and energy release of passengers are quantitatively evaluated. Findings. With the maximum possible use of all unconventional energy sources and the rational scheme solutions of conditioning and heating systems energy the costs for these needs for a passenger car can be reduced by 40-50%. Originality. New types of energy to maintain the heat balance of the car in the winter period is proposed to use firstly. New schematics solutions for environmental control system of the car both in winter and in summer periods were offered. Practical value. Introduction of the proposed scheme solutions and approaches to ensure the comfortable conditions for passengers may be implemented on an existing park of passenger cars and do not require a major re-equipment of systems that have already been installed.

  1. Diagnosing Students' Understanding of Energy and Its Related Concepts in Biological Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Sanders, Martie; Mumba, Frackson

    2012-01-01

    This study diagnosed the understanding about energy and biological-context energy concepts held by 90 first-year South African university biology students. In particular, students' explanations of energy in a biological context, how energy is involved in different biological situations and whether energy is present and what types of energy are…

  2. Transition to Sustainable Energy Neutral Districts before 2050. Innovative Concepts and Pilots for the Built Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonska, B.; Ruijg, G.J.; Opstelten, I.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Epema, T. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands); Willems, E.M.M. [Cauberg-Huygen Consulting Engineers, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-03-15

    The Dutch project 'Transition in Energy and Process for a Sustainable District Development' focuses on the transition to sustainable, energy neutral districts in 2050, particularly in energy concepts and decision processes. The main objective of the technical research is to develop four to six innovative energy concepts for 2050 for the four Dutch cities of Almere, Apeldoorn, Nijmegen and Tilburg, as well as the roadmap for realising this target. Firstly, 14 variations of six general energy concepts have been developed and calculations conducted on the energy neutrality in 2020, 2035 and 2050 by means of an Excel model designed for this purpose. Three concepts are based on the idea of an energy hub (smart district heating, cooling and electricity networks, in which generation, storage, conversion and exchange of energy are all incorporated): the geo hub (using waste heat and/or geothermal energy), the bio hub (using waste heat and/or biomass) and the solar hub (using only solar energy). The fourth concept is the so-called all-electric concept, based predominantly on heat pumps, PV and conversion of high temperature heat from vacuum collectors to electricity. The fifth concept uses only conventional technologies that have been applied since the second half of the previous century, and the sixth one uses only hydrogen. Calculations show that by implementing the hub concepts, the energy neutrality in 2050 ranges from 130 % (solar hubs) to 164% (geo hubs), excluding personal transport within the district. With the all-electric concept, an energy neutrality of 157% can be reached. Hydrogen only and Conventional concepts perform worse, but nevertheless reach an energy neutrality of around 115% in 2050. The energy neutrality shows the extent to which a district, in which the given concept is implemented, can supply itself with sustainable energy generated within the boundaries of that district. Based on the six general concepts, the most optimal energy concepts

  3. Roles of Terminology, Experience, and Energy Concepts in Student Conceptions of "Freezing" and "Boiling"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasien, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    A discussion of some student conceptions of the solid-liquid and liquid-vapor phase transitions is presented. Data from open-ended, short-answer questions were collected from first-semester general chemistry students and then discussed in the context of previous studies. The responses gave insight into the various student conceptions about these…

  4. The Effective Concepts on Students' Understanding of Chemical Reactions and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz, Yildizay; Tarhan, Leman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the basic concepts related to the unit of "Chemical Reactions and Energy" and the sub-concepts underlying for meaningful learning of the unit and to investigate the effectiveness of them on students' learning achievements. For this purpose, the basic concepts of the unit…

  5. A review of benchmarking, rating and labelling concepts within the framework of building energy certification schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lombard, Luis; Gonzalez, Rocio [Grupo de Termotecnia, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Ortiz, Jose [BRE (Building Research Establishment), Garston, Watford WD25 9XX (United Kingdom); Maestre, Ismael R. [Dpto. de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Algeciras, Universidad de Cadiz, Av. Ramon Puyol s/n, Algeciras 11202 Cadiz (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Energy certification schemes for buildings emerged in the early 1990s as an essential method for improving energy efficiency, minimising energy consumption and enabling greater transparency with regards to the use of energy in buildings. However, from the beginning their definition and implementation process were diffuse and, occasionally, have confused building sector stakeholders. A multiplicity of terms and concepts such as energy performance, energy efficiency, energy ratings, benchmarking, labelling, etc., have emerged with sometimes overlapping meanings. This has frequently led to misleading interpretations by regulatory bodies, energy agencies and final consumers. This paper analyses the origin and the historic development of energy certification schemes in buildings along with the definition and scope of a building energy certificate and critical aspects of its implementation. Concepts such as benchmarking tools, energy ratings and energy labelling are clarified within the wider topic of certification schemes. Finally, a seven steps process is proposed as a guide for implementing building energy certification. (author)

  6. Helioscope bounds on hidden sector photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, J.

    2007-12-15

    The flux of hypothetical ''hidden photons'' from the Sun is computed under the assumption that they interact with normal matter only through kinetic mixing with the ordinary standard model photon. Requiring that the exotic luminosity is smaller than the standard photon luminosity provides limits for the mixing parameter down to {chi} hidden photon mass. Furthermore, it is pointed point out that helioscopes looking for solar axions are also sensitive to hidden photons. The recent results of the CAST collaboration are used to further constrain the mixing parameter {chi} at low masses (m{sub {gamma}}{sub '}<1 eV) where the luminosity bound is weaker. In this regime the solar hidden photon ux has a sizable contribution of longitudinally polarized hidden photons of low energy which are invisible for current helioscopes. (orig.)

  7. Helioscope bounds on hidden sector photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, J.

    2007-12-15

    The flux of hypothetical ''hidden photons'' from the Sun is computed under the assumption that they interact with normal matter only through kinetic mixing with the ordinary standard model photon. Requiring that the exotic luminosity is smaller than the standard photon luminosity provides limits for the mixing parameter down to {chi} hidden photon mass. Furthermore, it is pointed point out that helioscopes looking for solar axions are also sensitive to hidden photons. The recent results of the CAST collaboration are used to further constrain the mixing parameter {chi} at low masses (m{sub {gamma}}{sub '}<1 eV) where the luminosity bound is weaker. In this regime the solar hidden photon ux has a sizable contribution of longitudinally polarized hidden photons of low energy which are invisible for current helioscopes. (orig.)

  8. Developmental Growth in Students' Concept of Energy: Analysis of Selected Items from the TIMSS Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng; McKeough, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a model of students' energy concept development. Applying Case's (1985, 1992) structural theory of cognitive development, we hypothesized that students' concept of energy undergoes a series of transitions, corresponding to systematic increases in working memory capacity. The US national sample from the Third…

  9. Using Student-Generated Analogies to Investigate Conceptions of Energy: A Multidisciplinary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancor, Rachael Anderman

    2014-01-01

    The concept of energy is widely employed in introductory science courses. However, the term energy is defined and utilized in different ways depending on the context, even within a given discipline. Through the lens of metaphor theory, these various definitions of energy are seen as metaphors that highlight and obscure characteristics of energy.…

  10. A concept of cartographic support for alternative energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Агапова

    2016-10-01

    Internet services. The article presents a list of maps for alternative energy in Ukraine and the algorithm of their compilation. The regional cartographic products system comprises a series of alternative energy resources maps (wind, solar, small hydro, biomass and geothermal energy; map series of natural, social, economic, technical and environmental conditions and factors that affect the placement of objects belonging to different branches of alternative energy; a series of maps showing the level of alternative energy development in Ukraine, including an inventory of existing in Ukraine thermal and power plants that use alternative energy sources, as well as enterprises for the production of alternative fuels. In addition, the cartographic system includes a recommendation and forecast maps showing perspective regions of alternative energy industries development and projected production of energy from alternative sources.

  11. An Educator's Introduction to Energy Concepts: Overview Packets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Audubon Society, Falmouth.

    This publication provides a broad overview of energy and related issues for teachers and others who want to improve their understanding of these issues. Included in this publication are discussions of: (1) elementary physics related to energy; (2) energy sources, including topics such as renewable and non-renewable resources and fossil fuels; (3)…

  12. Concept of the Interactive Platform for Real Time Energy Consumption Analysis in the Complex Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Podgornik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept of interactive and comprehensive platform based on advanced metering infrastructure for exchanging information on energy consumption and consequently on energy efficiency in urban and industrial environment which can serve as powerful tool for monitoring of progress in transition toward low carbon society. Proposed concept aims at supporting energy utilities in optimizing energy performance of both supply and demand side aspect of their work and have a potential to fill the gap and help in harmonization of interests between the energy utilities, energy service providers, local energy agencies and citizens. The proposed concept should be realized as a platform with the modular architecture, allowing future expansion of user’s portfolio and inventory management (new energy efficiency measures, technologies, different industries, urban districts and regions.

  13. On the Concept of Energy: Eclecticism and Rationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2014-01-01

    In the theory of heat of the first half of the nineteenth century, heat was a substance. Mayer and Joule contradicted this thesis but developed different concepts of heat. Heat was a force for Mayer and a motion for Joule. Both Mayer and Joule determined the mechanical equivalent of heat. This result was, however, justified in accordance with…

  14. Hidden Regular Variation: Detection and Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Abhimanyu

    2010-01-01

    Hidden regular variation defines a subfamily of distributions satisfying multivariate regular variation on $\\mathbb{E} = [0, \\infty]^d \\backslash \\{(0,0, ..., 0) \\} $ and models another regular variation on the sub-cone $\\mathbb{E}^{(2)} = \\mathbb{E} \\backslash \\cup_{i=1}^d \\mathbb{L}_i$, where $\\mathbb{L}_i$ is the $i$-th axis. We extend the concept of hidden regular variation to sub-cones of $\\mathbb{E}^{(2)}$ as well. We suggest a procedure of detecting the presence of hidden regular variation, and if it exists, propose a method of estimating the limit measure exploiting its semi-parametric structure. We exhibit examples where hidden regular variation yields better estimates of probabilities of risk sets.

  15. Design Concepts for Optimum Energy Use in HVAC Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electric Energy Association, New York, NY.

    Much of the innovative work in the design and application of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is concentrated on improving the cost effectiveness of such systems through optimizing energy use. One approach to the problem is to reduce a building's HVAC energy demands by designing it for lower heat gains and losses in the…

  16. A New Hybrid Bathroom System Based on Energy Saving Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Bo-wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of hot water supply in bathroom, this article proposes a new hybrid energy hot water supply system. The programmable logic controller(PLC as the master controller was adopted in this system, which could automatically detect and storage main thermal physical of the system, such as temperature, water level, solar radiation intensity, power consumption and so on. The active thermal utilization technology of solar energy, air-source heat pump technology, solar energy intensive natural ventilation technology and low temperature hot water floor radiant heating technology were organically integrated in this system, which has the advantages of energy conservation and environment protection, high automation, safe and reliable operation, etc. At the same time, it can make good use of electric power cost between on-peak and off-peak, and promote the optimal allocation of power resources and reduce the cost, which can achieve the goal of intelligent control and energy saving.

  17. Previously hidden low-energy ions: a better map of near-Earth space and the terrestrial mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Mats

    2015-12-01

    This is a review of the mass balance of planet Earth, intended also for scientists not usually working with space physics or geophysics. The discussion includes both outflow of ions and neutrals from the ionosphere and upper atmosphere, and the inflow of meteoroids and larger objects. The focus is on ions with energies less than tens of eV originating from the ionosphere. Positive low-energy ions are complicated to detect onboard sunlit spacecraft at higher altitudes, which often become positively charged to several tens of volts. We have invented a technique to observe low-energy ions based on the detection of the wake behind a charged spacecraft in a supersonic ion flow. We find that low-energy ions usually dominate the ion density and the outward flux in large volumes in the magnetosphere. The global outflow is of the order of 1026 ions s-1. This is a significant fraction of the total number outflow of particles from Earth, and changes plasma processes in near-Earth space. We compare order of magnitude estimates of the mass outflow and inflow for planet Earth and find that they are similar, at around 1 kg s-1 (30 000 ton yr-1). We briefly discuss atmospheric and ionospheric outflow from other planets and the connection to evolution of extraterrestrial life.

  18. On the revised concept of linear energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Kellerer, A M; Rossi, H H

    1995-03-01

    The quantities linear energy transfer or restricted linear energy transfer are utilized in calculations that link absorbed dose to the fluence distribution of a radiation field. The computations provide approximations to absorbed dose in terms of the intermediate quantity cema or reduced cema. With the definition of the restricted linear energy transfer, L delta, given in ICRU Report 33, the approximation remains imperfect. This study deals with the resulting need for a modified definition of L delta, as proposed in a draft report of ICRU. Essential differences between the old and the new definitions are demonstrated. The changed definition permits a rigorous formulation of the dependence between fluence and absorbed dose.

  19. Architectural design and energy performance; Conception architecturale et performance energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaud, Ph. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, (ADEME), 06 - Valbonne (France); Pouget, A. [Bureau Etude Thermique, 75 - Paris (France); Sesolis, B. [TRIBU, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    This day was organized around the energy performance of the architecture in three parts. A first time dealt with the design of new buildings and private houses. Simulation tools for the energy optimization and practice of design are discussed. The second part was devoted to the new 2000 regulation with an open discussion on the regulatory costs. The last part forecasted the evolution until 2015 taking into account the french program of fight against the greenhouse effect, the limitation of the air conditioning consumption and the definition of a quality label concerning the energy performances. (A.L.B.)

  20. Energy Configuration of the Buildings from Concept to Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela CARACAS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the aim and objectives of modernizing the energy system of current buildings as well as of designing and executing new buildings with a high Energy and Environmental Performance. It is necessary to refer to the European Strategy (Europe 2020 and to the European Directives, transposed into the national legislation, while the technical and economic solutions to the objectives resulting from the above mentioned purpose complete the dimension of the logical structure of this procedure for reaching the objectives. The economic and especially social importance of comfortable and hygienic living conditions, without excessive costs and without affecting the climate also stems from the climate impact on the current living conditions and use of energy sources. The summer of 2003 had a tragic aftermath at the European and international level, consisting in over 40000 victims of the heat wave and of the buildings’ incapacity to adapt to extremes such as exceptionally intense climate hazards. This highlighted the vulnerability of the built environment compared to climate hazards characterized through an ascending evolution, Romania included. The system of quantitative assessment of the building’s Energy and Environmental Performance, part of the procedure for Energy and Environmental Configuration, entails separate expertise and diagnosis phases which allow elaborating scenarios and strategies for energy modernization. The modernization scenarios are elaborated based on the diagnosis of the building, scenarios differentiated through technical and economic indicators. Scenarios allow the modernization strategy to be elaborated. The energy modernization strategy / designing of new, energy performance buildings is based on the Energy Configuration of Buildings which is the detailed modelling of ownership transfer processes and the assessment of economic efficiency of design / exploitation solutions. The calculation methods are subject to

  1. Advanced storage concepts for solar and low energy buildings, IEA-SHC Task 32. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J.M.; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, S.

    2008-01-15

    This report reports on the results of the activities carried through in connection with the Danish part of the IEA SHC Task 32 project: Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar and Low Energy Buildings. The Danish involvement has focused on Subtask C: Storage Concepts Based on Phase Change Materials and Subtask D: Storage Concepts Based on Advanced Water Tanks and Special Devices. The report describes activities concerning heat-of-fusion storage and advanced water storage. (BA)

  2. Synergies for a Wave-Wind Energy Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Collazo, Carlos; Jakobsen, Morten Møller; Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2013-01-01

    installation costs relative to separate installations. Therefore, new hybrid or multiplatform solutions are being developed. Approach This work is focused on the integration of Wave Energy Converters (WECs) into offshore wind farms. Furthermore, the sustainable development of both offshore wind and wave...... into the positive synergies when offshore wind and wave energy technologies share the same marine space. Among that ones are: shared cost; a smoothing power output; and shielding effects of WECs over the offshore wind farm, which contribute to increase the weather windows for operation and maintenance. Secondly......, this work outlines the risks and challenges that arise when combining these energies. To some extent WECs increase the uncertainty of the project, leading to a higher project cost and an increase the associated financial risk. In third place three case studies are proposed to illustrate different...

  3. An Examination of Cross Sectional Change in Student's Metaphorical Perceptions towards Heat, Temperature and Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Harun

    2016-01-01

    In science teaching, metaphors are important tools for understanding meaningful learning and conceptual formation by the help of daily life language. This study aims to evaluate how the concepts of heat, temperature and energy are perceived by students in secondary school science classes and how the perceptions of these concepts vary in terms of…

  4. Combustion and Energy Transfer Experiments: A Laboratory Model for Linking Core Concepts across the Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Jose C.; Dubetz, Terry A.; Schmidt, Diane L.; Isern, Sharon; Beatty, Thomas; Brown, David W.; Gillman, Edward; Alberte, Randall S.; Egiebor, Nosa O.

    2007-01-01

    Core concepts can be integrated throughout lower-division science and engineering courses by using a series of related, cross-referenced laboratory experiments. Starting with butane combustion in chemistry, the authors expanded the underlying core concepts of energy transfer into laboratories designed for biology, physics, and engineering. This…

  5. Apparent unitarity violation in high mass region of MbW from a "hidden" top partner at high energy colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengcheng; Nojiri, Mihoko M.; Park, Myeonghun

    2016-09-01

    Perturbative unitarity conditions have been playing an important role in estimating the energy scale of new physics, including the Higgs mass as the most important example. In this letter, we show that there is a possibility to see the hint of a new physics (top quark partner) indirectly by observing an "apparent" unitarity violation in the distribution of invariant mass of b-jet and W-boson (Mbw) well above the mass of a top quark in a process of a heavy resonance decaying into a pair of top quarks.

  6. Alternative propulsion concepts using high-energy batteries and hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braess, H.-H.

    1988-07-01

    Current projects on electrical and hydrogen propulsion are discussed. The role of electricity and hydrogen in vehicle propulsion, whether in a purely solar energy system or in a mixed nuclear/solar system, but at any rate in an extremely low pollution energy economy is considered. Advanced systems such as the sodium-sulphur battery offer the possibility of providing urban and short range transport (up to a range of 200 km). Larger distances of 200-500 km would have to be covered by using liquid hydrogen fuelled cars with internal combustion engines.

  7. Energy, Entropy and Exergy Concepts and Their Roles in Thermal Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, Ibrahim; Cengel, Yunus A.

    2001-09-01

    Energy, entropy and exergy concepts come from thermodynamics and are applicable to all fields of science and engineering. Therefore, this article intends to provide background for better understanding of these concepts and their differences among various classes of life support systems with a diverse coverage. It also covers the basic principles, general definitions and practical applications and implications. Some illustrative examples are presented to highlight the importance of the aspects of energy, entropy and exergy and their roles in thermal engineering.

  8. New concepts for energy efficient & emission friendly melting of glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The paper starts with a short analysis of the performance of currently applied glass melting processes/furnaces concerning their energy consumption levels (benchmarking), as well as NOx emissions. The best practice situations will be presented for few glass products (e.g. container glass). Potential

  9. Intelligent Energy concepts in executive education for oil & gas professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Currie, P.K.; Bos, C.F.M.; Berkhout, A.J.; Weijermars, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Intelligent Energy vision is particularly relevant to mid-career professionals with strong management potential. As aspiring asset or service managers, this group has a strong need to improve their analytic and integrative skills, and adopt the holistic view of the industry which characterises

  10. Consumer-oriented Sustainable Energy Concepts; Consumentgerichte Duurzame Energieconcepten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, H.J. [Universiteit Twente UT, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    A study on the willingness of potential buyers of newly built houses to invest in energy efficient systems in order to realize a sustainable dwelling [Dutch] Een onder zoek naar de bereidheid van potentiele kopers van nieuwbouw woningen tot het investeren in energetische systemen om te komen tot een duurzame woning.

  11. Synergies for a Wave-Wind Energy Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Collazo, Carlos; Jakobsen, Morten Møller; Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2013-01-01

    , this work outlines the risks and challenges that arise when combining these energies. To some extent WECs increase the uncertainty of the project, leading to a higher project cost and an increase the associated financial risk. In third place three case studies are proposed to illustrate different...

  12. Intelligent Energy concepts in executive education for oil & gas professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Currie, P.K.; Bos, C.F.M.; Berkhout, A.J.; Weijermars, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Intelligent Energy vision is particularly relevant to mid-career professionals with strong management potential. As aspiring asset or service managers, this group has a strong need to improve their analytic and integrative skills, and adopt the holistic view of the industry which characterises t

  13. Nanoscale domain patterns and a concept for an energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuka Balakrishna, Ananya; Huber, John E.

    2016-10-01

    The current work employs a phase-field model to test the stability of nanoscale periodic domain patterns, and to explore the application of one pattern in an energy harvester device. At first, the stability of several periodic domain patterns with in-plane polarizations is tested under stress-free and electric field-free conditions. It is found that simple domain patterns with stripe-like features are stable, while patterns with more complex domain configurations are typically unstable at the nanoscale. Upon identifying a stable domain pattern with suitable properties, a conceptual design of a thin film energy harvester device is explored. The harvester is modeled as a thin ferroelectric film bound to a substrate. In the initial state a periodic stripe domain pattern with zero net charge on the top electrode is modeled. On bending the substrate, a mechanical strain is induced in the film, causing polarized domains to undergo ferroelectric switching and thus generate electrical energy. The results demonstrate the working cycle of a conceptual energy harvester which, on operating at kHz frequencies, such as from vibrations in the environment, could produce an area power density of about 40 W m-2.

  14. Advanced materials and concepts for energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Shiang Jen

    Over the last decade, technological progress and advances in the miniaturization of electronic devices have increased demands for light-weight, high-efficiency, and carbon-free energy storage devices. These energy storage devices are expected to play important roles in automobiles, the military, power plants, and consumer electronics. Two main types of electrical energy storage systems studied in this research are Li ion batteries and supercapacitors. Several promising solid state electrolytes and supercapacitor electrode materials are investigated in this research. The first section of this dissertation is focused on the novel results on pulsed laser annealing of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO). LLZO powders with a tetragonal structure were prepared by a sol-gel technique, then a pulsed laser annealing process was employed to convert the tetragonal powders to cubic LLZO without any loss of lithium. The second section of the dissertation reports on how Li5La 3Nb2O12 (LLNO) was successfully synthesized via a novel molten salt synthesis (MSS) method at the relatively low temperature of 900°C. The low sintering temperature prevented the loss of lithium that commonly occurs during synthesis using conventional solid state or wet chemical reactions. The second type of energy storage device studied is supercapacitors. Currently, research on supercapacitors is focused on increasing their energy densities and lowering their overall production costs by finding suitable electrode materials. The third section of this dissertation details how carbonized woods electrodes were used as supercapacitor electrode materials. A high energy density of 45.6 Wh/kg and a high power density of 2000 W/kg were obtained from the supercapacitor made from carbonized wood electrodes. The high performance of the supercapacitor was discovered to originate from the hierarchical porous structures of the carbonized wood. Finally, the fourth section of this dissertation is on the electrochemical effects of

  15. Legal and regulatory issues affecting the aquifer thermal energy storage concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, P.L.

    1980-10-01

    A number of legal and regulatory issus that potentially can affect implementation of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) concept are examined. This concept involves the storage of thermal energy in an underground aquifer until a later date when it can be effectively utilized. Either heat energy or chill can be stored. Potential end uses of the energy include district space heating and cooling, industrial process applications, and use in agriculture or aquaculture. Issues are examined in four categories: regulatory requirements, property rights, potential liability, and issues related to heat or chill delivery.

  16. ENERGY CONCEPT ALIVE. NEW APPROACH IN THE FIGHT AGAINST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Shchukin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available New approach to the problem of struggle with malignant tumors based on the suggested by the authors energetic concept of living matter considering a human organism as an open non-self-organizing biological system that is the part of organism of a higher level of organization - Biosphere, and that is under full control of geophysical factors - first of all electromagnetic field of the Earth and composition of atmospheric air is set forth. The mentioned factors fatefully determine length of life - specific and individual - of any living organism, including human being. On the basis of the set forth approach a new means of prevention and removal from the human organism of malignant tumors was suggested.

  17. Wavelet-based Gaussian-mixture hidden Markov model for the detection of multistage seizure dynamics: A proof-of-concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlen Peter L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent electrophysiological activities, known as seizures. Without the appropriate detection strategies, these seizure episodes can dramatically affect the quality of life for those afflicted. The rationale of this study is to develop an unsupervised algorithm for the detection of seizure states so that it may be implemented along with potential intervention strategies. Methods Hidden Markov model (HMM was developed to interpret the state transitions of the in vitro rat hippocampal slice local field potentials (LFPs during seizure episodes. It can be used to estimate the probability of state transitions and the corresponding characteristics of each state. Wavelet features were clustered and used to differentiate the electrophysiological characteristics at each corresponding HMM states. Using unsupervised training method, the HMM and the clustering parameters were obtained simultaneously. The HMM states were then assigned to the electrophysiological data using expert guided technique. Minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR analysis and Akaike Information Criterion (AICc were applied to reduce the effect of over-fitting. The sensitivity, specificity and optimality index of chronic seizure detection were compared for various HMM topologies. The ability of distinguishing early and late tonic firing patterns prior to chronic seizures were also evaluated. Results Significant improvement in state detection performance was achieved when additional wavelet coefficient rates of change information were used as features. The final HMM topology obtained using mRMR and AICc was able to detect non-ictal (interictal, early and late tonic firing, chronic seizures and postictal activities. A mean sensitivity of 95.7%, mean specificity of 98.9% and optimality index of 0.995 in the detection of chronic seizures was achieved. The detection of early and late tonic firing was

  18. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression wher...

  19. Energy summit Hessen. Implementation concept of the state government Hessen; Hessischer Energiegipfel. Umsetzungskonzept der Hessischen Landesregierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    By means of the concept under consideration, the state government of Hessen (Federal Republic of Germany) has pursued the possible and realistic course for the implementation of the targets of the energy summit. The main aspects of this contribution are the implementation of the energy policy of Hessen into the European and national framework; Status quo of the energy consumption in Hessen; Areas of action and measures of the state government of Hessen; Actors of the energy policy turnaround; Monitoring.

  20. Integration of energy management concepts into the flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    The rapid rise of fuel costs has become a major concern of the commercial aviation industry, and it has become mandatory to seek means by which to conserve fuel. A research program was initiated in 1979 to investigate the integration of fuel-conservative energy/flight management computations and information into today's and tomorrow's flight deck. One completed effort within this program has been the development and flight testing of a fuel-efficient, time-based metering descent algorithm in a research cockpit environment. Research flights have demonstrated that time guidance and control in the cockpit was acceptable to both pilots and ATC controllers. Proper descent planning and energy management can save fuel for the individual aircraft as well as the fleet by helping to maintain a regularized flow into the terminal area.

  1. Entropy and Energy in Characterizing the Organization of Concept Maps in Learning Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismo T. Koponen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge structures are often represented in the form of networks or maps of concepts. The coherence and connectivity of such knowledge representations is known to be closely related to knowledge production, acquisition and processing. In this study we use network theory in making the clustering and cohesion of concept maps measurable, and show how the distribution of these properties can be interpreted through the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt method. This approach allows to introduce new concepts of the “energy of cognitive load” and the “entropy of knowledge organization” to describe the organization of knowledge in the concept maps.

  2. Factors Affecting Teaching the Concept of Renewable Energy in Technology Assisted Environments and Designing Processes in the Distance Education Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, A. Seda

    2007-01-01

    The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating…

  3. Energy concept, mathematics and dubious expectations; Energiekonzept, Mathematik und zweifelhafte Erwartungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuebler, Knut

    2013-01-15

    The German federal government has laid down 30 quantitative goals in its energy concept and in doing so has determined the road to Germany's future energy supply system. One target which will be decisive for the success or failure of the energy turnaround, little discussed though it may be, is for Germany to lower its use of primary energy by 50% in the time from 2008 to 2050. In order to achieve this and other goals the federal government is pursuing a policy for a ''state-programmed energy supply''. The implications of this policy can easily be derived by performing some basic as well as more intricate calculations on the figures given in the energy concept. On doing so one finds that the energy concept has decided on the fate of every single energy carrier. It also becomes clear that rising energy prices will not only be a consequence but in fact a prerequisite for the success of the energy turnaround. This article advocates an energy policy that will permit changes of course if new facts and figures should so demand without departing from its overarching goals.

  4. Robust Stabilization of Uncertain Systems Based on Energy Dissipation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sandeep

    1996-01-01

    Robust stability conditions obtained through generalization of the notion of energy dissipation in physical systems are discussed in this report. Linear time-invariant (LTI) systems which dissipate energy corresponding to quadratic power functions are characterized in the time-domain and the frequency-domain, in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMls) and algebraic Riccati equations (ARE's). A novel characterization of strictly dissipative LTI systems is introduced in this report. Sufficient conditions in terms of dissipativity and strict dissipativity are presented for (1) stability of the feedback interconnection of dissipative LTI systems, (2) stability of dissipative LTI systems with memoryless feedback nonlinearities, and (3) quadratic stability of uncertain linear systems. It is demonstrated that the framework of dissipative LTI systems investigated in this report unifies and extends small gain, passivity, and sector conditions for stability. Techniques for selecting power functions for characterization of uncertain plants and robust controller synthesis based on these stability results are introduced. A spring-mass-damper example is used to illustrate the application of these methods for robust controller synthesis.

  5. 3D Printed Potential and Free Energy Surfaces for Teaching Fundamental Concepts in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliakin, Danil S.; Zaari, Ryan R.; Varganov, Sergey A.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching fundamental physical chemistry concepts such as the potential energy surface, transition state, and reaction path is a challenging task. The traditionally used oversimplified 2D representation of potential and free energy surfaces makes this task even more difficult and often confuses students. We show how this 2D representation can be…

  6. Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: An Illustration of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Marguerite A.; May, Nicole; Assaf-Anid, Nada M.; Castaldi, Marco J.

    2006-01-01

    The ever-increasing global demand for energy has sparked renewed interest within the engineering community in the study of sustainable alternative energy sources. This paper discusses a power generation system which uses biomass as "fuel" to illustrate the concepts taught to students taking a graduate level chemical engineering process…

  7. Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: An Illustration of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Marguerite A.; May, Nicole; Assaf-Anid, Nada M.; Castaldi, Marco J.

    2006-01-01

    The ever-increasing global demand for energy has sparked renewed interest within the engineering community in the study of sustainable alternative energy sources. This paper discusses a power generation system which uses biomass as "fuel" to illustrate the concepts taught to students taking a graduate level chemical engineering process…

  8. Concept of Accumulation System Configuration Enabling the Usage of Low-Potential Wind Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudelas, D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction concept will allow gaining the maximum value of aerodynamic effectiveness in a wide range of service conditions. In this way conceived wind aggregate will enable capturing the low-potential wind energy and its transformation and accumulation into electric energy usable as peak energy by the means of energetic converters with capacitance accumulation. Part of the solution is also a configuration concept of objective wind energetic unit with non-electric accumulation with trend to the possibility of a wide usage in the energetic network structures.

  9. Multiperspective Analysis of Microscale Trigeneration Systems and Their Role in the Crowd Energy Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parantapa Sawant; Naim Meftah; Jens Pfafferott

    2015-01-01

    Abstract-The energy system of the future will transform from the current centralised fossil based to a decentralised, clean, highly efficient, and intelligent network. This transformation will require innovative technologies and ideas like trigeneration and the crowd energy concept to pave the way ahead. Even though trigeneration systems are extremely energy efficient and can play a vital role in the energy system, turning around their deployment is hindered by various barriers. These barriers are theoretically analysed in a multiperspective approach and the role decentralised trigeneration systems can play in the crowd energy concept is highlighted. It is derived from an initial literature research that a multiperspective (technological, energy-economic, and user) analysis is necessary for realising the potential of trigeneration systems in a decentralised grid. And to experimentally quantify these issues we are setting up a microscale trigeneration lab at our institute and the motivation for this lab is also briefly introduced.

  10. CONCEPTION OF CULTURE IN THE RENÉ GIRARD’S THEORY – THINGS AND VALUES IN THE HIDDEN CONTEXT (CHOSES CACHÉES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Mroz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a modest contribution to the reconstruction and systematization of a rich and seminal conception of René Girard. The letter belongs to a group of the most influential philosophers of culture of the XX and XXI century whose theories attempt at explaining the origins of this uniflue and diverse phenomen: culture Girard produces a coherent although a controversial theory of basic, fundament motives of human behavior (e.g. jalousie and strike for excellence and emulation which set in motion a series of symbolic reactions leading to the emergence of organized society and finally social behavior. Those reactions were mainly responsible for the cultural development and progress.

  11. Entanglement without hidden nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Flavien; Túlio Quintino, Marco; Bowles, Joseph; Vértesi, Tamás; Brunner, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    We consider Bell tests in which the distant observers can perform local filtering before testing a Bell inequality. Notably, in this setup, certain entangled states admitting a local hidden variable model in the standard Bell scenario can nevertheless violate a Bell inequality after filtering, displaying so-called hidden nonlocality. Here we ask whether all entangled states can violate a Bell inequality after well-chosen local filtering. We answer this question in the negative by showing that there exist entangled states without hidden nonlocality. Specifically, we prove that some two-qubit Werner states still admit a local hidden variable model after any possible local filtering on a single copy of the state.

  12. Energy, Entropy and Exergy Concepts and Their Roles in Thermal Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Cengel, Yunus A.; Ibrahim Dincer

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Energy, entropy and exergy concepts come from thermodynamics and are applicable to all fields of science and engineering. Therefore, this article intends to provide background for better understanding of these concepts and their differences among various classes of life support systems with a diverse coverage. It also covers the basic principles, general definitions and practical applications and implications. Some illustrative examples are presented to highlight the importance of t...

  13. Thermal Energy Storage in Molten Salts: Overview of Novel Concepts and the DLR Test Facility (TESIS)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    At present, two-tank molten salt storage systems are the established commercially available concept for solar thermal power plants. Due to their very low vapour pressure and comparatively high thermal stability, molten salts are preferred as the heat transfer fluid and storage medium. Therefore, the development of alternative, more cost-effective concepts is an important step in making thermal energy storage more competitive for industrial processes and solar thermal applications. The pape...

  14. Energy, Entropy and Exergy Concepts and Their Roles in Thermal Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Cengel, Yunus A.; Ibrahim Dincer

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Energy, entropy and exergy concepts come from thermodynamics and are applicable to all fields of science and engineering. Therefore, this article intends to provide background for better understanding of these concepts and their differences among various classes of life support systems with a diverse coverage. It also covers the basic principles, general definitions and practical applications and implications. Some illustrative examples are presented to highlight the importance of t...

  15. A vertical pathway for teaching and learning the concept of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORIANA COLONNESE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A vertically integrated, research-based approach to teaching the concept of energy in primary, middle and upper secondary schools was designed. In primary school, the energy concept is developed from the idea of a state property of bodies, occurring in four types, which transform from one to another during interactions. In middle school, transformations are analyzed in terms of variations in quantities associated with each energy type in simple experiments. In upper secondary school, the conservation of energy is addressed through the conversion of the different types into internal energy to identify their formal definitions. The learning process is monitored by means of students’ responses to tutorials and pre/post-tests, and interviews.

  16. Renewable energy for sustainable urban development. Redefining the concept of energisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissing, Christian [Environmental and Process Systems Engineering Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Von Blottnitz, Harro [Environmental and Process Systems Engineering Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2010-05-15

    It is widely recognised that access to and supply of modern energy play a key role in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. The emerging concept of energisation seems to capture this idea; however, there is no unified definition at the point of writing. In this paper, the aim is to propose a new and comprehensive definition of the concept of energisation. The chronological development of this concept is investigated by means of a literature review, and a subsequent critique is offered of current definitions and usage of the concept. Building upon these first insights, two planned cases of energisation in post-apartheid South Africa are contrasted to an unplanned one: they are the national electrification programme, the integrated energy centres initiative, and a wood fuelled local economy in Khayelitsha, Cape Town's biggest township. Especially the latter case, based on original data collection by the authors, provides a new understanding of specific elements affecting energisation. Finally, a new and detailed definition of the concept of sustainable energisation is developed by systematically reiterating three key elements: the target group, the concept of energy services, and sustainable development. (author)

  17. Renewable energy for sustainable urban development: Redefining the concept of energisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissing, Christian [Environmental and Process Systems Engineering Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Blottnitz, Harro von, E-mail: Harro.vonBlottnitz@uct.ac.z [Environmental and Process Systems Engineering Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2010-05-15

    It is widely recognised that access to and supply of modern energy play a key role in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. The emerging concept of energisation seems to capture this idea; however, there is no unified definition at the point of writing. In this paper, the aim is to propose a new and comprehensive definition of the concept of energisation. The chronological development of this concept is investigated by means of a literature review, and a subsequent critique is offered of current definitions and usage of the concept. Building upon these first insights, two planned cases of energisation in post-apartheid South Africa are contrasted to an unplanned one: they are the national electrification programme, the integrated energy centres initiative, and a wood fuelled local economy in Khayelitsha, Cape Town's biggest township. Especially the latter case, based on original data collection by the authors, provides a new understanding of specific elements affecting energisation. Finally, a new and detailed definition of the concept of sustainable energisation is developed by systematically reiterating three key elements: the target group, the concept of energy services, and sustainable development.

  18. A Los Alamos concept for accelerator transmutation of waste and energy production (ATW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This document contains the diagrams presented at the ATW (Accelerator Transmutation of Waste and Energy Production) External Review, December 10-12, 1990, held at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Included are the charge to the committee and the presentations for the committee`s review. Topics of the presentations included an overview of the concept, LINAC technology, near-term application -- high-level defense wastes (intense thermal neutron source, chemistry and materials), advanced application of the ATW concept -- fission energy without a high-level waste stream (overview, advanced technology, and advanced chemistry), and a summary of the research issues.

  19. Energy, Entropy and Exergy Concepts and Their Roles in Thermal Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus A. Cengel

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Energy, entropy and exergy concepts come from thermodynamics and are applicable to all fields of science and engineering. Therefore, this article intends to provide background for better understanding of these concepts and their differences among various classes of life support systems with a diverse coverage. It also covers the basic principles, general definitions and practical applications and implications. Some illustrative examples are presented to highlight the importance of the aspects of energy, entropy and exergy and their roles in thermal engineering.

  20. Nuclear energy an introduction to the concepts, systems, and applications of nuclear processes

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Raymond L; Murphy, Arthur T; Rosenthal, Daniel I

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear Energy: An Introduction to the Concepts, Systems, and Applications of Nuclear Processes introduces the reader to the concepts, systems, and applications of nuclear processes. It provides a factual description of basic nuclear phenomena, as well as devices and processes that involve nuclear reactions. The problems and opportunities that are inherent in a nuclear age are also highlighted.Comprised of 27 chapters, this book begins with an overview of fundamental facts and principles, with emphasis on energy and states of matter, atoms and nuclei, and nuclear reactions. Radioactivi

  1. Fitting Hidden Markov Models to Psychological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Visser

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Markov models have been used extensively in psychology of learning. Applications of hidden Markov models are rare however. This is partially due to the fact that comprehensive statistics for model selection and model assessment are lacking in the psychological literature. We present model selection and model assessment statistics that are particularly useful in applying hidden Markov models in psychology. These statistics are presented and evaluated by simulation studies for a toy example. We compare AIC, BIC and related criteria and introduce a prediction error measure for assessing goodness-of-fit. In a simulation study, two methods of fitting equality constraints are compared. In two illustrative examples with experimental data we apply selection criteria, fit models with constraints and assess goodness-of-fit. First, data from a concept identification task is analyzed. Hidden Markov models provide a flexible approach to analyzing such data when compared to other modeling methods. Second, a novel application of hidden Markov models in implicit learning is presented. Hidden Markov models are used in this context to quantify knowledge that subjects express in an implicit learning task. This method of analyzing implicit learning data provides a comprehensive approach for addressing important theoretical issues in the field.

  2. Factors Affecting Teaching the Concept of Renewable Energy In Technology Assisted Environments and Designing Processes In The Distance Education Model

    OpenAIRE

    YUCEL, A. Seda

    2007-01-01

    The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out w...

  3. Factors Affecting Teaching the Concept of Renewable Energy In Technology Assisted Environments and Designing Processes In The Distance Education Model

    OpenAIRE

    YUCEL, A. Seda

    2015-01-01

    The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out w...

  4. German energy concept versus 2012 network development plan; Deutsches Energiekonzept versus Netzentwicklungsplan 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrichs, Heide; Pesch, Thiemo; Hake, Juergen-Friedrich [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung (IEK-STE); Martinsen Dag

    2013-06-15

    The energy concept of the German federal government and the 2012 network development plan of the German Federal Network Agency both describe the future of the German energy supply system and in particular that of the electricity supply. A closer look reveals significant differences in the future projections of these scenarios. A comparison using the IKARUS energy supply system model shows that the differences are not negligible when it comes to assessing the German energy supply system as a whole. This concerns in particular future power plant capacities, CO{sub 2} emissions and the conversion costs incurred each year.

  5. Main Street Zero Energy Buildings: The Zero Energy Method in Concept and Practice: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, P.; Pless, S.; Lobato, C.; Hootman, T.

    2010-07-01

    Ongoing work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicates that net-zero energy building (NZEB) status is both achievable and repeatable today. This paper presents a definition framework for classifying NZEBs and a real-life example that demonstrates how a large-scale office building can cost-effectively achieve net-zero energy.

  6. Using Metaphor Theory to Examine Conceptions of Energy in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancor, Rachael

    2014-06-01

    Energy is one of the most important unifying themes in science. Yet the way energy is conceptualized varies depending on context. In this paper, the discourse used to explain the role of energy in systems from biology, chemistry, and physics is examined from the perspective of metaphor theory. Six substance metaphors for energy are identified in pedagogical discourse (i.e., textbooks and the science education literature): energy as a substance that can be accounted for, can flow, can be carried, can change forms, can be lost, and can be an ingredient, a product or stored in some way. Each of these conceptual metaphors highlight and obscure various characteristics of energy, and provide a set of frameworks that each afford a different understanding of the energy concept.

  7. Energy distribution design on the photovoltaic cell array of the SSPS-OMEGA concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yiqun; Fan, Guanheng; Wang, Dongxu; Li, Xun

    2017-05-01

    Solar energy collection and conversion is of great significance to the power transmission of the Space Solar Power Station (SSPS), and has influences on the overall system, technologically and economically. For the proposed SSPS-OMEGA concept, the original conceptual design had non-uniform energy distribution and excessive energy density in local areas, which would cause decreases in its optical and electric performance. Aiming at this point, firstly, this paper evaluates the optical performance of the OMEGA concept via ray trace technique. Secondly, the generatrix geometry design of the photovoltaic (PV) cell array based on Bézier curve is carried out to obtain optimal optical performance available for efficient response to sunrays. After that numerical examples achieve good collection efficiency and suitable energy distribution. Finally, modular construction for the main concentrator and its influence on optical performance are investigated. Moreover, the effect of the orbital motion and tracking error are analyzed to provide reference for the realization of the OMEGA.

  8. Cost and size estimates for an electrochemical bulk energy storage concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshay, M.; Wright, L. O.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary capital cost and size estimates were made for an electrochemical bulk energy storage concept for a redox-flow-cell system. Preliminary calculations showed that the redox-flow-cell system has great promise as a bulk energy storage system for power load leveling. The size of the system was estimated to be less than 2 percent of the size of a comparable pumped hydroelectric storage plant.

  9. Hidden Fermi liquid; the moral: a good effective low-energy theory is worth all of Monte Carlo with Las Vegas thrown in

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Philip W; Casey, Philip A, E-mail: pwa@princeton.ed [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2010-04-28

    We present a formalism for dealing directly with the effects of the Gutzwiller projection implicit in the t-J model which is widely believed to underlie the phenomenology of the high-T{sub c} cuprates. We suggest that a true Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer condensation from a Fermi liquid state takes place, but in the unphysical space prior to projection. At low doping, however, instead of a hidden Fermi liquid one gets a 'hidden' non-superconducting resonating valence bond state which develops hole pockets upon doping. The theory which results upon projection does not follow conventional rules of diagram theory and in fact in the normal state is a Z = 0 non-Fermi liquid. Anomalous properties of the 'strange metal' normal state are predicted and compared against experimental findings.

  10. Hidden circuits and argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Risto; Kesonen, Mikko H. P.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the relevance of DC circuits in everyday life and schools, they have been shown to cause numerous learning difficulties at various school levels. In the course of this article, we present a flexible method for teaching DC circuits at lower secondary level. The method is labelled as hidden circuits, and the essential idea underlying hidden circuits is in hiding the actual wiring of DC circuits, but to make their behaviour evident for pupils. Pupils are expected to find out the wiring of the circuit which should enhance their learning of DC circuits. We present two possible ways to utilise hidden circuits in a classroom. First, they can be used to test and enhance pupils’ conceptual understanding when pupils are expected to find out which one of the offered circuit diagram options corresponds to the actual circuit shown. This method aims to get pupils to evaluate the circuits holistically rather than locally, and as a part of that aim this method highlights any learning difficulties of pupils. Second, hidden circuits can be used to enhance pupils’ argumentation skills with the aid of argumentation sheet that illustrates the main elements of an argument. Based on the findings from our co-operating teachers and our own experiences, hidden circuits offer a flexible and motivating way to supplement teaching of DC circuits.

  11. Prestressed-concrete pressure vessels and their applicability to advanced-energy-system concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J

    1983-01-01

    Prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) are, in essence, spaced steel structures since their strength is derived from a multitude of steel elements made up of deformed reinforcing bars and prestressing tendons which are present in sufficient quantities to carry tension loads imposed on the vessel. Other major components of a PCPV include the concrete, liner and cooling system, and insulation. PCPVs exhibit a number of advantages which make them ideally suited for application to advanced energy concepts: fabricability in virtually any size and shape using available technology, improved safety, reduced capital costs, and a history of proven performance. PCPVs have many applications to both nuclear- and non-nuclear-based energy systems concepts. Several of these concepts will be discussed as well as the research and development activities conducted at ORNL in support of PCPV development.

  12. Institutional options for rural energy access: Exploring the concept of the multifunctional platform in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    organisational set-ups and local fuel production have in fact had limited or even adverse effects on the outcome of the multifunctional platform programme, these virtues have proved essential in presenting the concept at the policy level. This analysis of the dilemma between mobilizing funding and implementing...... practical programmes provides an argument for building development aid on existing structures instead of inventing new complicated concepts and approaches.......The concept of the multifunctional platform for rural energy access has increasingly been supported by donors in five West African countries since 1994. While it is often referred to as a highly successful concept, recent reviews and interviews with local stakeholders in Mali and Burkina Faso...

  13. Comparison of Low-temperature District Heating Concepts in a Long-Term Energy System Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Yang, Xiaochen

    2017-01-01

    renewable energy systems. This study compares three alternative concepts for DH temperature level: Low temperature (55/25 °C), Ultra-low temperature with electric boosting (45/25 °C), and Ultra-low temperature with heat pump boosting (35/20 °C) taking into account the grid losses, production efficiencies...

  14. Integrating Water, Waste, Energy, Transport and ICT Aspects into the Smart City Concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strzelecka, Anna; Ulanicki, Bogumil; Koop, Stef; Koetsier, Laurence; Van Leeuwen, Kees; Elelman, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the partial results of the EU BlueSCities project [1]. The project is developing the methodology for the integration of the water and waste sectors within the 'Smart Cities and Communities' concept to compliment other priority areas such as energy, transport and Information and

  15. One goal, two paths. Energy efficient housing concepts; Ein Ziel, zwei Wege. Energieeffiziente Hauskonzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    Buildings with a nearly intact energy balance are the goal of future oriented building owners and climate politicians. However, there are different ways to this goal. The contribution under consideration presents the two competing concepts: the passive house as well as the solar house.

  16. Energy, the subtle concept the discovery of Feynman's blocks from Leibniz to Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Coopersmith, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This title explains the idea of energy by tracing the story of its discovery, from Galileo through to Einstein. It explains the physics using the minimum of mathematics, presenting both a gripping historical narrative and a fascinating introduction to an elusive physical concept.

  17. Minimizing the Free Energy: A Computer Method for Teaching Chemical Equilibrium Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Emerson F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a computer method for teaching chemical equilibrium concepts using material balance conditions and the minimization of the free energy. Method for the calculation of chemical equilibrium, the computer program used to solve equilibrium problems and applications of the method are also included. (HM)

  18. Main Street Net-Zero Energy Buildings: The Zero Energy Method in Concept and Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, P.; Pless, S.; Lobato, C.; Hootman, T.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, large-scale, cost-effective net-zero energy buildings (NZEBs) were thought to lie decades in the future. However, ongoing work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) indicates that NZEB status is both achievable and repeatable today. This paper presents a definition framework for classifying NZEBs and a real-life example that demonstrates how a large-scale office building can cost-effectively achieve net-zero energy. The vision of NZEBs is compelling. In theory, these highly energy-efficient buildings will produce, during a typical year, enough renewable energy to offset the energy they consume from the grid. The NREL NZEB definition framework classifies NZEBs according to the criteria being used to judge net-zero status and the way renewable energy is supplied to achieve that status. We use the new U.S. Department of Energy/NREL 220,000-ft{sub 2} Research Support Facilities (RSF) building to illustrate why a clear picture of NZEB definitions is important and how the framework provides a methodology for creating a cost-effective NZEB. The RSF, scheduled to open in June 2010, includes contractual commitments to deliver a Leadership in Energy Efficiency and Design (LEED) Platinum Rating, an energy use intensity of 25 kBtu/ft{sub 2} (half that of a typical LEED Platinum office building), and net-zero energy status. We will discuss the analysis method and cost tradeoffs that were performed throughout the design and build phases to meet these commitments and maintain construction costs at $259/ft{sub 2}. We will discuss ways to achieve large-scale, replicable NZEB performance. Many passive and renewable energy strategies are utilized, including full daylighting, high-performance lighting, natural ventilation through operable windows, thermal mass, transpired solar collectors, radiant heating and cooling, and workstation configurations allow for maximum daylighting.

  19. How Hidden Can Be Even More Hidden?

    CERN Document Server

    Fraczek, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents Deep Hiding Techniques (DHTs) that define general techniques that can be applied to every network steganography method to improve its undetectability and make steganogram extraction harder to perform. We define five groups of techniques that can make steganogram less susceptible to detection and extraction. For each of the presented group, examples of the usage are provided based on existing network steganography methods. To authors' best knowledge presented approach is the first attempt in the state of the art to systematically describe general solutions that can make steganographic communication more hidden and steganogram extraction harder to perform.

  20. A novel fast-neutron detector concept for energy-selective imaging and imaging spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortesi, M.; Prasser, H.-M. [Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI 5234 (Switzerland); Mechanical Engineering Department, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich 8092 (Switzerland); Dangendorf, V. [Ion and Neutron Radiation Department, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig 38116 (Germany); Zboray, R. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich 8092 (Switzerland)

    2014-07-15

    We present and discuss the operational principle of a new fast-neutron detector concept suitable for either energy-selective imaging or for imaging spectroscopy. The detector is comprised of a series of energy-selective stacks of converter foils immersed in a noble-gas based mixture, coupled to a position-sensitive charge readout. Each foil in the various stacks is made of two layers of different thicknesses, fastened together: a hydrogen-rich (plastic) layer for neutron-to-proton conversion, and a hydrogen-free coating to selectively stop/absorb the recoil protons below a certain energy cut-off. The neutron-induced recoil protons, that escape the converter foils, release ionization electrons in the gas gaps between consecutive foils. The electrons are then drifted towards and localized by a position-sensitive charge amplification and readout stage. Comparison of the images detected by stacks with different energy cut-offs allows energy-selective imaging. Neutron energy spectrometry is realized by analyzing the responses of a sufficient large number of stacks of different energy response and unfolding techniques. In this paper, we present the results of computer simulation studies and discuss the expected performance of the new detector concept. Potential applications in various fields are also briefly discussed, in particularly, the application of energy-selective fast-neutron imaging for nuclear safeguards application, with the aim of determining the plutonium content in Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuels.

  1. Concept of large scale PV-WT-PSH energy sources coupled with the national power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurasz Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent/non-dispatchable energy sources are characterized by a significant variation of their energy yield over time. In majority of cases their role in energy systems is marginalized. However, even in Poland which is strongly dedicated to its hard and brown coal fired power plants, the wind generation in terms of installed capacity starts to play a significant role. This paper briefly introduces a concept of wind (WT and solar (PV powered pumped storage hydroelectricity (PSH which seems to be a viable option for solving the problem of the variable nature of PV and WT generation. Additionally we summarize the results of our so far conducted research on the integration of variable renewable energy sources (VRES to the energy systems and present conclusions which strictly refer to the prospects of large scale PV-WT-PSH operating as a part of the polish energy system.

  2. Search for Hidden Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    The SHiP Experiment is a new general-purpose fixed target facility at the SPS to search for hidden particles as predicted by a very large number of recently elaborated models of Hidden Sectors which are capable of accommodating dark matter, neutrino oscillations, and the origin of the full baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Specifically, the experiment is aimed at searching for very weakly interacting long lived particles including Heavy Neutral Leptons - right-handed partners of the active neutrinos; light supersymmetric particles - sgoldstinos, etc.; scalar, axion and vector portals to the hidden sector. The high intensity of the SPS and in particular the large production of charm mesons with the 400 GeV beam allow accessing a wide variety of light long-lived exotic particles of such models and of SUSY. Moreover, the facility is ideally suited to study the interactions of tau neutrinos.

  3. Comparative numerical and experimental study of two combined wind and wave energy concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With a successful and rapid development of offshore wind industry and increased research activities on wave energy conversion in recent years, there is an interest in investigating the technological and economic feasibility of combining offshore wind turbines (WTs with wave energy converters (WECs. In the EU FP7 MARINA Platform project, three floating combined concepts, namely the spar torus combination (STC, the semi-submersible flap combination (SFC and the oscillating water column (OWC array with a wind turbine, were selected and studied in detail by numerical and experimental methods. This paper summarizes the numerical modeling and analysis of the two concepts: STC and SFC, the model tests at a 1:50 scale under simultaneous wave and wind excitation, as well as the comparison between the numerical and experimental results. Both operational and survival wind and wave conditions were considered. The numerical analysis was based on a time-domain global model using potential flow theory for hydrodynamics and blade element momentum theory (for SFC or simplified thrust force model (for STC for aerodynamics. Different techniques for model testing of combined wind and wave concepts were discussed with focus on modeling of wind turbines by disk or redesigned small-scale rotor and modeling of power take-off (PTO system for wave energy conversion by pneumatic damper or hydraulic rotary damper. In order to reduce the uncertainty due to scaling, the numerical analysis was performed at model scale and both the numerical and experimental results were then up-scaled to full scale for comparison. The comparison shows that the current numerical model can well predict the responses (motions, PTO forces, power production of the combined concepts for most of the cases. However, the linear hydrodynamic model is not adequate for the STC concept in extreme wave conditions with the torus fixed to the spar at the mean water level for which the wave slamming on the

  4. Nuclear energy an introduction to the concepts, systems, and applications of nuclear processes

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Raymond L

    1993-01-01

    This expanded, revised, and updated fourth edition of Nuclear Energy maintains the tradition of providing clear and comprehensive coverage of all aspects of the subject, with emphasis on the explanation of trends and developments. As in earlier editions, the book is divided into three parts that achieve a natural flow of ideas: Basic Concepts, including the fundamentals of energy, particle interactions, fission, and fusion; Nuclear Systems, including accelerators, isotope separators, detectors, and nuclear reactors; and Nuclear Energy and Man, covering the many applications of radionuclides, r

  5. Waste-to-energy advanced cycles and new design concepts for efficient power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Branchini, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of state-of-the-art technologies for energy conversion from waste, as well as a much-needed guide to new and advanced strategies to increase Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plant efficiency. Beginning with an overview of municipal solid waste production and disposal, basic concepts related to Waste-To-Energy conversion processes are described, highlighting the most relevant aspects impacting the thermodynamic efficiency of WTE power plants. The pervasive influences of main steam cycle parameters and plant configurations on WTE efficiency are detailed and quantified. Advanc

  6. Integral energy concepts for office and residential buildings; Integrale Energiekonzepte fuer Buero- und Wohngebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velten, W.

    1998-06-01

    It has been confirmed by practical project experience that integral energy concepts are an excellent basis for the construction of energy-efficient buildings. In the extreme case buildings can even be self-sufficient in their energy supply. Uniting the responsibility for the overall energy and technology concept in the hands of a single contractor can help reduce frictional losses between those involved in the planning as well costs. A good example of this is the use of a simulation calculation for the prescribed demonstration of proper heat insulation. The presented projects show that it is possible to construct ecologically answerable buildings at attractively low costs. The presented concepts appear particularly convincing from the viewpoint of long-term maintenance of value and user-specific advantages such as agreeable working conditions. [Deutsch] Die konkreten Projekterfahrungen bestaetigen, dass durch integrale Energiekonzepte sowohl im Verwaltungs- als auch im Wohnungsbau hervorragende Voraussetzungen fuer energiesparende Gebaeude geschaffen werden koennen. Im Extremfall kann sogar eine autarke Energieversorgung erreicht werden. Durch Zusammenfassung der Gesamtverantwortung fuer das Energie- und Technikkonzept in einer Hand koennen Reibungsverluste zwischen den Planungsbeteiligten reduziert und Kosten gesenkt werden. Ein Beispiel hierfuer ist die Verbindung des vorgeschriebenen Waermeschutznachweises mit einer fuer alle Beteiligten wesentlich aussagekraeftigeren Simulationsrechnung. Die vorgestellten Projekte zeigen, dass oekologisch sinnvolle Gebaeude auch zu oekonomisch attraktiven Kosten erstellt werden koennen, wobei insbesondere der Aspekt des langfristigen Werterhalts und die nutzerspezifischen Vorteile, z.B. durch angenehmere Arbeitsbedingungen, fuer die vorgestellten Konzepte spricht. (orig.)

  7. Solar Hidden Photon Search

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Matthias; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas; Wiedemann, Guenter

    2011-01-01

    The Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS) is a joint astroparticle project of the Hamburger Sternwarte and DESY. The main target is to detect the solar emission of a new species of particles, so called Hidden Photons (HPs). Due to kinetic mixing, photons and HPs can convert into each other as they propagate. A small number of solar HPs - originating from photon to HP oscillations in the interior of the Sun - can be converted into photons in a long vacuum pipe pointing to the Sun - the SHIPS helioscope.

  8. Solar Hidden Photon Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Sternwarte; Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS) is a joint astroparticle project of the Hamburger Sternwarte and DESY. The main target is to detect the solar emission of a new species of particles, so called Hidden Photons (HPs). Due to kinetic mixing, photons and HPs can convert into each other as they propagate. A small number of solar HPs - originating from photon to HP oscillations in the interior of the Sun - can be converted into photons in a long vacuum pipe pointing to the Sun - the SHIPS helioscope. (orig.)

  9. A new concept of a high-energy space-based cosmic ray telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Sgrò, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic ray science has proved to be a very active field, with several important results from recent space-based instruments. Next generation experiments will explore the multi-TeV energy range, trying to cope with the mass and power budget constraints of artificial satellites that limits the collecting area thus reducing the available statistics at the highest energy. With the aim to improve the compromise between area and mass, we propose a new concept for a cosmic-ray telescope in which the detector elements are organized in bars along the 3 axis. In this way we can also maintain a good event shower sampling (for direction and energy reconstruction) and a relatively small number of channels (required power) as the detector size increases. A possible implementation of the concept is also evaluated with a Geant4 simulation.

  10. D-mu-A new concept in industrial low-energy electron dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helt-Hansen, Jakob; Miller, Arne; Sharpe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation with low-energy electrons (100–300 keV) results in dose gradients across the thickness of the dosimeters that are typically used for dose measurement at these energies. This leads to different doses being measured with different thickness dosimeters irradiated at the same electron beam...... it is therefore possible to calibrate and measure doses from low-energy electron irradiations with measurement traceability to national standards......., resulting in difficulties in providing traceable dose measurements using reference dosimeters. In order to overcome these problems a new concept is introduced of correcting all measured doses to the average dose in the first micrometer—Dμ. We have applied this concept to dose measurements with dosimeters...

  11. Using Student-Generated Analogies to Investigate Conceptions of Energy: A multidisciplinary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman Lancor, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The concept of energy is widely employed in introductory science courses. However, the term energy is defined and utilized in different ways depending on the context, even within a given discipline. Through the lens of metaphor theory, these various definitions of energy are seen as metaphors that highlight and obscure characteristics of energy. Working under this framework, undergraduate students in introductory biology, chemistry, and physics courses were asked to write analogies that reflect their understanding of the role of energy in the context of ecosystems (n = 49), chemical reactions (n = 36), mechanical systems (n = 65), and electrical circuits (n = 44). These analogies were analyzed qualitatively using metaphor theory to gain understanding of how students conceptualize energy in these different contexts. The results of this study indicate that students use seven different conceptual metaphors to explain the role of energy in various scientific contexts: energy as a substance that can be accounted for, energy as a substance that can flow, can change forms, can be carried, can be lost, can be an ingredient or a product, and energy as a process or interaction. This result gives teachers a framework to use in evaluating student ideas about energy.

  12. Preliminary survey and evaluation of nonaquifer thermal energy storage concepts for seasonal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal energy storage enables the capture and retention of heat energy (or cold) during one time period for use during another. Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involves a period of months between the input and recovery of energy. The purpose of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and evaluation of potential nonaquifer STES systems. Current literature was surveyed to determine the state of the art of thermal energy storage (TES) systems such as hot water pond storage, hot rock storage, cool ice storage, and other more sophisticated concepts which might have potential for future STES programs. The main energy sources for TES principally waste heat, and the main uses of the stored thermal energy, i.e., heating, cooling, and steam generation are described. This report reviews the development of sensible, latent, and thermochemical TES technologies, presents a preliminary evaluation of the TES methods most applicable to seasonal storage uses, outlines preliminary conclusions drawn from the review of current TES literature, and recommends further research based on these conclusions. A bibliography of the nonaquifer STES literature review, and examples of 53 different TES concepts drawn from the literature are provided. (LCL)

  13. Evaluation of the home-energy-rating concept and the Massachusetts Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankel, M.L.; Duberg, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    This is a report on the results of an evaluation of a home-energy-rating concept based on a Massachusetts pilot project. The focus of the evaluation was on: (1) the compatibility of the Massachusetts rating with the RCS program, (2) who would use the rating and how, (3) qualitative estimates of benefits and costs, and (4) recommendations for further use and testing of the rating. In addition the evaluation of the rating concept also attempted to determine what if any effect the home energy rating has on the demand for energy audits, on the propensity of customers who received ratings to undertake recommended energy-efficiency home improvements, and on changes in mortgage-lending procedures for energy-efficient homes. The evaluation consisted of telephone and in-person discussions with the project developers, the various professional user groups, the recipients of the energy ratings, and control groups of audit customers that did not receive the energy rating. The evaluation was designed to determine the results of the pilot project, assess the project's effectiveness, and analyze the potential for transferring the rating procedure to other geographic locations.

  14. Teaching Energy Concepts by Working on Themes of Cultural and Environmental Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Ugo; De Ambrosis, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Energy is a central topic in physics and a key concept for understanding the physical, biological and technological worlds. It is a complex topic with multiple connections with different areas of science and with social, environmental and philosophical issues. In this paper we discuss some aspects of the teaching and learning of the energy concept, and report results of research on this issue. To immerse science teaching into the context of scientific culture and of the students' cultural world, we propose to select specific driving issues that promote motivation for the construction of science concepts and models. We describe the design and evaluation of a teaching learning path developed around the issue of greenhouse effect and global warming. The experimentation with high school students has shown that the approach based on driving issues promotes students' engagement toward a deeper understanding of the topic and favours further insight. The evolution of students' answers indicates a progressively more correct and appropriate use of the concepts of heat, radiation, temperature, internal energy, a distinction between thermal equilibrium and stationary non equilibrium conditions, and a better understanding of greenhouse effect. Based on the results of the experimentation and in collaboration with the teachers involved, new materials for the students have been prepared and a new cycle of implementation, evaluation and refinement has been activated with a larger group of teachers and students. This type of systematic and long term collaboration with teachers can help to fill the gap between the science education research and the actual school practice.

  15. Development and differentiation of force and energy concepts for animate and inanimate objects in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megalakaki, Olga; Thibaut, Jean Pierre

    2016-08-01

    We looked at how far students aged 10-17 years differentiate between the force and energy concepts for animates and inanimates. Within a structured interview format, participants described situations in which inanimate objects and animate agents interacted. Results showed that the younger students made no distinction between the two concepts for the inanimate objects. They regarded force and energy as the objects' intrinsic properties, related to their height and weight, and tended to attribute both concepts to animates rather than to inanimates. With age, force came to be seen in terms of interactions, while energy continued to be considered in relation to the physical dimensions that affected it (i.e., height or weight). Even so, force continued to impinge on energy, the reverse being less frequent. Conceptions remained unchanged for the animate agents, insofar as younger and older students alike expressed undifferentiated force/energy conceptions, relating both force and energy to the agents' effort or the results of their action.

  16. Comparison of Low-temperature District Heating Concepts in a Long-Term Energy System Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Yang, Xiaochen

    2017-01-01

    District heating systems are important components in an energy efficient heat supply. With increasing amounts of renewable energy, the foundation for district heating is changing and the approach to its planning will have to change. Reduced temperatures of district heating are proposed...... as a solution to adapt it to future renewable energy systems. This study compares three alternative concepts for district heating temperature level: Low temperature (55/25 oC), Ultra-low temperature with electric boosting (45/25 oC), and Ultra-low temperature with heat pump boosting (35/20 oC) taking...... into account the grid losses, production efficiencies and building requirements. The scenarios are modelled and analysed in the analysis tool EnergyPLAN and compared on primary energy supply and socioeconomic costs. The results show that the low temperature solution (55/25 oC) has the lowest costs, reducing...

  17. Concepts, tools/methods, and practices of water-energy-food NEXUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, A.; Tsurita, I.; Orencio, P. M.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The needs to consider the NEXUS on food and water were emphasized in international dialogues and publications around the end of the 20th century. In fact, in 1983, the United Nations University already launched a Food-Energy Nexus Programme to fill the gaps between the issues of food and energy. The term "NEXUS" to link water, food, and trade was also used in the World Bank during 1990s. The idea of NEXUS is likely to have further developed under the discussion of "virtual water" and "water footprints". With experiencing several international discussions such as Kyoto World Water Forum 2003, scholars and practitioners around the globe acknowledged the need to include energy for the pillars of NEXUS. Finally, the importance of three NEXUS pillars, "water, energy, and food" was officially announced in the BONN 2011 NEXUS Conference, which is a turning point of NEXUS idea in the international community , in order to contribute to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in 2012 that highlighted the concept of "green economy". The concept of NEXUS is becoming a requisite to achieve sustainable development due to the global concerns embedded in society, economy, and environment. The concept stresses to promote the cooperation with the sectors such as water, energy, food, and climate change since these complex global issues are dependent and inter-connected, which can no longer be solved by the sectorial approaches. The NEXUS practices are currently shared among different stakeholders through various modes including literatures, conferences, workshops, and research projects. However, since the NEXUS practices are not led by a particular organization, its concept, theory, policy, tools, methods, and applications are diverse and incoherent. In terms of tools/methods, the potential of integrated modeling approach is introduced to avoid pressures and to promote interactions among water, energy and food. This paper explores the concepts, tools

  18. Online Learning in Discrete Hidden Markov Models

    OpenAIRE

    Alamino, Roberto C.; Caticha, Nestor

    2007-01-01

    We present and analyse three online algorithms for learning in discrete Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and compare them with the Baldi-Chauvin Algorithm. Using the Kullback-Leibler divergence as a measure of generalisation error we draw learning curves in simplified situations. The performance for learning drifting concepts of one of the presented algorithms is analysed and compared with the Baldi-Chauvin algorithm in the same situations. A brief discussion about learning and symmetry breaking b...

  19. A new methodology for building energy benchmarking: An approach based on clustering concept and statistical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuefeng

    Though many building energy benchmarking programs have been developed during the past decades, they hold certain limitations. The major concern is that they may cause misleading benchmarking due to not fully considering the impacts of the multiple features of buildings on energy performance. The existing methods classify buildings according to only one of many features of buildings -- the use type, which may result in a comparison between two buildings that are tremendously different in other features and not properly comparable as a result. This research aims to tackle this challenge by proposing a new methodology based on the clustering concept and statistical analysis. The clustering concept, which reflects on machine learning algorithms, classifies buildings based on a multi-dimensional domain of building features, rather than the single dimension of use type. Buildings with the greatest similarity of features that influence energy performance are classified into the same cluster, and benchmarked according to the centroid reference of the cluster. Statistical analysis is applied to find the most influential features impacting building energy performance, as well as provide prediction models for the new design energy consumption. The proposed methodology as applicable to both existing building benchmarking and new design benchmarking was discussed in this dissertation. The former contains four steps: feature selection, clustering algorithm adaptation, results validation, and interpretation. The latter consists of three parts: data observation, inverse modeling, and forward modeling. The experimentation and validation were carried out for both perspectives. It was shown that the proposed methodology could account for the total building energy performance and was able to provide a more comprehensive approach to benchmarking. In addition, the multi-dimensional clustering concept enables energy benchmarking among different types of buildings, and inspires a new

  20. Sustainability of utility-scale solar energy – critical ecological concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-O'Leary, Kara A.; Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Johnston, Dave S.; Abella, Scott R.; Tanner, Karen E.; Swanson, Amanda C.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy development is an arena where ecological, political, and socioeconomic values collide. Advances in renewable energy will incur steep environmental costs to landscapes in which facilities are constructed and operated. Scientists – including those from academia, industry, and government agencies – have only recently begun to quantify trade-offs in this arena, often using ground-mounted, utility-scale solar energy facilities (USSE, ≥1 megawatt) as a model. Here, we discuss five critical ecological concepts applicable to the development of more sustainable USSE with benefits over fossil-fuel-generated energy: (1) more sustainable USSE development requires careful evaluation of trade-offs between land, energy, and ecology; (2) species responses to habitat modification by USSE vary; (3) cumulative and large-scale ecological impacts are complex and challenging to mitigate; (4) USSE development affects different types of ecosystems and requires customized design and management strategies; and (5) long-term ecological consequences associated with USSE sites must be carefully considered. These critical concepts provide a framework for reducing adverse environmental impacts, informing policy to establish and address conservation priorities, and improving energy production sustainability.

  1. A New Energy-Based Structural Design Optimization Concept under Seismic Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Papazafeiropoulos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new optimization concept is introduced which involves the optimization of non-linear planar shear buildings by using gradients based on equivalent linear structures, instead of the traditional practice of calculating the gradients from the non-linear objective function. The optimization problem is formulated as an equivalent linear system of equations in which a target fundamental eigenfrequency and equal dissipated energy distribution within the storeys of the building are the components of the objective function. The concept is applied in a modified Newton–Raphson algorithm in order to find the optimum stiffness distribution of two representative linear or non-linear MDOF shear buildings, so that the distribution of viscously damped and hysteretically dissipated energy, respectively, over the structural height is uniform. A number of optimization results are presented in which the effect of the earthquake excitation, the critical modal damping ratio, and the normalized yield inter-storey drift limit on the optimum stiffness distributions is studied. Structural design based on the proposed approach is more rational and technically feasible compared to other optimization strategies (e.g., uniform ductility concept, whereas it is expected to provide increased protection against global collapse and loss of life during strong earthquake events. Finally, it is proven that the new optimization concept not only reduces running times by as much as 91% compared to the classical optimization algorithms but also can be applied in other optimization algorithms which use gradient information to proceed to the optimum point.

  2. The greenhouse gas and energy balance of different treatment concepts for bio-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Maria E; Müller, Wolfgang; Bockreis, Anke

    2013-10-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) and energy performance of bio-waste treatment plants been investigated for three characteristic bio-waste treatment concepts: composting; biological drying for the production of biomass fuel fractions; and anaerobic digestion. Compared with other studies about the environmental impacts of bio-waste management, this study focused on the direct comparison of the latest process concepts and state-of-the-art emission control measures. To enable a comparison, the mass balance and products were modelled for all process concepts assuming the same bio-waste amounts and properties. In addition, the value of compost as a soil improver was included in the evaluation, using straw as a reference system. This aspect has rarely been accounted for in other studies. The study is based on data from operational facilities combined with literature data. The results show that all three concepts contribute to a reduction of GHG emissions and show a positive balance for cumulated energy demand. However, in contrast to other studies, the advantage of anaerobic digestion compared with composting is smaller as a result of accounting for the soil improving properties of compost. Still, anaerobic digestion is the environmentally superior solution. The results are intended to inform decision makers about the relevant aspects of bio-waste treatment regarding the environmental impacts of different bio-waste management strategies.

  3. Photoelectric effect experiment for understanding the concept of quantization of radiation energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeimy Gerardine Berrios Saavedra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study forms part of research on the teaching of physics. The question that directed it was: How a proposed classroom, based on the photoelectric effect experiment helps pres-service teachers of physics of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional to expand their understanding of the concept of quantization energy of radiation? The construction of the theoretical framework developed on the one hand, with scientific ideas about the quantization of energy, and moreover, with the educational proposals of teaching for understanding. This pedagogical approach was guided by the investigative gaze of the study methodology based on design, taking as main element the use of learning tools such as the task to Predict, Experiment and Explain (PEE. It was found that these tasks fomented the initial understandings of students about the concept, while they enriched and transformed progressively their models and scientific ideas, promoting aspects of scientific work in developing curiosity, imagination and motivation.

  4. Hidden topological constellations and polyvalent charges in chiral nematic droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posnjak, Gregor; Čopar, Simon; Muševič, Igor

    2017-02-01

    Topology has an increasingly important role in the physics of condensed matter, quantum systems, material science, photonics and biology, with spectacular realizations of topological concepts in liquid crystals. Here we report on long-lived hidden topological states in thermally quenched, chiral nematic droplets, formed from string-like, triangular and polyhedral constellations of monovalent and polyvalent singular point defects. These topological defects are regularly packed into a spherical liquid volume and stabilized by the elastic energy barrier due to the helical structure and confinement of the liquid crystal in the micro-sphere. We observe, for the first time, topological three-dimensional point defects of the quantized hedgehog charge q=-2, -3. These higher-charge defects act as ideal polyvalent artificial atoms, binding the defects into polyhedral constellations representing topological molecules.

  5. Hidden topological constellations and polyvalent charges in chiral nematic droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posnjak, Gregor; Čopar, Simon; Muševič, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Topology has an increasingly important role in the physics of condensed matter, quantum systems, material science, photonics and biology, with spectacular realizations of topological concepts in liquid crystals. Here we report on long-lived hidden topological states in thermally quenched, chiral nematic droplets, formed from string-like, triangular and polyhedral constellations of monovalent and polyvalent singular point defects. These topological defects are regularly packed into a spherical liquid volume and stabilized by the elastic energy barrier due to the helical structure and confinement of the liquid crystal in the micro-sphere. We observe, for the first time, topological three-dimensional point defects of the quantized hedgehog charge q=−2, −3. These higher-charge defects act as ideal polyvalent artificial atoms, binding the defects into polyhedral constellations representing topological molecules. PMID:28220770

  6. A new concept to reveal protein dynamics based on energy dissipation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Ma

    Full Text Available Protein dynamics is essential for its function, especially for intramolecular signal transduction. In this work we propose a new concept, energy dissipation model, to systematically reveal protein dynamics upon effector binding and energy perturbation. The concept is applied to better understand the intramolecular signal transduction during allostery of enzymes. The E. coli allosteric enzyme, aspartokinase III, is used as a model system and special molecular dynamics simulations are designed and carried out. Computational results indicate that the number of residues affected by external energy perturbation (i.e. caused by a ligand binding during the energy dissipation process shows a sigmoid pattern. Using the two-state Boltzmann equation, we define two parameters, the half response time and the dissipation rate constant, which can be used to well characterize the energy dissipation process. For the allostery of aspartokinase III, the residue response time indicates that besides the ACT2 signal transduction pathway, there is another pathway between the regulatory site and the catalytic site, which is suggested to be the β15-αK loop of ACT1. We further introduce the term "protein dynamical modules" based on the residue response time. Different from the protein structural modules which merely provide information about the structural stability of proteins, protein dynamical modules could reveal protein characteristics from the perspective of dynamics. Finally, the energy dissipation model is applied to investigate E. coli aspartokinase III mutations to better understand the desensitization of product feedback inhibition via allostery. In conclusion, the new concept proposed in this paper gives a novel holistic view of protein dynamics, a key question in biology with high impacts for both biotechnology and biomedicine.

  7. Secluded Dark Matter Coupled to a Hidden CFT

    CERN Document Server

    von Harling, Benedict

    2012-01-01

    Models of secluded dark matter offer a variant on the standard WIMP picture and can modify our expectations for hidden sector phenomenology and detection. In this work we extend a minimal model of secluded dark matter, comprised of a U(1)'-charged dark matter candidate, to include a confining hidden-sector CFT. This provides a technically natural explanation for the hierarchically small mediator-scale, with hidden-sector confinement generating m_{gamma'}>0. Furthermore, the thermal history of the universe can differ markedly from the WIMP picture due to (i) new annihilation channels, (ii) a (potentially) large number of hidden-sector degrees of freedom, and (iii) a hidden-sector phase transition at temperatures T << M_{dm} after freeze out. The mediator allows both the dark matter and the Standard Model to communicate with the CFT, thus modifying the low-energy phenomenology and cosmic-ray signals from the secluded sector.

  8. Abelian Hidden Sectors at a GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, David E.; Poland, David; /Harvard U.; Zurek, Kathryn; /Fermilab /Michigan U.

    2009-04-16

    We discuss mechanisms for naturally generating GeV-scale hidden sectors in the context of weak-scale supersymmetry. Such low mass scales can arise when hidden sectors are more weakly coupled to supersymmetry breaking than the visible sector, as happens when supersymmetry breaking is communicated to the visible sector by gauge interactions under which the hidden sector is uncharged, or if the hidden sector is sequestered from gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking. We study these mechanisms in detail in the context of gauge and gaugino mediation, and present specific models of Abelian GeV-scale hidden sectors. In particular, we discuss kinetic mixing of a U(1){sub x} gauge force with hypercharge, singlets or bi-fundamentals which couple to both sectors, and additional loop effects. Finally, we investigate the possible relevance of such sectors for dark matter phenomenology, as well as for low- and high-energy collider searches.

  9. Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Xinping [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)], E-mail: zhxpmark@hotmail.com; Yang Jiakuan; Wang Jinbo; Xiao Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries.

  10. Novel concept for producing energy integrating a solar collector with a man made mountain hollow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xinping [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Yang, Jiakuan; Wang, Jinbo; Xiao, Bo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The concept of the solar chimney thermal power technology was proven with the successful operation of the Manzanares prototype built in the 1980s. However, all previous attempts at producing energy from a commercial solar chimney thermal power plant on a large scale have failed because of bad engineering and safety. A novel concept for producing energy by integrating a solar collector with a mountain hollow is presented and described. Solar energy is collected in the collector and heats the ground, which is used to store heat energy and heat the indoor air. Then, the hot air is forced by the pressure difference between it and the ambient air to move along the tilted segment and up the vertical segment of the 'chimney', driving the turbine generators to generate electricity. The mountain hollow, formed by excavation in a large-elevation mountain, can avoid the safety issues of erecting a gigantic concrete chimney, which is needed for commercial solar chimney thermal power plants. Furthermore, it can also save a great amount of construction materials for constructing a robust chimney structure and reduce the energy cost to a level less than that of a clean coal power plant, providing a good solution to the reclamation and utilization of undeveloped mountains, especially in mountainous countries. (author)

  11. Modular Hybrid Energy Concept Employing a Novel Control Structure Based on a Simple Analog System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETREUS, D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel control topology which enables the setup of a low cost analog system leading to the implementation of a modular energy conversion system. The modular concept is based on hybrid renewable energy (solar and wind and uses high voltage inverters already available on the market. An important feature of the proposed topology is a permanently active current loop, which assures short circuit protection and simplifies the control loops compensation. The innovative analogue solution of the control structure is based on a dedicated integrated circuit (IC for power factor correction (PFC circuits, used in a new configuration, to assure an efficient inverter start-up. The energy conversion system (control structure and maximum power point tracking algorithm is simulated using a new macromodel-based concept, which reduces the usual computational burden of the simulator and achieves high processing speed. The proposed novel system is presented in this article from concept, through the design and implementation stages, is verified through simulation and is validated by experimental results.

  12. Inquiries about awareness and knowledge of children and pupils on the concept related with atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atobe, Kozo; Kobayashi, T.; Matukawa, Tokuo; Honda, Makoto; Awata, Takaaki; Fukuoka, Noboru [Naruto University of Education, Naruto, Tokushima (Japan); Okada, Moritami [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Nakagawa, Masuo [Faculty of Education, Kagawa University, Takamatsu, Kagawa (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    There is almost no chance to learn about the words (atomic energy), (radioactivity) and (radiation) in the middle and/or high school educations in Japan, because physics is one of the options in the high school curriculum, and 80-90% of students do not like to choose physics. This inquires aim to know the level of their knowledge on energy resources, atomic energy, radioactivity, radiation, and information sources on their related knowledge. Inquiries are made for the middle and high school students in Tokushima and Tsuruga. There are coal power plants in Tokushima, while atomic power plants in Tsuruga. Fossils energy gets the highest points in Tokushima, while Atomic energy gets the highest points in Tsuruga for a present-day energy source. Solar energy sources get the highest point as a promising 21st century energy source in both prefectures, especially for female students. Radioactivity reminds them of words atomic bomb, disease, injury, and harmful, those give very negative images. Radiation reminds them of words roentgen, radiation therapy, x-ray, and hospital use, those designate a sort of plus-image. More than 50 to 60% of them obtained their knowledge from mass media, particularly, television. In addition, less than a few % of them can give any scientific description about these words. As a whole, authors can say that the students have got a certain concept for these words from information of mass media. Meanwhile the school education has approximately no effect on the formation of their concept. Authors are giving some advises and recommendations for the school education and mass media in Japan. (Y. Tanaka)

  13. Hidden neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Riis, Søren Kamaric

    1999-01-01

    A general framework for hybrids of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and neural networks (NNs) called hidden neural networks (HNNs) is described. The article begins by reviewing standard HMMs and estimation by conditional maximum likelihood, which is used by the HNN. In the HNN, the usual HMM probability...... parameters are replaced by the outputs of state-specific neural networks. As opposed to many other hybrids, the HNN is normalized globally and therefore has a valid probabilistic interpretation. All parameters in the HNN are estimated simultaneously according to the discriminative conditional maximum...... likelihood criterion. The HNN can be viewed as an undirected probabilistic independence network (a graphical model), where the neural networks provide a compact representation of the clique functions. An evaluation of the HNN on the task of recognizing broad phoneme classes in the TIMIT database shows clear...

  14. Coupling of Hidden Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Królikowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    A hypothetic Hidden Sector of the Universe, consisting of sterile fermions ("sterinos") and sterile mediating bosons ("sterons") of mass dimension 1 (not 2!) - the last described by an antisymmetric tensor field - requires to exist also a scalar isovector and scalar isoscalar in order to be able to construct electroweak invariant coupling (before spontaneously breaking its symmetry). The introduced scalar isoscalar might be a resonant source for the diphoton excess of 750 GeV, suggested recently by experiment.

  15. Vibronic interaction in crystals with the Jahn-Teller centers in the elementary energy bands concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Bercha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The order-disorder type phase transition caused by the vibronic interaction (collective Jahn-Teller effect in a monoclinic CuInP2S6 crystal is analyzed. For this purpose, a trigonal protostructure model of CuInP2S6 is created, through a slight change in the crystal lattice parameters of the CuInP2S6 paraelectric phase. In parallel to the group-theoretical analysis, the DFT-based ab initio band structure calculations of the CuInP2S6 protostructure, para-, and ferriphases are performed. Using the elementary energy bands concept, a part of the band structure from the vicinity of the forbidden energy gap, which is created by the d-electron states of copper has been related with a certain Wyckoff position where the Jahn-Teller's centers are localized. A construction procedure of the vibronic potential energy matrix is generalized for the case of crystal using the elementary energy bands concept and the group theoretical method of invariants. The procedure is illustrated by the creation of the adiabatic potentials of the Γ5-Γ5 vibronic coupling for the protostructure and paraphase of the CuInP2S6 crystal. A structure of the obtained adiabatic potentials is analyzed, followed by conclusions on their transformation under a phase transition and the discussion on the possibility for the spontaneous polarization to arise in this crystal.

  16. Hidden scale invariance of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummel, Felix; Kresse, Georg; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2015-01-01

    available. Hidden scale invariance is demonstrated in detail for magnesium by showing invariance of structure and dynamics. Computed melting curves of period three metals follow curves with invariance (isomorphs). The experimental structure factor of magnesium is predicted by assuming scale invariant...... of metals making the condensed part of the thermodynamic phase diagram effectively one dimensional with respect to structure and dynamics. DFT computed density scaling exponents, related to the Grüneisen parameter, are in good agreement with experimental values for the 16 elements where reliable data were......Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 58 liquid elements at their triple point show that most metals exhibit near proportionality between the thermal fluctuations of the virial and the potential energy in the isochoric ensemble. This demonstrates a general “hidden” scale invariance...

  17. Full-service concept for energy efficient renovation of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    existing single-family houses in the Nordic countries are to have competitive power compared to new buildings on the future housing market. Good technical solutions exist but need to be combined based on the full range of (standard) solutions in order to reach the low primary energy level of new...... houses. A one-stop-shop in the form of a full-service concept could be seen as a possibility to make it easy for the homeowner to comply with possible future requirements to realize far-reaching energy savings in connection with extensive renovations, provided that the building sector offers...... the solutions. Such one-stop-shops in the form of full-service providers of energy efficient renovation of single-family house are missing in the Nordic countries, although this service is vital to open up the market. As part of the Nordic research project `SuccesFamilies´ with the purpose to change...

  18. Tools and concepts to integrate German offshore wind potential into electrical energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrig, K.; Hoppe-Kilpper, M. [Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kassel (Germany); Sassnick, Y. [Vattenfall Europe Transmission GmbH (Germany); Fischer, F.; Hartge, S. [ENERCON GmbH, Aurich (Germany); Winter, W.; Hofmann, L. [E.ON-Netz GmbH, Lehrte (Germany); Heier, S.; Valov, B. [Kassel Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany); Biermann, K. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes the technical status and presents new concepts, models and approaches for the technical assistance of large scale wind power integration into the electrical energy supply system in Germany. It shows the technical and economic problems with the integration of high penetration of wind power plant in the network and the total electrical system. After an analysis of the effects of increased wind power generation on system planning and grid operation, we discuss innovative operational control concepts for large (offshore) wind farms. These concepts will provide a multitude of new possibilities to enable simple, flexible and undisturbed reaction to the demands of participants (wind farm operators, grid operators). These operational control strategies are mainly based on ISETs successful employed wind power prediction tools, operated by E.ON Netz (ENE), Vattenfall Europe Transmission (VE-T), RWE Transportnetz Strom (RWE) and will enable energy and power control, as well as the provision of reactive power, in order to achieve comparable properties to conventional power plant types. (orig.)

  19. The Concept of EV’s Intelligent Integrated Station and Its Energy Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Xie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of electric vehicles (EVs connected to existing distribution networks as time-variant loads cause significant distortions in line current and voltage. A novel EV’s intelligent integrated station (IIS making full use of retired batteries is introduced in this paper to offer a potential solution for accommodating the charging demand of EVs. It proposes the concept of generalized energy in IIS, based on the energy/power flow between IIS and EVs, and between IIS and the power grid, to systematically evaluate the energy capacity of IIS. In order to derive a unique and satisfactory operation mode, information from both the grid (in terms of load level and IIS (in terms of its energy capacity and EVs battery charging/exchanging requests is merged. Then, based on the generalized energy of different systems, a novel charging/discharging control strategy is presented and whereby the operating status of the grid and energy capacity of IIS are monitored to make reasonable operation plans for IIS. Simulation results suggest that the proposed IIS offers peak load shifting when EV battery charging/exchanging requests are satisfied compared to existing charging stations.

  20. New Concept for Assessment of Tidal Current Energy in Jiangsu Coast, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sheng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tidal current energy has attracted more and more attentions of coastal engineers in recent years, mainly due to its advantages of low environmental impact, long-term predictability, and large energy potential. In this study, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model is applied to predict the distribution of mean density of tidal current energy and to determine a suitable site for energy exploitation in Jiangsu Coast. The simulation results including water elevation and tidal current (speed and direction were validated with measured data, showing a reasonable agreement. Then, the model was used to evaluate the distribution of mean density of tidal current energy during springtide and neap tide in Jiangsu Coast. Considering the discontinuous performance of tidal current turbine, a new concept for assessing tidal current energy is introduced with three parameters: total operating time, dispersion of operating time, and mean operating time of tidal current turbine. The operating efficiency of tidal current turbine at three locations around radial submarine sand ridges was taken as examples for comparison, determining suitable sites for development of tidal current farm.

  1. Hidden systematics of fission channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Karl-Heinz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a common procedure to describe the fission-fragment mass distributions of fissioning systems in the actinide region by a sum of at least 5 Gaussian curves, one for the symmetric component and a few additional ones, together with their complementary parts, for the asymmetric components. These components have been attributed to the influence of fragment shells, e.g. in the statistical scission-point model of Wilkins, Steinberg and Chasman. They have also been associated with valleys in the potential-energy landscape between the outer saddle and the scission configuration in the multi-channel fission model of Brosa. When the relative yields, the widths and the mean mass-asymmetry values of these components are fitted to experimental data, the mass distributions can be very well reproduced. Moreover, these fission channels are characterised by specific values of charge polarisation, total kinetic energy and prompt-neutron yields. The present contribution investigates the systematic variation of the characteristic fission-channel properties as a function of the composition and the excitation energy of the fissioning system. The mean position of the asymmetric fission channels in the heavy fragment is almost constant in atomic number. The deformation of the nascent fragments at scission, which is the main source of excitation energy of the separated fission fragments ending up in prompt-neutron emission, is found to be a unique function of Z for the light and the heavy fragment of the asymmetric fission channels. A variation of the initial excitation energy of the fissioning system above the fission saddle is only seen in the neutron yield of the heavy fragment. The charge polarisation in the two most important asymmetric fission channels is found to be constant and to appreciably exceed the macroscopic value. The variation of the relative yields and of the positions of the fission channels as a function of the composition and excitation energy

  2. Solar High-energy Astrophysical Plasmas Explorer (SHAPE). Volume 1: Proposed concept, statement of work and cost plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Martin, Franklin D.; Prince, T.; Lin, R.; Bruner, M.; Culhane, L.; Ramaty, R.; Doschek, G.; Emslie, G.; Lingenfelter, R.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of the Solar High-Energy Astrophysical Plasmas Explorer (SHAPE) is studied. The primary goal is to understand the impulsive release of energy, efficient acceleration of particles to high energies, and rapid transport of energy. Solar flare studies are the centerpieces of the investigation because in flares these high energy processes can be studied in unmatched detail at most wavelenth regions of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as in energetic charged particles and neutrons.

  3. Concept for a user interface in the energy branch. For systems using renewable energy sources; Konzept fuer eine Rechenumgebung im Energiebereich. Fuer Systeme zur Nutzung regenerierbarer Energiequellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afjei, T. [INFEL, Zurich (Switzerland); Baumgartner, T. [Ing. Buero fuer Haustechnik, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hopkirk, R.J. [POLYDYNAMICS LTD., Zurich (Switzerland); Kapp, C. [NEK Umwelttechnik, Zurich (Switzerland); Rognon, F. [Bundesamt fuer Energiewirtschaft, Bern (Switzerland)

    1994-09-15

    The report introduces the concept of a computing environment for software in the energy field, limited to systems which use regenerative energies. The target public consists of engineers, planners and energy consultants. A computing environment and a user surface which permit the modular integration of existing and new computing programmes are defined. figs., tabs., refs.

  4. Constructing qualitative energy concepts in a formal educational context with 6 – 7 year old students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMITRIS KOLIOPOULOS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper is a preliminary empirical study of primary school children’s ability to construct a qualitative explanatory model for the ‘energy’ concept. The research results are particularly encouraging since it seems that 6-7 year old children are able, following a relevant teaching intervention, to utilize a linear causal reasoning and construct a preliminary energy model. Through the use of this model, the children are able to describe natural phenomena, such as the lighting of a lamp or the movement of a small motor using a battery or a photovoltaic cell.

  5. Applying the energy-property concept under the Windfall Profit Tax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    In selecting a ''Windfall Profit'' tax (WPT) over simpler but less discriminating excise tax approaches, Congress effectively assured significant compliance problems that will likely outlast the statute. While there is merit in the argument that elimination of the DOE system was worth the sacrifice of significant additional tax complexity, Congress acted both to terminate the system and to preserve its tangled legal underpinnings. The author identifies the principal interpretive issues caused by the incorporation into the WPT of the energy ''property'' concept as it was developed by DOE. A post script gives an update on court decisions and regulatory proposals. 157 references.

  6. Concept study for the next generation medium-energy gamma-ray astronomy mission: MEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbach, Gottfried; Andritschke, Robert; Bloser, Peter F.; Schopper, Florian; Schoenfelder, Volker; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2003-03-01

    A new telescope for Medium Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy, MEGA, is being developed for the energy band 0.4 - 50 MeV as a successor to COMPTEL on CGRO. MEGA aims to improve the sensitivity for astronomical sources by at least an order of magnitude with respect to past instruments and will fill a severe sensitivity gap between already scheduled hard-X-ray and high-energy gamma-ray missions. MEGA records and images gamma rays by completely tracking Compton and pair creation events in a stack of double sided Si-strip track detectors surrounded by a pixelated CsI calorimeter. MEGA will have an effective area of ~100 square cm, a large field of view of ~130 degrees, angular resolution of ~2 degrees, and energy resolution of ~8% (all FWHM at ~2 MeV). Key science objectives for MEGA are the investigation of cosmic high-energy accelerators, nucleosynthesis sites with gamma-ray lines, and the mapping of large-scale structures in the Galaxy and beyond. If operated on a zenith pointing satellite MEGA will be an ideal continuous all-sky monitor for transient sources. This paper describes the development of a small scale prototype and the concept of a space mission for MEGA.

  7. The Hidden Gifts of Quiet Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trierweiler, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    The author relates that she was an introvert child. It has always taken her time and energy to find her place in a group. As a grown-up, she still needed quiet time to regroup during a busy day. In this article, the author presents an interview with Marti Olsen Laney, author of "The Hidden Gifts of the Introverted Child." During the interview,…

  8. National Roadmaps for promotion of very low-energy house concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buvik, Karin

    2012-07-01

    This report is meant to contribute to the preparation of National Energy Efficiency Action Plans (NEEAPs), which are tools supporting the implementation of energy efficiency improvement policies. The NEEAPs are considered one of the cornerstones of the Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive. Previous publications from the NorthPass project report from studies of existing concepts and building standards in the participating countries, and analyses of main challenges in aiming to increase the market share of very low-energy houses. In this report a short overview of the current situation is given, and measures are proposed to support the implementation of the nearly Zero-Energy Building level, as described in the recast of the Energy Performance of Building Directive. Necessary steps towards a successful implementation will vary within the participating countries; involving technological, financial and policy implications in various degrees. The eight North European countries, participating in the NorthPass project, have similarities and differences. The four Nordic countries have several similarities regarding market penetration of very low-energy houses, as well as activities implemented by the authorities. Poland and the Baltic States have similarities in terms of market situation which is different from the Nordic countries. In the Nordic countries, the path towards the EU 2020 targets has, to a large extent, been chosen, focusing on step by step tightening of building codes, financial incentives and training of actors in the building sector. A discussion is going on about how to affect changes in customers' preferences, which would lead to a growing demand for very low-energy residential buildings. The situation in Poland and the Baltic countries is more problematic, as only few very low energy houses have been built so far. However, a growing interest in energy savings seems to arise, as the energy consumption is considerably high and the

  9. SECOND1. Security concept for DER (Distributed Energy Resources). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Secure communication is becoming increasingly more relevant in a power system where there is a high impact of distributed energy resources (DER). The purpose of this project has been to analyse and develop a proof of concept implementation for a security concept that can be used in a power system with a high degree of decentralized production and with many actors (BRP, DSO, TSO, utilities, retailers) in an unbundled market. One way to maintain flexibility in the communication system for the power grid is to assign access roles to specific operations and not just to a network or server. Security then becomes a matter of verification, namely that an applicant holds a role with privileges to perform the action applied for. The SECOND1 project has investigated various forms of role based access control (RBAC) as well as the underlying security mechanism identification and verification of the actor identity. The project analysed the needs for communication between energy operators and match these needs with a design for secure role based access control. (LN)

  10. Concept and design of charged particle optics using energy Fourier plane collimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Yang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Charged particle radiography has become a promising new approach in the field of transmission radiography because of the invention of the magnetic imaging lens. The using of the imaging lens makes it possible for thick objects to get significantly improved transmission radiography. Currently, the conventional charged particle radiography only uses the information of the flux attenuation and the angular scattering of the transmitted particles to determine the properties of the sample. However, the energy loss of the incident particles introduced by ionizations throughout the object limits the spatial resolution of the image because of the chromatic blur. In this paper a new concept of imaging lens that uses the information of the energy loss is proposed. With a specially designed imaging lens, the information of the energy loss could result in apparent contrast in the final image. This design procedure of the energy loss imaging lens is presented, and a preliminary design is verified by numerical simulations. Experimental demonstration is also expected on a cyclotron at the Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP.

  11. Transforming MOFs for Energy Applications Using the Guest@MOF Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Andrew M; Brown, Jonathan W; Foster, Michael E; Léonard, François; Leong, Kirsty; Stavila, Vitalie; Allendorf, Mark D

    2016-08-01

    As the world transitions from fossil fuels to clean energy sources in the coming decades, many technological challenges will require chemists and material scientists to develop new materials for applications related to energy conversion, storage, and efficiency. Because of their unprecedented adaptability, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) will factor strongly in this portfolio. By utilizing the broad synthetic toolkit provided by the fields of organic and inorganic chemistry, MOF pores can be customized to suit a particular application. Of particular importance is the ability to tune the strength of the interaction between the MOF pores and guest molecules. By cleverly controlling these MOF-guest interactions, the chemist may impart new function into the Guest@MOF materials otherwise lacking in vacant MOF. Herein, we highlight the concept of the Guest@MOF as it relates to our efforts to develop these materials for energy-related applicatons. Our work in the areas of H2 and noble gas storage, hydrogenolysis of biomass, light-harvesting, and conductive materials will be discussed. Of relevance to light-harvesting applications, we report for the first time a postsynthetic modification strategy for increasing the loading of a light-sensitive electron-donor molecule in the pores of a functionalized MIL-101 structure. Through the demonstrated versatility of these approaches, we show that, by treating guest molecules as integral design elements for new MOF constructs, MOF science can have a significant impact on the advancement of clean energy technologies.

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Physics Students' Conceptions on Energy in Pre-Service Training for High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, Ricardo

    1998-12-01

    How physics students teachers' understanding of energy develops during their pre-service high school teacher university program? How do their physics and Didactics courses influence their energy conceptions? Do university physics students in pre-service training to be high-school teachers finally hold correct scientific views that will eventually allow them to plan and implement instructional strategies that, in turn, will lead their future high school students to achieve a scientific concept of energy? The results of a longitudinal study dealing with this issues will be discussed in this manuscript. The energy conceptions of the Physics students were analyzed by means of a two-part written questionnaire that was presented to the same group on their first day of class for four years running. The most important findings of this study can be summarized as follows. Despite their pre-service training, future physics high school teachers: Hold a number of different alternative conceptual frameworks when describing physical situations, instead or besides the accepted scientific concept. Mostly think that energy is a concrete entity and not an abstract idea. Mostly do not accept the idea of energy degradation. Mostly confuse the concepts of energy and force.

  13. Search for hidden particles with the SHiP experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Caren; Bick, Daniel; Bieschke, Stefan; Ebert, Joachim; Schmidt-Parzefall, Walter [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Many theories beyond the standard model predict long lived neutral (hidden) particles. There might be a whole Hidden Sector (HS) of weakly interacting particles, which cannot be detected in existing high energy experiments. The SHiP experiment (Search for Hidden Particles) requires a high intensity beam dump, which could be realized by a new facility at the CERN SPS accelerator. New superweakly interacting particles with masses below O(10) GeV could be produced in the beam dump and detected in a general purpose Hidden Sector (HS) detector. In addition there will be a dedicated tau neutrino subdetector. I present the major requirements and technical challenges for the HS detector and discuss how the HS can be accessed through several portals: neutrino portal, scalar portal, vector portal and many more.

  14. Laser experiments explore the hidden sector

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlers, M; Jaeckel, J; Redondo, J; Ringwald, A

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the laser experiments BMV and GammeV, searching for light shining through walls, have published data and calculated new limits on the allowed masses and couplings for axion-like particles. In this note we point out that these experiments can serve to constrain a much wider variety of hidden-sector particles such as, e.g., minicharged particles and hidden-sector photons. The new experiments improve the existing bounds from the older BFRT experiment by a factor of two. Moreover, we use the new PVLAS constraints on a possible rotation and ellipticity of light after it has passed through a strong magnetic field to constrain pure minicharged particle models. For masses <~0.05 eV, the charge is now restricted to be less than (3-4)x10^(-7) times the electron electric charge. This is the best laboratory bound and comparable to bounds inferred from the energy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background.

  15. Games That Teach Concepts Around the Nexus of Energy, Water, and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, M. A.; Hall, M.; Balaban, S.

    2013-12-01

    Three manifestations of the extreme amplification of the human population--exploding worldwide demand for energy, increasing exploitation of and competition for water resources, and alteration of the planet's climate--are tightly intertwined. All processes for generating energy require consumption of water, for some processes enormous quantities. It takes water to get energy. The inverse is also true: it takes energy to get water. It takes energy to move water from where it is stored to where it is needed. Burning fossil fuels for energy has increased greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere, resulting in increases in the average temperature of the Earth. But the response of the climate system is exceedingly complex. Changes in atmospheric circulation due to global warming are altering weather patterns and changing the distribution of water on the planet. Climate-related weather events alter availability of water and impact energy supply and demand. This is the nexus of energy, water, and climate. We have created two lively card games that convey the nexus concepts. They have been extensively play-tested with groups from middle school to adult; they have been found to be both educational and fun. A distinguished advisory committee, including representatives of the national labs, has insured the scientific accuracy of the games. In the first game, Thirst For Power, each player is the governor of a region; a GOAL card specifies the amount of General and Transportation energy needed for the region, achieved via ENERGY SOURCE cards. WATER cards are used as currency for obtaining energy sources. Each energy source has an associated 'environmental impact' penalty, meaning greenhouse gas emissions, but also other things like water and air pollution. ACTION cards (TECHNOLOGY, POLICY, AND CLIMATE) act much like 'Chance' cards in Monopoly to change the course of the game. The first player to achieve energy goals without exceeding an environmental impact limit for the region wins

  16. Urban Form Energy Use and Emissions in China: Preliminary Findings and Model Proof of Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

    2010-12-15

    Urbanization is reshaping China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2008 China added more than 300 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 46%. The ongoing population shift is spurring energy demand for new construction, as well as additional residential use with the replacement of rural biomass by urban commercial energy services. This project developed a modeling tool to quantify the full energy consequences of a particular form of urban residential development in order to identify energy- and carbon-efficient modes of neighborhood-level development and help mitigate resource and environmental implications of swelling cities. LBNL developed an integrated modeling tool that combines process-based lifecycle assessment with agent-based building operational energy use, personal transport, and consumption modeling. The lifecycle assessment approach was used to quantify energy and carbon emissions embodied in building materials production, construction, maintenance, and demolition. To provide more comprehensive analysis, LBNL developed an agent-based model as described below. The model was applied to LuJing, a residential development in Jinan, Shandong Province, to provide a case study and model proof of concept. This study produced results data that are unique by virtue of their scale, scope and type. Whereas most existing literature focuses on building-, city-, or national-level analysis, this study covers multi-building neighborhood-scale development. Likewise, while most existing studies focus exclusively on building operational energy use, this study also includes embodied energy related to personal consumption and buildings. Within the boundaries of this analysis, food is the single largest category of the building energy footprint, accounting for 23% of the total. On a policy level, the LCA approach can be useful for quantifying the energy and environmental benefits of longer average building lifespans. In

  17. Healing, Mental Energy in the Physics Classroom: Energy Conceptions and Trust in Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Grade 10-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedholm, Annika M.; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2013-01-01

    Lay conceptions of energy often conflict with scientific knowledge, hinder science learning and scientific literacy, and provide a basis for ungrounded beliefs. In a sample of Finnish upper secondary school students, energy was attributed with features of living and animate beings and thought of as a mental property. These ontologically confused…

  18. Healing, Mental Energy in the Physics Classroom: Energy Conceptions and Trust in Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Grade 10-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedholm, Annika M.; Lindeman, Marjaana

    2013-01-01

    Lay conceptions of energy often conflict with scientific knowledge, hinder science learning and scientific literacy, and provide a basis for ungrounded beliefs. In a sample of Finnish upper secondary school students, energy was attributed with features of living and animate beings and thought of as a mental property. These ontologically confused…

  19. A Low Cost Concept for Data Acquisition Systems Applied to Decentralized Renewable Energy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio T. Brito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems.

  20. A low cost concept for data acquisition systems applied to decentralized renewable energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jucá, Sandro C S; Carvalho, Paulo C M; Brito, Fábio T

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS) and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE) plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems.

  1. Multistability and hidden attractors in a relay system with hysteresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Mosekilde, Erik; Rubanov, Vasily G.

    2015-01-01

    For nonlinear dynamic systems with switching control, the concept of a "hidden attractor" naturally applies to a stable dynamic state that either (1) coexists with the stable switching cycle or (2), if the switching cycle is unstable, has a basin of attraction that does not intersect with the nei...

  2. Beyond the hidden curriculum: The challenging search for authentic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-01

    Nov 1, 2013 ... [6] It was erroneously assumed that medical students ... hidden curriculum, therefore, demands an authentic and comprehensive enquiry into the concept of human dignity, ... reasoning that underpins the desirable values-based healthcare. ... and highly interpersonal form of teaching and learning that takes.

  3. Lessons that Non-Scientists Can Teach Us about the Concept of Energy: A Human-Centred Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Monica

    2003-01-01

    Energy is not only a core concept in physics but also a major issue in our post-Kyoto world. When using a constructivist approach to teaching, we need to be aware of students' preconceptions. A palette of alternative frameworks, which includes those used by adults within the community, can facilitate this. An exploration of energy issues with…

  4. Capillary suspensions as beneficial formulation concept for high energy density Li-ion battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, Boris; Gallasch, Tobias; Schroeder, Melanie; Börner, Markus; Winter, Martin; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a novel formulation concept to prepare high capacity graphite electrodes for lithium ion batteries. The concept is based on the capillary suspension phenomenon: graphite and conductive agent are dispersed in an aqueous binder solution and the organic solvent octanol is added as immiscible, secondary fluid providing the formation of a sample-spanning network resulting in unique stability and coating properties. No additional processing steps compared to conventional slurry preparation are required. The resulting ultra-thick electrodes comprise mass loadings of about 16.5 mg cm-2, uniform layer thickness, and superior edge contours. The adjustment of mechanical energy input ensures uniform distribution of the conductive agent and sufficient electronic conductivity of the final dry composite electrode. The resulting pore structure is due to the stable network provided by the secondary fluid which evaporates residue-free during drying. Constant current-constant potential (CC-CP) cycling clearly indicates that the corresponding microstructure significantly improves the kinetics of reversible Li+ (de-) intercalation. A double layer electrode combining a conventionally prepared layer coated directly onto the Cu current collector with an upper layer stabilized with octanol was prepared applying wet-on-wet coating. CC-CP cycling data confirms that staged porosity within the electrode cross section results in superior electrochemical performance.

  5. On the concept of sloped motion for free-floating wave energy converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Grégory S; Pascal, Rémy; Vaillant, Guillaume

    2015-10-08

    A free-floating wave energy converter (WEC) concept whose power take-off (PTO) system reacts against water inertia is investigated herein. The main focus is the impact of inclining the PTO direction on the system performance. The study is based on a numerical model whose formulation is first derived in detail. Hydrodynamics coefficients are obtained using the linear boundary element method package WAMIT. Verification of the model is provided prior to its use for a PTO parametric study and a multi-objective optimization based on a multi-linear regression method. It is found that inclining the direction of the PTO at around 50° to the vertical is highly beneficial for the WEC performance in that it provides a high capture width ratio over a broad region of the wave period range.

  6. Facing global environmental change. Environmental, human, energy, food, health and water security concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; United Nations Univ., Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS); AFES-Press, Mosbach (Germany); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico (UNAM), Cuernavaca, MOR (MX). Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidiscipinarias (CRIM); United Nations Univ., Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS); Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Amsterdam School for Social Science Research; Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Economics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya). School of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Behera, Navnita Chadha [Jamia Millia Islamia Univ., New Delhi (India). Nelson Mandela Center for Peace and Conflict Resolution; Chourou, Bechir [Tunis-Carthage Univ., Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Krummenacher, Heinz (eds.) [swisspeace, Bern (Switzerland). FAST International

    2009-07-01

    This policy-focused, global and multidisciplinary security handbook on Facing Global Environmental Change addresses new security threats of the 21st century posed by climate change, desertification, water stress, population growth and urbanization. These security dangers and concerns lead to migration, crises and conflicts. They are on the agenda of the UN, OECD, OSCE, NATO and EU. In 100 chapters, 132 authors from 49 countries analyze the global debate on environmental, human and gender, energy, food, livelihood, health and water security concepts and policy problems. In 10 parts they discuss the context and the securitization of global environmental change and of extreme natural and societal outcomes. They suggest a new research programme to move from knowledge to action, from reactive to proactive policies and to explore the opportunities of environ-mental cooperation for a new peace policy. (orig.)

  7. Hidden attractors in dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkowski, Dawid; Jafari, Sajad; Kapitaniak, Tomasz; Kuznetsov, Nikolay V.; Leonov, Gennady A.; Prasad, Awadhesh

    2016-06-01

    Complex dynamical systems, ranging from the climate, ecosystems to financial markets and engineering applications typically have many coexisting attractors. This property of the system is called multistability. The final state, i.e., the attractor on which the multistable system evolves strongly depends on the initial conditions. Additionally, such systems are very sensitive towards noise and system parameters so a sudden shift to a contrasting regime may occur. To understand the dynamics of these systems one has to identify all possible attractors and their basins of attraction. Recently, it has been shown that multistability is connected with the occurrence of unpredictable attractors which have been called hidden attractors. The basins of attraction of the hidden attractors do not touch unstable fixed points (if exists) and are located far away from such points. Numerical localization of the hidden attractors is not straightforward since there are no transient processes leading to them from the neighborhoods of unstable fixed points and one has to use the special analytical-numerical procedures. From the viewpoint of applications, the identification of hidden attractors is the major issue. The knowledge about the emergence and properties of hidden attractors can increase the likelihood that the system will remain on the most desirable attractor and reduce the risk of the sudden jump to undesired behavior. We review the most representative examples of hidden attractors, discuss their theoretical properties and experimental observations. We also describe numerical methods which allow identification of the hidden attractors.

  8. Second Annual Transformative Vertical Flight Concepts Workshop: Enabling New Flight Concepts Through Novel Propulsion and Energy Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Michael R. (Editor); Duffy, Michael; Hirschberg, Michael; Moore, Mark; German, Brian; Goodrich, Ken; Gunnarson, Tom; Petermaier,Korbinian; Stoll, Alex; Fredericks, Bill; Gibson, Andy; Newman, Aron; Ouellette, Richard; Antcliff, Kevin; Sinkula, Michael; Buettner-Garrett, Josh; Ricci, Mike; Keogh, Rory; Moser, Tim; Borer, Nick; Rizzi, Steve; Lighter, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    On August 3rd and 4th, 2015, a workshop was held at the NASA Ames Research Center, located at the Moffett Federal Airfield in California to explore the aviation communities interest in Transformative Vertical Flight (TVF) Concepts. The Workshop was sponsored by the AHS International (AHS), the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and hosted by the NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). This second annual workshop built on the success and enthusiasm generated by the first TVF Workshop held in Washington, DC in August of 2014. The previous Workshop identified the existence of a multi-disciplinary community interested in this topic and established a consensus among the participants that opportunities to establish further collaborations in this area are warranted. The desire to conduct a series of annual workshops augmented by online virtual technical seminars to strengthen the TVF community and continue planning for advocacy and collaboration was a direct outcome of the first Workshop. The second Workshop organizers focused on four desired action-oriented outcomes. The first was to establish and document common stakeholder needs and areas of potential collaborations. This includes advocacy strategies to encourage the future success of unconventional vertiport capable flight concept solutions that are enabled by emerging technologies. The second was to assemble a community that can collaborate on new conceptual design and analysis tools to permit novel configuration paths with far greater multi-disciplinary coupling (i.e., aero-propulsive-control) to be investigated. The third was to establish a community to develop and deploy regulatory guidelines. This community would have the potential to initiate formation of an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F44 Committee Subgroup for the development of consensus-based certification standards for General Aviation scale vertiport

  9. The Use of History and Philosophy of Science as a Core for a Socioconstructivist Teaching Approach of the Concept of Energy in Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaki, Aikaterini; Kokkotas, Panagiotis

    2013-05-01

    The present study should be thought as a socioconstructivist teaching approach (a teaching model) for the concept of energy in primary education. It contains important and crucial aspects of the History and Philosophy of Natural Sciences, introduces the concept of energy using the macroscopic framework of thermodynamics, takes into consideration learners' alternative ideas or frameworks relating to energy, takes advantage of the causal and the unifying characters of energy, which have been founded on the historiographical analysis of this concept, uses energy chains as visual representations for the deep understanding of it, uses visual grammar of Kress and van Leeuwen to design energy chains and introduces a teaching methodology for this concept.

  10. ENTNEA: A concept for enhancing regional atomic energy cooperation for securing nuclear transparency in northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. T. [Korea Institute for Defence Analyses, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    Nuclear energy continues to be a strong and growing component of economic development in Northeast Asia. A broad range of nuclear energy systems already exists across the region and vigorous growth is projected. Associated with these capabilities and plans are various concerns about operational safety, environmental protection, and accumulation of spent fuel and other nuclear materials. We consider cooperative measures that might address these concerns. The confidence building measures suggested here center on the sharing of information to lessen concerns about nuclear activities or to solve technical problems. These activities are encompassed by an Enhanced Nuclear Transparency in Northeast Asia (ENTNEA) concept that would be composed of near-term, information-sharing activities and an eventual regional institution. The near-term activities would address specific concerns and build a tradition of cooperation; examples include radiation measurements for public safety and emergency response, demonstration of safe operations at facilities and in transportation, and material security in the back end of the fuel cycle. Linkages to existing efforts and organizations would be sought to maximize the benefits of cooperation. In the longer term, the new cooperative tradition might evolve into an ENTNEA institution. In institutional form, ENTNEA could combine the near-term activities and new cooperative activities, which might require an institutional basis, for the mutual benefit and security of regional parties. 28 refs., 23 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  11. Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-01-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of

  12. Fourth and eighth grade students' conceptions of energy flow through ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkwright, Ashlie Beals

    This mixed methods status study examined 32 fourth grade students' conceptual understandings of energy flow through ecosystems prior to instruction and 40 eighth grade students' conceptual understandings of the same topic after five years of daily standards-based instruction in science. Specific ecological concepts assessed related to: 1) roles of organisms; 2) the sun as the original energy source for most ecosystems; and 3) interdependency of organisms. Fourth and eighth grade students were assessed using the same three-tiered forced-choice instrument, with accompanying tasks for students to defend their forced-choice selections and rate their level of confidence in making the selections. The instrument was developed for the study by a team of researchers and was based on similar tasks presented in the research literature. Distractor options were embedded in each assessment task using common non-scientific ideas also reported in the research literature. Cronbach's alpha values at or greater than .992 for each task indicated interrater consistency of task answers, and Rasch analysis was employed to establish the reliability of the instrument. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were employed to assess the data. Constant comparative methods were employed to analyze students' written responses, which were coded and grouped into emerging themes. These themes were further developed to characterize students' conceptual understandings. Student open responses also were scored and coded by a team of researchers using a rubric to identify level of scientific understanding. Quantitative analyses included Rasch analysis used to normalize survey data. Independent samples t-tests were then employed to compare students' forced-choice responses to their written responses and to the confidence ratings, as well as to compare fourth and eighth grade students' responses. Findings indicated that eighth grade students generally outperformed the fourth grade on both the forced

  13. Concept of effective atomic number and effective mass density in dual-energy X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnin, Anne, E-mail: annebonnin@free.fr [ESRF, 6 Jules Horowitz, F-38073 Grenoble Cedex (France); LVA, Vibrations and Acoustic Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, Université de Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Duvauchelle, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.duvauchelle@insa-lyon.fr [LVA, Vibrations and Acoustic Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, Université de Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Kaftandjian, Valérie [LVA, Vibrations and Acoustic Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, Université de Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ponard, Pascal [Thales Electron Devices SAS, 2 Rue Marcel Dassault, BP23 78141 Vélizy, Villacoublay Cedex (France)

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on dual-energy X-ray computed tomography and especially the decomposition of the measured attenuation coefficient in a mass density and atomic number basis. In particular, the concept of effective atomic number is discussed. Although the atomic number is well defined for chemical elements, the definition of an effective atomic number for any compound is not an easy task. After reviewing different definitions available in literature, a definition related to the method of measurement and X-ray energy, is suggested. A new concept of effective mass density is then introduced in order to characterize material from dual-energy computed tomography. Finally, this new concept and definition are applied on a simulated case, focusing on explosives identification in luggage.

  14. Innovative Energy Concepts and Pilots for the Zero-energy Built Environment in 2050; Innovatieve energieconcepten en pilots voor de energieneutrale gebiedsontwikkeling in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonska, B.; Ruijg, G.J.; Visser, H.; Opstelten, I.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Epema, T. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands); Willems, E.M.M.; Nuchelmans-Van Wanum, M. [Cauberg-Huygen Consulting Engineers, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Opstelten, I.J. [Stuurgroep Experimenten Volkshuisvesting SEV, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    The Dutch project 'Transition in Energy and Process for a Sustainable District Development' focuses on the transition to sustainable, energy neutral districts in 2050, particularly on energy concepts and decision processes. The main objective of the technical research is to develop four to six innovative energy concepts for 2050 for the four Dutch cities of Almere, Apeldoorn, Nijmegen and Tilburg, as well as the roadmap for realising this target. Firstly, 14 variations of six general energy concepts have been developed and calculations conducted on the energy neutrality in 2020, 2035 and 2050 by means of an Excel model designed for this purpose. Three concepts are based on the idea of an energy hub (smart district heating, cooling and electricity networks, in which generation, storage, conversion and exchange of energy are all incorporated): the geo hub (using waste heat and/or geothermal energy), the bio hub (using waste heat and/or biomass) and the solar hub (using only solar energy). The fourth concept is the so-called all-electric concept, based predominantly on heat pumps, PV and conversion of high temperature heat from vacuum collectors to electricity. The fifth concept uses only conventional technologies that have been applied since the second half of the previous century, and the sixth one uses only hydrogen. Calculations show that by implementing the hub concepts, the energy neutrality in 2050 ranges from 130 % (solar hubs) to 164% (geo hubs), excluding personal transport within the district. With the all-electric concept, an energy neutrality of 157% can be reached. Hydrogen only and Conventional concepts perform worse, but nevertheless reach an energy neutrality of around 115% in 2050. The energy neutrality shows the extent to which a district, in which the given concept is implemented, can supply itself with sustainable energy on a net year balance basis. Based on the six general concepts, the most optimal energy concepts tailored for the

  15. Energy conservation in urban areas in the framework of a sustainable transportation concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahin, M.

    2001-07-01

    study. In addition, two commercial software programs are used: (1) a computer-aided transport planning called 'VISUM' established at the PTV Systems Software and Constructing GmbH Karlsruhe-Germany, and (2) a computer-aided interactive system called 'DYNAMIS' established at the Institute for Transportation, Railways Construction and Operation of Hannover University, Hannover-Germany. Moreover and for the aim of assisting the developing countries to produce energy and emission models, the German-Swiss emissions model 'Handbuch der Emissionsfaktoren des Strassenverkehrs 1999' is studied, explained and examined. Also, a new approach was developed, within the framework of this study, 'Push-down and Push-up' with the aim of sustainable energy consumption in the transport sector. Finally, the application illustrates the technical, environmental, and economical benefits of the sustainable transport concept. (orig.) [German] Unsere Lebensqualitaet haengt in grossem Masse vom Verkehr ab. Verkehr ermoeglicht eine individuelle Freiheit und Unabhaengigkeit fuer den Transport von Personen und Guetern in modern entwickelten Wirtschaftssystemen. Allerdings treten durch den Verkehr auch eine Vielzahl von unerwnschten Nebenwirkungen auf. Der Verkehrssektor ist einer der groessten Energieverbraucher (hauptsaechlich fossiler Brennstoffe). Die entstehenden Emissionen fuehren sowohl zu negativen lokalen Beeintraechtigungen der Gesundheit wie auch zu einer Erhoehung der CO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen weltweit, die eine entscheidende Rolle fuer das Klima der Erde spielen. Zudem ist der Verkehrssektor weiterhin verantwortlich fuer eine Reihe gesellschaftlicher Probleme, wie beispielsweise Flaechenverbrauch und Verkehrssicherheit. Die steigende Motorisierung in einer bestehendem staedtischen Infrastruktur ist heutzutage nicht nachhaltig. Petroleumtreibstoffe, von denen heute noch fast alle Verkehrssysteme abhaengig sind, sind nicht erneuerbar. Zusammenfassend

  16. Energy landscape Allgaeu; Energielandschaft Allgaeu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-01

    In tandems with questions on the energy policy turnaround, the topics cultural landscape history, morphology, actual land use, tourism, settlement development or infrastructure are summarized in regional concepts and designs to a consistent landscape. Thus, a true integration of renewable energies in the landscape enhances existing or creates completely new landscape qualities. Energy supply shall be understood as a component of the every day life world. The energy supply shall not be hidden any more, but it rather should be communicated as the brand 'Allgaeu'.

  17. Hidden Statistics of Schroedinger Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    Work was carried out in determination of the mathematical origin of randomness in quantum mechanics and creating a hidden statistics of Schr dinger equation; i.e., to expose the transitional stochastic process as a "bridge" to the quantum world. The governing equations of hidden statistics would preserve such properties of quantum physics as superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods.

  18. Microgenetic analysis of hidden figures

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Slobodan S.; Gvozdenović Vasilije P.

    2006-01-01

    In this study the phenomenological and processual aspects of the perception of hidden figures were compared. The question was whether the more probable percepts of hidden figures, compared to the less probable percepts, were generated in earlier stages of the perceptual process. In the pilot study the subjects were asked to say what they see in a complex linear pattern. The three most frequent and the three least frequent perceptual descriptions were selected. In the experiment the microgenes...

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHING THE CONCEPT of RENEWABLE ENERGY in TECHNOLOGY ASSISTED ENVIRONMENTS AND DESIGNING PROCESSES in THE DISTANCE EDUCATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seda YUCEL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out what to take into account in creating renewable energy awareness. In this study, certain factors thought to affect the development of renewable energy awareness were investigated. The awareness was created through a technology-assisted renewable energy module and assessed using a renewable energy assessment tool. The effects of the students’ self-directed learning readiness with Guglielmino (1977, inner-individual orientation, and anxiety orientation on the awareness were examined. These three factors were found to have significant effects on renewable energy, which was developed through technology utilization. In addition, based on the finding that delivering the subject of renewable energy in technology assisted environments is more effective, the criteria that should be taken into consideration in transforming this subject into a design model that is more suitable for distance education were identified.

  20. The Hidden Subgroup Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    We give an overview of the Hidden Subgroup Problem (HSP) as of July 2010, including new results discovered since the survey of arXiv:quant-ph/0411037v1. We recall how the problem provides a framework for efficient quantum algorithms and present the standard methods based on coset sampling. We study the Dihedral and Symmetric HSPs and how they relate to hard problems on lattices and graphs. Finally, we conclude with the known solutions and techniques, describe connections with efficient algorithms as well as miscellaneous variants of HSP. We also bring various contributions to the topic. We show that in theory, we can solve HSP over a given group inductively: the base case is solving HSP over its simple factor groups and the inductive step is building efficient oracles over a normal subgroup N and over the factor group G/N. We apply this analysis to the Dedekindian HSP to get an alternative abelian HSP algorithm based on a change of the underlying group. We also propose a quotient reduction by the normal group...

  1. The Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to explain hidden costs of offshoring, i.e. unexpected costs resulting from the relocation of business tasks and activities outside the home country. We develop a model that highlights the role of complexity, design orientation and experience in explaining hidden costs of offshor...... of our study is to suggest how hidden costs of offshoring can be mitigated through an explicit orientation towards improving organizational processes and structures as well as experience with offshoring.......This study seeks to explain hidden costs of offshoring, i.e. unexpected costs resulting from the relocation of business tasks and activities outside the home country. We develop a model that highlights the role of complexity, design orientation and experience in explaining hidden costs...... of offshoring. Specifically, we propose that hidden costs can be explained by the combination of increasing structural, operational and social complexity of offshoring activities. In addition, we suggest that firm orientation towards organizational design as part of an offshoring strategy and offshoring...

  2. Ontology-based Knowledge Extraction from Hidden Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hui; MA Fan-yuan; LIU Xiao-qiang

    2004-01-01

    Hidden Web provides great amount of domain-specific data for constructing knowledge services. Most previous knowledge extraction researches ignore the valuable data hidden in Web database, and related works do not refer how to make extracted information available for knowledge system. This paper describes a novel approach to build a domain-specific knowledge service with the data retrieved from Hidden Web. Ontology serves to model the domain knowledge. Queries forms of different Web sites are translated into machine-understandable format, defined knowledge concepts, so that they can be accessed automatically. Also knowledge data are extracted from Web pages and organized in ontology format knowledge. The experiment proves the algorithm achieves high accuracy and the system facilitates constructing knowledge services greatly.

  3. Analysis on hidden blood loss of total knee arthroplasty in treating knee osteoarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hui-liang; LI Zheng; FENG Ming-li; CAO Guang-le

    2011-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an important therapy for the treatment of various late-stage knee diseases. However, it has been observed that patients have lower hemoglobin (HB) counts postoperatively, which are significantly inconsistent with the measured blood loss. Although the concept of hidden blood loss has been presented in 2000, very little clinical attention has been paid since then. In this study, we investigated the characteristics and influential factor of hidden blood loss after TKA in treating knee osteoarthritis.Methods One hundred and eight patients, with 42 males and 66 females, were retrospectively analyzed. The perioperative blood loss and the hidden blood loss following TKA were calculated by Gross formula. Potential factors affecting perioperative and hidden blood loss included gender, surgical time, tourniquet time, hemostasis (during operation with deflating tourniquet), and reinfusion of salvaged blood.Results The average perioperative blood loss was found to be (1553±356) ml and the average hidden blood loss was (793±223) ml. The hidden blood loss of the male was significantly higher than that of the female, and was reduced by hemostasis during the operation with a deflating tourniquet. Hidden blood loss was not affected by postoperative blood salvage and reinfusion, surgical time, or tourniquet time.Conclusions When calculating the value of hidden blood loss by Gross formula, the lowest value of hematocrit should be chosen as the parameter so that hidden blood loss would not be underestimated. No significant differences could be found in hidden blood loss for males compared to females. Hidden blood loss can be reduced by hemostasis during operation with a deflating tourniquet. Although reinfusion of salvaged blood could not reduce the perioperative blood loss or hidden blood loss, it was still an effective method to reduce transfusion rate.

  4. Shark, new motor design concept for energy saving applied to switched reluctance motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tataru Kjaer, A.M.

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this thesis is to document and promote a relatively new concept of designing electrical machine with improved efficiency, without using more or better material. The concept, called Shark, consists in replacing the cylindrical air gap by a non-linear shape obtained by translating specific geometrical pattern on the longitudinal axis of the electrical machine. This shape modification increases the air gap area and thus the energy conversion, taking place in the machine. Whilst other methods of improving the efficiency consider the use of more and/or better magnetic material and/or optimisation of the magnetic circuit of the radial cross-section of the machine, the proposed method makes use of the longitudinal cross-section of the machine. In spite of a few reports claiming the improvement of the efficiency by applying the optimisation of the longitudinal cross-section, none analysis of various air gap shapes and of their influence on the magnetic performance has been reported. Due to a simple geometry, the Switched Reluctance Machine has been selected for demonstration of the Shark principle. Initially, linear and finite element analyses are considered. They provide the basic knowledge of the manner in which various Shark air gap, having different dimensions, influence the energy conversion in the machine. The saturation mechanisms, specific to each Shark profile are analysed and optimum Shark profile and its dimensions are selected for implementation in a demonstration machine. Due to the lack of quick analysis tools, an analytical model of the Shark Switched Reluctance Machine is also proposed in this thesis. This model is conceived by modifying one of the existing models of cylindrical air gap Switched Reluctance Machines, such as to account for the presence of the Shark profiles in the air gap. The calculations are verified by measurement on two demonstration machines, having cylindrical and Shark air gaps. The measurement proved the theory right and

  5. Concept for energy and climate protection for Asslar, Leun, Solms and Wetzlar. Final Report; Energie- und Klimaschutzkonzept fuer Asslar, Leun, Solms und Wetzlar. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-27

    The contribution under consideration reports on the concept for energy and climate protection for the German towns Asslar, Leun, Solms and Wetzlar. An energy balance sheet was created for the time period between 1990 and 2011. From this, the CO{sub 2} emission were calculated. Based on these data, the author of this contribution describes an extrapolated trend up to the year 2022 under consideration of demographic and economic forecasts as well as known legal regulations. Two scenarios are developed in order to show how the energy conservation as well as power generation from renewable energy sources significantly can be increased compared with trend levels.

  6. Energy Gap in the Aetiology of Body Weight Gain and Obesity: A Challenging Concept with a Complex Evaluation and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Schutz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of energy gap(s is useful for understanding the consequence of a small daily, weekly, or monthly positive energy balance and the inconspicuous shift in weight gain ultimately leading to overweight and obesity. Energy gap is a dynamic concept: an initial positive energy gap incurred via an increase in energy intake (or a decrease in physical activity is not constant, may fade out with time if the initial conditions are maintained, and depends on the ‘efficiency' with which the readjustment of the energy imbalance gap occurs with time. The metabolic response to an energy imbalance gap and the magnitude of the energy gap(s can be estimated by at least two methods, i.e. i assessment by longitudinal overfeeding studies, imposing (by design an initial positive energy imbalance gap; ii retrospective assessment based on epidemiological surveys, whereby the accumulated endogenous energy storage per unit of time is calculated from the change in body weight and body composition. In order to illustrate the difficulty of accurately assessing an energy gap we have used, as an illustrative example, a recent epidemiological study which tracked changes in total energy intake (estimated by gross food availability and body weight over 3 decades in the US, combined with total energy expenditure prediction from body weight using doubly labelled water data. At the population level, the study attempted to assess the cause of the energy gap purported to be entirely due to increased food intake. Based on an estimate of change in energy intake judged to be more reliable (i.e. in the same study population and together with calculations of simple energetic indices, our analysis suggests that conclusions about the fundamental causes of obesity development in a population (excess intake vs. low physical activity or both is clouded by a high level of uncertainty.

  7. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  8. Conception et developpement d'un environnement d'apprentissage sur les transformations d'energies et leurs rendements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutros, Wissam

    The energy sector is at the heart of the concerns technological, political and economic modern society. This area requires a basic understanding of the scientific concept of energy. It is our opinion essential to any citizen training. We initially, from theoretical and practical considerations, examined why this area is so important in our technological society is so little discussed in the Quebec curriculum? Why do we merely a theoretical and discursive concept? Why, contrary to all scientific education, have we not considered learning situations in the laboratory for the study of energy? In a second step, we proposed an idea of practical and realistic solution to address all these questions. A solution that invites students to engage constructively in laboratory activities to appropriate these concepts. To do this, we have developed global variables energies that allowed students to experiment and measure energy transformations easily. This quest for technological development in education is therefore to take advantage of new technological developments in computing and microelectronics to design, build and test a computerized environment learning laboratory for science and technology. With this energy is at the confluence of three domains, this environment has been designed to support the same activity in the learning of mathematics, science and technology. This integration recommended by the new programs we believe is essential to the understanding of concepts related to energy and its transformations. For this learning activity multidisciplinary, we want, via an empirical and practical address these issues of energy transformations in order to give students the ability to develop the prototypes they build technology to improve their performance. We have shown that this approach techno, similar to the design of an experimental design in science, promotes understanding of concepts related to energy and their transformations. This educational development, open to

  9. The electrical power subsystem design for the high energy solar physics spacecraft concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Milind

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS) requirements, architecture, design description, performance analysis, and heritage of the components for two spacecraft concepts for the High Energy Solar Physics (HESP) Mission. It summarizes the mission requirements and the spacecraft subsystems and instrument power requirements, and it describes the EPS architecture for both options. A trade study performed on the selection of the solar cells - body mounted versus deployed panels - and the optimum number of panels is also presented. Solar cell manufacturing losses, array manufacturing losses, and the radiation and temperature effects on the GaAs/Ge and Si solar cells were considered part of the trade study and are included in this paper. Solar cell characteristics, cell circuit description, and the solar array area design are presented, as is battery sizing analysis performed based on the power requirements during launch and initial spacecraft operations. This paper discusses Earth occultation periods and the battery power requirements during this period as well as shunt control, battery conditioning, and bus regulation schemes. Design margins, redundancy philosophy, and predicted on-orbit battery and solar cell performance are summarized. Finally, the heritage of the components and technology risk assessment are provided.

  10. Experimental, Theoretical and Computational Studies of Plasma-Based Concepts for Future High Energy Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Chan [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mori, W. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2013-10-21

    This is the final report on the DOE grant number DE-FG02-92ER40727 titled, “Experimental, Theoretical and Computational Studies of Plasma-Based Concepts for Future High Energy Accelerators.” During this grant period the UCLA program on Advanced Plasma Based Accelerators, headed by Professor C. Joshi has made many key scientific advances and trained a generation of students, many of whom have stayed in this research field and even started research programs of their own. In this final report however, we will focus on the last three years of the grant and report on the scientific progress made in each of the four tasks listed under this grant. Four tasks are focused on: Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Research at FACET, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, In House Research at UCLA’s Neptune and 20 TW Laser Laboratories, Laser-Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) in Self Guided Regime: Experiments at the Callisto Laser at LLNL, and Theory and Simulations. Major scientific results have been obtained in each of the four tasks described in this report. These have led to publications in the prestigious scientific journals, graduation and continued training of high quality Ph.D. level students and have kept the U.S. at the forefront of plasma-based accelerators research field.

  11. Synergetic sustainability enhancement via current biofuel infrastructure: waste-to-energy concept for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eilhann; Yi, Haakrho; Jeon, Young Jae

    2013-03-19

    The concept of waste-to-energy (WtE) with regards to the utilization of byproducts from the bioethanol industry (e.g., distiller's dried grain with solubles: DDGS) was employed to enhance the renewability of biodiesel, which would be an initiative stage of a biorefinery due to the conjunction between bioethanol and biodiesel. For example, DDGS is a strong candidate for use as a biodiesel feedstock due to the tremendous amount that is regularly generated. On the basis of an estimation of possible lipid recovery from DDGS, ∼30% of the biodiesel feedstock demand in 2010 could be supported by the total DDGS generation in the same year. Considering the future expansion of the bioethanol industry up to 2020, the possible lipid recovery from DDGS would provide more than 6 times the biodiesel feedstock demand in 2010. In order to enhance the renewability of biodiesel, the transformation of lipid extracted from DDGS into fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via a noncatalytic transesterification reaction under ambient pressure was investigated in this work. The newly introduced method reported here enables the combination of the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) and the transesterification of triglycerides into a single step. This was achieved in the presence of a porous material (i.e., charcoal), and the optimal conditions for transformation into biodiesel via this noncatalytic method were assessed at the fundamental level.

  12. Energy Saving Fonds and guarantee of efficiency. An integrative concept for the implemention of the European energy efficiency regulation. Brief study; Energiesparfonds und Effizienzgarantie. Ein integratives Konzept zur Umsetzung der europaeischen Energieeffizienz-Richtlinie. Kurzstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pehnt, Martin; Brischke, Lars-Arvid

    2013-04-15

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on Energy Saving Fonds and guarantee of efficiency as an integrative concept for the implementation of the European Energy Efficiency Directive. The authors sum up thirteen thesis for this energy efficiency strategy.

  13. Hidden charm molecules in finite volume

    CERN Document Server

    Albaladejo, Miguel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we address the interaction of pairs of charmed mesons with hidden charm in a finite box. We use the interaction from a recent model based on heavy quark spin symmetry that predicts molecules of hidden charm in the infinite volume. The energy levels in the box are generated within this model, and from them some synthetic data are generated. These data are then employed to study the inverse problem of getting the energies of the bound states and phase shifts for $D \\bar D$ or $D^* {\\bar D}^*$. Different strategies are investigated using the lowest two levels for different values of the box size, carrying a study of the errors produced. Starting from the upper level, fits to the synthetic data are carried out to determine the scattering length and effective range plus the binding energy of the ground state. A similar strategy using the effective range formula is considered with a simultaneous fit to the two levels, one above and the other one below threshold. This method turns out to be more...

  14. Using Concept Maps as Instructional Materials to Foster the Understanding of the Atomic Model and Matter-Energy Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Joana G.; Correia, Paulo R. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of concept maps (Cmaps) as instructional materials prepared by teachers, to foster the understanding of chemistry. We choose fireworks as a macroscopic event to teach basic chemical principles related to the Bohr atomic model and matter-energy interaction. During teachers' Cmap navigation, students can experience…

  15. Hidden photons in connection to dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Goodsell, Mark D. [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)

    2013-06-15

    Light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, which reside in a hidden sector have attracted much attention since they are a well motivated feature of many scenarios beyond the Standard Model and furthermore could mediate the interaction with hidden sector dark matter.We review limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay. In addition, we study the possibility of having dark matter in the hidden sector. A simple toy model and different supersymmetric realisations are shown to provide viable dark matter candidates in the hidden sector that are in agreement with recent direct detection limits.

  16. Energy conservation in urban areas in the framework of a sustainable transportation concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahin, M.

    2001-07-01

    study. In addition, two commercial software programs are used: (1) a computer-aided transport planning called 'VISUM' established at the PTV Systems Software and Constructing GmbH Karlsruhe-Germany, and (2) a computer-aided interactive system called 'DYNAMIS' established at the Institute for Transportation, Railways Construction and Operation of Hannover University, Hannover-Germany. Moreover and for the aim of assisting the developing countries to produce energy and emission models, the German-Swiss emissions model 'Handbuch der Emissionsfaktoren des Strassenverkehrs 1999' is studied, explained and examined. Also, a new approach was developed, within the framework of this study, 'Push-down and Push-up' with the aim of sustainable energy consumption in the transport sector. Finally, the application illustrates the technical, environmental, and economical benefits of the sustainable transport concept. (orig.) [German] Unsere Lebensqualitaet haengt in grossem Masse vom Verkehr ab. Verkehr ermoeglicht eine individuelle Freiheit und Unabhaengigkeit fuer den Transport von Personen und Guetern in modern entwickelten Wirtschaftssystemen. Allerdings treten durch den Verkehr auch eine Vielzahl von unerwnschten Nebenwirkungen auf. Der Verkehrssektor ist einer der groessten Energieverbraucher (hauptsaechlich fossiler Brennstoffe). Die entstehenden Emissionen fuehren sowohl zu negativen lokalen Beeintraechtigungen der Gesundheit wie auch zu einer Erhoehung der CO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen weltweit, die eine entscheidende Rolle fuer das Klima der Erde spielen. Zudem ist der Verkehrssektor weiterhin verantwortlich fuer eine Reihe gesellschaftlicher Probleme, wie beispielsweise Flaechenverbrauch und Verkehrssicherheit. Die steigende Motorisierung in einer bestehendem staedtischen Infrastruktur ist heutzutage nicht nachhaltig. Petroleumtreibstoffe, von denen heute noch fast alle Verkehrssysteme abhaengig sind, sind nicht erneuerbar. Zusammenfassend

  17. Assessment of a novel alder biorefinery concept to meet demands of economics feasibility, energy production and long term environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2012-01-01

    A biorefinery concept based on alder tree plantations on degenerated or marginalized soils is developed to illustrate how it is possible to comply with indicators of economic feasibility, fossil fuel depletion concerns and long term sustainability issues. The biorefinery is based on grey alder (A...... system Energy Return on energy Invested 4.4, total system Exergy Return on exergy Invested 3.5, Net Energy Output 78 GJ/ha/year, Net Exergy Output 50 GJ/ha/year, Net carbon sequestration 0.8 ton CO2-eq/ha/year, Total product value 2030 euro/ha/year and Net Dry Matter Removal 90%....

  18. Assessment of a novel alder biorefinery concept to meet demands of economics feasibility, energy production and long term environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2012-01-01

    A biorefinery concept based on alder tree plantations on degenerated or marginalized soils is developed to illustrate how it is possible to comply with indicators of economic feasibility, fossil fuel depletion concerns and long term sustainability issues. The biorefinery is based on grey alder...... system Energy Return on energy Invested 4.4, total system Exergy Return on exergy Invested 3.5, Net Energy Output 78 GJ/ha/year, Net Exergy Output 50 GJ/ha/year, Net carbon sequestration 0.8 ton CO2-eq/ha/year, Total product value 2030 euro/ha/year and Net Dry Matter Removal 90%....

  19. Women's hidden transcripts about abortion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nations, M K; Misago, C; Fonseca, W; Correia, L L; Campbell, O M

    1997-06-01

    Two folk medical conditions, "delayed" (atrasada) and "suspended" (suspendida) menstruation, are described as perceived by poor Brazilian women in Northeast Brazil. Culturally prescribed methods to "regulate" these conditions and provoke menstrual bleeding are also described, including ingesting herbal remedies, patent drugs, and modern pharmaceuticals. The ingestion of such self-administered remedies is facilitated by the cognitive ambiguity, euphemisms, folklore, etc., which surround conception and gestation. The authors argue that the ethnomedical conditions of "delayed" and "suspended" menstruation and subsequent menstrual regulation are part of the "hidden reproductive transcript" of poor and powerless Brazilian women. Through popular culture, they voice their collective dissent to the official, public opinion about the illegality and immorality of induced abortion and the chronic lack of family planning services in Northeast Brazil. While many health professionals consider women's explanations of menstrual regulation as a "cover-up" for self-induced abortions, such popular justifications may represent either an unconscious or artful manipulation of hegemonic, anti-abortion ideology expressed in prudent, unobtrusive and veiled ways. The development of safer abortion alternatives should consider women's hidden reproductive transcripts.

  20. Hidden Variables or Positive Probabilities?

    CERN Document Server

    Rothman, T; Rothman, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Despite claims that Bell's inequalities are based on the Einstein locality condition, or equivalent, all derivations make an identical mathematical assumption: that local hidden-variable theories produce a set of positive-definite probabilities for detecting a particle with a given spin orientation. The standard argument is that because quantum mechanics assumes that particles are emitted in a superposition of states the theory cannot produce such a set of probabilities. We examine a paper by Eberhard who claims to show that a generalized Bell inequality, the CHSH inequality, can be derived solely on the basis of the locality condition, without recourse to hidden variables. We point out that he nonetheless assumes a set of positive-definite probabilities, which supports the claim that hidden variables or "locality" is not at issue here, positive-definite probabilities are. We demonstrate that quantum mechanics does predict a set of probabilities that violate the CHSH inequality; however these probabilities ar...

  1. Conceptional Considerations to Energy Balance and Global Warming Potential of Soil Bioengineering Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Thannen, Magdalena; Paratscha, Roman; Smutny, Roman; Lampalzer, Thomas; Strauss, Alfred; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays there is a high demand on engineering solutions considering not only technical aspects but also ecological and aesthetic values. In this context soil bioengineering techniques are often used as standalone solutions or in combination with conventional engineering structures. It is a construction technique that uses biological components for hydraulic and civil engineering solutions. In general it pursues the same objectives as conventional civil engineering structures. Currently the used assessment methods for soil bioengineering structures are referencing technically, ecologically and socio-economically. In a modern engineering approach additionally, environmental impacts and potential added values should be considered. The research project E-Protect aims at developing Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) models for this special field of alpine protective constructions. Both, the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) and the Global Warming Potential (GWP) should be considered in an Environmental LCA over the whole life cycle of an engineering structure. The life cycle itself can be divided into three phases: the construction phase, the use phase and the end of life phase. The paper represents a concept to apply an Environmental LCA model for soil bioengineering structures. Beside the construction phase of these structures particular attention will be given to the use phase. It is not only important in terms of engineering effects but also plays an important role for positive carbon footprint due to the growing plants of soil bioengineering structures in contrast to conventional structures. Innovative Environmental LCA models will be applied to soil bioengineering structures which provide a new transparency for the responsible planners and stakeholders, by pointing out the total consumption of resources in all construction phases and components.

  2. Dual-mode, high energy utilization system concept for mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a dual-mode, high energy utilization system concept based on the Pellet Bed Reactor (PeBR) to support future manned missions to Mars. The system uses proven Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engines to partially convert the reactor thermal power to electricity. The electric power generated is kept the same during the propulsion and the power modes, but the reactor thermal power in the former could be several times higher, while maintaining the reactor temperatures almost constant. During the propulsion mode, the electric power of the system, minus ~1-5 kWe for house keeping, is used to operate a Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR). In addition, the reactor thermal power, plus more than 85% of the head load of the CBC engine radiators, are used to heat hydrogen. The hot hydrogen is mixed with the high temperature plasma in a VASIMR to provide both high thrust and Isp>35,000 N.s/kg, reducing the travel time to Mars to about 3 months. The electric power also supports surface exploration of Mars. The fuel temperature and the inlet temperatures of the He-Xe working fluid to the nuclear reactor core and the CBC turbine are maintained almost constant during both the propulsion and power modes to minimize thermal stresses. Also, the exit temperature of the He-Xe from the reactor core is kept at least 200 K below the maximum fuel design temperature. The present system has no single point failure and could be tested fully assembled in a ground facility using electric heaters in place of the nuclear reactor. Operation and design parameters of a 40-kWe prototype are presented and discussed to illustrate the operation and design principles of the proposed system. .

  3. Thermoelectric generator hidden in a shirt with a fabric radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, Vladimir; Vullers, Ruud J. M.; Hoof, Chris Van

    2012-06-01

    Integration of thermopiles in garments has been performed in this work in different ways. It is shown that textile has a minor effect on power generation, which enables completely hidden and unobtrusive energy harvester. A one-milliwatt thermoelectric generator is then integrated between two layers of a shirt and its characteristics are reported.

  4. Thermoelectric generator hidden in a shirt with a fabric radiator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonov, V.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Hoof, C.V.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of thermopiles in garments has been performed in this work in different ways. It is shown that textile has a minor effect on power generation, which enables completely hidden and unobtrusive energy harvester. A one-milliwatt thermoelectric generator is then integrated between two layers

  5. Thermoelectric generator hidden in a shirt with a fabric radiator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonov, V.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Hoof, C.V.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of thermopiles in garments has been performed in this work in different ways. It is shown that textile has a minor effect on power generation, which enables completely hidden and unobtrusive energy harvester. A one-milliwatt thermoelectric generator is then integrated between two layers

  6. Evaluation of direct membrane filtration and direct forward osmosis as concepts for compact and energy-positive municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Davidsson, Åsa; Vogel, Jörg; Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Jönsson, Karin

    2017-02-22

    Municipal wastewater treatment commonly involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps to protect humans and the environment from adverse effects. Membrane technology has gained increasing attention as an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment due to increased urbanization. Among the available membrane technologies, microfiltration and forward osmosis have been selected for this study due to their specific characteristics, such as compactness and efficient removal of particles. In this study, two treatment concepts were evaluated with regard to their specific electricity, energy and area demands. Both concepts would fulfil the Swedish discharge demands for small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants at full scale: 1) direct microfiltration and 2) direct forward osmosis with seawater as the draw solution. The framework of this study is based on a combination of data obtained from bench- and pilot-scale experiments applying direct microfiltration and forward osmosis, respectively. Additionally, available complementary data from a Swedish full-scale wastewater treatment plant and the literature were used to evaluate the concepts in depth. The results of this study indicate that both concepts are net positive with respect to electricity and energy, as more biogas can be produced compared to conventional wastewater treatment. Furthermore, the specific area demand is significantly reduced. This study demonstrates that municipal wastewater could be treated in a more energy- and area-efficient manner with techniques that are already commercially available and with future membrane technology.

  7. The development of a new district heating concept: Network design and optimization for integrating energy conservation and renewable energy use in energy sustainable communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Rosa, A.

    2012-07-01

    differently-sized media pipes, embedded in the same insulation and casing pipe), it is possible to cut heat losses by 6% to 12% in comparison to twin pipes without increasing investment costs. Finally, the development of an optimized triple pipe solution is described. The code modelling the transient heat transfer in DH service pipes is proven to be accurate, since it gives results that well represent the outlet temperature profile measured in the experiments with deviations of less than 0.5 deg. C, and it is in good accordance with detailed, finite-volume simulations, for both stepwise and sinusoidal boundary conditions with regard to the inlet temperature profile. The proposed integrated solution consisting of service pipe and heat exchanger unit with a booster pump satisfies the requirement for DHW supply within l0 seconds and achieves heat savings for 200 kWhth/yr with an additional electricity use of approximately 58 kWhel/yr. In Denmark, optimally-designed LTDH networks can be cost-effective in areas with a linear heat density as low as 0.20 MWh/(m.yr). For the cases considered, the levelized cost of energy is between 13.919.3 cEuro/kWh (excl. VAT) and this is approximately 20% lower than the scenario based on ground-source heat pumps. The network designs based on low-temperature operation are superior to the design based on lowflow operation. The total primary energy use in the most energy-efficient design is 14.3% lower than in standard networks and the distribution heat losses are halved. The results indicate that the LTDH concept fits the vision of the future energysustainable heating sector in Denmark. In the investigations of the case studies in Canada, it was found that DH supply to building areas with linear heat density greater than 3.0 MWh/(m.yr) is competitive with the natural gas supply alternative and offers the opportunity to implement the use of RE and low-grade heat sources. The areas with linear heat density below 1.5 MWh/(m.yr) are not economically

  8. Reheating the Standard Model from a hidden sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkanen, Tommi; Vaskonen, Ville

    2016-10-01

    We consider a scenario where the inflaton decays to a hidden sector thermally decoupled from the visible Standard Model sector. A tiny portal coupling between the hidden and the visible sectors later heats the visible sector so that the Standard Model degrees of freedom come to dominate the energy density of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis. We find that this scenario is viable, although obtaining the correct dark matter abundance and retaining successful big bang nucleosynthesis is not obvious. We also show that the isocurvature perturbations constituted by a primordial Higgs condensate are not problematic for the viability of the scenario.

  9. Reheating the Standard Model from a Hidden Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Tenkanen, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    We consider a scenario where the inflaton decays to a hidden sector thermally decoupled from the visible Standard Model sector. A tiny portal coupling between the hidden and the visible sectors later heats the visible sector so that the Standard Model degrees of freedom come to dominate the energy density of the Universe before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. We find that this scenario is viable, although obtaining the correct dark matter abundance and retaining successful Big Bang Nucleosynthesis is not obvious. We also show that the isocurvature perturbations constituted by a primordial Higgs condensate are not problematic for the viability of the scenario.

  10. Atlas of solar hidden photon emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza,Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2015-07-20

    Hidden photons, gauge bosons of a U(1) symmetry of a hidden sector, can constitute the dark matter of the universe and a smoking gun for large volume compactifications of string theory. In the sub-eV mass range, a possible discovery experiment consists on searching the copious flux of these particles emitted from the Sun in a helioscope setup à la Sikivie. In this paper, we compute in great detail the flux of HPs from the Sun, a necessary ingredient for interpreting such experiments. We provide a detailed exposition of transverse photon-HP oscillations in inhomogenous media, with special focus on resonance oscillations, which play a leading role in many cases. The region of the Sun emitting HPs resonantly is a thin spherical shell for which we justify an averaged-emission formula and which implies a distinctive morphology of the angular distribution of HPs on Earth in many cases. Low mass HPs with energies in the visible and IR have resonances very close to the photosphere where the solar plasma is not fully ionised and requires building a detailed model of solar refraction and absorption. We present results for a broad range of HP masses (from 0–1 keV) and energies (from the IR to the X-ray range), the most complete atlas of solar HP emission to date.

  11. The Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    experience moderate the relationship between complexity and hidden costs negatively i.e. reduces the cost generating impact of complexity. We develop three hypotheses and test them on comprehensive data from the Offshoring Research Network (ORN). In general, we find support for our hypotheses. A key result...... of offshoring. Specifically, we propose that hidden costs can be explained by the combination of increasing structural, operational and social complexity of offshoring activities. In addition, we suggest that firm orientation towards organizational design as part of an offshoring strategy and offshoring...

  12. Hidden symmetries in jammed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Peter K.; Corwin, Eric I.

    2016-07-01

    There are deep, but hidden, geometric structures within jammed systems, associated with hidden symmetries. These can be revealed by repeated transformations under which these structures lead to fixed points. These geometric structures can be found in the Voronoi tesselation of space defined by the packing. In this paper we examine two iterative processes: maximum inscribed sphere (MIS) inversion and a real-space coarsening scheme. Under repeated iterations of the MIS inversion process we find invariant systems in which every particle is equal to the maximum inscribed sphere within its Voronoi cell. Using a real-space coarsening scheme we reveal behavior in geometric order parameters which is length-scale invariant.

  13. The Tasse concept (thorium based accelerator driven system with simplified fuel cycle for long term energy production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthou, V. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Slessarev, I.; Salvatores, M. [IRI, TU Delft (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    Within the framework of the nuclear waste management studies, the ''one-component''. concept has to be considered as an attractive option in the long-term perspective. This paper proposes a new system called TASSE (''Thorium based Accelerator driven System with Simplified fuel cycle for long term Energy production''.), destined to the current French park renewal. The main idea of the TASSE concept is to simplify both the front and the back end of the fuel cycle, and his major goals are to provide electricity with low waste production, and with an economical competitiveness. (author)

  14. Improving the Energy Performance in Existing Non-residential Buildings in Denmark Using the Total Concept Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krawczyk, Pawel; Afshari, Alireza; Simonsen, Graves K.

    2016-01-01

    This project is a part of a joint European research project, “Total Concept”, which is a method for improving the energy performance in existing non-Residential buildings. The method focuses on achieving maximum energy savings in a Building within the profitability frames set by a building owner......, who plans to invest. The method differentiates from other refurbishment approaches by using a comprehensive energy audit plan, advanced energy simulation methods, a complex economic model and analysis of measures that may have a reasonable energysaving potential. The aim of the demonstration project...... was to form a package of measures for an energy performance improvement in the building based on the Total Concept method. This paper presents results from recently analyzed data on two renovated Danish buildings according to the rules of “Total Concept” method. According to the estimation done based...

  15. Ocean thermal energy conversion cold water pipe preliminary design project. Task 2. Analysis for concept selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-04-01

    The successful performance of the CWP is of crucial importance to the overall OTEC system; the pipe itself is considered the most critical part of the entire operation. Because of the importance the CWP, a project for the analysis and design of CWP's was begun in the fall of 1978. The goals of this project were to study a variety of concepts for delivering cold water to an OTEC plant, to analyze and rank these concepts based on their relative cost and risk, and to develop preliminary design for those concepts which seemed most promising. Two representative platforms and sites were chosen: a spar buoy of a Gibbs and Cox design to be moored at a site off Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico, and a barge designed by APL/Johns Hopkins University, grazing about a site approximately 200 miles east of the coast of Brazil. The approach was to concentrate on the most promising concepts and on those which were either of general interest or espoused by others (e.g., steel and concrete concepts). Much of the overall attention, therefore, focused on analyzing rigid and compliant wall design, while stockade (except for the special case of the FRP stockade) and bottom-mounted concepts received less attention. A total of 67 CWP concepts were initially generated and subjected to a screening process. Of these, 16 were carried through design analysis, costing, and ranking. Study results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  16. Using Metaphor Theory to Examine Conceptions of Energy in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancor, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important unifying themes in science. Yet the way energy is conceptualized varies depending on context. In this paper, the discourse used to explain the role of energy in systems from biology, chemistry, and physics is examined from the perspective of metaphor theory. Six substance metaphors for energy are identified in…

  17. Controlled passive actuation: concepts for energy efficient actuation using mechanical storage elements and continuously variable transmissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresscher, Douwe

    2016-01-01

    Walking robots consume more energy for locomotion than their wheeled and tracked counterparts. To achieve energy autonomous operation, a robot needs to run on energy that is harvested from its environment. In this light, it is meaningful to address reduction of energy consumption. The contribution

  18. Risks of nuclear energy technology safety concepts of light water reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, Günter; Schlüter, Franz-Hermann

    2014-01-01

    The book analyses the risks of nuclear power stations. The security concept of reactors is explained. Measures against the spread of radioactivity after a severe accident, accidents of core melting and a possible crash of an air plane on?reactor containment are discussed. The book covers three scientific subjects of the safety concepts of Light Water Reactors: ? A first part describes the basic safety design concepts of operating German Pressurized Water Reactors and Boiling Water Reactors including accident management measures introduced after the reactor accidents of Three Mile Island and Ch

  19. Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept 2008 - 2011; Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes 2008 bis 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the plan for the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE during the period 2008 - 2011. The motivation behind the state promotion of energy research is discussed. The visions, aims and strategies of the energy research programme are discussed. The main areas of research to be addressed during the period are presented. These include the efficient use of energy in buildings and traffic - batteries and supercaps, electrical technologies, combustion systems, fuel cells and power generation are discussed. Research to be done in the area of renewable sources of energy are listed. Here, solar-thermal, photovoltaics, hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and ambient heat are among the areas to be examined. Research on nuclear energy and safety aspects are mentioned. Finally, work on the basics of energy economy are looked at and the allocation of funding during the period 2008 - 2011 is looked at.

  20. A Hidden Twelve-Dimensional SuperPoincare Symmetry In Eleven Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno

    2003-12-13

    First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional superPoincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve dimensional superPoincare symmetry that governs the theory.

  1. Hidden twelve-dimensional super Poincaré symmetry in eleven dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak; Pasqua, A; Zumino, B; Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional superPoincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve dimensional superPoincare symmetry that governs the theory.

  2. Modeling Multiple Risks: Hidden Domain of Attraction

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Abhimanyu

    2011-01-01

    Hidden regular variation is a sub-model of multivariate regular variation and facilitates accurate estimation of joint tail probabilities. We generalize the model of hidden regular variation to what we call hidden domain of attraction. We exhibit examples that illustrate the need for a more general model and discuss detection and estimation techniques.

  3. Pentaquark states with hidden charm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijker, Roelof

    2017-07-01

    I develop an extension of the usual three-flavor quark model to four flavors (u, d, s and c), and discuss the classification of pentaquark states with hidden charm. This work is motivated by the recent observation of such states by the LHCb Collatoration at CERN.

  4. Microgenetic analysis of hidden figures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the phenomenological and processual aspects of the perception of hidden figures were compared. The question was whether the more probable percepts of hidden figures, compared to the less probable percepts, were generated in earlier stages of the perceptual process. In the pilot study the subjects were asked to say what they see in a complex linear pattern. The three most frequent and the three least frequent perceptual descriptions were selected. In the experiment the microgenesis of the perception of hidden figures was investigated. The primed matching paradigm and the same-different task were used. In each experiment two types of test figures were contrasted: the more frequent and the less frequent ones. There were two prime types: identical (equal to test figures and complex (the pattern with hidden test figures. The prime duration was varied, 50 ms and 400 ms. The main result indicates that in the case of complex priming the more frequent test figures were processed significantly faster than the less frequent ones in both prime duration conditions. These results suggest that the faster the processing of a figure, the more probable the perceptual generation of this figure.

  5. The Use of History and Philosophy of Science as a Core for a Socioconstructivist Teaching Approach of the Concept of Energy in Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaki, Aikaterini; Kokkotas, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    The present study should be thought as a socioconstructivist teaching approach (a teaching model) for the concept of energy in primary education. It contains important and crucial aspects of the History and Philosophy of Natural Sciences, introduces the concept of energy using the macroscopic framework of thermodynamics, takes into consideration…

  6. The Use of History and Philosophy of Science as a Core for a Socioconstructivist Teaching Approach of the Concept of Energy in Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaki, Aikaterini; Kokkotas, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    The present study should be thought as a socioconstructivist teaching approach (a teaching model) for the concept of energy in primary education. It contains important and crucial aspects of the History and Philosophy of Natural Sciences, introduces the concept of energy using the macroscopic framework of thermodynamics, takes into consideration…

  7. Investigating student conceptions of energy through the lens of metaphor theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancor, Rachael Anderman

    Energy is one of the most important unifying themes in science. Yet the way energy is conceptualized varies greatly from discipline to discipline. In this thesis, I examine the discourse used to discuss energy in science courses from the perspective of metaphor theory, and explore how these metaphors both highlight and obscure various aspects of energy. A set of five characteristics of energy are presented that correspond to metaphors commonly found in science classroom discourse. Five substance metaphors for energy were identified: energy as a substance that can be accounted for, energy as a substance that can change forms, energy as a substance that can flow, energy as a substance that can be carried, energy as a substance that can be lost, and energy as a substance that can be added, produced or stored. Additionally, one final metaphor depicts energy as a process or interaction. Working under this framework, undergraduate students in introductory college biology, chemistry, and physics courses were asked to write analogies that reflect their understanding of the role of energy in the context of ecosystems, chemical reactions, mechanical systems, and electrical circuits. These student-generated analogies were analyzed qualitatively to gain insight into how students conceptualize energy. The results of this empirical study confirm that students use the metaphors identified above to explain the role of energy in these various scientific contexts. A second empirical study is also presented in which students taking an interdisciplinary, issues-based general science course at the undergraduate level were asked to explain the role of energy in five contexts that frequently appear the media: radioactivity, transportation, generating electricity, natural disasters, and the big bang theory for the origin of the universe. Their explanations were analyzed through the lens of metaphor theory, and showed evidence of the same metaphors seen in traditional disciplinary topics

  8. Computational analysis of the mechanism of chemical reactions in terms of reaction phases: hidden intermediates and hidden transition States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraka, Elfi; Cremer, Dieter

    2010-05-18

    Computational approaches to understanding chemical reaction mechanisms generally begin by establishing the relative energies of the starting materials, transition state, and products, that is, the stationary points on the potential energy surface of the reaction complex. Examining the intervening species via the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) offers further insight into the fate of the reactants by delineating, step-by-step, the energetics involved along the reaction path between the stationary states. For a detailed analysis of the mechanism and dynamics of a chemical reaction, the reaction path Hamiltonian (RPH) and the united reaction valley approach (URVA) are an efficient combination. The chemical conversion of the reaction complex is reflected by the changes in the reaction path direction t(s) and reaction path curvature k(s), both expressed as a function of the path length s. This information can be used to partition the reaction path, and by this the reaction mechanism, of a chemical reaction into reaction phases describing chemically relevant changes of the reaction complex: (i) a contact phase characterized by van der Waals interactions, (ii) a preparation phase, in which the reactants prepare for the chemical processes, (iii) one or more transition state phases, in which the chemical processes of bond cleavage and bond formation take place, (iv) a product adjustment phase, and (v) a separation phase. In this Account, we examine mechanistic analysis with URVA in detail, focusing on recent theoretical insights (with a variety of reaction types) from our laboratories. Through the utilization of the concept of localized adiabatic vibrational modes that are associated with the internal coordinates, q(n)(s), of the reaction complex, the chemical character of each reaction phase can be identified via the adiabatic curvature coupling coefficients, A(n,s)(s). These quantities reveal whether a local adiabatic vibrational mode supports (A(n,s) > 0) or resists

  9. Using the automata processor for fast pattern recognition in high energy physics experiments-A proof of concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael H. L. S.; Cancelo, Gustavo; Green, Christopher; Guo, Deyuan; Wang, Ke; Zmuda, Ted

    2016-10-01

    We explore the Micron Automata Processor (AP) as a suitable commodity technology that can address the growing computational needs of pattern recognition in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. A toy detector model is developed for which an electron track confirmation trigger based on the Micron AP serves as a test case. Although primarily meant for high speed text-based searches, we demonstrate a proof of concept for the use of the Micron AP in a HEP trigger application.

  10. Using the automata processor for fast pattern recognition in high energy physics experiments—A proof of concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Michael H.L.S., E-mail: mwang@fnal.gov [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Cancelo, Gustavo; Green, Christopher [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Guo, Deyuan; Wang, Ke [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Zmuda, Ted [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    We explore the Micron Automata Processor (AP) as a suitable commodity technology that can address the growing computational needs of pattern recognition in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. A toy detector model is developed for which an electron track confirmation trigger based on the Micron AP serves as a test case. Although primarily meant for high speed text-based searches, we demonstrate a proof of concept for the use of the Micron AP in a HEP trigger application.

  11. State of the art on high temperature thermal energy storage for power generation. Part 1. Concepts, materials and modellization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Antoni; Medrano, Marc; Martorell, Ingrid; Cabeza, Luisa F. [GREA Innovacio Concurrent, Universitat de Lleida, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001-Lleida (Spain); Lazaro, Ana; Dolado, Pablo; Zalba, Belen [Instituto de Investigacion en Ingenieria de Aragon, I3A, Grupo de Ingenieria Termica y Sistemas Energeticos (GITSE), Dpto. Ingenieria Mecanica, Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Universidad de Zaragoza, Campus Politecnico Rio Ebro, Edificio ' Agustin de Betancourt' , Maria de Luna s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Concentrated solar thermal power generation is becoming a very attractive renewable energy production system among all the different renewable options, as it has have a better potential for dispatchability. This dispatchability is inevitably linked with an efficient and cost-effective thermal storage system. Thus, of all components, thermal storage is a key one. However, it is also one of the less developed. Only a few plants in the world have tested high temperature thermal energy storage systems. In this paper, the different storage concepts are reviewed and classified. All materials considered in literature or plants are listed. And finally, modellization of such systems is reviewed. (author)

  12. The Hidden Energy Cost of Web Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.J.G; Pras, A.

    2010-01-01

    Advertising is an important source of income for many websites. To get the attention of the unsuspecting (and probably uninterested) visitors, web advertisements (ads) tend to use elaborate animations and graphics. Depending on the specific technology being used, displaying such ads on the visitor's

  13. The Hidden Energy Cost of Web Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.J.G; Pras, Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Advertising is an important source of income for many websites. To get the attention of the unsuspecting (and probably uninterested) visitors, web advertisements (ads) tend to use elaborate animations and graphics. Depending on the specific technology being used, displaying such ads on the visitor's

  14. Using Exergy to Correlate Energy Research Investments and Efficiencies: Concept and Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of exergy to correlate energy-utilization efficiencies and energy research investments is described. Specifically, energy and exergy losses are compared with energy research and development expenditures, demonstrating that the latter correlates with energy losses, even though it would be more sensible to allocate energy research and development funding in line with exergy losses, as they represent the actual deviation of efficiency from the ideal. The methodology is outlined and illustrated with two case studies. The case studies consider the province of Ontario, Canada and the United States. The investigation utilizes data on the energy utilization in a country or region, including flows of energy and exergy through the main sectors of the economy. The results are expected to be of use to government and public authorities that administer research and development funding and resources and should help improve the effectiveness of such investments.

  15. Design Concept of a Gamma-gamma Higgs Factory Driven by Thin Laser Targets and Energy Recovery Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhong [JLAB

    2013-06-01

    A gamma-gamma collider has long been considered an option for a Higgs Factory. Such photon colliders usually rely on Compton back-scattering for generating high energy gamma photons and further Higgs bosons through gamma-gamma collisions. The presently existing proposals or design concepts all have chosen a very thick laser target (i.e., high laser photon intensity) for Compton scatterings. In this paper, we present a new design concept of a gamma-gamma collider utilizing a thin laser target (i.e., relatively low photon density), thus leading to a low electron to gamma photon conversion rate. This new concept eliminates most useless and harmful low energy soft gamma photons from multiple Compton scattering so the detector background is improved. It also greatly relaxes the requirement of the high peak power of the laser, a significant technical challenge. A high luminosity for such a gamma-gamma collider can be achieved through an increase of the bunch repetition rate and current of the driven electron beam. Further, multi-pass recirculating linac could greatly reduce the linac cost and energy recovery is required to reduce the needed RF power.

  16. A novel thermochemical energy storage and transportation concept based on concentrated solar irradiation-aided CaO-looping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Jonas; Müller, Karsten; Karagiannakis, George; Stubos, Athanasios; Arlt, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    To overcome the temporal and regional gap of surplus solar energy, the concept of thermochemical heat storage is discussed. In this particular case, the application of CaO and CaCO3 as energy carrying compounds for a trans-regional energy distribution concept is analyzed regarding the effective energetic and exergetic storage density. In a comprehensive sensitivity analysis, the influences of reaction temperature, conversion and heat recovery strategies are worked out. It can be seen that the effective storage density is strongly influenced by the preheating of reactants from ambient to reaction temperature. Thus, high conversion rates during forward and reverse reaction as well as improved heat recovery ratios are necessary to achieve a high energetic storage density. In case of effective exergetic storage density, carbonation temperature reaches an optimum. The method presented in this contribution can be applied to similar thermochemical heat storage systems and the results are of great importance for the process design and development of the suggested concept.

  17. Energy transition toward renewables and metal depletion: an approach through the EROI concept

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Fizaine; Victor Court

    2014-01-01

    More and more attention is being paid to renewable technologies because there are seen as a great opportunity to disengage our society from its dependence on fossil fuels. Such flowbased energy resources that rely on solar energy, are supposed to lead us toward a sustainable energy future. However, because of their high capital intensity, renewable technologies require large amounts of matter, among which common and rare metals. These metals require energy for their production, and more speci...

  18. A twist on folding: Predicting optimal sequences and optimal folds of simple protein models with the hidden-force algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Kolossváry, István

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new way of looking at global optimization of off-lattice protein models. We present a dual optimization concept of predicting optimal sequences as well as optimal folds. We validate the utility of the recently introduced hidden-force Monte Carlo optimization algorithm by finding significantly lower energy folds for minimalist protein models than previously reported. Further, we also find the protein sequence that yields the lowest energy fold amongst all sequences for a given chain length and residue mixture. In particular, for protein models with a binary sequence, we show that the sequence-optimized folds form more compact cores than the lowest energy folds of the historically fixed, Fibonacci-series sequences of chain lengths of 13, 21, 34, 55, and 89. We emphasize that while the protein model we used is minimalist, the methodology is applicable to detailed protein models, and sequence optimization may yield novel folds and aid de novo protein design.

  19. Atlas of solar hidden photon emission

    CERN Document Server

    Redondo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hidden photons, gauge bosons of a U(1) symmetry of a hidden sector, can constitute the dark matter of the universe and a smoking gun for large volume compactifications of string theory. In the sub-eV mass range, a possible discovery experiment consists on searching the copious flux of these particles emitted from the Sun in a helioscope setup \\`a la Sikivie. In this paper, we compute the flux of transversely polarised HPs from the Sun, a necessary ingredient for interpreting such experiments. We provide a detailed exposition of photon-HP oscillations in inhomogenous media, with special focus on resonance oscillations, which play a leading role in many cases. The region of the Sun emitting HPs resonantly is a thin spherical shell for which we justify an averaged-emission formula and which implies a distinctive morphology of the angular distribution of HPs on Earth in many cases. Low mass HPs with energies in the visible and IR have resonances very close to the photosphere where the solar plasma is not fully io...

  20. Laser experiments explore the hidden sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, M. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics; Gies, H. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Jaeckel, J. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Recently, the laser experiments BMV and GammeV, searching for light shining through walls, have published data and calculated new limits on the allowed masses and couplings for axion-like particles. In this note we point out that these experiments can serve to constrain a much wider variety of hidden-sector particles such as, e.g., minicharged particles and hidden-sector photons. The new experiments improve the existing bounds from the older BFRT experiment by a factor of two. Moreover, we use the new PVLAS constraints on a possible rotation and ellipticity of light after it has passed through a strong magnetic field to constrain pure minicharged particle models. For masses energy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background. (orig.)

  1. Nonintentional behavioural responses to psi : hidden targets and hidden observers

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Mary-Jane Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Psi is the phenomenon of apparently responding to or receiving information by means other than the recognised senses. Psi information may influence human behaviour, without the individual intending this or even being aware of it. This thesis seeks to investigate nonintentional behavioural responses to psi. We present five empirical studies that investigated nonintentional behavioural responses to psi information. In each study, the psi information was hidden from participants, ...

  2. Shark - new motor design concept for energy saving-applied to Switched Reluctance Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tataru, Ana Mari

    The aim of this thesis is to document and promote a relatively new concept of designing electrical machine with improved efficiency, without using more or better material. The concept, called Shark, consists in replacing the cylindrical air gap by a non-linear shape obtained by translating specific...... of quick analysis tools, an analytical model of the Shark Switched Reluctance Machine is also proposed in this thesis. This model is conceived by modifying one of the existing models of cylindrical air gap Switched Reluctance Machines, such as to account for the presence of the Shark profiles in the air...

  3. Transient analysis of energy Transfer Control (ECT) and compressor bleed concepts of remote lift fan control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The transient performance of two concepts for control of vertical takeoff aircraft remote lift fans is analyzed and discussed. Both concepts employ flow transfer between pairs of lift fans located in separate parts of the aircraft in order to obtain attitude control moments for hover and low-speed flight. The results presented are from a digital computer, dynamic analysis of the YJ97/LF460 remote drive turbofan. The transient responses of the two systems are presented for step demands in lift and moment.

  4. GEFCom2012: Statement and the Concept of Multidimensional Stochastic Distributed Energy Consumption Model Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Janovsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A task statement and a concept of solution of GEFCom2012 (USA problem are considered as a contribution. The aspects of solution including (i methods of correlation-spectral analysis and rank analysis for multidimensional stochastic processes, (ii identification and forecasting of multidimensional stochastic systems are proposed

  5. The Concept of Energy in Psychological Theory. Cognitive Science Program, Technical Report No. 86-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary Klevjord

    This paper describes a basic framework for integration of computational and energetic concepts in psychological theory. The framework is adapted from a general effort to understand the neural systems underlying cognition. The element of the cognitive system that provides the best basis for attempting to relate energetic and computational ideas is…

  6. Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  7. Ecological concepts and strategies with relevance to energy-conscious spatial planning and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.; Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable systems utilise renewable energy sources and recycle materials effectively. In theory, solar radiation provides abundant energy to sustain humanity. Our capacity to utilise available sources, however, is limited and competition for resources is expected to increase in the future. Spatial

  8. Integration of ecological and thermodynamic concepts in the design of sustainable energy landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.; Koh, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resource depletion and climate change motivate a transition to sustainable energy systems that make effective use of renewable sources. Whereas nature presents strategies to sustain on the basis of renewables, the Laws of Thermodynamics can help to increase efficiency in energy use. In previous pape

  9. A Model for Infusing Energy Concepts into Vocational Education Programs. Advanced Solar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Vocational Technical School, Marked Tree, AR.

    This instructional unit consists of materials designed to help students understand terms associated with solar energy; identify components of advanced solar systems; and identify applications of solar energy in business, industry, agriculture, and photovoltaics. Included in the unit are the following materials: suggested activities, instructional…

  10. Smart bioenergy technologies and concepts for a more flexible bioenergy provision in future energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is a vital source of renewable energy, because it offers a wide range of established and potential methods for energy generation. It is also an important facet of the progression toward a sustainable energy future. The need for further development in the provision of bioenergy is underlined by challenges affecting the biomass resource base, including rising demand for biomass for food, feed, materials and fuel. This is underlined by significant concerns over factors relating to land, such as soil, nutrients and biodiversity. This book examines and analyzes Germany's decade-long initiative toward implementation of an active policy for the transition of the energy system to make greater use of renewable energy sources, which has resulted in a significant increase in the amount of biomass used for electricity, heat and transport fuel. The book begins with a review of market and resource base issues, and moves on to analyze the technical options for a more integrated bioenergy use. The analysis spans the ...

  11. Nuclear scissors modes and hidden angular momenta

    CERN Document Server

    Balbutsev, E B; Schuck, P

    2016-01-01

    The coupled dynamics of low lying modes and various giant resonances are studied with the help of the Wigner Function Moments method generalized to take into account spin degrees of freedom and pair correlations simultaneously. The method is based on Time Dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations. The model of the harmonic oscillator including spin-orbit potential plus quadrupole-quadrupole and spin-spin interactions is considered. New low lying spin dependent modes are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the scissors modes. A new source of nuclear magnetism, connected with counter-rotation of spins up and down around the symmetry axis (hidden angular momenta), is discovered. Its inclusion into the theory allows one to improve substantially the agreement with experimental data in the description of energies and transition probabilities of scissors modes.

  12. Hidden baryons: The physics of Compton composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Frederick J.

    2016-06-01

    A large fraction of the mass-energy of the Universe appears to be composed of Compton composites. How is it then that these composites are not frequently observed in experiments? This paper addresses this question, and others, by reviewing recent publications that: 1) introduced Compton composites, 2) showed how and where they are formed and 3) explained how they interact with other systems. Though ubiquitous in many physical situations, Compton composites are almost completely hidden in experiments due to their unique interaction characteristics. Still, their presence has been indirectly observed, though not interpreted as such until recently. Looking to the future, direct-detection experiments are proposed that could verify the composites' components. It is with deep sadness that I dedicate this paper to my mentor, collaborator, and friend, Dr. John R. Reitz, who passed away within days of the publication of our paper “Compton Composites Late in the Early Universe”.

  13. BROADBAND CONCEPT OF ENERGY HARVESTING IN BEAM VIBRATING SYSTEMS FOR POWERING SENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Rysak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent demand for powering small sensors for wireless health monitoring triggered activities in the field of small size efficient energy harvesting devices. We examine energy harvesting in an aluminium beam with a piezoceramic patch subjected to kinematic harmonic excitation and impacts. Due to a mechanical stopper applied, inducing a hardening effect in the spring characteristic of the beam resonator, we observed a broader frequency range for the fairly large power output. Impact nonlinearities caused sensitivity to initial conditions and appearance of multiple solutions. The occurrence of resonant solution associated with impacts increased efficiency of the energy harvesting process.

  14. Skryté kurikulum vo svetle metodologického holizmu a metodologického individualizmu. / Hidden curriculum in the light of methodological holism and methodological individualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Bomba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses theoretical and methodological problem of hidden curriculum at school. It compares individualistic and holistic approach in connection to research, measurement and analysis of hidden curriculum. The goal of the study is to present the inconsistency in understanding and explaining the concept of hidden curriculum. The inconsistency is grounded in the absence of paradigmatical background. The theories of hidden curriculum are devided into two groups. The first group is grounded in individualistic approach and the second group is grounded in holistic approach. The examples of empirical studies are used as tools to grasp hidden curriculum at school. The study concludes that the deϐinitions and understanding of the concept of hidden curriculum are logical conclusions of methodologicalapproach and empirical investigation of hidden curriculum in research. The methodological approach and empirical investigation reversely constitute the theory of hidden curriculum. The individualistic paradigm grasps hidden curriculum as a an implicit socialization of a child through the actions of individuals in the school. The holistic paradigm understands hidden curriculum as institutionalized nature of ideology or the tool for reproduction of society.

  15. Dynamic Controls for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response:Framework Concepts and a New Construction Study Case in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Hughes, Glenn

    2006-06-20

    Many of today's advanced building control systems are designed to improve granularity of control for energy efficiency. Examples include direct digital controls for building heating, ventilation, and cooling systems (HVAC), and dimmable ballasts for continuous dimming for daylighting applications. This paper discusses recent research on the use of new and existing controls in commercial buildings for integrated energy efficiency and demand response (DR). The paper discusses the use of DR controls strategies in commercial buildings and provides specific details on DR control strategy design concepts for a new building in New York. We present preliminary results from EnergyPlus simulations of the DR strategies at the New York Times Headquarters building currently under construction. The DR strategies at the Times building involve unique state of the art systems with dimmable ballasts, movable shades on the glass facade, and underfloor air HVAC. The simulation efforts at this building are novel, with an innovative building owner considering DR and future DR program participation strategies during the design phase. This paper also discusses commissioning plans for the DR strategies. The trends in integration of various systems through the EMCS, master versus supervisory controls and dynamic operational modes concepts are presented and future research directions are outlined.

  16. Thermal energy storage - A review of concepts and systems for heating and cooling applications in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Georgi Krasimiroy; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    period required, economic viability, and operating conditions. One of the main issues impeding the utilization of the full potential of natural and renewable energy sources, e.g., solar and geothermal, for space heating and space cooling applications is the development of economically competitive......The use of thermal energy storage (TES) in buildings in combination with space heating and/or space cooling has recently received much attention. A variety of TES techniques have developed over the past decades. TES systems can provide short-term storage for peak-load shaving as well as long......-term (seasonal) storage for the introduction of natural and renewable energy sources. TES systems for heating or cooling are utilized in applications where there is a time mismatch between the demand and the most economically favorable supply of energy. The selection of a TES system mainly depends on the storage...

  17. Renewable Energy and Hydrogen System Concepts for Remote Communities in the West Nordic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulleberg, Oeystein; Moerkved, Andreas

    2008-02-25

    In 2003 the Nordic Council of Ministers granted the funding for the first of several studies on renewable energy and hydrogen (RE/H2) energy systems for remote communities in the West Nordic region. The objective with this report is to summarize the main findings from Phase II and III of the West Nordic project. The island Nolsoy, Faroe Islands, was selected as a case study. The main conclusion is that it makes sense to design a wind/diesel-system with thermal storage, both from a techno-economical and environmental point of view. Such systems can have close to 100% local utilization of the wind energy, and can cover up to 75% of the total annual electricity demand and 35% of the annual heat demand at a cost of energy around 0.07 - 0.09 euro/kWh. The introduction of a hydrogen system is technically feasible, but doubles the overall investment costs

  18. Technical Analysis of the Hydrogen Energy Station Concept, Phase I and Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TIAX, LLC

    2005-05-04

    Phase I Due to the growing interest in establishing a domestic hydrogen infrastructure, several hydrogen fueling stations already have been established around the country as demonstration units. While these stations help build familiarity with hydrogen fuel in their respective communities, hydrogen vehicles are still several years from mass production. This limited number of hydrogen vehicles translates to a limited demand for hydrogen fuel, a significant hurdle for the near-term establishment of commercially viable hydrogen fueling stations. By incorporating a fuel cell and cogeneration system with a hydrogen fueling station, the resulting energy station can compensate for low hydrogen demand by providing both hydrogen dispensing and combined heat and power (CHP) generation. The electrical power generated by the energy station can be fed back into the power grid or a nearby facility, which in turn helps offset station costs. Hydrogen production capacity not used by vehicles can be used to support building heat and power loads. In this way, an energy station can experience greater station utility while more rapidly recovering capital costs, providing an increased market potential relative to a hydrogen fueling station. At an energy station, hydrogen is generated on-site. Part of the hydrogen is used for vehicle refueling and part of the hydrogen is consumed by a fuel cell. As the fuel cell generates electricity and sends it to the power grid, excess heat is reclaimed through a cogeneration system for use in a nearby facility. Both the electrical generation and heat reclamation serve to offset the cost of purchasing the equivalent amount of energy for nearby facilities and the energy station itself. This two-phase project assessed the costs and feasibility of developing a hydrogen vehicle fueling station in conjunction with electricity and cogenerative heat generation for nearby Federal buildings. In order to determine which system configurations and operational

  19. Energy conservation by means of the personal computer. The Energy Wizard as a start for the smart-house concept; Energiebesparing met behulp van de pc. De Energy Wizard als aanzet to het smart-house concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiperij, R. [Elsdon CGI, Deventer (Netherlands)

    1996-07-01

    The notion `Domotics` represents applications by means of electronic information exchange in houses. The tuning of those applications and the communication takes place through so-called Home Electronic Systems. By using Domotics smart houses can be designed. The author`s company deals with domotics concepts and stand-alone concepts that can also be applied in combination with other systems. All the concepts make use of the calculating and controlling possibilities of the personal computer, already present in many houses. 3 figs., 2 ills.

  20. The dark energy scale in superconductors: Innovative theoretical and experimental concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Christian

    2007-01-01

    We revisit the cosmological constant problem and point out that the observed value of dark energy density in the universe actually represents a rather natural value arising as the geometric mean of two vacuum energy densities, one being extremely large and the other one being extremely small. The corresponding mean energy scale is the Planck-Einstein scale l_PE = (l_P l_E)^1/2 = (hbar G/ c^3 Lambda)^1/4 ~ 0.037 mm, a natural scale both for dark energy and the physics of superconductors. We deal with the statistics of quantum fluctuations underlying dark energy in superconductors and consider a scale transformation from the Planck scale to the Planck-Einstein scale which leaves the quantum physics invariant. Our approach unifies various experimentally confirmed or conjectured effects in superconductors into a common framework: Cutoff of vacuum fluctuation spectra, formation of Tao balls, anomalous gravitomagnetic fields, non-classical inertia, and time uncertainties in radioactive superconductors. We propose s...

  1. New greenhouse concepts : Good for energy bill, now initiate sector : Looking for ways to reduce cost price (interview with Jan Janse)

    OpenAIRE

    Bezemer, J.; Janse, J.

    2014-01-01

    Several new greenhouse concepts have been developed during the last few years. But how do the various greenhouses – each with a specific technology – perform when it comes to energy savings? And is production competitive? What do they cost?

  2. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume I. Study summary and concept screening. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This study was directed at a review of storage technologies, and particularly those which might be best suited for use in conjunction with wind and photovoltaics. The potential ''worth'' added by incorporating storage was extensively analyzed for both wind and photovoltaics. Energy storage concepts studied include (1) above ground pumped hydro storage, (2) underground pumped hydro storage, (3) thermal storage-oil, (4) thermal storage-steam, (5) underground compressed air storage, (6) pneumatic storage, (7) lead-acid batteries, (8) advanced batteries, (9) inertial storage (flywheel), (10) hydrogen generation and storage, and (11) superconducting magnetic energy storage. The investigations performed and the major results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this volume. (WHK)

  3. Nuclear energy an introduction to the concepts, systems, and applications of nuclear processes

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Energy, Fifth Edition provides nuclear engineers, plant designers and radiation physicists with a comprehensive overview of nuclear energy and its uses, discusses potential problems and provides an outlook for the futureNew and important trends are discussed including probabilistic safety analysis (PSA), deregulation of the electric power industry to permit competition in the supply of electricity; improvements in performance characteristics of nuclear power plants, such as capacity factor, production costs, and safety factors; storage and disposal of all types of radioactive w

  4. Concepts for design of an energy management system incorporating dispersed storage and generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, H.; Koerner, T.; Nightingale, D.

    1981-04-01

    New forms of generation based on renewable resources must be managed as part of existing power systems in order to be utilized with maximum effectiveness. Many of these generators are by their very nature dispersed or small, so that they will be connected to the distribution part of the power system. This situation poses new questions of control and protection, and the intermittent nature of some of the energy sources poses problems of scheduling and dispatch. Under the assumption that the general objectives of energy management will remain unchanged, the impact of dispersed storage and generation on some of the specific functions of power system control and its hardware are discussed.

  5. Concepts for design of an energy management system incorporating dispersed storage and generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, H.; Koerner, T.; Nightingale, D.

    1981-01-01

    New forms of generation based on renewable resources must be managed as part of existing power systems in order to be utilized with maximum effectiveness. Many of these generators are by their very nature dispersed or small, so that they will be connected to the distribution part of the power system. This situation poses new questions of control and protection, and the intermittent nature of some of the energy sources poses problems of scheduling and dispatch. Under the assumption that the general objectives of energy management will remain unchanged, the impact of dispersed storage and generation on some of the specific functions of power system control and its hardware are discussed.

  6. On quantum algorithms for noncommutative hidden subgroups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettinger, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hoeyer, P. [Odense Univ. (Denmark)

    1998-12-01

    Quantum algorithms for factoring and discrete logarithm have previously been generalized to finding hidden subgroups of finite Abelian groups. This paper explores the possibility of extending this general viewpoint to finding hidden subgroups of noncommutative groups. The authors present a quantum algorithm for the special case of dihedral groups which determines the hidden subgroup in a linear number of calls to the input function. They also explore the difficulties of developing an algorithm to process the data to explicitly calculate a generating set for the subgroup. A general framework for the noncommutative hidden subgroup problem is discussed and they indicate future research directions.

  7. Evaluation of direct membrane filtration and direct forward osmosis as concepts for compact and energy-positive municipal wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Davidsson, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment commonly involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps to protect humans and the environment from adverse effects. Membrane technology has gained increasing attention as an alternative to conventional wastewater treatment due to increased urbanization...... positive with respect to electricity and energy, as more biogas can be produced compared to that using conventional wastewater treatment. Furthermore, the specific area demand is significantly reduced. This study demonstrates that municipal wastewater could be treated in a more energy- and area....... Among the available membrane technologies, microfiltration (MF) and forward osmosis (FO) have been selected for this study due to their specific characteristics, such as compactness and efficient removal of particles. In this study, two treatment concepts were evaluated with regard to their specific...

  8. The bacterial-fungal energy channel concept challenged by enormous functional versatility of soil protists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geisen, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protists (=protozoa) are commonly treated as bacterivores that control the bacterial energy channel in soil food webs. This ecologist’s perspective is, however, challenged by taxonomic studies showing that a range of protists feed on fungi, other protists and even nematodes. Recently, it wa

  9. Advanced low-energy building at Innsbruck. Integral concept; Niedrigenergie-Neubau in Innsbruck. Integrales Konzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldhoff, C.; Lenzen, B.; Schrag, T.; Raedler, J. [Dezentral - Energiekonzepte und Gebaeudesimulationen Waldhoff Raedler Lenzen Schrag GbR, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    The new administrative building of the Tyrol state government integrates architecture, utilisation and technical facilities into an optimized overall system. Thermal simulations were used in the project in order to achieve optimum energy efficiency and thermal comfort. The building has a surface of about 11,000 m{sup 2}; the total cost was about 21 million Euros. (orig.)

  10. Institutional options for rural energy access: Exploring the concept of the multifunctional platform in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    in the dominant discourse of development, and how including concerns, such as poverty alleviation, gender equity, local democracy, decentralisation and the environment, have attracted donors outside the energy sector. The paper thus argues that, while the integration of multiple technical functions, preconceived...

  11. Heat from beer and groundwater. Energy concept; Waerme aus Bier und Grundwasser. Energiekonzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinn, Ruediger

    2009-02-15

    In the neighbourhood of the Bavarian pilgrim's church of St. Afra im Felde near Augsburg, a conference and tourist hotel was projected and constructed within a very short period of time. The biggest challenge was to keep the energy cost for heating and cooling of the building as low as possible. (orig.)

  12. The bacterial-fungal energy channel concept challenged by enormous functional versatility of soil protists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geisen, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protists (=protozoa) are commonly treated as bacterivores that control the bacterial energy channel in soil food webs. This ecologist’s perspective is, however, challenged by taxonomic studies showing that a range of protists feed on fungi, other protists and even nematodes. Recently, it

  13. Conception, instrumentation, modelisation et analyse d'un element de stockage d'energie par chaleur latente

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millette, Jocelyn

    Des elements de stockage de chaleur utilisant l'electricite comme source d'energie sont utilises presentement en Europe ou la tarification de l'electricite varie en fonction du temps. Dans un contexte ou la dereglementation du marche de l'electricite s'opere massivement en Amerique du Nord, ce type d'appareil est susceptible d'etre beaucoup plus utilise afin de faire une gestion efficace de la consommation electrique. En assurant un meilleur facteur d'utilisation des installations de production, transport et distribution, les utilites pourront etre plus competitives. Les appareils disponibles sur le marche stockent l'energie sous forme sensible (ESECS), ce qui amene differents inconvenients: poids considerable, temperature elevee. Un nouveau type d'appareil est propose dans cette etude: un element de stockage d'energie par chaleur latente (ESECL). Cette etude traite donc de la conception de tels appareils. La demarche de conception proposee dans cette etude s'articule autour du choix des materiaux, du choix du concept de l'echangeur de chaleur. A ce sujet, les materiaux a changement de phase (MCP) etant generalement de mauvais conducteur thermique sous forme solide, la surface d'echange doit etre grande afin d'obtenir une puissance de destockage convenable. Le concept retenu est un element multicouches. D'apres la revue de litterature, la conception d'un element de stockage multicouches par chaleur latente n'a jamais ete abordee. Afin de pouvoir calculer les performances d'un ESECL a construire, un modele NTU-epsilon a ete developpe a cette fin. Contrairement. a ce qui est reporte dans la litterature, le modele developpe tient compte de la surchauffe et de la chaleur sensible dans le MCP solide. Afin d'etablir le modele, la convection naturelle dans le MCP liquide est negligee et un regime quasi permanent est considere dans le MCP. Un prototype d'ESECL a ete construit et instrumente dans le but d'eprouver la demarche de conception et de valider le modele developpe

  14. Economics of electron beam accelerator facilities: Concept vs actual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minbiole, Paul R.

    1995-02-01

    Electron beam accelerator facilities continue to demonstrate their ability to "add value" to a wide range of industrial products. The power, energy, and reliability of commercially available accelerators have increased steadily over the past several decades. The high throughput potential of modern electron beam facilities, together with the broad spectrum of commercial applications, result in the concept that an electron beam facility is an effective tool for adding economic value to industrial products. However, the high capital costs of such a facility (including hidden costs), together with practical limitations to high throughput (including several layers of inefficiencies), result in profit-and-loss economics which are more tenuous than expected after first analysis.

  15. Smart Energy 2010. Innovative, ICT-oriented concepts for the energy sector of future; Smart Energy 2010. Innovative, IKT-orientierte Konzepte fuer den Energiesektor der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossmann, Uwe; Kunold, Ingo (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    Architectures of energy information systems, smart metering, transfer and energy data, data security and safety, demand profiles, demand response, tariffs, segmentation of customers and customer feedback are examined within this volume. Thirteen papers contain the reports of practitioners and researchers from enterprises and research institutions on their work. The main focus of this book is on three topics ''smart metering'', ''IKT-architectures for energy distribution grids'' and ''energy markets and energy end customers''. New developments will be presented and critically examined. On the one hand this volume addresses researchers and practitioners from enterprises and research institutions, on the other hand teachers and students dealing with questions concerning the energy market of the future. (orig.)

  16. Searching for hidden-charm baryonium signals in QCD sum rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hua-Xing; Zhou, Dan [Beihang University, School of Physics, Beijing Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Materials and Physics, Beijing (China); Chen, Wei [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Liu, Xiang [Lanzhou University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University, Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Lanzhou (China); Zhu, Shi-Lin [Peking University, School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Peking University, Center of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-11-15

    We give an explicit QCD sum rule investigation for hidden-charm baryonium states with the quark content u anti ud anti dc anti c, spin J = 0/1/2/3, and of both positive and negative parities. We systematically construct the relevant local hidden-charm baryonium interpolating currents, which can actually couple to various structures, including hidden-charm baryonium states, charmonium states plus two pions, and hidden-charm tetraquark states plus one pion, etc. We do not know which structure these currents couple to at the beginning, but after sum rule analyses we can obtain some information. We find some of them can couple to hidden-charm baryonium states, using which we evaluate the masses of the lowest-lying hidden-charm baryonium states with quantum numbers J{sup P} = 2{sup -}/3{sup -}/0{sup +}/1{sup +}/2{sup +} to be around 5.0 GeV. We suggest to search for hidden-charm baryonium states, especially the one of J = 3{sup -}, in the D-wave J/ψππ and P-wave J/ψρ and J/ψω channels in this energy region. (orig.)

  17. ROBOTICALLY ENHANCED ADVANCED MANUFACTURING CONCEPTS TO OPTIMIZE ENERGY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry L. Keller; Joseph M. Pack; Robert V. Kolarik II

    2007-11-05

    In the first phase of the REML project, major assets were acquired for a manufacturing line for follow-on installation, capability studies and optimization. That activity has been documented in the DE-FC36-99ID13819 final report. In this the second phase of the REML project, most of the major assets have been installed in a manufacturing line arrangement featuring a green cell, a thermal treatment cell and a finishing cell. Most of the secondary and support assets have been acquired and installed. Assets have been integrated with a commercial, machine-tending gantry robot in the thermal treatment cell and with a low-mass, high-speed gantry robot in the finish cell. Capabilities for masterless gauging of product’s dimensional and form characteristics were advanced. Trial production runs across the entire REML line have been undertaken. Discrete event simulation modeling has aided in line balancing and reduction of flow time. Energy, productivity and cost, and environmental comparisons to baselines have been made. Energy The REML line in its current state of development has been measured to be about 22% (338,000 kVA-hrs) less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume of approximately 51,000 races. The reduction in energy consumption is largely attributable to the energy reduction in the REML thermal treatment cell where the heating devices are energized on demand and are appropriately sized to the heating load of a near single piece flow line. If additional steps such as power factor correction and use of high-efficiency motors were implemented to further reduce energy consumption, it is estimated, but not yet demonstrated, that the REML line would be about 30% less energy intensive than the baseline conventional low volume line assuming equivalent annual production volume. Productivity The capital cost of an REML line would be roughly equivalent to the capital cost of a new conventional line. The

  18. Initial Investigation of a Novel Thermal Storage Concept as Part of a Renewable Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Handbook of Batteries , 3rd Edn., D. Linden and T.B. Reddy, Eds. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2002, pp. 23.1-23.88. [6] “Electropaedia...RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR( S ) Lindsay M. Olsen 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School...Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10

  19. MIGREYD Modular IGCC concepts for in-Refinery Energy and Hydrogen supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romey, I.; Obladen, M.; Schulz, A. [Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Inst. Technology of Energy Supply and Energery Conversion Systems (TEE), Essen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    There is an increasing tendency for refineries to produce a greater proportion of light, high-hydrogen-content chemicals, which also results in greater quantities of heavy residues which require disposal. Gasification of these residues offers a number of options for utilisation of the resulting products. Importantly, gasification offers the opportunity for cost-effective production of hydrogen, which may not only be used in the refinery processes, but also in future fuel cell applications, either for stationary or transport options. The MIGREYD project opens an important bridge for the transition from the use of conventional fossil fuels to a future hydrogen based energy system. Through this project, an advanced, highly efficient in-refinery energy and hydrogen supply system will be developed that is flexible in terms of fuels (biomass, oil refinery residues, low-grade fossil fuels) and products (hydrogen, cogeneration of power and process heat, and other chemicals). The improved efficiency of the process stages and the synergistic benefits of poly-generation will realise savings of primary fossil energy resources, sustainable pollution control and a significant decrease of the total plant's CO{sub 2} emissions. (orig.)

  20. Generic Combined Heat and Power (CHP Model for the Concept Phase of Energy Planning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Gopisetty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro gas turbines (MGTs are regarded as combined heat and power (CHP units which offer high fuel utilization and low emissions. They are applied in decentralized energy generation. To facilitate the planning process of energy systems, namely in the context of the increasing application of optimization techniques, there is a need for easy-to-parametrize component models with sufficient accuracy which allow a fast computation. In this paper, a model is proposed where the non-linear part load characteristics of the MGT are linearized by means of physical insight of the working principles of turbomachinery. Further, it is shown that the model can be parametrized by the data usually available in spec sheets. With this model a uniform description of MGTs from several manufacturers covering an electrical power range from 30 k W to 333 k W can be obtained. The MGT model was implemented by means of Modelica/Dymola. The resulting MGT system model, comprising further heat exchangers and hydraulic components, was validated using the experimental data of a 65 k W MGT from a trigeneration energy system.

  1. Hybrid sunlight/LED illumination and renewable solar energy saving concepts for indoor lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuei, Chih-Hsuan; Sun, Wen-Shing; Kuo, Chien-Cheng

    2010-11-08

    A hybrid method for using sunlight and light-emitting diode (LED) illumination powered by renewable solar energy for indoor lighting is simulated and presented in this study. We can illuminate an indoor space and collect the solar energy using an optical switching system. When the system is turned off, the full spectrum of the sunlight is concentrated by a concentrator, to be absorbed by solar photovoltaic devices that provide the electricity to power the LEDs. When the system is turned on, the sunlight collected by the concentrator is split into visible and non-visible rays by a beam splitter. The visible rays pass through the light guide into a light box where it is mixed with LED light to ultimately provide uniform illumination by a diffuser. The non-visible rays are absorbed by the solar photovoltaic devices to provide electrical power for the LEDs. Simulation results show that the efficiency of the hybrid sunlight/LED illumination with the renewable solar energy saving design is better than that of LED and traditional lighting systems.

  2. Prospects for conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels: the concept of a solar fuels industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Anthony

    2013-08-13

    There is, at present, no solar fuels industry anywhere in the world despite the well-publicized needs to replace our depleting stock of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources. Many obstacles have to be overcome in order to store sunlight in the form of chemical potential, and there are severe barriers to surmount in order to produce energy on a massive scale, at a modest price and in a convenient form. It is also essential to allow for the intermittent nature of sunlight, its diffusiveness and variability and to cope with the obvious need to use large surface areas for light collection. Nonetheless, we have no alternative but to devise viable strategies for storage of sunlight as biomass or chemical feedstock. Simple alternatives, such as solar heating, are attractive in terms of quick demonstrations but are not the answer. Photo-electrochemical devices might serve as the necessary machinery by which to generate electronic charge but the main problem is to couple these charges to the multi-electron catalysis needed to drive energy-storing chemical reactions. Several potential fuels (CO, H₂, HCOOH, NH₃, O₂, speciality organics, etc.) are possible, but the photochemical reduction of CO₂ deserves particular mention because of ever-growing concerns about overproduction of greenhouse gases. The prospects for achieving these reactions under ambient conditions are considered herein.

  3. System Transition. Concepts and Framework for Analysing Nordic Energy System Research and Governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koennoelae, T.; Carrillo-Hermosilla, J. (The Centre for Eco-Intelligent Management, IE Business School The Centre for Eco-Intelligent Management, IE Business School, Madrid (Spain)); Have, R. van der (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2008-05-15

    System transitions are complex societal co-evolutionary processes that are typically led by gradual adaptation rather than visionary management or coordination. Still, visionary coordination of policies, regulation, corporate strategies and social learning may overcome some barriers and foster new innovation efforts providing sufficient impetus towards system transition. Building on earlier literature and experiences on system transitions and related research and governance, this paper develops an analytical framework. This framework integrates different transitions phases, levels and dimensions and combines them with the governance functions to provide overarching frames for understanding system transitions. While the framework is developed keeping in mind its application in the Nordic energy system transition research and governance, it may also be applicable in other sectors. For the didactic purposes, the paper applies the framework in the analysis of the three energy sector projects by positioning them in the developed framework. Further in-depth analysis of recent and on-going research and governance efforts may provide a good basis to identify relevant synergies and areas for future developments. Moreover, the use of such an overarching transition framework supports the coordination efforts between many sometimes even controversial efforts in the development of energy systems. (orig.)

  4. Workshop on innovation in materials processing and manufacture: Exploratory concepts for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, L.L. [comp.

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the workshop was to bring together industrial, academic, and DOE Laboratory personnel to discuss and identify potential areas for which creative, innovative, and/or multidisciplinary solutions could result in major payoffs for the nation`s energy economy, DOE, and industry. The topics emphasized in these discussions were: surfaces and interfacial processing technologies, biomolecular materials, powder/precursor technologies, magnetic materials, nanoscale materials, novel ceramics and composites, novel intermetallics and alloys, environmentally benign materials, and energy efficiency. The workshop had a 2-day format. One the first day, there was an introductory session that summarized future directions within DOE`s basic and materials technology programs, and the national studies on manufacturing and materials science and engineering. The balance of the workshop was devoted to brainstorming sessions by seven working groups. During the first working group session, the entire group was divided to discuss topics on: challenges for hostile environments, novel materials in transportation technologies, novel nanoscale materials, and opportunities in biomolecular materials. For the second session, the entire group (except for the working group on biomolecular materials) was reconfigured into new working groups on: alternative pathways to energy efficiency, environmentally benign materials and processes, and waste treatment and reduction: a basic sciences approach. This report contains separate reports from each of the seven working groups.

  5. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

    2011-07-15

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage

  6. Energy consumption characteristics of transports using the prop-fan concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The fuel saving and economic potentials of the prop-fan high-speed propeller concept were evaluated for twin-engine commercial transport airplanes designed for 3333.6 km range, 180 passengers, and Mach 0.8 cruise. A fuel saving of 9.7% at the design range was estimated for a prop-fan airplane having wing-mounted engines, while a 5.8% saving was estimated for a design having the engines mounted on the aft body. The fuel savings and cost were found to be sensitive to the propeller noise level and to aerodynamic drag effects due to wing-slipstream interaction. Uncertainties in these effects could change the fuel savings as much as + or - 50%. A modest improvement in direct operating cost (DOC) was estimated for the wing-mounted prop-fan at current fuel prices. This improvement could become substantial in the event of further relative increases in the price of oil. The improvement in DOC requires the achievement of the nominal fuel saving and reductions in propeller and gearbox maintenance costs relative to current experience.

  7. Concepts of flywheels for energy storage using autostable high-T(sub c) superconducting magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann, Hans J.; Zabka, R.; Boegler, P.; Urban, C.; Rietschel, H.

    1994-01-01

    A flywheel for energy storage using autostable high-T(sub c) superconducting magnetic bearings has been built. The rotating disk has a total weight of 2.8 kg. The maximum speed is 9240 rpm. A process that allows accelerated, reliable and reproducible production of melt-textured superconducting material used for the bearings has been developed. In order to define optimum configurations for radial and axial bearings, interaction forces in three dimensions and vertical and horizontal stiffness have been measured between superconductors and permanent magnets in different geometries and various shapes. Static as well as dynamic measurements have been performed. Results are being reported and compared to theoretical models.

  8. GEOTEC (Geothermal-Enhanced Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) engineering concept study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    The project was to provide a conceptual design for a modular state-of-the-art geothermal-enhanced ocean thermal energy conversion (GEOTEC) plant for implementation at a Navy site on Adak Island, Alaska. This report includes the following appendices: (1) statement of work; (2) geothermal resource assessment; (3) assessment of environmental issues; (4) design optimization program formulations for GEOTEC; (5) calculation of geofluid temperature drop in brine collection system; (6) pressure losses and pumping requirements for seawater pipeline system; (7) geocost comparison of single and dual binary cycle systems; (8) description of seawater pipeline system; and (9) plant system installed cost estimates. (ACR)

  9. A fuel cell energy storage system concept for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlhart, Otto J.; Rosso, Matthew J., Jr.; Marmolejo, Jose

    1989-01-01

    An update is given on work to design and build a Fuel Cell Energy Storage System (FCESS) bench-tested unit for the Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Fueled by oxygen and hydride-stored hydrogen, the FCESS is being considered as an alternative to the EMU zinc-silver oxide battery. Superior cycle life and quick recharge are the main attributes of FCESS. The design and performance of a nonventing, 28 V, 34 Ahr system with 7 amp rating are discussed.

  10. Dual-energy CT in gout - A review of current concepts and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hong; Chin, Teck Yew; Peh, Wilfred C G

    2017-02-26

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) is a relatively recent development in the imaging of gouty arthritis. Its availability and usage have become increasingly widespread in recent years. DECT is a non-invasive method for the visualisation, characterisation and quantification of monosodium urate crystal deposits which aids the clinician in the early diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of this condition. This article aims to give an up to date review and summary of existing literature on the role and accuracy of DECT in the imaging of gout. Techniques in image acquisition, processing and interpretation will be discussed along with pitfalls, artefacts and clinical applications.

  11. Hidden Variable Theories and Quantum Nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    We clarify the meaning of Bell's theorem and its implications for the construction of hidden variable theories by considering an example system consisting of two entangled spin-1/2 particles. Using this example, we present a simplified version of Bell's theorem and describe several hidden variable theories that agree with the predictions of…

  12. Estimating an Activity Driven Hidden Markov Model

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, David A.; Shakeel, Asif

    2015-01-01

    We define a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) in which each hidden state has time-dependent $\\textit{activity levels}$ that drive transitions and emissions, and show how to estimate its parameters. Our construction is motivated by the problem of inferring human mobility on sub-daily time scales from, for example, mobile phone records.

  13. Insight: Exploring Hidden Roles in Collaborative Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into interaction modes between players in co-located, collaborative games. In particular, hidden traitor games, in which one or more players is secretly working against the group mission, has the effect of increasing paranoia and distrust between players, so this paper looks into the opposite of a hidden traitor – a hidden benefactor. Rather than sabotaging the group mission, the hidden benefactor would help the group achieve the end goal while still having a reason to stay hidden. The paper explores what games with such a role can look like and how the role changes player interactions. Finally, the paper addresses the divide between video game and board game interaction modes; hidden roles are not common within video games, but they are of growing prevalence in board games. This fact, combined with the exploration of hidden benefactors, reveals that hidden roles is a mechanic that video games should develop into in order to match board games’ complexity of player interaction modes.

  14. Ontology-Based Automatically Hidden Web Portal Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONGHui; PANLeyun; MAFanyuan

    2004-01-01

    Many valuable databases on the Web have non-crawlable contents that are “hidden” behind the search forms. Information is available only by filling out HTML forms manually to query the underlying databases. For accessing data behind forms by automated agents, the critical task is having the corresponding query interfaces of the hidden databases that can be understood by machine. This paper presents an automatic approach of hidden Web portal index for various domains. It discovers and scrapes the query forms from Web pages based the tag-tree presentation, and then interpret them into the uniform mediate interfaces with the aid of domain ontology definition. To achieve high transformation accuracy, the domain ontology is also used to filter out the interfaces that are not related to the specific domain. The query interfaces gained finally represented with common concepts can automatically be indexed and retrieved by program. The experiments indicate that the algorithms used are efficient and the system is materially useful for information system or personalized Web search system to retrieval contents from hidden Web.

  15. Empowering us of the meanings about the energy concept, in non formal educational environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos S. Buitrago

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Citizens are users of consensual scientific knowledge and technology; but we also have the right and duty to engage with social responsibility in the techno-scientific world. The energy-related knowledge has remained as a relevant academic content for its significance to society, science and technology. In many countries, there are literacy campaigns on the subject, but is it enough this? Science education (formal and informal should allow us to understand the personal and social circumstances in which we live, to empower knowledge of science; this implies achieving conceptual development and act, which requires interacting with contextualized learning environments in critical action. From the experimental activity we wonder if the demonstrative experiences in no formal settings organized with critical nodes of significance on the subject of energy will promote the empowerment of scientific ideas. The study begins with an exploration of ideas on the subject built by a heterogeneous group; with which we established critical points of significance and to design a route of demonstrative experiences potentially meaningful and critiques.

  16. On the optimization of the generalized coplanar Hohmann impulsive transfer adopting energy change concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel, Osman M. [Cairo Univ., Astronomy and Space Sciences Dept., Giza (Egypt); Soliman, Adel S. [National Research Center, Theoretical Physics Dept., Dokki, Giza (Egypt)

    2005-02-15

    We considered the problem of transferring the rocket's orbit to higher energy orbit, using minimum fuel cost, as a problem in change of energy, since this is most convenient. For the generalized Hohmann case (the departure; the transferring and the destination orbits are ellipses), we adopt the first configuration only, when the apogee of transfer orbit, and the apogee of destination orbit are coincident. Firstly, we assign the {delta}v{sub A}, {delta}v{sub B} increments in velocity at points A,B (the position of peri-apse and apo-apse impulses respectively), as functions of the eccentricity of the transfer orbit, e{sub T}. Subsequently, we apply the optimum condition leading to the derivation of the quartic equation in e{sub T}, and showed how to deduce ({delta}v{sub A}+{delta}v{sub B}){sub Min}. A numerical example is presented, in which we determined the four roots of the quartic equation, by a numerical Mathematica Version 2.2. We selected the adequate consistent root, only one in this case, and evaluated ({delta}v{sub A}+{delta}v{sub B}){sub Min} for the two orbits of the couple Earth and Mars. This article is a new approach and leads to new discoveries involved in the problem, consequently adds new insight and avoids complexities of previous procedures. (Author)

  17. Marginal share of renewable energy sources of variable electricity generation: A contribution to the concept definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grković Vojin R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology development is a keystone within the efforts toward enabling longer duration of the world fossil energy resources. The past development and the technologies applied, cause huge emissions of СО2 that must be significantly reduced. Increased usage of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-e contributes essentially to the reduction of CO2, but on the other hand, under current conditions of feed-in priority reduces also the market for the electricity from fossil fuelled power plants (FFPP. The other possibility for reduction of CO2 emissions is to apply carbon capture and storage technologies as a part of overall FFPP technologies. A hypothesis presented in this paper is that there is a marginal share of RES variable electricity in overall annual electricity supply after which further increase of RES-e participation produces higher average electricity generated cost, than in the case of CO2 emission reduction by applying CCS technologies. The presented work confirms this hypothesis. Value of the marginal share depends to the price of RES-e feed-in. With the price span from 13.5 to 7.5€c/kWh, the marginal share is under 50%.

  18. Hidden Markov models in automatic speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzoskowicz, Adam

    1993-11-01

    This article describes a method for constructing an automatic speech recognition system based on hidden Markov models (HMMs). The author discusses the basic concepts of HMM theory and the application of these models to the analysis and recognition of speech signals. The author provides algorithms which make it possible to train the ASR system and recognize signals on the basis of distinct stochastic models of selected speech sound classes. The author describes the specific components of the system and the procedures used to model and recognize speech. The author discusses problems associated with the choice of optimal signal detection and parameterization characteristics and their effect on the performance of the system. The author presents different options for the choice of speech signal segments and their consequences for the ASR process. The author gives special attention to the use of lexical, syntactic, and semantic information for the purpose of improving the quality and efficiency of the system. The author also describes an ASR system developed by the Speech Acoustics Laboratory of the IBPT PAS. The author discusses the results of experiments on the effect of noise on the performance of the ASR system and describes methods of constructing HMM's designed to operate in a noisy environment. The author also describes a language for human-robot communications which was defined as a complex multilevel network from an HMM model of speech sounds geared towards Polish inflections. The author also added mandatory lexical and syntactic rules to the system for its communications vocabulary.

  19. Humanism, the Hidden Curriculum, and Educational Reform: A Scoping Review and Thematic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martimianakis, Maria Athina Tina; Michalec, Barret; Lam, Justin; Cartmill, Carrie; Taylor, Janelle S; Hafferty, Frederic W

    2015-11-01

    Medical educators have used the hidden curriculum concept for over three decades to make visible the effects of tacit learning, including how culture, structures, and institutions influence professional identity formation. In response to calls to see more humanistic-oriented training in medicine, the authors examined how the hidden curriculum construct has been applied in the English language medical education literature with a particular (and centering) look at its use within literature pertaining to humanism. They also explored the ends to which the hidden curriculum construct has been used in educational reform efforts (at the individual, organizational, and/or systems levels) related to nurturing and/or increasing humanism in health care. The authors conducted a scoping review and thematic analysis that draws from the tradition of critical discourse analysis. They identified 1,887 texts in the literature search, of which 200 met inclusion criteria. The analysis documents a strong preoccupation with negative effects of the hidden curriculum, particularly the moral erosion of physicians and the perceived undermining of humanistic values in health care. A conflation between professionalism and humanism was noted. Proposals for reform largely target medical students and medical school faculty, with very little consideration for how organizations, institutions, and sociopolitical relations more broadly contribute to problematic behaviors. The authors argue that there is a need to transcend conceptualizations of the hidden curriculum as antithetical to humanism and offer suggestions for future research that explores the necessity and value of humanism and the hidden curriculum in medical education and training.

  20. Heating up the Galaxy with hidden photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovsky, Sergei [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University,New York, NY, 10003 (United States); Hernández-Chifflet, Guzmán [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University,New York, NY, 10003 (United States); Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de la República,Montevideo, 11300 (Uruguay)

    2015-12-29

    We elaborate on the dynamics of ionized interstellar medium in the presence of hidden photon dark matter. Our main focus is the ultra-light regime, where the hidden photon mass is smaller than the plasma frequency in the Milky Way. We point out that as a result of the Galactic plasma shielding direct detection of ultra-light photons in this mass range is especially challenging. However, we demonstrate that ultra-light hidden photon dark matter provides a powerful heating source for the ionized interstellar medium. This results in a strong bound on the kinetic mixing between hidden and regular photons all the way down to the hidden photon masses of order 10{sup −20} eV.

  1. Hidden Web信息获取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈珂; 陈小英; 徐科

    2007-01-01

    如今Web上越来越多的信息可以通过查询接口获得,但为了获取某Hidden Web站点的页面,用户不得不键入一系列的关键词.由于没有直接指向Hidden Web页面的静态链接,当前大多搜索引擎不能发现和索引这些页面.然而,研究表明,由Hidden Web站点提供的高质量的信息对许多用户来说非常有价值.文章通过研究针对特定类型的表单,建立一个有效的Hidden Web爬虫,以便获取Hidden Web后台数据库信息.

  2. The biodrying concept: an innovative technology creating energy from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, M-K H; Bennenbroek, M H; Horstink, F H; van Loosdrecht, M C M; van de Pol, G-J

    2013-11-01

    A full-scale biodrying installation was treating 150 kton (wet weight) of dewatered waste activated sludge per year. The waste was treated at thermophilic conditions (65-75 °C) in a 2-step forced aeration process reducing the total wet sludge weight by 73%. The final product had a high caloric value (7700-10,400 (kJ/kg)), allowing a combustion for energy generation in external facilities. The resulting product met the European microbial and heavy metal quality standards needed for an application as organic fertilizer. The facility used buildings. Produced ammonia, originating from the microbial conversion of organic matter, was recovered from the ventilated air in an acid gas scrubber as an ammonium sulphate solution 40% (w/w) (7.3 kton/year) and was sold as substitute for artificial fertilizers. The sustainability of this process is discussed relative to other sludge handling processes.

  3. Hidden Markov processes theory and applications to biology

    CERN Document Server

    Vidyasagar, M

    2014-01-01

    This book explores important aspects of Markov and hidden Markov processes and the applications of these ideas to various problems in computational biology. The book starts from first principles, so that no previous knowledge of probability is necessary. However, the work is rigorous and mathematical, making it useful to engineers and mathematicians, even those not interested in biological applications. A range of exercises is provided, including drills to familiarize the reader with concepts and more advanced problems that require deep thinking about the theory. Biological applications are t

  4. Heat-Pipe Development for Advanced Energy Transport Concepts Final Report Covering the Period January 1999 through September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.S.Reid; J.F.Sena; A.L.Martinez

    2002-10-01

    This report summarizes work in the Heat-pipe Technology Development for the Advanced Energy Transport Concepts program for the period January 1999 through September 2001. A gas-loaded molybdenum-sodium heat pipe was built to demonstrate the active pressure-control principle applied to a refractory metal heat pipe. Other work during the period included the development of processing procedures for and fabrication and testing of three types of sodium heat pipes using Haynes 230, MA 754, and MA 956 wall materials to assess the compatibility of these materials with sodium. Also during this period, tests were executed to measure the response of a sodium heat pipe to the penetration of water.

  5. Aesthetic function of artistic signs to promote discursive processes in the classroom: an application for teaching mechanical energy concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the use of an artistic work as mediator to trigger and sustain discursive participation of high school students in the classroom. Since the discursive dimension is an essential factor in constructivist teaching orientation, the general idea behind the work seeks to make use of the aesthetic function of signs to enhance the participation of learners discourse. With this goal in mind, the artistic sign painting Water Fall of the artist Maurits Cornelis Escher is employed for teaching physics concept of conservation of mechanical energy. The study compares two methods of a teacher who tries to promote students interactivity discursive. One methodology is guided only by formulating questions and other uses also an artistic sign along with the questions. The work shows that the teacher gets more successfully discursive participation of their students using the second methodology.

  6. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  7. A Bourdieusian Analysis of Cultural Reproduction: Socialisation and the "Hidden Curriculum" in Professional Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Christopher J.; Jones, Robyn L.

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on the theoretical concepts of Pierre Bourdieu to provide an explanatory account of how socialisation and the hidden curriculum within coaching practice contribute toward the formation of social identities and powerful schemes of internalised dispositions. Drawing on a 10 month ethnography within professional football, the…

  8. Construction of classical and quantum integrable field models unravelling hidden possibilities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anjan Kundu

    2015-11-01

    Reviewing briefly the concept of classical and quantum integrable systems, we propose an alternative Lax operator approach, leading to quasi-higher-dimensional integrable model, unravelling some hidden dimensions in integrable systems. As an example, we construct a novel integrable quasi-two-dimensional NLS equation at the classical and the quantum levels with intriguing application in rogue wave modelling.

  9. A Bourdieusian Analysis of Cultural Reproduction: Socialisation and the "Hidden Curriculum" in Professional Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Christopher J.; Jones, Robyn L.

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on the theoretical concepts of Pierre Bourdieu to provide an explanatory account of how socialisation and the hidden curriculum within coaching practice contribute toward the formation of social identities and powerful schemes of internalised dispositions. Drawing on a 10 month ethnography within professional football, the…

  10. Geothermal concept for energy efficient improvement of space heating and cooling in highly urbanized area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranjes Ana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New Belgrade is a highly urbanized commercial and residential district of Belgrade lying on the alluvial plane of the Sava and the Danube rivers. The groundwater of the area is a geothermal resource that is usable through geothermal heat pumps (GHP. The research has shown that the “heat island effect” affects part of the alluvial groundwater with the average groundwater temperature of about 15.5°C, i.e. 2°C higher than the one in less urbanized surroundings. Based on the measured groundwater temperatures as well as the appraisal of the sustainable aquifer yield, the available thermal power of the resource is estimated to about 29MWt. The increasing urbanization trend of the New Belgrade district implies the growing energy demands that may partly be met by the available groundwater thermal power. Taking into consideration the average apartment consumption of 80 Wm-2, it is possible to heat about 360,000 m2 and with the consumption efficiency of 50 Wm-2, it would be possible to heat over 570,000 m2. Environmental and financial aspects were considered through the substitution of conventional fuels and the reduction of greenhouse gas emission as well as through the optimization of the resource use.

  11. Hidden scale in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Giri, Pulak Ranjan

    2007-01-01

    We show that the intriguing localization of a free particle wave-packet is possible due to a hidden scale present in the system. Self-adjoint extensions (SAE) is responsible for introducing this scale in quantum mechanical models through the nontrivial boundary conditions. We discuss a couple of classically scale invariant free particle systems to illustrate the issue. In this context it has been shown that a free quantum particle moving on a full line may have localized wave-packet around the origin. As a generalization, it has also been shown that particles moving on a portion of a plane or on a portion of a three dimensional space can have unusual localized wave-packet.

  12. The hidden symmetry and Mr. Higgs!

    CERN Document Server

    Papachristou, C J

    2014-01-01

    Written in non-technical language, this review article explains the significance of the Higgs field and the associated Higgs boson in High-Energy Physics. The connection of symmetry with particle interactions and their unification is also discussed in this context. The presentation is informal and physical concepts are demonstrated through metaphors from everyday experience.

  13. Development of a methodology for defining whole-building energy design targets for commercial buildings: Phase 2, Development concept stage report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.W. (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA (USA)); Deringer, J.J. (Deringer Group, Riva, MD (USA)); Hall, J.D. (American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC (USA)) (comps.)

    1990-09-01

    The Whole-Building Energy Design Targets project is being conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The objective of the project is to develop a flexible methodology for setting energy performance guidelines with which architects, engineers, planners, and owners can assess energy efficiency in commercial building design. This volume, the third in the four-volume report on the Targets project concept stage, contains the minutes of the workshops as well as summaries of the expert's written comments prepared at the close of each workshop. In Section 2, the building energy simulation workshop is summarized. Section 3 provides a summary of the building cost workshop.

  14. Nature of Science and Science Content Learning - The Relation Between Students' Nature of Science Understanding and Their Learning About the Concept of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Hanno; Neumann, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Besides viewing knowledge about the nature of science (NOS) as important for its own value with respect to scientific literacy, an adequate understanding of NOS is expected to improve science content learning by fostering the ability to interrelate scientific concepts and, thus, coherently acquire scientific content knowledge. However, there is a lack of systematic investigations, which clarify the relations between NOS and science content learning. In this paper, we present the results of a study, conducted to investigate how NOS understanding relates to students' acquisition of a proper understanding of the concept of energy. A total of 82 sixth and seventh grade students received an instructional unit on energy, with 41 of them receiving generic NOS instruction beforehand. This NOS instruction, however, did not result in students having higher scores on the NOS instrument. Thus, correlational analyses were performed to investigate how students' NOS understanding prior to the energy unit related to their learning about science content. Results show that a more adequate understanding of NOS might relate to students' perspective on the concept of energy and might support them in understanding the nature of energy as a theoretical concept. Students with higher NOS understanding, for example, seemed to be more capable of learning how to relate the different energy forms to each other and to justify why they can be subsumed under the term of energy. Further, we found that NOS understanding may also be related to students' approach toward energy degradation—a concept that can be difficult for students to master—while it does not seem to have a substantive impact on students' learning gain regarding energy forms, transformation, or conservation.

  15. Constraints on sub-GeV hidden sector gauge bosons from a search for heavy neutrino decays

    CERN Document Server

    Gninenko, S N

    2012-01-01

    Several models of dark matter motivate the concept of hidden sectors consisting of SU(3)_C x SU(2)_L x U(1)_Y singlet fields. The interaction between our and hidden matter could be transmitted by new abelian U'(1) gauge bosons A' mixing with ordinary photons. If such A's with the mass in the sub-GeV range exist, they would be produced through mixing with photons emitted in two photon decays of \\eta,\\eta' neutral mesons generated by the high energy proton beam in a neutrino target. The A's would then penetrate the downstream shielding and be observed in a neutrino detector via their A'-> e+e- decays. Using bounds from the CHARM neutrino experiment at CERN that searched for an excess of e+e- pairs from heavy neutrino decays, the area excluding the \\gamma - A' mixing range 10^{-7} \\gamma X) \\gamma X) < 10^{-12} are obtained, which are several orders of magnitude more restrictive than the previous bounds from the Crystal Barrel experiment.

  16. Concepts for `superior process control` in the energy industry; Konzepte fuer die uebergeordnete Prozessfuehrung in der Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doellen, U.C. von

    1996-12-01

    The work concerns the task of control described as dispatching of extensive energy supply and distribution networks. Due to the special contractual situation, there are special long-term targets in firms, which must be achieved in addition to the extensive operational tasks of control and monitoring of the networks. The concepts introduced in the work offer a framework for a target-orientated design of computer-aided menus for this superior process control in the energy industry. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Die Arbeit betrachtet die als Dispatching bezeichnete Aufgabe der Fuehrung ausgedehnter Energieversorgungs- und verteilungsnetze. Aus den speziellen Vertragssituationen ergeben sich in den Unternehmen besondere, langfristige Zielvorgaben an die mit der Betriebsfuehrung beauftragen Operateure, die zusaetzlich zu den umfangreichen operativen Aufgaben der Fuehrung und Ueberwachung der Netze zu erreichen sind. Die in der Arbeit vorgestellten Konzepte bieten den Rahmen fuer einen zielgerichteten Entwurf rechnergestuetzter Hilfsmittel fuer diese uebergeordnete Prozessfuehrung in der Energiewirtschaft. Das erstellte Gesamtsystem wird abschliessend zur Loesung einer konkreten, energiewirtschaftlichen Problemstellung eingesetzt. Die entwickelte Anwendungsloesung wird als Hilfsmittel fuer die technische und vertragliche Optimierung im Dispatching eingesetzt. Wesentliche Zielsetzung ist ein technisch und wirtschaftlich optimaler Einsatz von Energiespeichern zur Deckung von Spitzenlasten. (orig./GL)

  17. Hidden torsion, 3-manifolds, and homology cobordism

    CERN Document Server

    Cha, Jae Choon

    2011-01-01

    This paper continues our exploration of homology cobordism of 3-manifolds using our recent results on Cheeger-Gromov rho-invariants associated to amenable representations. We introduce a new type of torsion in 3-manifold groups we call hidden torsion, and an algebraic approximation we call local hidden torsion. We construct infinitely many hyperbolic 3-manifolds which have local hidden torsion in the transfinite lower central subgroup. By realizing Cheeger-Gromov invariants over amenable groups, we show that our hyperbolic 3-manifolds are not pairwise homology cobordant, yet remain indistinguishable by any prior known homology cobordism invariants.

  18. A survey of hidden-variables theories

    CERN Document Server

    Belinfante, F J

    1973-01-01

    A Survey of Hidden-Variables Theories is a three-part book on the hidden-variable theories, referred in this book as """"theories of the first kind"""". Part I reviews the motives in developing different types of hidden-variables theories. The quest for determinism led to theories of the first kind; the quest for theories that look like causal theories when applied to spatially separated systems that interacted in the past led to theories of the second kind. Parts II and III further describe the theories of the first kind and second kind, respectively. This book is written to make the literat

  19. Visible Effects of Invisible Hidden Valley Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Carloni, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Assuming there is a new gauge group in a Hidden Valley, and a new type of radiation, can we observe it through its effect on the kinematic distributions of recoiling visible particles? Specifically, what are the collider signatures of radiation in a hidden sector? We address these questions using a generic SU(N)-like Hidden Valley model that we implement in Pythia. We find that in both the e+e- and the LHC cases the kinematic distributions of the visible particles can be significantly affected by the valley radiation. Without a proper understanding of such effects, inferred masses of "communicators" and of invisible particles can be substantially off.

  20. Maximizing the Production of Biogas in an Instructional Manipulative Designed to Teach Energy Concepts to High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Shakira Renee

    In an effort to stress the benefits of the application of renewable energy to the next generation of science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) professionals, instructional modules on energy and biogas were integrated into a summer camp curriculum that challenged students to apply STEAM concepts in the design and development of chain reaction machines. Each module comprised an interactive presentations and a hands-on component where students operated a manipulative relevant to the content. During summer 2013, this camp was implemented at two high schools in Arizona and one in Trinidad and Tobago. Assessments showed that the overall modules were effective in helping students learn and retain the information presented on energy and biogas production. To improve future implementations of these modules, specifically the module on biogas production, the anaerobic digester was redesigned. In addition, a designed experiment was conducted to determine how to optimize the influent and operational environment that is available in an average high school classroom to generate maximum biogas yield. Eight plug-flow anaerobic digesters made of PVC piping and fixtures were used in a 2x3 factorial design assessing: co-digestion (20mL or 50mL) used cooking oil, temperature (25°C or 40°C), and addition of inoculum (0mL or 200mL). Biogas production was captured at two intervals over a 30-day period, and the experiments were replicated three times. Results showed that temperature at 40°C significantly increased biogas production and should be used over 25°C when using anaerobic digesters. Other factors that may potentially increase biogas production are combination of temperature at 40°C and 50mL of used cooking oil. In the future, the improvements made in the design of the anaerobic digester, and the applications of the finding from the experimental design, are expected to lead to an improved manipulative for teaching students about biogas production.

  1. Development and Realisation of the Concept House ‘Delft’ Prototype: An Example of a Collaborative Concept Development for Energy Positive Apartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhout, A.J.C.M.; Van Timmeren, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Delft Prototype is a single apartment from a not yet realized Concept House Urban Villa, which consists of 16 apartments on 4 floors. Both the urban villa and the prototype demonstrate the characteristics of high level industrial production with an extremely low ecological footprint, as well as

  2. Development and Realisation of the Concept House ‘Delft’ Prototype: An Example of a Collaborative Concept Development for Energy Positive Apartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhout, A.J.C.M.; Van Timmeren, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Delft Prototype is a single apartment from a not yet realized Concept House Urban Villa, which consists of 16 apartments on 4 floors. Both the urban villa and the prototype demonstrate the characteristics of high level industrial production with an extremely low ecological footprint, as well as

  3. Dark matter and dark forces from a hidden sector with gravity mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah; Goodsell, Mark; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Hidden sectors arise naturally in various extensions of the standard model and from string compactifications. Scenarios containing a dark matter particle coupled to a hidden U(1) gauge boson which kinetically mixes with the SM photon are of great interest since they could explain recent terrestrial and astrophysical anomalies, like the e{sup +} e{sup -} excesses observed by PAMELA, the annual modulation signal reported by DAMA/LIBRA and the low energy events seen by CoGeNT. The latter two direct detection observations seem to point towards a light dark matter candidate. String theory provides an additional motivation for hidden sectors but interestingly seems to favour models with gravity mediation, rather than gauge mediation which has been generally assumed in the context of light hidden dark matter. Therefore, we construct a light hidden sector in a simple supersymmetric model in which the supersymmetry breaking effects are dominated by gravity mediation and study the phenomenology of the corresponding dark matter particle and the hidden photon, the ''Dark Force''.

  4. Locally probing the hidden order in URu2Si2 by impurity doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seung J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Curro, Nicholas H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graf, Matthias J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balatsky, Alexander V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bauer, Eric C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cooley, Jason D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, James L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Impurity atoms in materials with strong electron-electron correlations can produce dramatic effects on the ground state electronic configuration. The strongly correlated system URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} exhibits a broken symmetry ground state whose nature has eluded researchers for more than two decades. Below a transition temperature T{sub 0} {approx} 17.5 K, the electrons condense into a new phase of matter with a symmetry that does not couple to conventional spin or charge probes. The emergence of this hidden order parameter is accompanied by the development of a partial gap in the single particle density of states, which can be detected through measurements of the electronic specific heat. Here we report nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and spin lattice relaxation rates in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} doped with Rh impurities. Rh doping suppresses the hidden order and gives rise to local patches of antiferromagnetism, whose states have energies below the hidden order gap and are localized in regions where the hidden order parameter varies spatially. For sufficiently large Rh doping these local states percolate and completely suppress all long-range (hidden and antiferromagnetic) order. These observations of the local impurity states suggest that the hidden order is a spin pairing in the particle-hole channel.

  5. Coding with partially hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Rissanen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Partially hidden Markov models (PHMM) are introduced. They are a variation of the hidden Markov models (HMM) combining the power of explicit conditioning on past observations and the power of using hidden states. (P)HMM may be combined with arithmetic coding for lossless data compression. A general...... 2-part coding scheme for given model order but unknown parameters based on PHMM is presented. A forward-backward reestimation of parameters with a redefined backward variable is given for these models and used for estimating the unknown parameters. Proof of convergence of this reestimation is given....... The PHMM structure and the conditions of the convergence proof allows for application of the PHMM to image coding. Relations between the PHMM and hidden Markov models (HMM) are treated. Results of coding bi-level images with the PHMM coding scheme is given. The results indicate that the PHMM can adapt...

  6. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  7. Faddeev-Jackiw approach to hidden symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Wotzasek, C

    1994-01-01

    The study of hidden symmetries within Dirac's formalism does not possess a systematic procedure due to the lack of first-class constraints to act as symmetry generators. On the other hand, in the Faddeev-Jackiw approach, gauge and reparametrization symmetries are generated by the null eigenvectors of the sympletic matrix and not by constraints, suggesting the possibility of dealing systematically with hidden symmetries through this formalism. It is shown in this paper that indeed hidden symmetries of noninvariant or gauge fixed systems are equally well described by null eigenvectors of the sympletic matrix, just as the explicit invariances. The Faddeev-Jackiw approach therefore provide a systematic algorithm for treating all sorts of symmetries in an unified way. This technique is illustrated here by the SL(2,R) Kac-Moody current algebra of the 2-D induced gravity proposed by Polyakov, which is a hidden symmetry in the canonical approach of constrained systems via Dirac's method, after conformal and reparamet...

  8. Fibroid Tumors in Women: A Hidden Epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Fibroid Tumors in Women: A Hidden Epidemic? Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... fibroids@rics.bwh.harvard.edu , or visit our Web site: www.fibroids.net . You may also write ...

  9. Compressed air energy storage power plants as an option for the grid integration of renewable energy sources. A comparison of the concepts; Druckluftspeicherkraftwerke als Option zur Netzintegration erneuerbarer Energiequellen. Ein Vergleich der Konzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuschy, Ilja [Fachhochschule Flensburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiesystemtechnik

    2008-07-01

    The integration of an increasing amount of power generation from renewable energy sources is a large challenge for the electricity supply. Apart from the compensation of varying production by supra-regional grids and apart from the further development of peak load power stations the energy storage is discussed as an option. Several power suppliers referred to compressed air energy storage plants as a possible solution. The authors of the contribution under consideration compare the different concepts for compressed air energy power stations systematically. A special emphasis is the thermodynamic evaluation of the different concepts. Also energy-technical aspects are addressed which decide on possibilities of application and perspectives of development for compressed air energy power stations.

  10. Modular pump-turbine concept supporting the integration of renewable energy sources in a decentralised grid; Modulare Pumpturbine als Unterstuetzung bei der Einbindung alternativer Energien ins dezentrale Stromnetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doujak, Eduard; Unterberger, Philipp; Bauer, Christian [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Energietechnik und Thermodynamik

    2012-11-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems in Europe leads to several challenges in the energy market. Energy storage for stable grid operation has become a necessity. Pumped storage is the only technology available today that is able to store large amounts of energy efficiently and with low specific storage costs. The Vienna University of Technology is currently investigating how existing artificial lakes for snow production could be integrated in pumped storage production systems. A new modular pump turbine concept and its application prospects are presented. (orig.)

  11. Hidden figures are ever present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mens, L H; Leeuwenberg, E L

    1988-11-01

    Preference judgments about alternative interpretations of unambiguous patterns can be explained in terms of a rivalry between a preferred and a second-best interpretation (cf. Leeuwenberg & Buffart, 1983). We tested whether this second-best interpretation corresponds to a suppressed but concurrently present interpretation or whether it merely reflects an alternative view that happens to be preferred less often. Two patterns were present immediately following each other with a very short onset asynchrony: a complete pattern and one out of three possible subpatterns of it, corresponding to the best, the second best, or an odd interpretation of the complete pattern. Subjects indicated which subpattern was presented by choosing among the three subpatterns shown after each trial. The scores, corrected for response-bias effects, indicated a relative facilitation of the second-best interpretation, in agreement with its predicted "hidden" presence. This result is more in line with theories that capitalize on the quality of the finally selected representation than with processing models aimed at reaching one single solution as fast and as economically as possible.

  12. Hidden Local Symmetry and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yamawaki, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Gerry Brown was a godfather of our hidden local symmetry (HLS) for the vector meson from the birth of the theory throughout his life. The HLS is originated from very nature of the nonlinear realization of the symmetry G based on the manifold G/H, and thus is universal to any physics based on the nonlinear realization. Here I focus on the Higgs Lagrangian of the Standard Model (SM), which is shown to be equivalent to the nonlinear sigma model based on G/H= SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R/SU(2)_V with additional symmetry, the nonlinearly realized scale symmetry. Then the SM does have a dynamical gauge boson of the SU(2)_V HLS, "SM rho meson", in addition to the Higgs as a pseudo dilaton as well as the NG bosons to be absorbed into the W and Z. Based on the recent work done with S. Matsuzaki and H. Ohki, I discuss a novel possibility that the SM rho meson acquires kinetic term by the SM dynamics itself, which then stabilizes the skyrmion dormant in the SM as a viable candidate for the dark matter, what we call "Dark SM skyrmi...

  13. Hidden local symmetry and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Koichi

    Gerry Brown was a godfather of our hidden local symmetry (HLS) for the vector meson from the birth of the theory throughout his life. The HLS is originated from very nature of the nonlinear realization of the symmetry G based on the manifold G/H, and thus is universal to any physics based on the nonlinear realization. Here, I focus on the Higgs Lagrangian of the Standard Model (SM), which is shown to be equivalent to the nonlinear sigma model based on G/H = SU(2)L × SU(2)R/SU(2)V with additional symmetry, the nonlinearly-realized scale symmetry. Then, the SM does have a dynamical gauge boson of the SU(2)V HLS, "SM ρ meson", in addition to the Higgs as a pseudo-dilaton as well as the NG bosons to be absorbed in to the W and Z. Based on the recent work done with Matsuzaki and Ohki, I discuss a novel possibility that the SM ρ meson acquires kinetic term by the SM dynamics itself, which then stabilizes the skyrmion dormant in the SM as a viable candidate for the dark matter, what we call "dark SM skyrmion (DSMS)".

  14. Constraining solar hidden photons using HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, R.; Kekez, D., E-mail: Dalibor.Kekez@irb.hr; Krčmar, M.; Krečak, Z.; Ljubičić, A.

    2013-04-25

    In this Letter we report on the results of our search for photons from a U(1) gauge factor in the hidden sector of the full theory. With our experimental setup we observe the single spectrum in a HPGe detector arising as a result of the photoelectric-like absorption of hidden photons emitted from the Sun on germanium atoms inside the detector. The main ingredient of the theory used in our analysis, a severely constrained kinetic mixing from the two U(1) gauge factors and massive hidden photons, entails both photon into hidden state oscillations and a minuscule coupling of hidden photons to visible matter, of which the latter our experimental setup has been designed to observe. On a theoretical side, full account was taken of the effects of refraction and damping of photons while propagating in Sun's interior as well as in the detector. We exclude hidden photons with kinetic couplings χ>(2.2×10{sup −13}–3×10{sup −7}) in the mass region 0.2 eV≲m{sub γ{sup ′}}≲30 keV. Our constraints on the mixing parameter χ in the mass region from 20 eV up to 15 keV prove even slightly better then those obtained recently by using data from the CAST experiment, albeit still somewhat weaker than those obtained from solar and HB stars lifetime arguments.

  15. Hidden beauty baryon states in the local hidden gauge approach with heavy quark spin symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, C.W.; Oset, E. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Valencia (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Using a coupled-channel unitary approach, combining the heavy quark spin symmetry and the dynamics of the local hidden gauge, we investigate the meson-baryon interaction with hidden beauty and obtain several new states of N around 11 GeV. We consider the basis of states {eta}{sub b} N, {Upsilon};N, B {Lambda}{sub b}, B {Sigma}{sub b}, B{sup *}{Lambda}{sub b}, B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}, B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}{sup *} and find four basic bound states which correspond to B {Sigma}{sub b}, B {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *}, B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b} and B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}{sup *}, decaying mostly into {eta}{sub b} N and {Upsilon}N and with a binding energy about 50-130 MeV with respect to the thresholds of the corresponding channel. All of them have isospin I = 1/2, and we find no bound states or resonances in I = 3/2. The B {Sigma}{sub b} state appears in J = 1/2, the B {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *} in J = 3/2, the B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b} appears nearly degenerate in J = 1/2, 3/2 and the B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}{sup *} appears nearly degenerate in J = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2. These states have a width from 2-110 MeV, with conservative estimates of uncertainties, except for the one in J = 5/2 which has zero width since it cannot decay into any of the states of the basis chosen. We make generous estimates of the uncertainties and find that within very large margins these states appear bound. (orig.)

  16. Field-induced spin-density wave beyond hidden order in URu2Si2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, W.; Duc, F.; Bourdarot, F.; Kuwahara, K.; Nojiri, H.; Aoki, D.; Billette, J.; Frings, P.; Tonon, X.; Lelièvre-Berna, E.; Flouquet, J.; Regnault, L.-P.

    2016-10-01

    URu2Si2 is one of the most enigmatic strongly correlated electron systems and offers a fertile testing ground for new concepts in condensed matter science. In spite of >30 years of intense research, no consensus on the order parameter of its low-temperature hidden-order phase exists. A strong magnetic field transforms the hidden order into magnetically ordered phases, whose order parameter has also been defying experimental observation. Here, thanks to neutron diffraction under pulsed magnetic fields up to 40 T, we identify the field-induced phases of URu2Si2 as a spin-density-wave state. The transition to the spin-density wave represents a unique touchstone for understanding the hidden-order phase. An intimate relationship between this magnetic structure, the magnetic fluctuations and the Fermi surface is emphasized, calling for dedicated band-structure calculations.

  17. Development of a methodology for defining whole-building energy design targets for commercial buildings: Phase 2, Development concept stage report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.W. (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA (USA)); Deringer, J.J. (American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC (USA)); McKay, H.N. (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Since 1985, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has managed the Whole-Building Energy Design Targets project for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Building Technologies (formerly the Office of Buildings and Community Systems). The primary focus of the Targets project is to develop a flexible methodology for buildings industry use in setting energy performance guidelines for commercial buildings and for determining compliance with those guidelines. The project is being conducted as a two-phase effort. In Phase 1, Planning, the project team determined the research that was necessary for developing the Targets methodology. In the concept stage of Phase 2, Development, the team sought to define the technical and software development concepts upon which the overall Targets methodology will be based. The concept stage work is documented in four volumes, of which this summary volume is the first. The three other volumes are Volume 2: Technical Concept Development Task Reports, Volume 3: Workshop Summaries, and Volume 4: Software Concept Development Task Reports. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  18. From Bunsen Burners to Fuel Cells: Invoking Energy Transducers to Exemplify "Paths" and Unify the Energy-Related Concepts of Thermochemistry and Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of chemical energy entirely into thermal energy by Bunsen burners and into thermal energy and electrical energy by fuel cells of varying efficiencies illustrates different paths by which a chemical reaction can occur. Using the efficiency of producing electrical energy as a path label allows all of the energy-related quantities to…

  19. Constraints on Light Hidden Sector Gauge Bosons from Supernova Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Dent, James B; Krauss, Lawrence M

    2012-01-01

    We derive new bounds on hidden sector gauge bosons which could produce new energy loss mechanisms in supernovae, enlarging the excluded region in mass-coupling space by a significant factor compared to earlier estimates. Both considerations of trapping and possible decay of these particles need to be incorporated when determining such bounds, as does scattering on both neutrons and protons. For masses and couplings near the region which saturates current bounds, a significant background of such gauge bosons may also be produced due to the cumulative effects of all supernovae over cosmic history.

  20. Search for dark photons from supersymmetric hidden valleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anzelc, M S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calfayan, P; Calpas, B; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Carrera, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Cheu, E; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuplov, V; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; DeVaughan, K; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Escalier, M; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jamin, D; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lellouch, J; Li, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Mättig, P; Magerkurth, A; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mitrevski, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nogima, H; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Orduna, J; Oshima, N; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Torchiani, I; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vilanova, D; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Voutilainen, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Welty-Rieger, L; Wenger, A; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yang, W-C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Zeitnitz, C; Zelitch, S; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2009-08-21

    We search for a new light gauge boson, a dark photon, with the D0 experiment. In the model we consider, supersymmetric partners are pair produced and cascade to the lightest neutralinos that can decay into the hidden sector state plus either a photon or a dark photon. The dark photon decays through its mixing with a photon into fermion pairs. We therefore investigate a previously unexplored final state that contains a photon, two spatially close leptons, and large missing transverse energy. We do not observe any evidence for dark photons and set a limit on their production.

  1. Hidden Markov Models for indirect classification of occupant behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liisberg, Jon Anders Reichert; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Bloem, H.

    2016-01-01

    Even for similar residential buildings, a huge variability in the energy consumption can be observed. This variability is mainly due to the different behaviours of the occupants and this impacts the thermal (temperature setting, window opening, etc.) as well as the electrical (appliances, TV....... This paper focuses on the use of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to create methods for indirect observations and characterisation of occupant behaviour. By applying homogeneous HMMs on the electricity consumption of fourteen apartments, three states describing the data were found suitable. The most likely...

  2. A concept for energy harvesting from quasi-static structural deformations through axially loaded bilaterally constrained columns with multiple bifurcation points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajnef, N.; Burgueño, R.; Borchani, W.; Sun, Y.

    2014-05-01

    A major obstacle limiting the development of deployable sensing and actuation solutions is the scarcity of power. Converted energy from ambient loading using piezoelectric scavengers is a possible solution. Most of the previously developed research focused on vibration-based piezoelectric harvesters which are typically characterized by a response with a narrow natural frequency range. Several techniques were used to improve their effectiveness. These methods focus only on the transducer’s properties and configurations, but do little to improve the stimuli from the source. In contrast, this work proposes to focus on the input deformations generated within the structure, and the induction of an amplified amplitude and up-converted frequency toward the harvesters’ natural spectrum. This paper introduces the concept of using mechanically-equivalent energy converters and frequency modulators that can transform low-amplitude and low-rate service deformations into an amplified vibration input to the piezoelectric transducer. The introduced concept allows energy conversion within the unexplored quasi-static frequency range (≪1 Hz). The post-buckling behavior of bilaterally constrained columns is used as the mechanism for frequency up-conversion. A bimorph cantilever polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) piezoelectric beam is used for energy conversion. Experimental prototypes were built and tested to validate the introduced concept and the levels of extractable power were evaluated for different cases under varying input frequencies. Finally, finite element simulations are reported to provide insight into the scalability and performance of the developed concept.

  3. Experimental demonstration of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor concept for energy efficient syngas production. Part 1: Influence of operating conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Bekink, G.J.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution the technical feasibility of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor (RFCMR) concept with porous membranes for energy efficient syngas production is investigated. In earlier work an experimental proof of principle was already provided [Smit, J., Bekink, G.J., van Sint Annala

  4. The energy concept of the federal state of Lower Saxony. Reliable, environmentally friendly, climate friendly, and affordable. Energy policy for tomorrow; Das Energiekonzept des Landes Niedersachsen. Verlaesslich, umweltfreundlich, klimavertraeglich und bezahlbar. Energiepolitik fuer morgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The present publication shows how the energy concept of the state administration of Lower Saxony contributes to a vision of tomorrow's energy supply and how it can be realised. It sets out by describing the present status of the energy supply and the challenges and situation confronting Germany and Lower Saxony. The ensuing chapters have the following headings: Energy supply in 2020: accelerating the expansion of renewable energies, exploiting potentials sustainably and efficiently; Prospects and instruments for improving energy efficiency; Modern conventional power plants for securing a stable and efficient electricity supply; The expansion of electricity networks and the development of smart grids; Costs of the energy turnaround; Natural gas and crude oil. The final chapter bears the heading: Innovation and energy research - our strengths.

  5. Probing hidden sector photons through the Higgs window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, M. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics; Jaeckel, J. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics and Phenomenology; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the Standard Model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs Portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light-shining-through-the-wall experiments as well as cosmological, astrophysical, and non-Newtonian force measurements. For hidden-photons receiving their mass from a hidden-Higgs we find in the small mass regime significantly stronger bounds than the bounds on massive hidden sector photons alone. (orig.)

  6. Preliminary study about the necessary concepts and nomenclatures for long duration energy studies; Etude prealable sur les concepts et nomenclatures necessaires aux etudes energetiques sur tres longue periode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-15

    Long duration prospect studies about the worldwide energy demand requires to refer to other, non-economical, disciplines which have different representations of the socio-economic reality and of the evolution dynamics of societies. This study is a multi-disciplinary bibliographic research which aims to identify the categories considered in these disciplines and to show the main elements allowing to answer the questions about energy uses. The bibliographic research is based on a set of key-words which are crossed between each others like: 'categories', 'social behaviour', 'life style', 'energy', 'consumption', 'need', 'development', 'time' etc. The content of each cited bibliographic references is described in a file attached in the appendix of this study. (J.S.)

  7. Lepton mixing from the hidden sector

    CERN Document Server

    Ludl, P O

    2015-01-01

    Experimental results indicate a possible relation between the lepton and quark mixing matrices of the form U_PMNS \\approx V_CKM^\\dagger U_X, where U_X is a matrix with special structure related to the mechanism of neutrino mass generation. We propose a framework which can realize such a relation. The main ingredients of the framework are the double seesaw mechanism, SO(10) Grand Unification and a hidden sector of theory. The latter is composed of singlets (fermions and bosons) of the GUT symmetry with masses between the GUT and Planck scale. The interactions in this sector obey certain symmetries G_hidden. We explore the conditions under which symmetries G_hidden can produce flavour structures in the visible sector. Here the key elements are the basis-fixing symmetry and mediators which communicate information about properties of the hidden sector to the visible one. The interplay of SO(10) symmetry, basis-fixing symmetry identified as Z2 x Z2 and G_hidden can lead to the required form of U_X. A different kin...

  8. Verification of electricity savings through energy-efficient train management - Concept and system architecture - Annex 1; Verifizierung der Stromeinsparung durch energieeffizientes Zugsmanagement - Anhang 1: Konzept und Systemarchitektur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Lerjen, M.; Menth, S. [emkamatik GmbH, Wettingen (Switzerland); Luethi, M. [Swiss Federal Insitute of Technology (ETHZ), Institute for Transport Planning and Systems (IVT), Zuerich (Switzerland); Tuchschmid, M. [SBB AG, BahnUmwelt-Center, 3000 Bern (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    This appendix to a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses a system concept that can be used to help save energy in the Swiss rail network. The concept proposes that the highest level of energy savings can be achieved by controlling the trains to provide a high level of smooth flow as far as speed is concerned. In particular, various situations are described where, for example, double and single track working exists and unnecessary breaking when trains have to pass each other can be avoided. Predictor algorithms are described and discussed and possible indicators for train drivers are proposed. The system architecture required is examined and recommendations are made concerning the implementation of the system. Restrictions caused by the running of non-equipped foreign trains on the Swiss rail network are also discussed.

  9. Probing Hidden Sector Photons through the Higgs Window.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlers, M.; Jaeckel, J; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the Standard Model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs Portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light...

  10. HOW STRONGLY THE HIDDEN ECONOMY OF A SMALL COUNTRY CAN BE INFLUENCED BY DRASTIC EVENTS: CASE OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagica Novkovska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hidden economy presents a big concern for both developing and developed countries. Of particular interest is precise determination of the temporal pattern of hidden for small developing economies, which exhibit many peculiarities. Several methods for estimation of hidden economy are effectively used in economic research. Appropriate model based on some of these methods for small developing economies is required. Modified electric energy household consumption model is proposed in this work. Using this model, temporal variations of hidden economy in Republic of Macedonia were calculated for the period 1992–2014. For the sub-period 1999–2007 the obtained values are in excellent agreement with values reported in literature obtained by dynamic multiple indicators multiple causes method, proving that the method proposed in this work produces highly relevant results. Thus obtained temporal pattern of the hidden economy in Macedonia, using deconvolution in Gaussians, is described by five contributions: baseline at 32% and four Gaussian peaks corresponding to hyperinflation, Kosovo conflict, security crisis in Macedonia and banking crisis. After the expiration of the effects of these shocks, hidden economy approaches the baseline at about 32 %. It is proposed to use this modified method for estimating size of hidden economy in various small economies.

  11. Supersymmetric leptogenesis and light hidden sectors

    CERN Document Server

    Weniger, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Thermal leptogenesis and supergravity are attractive scenarios for physics beyond the standard model. However, it is well known that the super-weak interaction of the gravitino often leads to problems with primordial nucleosynthesis in the standard scenario of matter parity conserving MSSM + three right-handed neutrinos. We will present and compare two related solutions to these problems: 1) The conflict between BBN and leptogenesis can be avoided in presence of a hidden sector with light supersymmetric particles which open new decay channels for the dangerous long-lived particles. 2) If there is a condensate in the hidden sector, such additional decay channels can be alternatively opened by dynamical breaking of matter parity in the hidden sector.

  12. Monte-Carlo simulations of elastically backscattered neutrons from hidden explosives using three different neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ElAgib, I. [College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: elagib@ksu.edu.sa; Elsheikh, N. [College of Applied and Industrial Science, University of Juba, Khartoum, P.O. Box 321 (Sudan); AlSewaidan, H. [College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455 (Saudi Arabia); Habbani, F. [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, P.O. Box 321 (Sudan)

    2009-01-15

    Calculations of elastically backscattered (EBS) neutrons from hidden explosives buried in soil were performed using Monte-Carlo N-particle transport code MCNP5. Three different neutron sources were used in the study. The study re-examines the performance of the neutron backscattering methods in providing identification of hidden explosives through their chemical composition. The EBS neutron energy spectra of fast and slow neutrons of the major constituent elements in soil and an explosive material in form of TNT have shown definite structures that can be used for the identification of a buried landmine.

  13. A facility to Search for Hidden Particles (SHiP) at the CERN SPS

    OpenAIRE

    SHiP Collaboration; Anelli, M.; Aoki, S.; G. Arduini; J.J. Back; Bagulya, A.; W. Baldini(Sezione INFN di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy); A. Baranov; Barker, G. J.; Barsuk, S.; Battistin, M.; Bauche, J.; Bay, A.; Bayliss, V; Bellagamba, L.

    2015-01-01

    A new general purpose fixed target facility is proposed at the CERN SPS accelerator which is aimed at exploring the domain of hidden particles and make measurements with tau neutrinos. Hidden particles are predicted by a large number of models beyond the Standard Model. The high intensity of the SPS 400~GeV beam allows probing a wide variety of models containing light long-lived exotic particles with masses below ${\\cal O}$(10)~GeV/c$^2$, including very weakly interacting low-energy SUSY stat...

  14. Results from the Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Matthias [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Lindner, Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Schneide, Magnus; Susol, Jaroslaw; Wiedemann, Günter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-08-07

    We present the results of a search for transversely polarised hidden photons (HPs) with ∼3 eV energies emitted from the Sun. These hypothetical particles, known also as paraphotons or dark sector photons, are theoretically well motivated for example by string theory inspired extensions of the Standard Model. Solar HPs of sub-eV mass can convert into photons of the same energy (photon ↔ HP oscillations are similar to neutrino flavour oscillations). At SHIPS this would take place inside a long light-tight high-vacuum tube, which tracks the Sun. The generated photons would then be focused into a low-noise photomultiplier at the far end of the tube. Our analysis of 330 h of data (and 330 h of background characterisation) reveals no signal of photons from solar hidden photon conversion. We estimate the rate of newly generated photons due to this conversion to be smaller than 25 mHz/m{sup 2} at the 95% C.L. Using this and a recent model of solar HP emission, we set stringent constraints on χ, the coupling constant between HPs and photons, as a function of the HP mass.

  15. Results from the solar hidden photon search (SHIPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Schneide, Magnus; Susol, Jaroslaw; Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Sternwarte; Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    We present the results of a search for transversely polarised hidden photons (HPs) with ∝3 eV energies emitted from the Sun. These hypothetical particles, known also as paraphotons or dark sector photons, are theoretically well motivated for example by string theory inspired extensions of the Standard Model. Solar HPs of sub-eV mass can convert into photons of the same energy (photon<->HP oscillations are similar to neutrino flavour oscillations). At SHIPS this would take place inside a long light-tight high-vacuum tube, which tracks the Sun. The generated photons would then be focused into a low-noise photomultiplier at the far end of the tube. Our analysis of 330 h of data (and 330 h of background characterisation) reveals no signal of photons from solar hidden photon conversion. We estimate the rate of newly generated photons due to this conversion to be smaller than 25 mHz/m{sup 2} at the 95%C.L. Using this and a recent model of solar HP emission, we set stringent constraints on χ, the coupling constant between HPs and photons, as a function of the HP mass.

  16. Results from the Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS)

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Matthias; Lindner, Axel; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas; Schneide, Magnus; Susol, Jaroslaw; Wiedemann, Günter

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a search for transversely polarised hidden photons (HPs) with $\\sim 3$ eV energies emitted from the Sun. These hypothetical particles, known also as paraphotons or dark sector photons, are theoretically well motivated for example by string theory inspired extensions of the Standard Model. Solar HPs of sub-eV mass can convert into photons of the same energy (photon$\\leftrightarrow$HP oscillations are similar to neutrino flavour oscillations). At SHIPS this would take place inside a long light-tight high-vacuum tube, which tracks the Sun. The generated photons would then be focused into a low-noise photomultiplier at the far end of the tube. Our analysis of 330 h of data (and {330 h} of background characterisation) reveals no signal of photons from solar hidden photon conversion. We estimate the rate of newly generated photons due to this conversion to be smaller than 25 mHz/m$^2$ at the 95$%$ C.L. Using this and a recent model of solar HP emission, we set stringent constraints on $\\ch...

  17. Hidden Markov models estimation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, Robert J; Moore, John B

    1995-01-01

    As more applications are found, interest in Hidden Markov Models continues to grow. Following comments and feedback from colleagues, students and other working with Hidden Markov Models the corrected 3rd printing of this volume contains clarifications, improvements and some new material, including results on smoothing for linear Gaussian dynamics. In Chapter 2 the derivation of the basic filters related to the Markov chain are each presented explicitly, rather than as special cases of one general filter. Furthermore, equations for smoothed estimates are given. The dynamics for the Kalman filte

  18. Hidden simplicity of gauge theory amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J M, E-mail: drummond@lapp.in2p3.f [LAPTH, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux, Cedex (France)

    2010-11-07

    These notes were given as lectures at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge Theory 2010. We describe the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, focussing on the maximally supersymmetric theory to highlight the hidden symmetries which appear. Using the Britto, Cachzo, Feng and Witten (BCFW) recursion relations we solve the tree-level S-matrix in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and describe how it produces a sum of invariants of a large symmetry algebra. We review amplitudes in the planar theory beyond tree level, describing the connection between amplitudes and Wilson loops, and discuss the implications of the hidden symmetries.

  19. Hidden simplicity of gauge theory amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. M.

    2010-11-01

    These notes were given as lectures at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge Theory 2010. We describe the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, focussing on the maximally supersymmetric theory to highlight the hidden symmetries which appear. Using the Britto, Cachzo, Feng and Witten (BCFW) recursion relations we solve the tree-level S-matrix in \\ {N}=4 super Yang-Mills theory and describe how it produces a sum of invariants of a large symmetry algebra. We review amplitudes in the planar theory beyond tree level, describing the connection between amplitudes and Wilson loops, and discuss the implications of the hidden symmetries.

  20. Hidden neural networks: application to speech recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren Kamaric

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate the hidden neural network HMM/NN hybrid on two speech recognition benchmark tasks; (1) task independent isolated word recognition on the Phonebook database, and (2) recognition of broad phoneme classes in continuous speech from the TIMIT database. It is shown how hidden neural networks...... (HNNs) with much fewer parameters than conventional HMMs and other hybrids can obtain comparable performance, and for the broad class task it is illustrated how the HNN can be applied as a purely transition based system, where acoustic context dependent transition probabilities are estimated by neural...

  1. Dark Radiation from a hidden U(1)

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the impact of a hidden sector consisting of Minicharged Particles (MCPs) and massless hidden photons on the expansion history of our Universe. We present parameter scans for the amount of extra relativistic particles (Neff) and the abundance of light nuclei for fermionic MCPs with masses between ~100 keV and 10 GeV and minicharges in the range 10^(-11)-1. Current CMB and BBN data significantly constrain the available parameter space of MCPs. The shown results are a valuable indicator for future experimental searches and are presented in a flexible way so that more accurate results on Neff can be easily interpreted.

  2. Hidden Symmetries, Central Charges and All That

    CERN Document Server

    de Wit, Bernard; Wit, Bernard de; Nicolai, Hermann

    2001-01-01

    In this review we discuss hidden symmetries of toroidal compactifications of eleven-dimensional supergravity. We recall alternative versions of this theory which exhibit traces of the hidden symmetries when still retaining the massive Kaluza-Klein states. We reconsider them in the broader perspective of M-theory which incorporates a more extended variety of BPS states. We also argue for a new geometry that may underly these theories. All our arguments point towards an extension of the number of space-time coordinates beyond eleven.

  3. Hidden Subgroup States are Almost Orthogonal

    CERN Document Server

    Ettinger, M; Knill, E H; Ettinger, Mark; Hoyer, Peter; Knill, Emanuel

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that quantum computers can efficiently find a hidden subgroup $H$ of a finite Abelian group $G$. This implies that after only a polynomial (in $\\log |G|$) number of calls to the oracle function, the states corresponding to different candidate subgroups have exponentially small inner product. We show that this is true for noncommutative groups also. We present a quantum algorithm which identifies a hidden subgroup of an arbitrary finite group $G$ in only a linear (in $\\log |G|$) number of calls to the oracle function. This is exponentially better than the best classical algorithm. However our quantum algorithm requires an exponential amount of time, as in the classical case.

  4. Hidden Statistics Approach to Quantum Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum information theory have inspired an explosion of interest in new quantum algorithms for solving hard computational (quantum and non-quantum) problems. The basic principle of quantum computation is that the quantum properties can be used to represent structure data, and that quantum mechanisms can be devised and built to perform operations with this data. Three basic non-classical properties of quantum mechanics superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability were main reasons for optimism about capabilities of quantum computers that promised simultaneous processing of large massifs of highly correlated data. Unfortunately, these advantages of quantum mechanics came with a high price. One major problem is keeping the components of the computer in a coherent state, as the slightest interaction with the external world would cause the system to decohere. That is why the hardware implementation of a quantum computer is still unsolved. The basic idea of this work is to create a new kind of dynamical system that would preserve the main three properties of quantum physics superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. In other words, such a system would reinforce the advantages and minimize limitations of both quantum and classical aspects. Based upon a concept of hidden statistics, a new kind of dynamical system for simulation of Schroedinger equation is proposed. The system represents a modified Madelung version of Schroedinger equation. It preserves superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such an optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for simulating quantum systems. The model includes a transitional component of quantum potential (that has been overlooked in previous treatment of the Madelung equation). The role of the

  5. Searching for hidden sectors in multiparticle production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchis-Lozano, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Picot, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of a hidden sector beyond the Standard Model, e.g. a Hidden Valley model, on factorial moments and cumulants of multiplicity distributions in multiparticle production with a special emphasis on the prospects for LHC results.

  6. Entropy Rate for Hidden Markov Chains with rare transitions

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We consider Hidden Markov Chains obtained by passing a Markov Chain with rare transitions through a noisy memoryless channel. We obtain asymptotic estimates for the entropy of the resulting Hidden Markov Chain as the transition rate is reduced to zero.

  7. The Corporate Illiterates: The Hidden Illiterates of Silicon Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    Describes the writing and business communication problems of college-educated workers in Silicon Valley. Discusses hidden illiterates in the universities and in the workplace. Offers solutions for professors and managers faced with the problem of hidden illiterates. (PRA)

  8. Combining Wavelet Transform and Hidden Markov Models for ECG Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Boudy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at providing new insights on the electrocardiogram (ECG segmentation problem using wavelets. The wavelet transform has been originally combined with a hidden Markov models (HMMs framework in order to carry out beat segmentation and classification. A group of five continuous wavelet functions commonly used in ECG analysis has been implemented and compared using the same framework. All experiments were realized on the QT database, which is composed of a representative number of ambulatory recordings of several individuals and is supplied with manual labels made by a physician. Our main contribution relies on the consistent set of experiments performed. Moreover, the results obtained in terms of beat segmentation and premature ventricular beat (PVC detection are comparable to others works reported in the literature, independently of the type of the wavelet. Finally, through an original concept of combining two wavelet functions in the segmentation stage, we achieve our best performances.

  9. Topic Information Collection based on the Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-yan Jiang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Specific-subject oriented information collection is one of the key technologies of vertical search engines, which directly affects the speed and relevance of search results. The topic information collection algorithm is widely used for its accuracy. The Hidden Markov Model (HMM is used to learn and judge the relevance between the Uniform Resource Locator (URL and the topic information. The Rocchio method is used to construct the prototype vectors relevant to the topic information, and the HMM is used to learn the preferred browsing paths. The concept maps including the semantics of the webpage are constructed and the web's link structures can be decided. The validity of the algorithm is proved by the experiment at last. Comparing with the Best-First algorithm, this algorithm can get more information pages and has higher precision ratio.

  10. Design and Implementation of Domain based Semantic Hidden Web Crawler

    OpenAIRE

    Manvi; Bhatia, Komal Kumar; Dixit, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Web is a wide term which mainly consists of surface web and hidden web. One can easily access the surface web using traditional web crawlers, but they are not able to crawl the hidden portion of the web. These traditional crawlers retrieve contents from web pages, which are linked by hyperlinks ignoring the information hidden behind form pages, which cannot be extracted using simple hyperlink structure. Thus, they ignore large amount of data hidden behind search forms. This paper emphasizes o...

  11. Swiss energy research concept for the period 2004-2007; Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes 2004-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Swiss National Energy Research Commission CORE lists and discusses energy research topics that are to be looked during the period 2004 to 2007. The report discusses the fundamentals, visions and short and long-term targets for Swiss energy research and presents strategies for reaching them. Research areas dealt with include the efficient use of energy, renewable sources of energy, nuclear energy and the energy-economics basics necessary for the implementation of sustainable energy policy. Also, implementation aspects such as pilot and demonstration installations are discussed. The current state of research is noted and strategic targets and the ways and means of reaching them are examined. Main areas of research for the period are listed and financing issues are discussed.

  12. Metabolizable energy requirement for starting barrow pigs (15 to 30 kg fed on the ideal protein concept based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the metabolizable energy (ME requirement for starting barrow pigs. Forty-three animals, selected for their high lean gain, were allotted in a completely randomized block design, divided in four treatments with five blocks and two animals in each experimental unit. The diet in Treatment 1 consisted of 3,264 kcal of ME/kg containing 0.96% of digestible lysine, 0.55% of digestible methionine+cystine, 0.60% of digestible threonine, and 0.188% of digestible tryptophan reaching the ideal protein pattern. The diets in Treatments 2, 3, and 4 were similar to the diet in Treatment 1; nevertheless, the levels of ME in Treatments 2, 3, and 4 were 2, 4, and 6% higher than those in Treatment 1. The lysine:ME ratio, was mantained the same (2.82 g in all treatments. The daily feed intake (DFI and the feed:gain ratio (F:G were not affected by the levels of ME. There was a linear increase of daily weight gain (DWG and of daily energy intake (DEI. Later, a linear reduction in carcass protein percentage (CPP and a linear increase of fat content and daily fat accretion (DFA occurred. Results suggested that the required ME was of 3,264 kcal/kg or less for improved barrows (15 to 30 kg, of the dam line, fed with diets containing 0.96% of digestible lysine, formulated according to the ideal protein concept.A exigência de energia metabolizável (EM para suínos machos castrados foi determinada no presente experimento. Foram utilizados 43 suínos geneticamente melhorados, distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com quatro tratamentos, cinco blocos e dois animais por unidade experimental. Tratamento 1 constituiu-se de uma dieta contendo 3.264 kcal de EM/kg contendo 0,96% de lisina digestível, 0,55% de metionina + cistina digestíveis, 0,60% de treonina digestível e 0,188% de triptofano digestível, atendendo ao conceito de proteína ideal. Tratamentos 2, 3 e 4 foram semelhantes à do

  13. An Intelligent Web Pre-fetching Based on Hidden Markov Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许欢庆; 金鑫

    2004-01-01

    Web pre-fetching is one of the most popular strategies,which are proposed for reducing the perceived access delay and improving the service quality of web server. In this paper, we present a pre-fetching model based on the hidden Markov model, which mines the latent information requirement concepts that the user's access path contains and makes semantic-based pre-fetching decisions.Experimental results show that our scheme has better predictive pre-fetching precision.

  14. Variational Hidden Conditional Random Fields with Coupled Dirichlet Process Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, K.; Zafeiriou, S.; Morency, L.P.; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Hidden Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An infinite HCRF is an HCRF with a countably infinite number of hidden states, which rids us not only of the necessit

  15. Perceptual consequences of "hidden" hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plack, Christopher J; Barker, Daphne; Prendergast, Garreth

    2014-09-09

    Dramatic results from recent animal experiments show that noise exposure can cause a selective loss of high-threshold auditory nerve fibers without affecting absolute sensitivity permanently. This cochlear neuropathy has been described as hidden hearing loss, as it is not thought to be detectable using standard measures of audiometric threshold. It is possible that hidden hearing loss is a common condition in humans and may underlie some of the perceptual deficits experienced by people with clinically normal hearing. There is some evidence that a history of noise exposure is associated with difficulties in speech discrimination and temporal processing, even in the absence of any audiometric loss. There is also evidence that the tinnitus experienced by listeners with clinically normal hearing is associated with cochlear neuropathy, as measured using Wave I of the auditory brainstem response. To date, however, there has been no direct link made between noise exposure, cochlear neuropathy, and perceptual difficulties. Animal experiments also reveal that the aging process itself, in the absence of significant noise exposure, is associated with loss of auditory nerve fibers. Evidence from human temporal bone studies and auditory brainstem response measures suggests that this form of hidden loss is common in humans and may have perceptual consequences, in particular, regarding the coding of the temporal aspects of sounds. Hidden hearing loss is potentially a major health issue, and investigations are ongoing to identify the causes and consequences of this troubling condition.

  16. The structural strength of glass: hidden damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss “hidden damage” of glass by the rolling process, which results in heterogeneous distribution of microcracks on the edge surface of glass element, which are the fracture source deteriorating glass element strength. It is shown that removal of this damage on the edges of glass elements

  17. Discovering Hidden Treasures with GPS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Paul; Palmer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    "I found it!" Addison proudly proclaimed, as she used an iPhone and Global Positioning System (GPS) software to find the hidden geocache along the riverbank. Others in Lisa Bostick's fourth grade class were jealous, but there would be other geocaches to find. With the excitement of movies like "Pirates of the Caribbean" and…

  18. Hidden Markov Models for Human Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren; Chauvin, Yves

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the sequential structure of human genomic DNA by hidden Markov models. We apply models of widely different design: conventional left-right constructs and models with a built-in periodic architecture. The models are trained on segments of DNA sequences extracted such that they cover...

  19. Dermatologic hazards from hidden contacts with penicillin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonk, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The unbridled use of penicillin after its discovery by Fleming has resulted in possible hazards to human health due to traces of the drug being present in food and other hidden sources. These hazards may include toxic effects, hypersensitivity reactions and possibly a raising of the frequency and duration of allergy to penicillin.

  20. The structural strength of glass: hidden damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss “hidden damage” of glass by the rolling process, which results in heterogeneous distribution of microcracks on the edge surface of glass element, which are the fracture source deteriorating glass element strength. It is shown that removal of this damage on the edges of glass elements incr

  1. Computerized Testing: The Hidden Figures Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ronald L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study adapted the Hidden Figures Test for use on PLATO and determined the reliability of the computerized version compared to the paper and pencil version. Results indicate the test was successfully adapted with some modifications, and it was judged reliable although it may be measuring additional constructs. (MBR)

  2. Towards gauge unified, supersymmetric hidden strong dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Ye, Fang

    2016-01-01

    We consider a class of models with extra complex scalars that are charged under both the Standard Model and a hidden strongly coupled $SU(N)_H$ gauge sector, and discuss the scenarios where the new scalars are identified as the messenger fields that mediate the spontaneously broken supersymmetries from the hidden sector to the visible sector. The new scalars are embedded into 5-plets and 10-plets of an $SU(5)_V$ gauge group that potentially unifies the Standard Model gauge groups. They also form a tower of bound states via hidden strong dynamics around the TeV scale. The Higgs bosons remain as elementary particles. Quadratically divergent contributions to the Higgs mass from the Standard Model fermions are canceled by the new scalar contributions to alleviate the fine-tuning problem. We also discuss a supersymmetrized version of this class of models, consisting of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model plus extra chiral multiplets where the new scalars reside. Due to the hidden strong force, the new low-en...

  3. Hidden Costs and Challenges of Servitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yifan; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    of these labels, the potential benefits of servitization are often overshadowed by costs associated with it. By using the cases of Chinese and Danish manufacturing firms, this study takes a closer look at possible hidden costs of servitization and contributes to our understanding of servitization performance...

  4. Developing Technology-Mediated Entries into Hidden Mathematics Curriculum as a Vehicle for "Good Learning" by Elementary Pre-Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, Sergei; Brouwer, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper suggests that knowledge of the school mathematics curriculum, as one of the key components of teachers' education, can be extended to include concepts and structures that generally belong to hidden domains of the curriculum. Motivated by work done with elementary pre-service teachers in a mathematics course employing a hidden…

  5. Duality and hidden symmetries in interacting particle systems

    CERN Document Server

    Giardina, Cristian; Redig, Frank; Vafayi, Kiamars

    2008-01-01

    In the context of Markov processes, both in discrete and continuous setting, we show a general relation between duality functions and symmetries of the generator. If the generator can be written in the form of a Hamiltonian of a quantum spin system, then the "hidden" symmetries are easily derived. We illustrate our approach in processes of symmetric exclusion type, in which the symmetry is of SU(2) type, as well as for the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) model for which we unveil its SU(1,1) symmetry. The KMP model is in turn an instantaneous thermalization limit of the energy process associated to a large family of models of interacting diffusions, which we call Brownian energy process (BEP) and which all possess the SU(1,1) symmetry. We treat in details the case where the system is in contact with reservoirs and the dual process becomes absorbing.

  6. Search for Hidden-Charm Pentaquark with CLAS12

    CERN Document Server

    Kubarovsky, V

    2016-01-01

    LHCb recently announced the discovery of two exotic structures in the $J/\\psi + p$ decay channel, which have been referred to as charmonium-pentaquark states. Resolving between the models and clarifying the nature of the discovered hidden-charm pentaquark peaks, and possibly searching for similar peaks with other quantum numbers, requires further experimental studies. The states were observed in the decay mode $J/\\psi+p$. Thus, it is natural to expect that these pentaquarks can be produced in the photoproduction process $\\gamma+p\\to P_c\\to J/\\psi+p$ where these states will appear as s-channel resonances at photon energy around 10 GeV. The energy and luminosity of the CLAS12 photon beam permit the detailed studies of the production and decay properties of the pentaquark resonances. By this reason the pentaquark search at Jefferson Laboratory looks extremely attractive.

  7. Open and Hidden Strangeness Production in Nucleon-Nucleon Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Shyam, Radhey

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of the description of K and eta meson productions in nucleon-nucleon collisions within an effective Lagrangian model where meson production proceeds via excitation, propagation and subsequent decay of intermediate baryonic resonant states. The $K$ meson contains a strange quark ($s$) or antiquark ($\\bar s$) while the $\\eta$ meson has hidden strangeness as it contains some component of the $s{\\bar s}$ pair. Strange meson production is expected to provide information on the manifestation of quantum chromodynamics in the non-perturbative regime of energies larger than that of the low energy pion physics. We discuss specific examples where proper understanding of the experimental data for these reactions is still lacking.

  8. Hidden fat facilitates passive overconsumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, van M.; Graaf, de C.; Siebelink, E.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food intake regulation may be disturbed when sensory signals from foods are disconnected from their metabolic properties. Consumption of high-fat, energy-dense foods may stimulate passive overconsumption, because these foods do not provide sensory signals in accordance with the actual nutrient

  9. Build together the problem, obligatory passage for the conception of acceptable energy solutions?; Construire ensemble le probleme, passage oblige pour la conception de solutions energetiques acceptables?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortin, Marie-Jose; Le Floch, Sophie

    2010-09-15

    Social acceptance is a condition in performing energy projects. This notion is however complex: just like 'build', it is based on several factors and is changing. We would like to show that its construction requires that some time be spend at a stage often neglected, that of the formulation of the problem. So that the 'awareness' would be aimed not only to the public, but also to the decision makers and promoters, so that everyone has a good knowledge of the concerns of the others, and of their limits. To this end, the 'participation' could take several forms, complementary to the 'public' one generally accepted. [French] L'acceptabilite sociale est une condition de realisation de projets energetiques. Cette notion est toutefois complexe : comme 'construit', elle se fonde sur plusieurs facteurs et est evolutive. Nous voudrions montrer que sa construction exige qu'un temps soit consacre a une etape souvent negligee, celle de la formulation du probleme. Ainsi, la 'sensibilisation' serait destinee non seulement au grand public, mais aussi aux decideurs et promoteurs, afin que tous aient une bonne connaissance des preoccupations des uns et des autres, comme de leurs contraintes. A cette fin, la 'participation' pourrait prendre plusieurs formes, complementaires a celle 'publique' generalement adoptee.

  10. Integrated Autopilot/Autothrottle Based on a Total Energy Control Concept: Design and Evaluation of Additional Autopilot Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated autopilot/autothrottle system was designed using a total energy control design philosophy. This design ensures that the system can differentiate between maneuvers requiring a change in thrust to accomplish a net energy change, and those maneuvers which only require elevator control to redistribute energy. The system design, the development of the system, and a summary of simulation results are defined.

  11. The hidden simplicity of biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Paul C. W.; Imari Walker, Sara

    2016-10-01

    Life is so remarkable, and so unlike any other physical system, that it is tempting to attribute special factors to it. Physics is founded on the assumption that universal laws and principles underlie all natural phenomena, but is it far from clear that there are ‘laws of life’ with serious descriptive or predictive power analogous to the laws of physics. Nor is there (yet) a ‘theoretical biology’ in the same sense as theoretical physics. Part of the obstacle in developing a universal theory of biological organization concerns the daunting complexity of living organisms. However, many attempts have been made to glimpse simplicity lurking within this complexity, and to capture this simplicity mathematically. In this paper we review a promising new line of inquiry to bring coherence and order to the realm of biology by focusing on ‘information’ as a unifying concept.

  12. Quantum Discord, CHSH Inequality and Hidden Variables -- Critical reassessment of hidden-variables models

    CERN Document Server

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Hidden-variables models are critically reassessed. It is first examined if the quantum discord is classically described by the hidden-variable model of Bell in the Hilbert space with $d=2$. The criterion of vanishing quantum discord is related to the notion of reduction and, surprisingly, the hidden-variable model in $d=2$, which has been believed to be consistent so far, is in fact inconsistent and excluded by the analysis of conditional measurement and reduction. The description of the full contents of quantum discord by the deterministic hidden-variables models is not possible. We also re-examine CHSH inequality. It is shown that the well-known prediction of CHSH inequality $|B|\\leq 2$ for the CHSH operator $B$ introduced by Cirel'son is not unique. This non-uniqueness arises from the failure of linearity condition in the non-contextual hidden-variables model in $d=4$ used by Bell and CHSH, in agreement with Gleason's theorem which excludes $d=4$ non-contextual hidden-variables models. If one imposes the l...

  13. Single-hidden-layer feed-forward quantum neural network based on Grover learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Chein; Chang, Ching-Ter; Shih, Lun-Min

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, a novel single-hidden-layer feed-forward quantum neural network model is proposed based on some concepts and principles in the quantum theory. By combining the quantum mechanism with the feed-forward neural network, we defined quantum hidden neurons and connected quantum weights, and used them as the fundamental information processing unit in a single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural network. The quantum neurons make a wide range of nonlinear functions serve as the activation functions in the hidden layer of the network, and the Grover searching algorithm outstands the optimal parameter setting iteratively and thus makes very efficient neural network learning possible. The quantum neuron and weights, along with a Grover searching algorithm based learning, result in a novel and efficient neural network characteristic of reduced network, high efficient training and prospect application in future. Some simulations are taken to investigate the performance of the proposed quantum network and the result show that it can achieve accurate learning.

  14. Extended Friedberg-Lee hidden symmetries, quark masses, and CP violation with four generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Shalom, Shaouly; Oaknin, David; Soni, Amarjit

    2009-07-01

    Motivated in part by the several observed anomalies involving CP asymmetries of B and Bs decays, we consider the standard model with a 4th sequential family (SM4) which seems to offer a rather simple resolution. We initially assume T-invariance by taking the up and down-quark 4×4 mass matrix to be real. Following Friedberg and Lee (FL), we then impose a hidden symmetry on the unobserved (hidden) up and down-quark SU(2) states. The hidden symmetry for four generations ensures the existence of two zero-mass eigenstates, which we take to be the (u,c) and (d,s) states in the up and down-quark sectors, respectively. Then, we simultaneously break T-invariance and the hidden symmetry by introducing two phase factors in each sector. This breaking mechanism generates the small quark masses mu, mc and md, ms, which, along with the orientation of the hidden symmetry, determine the size of CP-violation in the SM4. For illustration we choose a specific physical picture for the hidden symmetry and the breaking mechanism that reproduces the observed quark masses, mixing angles and CP-violation, and at the same time allows us to further obtain very interesting relations/predictions for the mixing angles of t and t'. For example, with this choice we get Vtd˜(Vcb/Vcd-Vts/Vus)+O(λ2) and Vt'b˜Vt'd·(Vcb/Vcd), Vtb'˜Vt'd·(Vts/Vus), implying that Vt'd>Vt'b, Vtb'. We furthermore find that the Cabibbo angle is related to the orientation of the hidden symmetry and that the key CP-violating quantity of our model at high energies, JSM4≡Im(VtbVt'b⋆Vt'b'Vtb'⋆), which is the high-energy analogue of the Jarlskog invariant of the SM, is proportional to the light-quark masses and the measured Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark-mixing matrix angles: |JSM4|˜A3λ5×(mu/mt+mc/mt'-md/mb+ms/mb')˜10-5, where Ã0.81 and λ=0.2257 are the Wolfenstein parameters. Other choices for the orientation of the hidden symmetry and/or the breaking mechanism may lead to different physical outcomes. A

  15. Ocean thermal energy conversion cold water pipe preliminary design project. Appendices to Task 2. Analysis for concept selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    Appendices include (A) TRW CWP/hull dynamics computer model (HULPIPE); (B) environmental data; (C) structural analysis methods; (D) work breakdown structure; (E) costing worksheets; (F) thermal design of the cold water pipe; (G) CWP/Platform transition ROM costs; (H) installation scenarios and costs; (I) cost uncertainty assessment; (J) risk assessment; and (K) OTEC cold water pipe concept catalog. (WHK)

  16. The role of energy consciousness in the configuration and achievement of energy policy concepts. Die Rolle des Energiebewusstseins bei der Gestaltung und Durchsetzung energiepolitischer Konzeptionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell, G.; Egger, C. (Oberoesterreichischer Energiesparverband, Linz (Austria))

    1992-06-01

    It is clear that in energy saving, claims and reality, above all in questions of actual implementation have previously not been brought into line. The following hypotheses form the basis for further considerations: 1. There is an existing high potential for energy savings. 2. Based on years of discussion, there is a high awareness of energy saving in the population, and 3. This consciousness and awareness do not sufficiently lead to actual action, to concrete changes of behaviour. The article describes the causes of this, ie: why the positive attitude to energy saving of society and conrete actions have not been sufficiently brought into line. (orig./UA).

  17. Northern Shanxi study on energy-saving concept of ecological houses%晋北民居的生态节能理念初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文娟

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the concept of building energy efficiency in Shanxi province from the Northern Shanxi regional residential,construction materials used,energy-saving insulation measures,lighting and ventilation and other aspects,so as to provide a new sustainable development building energy-saving ideas for regional characteristics.%从晋北民居的地域性、建筑材料使用、节能保温措施、采光通风等几个方面介绍了山西晋北民居中的建筑节能理念,从而为地区特色的可持续发展的建筑提供新的建筑节能思想。

  18. On the concept of pseudo-energy of T. G. Shepherd. A close link with exergy functions

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Shepherd (1993) derived a general expression for the available potential energy for compressible, hydrostatic flow, where the sum of this available energy and the kinetic energy is called pseudo-energy. He demonstrated that for a special basic state the small-amplitude limit of the generalized available potential energy reduces to the well-known approximate form of Lorenz (1955) expressed in a pressure vertical coordinate. Other forms of available energies exist in atmospheric energetics and in thermodynamics, where the name exergy has been coined by Rant (1956) to denote the maximum work that can be extracted from any system when it is subject to some constraints (adiabatic transformations or constant total energy for instance). The purpose of this note is to show that the specific available enthalpy function denoted by $a_h = (h - h_r) - T_r \\: (s - s_r)$ in Marquet (1991) can be obtained from the generalized approach of Shepherd for another basic state. This special form of pseudo-energy also leads to the ...

  19. Improving the Energy Performance in Existing Non-residential Buildings in Denmark Using the Total Concept Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krawczyk, Pawel; Afshari, Alireza; Simonsen, Graves K.

    2016-01-01

    This project is a part of a joint European research project, “Total Concept”, which is a method for improving the energy performance in existing non-Residential buildings. The method focuses on achieving maximum energy savings in a Building within the profitability frames set by a building owner...... on available information the identified measures in total lead to at least 22% and 37% energy saving, respectively for the building 1 and Building 2......., who plans to invest. The method differentiates from other refurbishment approaches by using a comprehensive energy audit plan, advanced energy simulation methods, a complex economic model and analysis of measures that may have a reasonable energysaving potential. The aim of the demonstration project...

  20. Hidden penis release: adjunctive suprapubic lipectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, C E; Vorstman, B; Teasley, D; Winslow, B

    1987-08-01

    We believe the hidden penis may be caused and concealed by a prominent suprapubic fat pad in addition to the restrictive fibrous bands of the dartos fascia fixing the shaft of the penis proximally while loose skin folds prolapse distally over the phallus. A penis of inadequate length or appearance may affect body image. Patients with this problem often require psychological support. Hidden penis may be distinguished from micropenis by palpating adequate corpora and showing a stretched penile length within 2 SD of normal. Excision of suprapubic fat with sectioning of the tethering dartos bands will release and increase the length of the penis. Suprapubic fat pad resection may also be helpful to elongate a short penis in cases of adult microphallus, or after partial penectomy because of trauma or cancer. Circumcision is contraindicated.

  1. Extended abstract of a hidden agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goguen, J.; Malcolm, G. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The initial goal of our hidden research programme was both straightforward and ambitious: give a semantics for software engineering, and in particular for the object paradigm, supporting correctness proofs that are as simple and mechanical as possible. This emphasizes proofs rather than models, and thus suggests an equational approach, rather than one based on higher order logic, denotational semantics, or any kind of model, because equational proofs achieve maximal simplicity and mechanization, and yet are fully expressive. We introduce powerful coinduction techniques for proving behavioral properties of complex systems. We make the no doubt outrageous claim that our hidden approach gives simpler proofs than other formalisms; this is because we exploit algebraic structure that most other approaches discard.

  2. Hidden geometric correlations in real multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián; Ángeles Serrano, M.; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos

    2016-11-01

    Real networks often form interacting parts of larger and more complex systems. Examples can be found in different domains, ranging from the Internet to structural and functional brain networks. Here, we show that these multiplex systems are not random combinations of single network layers. Instead, they are organized in specific ways dictated by hidden geometric correlations between the layers. We find that these correlations are significant in different real multiplexes, and form a key framework for answering many important questions. Specifically, we show that these geometric correlations facilitate the definition and detection of multidimensional communities, which are sets of nodes that are simultaneously similar in multiple layers. They also enable accurate trans-layer link prediction, meaning that connections in one layer can be predicted by observing the hidden geometric space of another layer. And they allow efficient targeted navigation in the multilayer system using only local knowledge, outperforming navigation in the single layers only if the geometric correlations are sufficiently strong.

  3. Binary hidden Markov models and varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Critch, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    The technological applications of hidden Markov models have been extremely diverse and successful, including natural language processing, gesture recognition, gene sequencing, and Kalman filtering of physical measurements. HMMs are highly non-linear statistical models, and just as linear models are amenable to linear algebraic techniques, non-linear models are amenable to commutative algebra and algebraic geometry. This paper examines closely those HMMs in which all the random variables, called nodes, are binary. Its main contributions are (1) minimal defining equations for the 4-node model, comprising 21 quadrics and 29 cubics, which were computed using Gr\\"obner bases in the cumulant coordinates of Sturmfels and Zwiernik, and (2) a birational parametrization for every binary HMM, with an explicit inverse for recovering the hidden parameters in terms of observables. The new model parameters in (2) are hence rationally identifiable in the sense of Sullivant, Garcia-Puente, and Spielvogel, and each model's Zar...

  4. Assessment of a novel alder biorefinery concept to meet demands of economic feasibility, energy production and long term environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    A biorefinery concept based on alder tree plantations on degenerated soil is developed to comply with indicators of economic feasibility, fossil fuel depletion concerns, and long term sustainability issues. The potential performance of feedstock and biorefinery has been assessed through a literat......A biorefinery concept based on alder tree plantations on degenerated soil is developed to comply with indicators of economic feasibility, fossil fuel depletion concerns, and long term sustainability issues. The potential performance of feedstock and biorefinery has been assessed through...... degenerated soils. Integrating a biomass handling system, an LTCFB gasifier, a diarylheptanoids production chain, an anaerobic digestion facility, a slow pyrolysis unit, gas upgrading and various system integration units, the biorefinery could obtain the following production characteristics accounted...

  5. PHYSICAL MEANING OF THE «REACTIVE POWER» CONCEPT APPLIED TO THREE-PHASE ENERGY SUPPLY SYSTEMS WITH NON-LINEAR LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Zhemerov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The contradictions in the use of the term «reactive power» require justification by clarifying its physical meaning. The aim of the paper is to reveal the physical meaning of the term «reactive power» applied to three-phase three-wire and four-wire energy supply systems. Methodology. We have applied the modern theory of instantaneous active and reactive power, the graphical filling complex branched energy supply system of simplified design scheme, the theory of electrical circuits, computer Matlab-simulation. Results. We have provided answers to six basic questions that reveal the physical meaning and definition of the concept of «reactive power». We have justified the assumptions suggesting a universal calculation formula to determine the relative total power loss in the three-phase energy supply system as the sum of four components caused by: a minimal losses, reactive power, active power pulsations and instantaneous current flow in the neutral wire. Originality. We have developed the definition that reveals the physical meaning of the term «reactive power» for three-phase energy supply systems corresponding to modern theories of instantaneous active and reactive power. Practical value. We have proposed energy efficiency method ideas of energy supply systems with non-linear load based on the additional components of the power losses calculation. The further development of the method will allow to amend the design, selection and operation of the power active filters practices.

  6. Finite State Transducers Approximating Hidden Markov Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kempe, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the conversion of a Hidden Markov Model into a sequential transducer that closely approximates the behavior of the stochastic model. This transformation is especially advantageous for part-of-speech tagging because the resulting transducer can be composed with other transducers that encode correction rules for the most frequent tagging errors. The speed of tagging is also improved. The described methods have been implemented and successfully tested on six languages.

  7. Hidden symmetries in dilaton-axion gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kechkin, O V

    1996-01-01

    Four--dimensional Einstein--Maxwell--dilaton--axion system restricted to space--times with one non--null Killing symmetry is formulated as the three--dimensional gravity coupled sigma--model. Several alternative representations are discussed and the associated hidden symmetries are revealed. The action of target space isometries on the initial set of (non--dualized ) variables is found. New mulicenter solutions are obtained via generating technique based on the formulation in terms of the non--dualized variables.

  8. Caldera rim collapse: A hidden volcanic hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Merle, Olivier; Michon, Laurent; Bachèlery, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Following the emblematic flank collapse of Mount St Helens in 1981, numerous models of flank sliding have been proposed. These models have allowed to largely improve the understanding of mechanisms involved in such landslides, which represent a tremendous risk for populations living around volcanoes. In this article, a new mode of landslide formation, related to buried calderas, is described. The model emphasizes the paramount importance of the hidden ring fault that, ...

  9. Killing and letting die: hidden value assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G

    1983-01-01

    In this paper I argue for several related theses: first, that the distinction between killing and letting die, as it is drawn by ordinary persons in ordinary contexts, is more complex than is generally understood; second, that the key feature of this complexity lies in the presence of a hidden normative component in what appears to be a straightforwardly descriptive distinction; and, third, that this complexity renders the killing/letting die distinction an inadequate and hazardous guide for moral reasoning.

  10. Improving practical sensitivity of energy optimized wake-up receivers: proof of concept in 65nm CMOS

    OpenAIRE

    Mazloum, Nafiseh Seyed; Rodrigues, Joachim Neves; Andersson, Oskar; Nejdel, Anders; Edfors, Ove

    2016-01-01

    We present a high performance low-power digital base-band architecture, specially designed for an energy optimized duty-cycled wake-up receiver scheme. Based on a careful wake-up beacon design, a structured wake-up beacon detection technique leads to an architecture that compensates for the implementation loss of a low-power wake-up receiver front-end at low energy and area costs. Design parameters are selected by energy optimization and the architecture is easily scalable to support various ...

  11. Carotta: Revealing Hidden Confounder Markers in Metabolic Breath Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Christin Hauschild

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Computational breath analysis is a growing research area aiming at identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs in human breath to assist medical diagnostics of the next generation. While inexpensive and non-invasive bioanalytical technologies for metabolite detection in exhaled air and bacterial/fungal vapor exist and the first studies on the power of supervised machine learning methods for profiling of the resulting data were conducted, we lack methods to extract hidden data features emerging from confounding factors. Here, we present Carotta, a new cluster analysis framework dedicated to uncovering such hidden substructures by sophisticated unsupervised statistical learning methods. We study the power of transitivity clustering and hierarchical clustering to identify groups of VOCs with similar expression behavior over most patient breath samples and/or groups of patients with a similar VOC intensity pattern. This enables the discovery of dependencies between metabolites. On the one hand, this allows us to eliminate the effect of potential confounding factors hindering disease classification, such as smoking. On the other hand, we may also identify VOCs associated with disease subtypes or concomitant diseases. Carotta is an open source software with an intuitive graphical user interface promoting data handling, analysis and visualization. The back-end is designed to be modular, allowing for easy extensions with plugins in the future, such as new clustering methods and statistics. It does not require much prior knowledge or technical skills to operate. We demonstrate its power and applicability by means of one artificial dataset. We also apply Carotta exemplarily to a real-world example dataset on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. While the artificial data are utilized as a proof of concept, we will demonstrate how Carotta finds candidate markers in our real dataset associated with confounders rather than the primary disease (COPD

  12. Lepton mixing from the hidden sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludl, P. O.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2015-10-01

    Experimental results indicate a possible relation between the lepton and quark mixing matrices of the form UPMNS≈VCKM†UX , where UX is a matrix with special structure related to the mechanism of neutrino mass generation. We propose a framework which can realize such a relation. The main ingredients of the framework are the double seesaw mechanism, SO(10) grand unification and a hidden sector of theory. The latter is composed of singlets (fermions and bosons) of the grand unified theory (GUT) symmetry with masses between the GUT and Planck scale. The interactions in this sector obey certain symmetries Ghidden. We explore the conditions under which symmetries Ghidden can produce flavor structures in the visible sector. Here the key elements are the basis-fixing symmetry and mediators which communicate information about properties of the hidden sector to the visible one. The interplay of SO(10) symmetry, basis-fixing symmetry identified as Z2×Z2 and Ghidden can lead to the required form of UX. A different kind of new physics is responsible for generation of the CKM mixing. We present the simplest realizations of the framework which differ by nature of the mediators and by symmetries of the hidden sector.

  13. Otoendoscopic treatment of hidden lesions in otomastoiditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; SUN Jian-jun; LIN Yong-sheng; ZHAO Dan-heng; ZHAO Jing; LEI Fei

    2010-01-01

    Background Surgical treatments for chronic suppurative and cholesteatoma otitis media have been discussed for several decades, but recurrences still occur because of the complex dissection required and hidden lesions associated with otomastoiditis. This study investigated the technology and strategy behind the use of otoendoscopic-assisted otosurgery.Methods We reported on hidden lesions in 32 ears of patients with otomastoiditis between November 2006 and January 2009. All the patients were treated with the aid of an otoendoscope. The advantages of otoendoscopy, including multi-angle light scattering, aperture illumination, and magnification of the local operative field, were utilized in otologic microsurgery, and otoendoscopic operative techniques were introduced for operative sites such as the epitympanum, aditus of the antrum, facial recess, sinus tympani and the mastoid tip.Results All patients were followed up from 3 months to 2 years after surgery. All patients recovered well within 3 months following surgery, except for one case of epithelialization of the mastoid cavity occurring 6 months after surgery for cholesteatoma on the cerebellar surface and another case with Bezold's abscess, hyperplastic granulation tissue developed at the antrum.Conclusions Otoendoscopy can overcome the technical deficiency of rectilinearity of the visual axis associated with otomicroscopic illumination, which presents a problem when dealing with otomastoiditis lesions in hidden areas. This technique allows such lesions within the complex three-dimensional structure to be visualized and cleaned. Otoendoscopy thus has significant potential for improving the quality of surgery and reducing the risk of postoperative recurrence.

  14. Dark matter in the hidden gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yamanaka, Nodoka; Gongyo, Shinya; Iida, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    The cosmological scenario of the dark matter generated in the hidden gauge theory based on the grand unification is discussed. It is found that the stability of the dark matter halo of our Galaxy and the cosmic ray observation constrain, respectively, the dark matter mass and the unification scale between the standard model and the hidden gauge theory sectors. To obtain a phenomenologically consistent thermal evolution, the entropy of the standard model sector needs to be increased. We therefore propose a scenario where the mini-inflation is induced from the potential coupled to the Standard model sector, in particular the Higgs sector. This scenario makes consistent the current dark matter density as well as the baryon-to-photon ratio for the case of pion dark matter. For the glueball or heavy pion of hidden gauge theory, an additional mini-inflation in the standard model sector before the leptogenesis is required. We also propose the possibility to confirm this scenario by known prospective experimental app...

  15. Open and hidden agendas of "asymptomatic" patients who request check-up exams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nüesch Reto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current guidelines for a check-up recommend routine screening not triggered by specific symptoms for some known risk factors and diseases in the general population. Patients' perceptions and expectations regarding a check-up exam may differ from these principles. However, quantitative and qualitative data about the discrepancy between patient- and provider expectations for this type of clinic consultation is lacking. Methods For a year, we prospectively enrolled 66 patients who explicitly requested a "check-up" at our medical outpatient division. All patients actively denied upon prompting having any symptoms or specific health concerns at the time they made their appointment. All consultations were videotaped and analysed for information about spontaneously mentioned symptoms and reasons for the clinic consultation ("open agendas" and for cues to hidden patient agendas using the Roter interaction analysis system (RIAS. Results All patients initially declared to be asymptomatic but this was ultimately the case in only 7 out of 66 patients. The remaining 59 patients spontaneously mentioned a mean of 4.2 ± 3.3 symptoms during their first consultation. In 23 patients a total of 31 hidden agendas were revealed. The primary categories for hidden agendas were health concerns, psychosocial concerns and the patient's concept of disease. Conclusions The majority of patients requesting a general check-up tend to be motivated by specific symptoms and health concerns and are not "asymptomatic" patients who primarily come for preventive issues. Furthermore, physicians must be alert for possible hidden agendas, as one in three patients have one or more hidden reasons for requesting a check-up.

  16. Hidden force opposing ice compression

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Chang Q; Zheng, Weitao

    2012-01-01

    Coulomb repulsion between the unevenly-bound bonding and nonbonding electron pairs in the O:H-O hydrogen-bond is shown to originate the anomalies of ice under compression. Consistency between experimental observations, density functional theory and molecular dynamics calculations confirmed that the resultant force of the compression, the repulsion, and the recovery of electron-pair dislocations differentiates ice from other materials in response to pressure. The compression shortens and strengthens the longer-and-softer intermolecular O:H lone-pair virtual-bond; the repulsion pushes the bonding electron pair away from the H+/p and hence lengthens and weakens the intramolecular H-O real-bond. The virtual-bond compression and the real-bond elongation symmetrize the O:H-O as observed at ~60 GPa and result in the abnormally low compressibility of ice. The virtual-bond stretching phonons ( 3000 cm-1) softened upon compression. The cohesive energy of the real-bond dominates and its loss lowers the critical temperat...

  17. Energy use in breweries: Cool beer on hot days. Environment reward for new energy concept. Energieeinsatz in der Brauerei: Kuehles Bier an heissen Tagen. Umweltpreis fuer neues Energiekonzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosshans, D. (Technische Werke der Stadt Stuttgart AG (Germany)); Klemm, W. (Stuttgarter Hofbraeu AG, Stuttgart (Germany))

    1991-08-01

    In the last years, brewery technique strongly changed. This is especially valid for the device technique, which works with possibly high utilization ratios for reducing the energy utilization. In addition, energy from waste heat flows caused by processes is used and again delivered to the production process. For an optimum energy utilization, a cogeneration power station has been connected with an exhaust vapor system. The article provides a description of the system by means of a flow chart. The exhaust vapor is compressed, condensed and delivers its heat to the medium to be heated. Finally, the condensate is directed via a heat exchanger and heats a part of the fresh water. Than it is delivered to the sewerage with a temperature of 20deg C. The method allows for an energy saving of approximately 50%. (BWI).

  18. Searching for charmoniumlike states with hidden $s\\bar{s}$

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiao-Hai

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the processes $e^+e^-$$\\to$$\\gamma J/\\psi\\phi$, $\\gamma J/\\psi\\omega$ and $\\pi^0 J/\\psi\\eta$ to search for the charmnium-like states with hidden $s\\bar{s}$, such as $Y(4140)$, $Y(4274)$, $X(4350)$ and $X(3915)$. These processes will receive contributions from the charmed-strange meson rescatterings. When the center-of-mass energies of the $e^+e^-$ scatterings are taken around the $D_{s0}(2317)D_s^{*}$, $D_{s1}(2460)D_s$ or $D_{s1}(2460)D_s^{*}$ threshold, the anomalous triangle singularities can be present in the rescattering amplitudes, which implies a non-resonance explanation about the resonance-like structures. The positions of the anomalous triangle singularities are sensitive to the kinematics, which offers us a criterion to distinguish the kinematic singularities from genuine particles.

  19. THEO Concept Mission: Testing the Habitability of Enceladus's Ocean

    CERN Document Server

    MacKenzie, Shannon M; Phillips-Lander, Charity M; Stavros, E Natasha; Hofgartner, Jason D; Sun, Vivian Z; Powell, Kathryn E; Steuer, Casey J; O'Rourke, Joesph G; Dhaliwal, Jasmeet K; Leung, Cecilia W S; Petro, Elaine M; Wynne, J Judson; Phan, Samson; Crismani, Matteo; Krishnamurthy, Akshata; John, Kristen K; DeBruin, Kevin; Budney, Charles J; Mitchell, Karl L

    2016-01-01

    Saturn's moon Enceladus offers a unique opportunity in the search for life and habitable environments beyond Earth, a key theme of the National Research Council's 2013-2022 Decadal Survey. A plume of water vapor and ice spews from Enceladus's south polar region. Cassini data suggest that this plume, sourced by a liquid reservoir beneath the moon's icy crust, contain organics, salts, and water-rock interaction derivatives. Thus, the ingredients for life as we know it-- liquid water, chemistry, and energy sources-- are available in Enceladus's subsurface ocean. We have only to sample the plumes to investigate this hidden ocean environment. We present a New Frontiers class, solar-powered Enceladus orbiter that would take advantage of this opportunity, Testing the Habitability of Enceladus's Ocean (THEO). Developed by the 2015 Jet Propulsion Laboratory Planetary Science Summer School student participants under the guidance of TeamX, this mission concept includes remote sensing and in situ analyses with a mass spe...

  20. Conception and development of a system for contact-less energy transfer for electric-powered vehicles; Konzeption und Entwicklung eines Systems zur kontaktlosen Energieuebertragung fuer Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathar, Sebastian

    2012-10-15

    In the year 2010, the car traffic produced nearly 12% of the anthropogenic emissions of CO{sub 2} in Germany. These emissions could be reduced by enhancing the market share of electric-powered vehicles and simultaneously strengthening of the utilization of renewable energy sources in the power generation. In order to arrange this process as simple as possible, the author of this contribution describes the concept, development and structure of a system for the contact-less battery charging for electric-powered vehicles. The potentials of this contact-less procedure in opposite to the conventional cable loading system are described.