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Sample records for hidalgo central mexico

  1. Experimental hybrid system installed in Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico; Sistema hibrido experimental instalado en Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J. Roberto; Gonzalez, Raul; Mejia, Fortino; Lagunas, Javier; Huacuz, Jorge [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this work, the main characteristics of one experimental hybrid system (solar and wind) installed by the Electrical Research Institute, in collaboration with the Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo are presented. The hybrid system has an installed wind capacity of 2.5 kW and photovoltaic capacity of 1.8 kW. The nominal operation voltage of the system 12 Vcd. The technical characteristics of all components of the hybrid system and of the data acquisition system are described in this work. The objective of this hybrid system installation is to carry out experimental tests on different configurations schemes, electrical dispatching and energy generation. Finally, the activities to be carried out in the future and the importance of this project are presented. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan las principales caracteristicas del sistema hibrido experimental solar-eolico (con un motogenerador de gasolina, como sistema de respaldo), instalado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) en conjunto con la Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo (UAEH), en las instalaciones de la preparatoria No.4 de esta universidad. En terminos generales este sistema hibrido tiene una capacidad instalada de 2.5 KW eolicos y 1.0 KW fotovoltaicos. El voltaje nominal de operacion del sistema es de 12 Vcd. Los detalles de la configuracion y caracteristicas del sistema y sus componentes se describen en este trabajo. Tambien se mencionan las caracteristicas y configuracion del sistema de adquisicion de datos. Se presentan las variables que son registradas en el sistema de adquisicion de datos y que son utilizadas para llevar a cabo la evaluacion del sistema. El sistema hibrido fue concebido como una estacion de pruebas experimental donde se podran probar diferentes configuraciones operativas y esquemas de despacho y generacion de energia. Por ultimo se hace mencion de los trabajos a desarrollar en el futuro haciendose notar la trascendencia de este proyecto en el

  2. Hidalgo Fishes: Dataset on freshwater fishes of Hidalgo state (Mexico) in the MZNA fish collection of the University of Navarra (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Galicia,David; Pulido-Flores,Griselda; Miranda,Rafael; Monks,Scott; Monks,Scott; Amezcua,Ana; Imas,María; Chaves,Angel; Arino,Arturo

    2014-01-01

    The state of Hidalgo (Mexico) is an important region from the point of view of biodiversity. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about species diversity and distribution, especially regarding to freshwater ecosystems. This dataset comprises the sampling records of two projects developed in Hidalgo between 2007 and 2009 about the freshwater fish communities of Tecocomulco lake and rivers belonging to the Metztitlán Canyon Biosphere Reserve. It contains the ta...

  3. Impact of Heavy Metals in Enzymatic Activity of Soils from Hidalgo, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Ortigoza, A. L.; Reyes-Solis, I. E.; Galicia-Palacios, M. S.; Montiel-Arteaga, S.

    2009-07-01

    The soils from Valle of Mezquital, Hidalgo, Mexico have been irrigated with waste waters from Mexico City for more than 88 years. the present investigation was made in order to know the relationship between heavy metal contents and time of irrigation with waste waters and production of CO{sub 2} and enzymatic activity in soils from Valle Mezquital for knowing the disponibility of nutrients and degradation of soils. (Author)

  4. Diversity and conservation status of the herpetofauna for an area from north of Hidalgo, Mexico

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    Luis M. Badillo-Saldaña

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation measures currently lack adequate information to assign some species of amphibians and reptiles in the categories of protection. In this study we analyzed and compared the herpetofauna of mountain cloud forest (MCF and tropical evergreen forest (TEF in an area north of Hidalgo. For this study, we conducted fieldwork (24 sites and a literature review. In addition, the conservation status of species was analyzed. The herpetofauna of the municipality of Tepehuacan de Guerrero, Hidalgo, Mexico consists of 70 species (20 amphibians and 50 reptiles, nine of which are historical records that were not found in the present study. Cloud forest was more diverse (39 species than TEF (37 species. There are discrepancies between national and international agencies of conservation regarding the threatened status of these species. The high biodiversity recorded in MCF and TEF in the study area indicates the importance of this area for conservation. In this study, we propose to reassess the conservation category of Hidalgo state herpetofauna.

  5. Landmark Points for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Hydrography for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. Railroads for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Landmark Polygons for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Roads for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Hidalgo County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  11. Forest biometric models in Hidalgo, Mexico: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehemías Vásquez-Bautista

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Históricamente, el aprovechamiento de los bosques ha sido la principal razón que ha motivado la investigación forestal. La búsqueda de información sobre la captura y contenido de carbono, mediante modelos biométricos y tecnología de sensores remotos, se ha incrementado desde el año 2000. El objetivo de este trabajo fue recopilar, sistematizar y analizar los documentos de difusión científica y tecnológica relacionados con los modelos biométricos usados para el manejo forestal en una región del centro de México (Hidalgo. Se encontraron 32 trabajos de investigación generados de 1976 a 2015 que reportan 289 modelos, entre los que resalta el uso de modelos de crecimiento, volumen, biomasa, carbono, índice de sitio, densidad y mortalidad. Los modelos de crecimiento han sido los más estudiados, mientras que los de biomasa y carbono se han incrementado consistentemente desde 2007. El género Pinus ha sido el más estudiado, en cambio Quercus, prácticamente, no figura en los trabajos. Pese a su importancia económica, cinco especies forestales no cuentan con modelos ajustados: Pinus leiophylla, P. michoacana, P. oocarpa, Cupressus lindleyi y Arbutus xalapensis. Los modelos reportados basan su confiabilidad en criterios estadísticos, pero no se reporta si han logrado satisfacer la demanda de los usuarios finales.

  12. Registros nuevos de murciélagos para el estado de Hidalgo, México New records of bats for the state of Hidalgo, Mexico

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    Melany Aguilar-López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo registra por primera vez la presencia de los murciélagos Eptesicus furinalis, Glossophaga morenoi, Myotis auriculus y Platyrrhinus helleri para el estado de Hidalgo, México. Los ejemplares se obtuvieron durante los muestreos realizados entre agosto de 2008 y mayo de 2010. De cada ejemplar se proporcionan las medidas externas y craneales, la condición reproductora, así como el tipo de vegetación donde fueron encontrados.We register for the first time the presence of the bats Eptesicus furinalis, Glossophaga morenoi, Myotis auriculus and Platyrrhinus helleri for the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. The bats were obtained between August 2008 and May 2010. We provide for each bat external and cranial measures, reproductive status, as well as the type of vegetation where they were found.

  13. [State strategy for Cycad (Zamiaceae) conservation: a proposal for the State of Hidalgo, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vite, Aurelia; Pulido, María T; Flores-Vázquez, Juan C

    2013-09-01

    Mexico has the second largest cycad diversity in the world, and the Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO) is one of the richest biogeographic regions for these plants. Despite there is a general Cycad National Program in the country, there are no state-level cycad conservation strategies or programs. Thus the aim of this study was to propose a cycad conservation strategy for the state of Hidalgo, which is located in the Southern part of the SMO. For this, a cycad species inventory was made in the state, for which three methods were used: review of published literature; consultation in the main Mexican herbaria to verify botanical specimens; and exhaustive field research to compare findings with previously reported species and to recognize new records at the county and state level. The proposed research work strategy combined the following elements: prioritize the county and local areas with greatest cycad species richness; prioritize the species least resistant to environmental change and/or having restricted geographic distribution; and to consider the main uses of these plants by local residents. The results showed that Hidalgo has three genera and eight species ofcycads: Ceratozamia fuscoviridis, C. latifolia, C. mexicana, C. sabatoi, Dioon edule, Zamia fischeri, Z. loddigesii and Z. vazquezii, all of which are considered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). This study added two new species records for Hidalgo and 21 at the county level. The species are distributed in 26 counties, of which Chapulhuacán and Pisaflores are notable for their high species richness. Hidalgo has the fourth-greatest cycad species richness among Mexican states, although its area accounts for only 1.07% of the country. The state's diversity is greater than in other states with larger area, and even than in some other entire countries in Mesoamerica. The presented state cycad conservation strategy proposes that a total of some 11,325 ha to be conserved in nine zones

  14. First occurrence of Panthera atrox (Felidae, Pantherinae in the Mexican state of Hidalgo and a review of the record of felids from the Pleistocene of Mexico

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    V. M. Bravo-Cuevas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Panthera atrox was a common large-sized cat in North America during the late Pleistocene. An isolated lower canine and a fifth metacarpal bone referable to this species were recovered from fluvial Quaternary deposits that outcrop in southeastern Hidalgo, central Mexico. Associated fossil material belonging to Bison indicates a Rancholabrean North American Land Mammal Age; the age assignment is corroborated by the presence of P. atrox. A comparative study with selected specimens of Panthera and Smilodon indicates that the Hidalgoan sample shares the following diagnostic features with P. atrox: a large, robust, and non-strongly curved lower canine; a large and relatively slender fifth metacarpal with a well-developed projection on the palmar side at the proximal end, narrow articulating surface for the unciform; a narrow notch on the articulating surface for the fourth metacarpal; and a diaphysis that at the middle is oval in cross section. The record supplements the evidence of P. atrox in central Mexico and represents the first reported occurrence of this cat species in the state of Hidalgo. By the same token, the known geographic distribution of P. atrox in the Mexican territory suggests that it was relatively common in temperate areas of central Mexico between 19 and 24° N at an altitudinal range from 1500 to 2250 m a.s.l. The large size (mean body mass of 300 kg and hypercarnivorous adaptations of the American lion suggest it was the top predator of the mammalian community recorded at southeastern Hidalgo, displacing other members of the carnivore guild at the mesopredator level, such as the dire wolf (Canis dirus , which has been also reported in the area. The high diversity of large herbivores recorded at southeastern Hidalgo, which in turn could represent potential prey of P. atrox, suggests that some areas that now are part of central Mexico were suitable hunting sites for this large-sized cat. A review of the Pleistocene record

  15. The use of a GIS for the identification of geologic structures in the region of Santa María Amajac, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, José C. Escamilla; Muñetón, Gustavo Murillo; Piñán-Llamas, Aránzazu; López, Salvador Cruz

    2008-05-01

    A prominent semicircular structure bounded by circular normal faults and a northeast-southwest trending, active normal fault are the main structures identified in Santa Maria Amajac, south central Hidalgo, Mexico, in the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. Fieldwork, assisted by a Geographic Information System helped to refine the traces of the identified geologic structures. The field evidences supports our hypothesis that the lacustrine deposits in the area are associated with the evolution of a possible volcanic collapse caldera. Our results are the base for a geological risk map and will shed light on the understanding of the mechanisms that governed the evolution of the suspect collapse caldera.

  16. Pilot study for arsenic removal in Hidalgo, Mexico; Estudio piloto para remocion del arsenico, Estado de Hidalgo, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeonova, Petkova Veguinia [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-12-01

    Several materials with high content of iron oxides and positive electrostatic surface charge were identified as alternative arsenic sorbents. These properties are characteristic for minerals as hematite, geotite, lepodocrocite, maghemite, etc., widely distributed in the rocks of all these types and ages in the land bark. The natural hematite has been selected for a pilot experimental study conducted in one of the underground sources in Mexico. The obtained arsenic effluent concentration was less than 0.05 mg/l, assuring the current water-drinking standard. The effect of the operational rate and the influence of the silica and other contaminants present in the raw water over the removal efficiency of hematite were also evaluated. The obtained results prove the raw water over the removal efficiency of hematite were also evaluated. The obtained results prove the viability of the hematite for arsenic removal in the real field conditions. [Spanish] Varios minerales de alto contenido de hierro y carga superficial positiva se han identificado como sorbentes alternativos del arsenico. Estas propiedades son caracteristicas de algunos minerales como hematita, goetita, lepodocrocita, maghemita, etc., los cuales se hallan distribuidos ampliamente en las rocas de todos los tipos y edades que hay en la corteza terrestre. El presente estudio fue hecho sobre la hematita por su alta capacidad de adsorcion respecto al arsenico, evaluada a nivel de laboratorio, y por ser un mineral natural disponible en Mexico. La hematita fue aplicada para remover el arsenico presente en el agua de una fuente de abastecimiento en Mexico. Los resultados obtenidos en el campo comprueban la eficacia de la hematita en la remocion del arsenico, habiendose registrado una concentracion menor de 0.05 mg/l en el agua producida, lo cual satisface los requisitos de la normatividad para el consumo humano respecto a este contaminante.

  17. La familia Podocarpaceae en el estado de Hidalgo, México Family Podocarpaceae in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Contreras-Medina

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Una especie de Podocarpaceae, Podocarpus reiche, se registra para el estado de Hidalgo. Se incluye la descripción del género y la especie, datos de distribución geográfica y hábitat en el estado y se citan los ejemplares de herbario examinados. Dentro del estado, la especie se distribuye únicamente en la provincia biogeográfica de la Sierra Madre Oriental.A single species of Podocarpaceae (Podocarpus reicheiis reported from the Mexican state of Hidalgo. A description of the genus and species, geographic distribution and habitat information in the state, and the reference of the herbarium specimens examined are provided. This species is distributed only in the Sierra Madre Oriental biogeographic province.

  18. Hidalgo Fishes: Dataset on freshwater fishes of Hidalgo state (Mexico) in the MZNA fish collection of the University of Navarra (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia, David; Pulido-Flores, Griselda; Miranda, Rafael; Monks, Scott; Amezcua-Martínez, Ana; Imas-Lecumberri, María; Chaves-Illana, Angel; Ariño, Arturo H

    2014-01-01

    The state of Hidalgo (Mexico) is an important region from the point of view of biodiversity. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about species diversity and distribution, especially regarding to freshwater ecosystems. This dataset comprises the sampling records of two projects developed in Hidalgo between 2007 and 2009 about the freshwater fish communities of Tecocomulco lake and rivers belonging to the Metztitlán Canyon Biosphere Reserve. It contains the taxonomic identity (species level) and basic biometric data (total length and weight) as well as date of collection and coordinates of more than 9000 specimens. This dataset is the primary result of the first and unrepeated exhaustive freshwater fish's survey of Metztitlán Canyon Biosphere Reserve and Tecocomulco lake. It incorporates seven more species to the regional fish fauna, and new exclusive biometric data of ten species. This dataset can be used by studies dealing with, among other interests, North American freshwater fish diversity (species richness, distribution patterns) and biometric analyses, useful for the management and conservation of these areas. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format.

  19. Presence of PAHs in milk of industrial farms from Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Ortiz, Rutilio; Pérez, José Jesús; Schettino, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cow's milk from industrial farms that are located near an industrial park in Hidalgo, Mexico. It was found that the concentrations of PAHs in the raw milk of cattle from industrial farms have increased in recent years. Composite samples were collected between 2008 and 2010 and analysis carried out according to 8100 EPA procedures and analyzed by gas chromatography with FID detection. The results show that combustion PAHs were mostly Ace, Acy, and Fla (0.25, 0.32, and 0.22 µg g(-1), respectively). Diagnostic ratios were used to show that the probable sources were grass and fuel combustion. The sum of concentrations of 16 individual PAHs did not breach permissible levels in milk (25 µg g(-1) according to the United States EPA), indicating a limited health risk to animals and humans in the study area. The industrial park has adequate pollutant emission regulations.

  20. Plant and fungal biodiversity from metal mine wastes under remediation at Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Larrocea, Maria del Pilar [Departamento de Edafologia, Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) (Mexico); Xoconostle-Cazares, Beatriz [Departamento de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. IPN 2508, Zacatenco 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E. [Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigacion para el Desarrollo Integral Regional (CIIDIR)-Instituto Politecnico Nacional - Unidad Sinaloa, Blvd. Juan de Dios Batiz Paredes No. 250, Guasave, Sinaloa 81101 (Mexico); Carrillo-Gonzalez, Rogelio [Programa de Edafologia, Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agricolas, Campus Montecillo, Carretera Mexico-Texcoco, km 36.5, Texcoco, Estado de Mexico 56230 (Mexico); Hernandez-Hernandez, Jani [Departamento de Edafologia, Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) (Mexico); Garduno, Margarita Diaz [Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, Carretera Mexico-Texcoco, km 38.5, Chapingo, Estado de Mexico 56230 (Mexico); Lopez-Meyer, Melina [Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigacion para el Desarrollo Integral Regional (CIIDIR)-Instituto Politecnico Nacional - Unidad Sinaloa, Blvd. Juan de Dios Batiz Paredes No. 250, Guasave, Sinaloa 81101 (Mexico); Gomez-Flores, Lydia [Departamento de Biotecnologia y Bioingenieria, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. IPN 2508, Zacatenco 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez-Chavez, Ma. del Carmen A., E-mail: carmeng@colpos.m [Programa de Edafologia, Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agricolas, Campus Montecillo, Carretera Mexico-Texcoco, km 36.5, Texcoco, Estado de Mexico 56230 (Mexico)

    2010-05-15

    Plant establishment, presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and other rhizospheric fungi were studied in mine wastes from Zimapan, Hidalgo state, Mexico, using a holistic approach. Two long-term afforested and three non-afforested mine tailings were included in this research. Fifty-six plant species belonging to 29 families were successfully established on the afforested sites, while unmanaged tailings had only a few native plant species colonizing the surrounding soils. Almost all plant roots collected were associated to AMF in these sites. The genus Glomus was the most abundant AMF species found in their rhizosphere; however, the Acaulospora genus was also observed. Other rhizospheric fungi were identified by 18S rDNA sequencing analysis. Their role in these substrates, i.e. biocontrol, pollutant- and organic matter-degradation, and aides that increase plant metal tolerance is discussed. Our results advance the understanding of fungal diversity in sites polluted with metals and present alternative plants for remediation use. - Rhizospheric fungi and organic matter encourage plant vegetation of tailings by pioneers and colonizing species.

  1. First Record of the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus in Hidalgo State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Morales, Aldo I; Cueto-Medina, Sarai M; Rodríguez, Quetzaly K Siller

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus , has been reported in the Mexican states of Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila (northeastern), Veracruz, Chiapas, Quintana Roo (southeastern), Morelos, San Luis Potosí (middle), and Sinaloa (northwestern). In April and September 2012, Ae. albopictus was collected in a variety of habitats and landing/biting on the collecting personnel in 12 counties of Hidalgo state (middle). This is the first record of the occurrence of this species in Hidalgo state.

  2. Anfibios y reptiles del valle del Mezquital, Hidalgo, México Amphibians and reptiles from the Valle del Mezquital, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernández-Badillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El valle del Mezquital, Hidalgo, México, es un área de gran riqueza biológica; sin embargo, se desconoce mucho sobre su herpetofauna, por lo que se realizó una lista de anfibios y reptiles de 3 zonas del valle. Se analizó su distribución por tipo de vegetación, se registraron los microhábitats utilizados, así como la abundancia relativa. Se llevaron a cabo 12 salidas mensuales durante 1 año, con 108 días de muestreo. Se realizaron recorridos sobre transectos, en 9 tipos de vegetación. La herpetofauna del área de estudio está integrada por 37 especies (7 anfibios y 30 reptiles, de las cuales 8 se registran por primera vez para el valle del Mezquital. La mayoría de las especies se presentaron en las zonas de cultivo (26, 14 especies en los de la zona templada y 13 en los de la zona de riego. La herpetofauna del valle del Mezquital utiliza un total de 27 tipos de microhábitats, siendo "bajo roca" donde se registró el mayor número de especies (22. La mayoría de las especies tanto de anfibios como de reptiles fueron consideradas raras.Valle del Mezquital Hidalgo, Mexico is known for its high biological richness, but little is known about its herpetofauna. A study to list the amphibians and reptiles of 3 different zones at the Valle del Mezquital was carried out. We analyzed their distribution in different types of vegetation, their microhabitat and relative abundance in 12 monthly trips during 1 year for a total of 108 days. We sampled transects over 9 types of vegetation. Thirty species have been reported for this area (7 amphibians, 30 reptiles, 8 reported for the first time from Valle del Mezquital. Most of the species were present within crops (26, 14 within the temperate zone and 13 within the irrigation zone. The herpetofauna at Valle del Mezquital uses 27 different microhabitat, being "under rock" the most used by 22 species. Most of the species, both amphibians and reptiles were considered rare.

  3. Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, M

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration and HIV/AIDS in Mexico and Central America, including Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. Most migrants travel to the US through Mexico. US-Mexico trade agreements created opportunities for increased risk of HIV transmission. The research literature focuses on Mexico. Most countries, with the exception of Belize and Costa Rica, are sending countries. Human rights of migrants are violated in transit and at destination. Migration policies determine migration processes. The Mexican-born population in the US is about 3% of US population and 8% of Mexico's population. About 22% arrived during 1992-97, and about 500,000 are naturalized US citizens. An additional 11 million have a Mexican ethnic background. Mexican migrants are usually economically active men who had jobs before leaving and were urban people who settled in California, Texas, Illinois, and Arizona. Most Mexican migrants enter illegally. Many return to Mexico. The main paths of HIV transmission are homosexual, heterosexual, and IV-drug-injecting persons. Latino migrants frequently use prostitutes, adopt new sexual practices including anal penetration among men, greater diversity of sexual partners, and use of injectable drugs.

  4. Preliminary Sequence stratigraphy framework of the SW part of the Actopan Platform, Lower Cretaceous, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abascal, G.; Murillo-Muñeton, G.

    2013-05-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks in what is known as the Actopan Platform, in the State of Hidalgo, Mexico, are superbly exposed toward the southwestern part of such platform. A detailed stratigraphic/sedimentologic study was carried out to a 623 m-thick section; this study was focused to establish a sequence stratigraphic framework. The base of the section consists of a Lower Cretaceous 6223-m thick, mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sedimentary succession that has been named Santuario Formation. The terrigenous facies of this unit correspond to red beds that consist of shales, sandstones y few conglomerates deposited under continental conditions (fluvial). White and yellowish sandstones, possibly deposited by deltaic systems, occur in minor amounts. A tuff layer is found in its lower part. The carbonate facies of the Santuario Formation consist mainly of skeletal mudstones/wackestones de bioclastos-peloides and subordinate quantities of sandy dolostones, skeletal packstones/grainstones and rudist (requeniids) boundstones. The middle and upper parts of the studied stratigraphic section correspond to an essentially carbonate succession that in known as El Abra Formation. This unit is comprised of the following facies: skeletal mudstones/wackestones, skeletal packstones/grainstone, and minor rudist (requeniid and Chondrodonta) boundstones and cryptalgal laminites deposited in shallow subtidal lagoon to tidal flat conditions. At this location, a "Middle" Cretaceous age (Albian-Cenomanian) has been assigned to the El Abra Formation. However, the common presence of the benthic foraminifer Chofatella decipiens Schlumberger in these facies indicates that their age extends, at least, to the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian). This age was confirmed with the dating of zircons in tuff deposited in the base section. The carbonate facies of the Santuario Formation stack forming fifth-order subtidal cycles or parasequences. While the carbonate facies of the El Abra Formation also stack

  5. Aerosol composition from Tlaxcoapan, Hidalgo in central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, M. A.; Solis, C.; Andrade, E. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Issac O, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan y Jesus Carranza s/n, 50120 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Beltran H, R. I. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, 42174 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Medina M, S. A.; Martinez R, G.; Ramirez R, A.; Lucho C, C. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Programa de Ingenieria en Biotecnologia, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun Km. 20, Ex-Hacienda de Santa Barbara, Municipio de Zempoala, Hidalgo (Mexico); Del Razo, L. M. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Seccion Externa de Toxicologia, Ticoman, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    Air quality mexican regulations about atmospheric aerosols refer to particle sizes and to the total suspended particle. None of these norms establishes the allowed values based on the particulate chemical composition. Mexican environmental legislation also considers as critical zones those with high concentration of contaminants in the atmosphere. One of these zones is the Tula-Vito-Apasco corridor where no chemical composition characterization in terms of trace metal associated to the air particulate matter has been made. Along this corridor near Tlaxcoapan there are important contaminant sources as petrochemical and electric power plants, metal-mechanical industry, limestone quarry and contaminated soils. In this work PIXE and Sem-EDS were applied to the PM{sub 10} fraction collected on filters. The trace element values thus determined were compared with those of a similar critical zone. It was found that most of the coarse particles come from limestone quarry as fugitive dusts while V, Ni, Cr and Pb values are moderately high and seems to be associated to industrial activities and contaminated soil as well. (Author)

  6. Geochemistry of the Jurassic and Upper Cretaceous shales from the Molango Region, Hidalgo, eastern Mexico: Implications for source-area weathering, provenance, and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Altrin, John S.; Nagarajan, Ramasamy; Madhavaraju, Jayagopal; Rosalez-Hoz, Leticia; Lee, Yong Il; Balaram, Vysetti; Cruz-Martínez, Adriana; Avila-Ramírez, Gladis

    2013-04-01

    This study focuses on the Jurassic (Huayacocotla and Pimienta Formations) and Upper Cretaceous (Méndez Formation) shales from the Molango Region, Hidalgo, Mexico. In this article, we discuss the mineralogy, major, and trace element geochemistry of the Mesozoic shales of Mexico. The goal of this study is to constrain the provenance of the shales, which belong to two different periods of the Mesozoic Era and to understand the weathering conditions and tectonic environments of the source region.

  7. Owned dog ecology and demography in Villa de Tezontepec, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Luz Maria; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Sargeant, Jan M; Coe, Jason B; Flockhart, D T Tyler; Reynoso Palomar, Alejandro; Canales Vargas, Erick J; Greer, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    Dog overpopulation in developing countries has negative implications for the health and safety of people, including the transmission of zoonotic diseases, physical attacks and intimidation to humans and animals, as well as impacts on canine welfare. Understanding the ecology and demographic characteristics of a dog population can help in the planning and monitoring of canine population control programs. Little data exist regarding demography and dynamics of domestic dog populations in semi-urban areas in Mexico. A cross-sectional study was carried out between October 21 and November 7, 2015, to characterize the dog ecology and demography in Villa de Tezontepec, Hidalgo, Mexico. A face-to-face survey was used to collect data from randomly selected households in four contiguous communities using stratified two-stage cluster sampling. Within each household, adults answered questions related to their dogs and their experiences with dog bites and aggression. A total of 328 households were interviewed, representing a participation rate of 90.9% (328/361) and 1,450 people. Approximately 65.2% of the households owned one or more dogs, with a mean of 1.3 (SD=1.5) and 2.0 (SD=1.5) owned dogs in all participant households and dog-owning households, respectively. The human: owned dog ratio for all participant households was 3.4:1 (1450/428), and for the dog-owning households was 2.3:1 (984/428). The owned dog male: female ratio was 1.4:1 (249/179). Approximately 74.4% (95.0% CI=69.8% - 78.7%) of the owned dogs were older than one year (mean age: 2.9 years; SD=2.5). The mean age of owned female dogs at first litter was 1.9 years (SD=1.2) and the mean litter size was 4.2 puppies (SD=2.1). Approximately 36.9% (95.0% CI=31.8% - 46.4%) of the females were spayed, and 14.1% (95.0% CI=10.7% - 19.7%) of the males were neutered. Only 44.9% (95.0% CI=40.1% - 49.7%) were always confined when unsupervised. Approximately 84.4% (95.0% CI=80.6% - 87.7%) were reported to have been vaccinated

  8. Registros nuevos para la avifauna del estado de Hidalgo, México New records for the avifauna of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Valencia-Herverth

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan 6 registros nuevos de aves para el estado de Hidalgo que se obtuvieron durante el trabajo de campo realizado de agosto 2006 a octubre 2007 y de registros no publicados de especímenes de la Colección Ornitológica del Instituto Tecnológico de Huejutla.Six new state records of birds for Hidalgo based on field work carried out from August 2006 to October 2007 are presented, and from unpublished records of specimens in the Ornithological Collection of the Instituto Tecnológico de Huejutla.

  9. Sister chromatid exchanges in Vicia faba induced by arsenic-contaminated drinking water from Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Arroyo, S; Armienta, M A; Cortés-Eslava, J; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1997-11-27

    Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Vicia faba root tips were used to examine well water containing high levels of arsenic. The increased amount of arsenic was contained in well water from different towns of Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico. Treatments of 3 h were applied followed by the differential staining technique of Tempelaar et al. (Mutation Res. 103 (1982) 321-326). Concentrations of arsenic from 0.267 up to 1.070 mg/l were determined by colorimetry in the polluted samples used for this study. These values were above the permissible limit of 0.05 mg/l in drinking water. In all cases, except one in which the As concentration was 0.021, the arsenic-contaminated water produced significant increases of SCE compared with the control (p Comarca Lagunera and the results observed in Zimapan.

  10. Organochlorine pesticides in lacustrine sediments and tilapias of Metztitlan, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Fernández-Bringas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The organochlorine pesticides (OP are very stable molecules, due to this stability; they are very resistant in the environment and highly related to fat tissues with a wide diffusion property and an average time life higher then 10 years. We studied sediments (November 2001, April and June 2002 and organisms collected in April and July (2002 from the lacustric zone of Metzitlán, Hidalgo, Mexico. The analysis was performed according to UNEP/IAEA (1982 (sediments and UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1986 (organisms methods. Three chemical families of organochlorine pesticides were identified and analyzed to determine posible toxicological risk. The principal organochlorine compounds found in sediments were g-HCH, d-HCH, p,p’-DDT and the endosulfan sulfate; these xenobiotics come from agriculture lands near the river and lake, used intensively, and most probably carried by the rain and rain flows into the main water body. In the tilapias tissue, p,p’-DDD y d-HCH were detected. The average concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in sediments were within the internacional limits for freshwater benthonic fauna, although lindane (g-HCH was near the limit. The fish were above the criteria established in the local legislation (NOM-027-SSA1-1993 y NOM-028-SSA1-1993. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1381-1390. Epub 2008 September 30.El presente trabajo se llevó a cabo en la cuenca lacustre de Metztitlán, Hgo. Se realizaron tres colectas de sedimentos recientes en noviembre (2001, abril y julio (2002 y dos colectas para organismos en abril y julio (2002. Los análisis se hicieron siguiendo la metodología para sedimentos propuesta por UNEP/IAEA (1982 y para tejido de organismos por UNEP/FAO/IOC/IAEA (1986. Se identificaron y cuantificaron tres familias químicas de plaguicidas organoclorados, para determinar el posible riesgo toxicológico de los sedimentos y de organismos en capturas comerciales. Los principales compuestos clorados en sedimentos fueron el g-HCH, d

  11. Microbiological characteristics of four ‘chorizo’ types commercialized in Hidalgo State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gonzalez-Tenorio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chorizo is a raw sausage commercialized in almost all Mexico, mainly in the central region. Chorizo is elaborated from small producers’ craftsman who sold their products in local markets, to big meat processors who distribute their products in supermarkets. These differences in elaboration affect chorizo quality. In this work commercial chorizo bought in four different points (local butchers, rural markets, supermarkets and supply centers. Mainly microbiological groups were determined. Techno-sanitary conditions regulation should be improved in order to establish quality criteria.

  12. Nahuatl de Acaxochitlan, Hidalgo (Nahuatl of Acaxochitlan, Hidalgo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Nahuatl, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in Acaxochitlan, in the state of Hidalgo. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of the…

  13. Diversidad de anfibios y reptiles de la Reserva de la Biosfera Barranca de Metztitlán, Hidalgo, México Diversity of amphibians and reptiles from the Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphera Reserve in Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor D. Vite-Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La Reserva de la Biosfera Barranca de Metztitlán (RBBM es una extensa área protegida (96 042.94 ha de la zona centro del estado de Hidalgo, México. La reserva es bien conocida por su flora endémica, pero existe poca información disponible sobre su herpetofauna. En este estudio se examina la biodiversidad de la comunidad de anfibios y reptiles que habitan en cada uno de los 4 tipos de vegetación de la reserva: bosque de pino-encino, bosque tropical caducifolio, matorral submontano y matorral xerófilo. El trabajo de campo se llevó a cabo entre junio de 2006 y agosto de 2007, periodo de estación de lluvias y secas. En total, se registran 7 especies de anfibios y 31 de reptiles para la RBBM, distribuidas en 14 familias y 29 géneros. En todos los tipos de vegetación, la riqueza de especies de reptiles fue mayor en la estación de lluvias, mientras que la de especies de anfibios fue mayor en la de secas. Entre los tipos de vegetación, el bosque tropical caducifolio exhibió la diversidad y riqueza de especies más grande de anfibios y reptiles. El bosque de pino-encino presentó la mayor equidad y diversidad de especies que los otros tipos de vegetación. El matorral xerófilo y matorral submontano fueron los más similares entre sí en diversidad de especies. Este trabajo representa una aportación significativa al conocimiento de la herpetofauna de la RBBM, y una base para estudios futuros sobre historia natural de los anfibios y reptiles de esta reserva.The Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphere Reserve (BMBR is an extensive protected area (96 042.94 ha in Hidalgo state of central Mexico. The reserve is well known for its globally significant endemic flora, but relatively little information is available regarding its herpetofauna. We examined reptile and amphibian community biodiversity occurring in each of 4 vegetation types characteristic of the reserve: pine-oak forest, tropical deciduous forest, sub-montane shrubland, and arid tropical

  14. Anfibios y reptiles del valle del Mezquital, Hidalgo, México Amphibians and reptiles from the Valle del Mezquital, Hidalgo, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Fernández-Badillo; Irene Goyenechea-Mayer Goyenechea

    2010-01-01

    El valle del Mezquital, Hidalgo, México, es un área de gran riqueza biológica; sin embargo, se desconoce mucho sobre su herpetofauna, por lo que se realizó una lista de anfibios y reptiles de 3 zonas del valle. Se analizó su distribución por tipo de vegetación, se registraron los microhábitats utilizados, así como la abundancia relativa. Se llevaron a cabo 12 salidas mensuales durante 1 año, con 108 días de muestreo. Se realizaron recorridos sobre transectos, en 9 tipos de vegetación. La herp...

  15. Study of arsenic removal with ionic exchange resins in drinking water from Zimapan, Hidalgo State, Mexico; Estudio de eliminacion de arsenico con resinas de entercambio ionico en agua potable de Zimapan, Estado de Hidalgo, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Moreno, F.; Prieto-Garcia, F.; Rojas-Hernandez, A.; Marmolejo-Santillan, Y.; Salinas-Rodriguez, E.; Patino-Cardona, F.

    2006-07-01

    Anionic exchange resins were research with respect its capacity for removal arsenic content in water. Water of well V from Zimapan Hidalgo Mexico was used to make this research, because this water have a mean concentration of 480{+-}11{mu}g-L''-1 of arsenic and it is available as drinking water. The exchange resins employed were two strong anionic, one macroreticular (IRA-900) and other gel type (IRA-400), as soon as one third anionic weak macroreticular type (IRA-96). The experiments carried with this resins showing that IRA-900 has highest efficient in the process of arsenic removal from drinking water, because, it showed a treatment capacity of 700 V{sub a}gua. V{sub r}es''-1; while that capacities of IRA-400 e IRA-96 resins were 320 and 52 V{sub a}gua .V{sub r}es''-1 respectively. The mean concentration of arsenic residue in the treatise water was 24 {mu}g.l''-1 and it is within the maximum level permissible by Mexican official norm for drinking water. (Author) 12 refs.

  16. Detection of Dengue Virus in Bat Flies (Diptera: Streblidae) of Common Vampire Bats, Desmodus rotundus, in Progreso, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abundes-Gallegos, Judith; Salas-Rojas, Monica; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Perea-Martínez, Leonardo; Obregón-Morales, Cirani Y; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Chomel, Bruno B; Stuckey, Matthew J; Moreno-Sandoval, Hayde; García-Baltazar, Anahi; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamin; Zuñiga, Gerardo; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro

    2017-12-12

    Blood-feeding arthropods play a major role in the transmission of several flaviviruses, which represent an important problem for human health. Currently, dengue is one of the most important arboviral emerging diseases worldwide. Furthermore, some previous studies have reported the presence of viral nucleic acids and antibodies against dengue virus (DENV) in wild animals. Our knowledge of the role played by wildlife reservoirs in the sylvatic transmission and maintenance of DENV remains limited. Our objective was to screen blood-feeding ectoparasites (bat flies) and their common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) hosts, for flaviviruses in Hidalgo, Mexico. We detected Flavivirus sequences in 38 pools of ectoparasites (Diptera: Streblidae, Strebla wiedemanni and Trichobius parasiticus) and 8 tissue samples of D. rotundus by RT-PCR and semi-nested PCR using FlaviPF1S, FlaviPR2bis, and FlaviPF3S primers specific for NS5, a gene highly conserved among flaviviruses. Phylogenetic inference analysis performed using the maximum likelihood algorithm implemented in PhyML showed that six sequences clustered with DENV (bootstrap value = 53.5%). Although this study supports other reports of DENV detection in bats and arthropods other than Aedes mosquitoes, the role of these ectoparasitic flies and of hematophagous bats in the epidemiology of DENV still warrants further investigation.

  17. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 1% for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. Current Census Blocks for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Current Water Polygons for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. 2000 Census Voting Precincts for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. Current State Senate Districts for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Current County Boundary for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. Current Unified School Districts for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. 2000 Census Urban Areas for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. 2000 Census Public Use Microdata Area (PUMA) 5% for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Economic Census Designated Places for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  7. 2000 Census Designated Places for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. Current Urban Areas for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. Current Census Tracts for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. Current County Census Subdivision for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. Current Designated Places for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Current State House Districts for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. Current 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Current 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. Miscellaneous Ground Transportation (Utilities) for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. 2000 Census Unified School Districts for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. [Renal transplantation program at the Centenario Hospital Miguel Hidalgo in Aguascalientes, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Acevedo, Rafael; Romo-Franco, Luis; Delgadillo-Castañeda, Rodolfo; Orozco-Lozano, Iraida; Melchor-Romo, Miriam; Gil-Guzmán, Enrique; Lupercio-Luévano, Salvador; Cervantes, Sandra; Dávila, Imelda; Chew-Wong, Alfredo

    2011-09-01

    Miguel Hidalgo Hospital in Aguascalientes is dependent from the Federal Secretary of Health and operates in integrity with State health system in Aguascalientes. It capacity is based on 132 censored beds and 71 no censored beds. Is considered a specialty hospital in the region of Bajío. Renal transplant program activity was initiated in 1990 and gives care for adult and pediatric population. Retrospective, comparative and longitudinal study to describe and analyze our experience. Data base and clinical charts of renal transplant recipients were reviewed. Age, gender, date of transplant, etiology of renal disease, type of donor, HLA compatibility and PRA, immunosuppressive therapy, acute rejection, serum creatinina, graft loss and mortality were registered. Statistical analysis included 2, unpaired Student T test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with Log Rank test. Cox Analysis was also done. 1050 renal transplants were done from November 1990 to June 2011. 50 were excluded because follow-up was not longer than 3 months. 1000 consecutive renal transplant patients from January 1995 to June 2011 were included for analysis. Patients were divided in 2 groups: group A transplanted January 1995 to December 2004; group B transplanted January 2005 to June 2011. Etiology for end stage renal disease is unknown in 61% of cases, 11% developed renal disease to diabetes mellitus. 93% patient survival was observed at median follow-up and 84.9% graft survival at median follow-up (6 years). Biopsy proven acute rejection in group A 19.9 vs. 10% in group B. Two haplotype matching shows 92% graft survival. Diabetic patients exhibit 73% graft survival vs. other as hypertension (87%). PRA >0 and serum creatinine > 2.0 mg/dL increase risk for graft loss according to Cox analysis. CONCLUSION. Results are comparable to international data. Importance of developing regional transplant centers is emphasized.

  18. Avifauna del bosque mesófilo de montaña del noreste de Hidalgo, México Avifauna of the tropical montane cloud forest of northeastern Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Martínez-Morales

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los resultados de un inventario avifaunístico realizado de 1997 a 1999 en fragmentos de bosque mesófilo de montaña del noreste de Hidalgo, México. Se registraron 41 familias y 181 especies de aves mediante observaciones visuales y auditivas en 2 057 puntos de conteo, lo que representó el 98% de las especies esperadas en el área de estudio, para el período y método de muestreo utilizado. Se detectaron 16 especies restringidas al bosque mesófilo, 11 endémicas de México y 3 de distribución restringida. Adicionalmente, con base en la legislación mexicana vigente, 28 de las especies registradas están incluidas dentro de alguna categoría de riesgo de conservación. Esta comunidad de aves estuvo dominada por especies de aves pequeñas, raras (poco abundantes y residentes. Es probable que las más vulnerables de sufrir extinciones locales sean las especies raras y restringidas al bosque mesófilo, donde están incluidas las 3 especies de distribución restringida (Dendrortyx barbatus, Glaucidium sanchezi y Cyanolyca nana. La avifauna del bosque mesófilo de esta región incluye al 40% de la avifauna estatal, lo que destaca la relevancia de este tipo de vegetación y una urgente necesidad de establecer estrategias de manejo para su conservación.This study shows the results of bird census carried out from 1997 to 1999 in cloud forest fragments of northeastern Hidalgo, Mexico. Forty-one bird families and 181 species were recorded through visual and acoustic detections in 2 057 point counts. This represents 98% of the expected species richness for the sampling period and method used. Sixteen species restricted to the cloud forest were detected, 11 Mexican endemic species, and 3 restricted-range species were recorded. Additionally, 28 species are included within some category of conservation concern according to the present Mexican legislation. This bird community was dominated by small, rare (low in abundance, and

  19. Frecuencia y algunos factores de riesgo de mortalidad en el estado de Hidalgo, México, por defectos de cierre del tubo neural Mortality due to neural tube defects and risk factors in Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Muñoz-Juárez

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Calcular el riesgo de muerte fetal secundaria a defectos del cierre del tubo neural y estimar factores asociados con este tipo de muertes en el estado de Hidalgo. Material y métodos. La información analizada en el año 2000 fue obtenida de los certificados de muerte fetal del periodo 1990-1995 en el estado de Hidalgo. Se utilizó un diseño de mortalidad proporcional, considerado como una variante del diseño de casos y controles. Los casos fueron aquellas muertes fetales secundarias a defectos del tubo neural y los controles las muertes fetales por otros motivos. Se utilizó ji cuadrada de Pearson para estimar las diferencias entre los casos y controles. Para el riesgo crudo de morir por defectos de cierre del tubo neural se empleó la razón de momios, y para el riesgo ajustado se usó la regresión logística no condicional. Resultados. Se analizaron 3 673 certificados de muerte fetal, identificándose 8.06% de muertes por defectos del tubo neural; el resto lo constituyeron muertes por otras causas. Se encontró como variables asociadas con la muerte fetal por defectos del tubo neural a los fetos que pesaron menos de 2 500 gramos (RM 5.0, IC 95% 3.6, 6.7, a los productos del sexo femenino (RM 1.7, IC 95% 1.3, 2.3 y a las muertes ocurridas en el periodo fetal tardío (RM 5.5 IC 95% 3.8, 8.1. Conclusiones. Los resultados indican que el riesgo de muerte fetal debida a defectos del tubo neural es mayor en productos de bajo peso, en los del sexo femenino y los que ocurren en el periodo fetal tardío.Objective. To calculate the risk of fetal death due to neural tube defects and estimate associated factors in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. Material and Methods. Data were abstracted from death certificates registered during 1990-1995 in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. The design was a proportional mortality study, which is considered as a variant of the case control design. Cases were deaths with any type of neural tube defect, and controls

  20. Avifauna de la Reserva de la Biosfera Barranca de Metztitlán, Hidalgo, México Birds of the Biosphere Reserve Barranca de Metztitlán, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Ortiz-Pulido

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El manejo y conservación de un área natural protegida depende en gran parte del conocimiento biológico que se tenga sobre ella. En este estudio se presenta el listado de las aves de la Reserva de la Biosfera Barranca de Metztitlán, Hidalgo, México realizado durante 7 años de trabajo de campo y que incluye 271 especies. Las familias más ricas fueron Tyrannidae y Parulidae (24 especies cada una, Emberizidae (19, Icteridae (13 y Trochilidae (12. Se registran 117 especies como residentes, 88 migratorias, 34 ocasionales, 6 con poblaciones residentes-migratorias y 26 sin estacionalidad clara. Se observaron 16 especies abundantes, 67 comunes, 153 raras y 35 sin abundancia relativa clara. Los tipos de vegetación más utilizados por las aves son: matorral submontano (113 especies, bosque tropical caducifolio (97, bosque de tascate (96 y matorral crasicaule con dominancia de S. dumortieri (91. Los gremios alimenticios mejor representados fueron: insectívoro (235 especies, frugívoro (88 y granívoro (85. Con base en la normatividad mexicana, se registraron 17 especies bajo alguna categoría de riesgo y 32 con algún grado de endemismo. En la zona habitan cerca del 60% de las aves de Hidalgo y 27% de las de México, razón por la cual se sugiere que esta zona sea declarada Área Importante para la Conservación de las Aves (AICA en México.Management and conservation of natural protected areas depends critically on their biological knowledge. Herein we report a check-list of the Barranca de Metztitlán Biosphere Reserve, Hidalgo, Mexico. We registered 271 species. The families that include more species were Tyrannidae and Parulidae (24 species each one, Emberizidae (19, Icteridae (13 and Trochilidae (12. We recorded 117 resident species, 88 migratory, 34 transient, 6 with resident-migratory populations and 26 with status not clear. We registered 16 abundant species, 67 common, 153 rare, and 35 with undetermined abundance. The richest vegetation

  1. New species of Aspiculuris (Nematoda: Heteroxynematidae, parasite of Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae, from Hidalgo, Mexico Una nueva especie de Aspiculuris (Nematoda: Heteroxynematidae, parásito de Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae, de Hidalgo, México

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    Jorge Falcón-Ordaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspiculuris huascaensis n. sp. was found in the intestine of Mus musculus collected from 2 localities in Hidalgo, Mexico, and is described herein. The new species possesses cervical alae abruptly interrupted at mid-length of esophageal bulb form an acute angle, distinguishing it from 5 of the 17 species in the genus. The new species is differentiated from 11 of the remaining species by having cervical alae that form an acute angle and end at mid-length of the esophageal bulb. Aspiculuris huascaensis n. sp. most closely resembles A. tetraptera in the position of the terminal end of the cervical alae. However, the new species can be distinguished from that species by the number of caudal papillae (12 vs. 14, the presence of a sessile precloacal papilla between 2 cuticular folds, and by having a single pedunculate papilla located slightly posterior to the cloaca.Se describe una especie nueva, Aspiculuris huascaensis n. sp., proveniente del intestino de Mus musculus de 2 localidades de Hidalgo, México. Esta especie cuenta con 1 ala cervical interrumpida abruptamente formando un ángulo agudo; con base en este carácter, la especie nueva se distingue de 5 de las 17 especies que contiene el género. De 11 especies más, A. huascaensis n. sp. se diferencia por el ángulo agudo que forma el ala cervical y porque ésta finaliza a la mitad de la longitud del bulbo esofágico. Aspiculuris huascaensis n. sp. se asemeja a A. tetraptera por la terminación del ala cervical. Sin embargo, puede distinguirse de dicha especie por el número de papilas caudales (12 vs. 14, por la presencia de una papila precloacal sésil entre 2 pliegues cuticulares y por una papilla sencilla detrás de la cloaca.

  2. Lluvia de semillas y emergencia de plántulas de Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana en La Mojonera, Hidalgo, México Seed rain and seedling emergence of Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana at La Mojonera, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Godínez-Ibarra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana es una especie restringida a pequeñas poblaciones y sujeta a fuerte presión antropogénica. Con el objetivo de obtener información relevante que permita proponer alternativas de conservación, se analizó la producción de semillas y la demografía de plántulas de primer año en la Mojonera, Hidalgo. Se estableció una parcela de observación de 4 800 m² dividida en cuadrantes de 10 X 10 m. Se utilizaron trampas de 0.5 m² para estimar la producción de semillas, así como subparcelas de 1 m² para registrar la emergencia y supervivencia de plántulas. La producción fue de 521 667 semillas ha-1, de las que sólo el 24.44% estaban llenas; el 46.01% vanas, y el 29.55% dañadas. La densidad de plántulas emergidas varió de 1 a 33 plántulas por m². El porcentaje de supervivencia de plántulas de primer año fue de 2.8% después de 10 meses de observación, siendo las de mayor supervivencia las que emergieron durante las primeras fechas. El 34.44% de las plántulas murieron por herbivoría, el 24.07% por damping-off y 23.65% por causa desconocida. La especie presenta el patrón general de supervivencia de especies arbóreas con alta mortalidad durante el primer año de vida.Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana is a species restricted to small populations under high anthropogenic pressure. With the aim to attain information to propose conservation strategies of this species, the seed rain and demography of current-year seedlings were analyzed at La Mojonera, Hidalgo, Mexico. A 4 800 m² plot divided into 10 X 10 m quadrants was established. The seed rain, seedling emergence, and survival were analyzed using seed traps of 0.5 m² and adjacent 1 m² sub-plots. The total seed rain was 521 667 seeds ha-1. A high proportion of seeds were unsound (46.01%, followed by damaged seeds (29.5% and only 24.44% were sound. Emerged seedlings fluctuated from 1 to 33 seedlings m². Alter 10 months, 2.8% of emerged seedlings were

  3. Primer registro del ratón de los volcanes (Neotomodon alstoni) para el estado de Hidalgo, México First record of the volcano mouse (Neotomodon alstoni) from the State of Hidalgo, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro García-Becerra; Sergio Daniel Hernández-Flores; Gonzalo Herrera-Muñoz; Cristian Aguilar-Miguel; Gerardo Sánchez-Rojas

    2012-01-01

    El ratón de los volcanes (Neotomodon alstoni) se registra por primera vez en el estado de Hidalgo, México. Los ejemplares se recolectaron en diciembre de 2010, en el municipio de Almoloya, aproximadamente a 32.8 km al norte de la localidad documentada más cercana al estado de Tlaxcala, por lo que este nuevo registro se convierte en el más norteño para la distribución conocida del ratón de los volcanes.The volcano mouse (Neotomodon alstoni) is firstly recorded in the State of Hidalgo. Specimen...

  4. Air Pollutant Characterization in Tula Industrial Corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sosa, G; Vega, E; González-Avalos, E; Mora, V; López-Veneroni, D

    2013-01-01

    ... concentrations and chemical composition were measured intensively in Tula (in the State of Hidalgo) during four weeks to determine the potential impact of contaminant emissions of Tula on the northern sector of Mexico City. Mezquital Valley, localized some 60 km northwest of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), is site of the Tula-Vito-Apasco industri...

  5. Amphibian and reptile biodiversity in the semi-arid region of the municipality of Nopala de Villagrán, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Hernández, Andrés Alberto; Flores-Villela, Oscar

    2018-01-01

    Current global changes are putting both biodiversity and the processes that depend on it at risk. This is especially true for semi-arid regions and the flagship groups that inhabit them, such as amphibians and reptiles. Semi-arid regions are often thought to have lower biodiversity and thus have been overlooked, resulting in the underestimation of their biological richness. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct an inventory of amphibians and reptiles in the semi-arid municipality of Nopala de Villagrán, Mexico, and analyze its biodiversity in relation to the seasons, vegetation and microhabitat. During a year of fieldwork, we found 24 species in the area, most of them of low abundance, and one of which was recorded for the first time for the state of Hidalgo. We documented five amphibian species and 19 reptile species. We also found that observed species richness was higher in the rainy season and in xeric scrub vegetation, although only the season differences were significant according to rarefaction curves. Our findings highlight the importance of seasonality and vegetation type for the species that inhabit this semi-arid region. This study broadens our understanding of the importance of semi-arid regions and, by extension, that of other areas with similar characteristics. PMID:29312825

  6. Primer registro del ratón de los volcanes (Neotomodon alstoni para el estado de Hidalgo, México First record of the volcano mouse (Neotomodon alstoni from the State of Hidalgo, Mexico

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    Alejandro García-Becerra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El ratón de los volcanes (Neotomodon alstoni se registra por primera vez en el estado de Hidalgo, México. Los ejemplares se recolectaron en diciembre de 2010, en el municipio de Almoloya, aproximadamente a 32.8 km al norte de la localidad documentada más cercana al estado de Tlaxcala, por lo que este nuevo registro se convierte en el más norteño para la distribución conocida del ratón de los volcanes.The volcano mouse (Neotomodon alstoni is firstly recorded in the State of Hidalgo. Specimens were collected in December 2010, at the municipality of Almoloya, approximately 32.8 km to the north from the nearest locality in the state of Tlaxcala. Therefore, this is the northernmost record for the range of the Mexican volcano mouse.

  7. 2000 Census 3-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  8. 2000 Census 5-Digit ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTAs) for Hidalgo County, New Mexico, 2006se TIGER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. A la sombra del Miguel Hidalgo: análisis etnográfico del parque central de Tapachula

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    Soledad Álvarez Velasco

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available La exploración etnográfica del parque Miguel Hidalgo en Tapachula arroja claves para entender cómo en silencio y a la sombra en ese lugar se han configurando fronteras sociales, distinciones y prácticas teñidas de formas de violencia normalizada hacia los migrantes indocumentados en tránsito. Al localizar espacialmente el análisis, se identifica cómo este parque, a pesar de no estar marginado físicamente, es un espacio socialmente marginado. Hecho que ha permitido que en su contracara se constituya un mercado para el trabajo informal de migrantes indocumentados y un punto de operaciones para redes de trata y tráfico de personas.

  10. Stratigraphic/sedimentological analysis of a Lower Cretaceous carbonate succession in the Actopan Platform, Hidalgo State, Mexico: documentation on an Early Albian deepening event

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Francisco, J. M.; Murillo-Muñeton, G.; Franco-Navarrete, S. P.

    2013-05-01

    The Actopan Platform, exposed near the town of Actopan, in the State of Hidalgo, is part of the system of carbonate platforms developed extensively in Mexico during the Early Cretaceous. However, despite the excellent outcrops and easy access this platform is still poorly studied. A sedimentologic and biostratigraphic analyisis of a 345 m-thick stratigraphic section located in the southwestern region of this platform was conducted. The collected information allowed, for the first time, to document the presence of deep-water calcareous facies of Lower Albian age. The results of the analysis of depositional textures, sedimentary structures, fossil content, and diagenetic attributes were used to identify facies and their depositional environments, and to define facies associations. The lower part of the section consists of the following facies: skeletal-peloidal mudstone/wackestone, peloidal-skeletal packstone/grainstone, oncoid packstone, boundstone of Chondrodonta sp. and requinids, and cryptalgal laminites. The depositional environments of the facies vary from shallow subtidal (lagoonal) to supratidal. These facies stack forming subtidal and peritidal cycles. The Choffatella decipiens benthic foraminifer is common in this facies and indicates an Aptian age. This shallow-water sedimentary package is normally overlain by a succession of pelagic facies with intercalations of gravity-induced, coarse-grained carbonate deposits including turbidites and debris flows. Colomiella recta, Favusella sp. and Microcalamoides diversus are typical planktic microfossils in this calcareous unit indicating a Lower Albian age. The large-scale trend of this Lower Cretaceous facies succession allowed documenting a deepening event that took place in the Early Albian and that had not been previously reported in this platform.

  11. Florística del bosque mesófilo de montaña de Monte Grande, Lolotla, Hidalgo, México Floristics of the cloud forest of Monte Grande, Lolotla, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Ponce-Vargas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio florístico del bosque mesófilo de montaña del municipio de Lolotla, localizado al noreste del estado de Hidalgo. El área está enclavada en la Sierra Madre Oriental, dentro de la región de la Huasteca hidalguense. Se ofrece un listado florístico de las plantas vasculares, compuesto por 103 familias, 260 géneros, 359 especies y 11 taxa subespecíficos. En este bosque hay 11 especies que están en alguna categoría de riesgo dentro de la Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-050-ECOL-2001 y se sugiere el estudio de dos más para su posible inclusión.A floristic inventory of the cloud forest of the municipality of Lolotla, in the state of Hidalgo was undertaken; this area is located in the Sierra Madre Oriental and is part of the Huasteca Hidalguense region. A floristic checklist of vascular plants composed by 103 families, 260 genera, 359 species and 11 subspecific taxa was obtained. Eleven species represented in this forest are included in the official Mexican document named Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-050-ECOL-2001, as species in some risk category and we suggest the study of two additional species for their possible inclusion.

  12. Four new species of Cymatodera Gray from central and southern Mexico (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Tillinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Alan F; Rifkind, Jacques; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Four new species of Cymatodera are described from Mexico: Cymatoderatortuosa Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Hidalgo and Tamaulipas; Cymatoderaortegae Burke, sp. n. from Colima, Jalisco and Michoacan; Cymatoderagerstmeieri Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Chiapas; and Cymatoderamixteca Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Puebla and Guerrero. Male genitalia and other characters of taxonomic value are illustrated.

  13. Four new species of Cymatodera Gray from central and southern Mexico (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Tillinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Alan F.; Rifkind, Jacques; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of Cymatodera are described from Mexico: Cymatodera tortuosa Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Hidalgo and Tamaulipas; Cymatodera ortegae Burke, sp. n. from Colima, Jalisco and Michoacan; Cymatodera gerstmeieri Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Chiapas; and Cymatodera mixteca Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Puebla and Guerrero. Male genitalia and other characters of taxonomic value are illustrated. PMID:26257571

  14. Four new species of Cymatodera Gray from central and southern Mexico (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Tillinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Burke

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of Cymatodera are described from Mexico: C. tortuosa Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Hidalgo and Tamaulipas; C. ortegae Burke, sp. n. from Colima, Jalisco and Michoacan; C. gerstmeieri Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Chiapas; and C. mixteca Burke & Rifkind, sp. n. from Puebla and Guerrero. Male genitalia and other characters of taxonomic value are illustrated.

  15. An air quality model for Central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jazcilevich, D. Aron; Garcia, R. Agustin; Suarez, Gerardo Ruiz; Magana, R. Victor; Perez, L. Jose Luis [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Mexico City (Mexico); Fuentes-Gea, Vicente [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Div. de Estudios del Posgrado, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    A computational air quality model for Central Mexico that includes the Basin of the Valley of Mexico, the Valleys of Toluca, Puebla and Cuernavaca already in experimental operation, is presented. The meteorology of the region is obtained combining two non-hydrostatic models: a model designed for synoptic scales called MM5 provides initial and boundary data to a model specially designed for urban environments and scales called MEMO. The transport model used numerical techniques developed by the authors that eliminate numerical diffusion and dispersion. For the photochemical model several ODE's integrators were tested. The emissions model developed uses the latest inventory data gathered in the region. (Author)

  16. BIOGEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF SCARABAEINAE AND GEOTRUPINAE ALONG A TRANSECT IN CENTRAL MEXICO (COLEOPTERA, SCARABAEOIDEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Halffter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Scarabaeinae and Geotrupinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea species composition is analyzed along a 150 km long altitudinal transect that runs S-NE in the Mexican Transition zone. The transect is located in the state of Hidalgo in central-eastern Mexico. The spatial unit of analysis is the landscape. The transect crosses five different landscapes. As terms of reference for studying the geographic distribution of the species, the entomofauna distribution patterns for the Mexican Transition zone were used. The transect includes all the patterns established by Halffter for this zone. Only genera with northern origins were found in landscape of the Pachuca Sierra (mountain range. The two landscapes of the High Plateau (temperate and arid have one genus with a northern origin (Onthophagus, along with species belonging to genera with Neotropical origins that evolved on the High Plateau. For the landscapes of the zacualtipán Sierra and the slope down to the Gulf–Las Huastecas region genera of Neotropical affinity dominate, and there are also some species with a tropical distribution and of northern-Old World origin. The relationship between the mountains and the phyletic lineages or genera of northern origin and of recent entry into the Mexican Transition zone is confirmed, as is that between the tropical lowlands and the Neotropical lines or genera, also recent arrivals. Taxa that arrived a long time ago, of either origin, do not exhibit this geographic-ecological dependence. The Hidalgo Transect is compared with two other, similar transects sampled in the Mexican Transition zone: the Cofre de Perote–Gulf Coast transect (Veracruz and that of Manantlán (Jalisco. In the mountain landscapes, High Plateau and Tropical Lowlands, there were no important differences in the species composition of the groups studied. In contrast, in the Transition landscape (zacualtipán in the Hidalgo Transect there were very notable differences. In the Cofre de Perote

  17. Risk: For Whom? Representations of Mining Activity by Different Social Actors in the Molango Manganese District of Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Vázquez, Minerva; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown high levels of manganese exposure and neurocognitive damage in the population living in the mining zone in Molango, Mexico. One of the objectives of the Intersectoral Group on Environmental Management for the mining district has been to provide public participation in the risk management plan. To achieve this, it is important to know how the different social actors represent the mining activity. The objectives of this study were to characterize the social representations of the mining activity by different social actors. A qualitative design was used based on in-depth interviews of residents, public officials, and a mining company representative. The analysis was conducted according to themes for each group of actors. Essentially, distinct social representations of the different mining activities were identified. Residents viewed mining activities as synonymous with contamination and, therefore, as having affected all areas of their environment, health, and daily life. These activities were seen as a collective risk. The public officials and the mining company held that there was no evidence of harm and saw mining activities as a generator of regional development. Harm to health and the environment were seen as a stance taken by the communities in order to obtain economic benefits from the company. These images of the "other" are shaped by social, political, and cultural factors. They make it difficult for the actors to reach cooperative agreements and thereby affect progress on the risk management plan. Decisionmakers need to take these differences into account when promoting social participation. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Classic to postclassic in highland central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumond, D E; Muller, F

    1972-03-17

    The data and argument we have presented converge on three points. 1) With the decline and abandonment of Teotihuacan by the end of the Metepec phase (Teotihuacan IV), the valleys of Mexico and of Puebla-Tlax-cala witnessed the development of a ceramic culture that was represented, on the one hand, by obvious Teotihuacan derivations in presumably ritual ware and possible Teotihuacan derivations in simpler pottery of red-on-buff, and, on the other hand, by elements that seem to represent a resurgence of Preclassic characteristics. Whether the development is explained through a measure of outside influence or as a local phenomenon, the direct derivation of a substantial portion of the complex from Classic Teotihuacan is unmistakable. This transitional horizon predated the arrival of plumbate tradeware in highland central Mexico. 2) The transitional horizon coincided with (and no doubt was an integral part of) an alteration of Classic settlement patterns so drastic that it must bespeak political disruption. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that the Postclassic center of Tula represented a significant force in the highlands at that time. There is no evidence that the center of Cholula, which may even have been substantially abandoned during the previous period, was able to exert any force at this juncture; it appears more likely that Cholula was largely reoccupied after the abandonment of Teotihuacan. There is no direct evidence of domination by Xochicalco or any other known major foreign center, although some ceramic traits suggest that relatively minor influences may have emanated from Xochicalco; unfortunately, the state of research at that center does not permit a determination at this time. Thus the most reasonable view on the basis of present evidence is that the abandonment of Teotihuacan was not the direct result of the strength of another centralized power, although some outside populations may have been involved in a minor way. Whatever the proximate cause

  19. Magnitude and extent of land subsidence in central Mexico revealed by regional InSAR ALOS time-series survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussard, E.; Wdowinski, S.; Amelung, F.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    2013-05-01

    Massive groundwater extraction is very common in Mexico and is well known to result in land subsidence. However, most surveys dedicated to land subsidence focus on one single city, mainly Mexico City, and thus fail to provide a comprehensive picture of the problem. Here we use a space-based radar remote sensing technique, known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to detect land subsidence in the entire central Mexico area. We used data from the Japanese satellite ALOS, processed over 600 SAR images acquired between 2007-2011 and produced over 3000 interferograms to cover and area of 200,000 km2 in central Mexico. We identify land subsidence in twenty-one areas, including seventeen cities, namely from east to west, Puebla, Mexico city, Toluca de Lerdo, Queretaro, San Luis de la Paz, south of San Luis de la Paz, Celaya, south of Villa de Reyes, San Luis Potosi, west of Villa de Arista, Morelia, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon, Aguascalientes, north of Aguascalientes, Zamora de Hidalgo, Guadalajara, Ahuacatlan, and Tepic. Subsidence rates of 30 cm/yr are observed in Mexico City, while in the other locations typical rates of 5-10 cm/yr are noticed. Regional surveys of this type are necessary for the development of hazard mitigation plans and efficient use of ground-based monitoring. We additionally correlate subsidence with land use, surface geology, and faults distribution and suggest that groundwater extraction for agricultural, urban, and industrial uses are the main causes of land subsidence. We also reveal that the limits of the subsiding areas often correlate with existing faults, motion on these faults being driven by water extraction rather than by tectonic activity. In all the subsiding locations we observe high ground velocity gradients emphasizing the significant risks associated with land subsidence in central Mexico. Averaged 2007-2011 ground velocity map from ALOS InSAR time-series in central Mexico, revealing land subsidence in 21

  20. BIOREMEDIATION PERSPECTIVES USING AUTOCHTHONOUS SPECIES OF Trichoderma sp. FOR DEGRADATION OF ATRAZINE IN AGRICULTURAL SOIL FROM THE TULANCINGO VALLEY, HIDALGO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Islas Pelcastre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show an in vitro bioremediation methodology for atrazine-contaminated soils through the use of local strains of native fungi isolated from the Phaseolus vulgaris L rhizosphere present in cultivable soils as well as to evaluate its resistance and capacity for atrazine degradation. A Trichoderma sp. species was identified in three cultivable soils from the Tulancingo Hidalgo, México region (contaminated with and without atrazine, which resisted atrazine concentrations of 10,000 mg L-1.  Tests showed that the strain grows exponentially in atrazine-contaminated soil over a range of 105-106 CFU g-1 in 15 days using atrazine as the only carbon and nitrogen source, while the control and witress showed a decrease of 100-103 UFC g-1 in the same period of time. For the atrazine degradation experiments, a treatment of the application of Trichoderma (104 - 105 CFU mL-1 was applied to sterilized and non-sterilized soil contaminated with 500 mg Kg-1 of atrazine, evaluated at four time intervals (5, 10, 20 and 40 days. Statistical differences were found (α=0.050, Tukey among treatments with the fungi and the test days. The native Trichoderma strain degraded 89% of the atrazine in 40 days. It showed that it is viable and cultivable in soil bioremediation.

  1. Middle Proterozoic thrusting in central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grambling, J.A.; Thompson, A.G. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences); Dallmeyer, R.D. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Ductile thrust faults truncate contact-metamorphic aureoles surrounding two 1.4 Ga plutons in central New Mexico. The Priest quartz monzonite (1440 Ma) and Sandia granite (1420 Ma) are 50 km apart in the continuous Sandia/Manzano mountain chain. Thermobarometry and phase relations demonstrate that country-rock temperatures rose from 700 C toward the pluton, at pressure near 4 kb. The northern edge of this aureole is cut by the southeast-dipping ductile Monte Largo thrust fault. Prograde, greenschist-facies metamorphism of footwall rocks accompanied local retrogression of hangingwall rocks during thrusting. This second metamorphism took place at P-T conditions of 2-3 kb and 450-475 C. Another contact aureole surrounds the Sandia granite. Mafic rocks near the granite reflect amphibolite-facies conditions, whereas pelites display low-pressure contact assemblages. Quantitative temperatures increase from 500--750 C toward the granite, at pressures of 2.5--3.5 kb. The shallowly southeast-dipping Vincent Moore fault truncates the Sandia granite and the southern portion of its contact aureole. This ductile shear zone emplaced greenschist-facies rocks northwestward above the Sandia contact aureole. Footwall rocks were retrograded to the greenschist facies within 100 m of this fault; the retrograde phases are aligned parallel to the trace of the thrust. Metamorphic temperatures in hangingwall rocks (during thrusting ) were 400-475 C at pressures above 2.75 kb. Additional northwest-vergent ductile thrusts are found elsewhere in the mountain chain. This may represent the age of thrusting and of the related greenschist and the related greenschist-facies metamorphic overprint.

  2. [Luis Hidalgo y Carpio, Editor of Gaceta Médica de México (1818-1879)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Martha Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Luis Hidalgo y Carpio (1818-1879) was a notable physician who made important contributions to the field of medicine during his time. Nevertheless, reference sources on the aspect from Hidalgo y Carpio that we would like to emphasize (i.e. as an editor of a medical journal) are scarce since precisely when Hidalgo y Carpio was named President of the Medical Society (later the Academia Nacional de Medicina), in 1987, the publication of the Gaceta Médica de México was temporarily interrupted. Hidalgo y Carpio played a key role as an editor at a time when the medical community of Mexico required a means whereby the scientific achievements could be published and discussed among peers and colleagues. Under Hidalgo y Carpio, the Gaceta Médica de México soon reached a wide audience, not only as a periodical publication but also for the prestige of the Academy that represented.

  3. Ground Motion in Central Mexico: A Comprehensive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Juarez, A.; Rábade, S.; Aguirre, J.; Bielak, J.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a detailed analysis of the ground motion in Central Mexico based on numerical simulations, as well as broadband and strong ground motion records. We describe and evaluate a velocity model for Central Mexico derived from noise and regional earthquake cross-correlations, which is used throughout this research to estimate the ground motion in the region. The 3D crustal model includes a geotechnical structure of the Valley of Mexico (VM), subduction zone geometry, and 3D velocity distributions. The latter are based on more than 200 low magnitude (Mw earthquakes and two years of noise recordings. We emphasize the analysis on the ground motion in the Valley of Mexico originating from intra-slab deep events and temblors located along the Pacific coast. Also, we quantify the effects Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the low-velocity deposits on the ground motion. The 3D octree-based finite element wave propagation computations, valid up to 1 Hz, reveal that the inclusion of a basin with a structure as complex as the Valley of Mexico dramatically enhances the regional effects induced by the TMVB. Moreover, the basin not only produces ground motion amplification and anomalous duration, but it also favors the energy focusing into zones of Mexico City where structures typically undergo high levels of damage.

  4. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of Mexico is on the following: geography; the people; history; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Mexico. As of July 1987, the population of Mexico numbered 81.9 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.09%. 60% of the population is Indian-Spanish (mestizo), 30% American Indian, 9% white, and 1% other. Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the 2nd most populous country in Latin America. Education is decentralized and expanded. Mexico's topography ranges from low desert plains and jungle-like coastal strips to high plateaus and rugged mountains. Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico in 1919-21 and founded a Spanish colony that lasted for almost 300 years. Independence from Spain was proclaimed by Father Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, 1810; the republic was established on December 6, 1822. Mexico's constitution of 1917 provides for a federal republic with a separation of powers into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Significant political themes of the administration of President Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado, who began his 6-year term in 1982, have been restructuring the economy, liberalizing trade practices, decentralizing government services, and eliminating corruption among public servants. In 1987, estimates put the real growth of the Mexican economy at 1.5%; the gross domestic product (GDP) had shrunk by 3.5% in 1986. Yet, on the positive side, Mexico's international reserves increased to record levels in 1987 (to about $15 billion), and its current account surplus reached more than $3 billion. Mexico has made considerable progress in moving to restructure its economy. It has substantially reduced impediments to international trade and has moved to reduce the number of parastatal firms. 1987 was the 2nd consecutive year in which Mexico recorded triple-digit inflation; inflation reached 158.8%. Other problems include

  5. Youth Citizen Security Platform - Mexico and Central America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mexico and Central America's Northern Triangle, which covers El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras, are facing a deep public security crisis. Homicide rates are among the highest globally. This project will improve capacity to address the problem through research, proposals, and public policies on youth citizen security ...

  6. Advances in integrated fire management in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dante Arturo Rodríguez Trejo; Arturo Cruz Reyes

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the research and operational results of efforts made by some rural communities, the National Forestry Commission (CONAFOR), the Universidad Autónoma Chapingo (UACH) and other organizations to achieve integrated fire management in central Mexico. The research includes the latest results obtained by UACH's Ajusco Project on the subject, in both...

  7. Association of Drought with Typhus Epidemics in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna-Soto, R.; Stahle, D.; Villanueva Diaz, J.; Therrell, M.

    2007-05-01

    Typhus is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacteria Rickettsia prowazekii, which is transmitted among humans by the body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis). The disease is highly contagious and transmission is favored in populations living in crowded conditions. Under these circumstances, typhus transmission is facilitated by factors that favor the colonization and proliferation of body lice such as absence of personal hygiene and wearing the same clothes for long periods of time. Historically, periods of war and famine were associated with devastating epidemics with high mortality rates in many parts of the world. Central Mexico has a long record of typhus epidemics. In this region, at > 2000 meters above sea level, the disease was endemic and occurred with a seasonal pattern in winter, with occasional large epidemics. Recently, we completed a chronology of epidemics in Mexico. A total of 22 well-defined major typhus epidemics were identified between 1650 and 1920. All of them caused periods of increased mortality that lasted 2 - 4 years (more than one standard deviation from the previous ten year period). The record of typhus epidemics was evaluated against the tree-ring record of Cuauhtmoc La Fragua, Puebla. This chronology, based on Douglas fir, has demonstrated to be a faithful record of precipitation in central Mexico. The results indicate that a statistically significant drought (t test, p war. This indicates that drought alone was capable of inducing the social conditions for increased transmission of typhus in pre-industrial central Mexico.

  8. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Constitution Community: Expansion and Reform (1801-1861).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tom

    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which brought an official end to the Mexican American War (1846-1848) was signed on February 2, 1848. Nicholas Trist, chief clerk of the U.S. Statement Department at the time, negotiated the peace treaty in defiance of 1845-1849 President James K. Polk. Trist believed that Mexico must surrender fully, including…

  9. , Recorded at Ladron Peak, Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, J. W.; Kelley, S.; Read, A. S.; Karlstrom, K. E.

    2010-12-01

    Ladron Peak, situated on the western flank of the Rio Grande rift ~30 miles NW of Socorro, NM, is composed of Precambrian granitic and metamorphic assemblages that have been faulted and uplifted during the late Tertiary formation of the rift. The area is bounded on three sides by normal faults, including the anomalously low-angle (~26°) Jeter fault to the east, which places Precambrian rocks in the footwall against Paleozoic and Mesozoic fault slivers, and mainly Cenozoic Santa Fe Group basin fill in the hanging wall. New apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronological data collected at 22 locations along the NE and SE margins of Ladron Peak give a range of ages from 10.9 ± 1.9 to 20.4 ± 8.6 Ma. Samples within the footwall include granitic and metasedimentary rocks that have mean track lengths of 13.1 to 14.1 μm; one quartzite sample has a mean track length of 12.5 μm, suggesting time in the partial annealing zone. Within the hanging wall block, new AFT ages from the Permian Bursum and Abo Formations give cooling ages of 23.1 ± 3.3 Ma. and 59.9 ± 12.4 Ma., respectively. The Bursum Formation sample, with a track length of 13.7 μm, cooled below the 110°C isotherm during the Miocene, while the Abo Formation sample, with a track length of 11.2 μm, was only partially reset prior to rift-related deformation. Mylonitized granitic and metamorphic rocks in the immediate footwall preserve dip-slip lineations that are parallel to slip on the Jeter fault. This suggests that strain associated with exhumation was recorded by both brittle and ductile deformation. Although this type of deformation is common within metamorphic core complexes in highly extended terranes, ductile normal faulting has not been recognized within the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico, though there is some suggestion of ductile deformation around Blanca Peak in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. These observations imply one or both of the following: (1) Ductile deformation at Ladron Peak was

  10. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus parasite diversity in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Hernández-Camacho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775 and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the present. A total of 24 foxes in the Parque Nacional El Cimatario (PANEC were trapped, anaesthetized, and parasites recovered. The species found were Dirofilaria immitis, Ctenocephalides canis, C. felis, Euhoplopsillus glacialis affinis (first report for gray foxes in Mexico Pulex simulants, and Ixodes sp. Three additional gray fox carcasses were necropsied and the parasites collected were adult nematodes Physaloptera praeputialis and Toxocara canis. The intensive study of the gray fox population selected for the 2013–2015 recent period allowed for a two-fold increase in the number of parasite species recorded for this carnivore since 2003 (nine to 18 parasite species, mainly recording parasitic arthropods, Dirofilaria immitis filariae and adult nematodes. The parasite species recorded are generalists that can survive in anthropic environments; which is characteristic of the present ecological scenario in central Mexico. The close proximity of the PANEC to the city of Santiago de Queretaro suggests possible parasite transmission between the foxes and domestic and feral dogs. Furthermore, packs of feral dogs in the PANEC might have altered habitat use by foxes, with possible impacts on transmission.

  11. Triassic - Jurassic kinematic relationships between the Gulf of Mexico, Central Atlantic Ocean, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D. E.; Burke, K.; Hall, S. A.; Casey, J. F.

    2008-05-01

    Closing ocean basins along geomagnetic isochrons can be an objective method for analyzing reconstructed continental margins because, in general, tectonic extension at passive margins stops once new oceanic lithosphere is created. Holding Africa fixed, we close the South Atlantic Ocean to Chron M4 (126.6 Ma) and the Central Atlantic Ocean to Chron M40 (165.1 Ma). In this configuration, and with the Gulf of Mexico closed by clockwise rotation of the Yucatan continental block (~42 degrees), the positions of North America and South America indicate that the Gulf of Mexico opened at least 20 My after the opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean (ca. 180 Ma) and the earlier breakup of Pangea (ca. 200 Ma). The Gondwanan terranes of eastern Mexico, Yucatan, Florida, and the United States south of the Ouachita-Marathon Suture, remained attached to Laurasia after the breakup of the supercontinent. The Gulf of Mexico then formed in Late Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous times (ca. 160 Ma to 140 Ma) by counterclockwise rotation of the Yucatan block. Two prominent basement structures, defined by seismic refraction and gravity data, are interpreted to be hotspot tracks created by a single mantle plume during this rotation. A third prominent basement structure is interpreted to be a marginal ridge that developed along the ocean-continental transform boundary between the Yucatan block and eastern Mexico. The Gulf of Mexico formed after initial rifting and extension of continental crust and widespread salt deposition (ca. 160 Ma to 150 Ma), followed by the mantle plume eruption and sea-floor spreading (ca. 150 Ma to 140 Ma).

  12. Tratamiento de Agua para Consumo Humano con Alto Contenido de Arsénico: Estudio de un Caso en Zimapán Hidalgo-México Water Treatment for Human Consumption with High Arsenic Content: A Study Case in Zimapán Hidalgo-Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Erasmo Flores; Aurora Armienta; Silvia Micete; María R Valladares

    2009-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene por objeto demostrar que las propiedades fisicoquímicas de la roca Caliza Soyatal, localizada en la región de Zimapán Hidalgo (México), facilitan los niveles de adsorción de arsénico cuando la roca se pone en contacto con el agua contaminada, reduciendo considerablemente las concentraciones de dicho metal. Aunque la roca Soyatal contiene arsénico, las pruebas de desorción efectuadas indican niveles mínimos de dicho fenómeno. Las pruebas se realizaron usando torres em...

  13. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, L. (ed.)

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  14. Subsidence Induced Faulting Hazard risk maps in Mexico City and Morelia, central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Solano-Rojas, D.; Hernández-Espriu, J.; Cigna, F.; Wdowinski, S.; Osmanoglu, B.; Falorni, G.; Bohane, A.; Colombo, D.

    2012-12-01

    Subsidence and surface faulting have affected urban areas in Central Mexico for decades and the process has intensified as a consequence of urban sprawl and economic growth. This process causes substantial damages to the urban infrastructure and housing structures and in several cities it is becoming a major factor to be considered when planning urban development, land use zoning and hazard mitigation strategies in the next decades. Subsidence is usually associated with aggressive groundwater extraction rates and a general decrease of aquifer static level that promotes soil consolidation, deformation and ultimately, surface faulting. However, local stratigraphic and structural conditions also play an important role in the development and extension of faults. Despite its potential for damaging housing, and other urban infrastructure, the economic impact of this phenomena is poorly known, in part because detailed, city-wide subsidence induced faulting risk maps have not been published before. Nevertheless, modern remote sensing techniques are most suitable for this task. We present the results of a risk analysis for subsidence induced surface faulting in two cities in central Mexico: Morelia and Mexico City. Our analysis in Mexico City and Morelia is based on a risk matrix using the horizontal subsidence gradient from a Persistent Scatterer InSAR (Morelia) and SqueeSAR (Mexico City) analysis and 2010 census population distribution data from Mexico's National Institute of Statistics and Geography. Defining subsidence induced surface faulting vulnerability within these urbanized areas is best determined using both magnitude and horizontal subsidence gradient. Our Morelia analysis (597,000 inhabitants with localized subsidence rates up to 80 mm/yr) shows that 7% of the urbanized area is under a high to very high risk level, and 14% of its population (11.7% and 2.3% respectively) lives within these areas. In the case of the Mexico City (15'490,000 inhabitants for the

  15. Critical Incidents of Transnational Student-Teachers in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Irineo Omar Serna-Gutiérrez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an exploration of the life-changing decisions and changes which the participants underwent, and which led them to pursue an education in English language teaching (or languages. The foremost objective of this study was to highlight the critical incidents from the past, present, and teaching practice of transnational students in a BA in TESOL program who are also English teachers in central Mexico. Through a narrative analysis, critical incidents in the lives of transnational student/teachers were identified. The findings of this research showed how the participants could explore their identity formation process through the critical incidents.

  16. Climbing in the high volcanoes of central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    A chain of volcanoes extends across central Mexico along the 19th parallel, a line just south of Mexico City. The westernmost of these peaks is Nevado de Colima at 4,636 feet above sea level. A subsidiary summit of Nevado de Colima is Volcan de Colima, locally called Fuego (fire) it still emits sulphurous fumes and an occasional plume of smoke since its disastrous eruption in 1941. Parictuin, now dormant, was born in the fall of 1943 when a cornfield suddenly erupted. Within 18 months, the cone grew more than 1,700 feet. Nevado de Toluca is a 15,433-foot volcanic peak south of the city of Toluca. Just southeast of Mexico City are two high volcanoes that are permanently covered by snow: Iztaccihuatl (17,342 fet) and Popocatepetl (17,887 feet) Further east is the third highest mountain in North America: 18,700-foot Citlateptl, or El Pico de Orizaba. North of these high peaks are two volcanoes, 14, 436-foot La Malinche and Cofre de Perote at 14,048 feet. This range of mountains is known variously as the Cordillera de Anahuac, the Sierra Volcanica Transversal, or the Cordillera Neovolcanica. 

  17. Registros adicionales de aves para Hidalgo, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valencia-Herverth, J; Valencia-Herverth, R; Mendoza-Quijano, F

    2008-01-01

    .... Ademas, se indica la ampliacion del area de distribucion de Tigrisoma mexicanum. Los sitios de muestreo corresponden a parches de selva mediana subperennifolia, bosque mesofilo de montana, vegetacion riparia y areas perturbadas...

  18. PEMEX selects the H-Oil{reg_sign} process for their hydrodesulfurization residue complex at the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisdom, L.I.; Colyar, J.J. [Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) has selected the H-Oil Process for the conversion and upgrading of a blend of Maya and Isthmus vacuum residua at the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery. The 8,450 metric ton/day (50,000 bpsd) H-Oil Plant will produce a low sulfur (0.8 wt%) fuel oil, diesel, naphtha, and LPG. The H-Oil Plant will be a key component of the Hydrodesulfurization Residue (HDR) Complex which will be located at the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery in Tula, State of Hidalgo, Mexico. The project is part of PEMEX`s Ecology Projects currently underway in Mexico. This paper describes the HDR Complex and the design basis of the H-Oil Plant and provides the current status of this project.

  19. Nitrous oxide flux in maize and wheat cropped soils in the central region of Mexico during El nino year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longoria Ramirez, R. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Carbajal Benitez, G.; Mar Morales, B.E.; Ruiz Suarez, G. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-10-01

    Emissions of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were measured in agricultural lands used for farming wheat and maize during 1998 in the states of Hidalgo and Tlaxcala in Mexico. In an irrigated wheat field (El Tenhe, Hidalgo), an average flux of -10.85 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m{sup -}2 h{sup -}1 was obtained for the total cycle (155 days between December and May). There, high negative values were observed with Water Fill Porous Space (WFPS) close to 70%. The average flux of the complete cycle (269 days between March and December) in an irrigated maize field (El Progreso, Hidalgo) was 37.43 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m{sup -}2 h{sup -}1. In this case, more insignificant negative fluxes were found with WFPS close to 45% or less. These last results may have been influenced by the strong El Nino, which occurred in the middle of 1998. Twenty once percent of the measurements in the state of Hidalgo showed soil acting as a nitrous oxide sink. The samples from Tlaxcala showed that these fields acted as emitters. In the rain fed fields in the state of Tlaxcala, an average flux of 121 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m{sup -}2 h{sup -}1 was obtained for the wheat field. The farming season lasted 142 days, from July to December. In addition, for the maize field the averaged flux was 285.61 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - Nm{sup -}2h-1. The farming season lasted 246 days, from April to December. [Spanish] En 1998 se midieron las emisiones de oxido nitroso (N{sub 2}O) de suelos agricolas para cultivar trigo y maiz en los estados de Hidalgo y Tlaxcala, en Mexico. Para un campo irrigado de trigo (El Tenhe, Hidalgo), se obtuvo un flujo promedio de -10.85 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m{sup -}2 h{sup -}1 para el ciclo total (155 dias entre diciembre y mayo). En este caso se observaron valores negativos elevados en el espacio poroso relleno de agua (VFPS, pos sus siglas en ingles), cercanos a 70%. El flujo promedio para el ciclo completo (269 dias entre marzo y diciembre) en un campo irrigado de maiz fue de 37.43 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m

  20. Estructura y composición de los ensamblajes estacionales de coleópteros (Insecta: Coleoptera del bosque mesófilo de montaña en Tlanchinol, Hidalgo, México, recolectados con trampas de intercepción de vuelo Structure and composition of seasonal coleopterous assemblages (Insecta: Coleoptera in the cloud forest of Tlanchinol, Hidalgo, Mexico collected with flight interception traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Carmen Pedraza

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se describen y comparan los ensamblajes de coleópteros de las temporadas de lluvias y sequía del bosque mesófilo de montaña de Tlanchinol, Hidalgo, que se obtuvieron en 8 recolectas mensuales usando trampas de intercepción de vuelo. Para la descripción de los ensamblajes se tomó en cuenta su riqueza, composición, diversidad, equidad y dominancia y se compararon con base en los perfiles de diversidad de Renyi. El recambio de especies se evaluó usando el índice de similitud de Bray-Curtis. Se estimó la riqueza teórica del ensamblaje total y por temporada, se exploró la relación entre los taxa y los meses de recolecta, y las especies se ubicaron en grupos funcionales. Los 3 308 ejemplares recolectados pertenecen a 50 familias y 352 especies, siendo Staphylinidae, Curculionidae y Nitidulidae las familias con el mayor número de especies. La riqueza, abundancia y diversidad de la época de sequía fueron significativamente mayores que las de lluvias. La mayoría de las especies poseen abundancias inferiores a 1% conformando las especies raras. Teóricamente aún faltan taxa por recolectarse en Tlanchinol. La mayoría de las especies se ubicaron en la categoría de los depredadores (43% y fitófagos (20%. Los resultados resaltan la gran biodiversidad de estos bosques y su urgente necesidad de protección.We described and compared Coleoptera assemblages in rainy and dry seasons in the cloud forest in Tlanchinol, Hidalgo, Mexico, based on 8 monthly samples using flight interception traps. Assemblages were described using richness and composition as well as some diversity measurements; we then used Renyi's diversity profiles to compare them. A Bray-Curtis similarity index was used to evaluate species turnover rate between seasons. The theoretical richness by parametric methods was estimated, the relationship between species and the collecting months were analyzed with a correspondence analysis, and species were placed into functional groups

  1. Causes and impacts of the deportation of Central American immigrants from the United States to Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the number of immigrants deported from the United States to Mexico based on an order of removal has hearly doubled. Not all migrants removed to Mexico are Mexican citizens, some are Central America citizens. This article, usins qualitative methods that includes in-depth interviews with 75 Central American migrants who were deported from the United States, examines the causes and impacts of the deportation of Central American immigrants from United States to Mexico and concludes that these deportations led to increase in violence in Mexico.

  2. Patterns of illness in travelers visiting Mexico and Central America: the GeoSentinel experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores-Figueroa, Jose; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Dupont, Herbert L.; Libman, Michael D.; Keystone, Jay S.; Hale, Devon C.; Burchard, Gerd; Han, Pauline V.; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Freedman, David O.; Kain, Kevin C.; Gelman, Stephanie S.; Ward, Brian; Dick Maclean, J.; Jean Haulman, N.; Roesel, David; Jong, Elaine C.; Schwartz, Eli; Stauffer, William M.; Walker, Patricia F.; Kozarsky, Phyllis E.; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Pandey, Prativa; Murphy, Holly; Loutan, Louis; Chappuis, François; McCarthy, Anne; Connor, Bradley A.; Chen, Lin H.; Wilson, Mary E.; Lynch, Michael W.; Licitra, Carmelo; Crespo, Antonio; Caumes, Eric; Pérignon, Alice; de Vries, Peter J.; Gadroen, Kartini; Nutman, Thomas B.; Klion, Amy D.; Hynes, Noreen; Bradley Sack, R.; McKenzie, Robin; Field, Vanessa; Gurtman, Alejandra; Coyle, Christina M.; Wittner, Murray; Parola, Philippe; Simon, Fabrice; Delmont, Jean; Leder, Karin; Torresi, Joseph; Brown, Graham; Jensenius, Mogens; Wang, Andy; MacDonald, Susan; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Antonio Perez Molina, Jose; Cahill, John D.; McKinley, George; Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Weber, Rainer; Steffen, Robert; Shaw, Marc; Hern, Annemarie; Perret, Cecilia; Valdivieso, Francisca; Valdez, Luis; Siu, Hugo; Carosi, Giampiero; Castelli, Francesco; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Kurai, Hanako; Sagara, Hiroko; Kass, Robert; Barnett, Elizabeth D.; McLellan, Susan; Holtom, Paul; Goad, Jeff; Anglim, Anne; Hagmann, Stefan; Henry, Michael; Miller, Andy O.; Ansdell, Vernon; Kato, Yasuyuki; Borwein, Sarah; Anderson, Nicole; Batchelor, Trish; Meisch, Dominique; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Doyle, Patrick; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Piper Jenks, Nancy; Kerr, Christine; Lian Lim, Poh; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Silachamroon, Udomsak; Mendelson, Marc; Vincent, Peter; Africa, South; Virk, Abinash; Sia, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Mexico and Central America are important travel destinations for North American and European travelers. There is limited information on regional differences in travel related morbidity. We describe the morbidity among 4779 ill travelers returned from Mexico and Central America who were evaluated at

  3. Hidalgo County 1990 Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a vector polygon digital data structure taken from the Census Bureau's TIGER/Line Files, 1994, for New Mexico. The source software used was ARC/INFO...

  4. Analysis of gravity data in Central Valleys, Oaxaca, southern, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, T.; Ferrusquia, I.

    2015-12-01

    The region known as Central Valleys is located in the state of Oaxaca, southern, Mexico (16.3o- 17.7 o N Lat. and 96 o - 97 o W Long.) In its central portion is settled the capital of the state. There are very few published detailed geological studies.. Geomorphological and geological features, indicates that Central Valleys and surrounding mountains conform a graben structure. Its shape is an inverted Y, centred on Oaxaca City. The study area was covered by a detailed gravity survey with a homogenous distribution of stations. The Bouguer gravity map is dominated by a large gravity low, oriented NW-SE. In order to know the characteristics of anomalies observed gravity, data transformations were used. The use of spectral methods has increased in recent years, especially for the estimation of the depth of the source. Analysis of the gravity data sheds light on the regional depth of the Graben basement and the spatial distribution of the volcanic rocks

  5. Monitoring of urban growth in the state of Hidalgo using Landsat images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cano Salinas

    2017-03-01

    Given this background, this paper is focused on the generation of geographic information for regional urban planning and the overall aim is to examine urban growth rate during the period 2000-2014 in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico and identify potential areas of expansion from Landsat images. The methodology was based on techniques of remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS. The inputs used were six Landsat scenes: three for 2000 year and three for 2014. Image processing was performed on ERDAS Imagine® 9.1 and the spatial analysis of urban coverage statewide on ArcGIS 10.0 by ESRI®. First, the radiometric correction was made and we obtained the urban polygons of the 2000 year through of supervised classification. The 2014 urban layer was digitized manually due to the spectral incompatibility between the bands of the Landsat sensor 5 and 7, and the Landsat sensor 8. Then, we build a road density map and the spatial relationship of the urban centers with the road influence area was evaluated. For the year 2000, 103 urban polygons were mapped, whilst for 2014 were identified ten polygons more with a mapped minimum area of 24 ha. The main results indicated that in the state has increased 72.3 km2 urban area from 2000 to 2014. This represents an average growth rate of 1.8% per year. The most widespread municipalities are located in the region of Valle del Mezquital, however, Mineral de la Reforma, Tetepango, Tizayuca and Pachuca showed growth rates of 183.44%, 102% 94% and 68.5% in fourteen years, respectively. According to the road map density, these municipalities are located in areas of greatest influence of infrastructure as the Arco Norte highway in the state. The above findings, lead us to conclude that the Mezquital Valley and the Basin of Mexico are potential areas of urban spreading and it is associated with road development in the Central Mexico.

  6. Hidalgo County TIGER Roads 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This Data set is a vector digital data structure taken from the Census Bureau's TIGER/Line Files, 1994, for New Mexico. The source software used was ARC/INFO 7.0.3.

  7. Pinon-juniper management research at Corona Range and Livestock Research Center in Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Cibils; Mark Petersen; Shad Cox; Michael Rubio

    2008-01-01

    Description: New Mexico State University's Corona Range and Livestock Research Center (CRLRC) is located in a pinon-juniper (PJ)/grassland ecotone in the southern Basin and Range Province in south central New Mexico. A number of research projects conducted at this facility revolve around soil, plant, livestock, and wildlife responses to PJ woodland management. The...

  8. Ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Eddy; Stremme, Wolfgang; Bezanilla, Alejandro; Baylon, Jorge; Grutter, Michel; Blumenstock, Thomas; Hase, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Altzomoni is a high altitude station in central Mexico (19.12 N, 98.65 W, 4000 m a.s.l.) for continuous measurements of various atmospheric parameters. It is located within the Izta-Popo National Park and is operated remotely from the UNAM campus. Since May 2012, high resolution solar absorption spectra have been recorded from this site using a FTIR from Bruker (HR120/5) equipped with MCT, InSb and InGaAs detectors and various optical filters. In this contribution we present a detailed description of the measurement site and the instrumental set-up including a record of the instrumental line-shapes (modulation efficiency and phase error) obtained from cell measurements and analyzed with the LINEFIT code. A preliminary analysis of almost two years of spectra recorded at the Altzomoni site resulting in profile retrievals of four NDACC gases O3, CO, HF and HCl is presented. The retrieval code PROFFIT is used and the Averaging Kernels and an error analysis are used to describe the quality of the measurements. The annual cycles in the time series of O3 and CO are presented and discussed, as well as some examples of anomalies due to volcanic gas emissions of HF and HCl are shown. The presented work is part of an effort to certify this station as part of the NDACC international network.

  9. Integrating climate change in transportation and land use scenario planning : an example from central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Central New Mexico Climate Change Scenario Planning Project, an Interagency Transportation, Land Use, and Climate Change Initiative, utilized a scenario planning process to develop a multiagency transportation- and land use-focused development st...

  10. Regional Specialization. The Middle Americas: Mexico, Panama, Central America and the Caribbean Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owen, Mark H; Inman, Kenneth A

    1997-01-01

    .... Generally viewed as lagging in efforts to develop stable governments and self-sustaining economies, Mexico, Central America to include Panama and the Caribbean, henceforth Middle America, have in the...

  11. BLM/OCS Ecological Investigations of Petroleum Production Platforms in the Central Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Investigations of Petroleum Production Platforms in the Central Gulf of Mexico Project was conducted by Texas A and M University under contract to...

  12. Conservation biogeography of red oaks (Quercus, section Lobatae) in Mexico and Central America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrés Torres-Miranda; Isolda Luna-Vega; Ken Oyama

    2011-01-01

    .... In this study, we analyzed patterns of distribution of red oaks (Quercus, section Lobatae) occurring in Mexico and Central America to determine areas of species richness and endemism to propose areas of conservation. Methods...

  13. Mexico’s Central American Policy: Apologies, Motivations, and Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-15

    paint reflect only part of the modernization program. The nation’s cavalry regiments are trading in their horses for motorized vehicles. Mexico has...de las potencias medianas regionales-Ei caso de Mexico," Discussion Paper, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Bonn, West Germany, March 11, 1981, p. 8. 2. Ibid

  14. Hidalgo County 2010 Census Edges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  15. Hidalgo County 2000 Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  16. Hidalgo County Current Point Landmarks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  17. Hidalgo County Current Area Landmark

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  18. Hidalgo County 2000 Census Blocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  19. Hidalgo County 2010 Census Blocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  20. Hidalgo County 2010 Census Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  1. Hidalgo County 2010 Census Tracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  2. Geothermal Exploration of the Winston Graben, Central New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophy, M. J.; Kelley, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    We are assessing the geothermal potential of the Winston Graben of central New Mexico using borehole temperature logs and geophysical data. The Winston Graben is a late Cenozoic rift basin, part of the larger Rio Grande rift, which is 5 to 10 km wide and 56 km long with northern and southern termini occurring at accommodation zones that coincide with late Cenozoic volcanic lineaments. The graben is interpreted to be symmetric based on geologic mapping, with 2 km of stratigraphic offset on both the western and eastern margins. The graben is bordered by the Black Range to the west and is separated from the Rio Grande valley by the Sierra Cuchillo, a horst block made of Paleozoic rocks intruded by a laccolith. Geothermal and geophysical data, including water table measurements, well temperature logs, thermal conductivity samples, bottom hole temperatures, water chemistry, and gravity data have been extracted from the New Mexico Geothermal Database, part of the National Geothermal Database, and the Geonet Gravity and Magnetic Dataset Repository. Combined with existing geologic maps of the Winston Graben and surroundings, these data help to identify spatial relationships between geologic structures and groundwater parameters and distribution. Geothermal gradients from industry temperature-depth well profiles range from 20°C/km to 60°C/km with a spatial distribution of higher gradients located on the eastern side of the Sierra Cuchillo horst, which is where a mapped warm spring is located. Lower thermal gradients were observed to the west in the groundwater recharge area of the basin. Analysis of Bouguer gravity data indicate a gravity low coinciding with the center of the Winston Graben, which is attributed to be the deepest part of the basin, symetrically surrounded by gravity highs. Gravity highs coincide with the middle Cenozoic Morenci and Chise volcanic lineaments along the northern and southern ends of the graben. The mapped warm spring occurs at the

  3. Hydrology of the Estancia Basin, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Estancia Basin of central New Mexico is a topographically closed basin that ranges in altitude from 6,000 feet to more than 10,000 feet above sea level. In the center of the basin a valley-fill aquifer of Quaternary age is as much as 400 feet thick. Limestone of the Madera Group of Pennsylvanian and Permian age crops out over most of the southwestern part of the basin. Large-scale ground-water withdrawals for irrigation began about 1950. Between 1950 and 1985, water levels declined 50 to 60 feet in a number of places. From 1985 to the present (1989), however, a small rise in water level has been measured in a number of wells; this rise can be attributed to decreased ground-water withdrawals resulting from a government crop- reduction program and also to several years of heavy winter snowfall. Continuous water-level recorders were placed on three wells from 1986 to 1988. Two of these wells showed short-term water-level changes characteristic of unconfined aquifers, whereas the other showed changes characteristic of confined aquifers. All three wells showed water-level changes caused by barometric-pressure changes. Six series of miscellaneous measurements and two gain-and-loss (seepage) studies were made in streams in the south- western part of the basin. These measurements showed an extreme variability in discharge under different climatic conditions. The specific conductance of water in much of the southwestern part of the basin ranges from 350 to 550 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius. East of State Highway 41 in the area of the salt lakes, water quality is highly dependent on depth in the aquifer. Specific- conductance values ranging from about 4,000 to 6,000 microsiemens were measured in water samples from wells in the center of the basin during this study, but previous studies have identified water samples having specific-conductance values of as much as 187,000 microsiemens. A comparison of specific- conductance measurements and laboratory

  4. Age of the Xalnene Ash, Central Mexico and Archeological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renne, P. R.; Feinberg, J. M.; Waters, M. R.; Cabrales, J. A.; Castillo, P. O.; Campa, M. P.; Knight, K. B.

    2005-12-01

    Human footprints ~40 ka old have been reported from the Toloquilla quarry near Valsequillo Reservoir, ca. 15 km south of the city of Puebla in central Mexico (http://www.mexicanfootprints.co.uk/default.htm). If correct, this would be important evidence for early peopling of the Americas. The indentations interpreted as footprints and other ichnofossils occur on the surface of an indurated basaltic lapilli tuff within a several meter thick sequence of thinly bedded (1-10 cm) tuffs of similar character, lacking paleosols, erosional features or interlayered sediments, informally known as the Xalnene ash. A sample was collected at 18°55.402` N latitude and 098°09.375` W longitude from the surface on which the purported footprints occur. Lapilli were separated and analyzed by incremental heating 40Ar/39Ar methods, yielding 9 indistinguishable plateau ages averaging 1.30 ±0.03 Ma (2σ) for single lapilli (N=6) and multiple lapilli (N=3) subsamples. Though some minor discordance (presumably due to 39Ar recoil) is manifest in 5 of the age spectra, all plateaux comprise >60% of the 39Ar released and 4 or more consecutive steps. Paleomagnetic data from azimuthally unoriented bulk samples of 11.25 cm3 reveal a reverse polarity (I = -32.1°) thermoremanent component carried by titanomagnetite and a normal polarity component carried by goethite. Measurements on individual matrix-free lapilli lack the goethite component, which is presumed to be associated with the clay-rich cement. Consistency of the reverse component implies deposition of the lapilli at supra-Curie temperatures, with no postdepositional reworking. Reverse polarity is consistent with deposition during chron C1r.2r (1.77 to 1.07 Ma) as indicated by the 40Ar/39Ar data. If the features observed on the tuff are indeed footprints, their 1.3 Ma antiquity would be truly remarkable, predating by far any other evidence for human presence in the Americas and in fact predating the evolutionary emergence of Homo sapiens

  5. The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

    1999-08-09

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a Department of Energy federally funded national security laboratory that uses engineering and science to ensure the security of the Nation. SNL provides scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs in nuclear weapons and related defense systems, energy security, and environmental integrity. SNL works in partnerships with universities and industry to enhance their mission and transfer technology that will address emerging national challenges for both government and industry. For several years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) and New Mexico State University (NMSU) have maintained an inter-industry, input-output (I/O) model with capabilities to assess the impacts of developments initiated outside the economy such as federal DOE monies that flow into the state, on an economy. This model will be used to assess economic, personal income and employment impacts of SNL on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico. Caution should be exercised when comparing economic impacts between fiscal years prior to this report. The I/O model was rebased for FY 1998. The fringe benefits coefficients have been updated for the FY 1996 and FY 1997 economic impacts analysis. Prior to FY 1993 two different I/O base models were used to estimate the impacts. New technical information was released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), U.S. Department of Commerce in 1991 and in 1994 and was incorporated in FY 1991, FY 1993, and FY 1994 I/O models. Also in 1993, the state and local tax coefficients and expenditure patterns were updated from a 1986 study for the FY 1992 report. Further details about the input-output model can be found in ''The Economic Impact of the Department of Energy on the State of New Mexico--FY 1998'' report by Lansford, et al. (1999). For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998) and includes two major

  6. High accuracy Land Use Land Cover (LULC maps for detecting agricultural drought effects in rainfed agro-ecosystems in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra-Soler Andres

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing provides a synoptic view of the land and a spatial context for measuring drought impacts, which have proved to be a valuable source of spatially continuous data with improved information for monitoring vegetation dynamics. Many studies have focused on detecting drought effects over large areas, given the wide availability of low-resolution images. In this study, however, the objective was to focus on a smaller area (1085 km2 using Landsat ETM+ images (multispectral resolution of 30 m and 15 m panchromatic, and to process very accurate Land Use Land Cover (LULC classification to determine with great precision the effects of drought in specific classes. The study area was the Tortugas-Tepezata sub watershed (Moctezuma River, located in the state of Hidalgo in central Mexico. The LULC classification was processed using a new method based on available ancillary information plus analysis of three single date satellite images. The newly developed LULC methodology developed produced overall accuracies ranging from 87.88% to 92.42%. Spectral indices for vegetation and soil/vegetation moisture were used to detect anomalies in vegetation development caused by drought; furthermore, the area of water bodies was measured and compared to detect changes in water availability for irrigated crops. The proposed methodology has the potential to be used as a tool to identify, in detail, the effects of drought in rainfed agricultural lands in developing regions, and it can also be used as a mechanism to prevent and provide relief in the event of droughts.

  7. Cetaceans and gillnet fisheries in Mexico, Central America and the Wider Caribbean: a preliminary review

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, O.; Van Waerebeek, K.; Findley, L.T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews published and unpublished information on the mortality of cetaceans in gillnets in Mexico, Central America and the wider Caribbean. Data on this incidental mortality are provided from only nine of the 36 nations in the area (Colombia, the Dominican Republic. French Guiana, Honduras, Mexico. Panama, Surinam, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela); the lack of mortality records from the other countries reflects poor or non-existent documentation. We surveyed those types of passi...

  8. Groundwater modeling of the Calera Aquifer region in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Calera Aquifer is the main source of water for irrigated agriculture, industrial, and drinking water purposes in the Calera Aquifer Region (CAR) in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Irrigated agriculture accounts for 80% of the total groundwater extracted from the Calera Aquifer. In recent years, ...

  9. SUMMARY CRUISE REPORT R. V. HIDALGO CRUISE 62-H-9, 27 JUNE-12 JULY 62, GALVESTON, TEXAS--CAMPECHE BANK

    Science.gov (United States)

    were well under way when the R. V. Hidalgo left Arcas on Thursday, 5 July. A total of 73 sediment sample stations were occupied on the Campeche Bank ...a contribution to the detailed bathymetric chart of Campeche Bank presently in preparation and to our bathymetry of the Gulf of Mexico project...miles of ship travel. Fifty-seven bathythermograph stations were occupied between Galveston and Campeche Bank .

  10. Archaeomagnetism of some pre-Columbian mural paintings in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogichaishvili, A.; Soler, A.; Zanella, E.; Lanza, R.; Chiari, G.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2003-12-01

    This work investigates the magnetic remanence associated with the mural paintings at three archeological sites in Central Mexico dated between 200 AD and 1450 AD (Cholula, Cacaxtla and Templo Mayor). The remanence of the murals is shown, using X-ray analyses and rock-magnetic measurements, to be carried by both magnetite and hematite. In most specimens, a characteristic magnetization is successfully isolated by alternating field demagnetization. The mean site directions are consistent with the available master curve for Mesoamerica. This work shows that murals from Central Mexico can retain their remanent magnetization for centuries and demonstrates the viability in principle of pictorial remanence as an archeomagnetic tool.

  11. Suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among youth in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven

    2013-10-16

    Over the past 100 years the state of Guanajuato has consistently been one of the highest migrant sending states in Mexico. Youth living in high migratory states such as Guanajuato are heavily influenced by the expectation that they will travel to the US, and research has shown that those who do not migrate may be looked down upon by members of their community. This secondary analysis looks at the connection between suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among a group of adolescents living in Guanajuato, Mexico. Data were originally collected in 2007 as part of a comprehensive health survey of youth attending an alternative high schooling program. Regression analyses show that suicidal ideation predicts intentions to migrate among both males and females, while other factors differentially influence the adolescents by gender. The results indicate that suicidal ideation may be associated with migration aspirations among Mexican youth living in high migratory communities. Study limitations and implications are discussed.

  12. Trachelomonas (Euglenophyta) from a eutrophic reservoir in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solórzano, Gloria Garduño; Martinez, Maria Guadalupe Oliva; Vazquez, Alfonso Lugo; Garfias, Maria Berenit Mendoza; Zuñiga, Rafael Emiliano Quintanar; Conforti, Visitacion

    2011-07-01

    This study provides valuable information on the ultrastructure and environmental conditions of the Trachelomonas Ehr. (Euglenophyceae) genus in the Guadalupe Dam, a eutrophic reservoir located in the suburbs of Mexico City, which receives a considerable volume of wastewaters. Specimens were collected at surface level between November 2005 and May 2006. Using LM and SEM twelve taxa from phytoplankton were identified of which, 9 are new records for Mexico. The reservoir is warm monomictic, with basic pH values (7.4-10.1), a high concentration of chlorophyll a(18-101 microg l(-1), a permanent anoxic bottom, specific conductivity (K25) of 205 to 290 microS cm(-1), N-NO3, 0.19-1.2 mg l(-1) and P-PO4 0.22-1.6 mg l(-1). Water temperature was 15.6-23.0 degrees C. Most of the Trachelomonas species were found during the dry season, when concentrations of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus as well as the temperature were the highest. Higher species richness was also associated with the warmer months. This research contributes to increase our knowledge on Trachelomonas in Mexico and constitutes the first detailed description of lorica ultrastructure of 12 taxa that grow in a body of water with high concentration of nutrients and a moderate amount of mineral contents.

  13. 33 CFR 147.1112 - Platform HIDALGO safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Platform HIDALGO safety zone. 147.1112 Section 147.1112 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.1112 Platform HIDALGO safety zone. (a...

  14. Columnar aerosol optical properties at AERONET sites in northern, central and southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabali, Giovanni; Estévez, Hector; Florean-Cruz, Claudia; Navarro-Medina, Abigail; Valdés-Barrón, Mauro; Bonifaz-Alfonzo, Roberto; Riveros-Rosas, David; Velasco-Herrera, Víctor; Vázquez-Gálvez, Felipe

    2017-04-01

    The column-integrated optical properties of aerosol in the north, central and southern Mexico were investigated based on Sun/sky radiometer measurements made at Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites. Characterization of aerosol properties in these Mexico regions is important due to natural and anthropogenic significant events that occurred: dust storms from Sonora desert, biomass burning from south forest areas and urban/industrial from Mexico City due to the increases in fossil fuel combustion. Some cities in northern Mexico located near desert areas are affected by the dust from Sonora and Chihuahua deserts. These particles are suspended in the atmosphere due to strong wind activity that creates dust storms. In the central part of the Mexican territory, urban air pollution is one of the biggest problems. Mexico City is the most important urban area that face seriously environmental problem generated by daily anthropogenic emissions from activities of some 21 million people and the vast amount of industry. On the other hand, biomass burning in the Yucatan Peninsula, Southern Mexico, and Guatemala is an important source of anthropogenic aerosol in the troposphere (Crutzen and Andrade, 1990). The pollution from these fires affects air quality locally and is transported over the Gulf of Mexico to the United States (Wang et al., 2006). The aim of this work is to study the optical properties of different types of aerosols by analyzing a 5-year (2005-2010) data set from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET). Time series of Angstrom exponent (α) and aerosol optical depth (τ) in 7 wavelengths from 340 to 1020 nm are shown. Additionally, a graphical framework to classify aerosol properties using direct sun-photometer observations in the different regions of Mexico is presented. That aerosol classification was made by applying the method described by Gobbi et al (2007), which relies on the combined analysis of α and its spectral curvature δα.

  15. Methodology for prediction of corn yield using remote sensing satellite data in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Soria Ruiz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of agricultural crop management in any country is to guarantee food resources for its population. The heterogeneity of corn-growing conditions in many countries, especially in Mexico makes accurate predictions of yield ahead of harvest time difficult. Such predictions are needed by the government to estimate, ahead of time, the amount of corn required to be imported to meet the expected domestic shortfall. In this paper, therefore, a methodology for the estimation of corn yield ahead of harvest time is developed for the conditions of intensive production systems in central Mexico. The method is based on the multi-temporal analysis of NOAA-AVHRR satellite images, and uses normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVIs, Degree-Days (DDs and Leaf Area Indices (LAIs to predict corn occurrence and yield. Results of the application of the methodology to successfully identify sites with corn, and to predict corn yield in Central Mexico, are presented and discussed.

  16. A rock- and paleomagnetic study of a Holocene lava flow in Central Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlag, P.; Alva-Valdivia, L.; Boer, C.B. de; Gonzalez, S.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic measurements of the Tres Cruces lava flow (ca. 8500 years BP, Central Mexico) show the presence of two remanence carriers, a Ti-rich titanomagnetite with a Curie temperature between 350 and 400 °C and a Ti-poor magnetite with a Curie temperature close to 580°C. Magnetic changes after

  17. Earthworm activity and soil structural changes under conservation agriculture in central Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Navarrete, A.; Rodriguez-Aragonés, C.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Kooistra, M.J.; Sayre, K.D.; Brussaard, L.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Crop residue mulching combined with zero tillage and crop rotation, known as conservation agriculture (CA), is being promoted as an alternative system to revert soil degradation in maize-based farming in the central highlands of Mexico. The goal of this paper was to determine the effects of CA vs.

  18. Teacher Socialization of EFL Teachers at Public School Levels in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengeling, M. Martha; Mora Pablo, Irasema; Barrios Gasca, Blanca Lucía

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring the processes of teacher socialization and identity formation of nine English as a foreign language teachers at public schools in central Mexico. These teachers began their careers in the National English Program in Basic Education. Qualitative research and narrative inquiry were used as a basis for this research. The…

  19. Water balances of old-growth and regenerating montane cloud forests in central Veracruz, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz-Villers, L.E.; Holwerda, F.; Gomez, M.; Equihua, M.; Asbjornsen, H.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Marin-Castro, B.E.; Tobon, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the water budgets of two adjacent micro-catchments covered by mature (MAT) and 20-year-old secondary (SEC) lower montane cloud forests, respectively, in central Veracruz, Mexico over a 2-year period. Rainfall (P) and streamflow (Q) were measured continuously, whereas dry canopy

  20. Patterns of forest use and endemism in resident bird communities of north-central Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago Garcia; Deborah M. Finch; Gilberto Chavez. Leon

    1998-01-01

    We compared breeding avian communities among 11 habitat types in north-central Michoacan, Mexico, to determine patterns of forest use by endemic and nonendemic resident species. Point counts of birds and vegetation measurements were conducted at 124 sampling localities from May through July, in 1994 and 1995. Six native forest types sampled were pine, pine-oak, oak-...

  1. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  2. Ethnobotanical study of the medicinal plants from Tlanchinol, Hidalgo, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo

    2009-02-25

    The people in Mexico still depend upon the use of medicinal plants to treat simple health problems, including those who live in regions like Tlanchinol Hidalgo, where it is still possible to find people who speak the pre-Hispanic Nahua language. This area is surrounded by rain forest, which is more or less well conserved, so ethnopharmacological field studies are quite relevant. The cultural knowledge about the use of medicinal plants converge with the richness in the surrounding flora making this region ideal for the selection of traditionally used medicinal plants. To present the results of an ethnopharmacological field survey conducted in the municipality of Tlanchinol Hidalgo, Mexico analyzed with two different quantitative tools, with the aim of selecting the most important species used in traditional medicine. Direct interviews with the people were performed in several short visits to the municipality of Tlanchinol Hidalgo. The plants were collected, and the species were determined. The interviews were analyzed with two quantitative tools. First, the factor informant consensus highlighted the agreement in the use of plants and the fidelity level defined as: the ratio between the number of informants who independently suggested the use of a species for the same major purpose and the total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any use. Furthermore, we analyzed the use-mentions for the plants. The results of the factor informant consensus showed that the gastrointestinal category had the greatest agreement, followed by the respiratory and dermatological categories. The most important species according to their fidelity are: Coleus blumei, Plantago australis and Lippia dulcis for the gastrointestinal category; Borago officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and Eucalyptus globulus for the respiratory category; and Ageratum houstonianum and Solanum nigrescens for the dermatological category. As a result of the present study, we recommend the plants listed in

  3. Contexts of offerings and ritual maize in the pictographic record in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Moragas Segura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is an initial enquiry into the evidence and classification of the offerings of maize in Central Mexico from the Classic period to early colonial times. In order to achieve this goal, we will analyse the presence of maize in Central Mexico according to the evidence found in mural paintings and some pictographic codices. Two Mesoamerican cultures will be considered to achieve our analysis: the Teotihuacan and Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Maize was instrumental in the performance of daily rituals and in the diet of these ancient Mesoamerican cultures and the cereal also had sacred connotations in pre-Hispanic, colonial and contemporary narratives. We suggest this by reading the iconographic and symbolic representations of corn in the form of seeds and pods, or as an ingredient in cooked foods which are represented in the mural paintings of Teotihuacan as well as some codices of the post-Classic Nahua tradition. These methodological enquiries reveal evidence of a cultural continuity in Central Mexico as a contrasting perspective on the archaeological and ethno-historical period.

  4. Agricultural Land Use Change after NAFTA in Central West Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quetzalcóatl Orozco-Ramírez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that agricultural land use change and modernization in agricultural production techniques are related to the loss of crop diversity. Two processes contribute to this loss; first is the replacement of landraces by modern varieties, and second is the abandonment of traditional crops in favor of cash crops. We studied the expression of these processes in a region that is both an agro-biodiversity and cultural center and one of the most significant fruit exporters of Mexico. We analyzed agricultural change based on the transformation of cropping areas and the primary crops’ locations in Michoacán state. We examined the crop-harvested area statistics from 1950 to 2015, and identified 23 crops as the most important in terms of harvested area and monetary value. After NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement, harvested area for nine crops changed significantly: seven crops increased, and two decreased. Positive trends were observed for commercial fruits oriented to export markets, and negative trends were observed for traditional crops. These crops, such as beans and maize, are important for food security. Additionally, we analyzed how these land-use and agricultural changes overlap in zones of maize planted-area change. Using a maize-race collection database, we identified three native maize races that could be at risk due to the abandonment of maize in favor of commercial crops.

  5. [Alcohol and drug consumption among students in Pachuca, Hidalgo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Guiot, E; Fleiz-Bautista, C; Medina-Mora Icaza, M E; Morón, M de los A; Domenech-Rodríguez, M

    1999-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of alcohol and drug consumption and its relationship to sociodemographic variables, leisure activities, antisocial behavior, family norms and conflicts, among others. Data derive from a representative survey of 1,929 students of junior high and high school, conducted in 1996 in the city of Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Of these, 44.9% were boys and 52.5% were girls; mean age was 14. A self-applied questionnaire, prepared by the WHO together with some countries, among them Mexico, was completed by the studied subjects, and included indicators of alcohol and drug consumption. Of the total sample, 47.9% had tried alcohol, and 12.6% had drunk large quantities--5 drinks or more per sitting--during the month previous to the survey. Preferred drinks are beer and "coolers", which they buy at shops where no identification is required and drink at home or at friend's homes. With respect to drugs, 5.1% had tried illegal or medical drugs without prescription, in particular inhalants, marihuana and tranquilizers. More boys consumed illegal drugs, and more girls medical drugs without prescription. Boys, who are also older, more frequently consumed alcohol and drugs and were more often employed during the previous year at part-time jobs. High alcohol level and drug consumers were characterized by their frequent report of being bored in their free time, drinking with friends and enrolling in antisocial behavior. With respect to family norms, they follow them less and show less interest in doing so. An elevated percentage informed that their parents fight frequently, that they have sought help for this reason and have intended separation. Groups who drink more alcohol and use other drugs, in contrast with nonusers, presented more behavioral problems, more outdoors activities that included drinking with friends, more antisocial behavior, had a distant relationship with their families sharing few activities with them, an showed little interest in following

  6. Geothermal power plants of Mexico and Central America: a technical survey of existing and planned installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPippo. R.

    1978-07-01

    In this report, the fifth in a series describing the geothermal power plants of the world, the countries of Mexico and of Central America are studied. The geothermal plants are located in areas of recent and active volcanism; the resources are of the liquid-dominated type. Details are given about the plants located at Cerro Prieto in Mexico and at Ahuachapan in El Salvador. In both cases, attention is paid to the geologic nature of the fields, the well programs, geofluid characteristics, energy conversion systems, materials of construction, effluent handling systems, economic factors and plant operating experience. Exploration and development activities are described for other promising geothermal areas in Mexico and El Salvador, along with those in the countries of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, and Panama.

  7. [Perception over smoke-free policies amongst bar and restaurant representatives in central Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Gimeno, David; Thrasher, James F; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Amick, Benjamin C; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the perceptions and appreciations over smoke-free environments of restaurant and bar managers from four cities in central Mexico. Managers from 219 restaurants and bars from Mexico City, Colima, Cuernavaca and Toluca were surveyed about smoke-free environments opinions and implementation. Simultaneously, environmental nicotine was monitored. The majority of surveyed managers considered public places should be smoke-free, although more than half were concerned with potential economic loses. Implementation of smoke-free environments was more frequent in Mexico City (85.4%) than in the other cities (15.3% overall), with consequently lower environmental nicotine concentrations. Managers acknowledge the need to create smoke-free environments. Concerns over economic negative effects derived from the prohibition could explain, at least partially, the rejection of this sector towards the implementation of this type of policy.

  8. A review of ozone-induced effects on the forests of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bauer, María de Lourdes; Hernández-Tejeda, Tomás

    2007-06-01

    The first report on oxidant-induced plant damage in the Valley of Mexico was presented over 30 years ago. Ozone is known to occur in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and elsewhere as the cause of chlorotic mottling on pine needles that are 2 years old or older as observed in 1976 on Pinus hartwegii and Pinus leiophylla. Visible evidences for the negative effects of ozone on the vegetation of central Mexico include foliar injury expressed as chlorotic mottling and premature defoliation on pines, a general decline of sacred fir, visible symptoms on native forest broadleaved species (e.g. Mexican black cherry). Recent investigations have also indicated that indirect effects are occurring such as limited root colonization by symbiotic fungi on ozone-damaged P. hartwegii trees and a negative influence of the pollutant on the natural regeneration of this species. The negative ozone-induced effects on the vegetation will most likely continue to increase.

  9. Early Holocene to present landscape dynamics of the tectonic lakes of west-central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Miguel; Muñoz-Salinas, Esperanza; Arce, José Luis; Roy, Priyadarsi

    2017-12-01

    Paleoclimatic reconstructions from lake sediments of central Mexico indicate that the environmental conditions in the Holocene have oscillated from cool-dry to warm-wet, thus, landscape erosion rates have been modified accordingly. The Cenozoic tectonics and volcanic activity of west-central Mexico have produced a set of lakes in warmer and drier conditions compared to lakes of central Mexico. Nevertheless, the Holocene landscape dynamics for this area remains understudied. Using age-depth models, OSL and multi-element chemistry analysis of sediments in the lakes of San Marcos and Sayula we explore the landscape dynamics from early Holocene present of west-central Mexico. Our results indicate that the sedimentation rates in San Marcos Lake notably increased from 240 yr BP to the present. Since AD 1950 the sedimentation rate in Sayula Lake rose fourfold the rates of the last 2000 years. Analysis of OSL and chemistry of major elements of sediments indicates that IRSL/BLSL strongly correlates with Ti/Al (R2 = 0.93) and with the mean monthly rainfall (R2 = 0.70). We propose that the IRSL/BLSL can be used as a proxy to infer past changes in landscape dynamics. Analysis of climatic data from the 1950s to present indicates that rainfall, and consequently water runoff, is enhanced in summers free of ENSO conditions. Extreme one-day rainfall can, however, exceed mean seasonal rainfall and occur in all phases of ENSO. Droughts are particularly severe in the phase of La Niña. Our results indicate that the erosion rate in San Marcos Lake was high from ∼8000 to ∼7000 yr BP in a period coinciding with the advance and recession of glaciers in Central Mexico, however, the erosion rates in the last 165 years have surpassed the rates of the early to mid-Holocene. By constraining the age of sediment and using environmental proxies such as the Ti/Al and IRSL/BLSL from lake sediments of Sayula and San Marcos we present the first model of landscape dynamics of this part of Mexico

  10. A submarine fan in the Mesa Central, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Romo, G.; Arellano-Gil, J.; Mendoza-Rosales, C.; Nieto-Obregón, J.

    2000-10-01

    The contact between the Guerrero and Sierra Madre tectonostratigraphic terranes has been proposed to lie in the Mesa Central, east of the city of Zacatecas. Marine Triassic units have been assigned to the Guerrero Terrane. It is here proposed that this contact occurs to the west of the city of Zacatecas and the Triassic marine sequence assigned to the Sierra Madre Terrane. We analyzed the stratigraphic record and structural features of pre-Late Jurassic sequences at four localities in the Mesa Central. They contain a marine turbiditic Triassic unit, which includes La Bellena, Taray, and Zacatecas Formations, and a continental unit of probable Middle Jurassic age. Triassic sandstones were derived from a cratonic area, without the influence of arc volcanism. The sequences were affected by two phases of deformation. The Triassic formations are unconformably overlain by a continental volcano-sedimentary sequence that contains fragments of sandstones derived from the underlying unit. Sedimentologic characteristics of the Triassic unit fit a submarine fan model. The submarine fan developed at the continental margin of Pangaea during Triassic times. Turbidite associations in the San Rafael Area indicate a middle fan depositional environment, while in the Real de Catorce Area, they correspond to the distal part (basin plain facies). At La Ballena and Zacatecas the turbidite associations occur in the middle part and perhaps the external part of the fan.

  11. Vegetation and Terrain Relationships in South-Central New Mexico and Western Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    Ledeb (salt cedar) CONVOLVULACEAE (Morning Glory Family ) Ipornoea sp. (morning glory) VERBEt4ACEAE (Verbain Family ) A.toyz-La QWighti (Gray) Heller...Central New Mexico Plant Community.I POLYPODIACEAB (True Ferns) II heitizWh WghtiZ Hook (Wright liptern) PINACEAE (Pine Family ) JwzipcAuA monospt’tma...Engeim.) Sarg - (oneseeded juniper; cedar) = PinU6 edLUlt Engeim. (pinyon pine) EPHEDRACEAE (Ephedra Family ) Epze&t abp&I Engeim. (popotillo; Mormon

  12. Germination patterns of a suite of semiarid grassland forbs from central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemary L. Pendleton; Burton K. Pendleton

    2014-01-01

    We examined the germination response of 21 forb species collected from semiarid grasslands of central New Mexico. After-ripened seeds were subjected to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) no treatment; 2) a 3-wk stratification at 5 °C (cold-moist treatment); or 3) a 3-wk warm-moist treatment at 30 °C. All seeds were incubated under an alternating 10/20 °C temperature regime for 6 wk...

  13. New species of Brachiacantha Dejean, 1837 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor-Arriola, Jorge Ismael; Toledo-Hernández, Víctor Hugo

    2017-12-15

    Five new species of the genus Brachiacantha Dejean (Coccinellidae) from Mexico and Central America are described and illustrated. The species B. angulata sp. nov., B. truncata sp. nov., B. brevicuspidata sp. nov. and B. robustihamata sp. nov. are consistent with the dentipes group. The species B. brevihamata sp. nov. is consistent with the fifth group of Leng (1911); the species shares some characteristics with South American species.

  14. Early- Mid Pleistocene environments in the Valsequillo Basin, Central Mexico: a reassessment

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Leng, Melanie J.; Kirby, Jason R.; Huddart, David; Vane, Christopher H.; Gonzalez, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The Valsequillo Basin in Central Mexico has been of interest due to the presence of megafaunal remains and evidence for early human occupation, but research has been controversial. It has been suggested that extensive and deep lakes characterized the Early Pleistocene environment but sediment exposure is highly fragmentary and reliable dating has been difficult. Here we report, for the first time, Early Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental reconstructions using stable isotopes, diatoms, tephra and...

  15. soil carbon pools within oak forest is endangered by global climate change in central mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Oliva, Felipe; Merino, Agustín; González-Rodriguez, Antonio; Chávez-Vergara, Bruno; Tapia-Torres, Yunuen; Oyama, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Forest soil represents the main C pool in terrestrial ecosystems. In particular, temperate forest ecosystems play an important role in the C budget among tropical countries, such as Mexico. For example, the temperate forest ecosystem contains higher C contents on average (295 Mg C ha-1) than the soil C associated with other ecosystems in Mexico (between 56 to 287 Mg C ha-1). At a regional scale, oak forest has the highest C content (460 Mg C ha-1) among the forest ecosystem in Michoacán State at Central Mexico. At the local scale, the soil C content is strongly affected by the composition of organic matter produced by the plant species. The oak species are very diverse in Mexico, distributed within two sections: Quercus sensu stricto and Lobatae. The oak species from Quercus s.s. section produced litterfall with lower concentrations of recalcitrant and thermostable compounds than oak species from Lobatae section, therefore the soil under the former species had higher microbial activity and nutrient availability than the soil under the later species. However, the forest fragment with higher amount of oak species from Quercus s.s. section increases the amount of soil C contents. Unfortunately, Quercus species distribution models for the central western region of Mexico predict a decrease of distribution area of the majority of oak species by the year 2080, as a consequence of higher temperatures and lower precipitation expected under climate change scenarios. Additionally to these scenarios, the remnant oak forest fragments suffer strong degradation due to uncontrolled wood extraction and deforestation. For this reason, the conservation of oak forest fragments is a priority to mitigate the greenhouse gases emission to the atmosphere. In order to enhance the protection of these forest fragments it is required that the society identify the ecosystem services that are provided by these forest fragments.

  16. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Cossio, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sanchez, S. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Calligaro, T.F. [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, UMR 171, Palais du Louvre-Porte des Lions, 14, Quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Tenorio, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico)], E-mail: dolores.tenorio@inin.gob.mx; Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Los Rios, M. de [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico. Seminario 8, Col. Centro. 06060 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purisima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, Mexico, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraiso Queretaro, Ucareo Michoacan and mainly from Zacualtipan/Metzquititlan Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500)

  17. Infrared Spectra of Comet-Asteroid Transition Object 944 Hidalgo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, K.; Campins, H.; Kelley, M.; Fernandez, Y.; Ziffer, J.; Licandro, J.; Emery, J.; Cruikshank, D.; Hergenrother, C.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Clautice, D.

    2008-05-01

    Asteroid 944 Hidalgo is suspected of being an extinct comet. Understanding the origin of this enigmatic object is relevant to several areas of planetary astronomy, and the study of its surface composition may be diagnostic of its origin. Silicates have been detected in active comets, and on Jupiter Trojans. Our team investigated Hidalgo in the 8-30 micron range to determine the mineral composition and presence of surface silicates. We chose this wavelength region because it is most diagnostic for the detection of silicates. We applied to use NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope as Hidalgo is too faint at these wavelengths for ground- based telescopes. Once the data were collected, the continuum was modeled and subtracted from the raw spectra. The result is a plot of emissivity versus wavelength that shows clear emission features from 8-13 microns, and around 20 microns; both of which have been identified with silicates. Our spectrum is compared with those of Jupiter Trojans, which are believed to be related to comets, and comet Hale-Bopp. With the project complete, we have demonstrated the presence of silicate emissions in Hidalgo and strong similarity with spectra of Jupiter Trojans and of active comets. These results argue in favor of Hidalgo having formed further from the Sun than main belt asteroids. We conclude that our findings are consistent, but not definitive, with Hidalgo being of cometary origin. Understanding the composition of this body and others like it is important for determining the origin of Earth's water.

  18. [Civil hospital of Zamora de Hidalgo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de Lara, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The city of Zamora de Hidalgo is home to one of the most important hospitals in the region, built in 1841 and named the Civil Hospital of Zamora. Built following demand for municipal health needs and with the support of the City Council of Zamora and private donations, it functioned as a hostel for pilgrims, the destitute and the sick. It was administered and maintained by residents, subsequently by the mothers of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, and finally by the federal Government. It currently gives the Zamorano community services, and admits sick people from other locations such as Jacona, Jiquilpan, Patamban Ocumicho, Chavinda, Tangancicuaro, Chilchota, and Tangamandapio, among others. It was called the Civil hospital because as the only hospital that operated in Zamora, it ceased to be administered by the Ecclesiastic Chapter, and passed into the hands of the State.

  19. Hidalgo County 1990 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a vector polygon digital data structure taken from the Census Bureau's TIGER/Line Files, 1994, for New Mexico. The source software used was ARC/INFO...

  20. A review of ozone-induced effects on the forests of central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Maria de Lourdes de [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Colegio de Postgraduados, Carretera Los Reyes-Texcoco, 56230 Montecillo, Edo. Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: libauer@colpos.mx; Hernandez-Tejeda, Tomas [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agricolas y Pecuarias, Mexico, Col. Viveros de Coyoacan, 04110 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    The first report on oxidant-induced plant damage in the Valley of Mexico was presented over 30 years ago. Ozone is known to occur in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and elsewhere as the cause of chlorotic mottling on pine needles that are 2 years old or older as observed in 1976 on Pinus hartwegii and Pinus leiophylla. Visible evidences for the negative effects of ozone on the vegetation of central Mexico include foliar injury expressed as chlorotic mottling and premature defoliation on pines, a general decline of sacred fir, visible symptoms on native forest broadleaved species (e.g. Mexican black cherry). Recent investigations have also indicated that indirect effects are occurring such as limited root colonization by symbiotic fungi on ozone-damaged P. hartwegii trees and a negative influence of the pollutant on the natural regeneration of this species. The negative ozone-induced effects on the vegetation will most likely continue to increase. - Ozone induced symptoms, poor tree regeneration and limited root colonization by mycorrhiza fungi observed in the valley of Mexico.

  1. S-Wave Velocity Across Central Mexico Using High Resolution Surface Wave Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, A.; Clayton, R. W.; Pérez-Campos, X.; Singh, S. K.; Pacheco, J. F.; García, D.; Valdés-González, C.

    2008-12-01

    The shear wave velocity structure across central Mexico is determined by surface wave dispersion from a dense linear seismic experiment "Mesoamerican Subduction Experiment" (MASE). MASE consisted of 100 portable broadband stations deployed along a line crossing Central Mexico from the Pacific Coast to almost the Gulf of Mexico. Regional records were used to obtain Rayleigh-wave group velocity maps for periods from 5 to 50 s and they show a dramatic variation of velocity (~40%), especially for periods larger of 20 s. Local dispersion curves were reconstructed for each station and inverted to find S-wave velocity by using a simulated annealing algorithm. The results, from inversion, show a significant change, particularly in the lower crust, between the backarc, volcanic arc and forearc regions. The crust in the forearc is thicker and faster than the backarc region. Just below the active Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) (300 km from the coast) is presently a low velocity spot (~3.4 km/s) suggesting presence of anomalous material (probably related to a mantle wedge) as deep as 50 km. The results also show a poorly resolved slab and wedge which correspond to the ones in a model reported recently. The results are supported with consistency checks and resolution tests.

  2. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiman, W.D.

    1988-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1987 showed significant increases in seismic acquisition in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru, and a decrease in Chile and Venezuela. Exploratory drilling increased in most major producing countries but was accompanied by a decline in development drilling. Most of the increase could be attributed to private companies fulfilling obligations under risk contracts; however, state oil companies in Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia showed significant increased activity, with only Mexico showing a decrease. Colombia again had a dramatic increase in production (29% from 1986). Noteworthy discoveries were made in Bolivia (Villamontes-1); Brazil, in the Solimoes basin (1-RUC-1-AM); Chile (Rio Honda-1); Colombia, in the Llanos basin (Austral-1, La Reforma-1, Libertad Norte-1, Cravo Este-1, and Cano Yarumal-1), in the Upper Magdalena basin (Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1); Ecuador (Frontera-1, a joint-exploration venture with Colombia); Mexico, in the Chiapas-Tabasco region (Guacho-1 and Iridi-1), in the Frontera Norte area (Huatempo-1); Peru, in the Madre de Dios basin (Armihuari-4X); Trinidad (West East Queen's Beach-1); and Venezuela (Musipan-1X). Brazil's upper Amazon (Solimoes basin) discovery, Colombia's Upper Magdalena basin discoveries Toldado-1 and Los Mangos-1, Mexico's Chiapas-Tabasco discoveries, Peru's confirmation of the giant Cashiriari discovery of 1986, and Venezuela's success in Monagas state were the highlights of 1987. 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Oficinas de Transferencia Tecnológica en las Universidades como Estrategia para Fomentar la Innovación y la Competitividad. Caso: Estado de Hidalgo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba M. Pedraza Amador

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of any country is supported by innovations, hence the importance of generating research, development and innovation (R&D is an imperative today for the economic development of Mexico and its regions, in the Hidalgo State case where universities serve as their main sources of knowledge, requiring just one instance to protect the scientific and technological results and developed processes to facilitate technology transfer. Therefore this paper addresses the importance of technology transfer and the role played by technology transfer offices as facilitators of these processes in support of the universities to promote innovation in the state of Hidalgo.

  4. Subsidence and associated shallow faulting hazard assessment in central Mexico using InSAR and GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Solano Rojas, D. E.; Oliver-Cabrera, T.; Salazar-Tlaczani, L.; Wdowinski, S.; DeMets, C.; Pacheco, J.

    2014-12-01

    While subsidence has affected Mexico City for over a century, other cities in central Mexico have been subjected to subsidence since the '80, as a result of their large urban expansion, population increase and aggressive groundwater extraction rates. The continuous subsidence results in severe damage to urban infrastructure and civil structures. Unfortunately the damage cost assessment and vulnerability are difficult to evaluate, because of the variable geographic extent and the continuous nature of the process, which have different characteristics than localized, short duration hazards, as earthquakes or flood events.We have monitored land subsidence in 17 cities in central Mexico using both InSAR and GPS observations. InSAR provides an unsurpassed synoptic view of the earth's dynamic surface. However, different satellite sensors and sometimes widely spaced data availability make it difficult to derive long-term time series, rapid changes or nonlinear variations of subsidence velocities. To alleviate this situation, higher temporal resolution subsidence observations of associated fault motion has been pursued using continuously operating GPS stations. We have developed a GPS network that covers 6 urban centers to detect short duration variations using different processing schemes that include both real-time solutions using RTNet as well as daily solution using Gipsy-Oasis.Cartographic products based on these techniques have been merged with other population, hydrology and meteorology data sets. This approach allows a better hazard assessment and provides information for other purposes, such as vulnerability for shallow faulting, land use zonations, and other decision elements for water resource management agencies. We will provide examples of these hazard assessments for several cities, including Mexico City, Aguascalientes, Morelia, Irapuato and Celaya and the challenges encountered to integrate these results with other data sets from federal and state

  5. Atmospheric particles in the central coastal zone of the Gulf of Mexico, Laguna Verde area, Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar L, S.; Alvarez D, C.; Mendoza M, R.; Perez A, J. A. [Laboratorio de Ingenieria Ambiental, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Veracruz (Mexico); Castellanos R, M. A; Gomez L, B. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Laboratorio de Rayos X, Facultad de Quimica, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-01-01

    The results of mass concentration of atmospheric particles collected by low volume samplers in sixteen monitoring stations of the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Network from Laguna Verde Nucleoelectric Plant, in Mexico, from 1991 to 1993, are reported. The levels of the yearly average mass concentrations were in a range of 22.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} {+-} 5.0 {mu}g/m{sup 3} to 107.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3} {+-} 3.7 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. This variability is explained through the location of the stations, anthropogenic and natural influences. There were no significant differences in the average concentration over time. Moreover, the preliminary results of the chemical composition obtained by X Ray Fluorescence analysis are presented. [Spanish] Se presentan los resultados de la concentracion por peso de las particulas atmosfericas recolectadas con muestreadores de bajos volumenes en 16 estaciones de la Red del Monitoreo Radiologico Ambiental de la Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, en Mexico, durante el periodo 1991 a 1993. Los niveles de concentracion por peso de las particulas varian en un rango de promedios anuales de 22.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} {+-} 5.0 {mu}g/m{sup 3} a 107.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3} {+-} 3.7 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Esta variabilidad es explicada por la ubicacion de las estaciones, y las influencias naturales y antropogenicas. No fue observada variabilidad significativa en las concentraciones promedio a lo largo del tiempo. Se presentan los primeros resultados de la caracterizacion quimica del aerosol costero obtenido por medio de Fluorescencia de Rayos X.

  6. Regional scale tomography in central Mexico. Preliminary results from the correlation of seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-García, F.; Quintanar, L.

    2009-04-01

    In addition to local site effects, ground motion from coastal earthquakes on rock sites in central Mexico is amplified in a regional scale, relative to ground motion observed along a direction parallel to the coast. This regional amplification attains a factor of 10 at frequencies that are critical in seismic risk analyses (from 0.2 to at least 2 Hz). This amplification has been related to the irregular crustal structure associated with the presence of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (oblique to the trench along the subduction zone). However, this has not yet been verified. The available models are not well constrained and there is a significant lack of data regarding the crustal structure in this region. Recent publications have shown that the Green's function between two seismic stations may be estimated from the cross-correlation of seismic noise. Most papers have shown that surface wave modes emerge in those correlation functions. The larger the distance between stations, the longer the records of seismic noise that are needed to obtain a useful result. In this paper, we use seismic noise recorded by three different arrays to estimate Rayleigh wave dispersion between stations. two arrays were temporal and one, recently installed, is permanent. The first array consisted of only four stations. It operated continuously for three months in 1997. The second temporary array operated a line of 100 seismic recorders installed perpendicularly to the subduction zone in Mexico, the MASE (Middle American Seismic Experiment) array. From this large array we use data from 18 stations in central Mexico. Finally, we use data from the permanent Mexico basin seismic array, recently installed. We use week- and month-long noise records to compute cross-correlation between vertical components for all possible station pairs. The results show clearly the emergence of clear Rayleigh wave pulses. We use the multiple filter technique to determine group velocities in the period band 4 to 10 s

  7. 49 CFR 372.237 - Cameron, Hidalgo, Starr, and Willacy Counties, TX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cameron, Hidalgo, Starr, and Willacy Counties, TX... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS, COMMERCIAL ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.237 Cameron, Hidalgo, Starr, and Willacy Counties, TX. (a) Transportation within a zone comprised of Cameron, Hidalgo, Starr...

  8. Social networks, market transactions, and reputation as a central resource. The Mercado del Mar, a fish market in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Hernández, Juan M

    2017-01-01

    Fish consumption in Mexico is considered low (around 12 kg per person per year) and non-homogeneously distributed across the country. One of the reasons for this situation is the scarcity of wholesale selling sites. In this context, the Mercado del Mar (MM), located in Guadalajara city, Jalisco, is the second biggest wholesale fish market in Mexico, with a distribution of about 500 tons per day and a variety of about 350 different species of fish. In this paper, we argue that MM has accumulated social capital, which is formed from two main resources: buyer and seller relationships, and reputation. Specifically, the MM manages a broad and intensive interaction among business actors and the already achieved reputation allows the MM to adapt to market changes. To validate our hypotheses, an empirical study was conducted in 2015 by means of interviews to fish wholesalers in the MM and a sample of their suppliers and buyers. For simplicity we have only considered fresh water fish. We have followed snow-ball sampling as the survey strategy. Results show that the MM has responded to fish market dynamics organizing a complex network of buyers and suppliers whose relationships can be explained in the form of strong and weak ties. At the same time, reputation has been the central resource to build this social capital and also gives place to market transactions. Additionally, the strategic position of Guadalajara city and the well-connected routes have facilitated fish bulking and distribution in the region.

  9. Social networks, market transactions, and reputation as a central resource. The Mercado del Mar, a fish market in central Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pedroza-Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Fish consumption in Mexico is considered low (around 12 kg per person per year and non-homogeneously distributed across the country. One of the reasons for this situation is the scarcity of wholesale selling sites. In this context, the Mercado del Mar (MM, located in Guadalajara city, Jalisco, is the second biggest wholesale fish market in Mexico, with a distribution of about 500 tons per day and a variety of about 350 different species of fish. In this paper, we argue that MM has accumulated social capital, which is formed from two main resources: buyer and seller relationships, and reputation. Specifically, the MM manages a broad and intensive interaction among business actors and the already achieved reputation allows the MM to adapt to market changes. To validate our hypotheses, an empirical study was conducted in 2015 by means of interviews to fish wholesalers in the MM and a sample of their suppliers and buyers. For simplicity we have only considered fresh water fish. We have followed snow-ball sampling as the survey strategy. Results show that the MM has responded to fish market dynamics organizing a complex network of buyers and suppliers whose relationships can be explained in the form of strong and weak ties. At the same time, reputation has been the central resource to build this social capital and also gives place to market transactions. Additionally, the strategic position of Guadalajara city and the well-connected routes have facilitated fish bulking and distribution in the region.

  10. Fluoride in ash leachates: environmental implications at Popocatépetl volcano, central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Armienta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ash emitted by volcanic eruptions, even of moderate magnitude, may affect the environment and the health of humans and animals through different mechanisms at distances significantly larger than those indicated in the volcanic hazard maps. One such mechanism is the high capacity of ash to transport toxic volatiles like fluoride, as soluble condensates on the particles' surface. The mobilization and hazards related to volcanic fluoride are discussed based on the data obtained during the recent activity of Popocatépetl volcano in Central Mexico.

  11. Potential impact of climate change on coffee rust over Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Ezquerro, Maria del Carmen; Martinez-Lopez, Benjamin; Cabos Narvaez, William David; Sein, Dmitry

    2017-04-01

    In this work, some meteorological variables from a regional climate model are used to characterize the dispersion of coffee rust (a fungal disease) from Central America to Mexico, during the 20 Century. The climate model consists of the regional atmosphere model REMO coupled to the MPIOM global ocean model with increased resolution in the Atlantic Ocean. Lateral atmospheric and upper oceanic boundary conditions outside the coupled domain were prescribed using both ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalysis data. In addition to the historical simulation, a projection of the evolution of the coffee rust for the 21 Century was obtained from a REMO run using MPIESM data for the lateral forcing.

  12. Migration intentions and illicit substance use among youth in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen; Hoffman, Steven; Calderón-Tena, Carlos Orestes; Becerra, David; Alvarez, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This study explored intentions to emigrate and substance use among youth (ages 14-24) from a central Mexico state with high emigration rates. Questionnaires were completed in 2007 by 702 students attending a probability sample of alternative secondary schools serving remote or poor communities. Linear and logistic regression analyses indicated that stronger intentions to emigrate predicted greater access to drugs, drug offers, and use of illicit drugs (marijuana, cocaine, inhalants), but not alcohol or cigarettes. Results are related to the healthy migrant theory and its applicability to youth with limited educational opportunities. The study's limitations are noted.

  13. Los encinos del Parque Nacional Los Marmoles, Hidalgo, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvarez-Zuniga, Erika; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Arturo; Valencia-Avalos, Susana

    2010-01-01

    ... capacidad de formar hibridos, lo cual dificulta su taxonomia. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer la composicion floristica de las especies del genero Quercus en el Parque Nacional Los Marmoles (PNM...

  14. CO2 Total Column Variability From Ground-Based FTIR Measurements Over Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylon, J. L.; Stremme, W.; Plaza, E.; Bezanilla, A.; Grutter, M.; Hase, F.; Blumenstock, T.

    2014-12-01

    There are now several space missions dedicated to measure greenhouse gases in order to improve the understanding of the carbon cycle. Ground based measurement sites are of great value in the validation process, however there are only a few stations in tropical latitudes. We present measurements of solar-absorption infrared spectra recorded on two locations over Central Mexico: the High-Altitude Station Altzomoni (19.12 N, 98.65 W), located in the Izta-Popo National Park outside of Mexico City; and the UNAM's Atmospheric Observatory (19.32 N, 99.17 W) in Mexico City. These measurements were performed using a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer FTIR (Bruker, HR 120/5) at Altzomoni and a moderate resolution FTIR (Bruker, Vertex 80) within the city. In this work, we present the first results for total vertical columns of CO2 derived from near-infrared spectra recorded at both locations using the retrieval code PROFFIT. We present the seasonal cycle and variability from the measurements, as well as the full diagnostics of the retrieval in order assess its quality and discuss the differences of both instruments and locations (altitudes, urban vs remote). This work aims to contribute to generate high quality datasets for satellite validation.

  15. Extensive diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units circulating in Triatoma dimidiata from central Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; Torres-Montero, Jesús; López-Monteon, Aracely; Dumonteil, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Chagas disease (or American trypanosomiasis) is a parasitic disease of major public health importance, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, which presents extensive genetic diversity. The parasite has been classified into six lineages or discrete typing units (TcI to TcVI) and we performed here the molecular characterization of the strains present in Triatoma dimidiata, the main vector in central Veracruz, Mexico. Unexpectedly, TcI only represented 9/33 strains identified (27%), and we reported for the first time the presence of TcII, TcIII, TcIV and TcV strains in Mexico, at a relatively high frequency (13-27% each). Our observations indicate a much greater diversity of T. cruzi DTUs than previously estimated in at least part of Mexico. These results have important implications for the understanding of the phylogeography of T. cruzi DTUs and the epidemiology of Chagas disease in North America. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of soil moisture impact in convective initiation in the central region of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores, Edgar; Caetano, Ernesto

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture is important for understanding hydrological cycle variability in many regions. Local surface heat and moisture fluxes represent a major source of convective rainfall in Mexico during the summer, driven by positive evaporation-precipitation feedback. The effects of soil moisture are directly reflected in the limitation of evapotranspiration, affecting the development of the planetary boundary layer and, therefore, the initiation and intensity of convective precipitation. This study presents preliminary analysis of the role of soil moisture in convective initiations in central Mexico, for which a methodology for the detection of convective initiations similar to Taylor (2015) has been considered. The results show that the moisture fluxes from the surface influence the development of convection favored by mesoscale circulations at low levels. Initiations are more frequent in regions less humid than their surroundings with the very strong signal during the month of September. The knowledge of the soil predisposition to allow the development of deep convection suggests an alternative tool for the prediction of convective rains in Mexico.

  17. Stratigraphy, geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic setting of the Mesozoic Nazas Formation, north-central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Claudio

    Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic volcanic-sedimentary sequences that were part of the Mesozoic continental-margin of western North America are exposed in northern and central Mexico. These sequences have been grouped into the Nazas Formation and crop out in the states of Durango, Coahuila, Zacatecas, and San Luis Potosi. The Nazas Formation consists of 2,500 m or more of volcanic and pyroclastic rocks and interbedded clastic sedimentary rocks that were deposited in alluvial fan and fluvial depositional systems that developed in intra-arc basins, mainly fault-bound grabens and topographic depressions within an extending Mesozoic volcanic arc. Major and trace element geochemistry of volcanic rocks suggests that the volcanic suite is calc-alkaline and includes rhyolite, dacite, rhyodacite, andesite, trachyandesite and rare basalt. Pyroclastic rocks are basically air-fall tuffs and volcanic breccias. The sedimentary strata include conglomerate, sandstone, shale, and siltstone, locally red in color. Geochronology (Ar-Ar, K-Ar and Rb-Sr) and field evidence indicate that the age of the Nazas Formation ranges from Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic, but the peak of arc volcanism appears to be Early and Middle Jurassic. The Mesozoic magmatic arc in Mexico has a northwest trend and extends from Sonora to Chiapas. The arc structure is more than 2,000 km long, and possibly up to 150 km wide. The width of the arc is uncertain due to the limited number of surface outcrops, however, it did not extend east into the Gulf of Mexico. Arc-related magmatism began in latest Triassic time, but the peak of arc evolution occurred during the Early and Middle Jurassic. By Oxfordian time, the arc was deeply dissected and eroded, and magmatic activity had ceased. A marine transgression from the Gulf of Mexico covered most of the Nazas arc, depositing the initial sediments of the Oxfordian Zuloaga Limestone in the Mexican Geosyncline. Jurassic crustal extension in the Gulf of Mexico was

  18. Paleoenvironmental conditions across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in central-eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Yáñez, Mario; Núñez-Useche, Fernando; López Martínez, Rafael; Gardner, Rand D.

    2017-08-01

    The Padni section of central-eastern Mexico is characterized by pelagic, organic-rich carbonates and shales dated in this study by calpionellid biostratigraphy to the late Tithonian-late Berriasian time interval. Microfacies, pyrite framboid size, spectrometric gamma-ray and mineralogical data are herein integrated in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental change during the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. Deposits of the late Tithonian-early Berriasian are characterized by laminated, organic-rich facies with abundant radiolarian, tiny pyrite framboids and low Th/U ratios. They are linked to upwelling in a semi-restricted basin, high marine productivity and anoxic bottom waters. The early incursions of Tethyan oceanic waters into the proto-Gulf of Mexico occurred during late Tithonian as attested the appearance of calpionellids. Short and intermittent accumulations of saccocomids during early Berriasian suggest episodes of sporadic connection between the Tethys, the proto-Atlantic and the Pacific ocean during sea-level rise events. A full and stable connection between the Tethys and proto-Gulf of Mexico was established until the late Berriasian. This event is supported by the presence of open marine and bioturbated facies with a framboid population typical of dysoxic conditions, higher Th/U ratios and a decreasing pattern of the total organic carbon content. In addition to highlighting the replenishment of the oxygen supply to the basin, this facies also points to a younger age for the finalization of the Yucatán Block rotation and the end of the Gulf of Mexico opening. Deposition of the studied section occurred mostly during a Tithonian-Berriasian arid phase reported in other Tethyan and Atlantic regions. The similarity between the discrete segments of the standard gamma-ray curve defined in the studied outcrop and those reported from subsurface implies their regional continuity allowing their use for correlation purposes.

  19. Microsystems technologist workforce development capacity and challenges in Central New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Thor D.

    2008-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has made major investments in microsystems-related infrastructure and research staff development over the past two decades, culminating most recently in the MESA project. These investment decisions have been made based in part upon the necessity for highly reliable, secure, and for some purposes, radiation-hardened devices and subsystems for safety and sustainability of the United States nuclear arsenal and other national security applications. SNL's microsystems development and fabrication capabilities are located almost entirely within its New Mexico site, rendering their effectiveness somewhat dependent on the depth and breadth of the local microsystems workforce. Consequently, the status and development capacity of this workforce has been seen as a key personnel readiness issue in relation to the maintenance of SNL's microsystems capabilities. For this reason SNL has supported the instantiation and development of the Southwest Center for Microsystems Education, an Advanced Technology Education center funded primarily by the National Science Foundation, in order to foster the development of local training capacity for microsystems technologists. Although the SCME and the associated Manufacturing Technology program at Central New Mexico Community College have developed an effective curriculum and graduated several highly capable microsystems technologists, the future of both the center and the degree program remain uncertain due to insufficient student enrollment. The central region of New Mexico has become home to many microsystems-oriented commercial firms. As the demands of those firms for technologists evolve, SNL may face staffing problems in the future, especially if local training capacity is lost.

  20. Diet and iron status of nonpregnant women in rural Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backstrand, Jeffrey R; Allen, Lindsay H; Black, Anne K; de Mata, Margarita; Pelto, Gretel H

    2002-07-01

    Few studies have examined the relation of iron status to diet in populations from developing countries with high levels of iron deficiency and diets of poor quality. The objective was to identify nutrients, dietary constituents, and foods that are associated with better iron status in a rural Mexican population. A prospective cohort study was conducted in rural central Mexico. The subjects were 125 nonpregnant women aged 16-44 y. During the 12 mo before blood collection, food intakes were assessed repeatedly by a combination of dietary recalls, food weighing, and food diaries [mean (+/-SD) days of food intake data: 18.8 +/- 5.9 d]. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and plasma ferritin were measured at the end of the study. Higher plasma ferritin concentrations were associated with greater intakes of nonheme iron and ascorbic acid after control for age, BMI, breast-feeding, season, and the time since the birth of the last child. Higher ascorbic acid intakes, but not higher intakes of heme and nonheme iron, predicted a lower risk of low hemoglobin and hematocrit values after control for the background variables. Consumption of the alcoholic beverage pulque predicted a lower risk of low ferritin and low hemoglobin values. Seasonal variation in ferritin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values was observed. Better iron status was associated with greater intakes of foods containing nonheme iron and ascorbic acid. PULQUE:a beverage containing iron, ascorbic acid, and alcohol-may influence the iron status of women in rural central Mexico.

  1. Teacher perceptions of the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence: Central Gulf of Mexico program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempier, Tracie Tingle

    The 12 Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) are funded by the National Science Foundation and are designed to promote creative ways of disseminating marine science research and its importance to the public. The focus of this study is the COSEE Central Gulf of Mexico program which encourages active partnerships between research scientists and teachers. In these collaborative partnerships, teachers and scientists work together to create educational products and disseminate best practices in ocean sciences education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the lesson plans and curricula created through the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence: Central Gulf of Mexico program (COSEE:CGOM), which are the products of this collaboration, were being used effectively in the classroom. The study addressed issues such as teacher perceptions of collaboration with scientists, effectiveness of COSEE:CGOM curriculum implementation in producing more ocean literate students, and teachers' varying views concerning how to successfully implement new COSEE:CGOM knowledge and concepts into their classrooms in order to improve student scientific understanding. In addition, the study examined frequency of use of COSEE:CGOM lesson plans and identified predictor variables that can produce a model for understanding factors hindering or enhancing lesson plan use. Further, participant perceptions of using peer-teaching as a method for disseminating COSEE:CGOM information in their districts were addressed.

  2. Notes on Elaphoglossum (Lomariopsidaceae section Polytrichia subsection Hybrida in Mexico and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fco. Rojas-Alvarado

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In Elaphoglossum sect. Polytrichia subsect. Hybrida six new species are described: E. angustiob-longum A. Rojas, E. baquianorum A. Rojas, E. cotoi A. Rojas, E. jinoteganum A. Rojas, E. neeanum A. Rojas and E. silencioanum A. Rojas. New combination is made for Elaphoglossum mexicanum (E. Fourn. A. Rojas. Two species are reported: E. barbatum (H. Karst. Hieron. and E. scolopendrifolium (Raddi J. Sm. Two species are redefined: E. erinaceum (Fée T. Moore and E. tambillense (Hook. T. Moore. E. pallidum (Baker ex Jenman C. Chr. Is eliminated for Mexico and Central America. Of the new species only E. neeanum is present outside of the region. A key is given to those species in Mexico and Central America.Seis especies nuevas son descritas: Elaphoglossum angustioblongum A. Rojas, E. baquianorum A. Rojas, E. cotoi A. Rojas, E. jinoteganum A. Rojas, E. neeanum A. Rojas y E. silencioanum A. Rojas. La especie Elaphoglossum mexicanum (E. Fourn. A. Rojas es combinada; las especies E. barbatum (H. Karst. Hieron. y E. scolopendrifolium (Raddi J. Sm. son registradas; además, E. erinaceum (Fée T. Moore y E. tambillense (Hook. T. Moore son redefinidas, y E. pallidum (Baker ex Jenman C. Chr. no se distribuye en México y Centroamérica. De las especies nuevas sólo E. neeanum se encuentra fuera de la región. Se proporciona una clave para reconocer las especies de México y Centro América.

  3. Geoid modeling in Mexico and the collaboration with Central America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, D.; Gomez, R.

    2012-12-01

    The model of geoidal heights for Mexico, named GGM10, is presented as a geodetic tool to support vertical positioning in the context of regional height system unification. It is a purely gravimetric solution computed by the Stokes-Helmert technique in resolution of 2.5 arc minutes. This product from the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografia (INEGI) is released together with a series of 10 gravimetric models which add to the improvements in description of the gravity field. In the recent years, the INEGI joined the initiative of the U.S. National Geodetic Survey and the Canada's Geodetic Survey Division to promote the regional height system unification. In an effort to further improve the compatibility among national geoid models in the region, the INEGI has begun to champion a network of specialists that includes national representatives from Central America and the Caribbean. Through the opening of opportunities for training and more direct access to international agreements and discussions, the tropical region is gaining participation. Now a significantly increased number of countries is pushing for a future North and Central American geoid-based vertical datum as support of height system unification.eoidal height in Mexico, mapped from the model GGM10.

  4. Fast airborne aerosol size and chemistry measurements above Mexico City and Central Mexico during the MILAGRO campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. DeCarlo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The concentration, size, and composition of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1 was measured over Mexico City and central Mexico with a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS onboard the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft as part of the MILAGRO field campaign. This was the first aircraft deployment of the HR-ToF-AMS. During the campaign the instrument performed very well, and provided 12 s data. The aerosol mass from the AMS correlates strongly with other aerosol measurements on board the aircraft. Organic aerosol (OA species dominate the NR-PM1 mass. OA correlates strongly with CO and HCN indicating that pollution (mostly secondary OA, SOA and biomass burning (BB are the main OA sources. The OA to CO ratio indicates a typical value for aged air of around 80 μg m−3 (STP ppm−1. This is within the range observed in outflow from the Northeastern US, which could be due to a compensating effect between higher BB but lower biogenic VOC emissions during this study. The O/C atomic ratio for OA is calculated from the HR mass spectra and shows a clear increase with photochemical age, as SOA forms rapidly and quickly overwhelms primary urban OA, consistent with Volkamer et al. (2006 and Kleinman et al. (2008. The stability of the OA/CO while O/C increases with photochemical age implies a net loss of carbon from the OA. BB OA is marked by signals at m/z 60 and 73, and also by a signal enhancement at large m/z indicative of larger molecules or more resistance to fragmentation. The main inorganic components show different spatial patterns and size distributions. Sulfate is regional in nature with clear volcanic and petrochemical/power plant sources, while the urban area is not a major regional source for this species. Nitrate is enhanced significantly in the urban area and immediate outflow, and is strongly correlated with CO indicating a strong urban source. The importance

  5. Reflectance of vegetation, soil, and water. [Hidalgo County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, C. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The majority of the rangelands of Hidalgo County, Texas are used in cow-calf operations. Continuous year-long grazing is practiced on about 60% of the acreage and some type of deferred system on the rest. Mechanical brush control is used more than chemical control. Ground surveys gave representative estimates for 15 vegetable crops produced in Hidalgo County. ERTS-1 data were used to estimate the acreage of citrus in the county. Combined Kubleka Munk and regression models, that included a term for shadow areas, gave a higher correlation of composite canopy reflectance with ground truth than either model alone.

  6. Hidalgo County TIGER 2000 Hydrography and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  7. Hidalgo County 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  8. Hidalgo County 2010 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  9. Hidalgo County TIGER 2000 Roads and Nodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  10. 2010, Hidalgo County, NM, Linear Hydrography

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  11. 2010, Hidalgo County, NM, Current Area Hydrography

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  12. Covariability of Central America/Mexico winter precipitation and tropical sea surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yutong; Zeng, Ning; Mariotti, Annarita; Wang, Hui; Kumar, Arun; Sánchez, René Lobato; Jha, Bhaskar

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the relationships between Central America/Mexico (CAM) winter precipitation and tropical Pacific/Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are examined based on 68-year (1948-2015) observations and 59-year (1957-2015) atmospheric model simulations forced by observed SSTs. The covariability of the winter precipitation and SSTs is quantified using the singular value decomposition (SVD) method with observational data. The first SVD mode relates out-of-phase precipitation anomalies in northern Mexico and Central America to the tropical Pacific El Niño/La Niña SST variation. The second mode links a decreasing trend in the precipitation over Central America to the warming of SSTs in the tropical Atlantic, as well as in the tropical western Pacific and the tropical Indian Ocean. The first mode represents 67% of the covariance between the two fields, indicating a strong association between CAM winter precipitation and El Niño/La Niña, whereas the second mode represents 20% of the covariance. The two modes account for 32% of CAM winter precipitation variance, of which, 17% is related to the El Niño/La Niña SST and 15% is related to the SST warming trend. The atmospheric circulation patterns, including 500-hPa height and low-level winds obtained by linear regressions against the SVD SST time series, are dynamically consistent with the precipitation anomaly patterns. The model simulations driven by the observed SSTs suggest that these precipitation anomalies are likely a response to tropical SST forcing. It is also shown that there is significant potential predictability of CAM winter precipitation given tropical SST information.

  13. First report on the occurrence of microcystins in planktonic cyanobacteria from Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Vitor; Martins, António; Vale, Micaela; Antunes, Agostinho; Azevedo, Joana; Welker, Martin; Lopez, Oscar; Montejano, Gustavo

    2010-09-01

    Although toxic cyanobacteria are commonly described worldwide, only one recent paper on the toxicity of cyanobacteria in Mexico has been published reporting the occurrence of cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxins. Microcystins are the most commonly studied cyanotoxins in many countries and those that may cause the most dramatic problems in terms of human health. In this paper, we studied the occurrence of potentially toxic cyanobacteria in different ecosystems in Central Mexico. Samples were collected in natural lakes (Zumpango, Laguna Atotonilco and Cienega Chica), reservoirs (Los Angeles and Valle de Bravo), man-made channels (Cuemanco, Tlameleca) and urban lakes (Chapultepec). A multi-technique approach was applied by the use of molecular, immunological and chemical techniques. Cyanobacteria were found in all the sites, ranging from 1.6 x 10(3) cells/mL in Tlameleca to 7.5 x 10(6) cells/mL in Chapultepec Grande, representing between 67 and 100% of the total phytoplankton density. The concentration of total microcystins varied between 4.9 and 78.0 microg MC-LR eq/L. The results revealed the occurrence of MC-LR in all the sites analyzed by MALDI-TOF, and MC-FR, MC-RR and MC-H(4)YR in two sites. Most of the studied sites are used either as a source of drinking water, as a recreational area, or for agriculture irrigation purposes, so the risk for human health may be high if not properly monitored. This is the first report on the MC profiles and concentrations in blooms collected in Mexico. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cooperation and tensions in multiethnic corporate societies using Teotihuacan, Central Mexico, as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla, Linda R

    2015-07-28

    In this paper, I address the case of a corporate society in Central Mexico. After volcanic eruptions triggered population displacements in the southern Basin of Mexico during the first and fourth centuries A.D., Teotihuacan became a multiethnic settlement. Groups from different backgrounds settled primarily on the periphery of the metropolis; nevertheless, around the core, intermediate elites actively fostered the movement of sumptuary goods and the arrival of workers from diverse homelands for a range of specialized tasks. Some of these skilled craftsmen acquired status and perhaps economic power as a result of the dynamic competition among neighborhoods to display the most lavish sumptuary goods, as well as to manufacture specific symbols of identity that distinguished one neighborhood from another, such as elaborate garments and headdresses. Cotton attire worn by the Teotihuacan elite may have been one of the goods that granted economic importance to neighborhood centers such as Teopancazco, a compound that displayed strong ties to the Gulf Coast where cotton cloth was made. The ruling elite controlled raw materials that came from afar whereas the intermediate elite may have been more active in providing other sumptuary goods: pigments, cosmetics, slate, greenstone, travertine, and foreign pottery. The contrast between the corporate organization at the base and top of Teotihuacan society and the exclusionary organization of the neighborhoods headed by the highly competitive intermediate elite introduced tensions that set the stage for Teotihuacan's collapse.

  15. The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans originated in central Mexico rather than the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Erica M; Tabima, Javier F; Cooke, David E L; Restrepo, Silvia; Fry, William E; Forbes, Gregory A; Fieland, Valerie J; Cardenas, Martha; Grünwald, Niklaus J

    2014-06-17

    Phytophthora infestans is a destructive plant pathogen best known for causing the disease that triggered the Irish potato famine and remains the most costly potato pathogen to manage worldwide. Identification of P. infestan's elusive center of origin is critical to understanding the mechanisms of repeated global emergence of this pathogen. There are two competing theories, placing the origin in either South America or in central Mexico, both of which are centers of diversity of Solanum host plants. To test these competing hypotheses, we conducted detailed phylogeographic and approximate Bayesian computation analyses, which are suitable approaches to unraveling complex demographic histories. Our analyses used microsatellite markers and sequences of four nuclear genes sampled from populations in the Andes, Mexico, and elsewhere. To infer the ancestral state, we included the closest known relatives Phytophthora phaseoli, Phytophthora mirabilis, and Phytophthora ipomoeae, as well as the interspecific hybrid Phytophthora andina. We did not find support for an Andean origin of P. infestans; rather, the sequence data suggest a Mexican origin. Our findings support the hypothesis that populations found in the Andes are descendants of the Mexican populations and reconcile previous findings of ancestral variation in the Andes. Although centers of origin are well documented as centers of evolution and diversity for numerous crop plants, the number of plant pathogens with a known geographic origin are limited. This work has important implications for our understanding of the coevolution of hosts and pathogens, as well as the harnessing of plant disease resistance to manage late blight.

  16. Paleoseismological Study of the Eastern Part of Venta de Bravo Fault, Acambay Graben, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Loya, R. A.; Lacan, P.; Ortuňo, M.; Ana Paula, H.; Štěpančíková, P.; Stemberk, J.; Zuniga, R. R.; Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Intraplate earthquakes represent a significant risk to the cities located within the central part of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt as illustrated by the 1912 6.9 Mw Acambay earthquake. The epicenter was located 80 km northeast from Mexico City. The Acambay Graben is a part of a tectonic active intra-arc graben and bounded to the north by the 42 km south-dipping Acambay-Tixmadejé fault and to the south by the 73 km north-dipping Pastores (PF) and Venta de Bravo fault (VBF) zone. This last fault system has been linked to a 5.3 mb earthquake in 1979. In this study four trenches were dug exposing volcanic deposits, fluvio-lacustrine sediments, colluvial deposits and paleosols in the eastern part of the Venta de Bravo fault. We present evidence for two paleoearthquakes in the last 30 ka. The correlation of the events identified in a previous work in the western tip of the PF and our results in the eastern tip of the VBF is still an open question. However, using empirical relationships the expected maximum magnitude for joint rupture of these two faults with a 73 km trace is Mw=7, this magnitude is above the average of magnitudes estimations done in the other seismogenic sources in the region studied before, suggesting that the south border of the graben could be one of the most dangerous seismogenic source in the surrounding area of Mexico City.

  17. Crust and Mantle Anisotropy Variations from the Coast to Inland In Central and Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, J. A.; Perez-Campos, X.; Husker, A. L.; Valenzuela Wong, R.

    2014-12-01

    We examine radial and tangential receiver functions (RFs) obtained along the Meso America Subduction Experiment (MASE), a profile from the Pacific coast in central-southern Mexico to the Gulf of Mexico. Tangential RFs show waveform variations in timing and polarity, both in the Moho and the slab Ps phases in function of its backazimuth; also, radial RFs show arrivals timing variation; all of which suggests a non-homogeneous horizontal layer medium. Using a particle motion analysis and a cross-correlation procedure, we are able to quantify the shear wave splitting in the continental crust, the subducted oceanic crust and the mantle below each station of the array in terms of a time delay, and a fast azimuth direction. From these variations, we distinguish between three major regions: 1) dipping subducted slab, 2) horizontal subducted slab, 3) absence of subducted slab. Results for region 1 are consistent with the geometry of the Cocos plate previously determined by other studies, showing a minimum energy content in the tangential RFs for the NE-SW geographic quadrants. In region 2, we identify a strong azimuthal dependence with a variable periodicity of 180° and 360° as well as the existence of "split" Ps phases in our data, possibly related to the presence of fluids and the ultra low velocity layer (ULVL) localized between the continental and oceanic crust. We compare these results with previous silent earthquakes (SSE) and non-volcanic tremors (NVT) studies in the area.

  18. Bartonella Infection in Hematophagous, Insectivorous, and Phytophagous Bat Populations of Central Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Matthew J; Chomel, Bruno B; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Olave-Leyva, José Ignacio; Obregón-Morales, Cirani; Moreno-Sandoval, Hayde; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro

    2017-08-01

    Although emerging nonviral pathogens remain relatively understudied in bat populations, there is an increasing focus on identifying bat-associated bartonellae around the world. Many novel Bartonella strains have been described from both bats and their arthropod ectoparasites, including Bartonella mayotimonensis, a zoonotic agent of human endocarditis. This cross-sectional study was designed to describe novel Bartonella strains isolated from bats sampled in Mexico and evaluate factors potentially associated with infection. A total of 238 bats belonging to seven genera were captured in five states of Central Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula. Animals were screened by bacterial culture from whole blood and/or polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from heart tissue or blood. Bartonella spp. were isolated or detected in 54 (22.7%) bats, consisting of 41 (38%) hematophagous, 10 (16.4%) insectivorous, and three (4.3%) phytophagous individuals. This study also identified Balantiopteryx plicata as another possible bat reservoir of Bartonella. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models suggested that Bartonella infection was positively associated with blood-feeding diet and ectoparasite burden. Phylogenetic analysis identified a number of genetic variants across hematophagous, phytophagous, and insectivorous bats that are unique from described bat-borne Bartonella species. However, these strains were closely related to those bartonellae previously identified in bat species from Latin America.

  19. Human footprints in Central Mexico older than 40,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Silvia; Huddart, David; Bennett, Matthew R.; González-Huesca, Alberto

    2006-02-01

    The timing, route and origin of the first colonization to the Americas remains one of the most contentious topics in human evolution. A number of migration routes have been suggested and there are different views as to the antiquity of the earliest human occupation. Some believe that settlement happened as early as 30 ka BP, but most of the currently accepted early sites in North America date to the latest Pleistocene, related to the expansion of the Clovis culture, while the oldest directly radiocarbon dated human remains are 11.5 ka BP. In this context new evidence is presented in this paper, in the form of human footprints preserved in indurated volcanic ash, to suggest that Central Mexico was inhabited as early as over 40 ka BP. Human and animal footprints have been found within the upper bedding surfaces of the Xalnene volcanic ash layer that outcrops in the Valsequillo Basin, south of Puebla, Mexico. This ash layer was produced by a subaqueous monogenetic volcano erupting within a palaeo-lake, dammed by lava within the Valsequillo Basin during the Pleistocene. The footprints were formed during low stands in lake level along the former shorelines and indicate the presence of humans, deer, canids, big felids, and probably camels and bovids. The footprints were buried by ash and lake sediments as lake levels rose and transgressed across the site. The ash has been dated to at least 40 ka BP by OSL dating of incorporated, baked lake sediments.

  20. A detailed rock-magnetic and archeomagnetic study of lime-plasters from central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Arechalde, A. M.; Rodriguez, M.; Ramirez, O.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Caballero-Miranda, C.; Hueda-Tanabe, Y.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2003-04-01

    We carried out a reconnaissance rock-magnetic and archeomagnetic investigations of lime-plasters at some most important pre-Hispanic sites in Central Mexico. Both burned and unburned lime plasters (in total 30 samples) were analyzed from Teotihuacan, Tlatelolco, Santa Cruz Atizapan and Pañhu. The characteristic directions determined in this study are considered to be of primary origin. Thermomagnetic investigation show that the remanence is carried in most cases by magnetite or Ti-poor titanomagnetite. Unblocking temperature spectra and relatively high coercivity point to 'small' pseudo-single domain magnetic structure grains as responsible for remanent magnetization. Single-component, linear demagnetization plots were observed in most of cases. The mean site directions are consistent with the available reference master curve for Mesoamerica.

  1. The ectomycorrhizas of Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae associated with Alnus acuminata in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay-Serrano, Edith

    2015-08-01

    Two pure Alnus acuminata stands established in a montane forest in central Mexico (Puebla State) were monitored between 2010 and 2013 to confirm and recognize the ectomycorrhizal (EcM) systems of A. acuminata with Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae, two recently described species. Through comparison of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from basidiomes and ectomycorrhizas sampled in the forest stands, we confirmed their ectomycorrhizal association. The phytobiont was corroborated by comparing ITS sequences obtained from EcM root tips and leaves collected in the study site and from other sequences of A. acuminata available in Genbank. Detailed morphological and anatomical descriptions of the ectomycorrhizal systems are presented and complemented with photographs.

  2. Mexico-Guatemala border mobility as represented in the everyday lives of Central American workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Noel Ramos Rojas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the human mobility experience of transborder workers who travel to localities in Chiapas for the purpose of working in a specific economic sector. The workers, who are primarily Central Americans, experience everyday life trajectories that are shaped by mobility practices linked to migratory, labor, and private spheres. From the social perspective of everyday life, the author seeks to analyze this sector's border crossing experience, which occurs in one of the most important regions with regard to population flow: the southern border between Mexico and Guatemala. A labor market has been formed in this region in which some social actors are able to construct ways of life based on their daily mobility and their recognition of a difficult and controlled spatial and temporal dimension.

  3. Rock Magnetic Properties of a Late Pleistocene Paleosol From Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, J.; Ortega, B.; Solleiro, E.; Sedov, S.

    2005-05-01

    Rock-magnetic characteristics of a volcaniclastic-paleosol sequence from Tlaxcala, central Mexico, are analyzed in order to test the hypothesis of neo-formation of magnetic minerals as result of enhanced pedogenesis in A and B soil horizons, in comparison of the less affected or pedoganically unaltered parent material. Our study was carried out in a Chromic luvisol pedocomplex thought to have been formed during the last interglacial. The results show that, even if pedogenic fine grained magnetic minerals are present in the Bt horizons, these are destroyed in upper horizons, where pedogenesis has been more intense. Horizons A and E present the lowest magnetic susceptibility, however they also present the highest concentration of high coercivity hematite/goethite phases. In order to decode the paleoclimatic signal of this paleosol, rock-magnetism analysis in different pedogenetic materials as the soil itself, and cutans, cracks-filling material and humus found in soils, is in progress.

  4. House infestation dynamics and feeding sources of Triatoma dimidiata in central Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Montero, Jesús; López-Monteon, Aracely; Dumonteil, Eric; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel

    2012-04-01

    Chagas disease is endemic in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, and we investigated here the dynamics of house infestation by Chagas disease vectors to understand disease transmission and design effective control interventions. Bug collections in 42 rural villages confirmed the widespread distribution of Triatoma dimidiata in central Veracruz. Unexpectedly, collection data further indicated a clear pattern of seasonal infestation by mostly adult bugs. Analysis of feeding sources with a polymerase chain reaction-heteroduplex assay indicated a frequent feeding on humans, in agreement with the high seroprevalence previously observed. Feeding sources also confirmed a significant dispersal of bugs between habitats. High dispersal capabilities and seasonal infestation may thus be a shared characteristic of several of the T. dimidiata sibling species from this complex. It would thus be critical to adapt vector control interventions to this behavior to improve their efficacy and sustainability, as the control of T. dimidiata has been notoriously challenging.

  5. Land Management Strategies and their Implications for Mazahua Farmers’ Livelihoods in the Highlands of Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Fajardo Belina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study from a Mazahua indigenous community in the rural Highlands of Central Mexico. It analyses Mazahua farming livelihoods characterised by subsistence agriculture, marginality, poverty and severe land degradation. Mazahua farmers face constrained environmental, socioeconomic and cultural conditions, which influence their local decisions on natural resource management. The results describe the capital assets base used, where land, livestock and crop production are imperative assets to support farmers’ livelihood strategies. It analyses local management practices to achieve livelihood outcomes in the short/long term, and to improve or undermine land characteristics and other related assets. It also presents a farmer typology constructed by local perceptions, a controversial element to drive sustainable development strategies at the local level. Finally, it discusses how local land management practices are adopted and their importance in developing alternatives to encourage positive trade-offs between conservation and production in order to improve rural livelihoods.

  6. Interpreting compositional zonation of the Zaragoza ignimbrite from Los Humeros caldera, Central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco-Nunez, Gerardo [Centro de Geociencias, UNAM, Campus Juriquilla, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); McCurry, Michael [Department of Geology, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID (United States); Branney, Michael J [Department of Geology, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-01

    Compositional zonation in ignimbrites is relatively common, and is often inferred to record gradual withdrawal by an eruption of a density-stratified magma chamber (with silicic magma towards the top and more dense, mafic magma at the bottom). We show that this model does not match observations at the ca. 0.1 Ma Zaragoza ignimbrite from Los Humeros caldera in central Mexico. Detailed petrologic studies reveal a more complex scenario: the ignimbrite exhibits a 'double' vertical zonation based on the compositions of pumice lapilli. We present evidence for mingling and limited mixing occurred during or immediately before the caldera-forming eruption. One possibility to explain the observations is that the ignimbrite eruption occurred in response to intrusion of a hybridized andesitic magma into a rhyodacitic magma chamber.

  7. Late Quaternary vegetation history of Rough Canyon, south-central New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, J.L.; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Penalba, C.; McVickar, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    South-central New Mexico, USA, at the junction of the Rocky Mountains, High Plains and Chihuahuan Desert, is one of the better known regions in the late Quaternary of North America. Plant macrofossils and pollen from a packrat midden series in Rough Canyon, New Mexico allows refinement of plant distributions and paleoclimates in this transitional area since full glacial times. From 17 000 to 12 000 14C yr BP, Pinus edulis–Juniperus scopulorum woodlands dominated limestone substrates between 1800 and 1490 m, with Pseudotsugamenziesii and other mixed-conifer species restricted to shady, north-facing slopes. Juniperus deppeana, the dominant juniper today above 2000 m in southern New Mexico, is conspicuously absent from glacial middens and must have been displaced south of the US–Mexico border. The minimum climatic conditions for P. edulis–J. scopulorum woodlands are ca 20% wetter and 3.5–5°C cooler (July mean maximum temperatures) than the modern climate at Rough Canyon. Holocene warming/drying may have started as early as 12 000 14C yr BP with the extirpation of J. scopulorum from Rough Canyon, and was completed by at least 10 54014C yr BP. The record for arrivals of some desert species is confounded by traces of pollen and macrofossils in some of the glacial middens, which could signify either earliest occurrence or temporal mixing (contamination) of assemblages. AMS 14C dating can discriminate between early arrival and contamination in midden macrofossils but not in pollen. AMS dates show that Choisya dumosa, presently near its northern (cold) limits at Rough Canyon, endured late glacial winters, possibly as clonal populations. Some Larrea tridentata leaves and pollen occur in middens dominated by conifers and oaks no longer at the site; an AMS date of 3205 14C yr BP on Larrea leaves from one midden indicates contamination. Evidence for some macrofossil contamination, however, does not rule out the possibility that pollen of desert

  8. Conservation biogeography of red oaks (Quercus, section Lobatae) in Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Miranda, Andrés; Luna-Vega, Isolda; Oyama, Ken

    2011-02-01

    Oaks are dominant trees and key species in many temperate and subtropical forests in the world. In this study, we analyzed patterns of distribution of red oaks (Quercus, section Lobatae) occurring in Mexico and Central America to determine areas of species richness and endemism to propose areas of conservation. Patterns of richness and endemism of 75 red oak species were analyzed using three different units. Two complementarity algorithms based on species richness and three algorithms based on species rarity were used to identify important areas for conservation. A simulated annealing analysis was performed to evaluate and formulate effective new reserves for red oaks that are useful for conserving the ecosystems associated with them after the systematic conservation planning approach. Two main centers of species richness were detected. The northern Sierra Madre Oriental and Serranías Meridionales of Jalisco had the highest values of endemism. Fourteen areas were considered as priorities for conservation of red oak species based on the 26 priority political entities, 11 floristic units and the priority grid-cells obtained in the complementarity analysis. In the present network of Natural Protected Areas in Mexico and Central America, only 41.3% (31 species) of the red oak species are protected. The simulated annealing analysis indicated that to protect all 75 species of red oaks, 12 current natural protected areas need to be expanded by 120000 ha of additional land, and 26 new natural protected areas with 512500 ha need to be created. Red oaks are a useful model to identify areas for conservation based on species richness and endemism as a result of their wide geographic distribution and a high number of species. We evaluated and reformulated new reserves for red oaks that are also useful for the conservation of ecosystems associated with them.

  9. 77 FR 40081 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sales for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... effort to better understand the environmental impacts resulting from the Deepwater Horizon event, BOEM...

  10. Strategic integration of public transport networks with airport infrastructure in the megalopolis of Central Mexico : Evolution and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salinas, C.R.; Garcia Cejudo, D.; Van Timmeren, A.

    2014-01-01

    Airports represent the contemporary global gateways of metropolitan areas worldwide. In the case of the megalopolis of Central Mexico, air transport was traditionally used only by upper social segments of the population, however, during the last years, the introduction of low-cost airlines in the

  11. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. J. Christian; R. J. Yokelson; B. Cardenas; L. T. Molina; G. Engling; S.-C. Hsu

    2009-01-01

    In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), anhydrosugars, Cl-, NO-3 , and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600...

  12. Rainfall and cloud water interception in mature and secondary lower montane cloud forests of central Veracruz, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, F; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Muñoz-Villers, L.E.; Equihua, M.; Asbjornsen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Rainfall and cloud water interception (CWI) were determined for a mature and a 19-year old secondary lower montane cloud forest in central Veracruz, Mexico. Cloud water was measured using a passive fog gauge, and consisted most likely of a mixture of fog and wind-driven drizzle. CWI by the canopy

  13. What do we know about Q fever in Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo-Meléndez, Javier; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Bobadilla-Del-valle, J Miriam; Aguilar-Cruz, Antonio; Torres-Angeles, Orestes; Ramírez-González, José L; Ponce-de-León, Alfredo; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Guerrero-Almeida, M Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, Q fever is considered a rare disease among humans and animals. From March to May of 2008, three patients were referred, from the state of Hidalgo to a tertiary-care center in Mexico City, with an acute febrile illness that was diagnosed as Q fever. We decided to undertake a cross sectional pilot study to identify cases of acute disease in this particular region and to determine the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii among healthy individuals with known risk factors for infection with this bacteria. Q fever was defined according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. All subjects were interviewed for signs and symptoms of the disease, demographic and household characteristics and occupational exposure to cattle. Blood samples were taken from hospitalized and outpatients with symptoms suggestive of Q fever, as well as from asymptomatic individuals with direct and daily exposure to cattle (slaughterers, butchers, farmers, shepherds and veterinarians) in the five municipalities. We report the occurrence of 17 cases with positive antibodies against C. burnetii in a rural area of central Mexico; eight cases had clinical criteria of acute Q fever disease. Results from this pilot study underscore the need for active surveillance programs and comprehensive studies to further define the prevalence and risk factors associated with the disease in Mexico, to know more about its clinical presentation and to characterize bacterial factors involved in its pathogenesis.

  14. Hidalgo County Blocks, Housing Occupancy Status (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  15. Hidalgo County Block Groups, Total Population (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  16. Hidalgo County Blocks, Total Population (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  17. Hidalgo County Block Groups, Housing Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  18. Hidalgo County Blocks, Households by Type (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  19. Hidalgo County Blocks, Housing Vacancy Status (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  20. Lower Tertiary Sedimentary Turbidite Facies at the Chicontepec Basin, East-Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santillán-Piña N.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area comprises the northwestern portion of the Chicontepec Basin at southeastern San Luis Potosí and northeastern Hidalgo States. At the stratigraphy sequences of the Chicontepec Formation from Lower Paleocene in isolated outocrops, were herein interpreted two major sedimentary sub-environments into the fan model: the middle and the external sedimentary settings; the applied criteria for their identification were: (a lithostratigraphic (thickness, geometry and distribution; (b internal and external primary sedimentary structures, and (c intra-formational deformation structures. The sedimentary facies are composed of siliciclastic and calcareous particles sourced from the Sierra Madre Oriental, western; the Tuxpan paleo-island, eastern; and from the Teziutlan Massif, southern; the sediments were massively transported by slideing, slumping, flow debris and turbidity currents, then deposited as massive, tabular, lenticular and lobely in shape at the slope foot and on the sea marine floor.

  1. The economic impact of Los Alamos National Laboratory on north-central New Mexico and the state of New Mexico fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, R.R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (US); Adcock, L.D.; Gentry, L.M. [Albuquerque Operations Office, Dept. of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (US); Ben-David, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (US). Dept. of Economics; Temple, J. [Temple (John), Albuquerque, NM (US)

    1999-08-05

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a multidisciplinary, multiprogram laboratory with a mission to enhance national military and economic security through science and technology. Its mission is to reduce the nuclear danger through stewardship of the nation`s nuclear stockpile and through its nonproliferation and verification activities. An important secondary mission is to promote US industrial competitiveness by working with US companies in technology transfer and technology development partnerships. Los Alamos is involved in partnerships and collaborations with other federal agencies, with industry (including New Mexico businesses), and with universities worldwide. For this report, the reference period is FY 1998 (October 1, 1997, through September 30, 1998). It includes two major impact analysis: the impact of LANL activities on north-central New Mexico and the economic impacts of LANL on the state of New Mexico. Total impact represents both direct and indirect responding by business, including induced effects (responding by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the three-county region and the state of New Mexico.

  2. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  3. Vulnerability Assessment of the Central Gulf of Mexico Coast Using a Multi-Dimensional Index Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narra, S.; Dismukes, D. E.

    2016-02-01

    The coastal communities of the central Gulf of Mexico (GOM) form a highly productive and complex human, physical, and natural environment that interact in ways unique compared to other coastal areas of the globe. Past studies on understanding coastal resiliency and developing vulnerability indices for this region have mainly focused on climate change and sea-level rise, with more recent research directed towards recognizing socio-economic and demographic factors. The interactions of climate change and non-climatic drivers of the coastal ecosystem such as economy and infrastructure concentration are often overlooked. To support the development of policies relating to coastal management and climate change, it is vital to integrate all the relevant parameters. This paper presents a relative vulnerability assessment of the central GOM coast by incorporating climatic, geological, socio-economic, demographic and economic variables. A multi-dimensional Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) developed from these parameters is used to rate coastal segments into different classes based on their range of vulnerability. We study the relationship between energy infrastructure and the physical and human aspects of communities to identify and prioritize communities, and the proximate infrastructure most at risk from coastal climate change. Spatial analysis will be a component part of this index-based approach to characterize, organize, and analyze data for assessing coastal community vulnerability in areas supporting critical energy infrastructure. Special focus is directed towards the concentration of pipeline and transportation infrastructure in this region.

  4. Developments in the Dairy Industries of Mexico, Central America, Argentina, and Brazil -- Implications for the U.S. Dairy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, William D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this Discussion Paper is to evaluate how economic problems and developments in the dairy industries of Mexico, Central America, Argentina, and Brazil will affect the U.S. dairy sector. Mexico, a signatory to the North American Free Trade Agreement, now applies zero tariffs to imports of most U.S. dairy products. Nonfat dry milk (NFDM) is a notable exception; Mexican tariffs on U.S. exports of NFDM will not go to zero until 2008. However, Mexico’s dairy market no longer represen...

  5. The combined influence of Pacific decadal oscillation and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation on central Mexico since the early 1600s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungjae; Byrne, Roger; Böhnel, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Periodic droughts have been one of the most serious environmental issues in central Mexico since the earliest times. The impacts of future droughts are likely to become even more severe as the current global warming trend increases potential evaporation and moisture deficits. A full understanding of the mechanism underlying climate variability is imperative to narrow the uncertainty about future droughts and predict water availability. The climatic complexity generated by the combined influence of both Atlantic and Pacific forcings, however, causes considerable difficulty in interpreting central Mexican climate records. Also, the lack of high-resolution information regarding the climate in the recent past makes it difficult to clearly understand current drought mechanisms. Our new high-resolution δ18 O record from Hoya Rincon de Parangueo in central Mexico provides useful information on climate variations since the early 1600s. According to our results, the central Mexican climate has been predominantly controlled by the combined influence of the 20-year Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the 70-year Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). However, the AMO probably lost much of its influence in central Mexico in the early 20th century and the PDO has mostly driven climate change since. Marked dryness was mostly associated with co-occurrence of highly positive PDO and negative AMO between ∼1600 and 1900.

  6. Consumo de alcohol y drogas en estudiantes de Pachuca, Hidalgo Alcohol and drug consumption among students from Pachuca, Hidalgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Rojas-Guiot

    1999-07-01

    y los consumidores de otras drogas, a diferencia de lo que sucede con los abstemios, presentaron más problemas al destinar su tiempo libre a actividades como irse a beber con amigos, exhibir más conductas antisociales y tener un distanciamiento de la familia que se refleja en la baja participación en actividades compartidas, en el desinterés por cumplir con sus normas y en la percepción de conflictos al interior de la misma.OBJECTIVE. To determine the prevalence of alcohol and drug consumption and its relationship to sociodemographic variables, leisure activities, antisocial behavior, family norms and conflicts, among others. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Data derive from a representative survey of 1 929 students of junior high and high school, conducted in 1996 in the city of Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Of these, 44.9% were boys and 52.5% were girls; mean age was 14. A self-applied questionnaire, prepared by the WHO together with some countries, among them Mexico, was completed by the studied subjects, and included indicators of alcohol and drug consumption. RESULTS. Of the total sample, 47.9% had tried alcohol, and 12.6% had drunk large quantities -5 drinks or more per sitting- during the month previous to the survey. Preferred drinks are beer and "coolers", which they buy at shops where no identification is required and drink at home or at friend's homes. With respect to drugs, 5.1% had tried illegal or medical drugs without prescription, in particular inhalants, marihuana and tranquilizers. More boys consumed illegal drugs, and more girls medical drugs without prescription. Boys, who are also older, more frequently consumed alcohol and drugs and were more often employed during the previous year at part-time jobs. High alcohol level and drug consumers were characterized by their frequent report of being bored in their free time, drinking with friends and enrolling in antisocial behavior. With respect to family norms, they follow them less and show less interest in

  7. Diurnal and nocturnal pollination of Marginatocereus marginatus (Pachycereeae: Cactaceae) in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Saleem; del Coro Arizmendi, Ma; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

    2006-03-01

    Chiropterophillous and ornithophillous characteristics can form part of a single reproductive strategy in plants that have flowers with diurnal and nocturnal anthesis. This broader pollination strategy can ensure seed set when pollinators are scarce or unpredictable. This appears to be true of hummingbirds, which presumably pollinate Marginatocereus marginatus, a columnar cactus with red nocturnal and diurnal flowers growing as part of dense bat-pollinated columnar cacti forests in arid regions of central Mexico. The aim of this study was to study the floral biology of M. marginatus, and evaluate the effectiveness of nocturnal vs. diurnal pollinators and the contribution of each pollinator group to overall plant fitness. Individual flower buds were marked and followed to evaluate flower phenology and anthesis time. Flowers and nectar production were measured. An exclusion experiment was conducted to measure the relative contribution of nocturnal and diurnal pollinators to seed set. Marginatocereus marginatus has red hermaphroditic flowers with nocturnal and diurnal anthesis. The plant cannot produce seeds by selfing and was pollinated during the day by hummingbirds and during the night by bats, demonstrating that both pollinator groups were important for plant reproduction. Strong pollen limitation was found in the absence of one of the pollinator guilds. Marginatocereus marginatus has an open pollination system in which both diurnal and nocturnal pollinators are needed to set seeds. This represents a fail-safe pollination system that can ensure both pollination, in a situation of low abundance of one of the pollinator groups (hummingbirds), and high competition for nocturnal pollinators with other columnar cacti that bloom synchronously with M. marginatus in the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico.

  8. A multidisciplinary approach for the characterisation of fault zones in geothermal areas in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comina, Cesare; Ferrero, Anna Maria; Mandrone, Giuseppe; Vinciguerra, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    There are more than 500 geothermal areas in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt of central Mexico. Of these, two are presently object of a transnational project between EU and Mexico (GEMex): Acoculco, where there is already a commercial exploitation, and Los Humeros, at present not developed yet. The GEMex project aims to improve the resource assessment and the reservoir characterization using novel geophysical and geological methods and interpretations. One of the main issues controlling the geothermal system is the presence of pervasive fracture systems affecting the carbonatic basements underlying the volcanic complex (basalts and andesites). We propose the characterization of rock masses (rock and fractures) using a multiscale analysis, from the field to the outcrop up to the micro scale integrating a number of techniques. In detail, the University of Torino unit will take care of: 1) Technical field studies aimed to the characterization of the mechanical transitions throughout brittle deformation zones, from the intact rock, to the damage zone to the shear/slip zone; moreover, key geophysical parameters (seismic and electrical properties) will be measured; 2) Petrophysical and minero-petrographic detailed studies on representative samples will be performed at room temperature; verification of the mechanical properties of the samples subjected to cycles of heating up to the temperatures of the reservoir (> 400 °C) will be done; measurements of the geophysical properties of the samples will be done in comparison with the measures in place. 3) Numerical modeling to estimate the petrophysical, geophysical and geomechanical properties of the rock mass under the P and T conditions of the reservoir (i.e., using Comsol, VGeST, UDEC, 3DEC, ...). Detailed geological field studies and photogrammetry/laser scanner imaging of studied outcrops are supposed to be available soon: multiscale analysis will benefis from these new data. Results will be shared between EU and Mexican

  9. Land grants of New Mexico and the United States Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Raish; Alice M. McSweeney

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service (FS) has a long, shared history with the Spanish and Mexican land grants of northern New Mexico. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the war between the United States and Mexico, was supposed to recognize and respect the property rights of the resident Hispano population. In many cases the intent of the Treaty was not honored. During...

  10. Central American Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Central America, as where mean temperatures are relatively warm throughout the year de- so spite seasonal rainfall changes. 75 Elevation, solar angle...November 1982 Control Hidalgo Anos.1952-1963, Republica de Nicaragua, Ministerio de Formento Y O0.PP, Comision Nacional de Energia . Craig, Richard A., The

  11. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Diaz, Henry F.

    2011-08-01

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Niño events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region.

  12. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V. [University of Oxford, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bradley, Raymond S. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Geosciences, Amherst, MA (United States); Diaz, Henry F. [NOAA/ESRL/CIRES, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Nino events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region. (orig.)

  13. Floods of November 1978 to March 1979 in Arizona and west-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Byron Neil; Hales, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred in parts of the Little Colorado and Gila River basins as a result of a storm that occurred December 17-20, 1978. The central highlands received 3 to 10 inches of precipitation that was augmented by snowmelt to altitudes of 10,000 feet. The storm was preceded by extremely large amounts of rainfall and runoff in November and was followed by other periods of high runoff in January and March 1979. In some areas flood peaks in November, January, or March were higher than the peak of December 1978. At Winslow, the discharge of the Little Colorado River in December 1978 was the highest since at least 1952. The discharge of the Gila River above the San Francisco River was probably the highest since at least 1891, and in the Safford Valley, the peak was the highest since 1916. The Agua Fria River below Waddell Dam had the highest discharge since 1919. The flood of December 1978 caused 12 deaths and caused damage that was probably in excess of $150 million in Arizona and west-central New Mexico. Damage was estimated to be $51.8 million in Maricopa County, Arizona. Floods caused extensive agricultural damage along the Gila River in Virden Valley in New Mexico and in Duncan, York, and Safford Valleys in Arizona. Duncan, Arizona, was flooded with as much as 7 feet of water. The flood crest on the Gila River in December 1978 moved from Redrock, New Mexico, to Duncan, Arizona, in about 6 hours, which is more rapid than during other recent floods but is comparable to the travel-time recorded in 1941. Travel-time in the reach varies with discharge and is about 14 hours for discharges of 10,000 cubic feet per second and 5 hours for discharges of more than 40,000 cubic feet per second. Water-conservation reservoirs on the Gila, Salt, Verde, and Agua Fria Rivers and a flood-control reservoir on the Gila River had a major influence on the magnitude of floods downstream from the reservoirs. All runoff from the Gila River basin upstream from Coolidge Dam, Arizona

  14. Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations.

  15. Significance of detrital zircons in upper Devonian ocean-basin strata of the Sonora allochthon and Lower Permian synorogenic strata of the Mina Mexico foredeep, central Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, F.G.; Gehrels, G.E.; Stewart, John H.

    2008-01-01

    U-Pb isotopic dating of detrital zircons from a conglomeratic barite sandstone in the Sonora allochthon and a calciclastic sandstone in the Mina Mexico foredeep of the Minas de Barita area reveals two main age groups in the Upper Devonian part of the Los Pozos Formation, 1.73-1.65 Ga and 1.44-1.42 Ga; and three main age groups in the Lower Permian part of the Mina Mexico Formation, 1.93-1.91 Ga, 1.45-1.42 Ga, and 1.1-1.0 Ga. Small numbers of zircons with ages of 2.72-2.65 Ga, 1.30-1.24 Ga, ca. 2.46 Ga, ca. 1.83 Ga, and ca. 0.53 Ga are also present in the Los Pozos sandstone. Detrital zircons ranging in age from 1.73 to 1.65 Ga are considered to have been derived from the Yavapai, Mojave, and Mazatzal Provinces and their transition zones of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. The 1.45-1.30 Ga detrital zircons were probably derived from scattered granite bodies within the Mojave and Mazatzal basement rocks in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, and possibly from the Southern and Eastern Granite-Rhyolite Provinces of the southern United States. The 1.24-1.0 Ga detrital zircons are believed to have been derived from the Grenville (Llano) Province to the east and northeast or from Grenvilleage intrusions or anatectites to the north. Several detrital zircon ages ranging from 2.72 to 1.91 Ga were probably derived originally from the Archean Wyoming Province and Early Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Lake Superior region. These older detrital zircons most likely have been recycled one or more times into the Paleozoic sandstones of central Sonora. The 0.53 Ga zircon is believed to have been derived from a Lower Cambrian granitoid or meta-morphic rock northeast of central Sonora, possibly in New Mexico and Colorado, or Oklahoma. Detrital zircon geochronology suggests that most of the detritus in both samples was derived from Laurentia to the north, whereas some detritus in the Permian synorogenic foredeep sequence was derived from the

  16. Recent Intermediate Depth Earthquakes in El Salvador, Central Mexico, Cascadia and South-West Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, A.; Gardi, A.; Gutscher, M.; Madariaga, R.

    2001-12-01

    We studied occurence and source parameters of several recent intermediate depth earthquakes. We concentrated on the Mw=7.7 salvadorian earthquake which took place on January 13, 2001. It was a good example of the high seismic risk associated to such kind of events which occur closer to the coast than the interplate thrust events. The Salvadorian earthquake was an intermediate depth downdip extensional event which occured inside the downgoing Cocos plate, next to the downdip flexure where the dip increases sharply before the slab sinks more steeply. This location corresponds closely to the position of the Mw=5.7 1996 and Mw=7.3 1982 downdip extensional events. Several recent intermediate depth earthquakes occured in subduction zones exhibiting a ``flat slab'' geometry with three distinct flexural bends where flexural stress may be enhanced. The Mw=6.7 Geiyo event showed a downdip extensional mechanism with N-S striking nodal planes. This trend was highly oblique to the trench (Nankai Trough), yet consistent with westward steepening at the SW lateral termination of the SW Japan flat slab. The Mw=6.8 Olympia earthquake in the Cascadia subduction zone occured at the downdip termination of the Juan de Fuca slab, where plate dip increases from about 5o to over 30o. The N-S orientation of the focal planes, parallel to the trench indicated downdip extension. The location at the downdip flexure corresponds closely to the estimated positions of the 1949 M7.1 Olympia and 1965 M6.5 Seattle-Tacoma events. Between 1994 and 1999, in Central Mexico, an unusually high intermediate depth seismicity occured where several authors proposed a flat geometry for the Cocos plate. Seven events of magnitude between Mw=5.9 and Mw=7.1 occured. Three of them were downdip compressional and four where down-dip extensional. We can explain these earthquakes by flexural stresses at down-dip and lateral terminations of the supposed flat segment. Even if intermediate depth earthquakes occurence could

  17. Water balances of old-growth and regenerating montane cloud forests in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Villers, L. E.; Holwerda, F.; Gómez-Cárdenas, M.; Equihua, M.; Asbjornsen, H.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Marín-Castro, B. E.; Tobón, C.

    2012-09-01

    SummaryThis paper compares the water budgets of two adjacent micro-catchments covered by mature (MAT) and 20-year-old secondary (SEC) lower montane cloud forests, respectively, in central Veracruz, Mexico over a 2-year period. Rainfall (P) and streamflow (Q) were measured continuously, whereas dry canopy evaporation (transpiration Et), wet canopy evaporation (rainfall interception I), and cloud water interception (CWI) were quantified using a combination of field measurements and modeling. Mean annual P was 3467 mm, of which typically 80% fell during the wet season (May-October). Fog interception occurred exclusively during the dry season (November-April), and was ⩽2% of annual P for both forests. Rainfall interception loss was dominated by post-event evaporation of intercepted water rather than by within-event evaporation. Therefore, the higher overall I (i.e. including CWI) by the MAT (16% of P vs. 8% for the SEC) reflects a higher canopy storage capacity, related in turn to higher leaf area index and greater epiphyte biomass. Annual Et totals derived from sapflow measurements were nearly equal for the MAT and SEC (˜790 mm each). Total annual water yield calculated as P minus (Et + I) was somewhat higher for the SEC (2441 mm) than for the MAT (2077 mm), and mainly reflects the difference in I. Mean annual Q was also higher for the SEC (1527 mm) than for the MAT (1338 mm), and consisted mostly of baseflow (˜90%). Baseflow recession rates were nearly equal between the two forests, as were stormflow coefficients (4% and 5% for MAT and SEC, respectively). The very low runoff response to rainfall is attributed to the high infiltration and water retention capacities of the volcanic soils throughout the ˜2 m deep profile. The water budget results indicate that ˜875 and 700 mm year-1 leave the SEC and MAT as deep groundwater leakage, which is considered plausible given the fractured geology in the study area. It is concluded that 20 years of natural regeneration

  18. [Nesting habitat characterization for Amazona oratrix (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) in the Central Pacific, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrubio-Rico, Tiberio C; Álvarez-Jara, Margarito; Tellez-Garcia, Loreno; Tena-Morelos, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The nesting requirements of the Yellow-headed Parrot (Amazona oratrix) are poorly understood, despite their broad historical distribution, high demand for pet trade and current endangered status. Information concerning their nesting requirements is required in order to design specific restoration and conser- vation actions. To assess this, we studied their nesting ecology in the Central Pacific, Michoacan, Mexico during a ten year period. The analyzed variables ranged from local scale nest site characteristics such as nesting tree species, dimensions, geographic positions, diet and nesting forest patches structure, to large scale features such as vegetation use and climatic variables associated to the nesting tree distributions by an ecological niche model using Maxent. We also evaluated the parrot tolerance to land management regimes, and compared the Pacific nest trees with 18 nest trees recorded in an intensively managed private ranch in Tamaulipas, Gulf of Mexico. Parrots nested in tall trees with canopy level cavities in 92 nest-trees recorded from 11 tree species. The 72.8% of nesting occurred in trees of Astronium graveolens, and Enterolobium cyclocarpum which qualified as key- stone trees. The forests where the parrots nested, presented a maximum of 54 tree species, 50% of which were identified as food source; besides, these areas also had a high abundance of trees used as food supply. The lowest number of tree species and trees to forage occurred in an active cattle ranch, whereas the highest species rich- ness was observed in areas with natural recovery. The nesting cavity entrance height from above ground of the Pacific nesting trees resulted higher than those found in the Gulf of Mexico. We hypothesize that the differences may be attributed to Parrot behavioral differences adapting to differential poaching pressure and cavity avail- ability. Nesting trees were found in six vegetation types; however the parrots preferred conserved and riparian semi

  19. Evolution of Polaskia chichipe (Cactaceae) under domestication in the Tehuacan Valley, central Mexico: reproductive biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Casas, Alejandro; Bartolo, Carmen; Pérez-Negrón, Edgar; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

    2003-04-01

    Polaskia chichipe, a columnar cactus, is cultivated for its edible fruits in central Mexico. This study analyzed whether artificial selection has modified its reproduction patterns and caused barriers to pollen exchange between wild, managed in situ, and cultivated populations. Anthesis was diurnal (∼16 h in winter, ∼10 h in spring) as well as partly nocturnal (∼12 h in winter, ∼3 h in spring), and flowers were pollinated by bees, hummingbirds, and hawk moths. Manual cross-pollination was ∼37-49% effective in all populations. Self-pollination was ∼12% successful in the wild, but twice as successful (∼22-27%) in managed and cultivated populations. Diurnal pollination was ∼35-55% effective in winter and 100% in spring. Nocturnal pollination was successful only in winter (15%). Crosses among individuals were more effective within populations than among populations, including populations under a similar management regimen. The least successful crosses were between wild and cultivated populations. Flowers were produced in all populations from January to March, but flowering peaks differed by 1 mo among wild, managed, and cultivated populations and by 2 mo between wild and cultivated populations. The latter interrupted pollen exchange in May. Seeds from managed and cultivated populations germinated faster than those from wild individuals. Domestication has seemingly favored self-compatible P. chichipe plants with higher fruit yield, a longer period of fruit production, and faster seed germination, attributes that have resulted in partial reproductive barriers between wild and manipulated populations.

  20. Archaeomagnetic Study of Limeplasters from Pre-hispanic Sites from Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueda, Y. T.; Soler, A. M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J. H.; Rebolledo, M.; Goguitchaichvili, A.; Caballero, C. I.; Tarling, D. H.

    2001-05-01

    In this work, we report the new archeomagnetic data from limeplasters of the archeological sites Teopancazco, Teotihuacan, Xochicalco and Templo Mayor, which correspond to Classical, Epi-Classical and Post-Classical periods of Mesoamerica, respectively. The results obtained allowed us to improve the existing paleosecular variation reference curve for Mesoamerica. The previously reported results, we used for our database belongs to Latham et al., 1986, (stalagmite with a time span from 750 A.D. to 1941 A.D.), and from Urrutia-Fucugauchi, 1996, (historic eruptions). We also incorporated some declination data from explorers and mexican scientists during 1587 to 1869. The observatory data used in this study come from the Teoloyucan magnetic observatory, run by UNAM in central Mexico since 1923. Results of unburned limeplasters permit date the time of elaboration of the limeplasters. Moreover, we were able to discriminate between different construction steps for studied archaeological sites. From the study of burned samples it is possible to date the re-occupation of Teotihuacan culture by the Aztecs.

  1. The influence of mistletoes on birds in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuria, Iriana; Castellanos, Ignacio; Gates, J. Edward

    2014-11-01

    Mistletoes are hemiparasitic flowering plants that function as keystone resources in forests and woodlands of temperate regions, where a positive relationship between mistletoe density and avian species richness has been observed. Mistletoes have been less studied in tropical regions and the relationship between birds and mistletoes has seldom been explored in tropical agricultural systems. Therefore, we studied the presence of infected trees and infection prevalence (i.e., number of parasitized trees/total number of trees) by Psittacanthus (Loranthaceae) mistletoes in 23 hedgerows located in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico during the dry and rainy seasons, and investigated the relationship between bird species richness and abundance and the abundance of mistletoes. We found a mean of 74 mistletoe plants per 100-m transect of only one species, Psittacanthus calyculatus. Thirty-one percent of the trees surveyed were infected and tree species differed in infection prevalence, mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) being the most infected species with 86% of the surveyed trees infected. For both seasons, we found a positive and significant association between bird species richness and number of mistletoe plants. The same pattern was observed for total bird abundance. Many resident and Neotropical migratory birds were observed foraging on mistletoes. Our results show that mistletoes are important in promoting a higher bird species richness and abundance in tropical agricultural landscapes.

  2. Geothermal potential of West-Central New Mexico from geochemical and thermal gradient data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitte, D.; Gambill, D.T.

    1980-11-01

    To study the low temperature and Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal potential of west-central New Mexico, 46 water samples were collected and geothermal gradient measurements were made in 29 wells. Water chemistry data indicate that all the samples collected are meteoric waters. High temperatures of samples taken from wells between Gallup and Tohatchi indicate these wells may derive water from a warm aquifer below the depth of the wells. The chemistries of the samples farther south on the Zuni Indian reservation suggest these waters are not circulating below 600 m of the surface. Geothermometry calculations support the conclusion that the waters sampled are meteoric. The geothermometry also indicates that the deep reservoir between Gallup and Tohatchi may be greater than 60/sup 0/C. Thermal gradient data indicate an area of high gradient on the Zuni Indian Reservation with a measured maximum of 67/sup 0/C/km between 181 m and 284 m. This high probably is not hydrologically controlled. The maximum gradients in the study area are 76/sup 0/C/km and 138/sup 0/C/km, measured just east of Springerville, Arizona. These gradients are undoubtedly controlled by circulating water, possibly heated by a magmatic source at depth and circulating back to the surface.

  3. Medicinal Plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Used as Immunostimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A literature review was undertaken by analyzing distinguished books, undergraduate and postgraduate theses, and peer-reviewed scientific articles and by consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases, such as SCOPUS, Web of Science, SCIELO, Medline, and Google Scholar. Medicinal plants used as immunostimulants were classified into two categories: (1 plants with pharmacological studies and (2 plants without pharmacological research. Medicinal plants with pharmacological studies of their immunostimulatory properties were subclassified into four groups as follows: (a plant extracts evaluated for in vitro effects, (b plant extracts with documented in vivo effects, (c active compounds tested on in vitro studies, and (d active compounds assayed in animal models. Pharmacological studies have been conducted on 29 of the plants, including extracts and compounds, whereas 75 plants lack pharmacological studies regarding their immunostimulatory activity. Medicinal plants were experimentally studied in vitro (19 plants and in vivo (8 plants. A total of 12 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used as immunostimulants have been tested using in vitro (11 compounds and in vivo (2 compounds assays. This review clearly indicates the need to perform scientific studies with medicinal flora from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, to obtain new immunostimulatory agents.

  4. Shifts in resident bird communities associated with cloud forest patch size in Central Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rueda-Hernandez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian communities in cloud forests have high levels of endemism and are at major risk given the accelerated rate of habitat fragmentation. Nevertheless, the response of these communities to changes in fragment size remains poorly understood. We evaluated species richness, bird community density, community composition, and dominance as indicators of the response to fragment size in a fragmented cloud forest landscape in central Veracruz, Mexico. Medium-sized fragments had statistically higher than expected species richness and more even communities, which may be a reflection of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, in which medium-sized fragments are exploited by both forest and disturbance-associated species. Bird density also reached higher values in medium-sized fragments, which may indicate a carrying capacity in this habitat. However, large cloud forest fragments had a distinct taxonomic and functional composition, attributable to an increased number of understory insectivore species and canopy frugivores. By comparison, omnivorous species associated with human-altered habitats were more abundant in smaller fragments. Hence, although medium-sized cloud forest fragments had higher species richness and high bird density, large forest tracts maintained a distinct avian community composition, particularly of insectivorous and frugivorous species. Furthermore, the underlying response to fragmentation can only be properly addressed when contrasting several community attributes, such as richness, density, composition, and species dominance. Therefore, cloud forest conservation should aim to preserve the remaining large forest fragments to maintain comprehensive avian communities and avoid local extinctions.

  5. Modeling small-scale dairy farms in central Mexico using multi-criteria programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Arreola, D; Kebreab, E; France, J

    2006-05-01

    Milk supply from Mexican dairy farms does not meet demand and small-scale farms can contribute toward closing the gap. Two multi-criteria programming techniques, goal programming and compromise programming, were used in a study of small-scale dairy farms in central Mexico. To build the goal and compromise programming models, 4 ordinary linear programming models were also developed, which had objective functions to maximize metabolizable energy for milk production, to maximize margin of income over feed costs, to maximize metabolizable protein for milk production, and to minimize purchased feedstuffs. Neither multi-criteria approach was significantly better than the other; however, by applying both models it was possible to perform a more comprehensive analysis of these small-scale dairy systems. The multi-criteria programming models affirm findings from previous work and suggest that a forage strategy based on alfalfa, ryegrass, and corn silage would meet nutrient requirements of the herd. Both models suggested that there is an economic advantage in rescheduling the calving season to the second and third calendar quarters to better synchronize higher demand for nutrients with the period of high forage availability.

  6. Water Quality of a Reservoir and Its Major Tributary Located in East-Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Hernández, Patricia; Torres-Alvarado, María del Rocío; Herrera-San Luis, José Antonio; Cruz-López, Norma

    2014-01-01

    A reservoir with ecological and economic importance and its major tributary, localized in east-central Mexico, were studied. The aim of this work was to know the physicochemical water characteristics of both water bodies and to contrast these by their different uses, and also estimate overall water quality using a Water Quality Index (WQI). Water samples from the reservoir and the tributary were obtained in different climatic seasons. In the tributary, anoxic and hypoxic conditions and high levels of organic matter, orthophosphate, and ammonium showed that this is strongly impacted by wastewater discharges and that the water is not suitable for different uses; independently of the season, the WQI showed “poor” quality (34.4–47.2). In contrast, in the reservoir a better water quality was determined; the WQI in the sampling months ranged from 72.1–76.6 (“good” quality), and spatially, this was from 66.5–79.5 (“fair” and “good” quality). PMID:24919132

  7. Medicinal Plants from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean Used as Immunostimulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, María del Carmen; Campos-Xolalpa, Nimsi

    2016-01-01

    A literature review was undertaken by analyzing distinguished books, undergraduate and postgraduate theses, and peer-reviewed scientific articles and by consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases, such as SCOPUS, Web of Science, SCIELO, Medline, and Google Scholar. Medicinal plants used as immunostimulants were classified into two categories: (1) plants with pharmacological studies and (2) plants without pharmacological research. Medicinal plants with pharmacological studies of their immunostimulatory properties were subclassified into four groups as follows: (a) plant extracts evaluated for in vitro effects, (b) plant extracts with documented in vivo effects, (c) active compounds tested on in vitro studies, and (d) active compounds assayed in animal models. Pharmacological studies have been conducted on 29 of the plants, including extracts and compounds, whereas 75 plants lack pharmacological studies regarding their immunostimulatory activity. Medicinal plants were experimentally studied in vitro (19 plants) and in vivo (8 plants). A total of 12 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used as immunostimulants have been tested using in vitro (11 compounds) and in vivo (2 compounds) assays. This review clearly indicates the need to perform scientific studies with medicinal flora from Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, to obtain new immunostimulatory agents. PMID:27042188

  8. Identification of a hyperendemic area for Trypanosoma cruzi infection in central Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; López-Monteon, Aracely; Guzmán-Gómez, Daniel; Rosales-Encina, José Luis; Limón-Flores, Yairh; Dumonteil, Eric

    2010-07-01

    The state of Veracruz, Mexico, is a well-recognized endemic region for Chagas disease, but the geographic distribution of the disease and its magnitude are still poorly documented. We evaluated the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the sanitary jurisdictions of Cordoba and Cosamaloapan in central Veracruz. A total of 654 serum samples from 19 rural localities were tested by using four tests: two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, an indirect immunofluorescent, and Western blotting. Overall, 110 (16.8%) of 654 samples were positive for T. cruzi by >/= 2 tests (95% confidence interval = 14.2-19.9%). The municipality of Tezonapa in the jurisdiction of Cordoba was identified as a potential hyperendemic region with seroprevalence rates

  9. Estimation of Vegetation Cover Using Digital Photography in a Regional Survey of Central Mexico

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    Víctor Salas-Aguilar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The methods for measuring vegetation cover in Mexican forest surveys are subjective and imprecise. The objectives of this research were to compare the sampling designs used to measure the vegetation cover and estimate the over and understory cover in different land uses, using digital photography. The study was carried out in 754 circular sampling sites in central Mexico. Four spatial sampling designs were evaluated in three spatial distribution patterns of the trees. The sampling designs with photographic captures in diagonal form had lower values of mean absolute error (MAE < 0.12 and less variation in random and grouped patterns. The Carbon and Biomass Sampling Plot (CBSP design was chosen due to its smaller error in the different spatial tree patterns. The image processing was performed using threshold segmentation techniques and was automated through an application developed in the Python language. The two proposed methods to estimate vegetation cover through digital photographs were robust and replicable in all sampling plots with different land uses and different illumination conditions. The automation of the process avoided human estimation errors and ensured the reproducibility of the results. This method is working for regional surveys and could be used in national surveys due to its functionality.

  10. Morphological variation and the process of domestication of Stenocereus stellatus (Cactaceae) in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, A; Caballero, J; Valiente-Banuet, A; Soriano, J A; Dávila, P

    1999-04-01

    Morphological variation was analyzed in wild, managed in situ, and cultivated populations of the columnar cactus Stenocereus stellatus in central Mexico. The purpose was to evaluate whether morphological divergence between manipulated and wild populations has resulted from domestication processes. Variation of 23 morphological characters was analyzed among 324 individuals from 19 populations of the Tehuacán Valley and La Mixteca Baja. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to group individuals and populations according to their morphological similarity. Individuals grouped according to the way of management and fruit characteristics were the most relevant for grouping. Within each region, sweet fruits with pulp colors other than red were more frequent in cultivated populations, where fruits were also larger, contained more and bigger seeds, and had thinner peel and fewer spines than fruits from wild individuals. Phenotypes common in managed in situ and cultivated populations generally occur in the wild but in lower frequencies. Artificial selection has thus operated by enhancing and maintaining desirable rare phenotypes in managed in situ and cultivated populations, causing divergent patterns of morphological variation from wild populations. Cultivation has caused the strongest level of divergence, but divergence has also been significant with management of wild populations in situ.

  11. Reproductive biology and the process of domestication of the columnar cactus Stenocereus Stellatus in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, A; Valiente-Banuet, A; Rojas-Martínez, A; Dávila, P

    1999-04-01

    Pollination biology, breeding system, and floral phenology of the columnar cactus Stenocereus stellatus were studied in wild, wild managed in situ and cultivated populations of central Mexico, in order to examine whether these aspects have been modified under domestication and whether they determine reproductive barriers between wild and manipulated individuals. Individuals of both wild and manipulated populations are self-incompatible, indicating that artificial selection has not modified the breeding system. Their pollination biology is also similar. Anthesis is mainly nocturnal, with a peak of nectar production between 0200 and 0400 when the stigma presents maximum turgidity. Nocturnal visitors are the effective pollinators. Nearly 75% of flowers exposed for nocturnal pollination set fruit, while none of the flowers exposed for diurnal pollination produced fruits. The bats Leptonycteris curasoae, L. nivalis, and Choeronycteris mexicana (Glossophaginae) are the most likely pollinators, and their time of foraging is synchronized with the time of nectar production and stigma receptivity in S. stellatus. Bats potentially move pollen over a considerable distance, so there is apparently no spatial isolation to prevent pollen exchange between wild and cultivated populations. Phenological studies showed that there are also no apparent temporal barriers. However, manual cross pollination failed between some domesticated and wild phenotypes, suggesting that gene flow between wild and cultivated populations might be limited by pollen incompatibility.

  12. Techniques for verifying human footprints: reappraisal of pre-Clovis footprints in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Sarita Amy; Bennett, Matthew R.; Gonzalez, Silvia; Huddart, David

    2010-09-01

    Verification of human footprints within the geological record provides critical evidence of presence as well as information on the biomechanics of the individuals who made those prints. Consequently, the correct identification of human footprints is important, but is something for which critical and objective criteria do not exist. The current paper attempts to address this issue by presenting a new statistically based approach to the verification of human footprints. The importance of this is illustrated by the recent controversy surrounding a series of marks identified as human prints in the Valsequillo Basin in Central Mexico dated originally to 40 000 years ago. The dating of these marks remains highly controversial with some teams placing their age at 1.3 million years old. Irrespective of this debate the crucial question that must be addressed is whether or not they represent evidence of human presence. Using an objective statistically based methodology developed here, these controversial marks are re-examined and found to be of questionable origin, as they are inconsistent with a suite of other, known human and hominin prints. Consequently, we argue that they should be removed as evidence in the ongoing controversy surrounding the colonization of the Americas.

  13. On the age of human footprints in Central Mexico: paleomagnetic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha Fernandez, J.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Martin Del Pozo, A.; Urrutia Fucugauchi, J.

    2007-05-01

    Until recently, we thought we knew where ancestral Native Americans came from (central Siberia, then across Beringia), and when they arrived (about 13 000 cal BP, after a trek between the recently separated Canadian ice sheets after Fiedel, 2006). Recent theories of American origins postulate multiple pre-Clovis migrations including Transpacific or coastal voyages by Australians, Melanesians, or Ainu, and even a Transatlantic migrations by Caucasoid Solutreans from Iberia. Thus, timing, route and origin of the first colonization to the Americas remains one of the most important topics in human evolution. Human and animal footprints have been found within the upper bedding surfaces of the Xalnene volcanic ash layer that outcrops in the Valsequillo Basin, south of Puebla, Mexico (Gonzalez et al., 2005). The ash has been dated to at least 40 ka BP. Paleomagnetic investigation yielded an intermediate magnetic polarity for Xalnene ash deposits while nearby Toluquilla volcano is reversely magnetized. Moreover, the absolute geomagnetic paleointensity derived from the volcanic lava flow is significantly reduced with respect to the present day geomagnetic field strength. It is quite possible that the ash as well as volcanic lava flow formed during worldwide observed Laschamp geomagnetic event.

  14. Environmental biophysical indicators at detailed scale for land management in Milpa Alta, Central Mexico

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    María de Lourdes Rodríguez Gamiño

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the present condition of natural resources of the Milpa Alta area (Central Mexico Environmental Biophysical Indicators (EBI of state at detailed scale were determined. Environmental Biophysical Units (EBU from morphogenetic characteristics of relief were obtained, which served as base as synthetic-unit of reference. EBI indicators of relief, land use/cover, climate and soil, factors were determined. The dominant EBU are from endogenous accumulative volcanic origin of upper, medium and lower mountain slopes of andesite-basalte lava flows of Pleistocene-Holocene. The dominant land use is of rain-feed agriculture of annual and semi permanent prickly pear, crops. There are forest areas with Abies religiosa, Pinus spp and grassland areas which are used for sheep production. Climate influences the spatial distribution of land use-cover. Soils presented high organic matter contents, slightly acid, loamy-sand texture, and a complex of change dominated by Ca2+. The EBI indicators of state analyzed of EBU groups do not show deterioration for the study area. The statistical analyses from the EBI clustering using the EBU represent a spatial reference that will allow proposing strategies for handling and conservation of natural resources.

  15. Seismicity characterization of the Maravatío-Acambay and Actopan regions, central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Quetzalcoatl; Zúñiga, F. Ramón

    2017-07-01

    We studied the seismic activity in the Maravatío-Acambay and Actopan regions in Central Mexico. These regions are of great importance due to the occurrence of shallow crustal normal-faulting earthquakes that caused widespread destruction near their epicenter and as far away as Mexico City. That was the case of the 19 November 1912 Acambay (Mw 6.9). We determined statistical seismicity characteristics such as the Båth's law (the size of largest aftershock with respect to that of the mainshock), the b-value and p-value. For the Maravatío aftershock sequence, we obtained a b-value of 0.88 and p-value of 0.68. Based on reported seismicity, we obtained a b-value of 1.12 for the Actopan region. We estimated the size of the largest aftershock of the Acambay event in the range of 4.7

  16. 77 FR 60103 - Approval of Subzone Status; TST NA TRIM, LLC; Hidalgo, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Subzone Status; TST NA TRIM, LLC; Hidalgo, TX On August 3, 2012, the... limit of FTZ 12, on behalf of TST NA TRIM, LLC, in Hidalgo, Texas. The application was processed in...

  17. The Large-Scale Oscillations Influence Over the Interdecadal Climate Variability in Mexico's Central Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre, R.; Brito-Castillo, L.; Tereshchenko, I.; Atmospheric Sciences Climatology Climate Variability

    2013-05-01

    Climate in the highlands of Mexico displays high variability due to its complex terrain and elevation. The knowledge to elucidate the principal forcings of these variations can be useful for forecasting annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation over this area. Due to its complexity a small area in the highlands was delimited with defined physical boundaries, encompassing several states of Mexico. The study area was defined as Mexico's Central Region (MCR), which is located between 19.5 ° - 22.5 ° N and 98.5 ° - 104 ° W. Most of this area overlies the plateau of Anahuac, whose physical boundaries extend to the north from the "Sierras Transversales" (composed by the "Sierra de Zacatecas", the "Sierra de la "Breña" and the "Sierra de San Luis") to the "Eje Neovolcánico" to the south; east and west boundaries are confined by the "Sierra Madre Oriental" and the "Sierra Madre Occidental", respectively. Daily data of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation series from a total of 112 weather stations were obtained from CLICOM and ERICIII databases. Several climatic indices with average periods of phase oscillations greater than five years, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDOI), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMOI), The Arctic Oscillation (AOI), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAOI), and Aleutian Low Pressure (ALPI) on a monthly basis for all series, except the ALPI series which is on annual rate, were also used in this study. Indices data were obtained from the web site http://www.cicimar.ipn.mx/oacis/Indices_Climaticos.php/. The common period of all series was 1961-2000. We applied Principal Component Analysis to precipitation and temperature series to identify the principal modes of variation of the series. The first mode explained more than 68% of the variance in the original series and corresponds to annual variations. Contour maps were useful to elucidate that temperature variations are highly correlated with the terrain

  18. Plants used in the traditional medicine of Mesoamerica (Mexico and Central America) and the Caribbean for the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy

    2015-12-04

    Obesity is a worldwide medical concern. New ethnobotanical information regarding the antiobesity effect of medicinal plants has been obtained in the last 30 years in response to socio-demographic changes and high-fat diets became common. This review provides a summary of medicinal plants used in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean for the empirical treatment of obesity in terms of ethnobotany, toxicity, pharmacology, conservation status, trade and chemistry. Bibliographic investigation was performed by analyzing recognized books, undergraduate and postgraduate theses and peer-reviewed scientific articles, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases from the last four decades. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of obesity were classified in two categories: (1) plants with pharmacological evidence and (2) plants without pharmacological evidence. A total of 139 plant species, belonging to 61 families, native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean that are used for the empirical treatment of obesity were recorded. From these plants, 33 were investigated in scientific studies, and 106 plants lacked scientific investigation. Medicinal plants were experimentally studied in vitro (21 plants) and in vivo (16 plants). A total of 4 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used for the empirical treatment of obesity have been tested in vitro (2 compounds) and in vivo (4 compounds) studies. No clinical trials on obese subjects (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) have been performed using the medicinal plants cited in this review. There are no herbal-based products approved in Mexico for the treatment of obesity. There are a limited number of scientific studies published on medicinal plants from Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean used for the treatment of obesity. This review highlights the need to perform pharmacological, phytochemical, toxicological and ethnobotanical studies with medicinal flora to obtain new antiobesity agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland

  19. Conflicto interpersonal: semejanzas y diferencias por estatus de pareja y reporte de violencia en mujeres de Hidalgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa García Meraz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the differences between Conflict and Violence report in two groups: women have experienced Intimate Partner Violence and women with no report; residents in Hidalgo, Mexico. The Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence (IPV scales were applied into a 619 participants, 314 attended health services for experience IPV, while 305 were users of medical care. We use a 3 * 2 design with Relationship Status (Courtship, Married and Cohabitation and sample type (IPV report/ without IVP report. The results demonstrate that women in dating relationships report more conflict related to jealousy compared with women in marriage or cohabitation. Meanwhile, all conflict areas are more reported for women that have experienced violence, with no differences by partner status.

  20. Regionalization and classification of bioclimatic zones in the central-northeastern region of Mexico using principal component analysis (PCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Martinez, L.F.; Carbajal, N.; Medina-Roldan, E. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, A. C., San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: lpineda@ipicyt.edu.mx

    2007-04-15

    Applying principal component analysis (PCA), we determined climate zones in a topographic gradient in the central-northeastern part of Mexico. We employed nearly 30 years of monthly temperature and precipitation data at 173 meteorological stations. The climate classification was carried out applying the Koeppen system modified for the conditions of Mexico. PCA indicates a regionalization in agreement with topographic characteristics and vegetation. We describe the different bioclimatic zones, associated with typical vegetation, for each climate using geographical information systems (GIS). [Spanish] Utilizando un analisis de componentes principales, determinamos zonas climaticas en un gradiente topografico en la zona centro-noreste de Mexico. Se emplearon datos de precipitacion y temperatura medias mensuales por un periodo de 30 anos de 173 estaciones meteorologicas. La clasificacion del clima fue llevada a cabo de acuerdo con el sistema de Koeppen modificado para las condiciones de Mexico. El analisis de componentes principales indico una regionalizacion que concuerda con caracteristicas de topografia y vegetacion. Se describen zonas bioclimaticas, asociadas a vegetacion tipica para cada clima, usando sistemas de informacion geografica (SIG).

  1. Electromagnetic Induction Survey at an Archaeological Site in Chapingo (Central Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, J. L.; Arango, C.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Vergara, F.; Novo, X.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to locate buried remains of ancient civil constructions belonging to the Teotihuacan culture in Chapingo, Central Mexico. Several housing structures of this culture have been found during the excavation of a pipe trench within the University of Chapingo campus in the town of Chapingo. These units were found at 6 m deep covered by recent lacustrine sediments. In order to further explore the extension of this settlement that could guide further excavations and shed more light into these settlements, we have initiated a multi technique geophysical exploration. Here we present the initial results from this survey. An electromagnetic induction survey (EMI) was carried out to characterize the subsurface in an area of about 16,000 m2. We used a GF Instruments CMD-4 conductivity meter to map the horizontal distribution of the subsurface electrical conductivity. This instrument was operated in a continuous mode and linked to a single frequency GPS receiver attached to the probe to georeference the survey. The distance between the probe coils was 3.77 m and the investigation depth range was 4-6 m. The resulting electrical conductivity map shows two low conductivity zones with a NW-SE orientation. The inphase map also presented these characteristics. Since the electrical conductivity is associated with the material compaction, low conductivity values are expected for highly consolidated material; thus our results suggest that these low conductivity features could be related to areas that were the soil was compacted to serve as foundation of these ancient structures. The EMI survey present good initial results and will be expanded along with other techniques such as electrical tomography and ground penetrating radar in the near future in order to better map the extend of Teotihuacan culture in the region.

  2. Inversion polymorphism in some natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura from central Mexico

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    Salceda Víctor M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of D. pseudoobscura were taken in seventeen localities in Central Mexico inside the parallels 18o - 20o N, with the purpose of determine the chromosomal polymorphism in the third of the different populations of this species. From each captured female a single larva of its offspring was taken, its salivary glands extracted and stained with a solution of aceto orcein to observe the polytene chromosomes. From these smears the corresponding karyotype of each larva was determined, keeping a record of them. With the information gathered the relative frequency of each one of the fourteen different inversions found was calculated. A grand total of 1894 third chromosomes were analyzed. The fourteen different inversions found are equivalent to a 34.1 % of the total chromosomal variation of the species. The most abundant inversions found were: TL 50.6 %, CU 27.2 5, SC 9.1 % and EP 5.5 %; the remaining ten inversions detected are in general grounds rare ones with variable relative frequencies depending on the locality. Analysis of the predominant inversions for each population was done. The presence of West-East gradients is reported, even if in cases not so well defined, since as one moves in a particular direction the ups and downs in relative frequency for the alternating pairs TL-CU; TL-SC in the western populations and TL-CU in the eastern ones were observed. The assignment of each population to a particular race was also done, and such a way we were able to recognize three different races coexisting in the area of study.

  3. Late Pleistocene flank collapse of Zempoala volcano (Central Mexico) and the role of fault reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, José Luis; Macías, Rodolfo; García Palomo, Armando; Capra, Lucia; Macías, José Luis; Layer, Paul; Rueda, Hernando

    2008-11-01

    Zempoala is an extinct Pleistocene (˜ 0.7-0.8 Ma) stratovolcano that together with La Corona volcano (˜ 0.9 Ma) forms the southern end of the Sierra de las Cruces volcanic range, Central Mexico. The volcano consists of andesitic and dacitic lava flows and domes, as well as pyroclastic and epiclastic sequences, and has had a complex history with several flank collapses. One of these collapses occurred during the late Pleistocene on the S-SE flank of the volcano and produced the Zempoala debris avalanche deposit. This collapse could have been triggered by the reactivation of two normal fault systems (E-W and NE-SW), although magmatic activity cannot be absolutely excluded. The debris avalanche traveled 60 km to the south, covers an area of 600 km 2 and has a total volume of 6 km 3, with a calculated Heim coefficient (H/L) of 0.03. Based on the textural characteristics of the deposit we recognized three zones: proximal, axial, and lateral distal zone. The proximal zone consists of debris avalanche blocks that develop a hummocky topography; the axial zone corresponds with the main debris avalanche deposit made of large clasts set in a sandy matrix, which transformed to a debris flow in the lateral distal portion. The deposit is heterolithologic in composition, with dacitic and andesitic fragments from the old edifice that decrease in volume as bulking of exotic clasts from the substratum increase. Several cities (Cuernavaca, Jojutla de Juárez, Alpuyeca) with associated industrial, agricultural, and tourism activities have been built on the deposit, which pose in evidence the possible impact in case of a new event with such characteristics, since the area is still tectonically active.

  4. Geometry and seismic properties of the subducting Cocos plate in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Clayton, R. W.; Jackson, J. M.

    2010-06-01

    The geometry and properties of the interface of the Cocos plate beneath central Mexico are determined from the receiver functions (RFs) utilizing data from the Meso America Subduction Experiment (MASE). The RF image shows that the subducting oceanic crust is shallowly dipping to the north at 15° for 80 km from Acapulco and then horizontally underplates the continental crust for approximately 200 km to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). The crustal image also shows that there is no continental root associated with the TMVB. The migrated image of the RFs shows that the slab is steeply dipping into the mantle at about 75° beneath the TMVB. Both the continental and oceanic Moho are clearly seen in both images, and modeling of the RF conversion amplitudes and timings of the underplated features reveals a thin low-velocity zone between the plate and the continental crust that appears to absorb nearly all of the strain between the upper plate and the slab. By inverting RF amplitudes of the converted phases and their time separations, we produce detailed maps of the seismic properties of the upper and lower oceanic crust of the subducting Cocos plate and its thickness. High Poisson's and Vp/Vs ratios due to anomalously low S wave velocity at the upper oceanic crust in the flat slab region may indicate the presence of water and hydrous minerals or high pore pressure. The evidence of high water content within the oceanic crust explains the flat subduction geometry without strong coupling of two plates. This may also explain the nonvolcanic tremor activity and slow slip events occurring in the subducting plate and the overlying crust.

  5. Agave salmiana Plant Communities in Central Mexico as Affected by Commercial Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Salvador, Martin; Mata-González, Ricardo; Morales Nieto, Carlos; Valdez-Cepeda, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Agave salmiana is a native plant species harvested for the commercial production of mezcal ( Agave spirits) in the highlands of central Mexico. The objective of this study was to identify vegetation changes in natural communities where A. salmiana has been differentially harvested for commercial purposes. Three plant community categories were identified in the state of Zacatecas based on their history of A. salmiana utilization: short (less than 10 years of use), moderate (about 25 years), and long (60 or more years). Species cover, composition, and density were evaluated in field surveys by use category. A gradient of vegetation structure of the communities parallels the duration of A. salmiana use. A. salmiana density was greatest (3,125 plants ha-1) in the short-use areas and less (892 plants ha-1) in the moderate-use areas, associated with markedly greater density of shrubs (200%) and Opuntia spp. (50%) in moderate-use areas. The main shrubs were Larrea tridentata, Mimosa biuncifera, Jatropha dioica and Buddleia scordioides while the main Opuntia species were Opuntia leucotricha and Opuntia robusta. A. salmiana density was least (652 plants ha-1) in the long-use areas where shrubs were less abundant but Opuntia spp. density was 25% higher than in moderate-use areas. We suggest that shrubs may increase with moderate use creating an intermediate successional stage that facilitates the establishment of Opuntia spp. Long-term Agave use is generating new plant communities dominated by Opuntia spp. (nopaleras) as a replacement of the original communities dominated by A. salmiana (magueyeras).

  6. Chemical and physical defense traits in two sexual forms of Opuntia robusta in Central Eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; León Solano, Héctor Javier; Solache Rámos, Lupita Tzenyatze; Mendoza Reyes, Citlalli Hypatia; Oro Cerro, María del Carmen; Mariezcurrena Berasain, María Dolores; Rivas Manzano, Irma Victoria; Manjarrez, Javier; Villareal Benitez, José Luis; Czarnoleski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Sexually dimorphic plants provide an excellent opportunity for examining the differences in the extent of their defense against herbivores because they exhibit sex-related differences in reproductive investment. Such differences enable comparison of the sex with high reproduction expenses with the sex that expends less. The more costly sex is usually also better defended against herbivores. Generally, females are considered more valuable than hermaphrodites in terms of fitness; however, hermaphrodites are more valuable if they can produce seed by autonomous selfing, provided that the inbreeding depression is low and pollen is limited. We studied a gynodioecious population of Opuntia robusta from Central-Eastern Mexico, which has been reported to be trioecious, dioecious, or hermaphrodite, and addressed the following questions: 1) Is the hermaphrodite's reproductive output higher than the female's, and are hermaphrodites thus better defended? 2) Are plant tissues differentially defended? 3) Do trade-offs exist among different physical defense traits? and 4) among physical and chemical defense traits? We found that 1) hermaphrodites had a higher seed output and more spines per areola than females and that their spines contained less moisture. Non-reproductive hermaphrodite cladodes contained more total phenolic compounds (TPCs) than female ones. In addition, 2) hermaphrodite reproductive cladodes bore more spines than female cladodes, and 3) and 4) we found a negative relationship between spine number per areola and areola number per cladode and a positive relationship between spine number per areola per plant and TPC concentration per plant. Non-reproductive hermaphrodite cladodes contained a higher concentration of TPCs than female cladodes, and parental cladodes contained fewer TPCs than both reproductive and empty cladodes.

  7. Ecosystem service trade-offs, perceived drivers, and sustainability in contrasting agroecosystems in central Mexico

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    Carlos E. González-Esquivel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability of agroecosystems to provide food ultimately depends on the regulating and supporting ecosystem services that underpin their functioning, such as the regulation of soil quality, water quality, soil erosion, pests, and pollinators. However, there are trade-offs between provisioning and regulating or supporting services, whose nature at the farm and plot scales is poorly understood. We analyzed data at the farm level for two agroecosystems with contrasting objectives in central Mexico: one aimed at staple crop production for self-subsistence and local markets, the other directed to a cash crop for export markets. Bivariate and multivariate trade-offs were analyzed for different crop management strategies (conventional, organic, traditional, crop rotation and their underpinning socioeconomic drivers. There was a clear trade-off between crop yield and soil quality in self-subsistence systems. However, other expected trade-offs between yields and soil quality did not always occur, likely because of the overall good soils of the region and the low to medium input profile of most farms. Trade-offs were highly dependent on farm-specific agricultural practices; organic, traditional, and rotation management systems generally showed smaller trade-offs between yield and soil quality, pest control, and biodiversity than did conventional management systems. Perceived drivers reported by farmers included increasing prices for cash crops, rising costs of inputs, and extreme climatic events (e.g., drought, hail, frost. Farmers did not identify the regulation of soil quality, water quality, soil erosion, pests, or pollinators as important constraints. Although acceptable yields could be maintained irrespective of key regulating and supporting services according to these perceptions, current levels of soil erosion and nutrient runoff are likely to have important negative effects at the watershed scale. Sustainability in both agroecosystems could be

  8. Chemical and physical defense traits in two sexual forms of Opuntia robusta in Central Eastern Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Krzysztof Janczur

    Full Text Available Sexually dimorphic plants provide an excellent opportunity for examining the differences in the extent of their defense against herbivores because they exhibit sex-related differences in reproductive investment. Such differences enable comparison of the sex with high reproduction expenses with the sex that expends less. The more costly sex is usually also better defended against herbivores. Generally, females are considered more valuable than hermaphrodites in terms of fitness; however, hermaphrodites are more valuable if they can produce seed by autonomous selfing, provided that the inbreeding depression is low and pollen is limited. We studied a gynodioecious population of Opuntia robusta from Central-Eastern Mexico, which has been reported to be trioecious, dioecious, or hermaphrodite, and addressed the following questions: 1 Is the hermaphrodite's reproductive output higher than the female's, and are hermaphrodites thus better defended? 2 Are plant tissues differentially defended? 3 Do trade-offs exist among different physical defense traits? and 4 among physical and chemical defense traits? We found that 1 hermaphrodites had a higher seed output and more spines per areola than females and that their spines contained less moisture. Non-reproductive hermaphrodite cladodes contained more total phenolic compounds (TPCs than female ones. In addition, 2 hermaphrodite reproductive cladodes bore more spines than female cladodes, and 3 and 4 we found a negative relationship between spine number per areola and areola number per cladode and a positive relationship between spine number per areola per plant and TPC concentration per plant. Non-reproductive hermaphrodite cladodes contained a higher concentration of TPCs than female cladodes, and parental cladodes contained fewer TPCs than both reproductive and empty cladodes.

  9. Food habits of rodents inhabiting arid and semi-arid ecosystems of central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Parmenter, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we describe seasonal dietary composition for 15 species of rodents collected in all major habitats on the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (Socorro County) in central New Mexico. A comprehensive literature review of food habits for these species from throughout their distribution also is provided. We collected rodents in the field during winter, spring and late summer in 1998 from six communities: riparian cottonwood forest; piñon-juniper woodland; juniper-oak savanna; mesquite savanna; short-grass steppe; and Chihuahuan Desert scrubland. Rodents included Spermophilus spilosoma (Spotted Ground Squirrel), Perognathus flavescens (Plains Pocket Mouse), Perognathus flavus (Silky Pocket Mouse), Dipodomys merriami (Merriam’s Kangaroo Rat), Dipodomys ordii (Ord’s Kangaroo Rat), Dipodomys spectabilis (Banner-tailed Kangaroo Rat), Reithrodontomys megalotis (Western Harvest Mouse), Peromyscus boylii (Brush Mouse), Peromyscus eremicus (Cactus Mouse), Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed Mouse), Peromyscus truei (Piñon Mouse), Onychomys arenicola (Mearn’s Grasshopper Mouse), Onychomys leucogaster (Northern Grasshopper Mouse), Neotoma albigula/leucodon (White-throated Woodrats), and Neotoma micropus (Southern Plains Woodrat). We collected stomach contents of all species, and cheek-pouch contents of heteromyids, and quantified them in the laboratory. We determined seasonal diets in each habitat by calculating mean percentage volumes of seeds, arthropods and green vegetation (plant leaves and stems) for each species of rodent. Seeds consumed by each rodent were identified to genus, and often species, and quantified by frequency counts. Comparisons of diets between and among species of rodents, seasons, and ecosystems were also examined. We provide an appendix of all plant taxa documented.

  10. Limitations and potentials of dual-purpose cow herds in Central Coastal Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalón-Medina, Victor Antonio; Blake, Robert W; Fox, Danny Gene; Juárez-Lagunes, Francisco I; Nicholson, Charles F; Canudas-Lara, Eduardo G; Rueda-Maldonado, Bertha L

    2012-08-01

    Feed chemical and kinetic composition and animal performance information was used to evaluate productivity limitations and potentials of dual-purpose member herds of the Genesis farmer organization of central coastal Veracruz, Mexico. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model (Version 6.0) was systematically applied to specific groups of cows in structured simulations to establish probable input-output relationships for typical management, and to estimate probable outcomes from alternative management based on forage-based dietary improvements. Key herd vulnerabilities were pinpointed: chronic energy deficits among dry cows of all ages in late gestation and impeded growth for immature cows. Regardless of the forage season of calving, most cows, if not all, incur energy deficits in the final trimester of gestation; thus reducing the pool of tissue energy and constraining milking performance. Under typical management, cows are smaller and underweight for their age, which limits feed intake capacity, milk production and the probability of early postpartum return to ovarian cyclicity. The substitution of good-quality harvested forage for grazing increased predicted yields by about one-third over typical scenarios for underweight cows. When diets from first parturition properly supported growth and tissue repletion, milk production in second and third lactations was predicted to improve about 60%. Judiciously supplemented diets based on good quality grass and legume forages from first calving were predicted to further increase productivity by about 80% across a three-lactation cow lifetime. These dual-purpose herd owners have large incentives to increase sales income by implementing nutritional strategies like those considered in this study.

  11. Semiarid watershed response in central New Mexico and its sensitivity to climate variability and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Vivoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic processes in the semiarid regions of the Southwest United States are considered to be highly susceptible to variations in temperature and precipitation characteristics due to the effects of climate change. Relatively little is known about the potential impacts of climate change on the basin hydrologic response, namely streamflow, evapotranspiration and recharge, in the region. In this study, we present the development and application of a continuous, semi-distributed watershed model for climate change studies in semiarid basins of the Southwest US. Our objective is to capture hydrologic processes in large watersheds, while accounting for the spatial and temporal variations of climate forcing and basin properties in a simple fashion. We apply the model to the Río Salado basin in central New Mexico since it exhibits both a winter and summer precipitation regime and has a historical streamflow record for model testing purposes. Subsequently, we use a sequence of climate change scenarios that capture observed trends for winter and summer precipitation, as well as their interaction with higher temperatures, to perform long-term ensemble simulations of the basin response. Results of the modeling exercise indicate that precipitation uncertainty is amplified in the hydrologic response, in particular for processes that depend on a soil saturation threshold. We obtained substantially different hydrologic sensitivities for winter and summer precipitation ensembles, indicating a greater sensitivity to more intense summer storms as compared to more frequent winter events. In addition, the impact of changes in precipitation characteristics overwhelmed the effects of increased temperature in the study basin. Nevertheless, combined trends in precipitation and temperature yield a more sensitive hydrologic response throughout the year.

  12. Evidence from central Mexico supporting the Younger Dryas extraterrestrial impact hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israde-Alcántara, Isabel; Bischoff, James L; Domínguez-Vázquez, Gabriela; Li, Hong-Chun; DeCarli, Paul S; Bunch, Ted E; Wittke, James H; Weaver, James C; Firestone, Richard B; West, Allen; Kennett, James P; Mercer, Chris; Xie, Sujing; Richman, Eric K; Kinzie, Charles R; Wolbach, Wendy S

    2012-03-27

    We report the discovery in Lake Cuitzeo in central Mexico of a black, carbon-rich, lacustrine layer, containing nanodiamonds, microspherules, and other unusual materials that date to the early Younger Dryas and are interpreted to result from an extraterrestrial impact. These proxies were found in a 27-m-long core as part of an interdisciplinary effort to extract a paleoclimate record back through the previous interglacial. Our attention focused early on an anomalous, 10-cm-thick, carbon-rich layer at a depth of 2.8 m that dates to 12.9 ka and coincides with a suite of anomalous coeval environmental and biotic changes independently recognized in other regional lake sequences. Collectively, these changes have produced the most distinctive boundary layer in the late Quaternary record. This layer contains a diverse, abundant assemblage of impact-related markers, including nanodiamonds, carbon spherules, and magnetic spherules with rapid melting/quenching textures, all reaching synchronous peaks immediately beneath a layer containing the largest peak of charcoal in the core. Analyses by multiple methods demonstrate the presence of three allotropes of nanodiamond: n-diamond, i-carbon, and hexagonal nanodiamond (lonsdaleite), in order of estimated relative abundance. This nanodiamond-rich layer is consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary layer found at numerous sites across North America, Greenland, and Western Europe. We have examined multiple hypotheses to account for these observations and find the evidence cannot be explained by any known terrestrial mechanism. It is, however, consistent with the Younger Dryas boundary impact hypothesis postulating a major extraterrestrial impact involving multiple airburst(s) and and/or ground impact(s) at 12.9 ka.

  13. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Grant County, Central and Southern Parts, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  14. Bathymetry Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Central Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  15. Backscatter Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Central Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  16. Taxonomic and floristic novelties for Echeveria (Crassulaceae) in Central Michoacan, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    García-Ruiz, Ignacio; Valentín-Martínez, Dagoberto; Carrillo-Reyes, Pablo; Costea, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Echeveria coruana, is described and illustrated from the malpaís near San Andrés Corú, Michoacan, Mexico. The species belongs to series Gibbiflorae and the new taxon was compared with E...

  17. The establishment of Central American migratory corridors and the biogeographic origins of seasonally dry tropical forests in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie George Willis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogeography and community ecology can mutually illuminate the formation of a regional species pool or biome. We apply phylogenetic methods to a large and diverse plant clade, Malpighiaceae, to characterize the formation of its species pool in Mexico, and its occupancy of the seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF biome that occurs there. We find that the ~162 species of Mexican Malpighiaceae represent ~33 dispersals from South America beginning in the Eocene and continuing until the Pliocene (~46.4 – 3.8 Myr. Furthermore, dispersal rates between South America and Mexico show a significant six-fold increase during the mid-Miocene (~23.9 Myr. We hypothesize that this increase marked the availability of Central America as an important corridor for Neotropical plant migration. We additionally demonstrate that this high rate of dispersal contributed substantially more to the phylogenetic diversity of Malpighiaceae in Mexico than in situ diversification. Finally, we show that most lineages arrived in Mexico pre-adapted with regard to one key SDTF trait, total annual precipitation. In contrast, these lineages adapted to a second key trait, precipitation seasonality, in situ as mountain building in the region gave rise to the abiotic parameters of extant SDTF. The timing of this in situ adaptation to seasonal precipitation suggests that SDTF likely originated its modern characteristics by the late Oligocene, but was geographically more restricted until its expansion in the mid-Miocene. These results highlight the complex interplay of dispersal, adaptation, and in situ diversification in the formation of tropical biomes. Our results additionally demonstrate that these processes are not static, and their relevance can change markedly over evolutionary time. This has important implications for understanding the origin of SDTF in Mexico, but also for understanding the temporal and spatial origin of biomes and regional species pools more broadly.

  18. Construcción del mito de hidalgo

    OpenAIRE

    Peredo, Carlos Herrejón

    2013-01-01

    Note portant sur l’auteur El culto a los héroes rebasa el campo de la historia y cae dentro de los mitos. Así ocurre con Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. Entiendo por mito el relato fundador transmitido de generación en generación, relato cuyos personajes son seres extraordinarios, sobrehumanos o casi sobrehumanos con acciones portentosas a las cuales se trasladan hechos históricos o ficticios. Como relato fundador el mito se ubica en el tiempo primordial de tal o cual sociedad que lo considera com...

  19. Eolic central Guerrero Negro, BCS, Mexico, performance first year operation; Central eolica Guerrero Negro, BCS, Mexico, resultados del primer ano de operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadenas Tovar, Roberto; Sanchez Cornejo, Carlos; Lopez Rios, Serafin [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Ley Romero, Jose R [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Comision Federal de Electricidad installed a 600 kW wind turbine in the Guerrero Negro isolated electrical grid to evaluate, under actual operation conditions, the contribution of wind energy in the generation of electricity. This paper describes the performance of the wind turbine in terms of its availability, power curve and electricity produced. The results have been satisfactory, electricity was supplied with a lesser fuel consumption than before. [Spanish] La Comision Federal de Electricidad instalo en Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico un aerogenerador de 600 kW para evaluar en condiciones reales de operacion la integracion de la energia del viento a sistemas electricos aislados basados en diesel. En este trabajo se describen los resultados del primer ano de operacion del aerogenerador en terminos de su disponibilidad, curva de potencia y generacion obtenida. Los resultados han sido satisfactorios, registrandose una reduccion en el consumo de combustible fosil en el sistema.

  20. Residues of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of Alpine and Saanen goats from the central region of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Beatriz; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Urban, Georgina; Ramírez, Acacia

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated a suite of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of two breeds of goats raised in the central region of Mexico, where this agricultural production is of national (Mexican) economic importance. Forty milk samples from Alpine and Saanen goats were assessed. It was found that the concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were lower than those stipulated in Mexican and international regulation. The values in both breeds of goat exceeded the upper permissible limits of Codex Alimentarius for delta hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH) (17.3 of samples of Saanen) and heptachlor plus heptachlor epoxide (50 % and 13 % of samples). It may be concluded that milk from these goat breeds from central Mexico showed some risks of contamination in certain times of the year (dry season). However, under further assessment and use of pesticides the goat's milk will likely be safe for human consumption and for use in products such as cheeses, regional candies and desserts (cajeta). In recent years, goat milk production has increased in the central regions and it is an economic alternative to milk from livestock. It is necessary to continue the monitoring of goat's milk to assess the presence and control of HCHs through best management practices.

  1. Environmental history of mangrove vegetation in Pacific west-central Mexico during the last 1300 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Lorena Figueroa-Rangel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMangroves are a highly threatened ecosystem due to climate change and human activity, which increases coastal vulnerability. Knowledge about the ecological dynamics of mangroves on a centennial timescale can reveal the different responses in vegetation, which is useful for implementing basic actions for mangrove restoration, conservation and management. A mangrove ecosystem in the Cuyutlán Lagoon area along the Pacific coast of west-central Mexico is significantly altered as a result of industrialization, salt extraction, and road construction. The long-term dynamics of the mangrove ecosystem has also been controlled by Holocene climatic variability. This study reconstructs the environmental history of mangrove vegetation around the Cuyutlán Lagoon during the last ~1300 years in response to periods of human activity and climate change. The reconstruction was performed using paleoecological techniques in sediment cores that include the use of fossil pollen as a proxy for vegetation and magnetic susceptibility and geochemical data (determined by loss-on-ignition and X-ray fluorescence as a proxy for past environmental changes. The chronology was determined using 14C dating and the age-depth model was constructed by linear interpolation. Redundancy analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS were used to discern patterns of distribution of the different proxies. Results revealed that the mangrove pollen assemblage of the Cuyutlán Lagoon was dominated by the arboreal taxa Rhizophora mangle, Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Pinaceae, herbaceous taxa like Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, and aquatics such as Typhaceae and Cyperaceae. NMDS showed a clear separation between two events of human activity—the Spanish Occupation of Colima (~AD 1523-1524 and the opening of the Manzanillo port (~AD 1824-1825. Climate change events such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA (~AD 800-1200 and the Little Ice Age (LIA (~AD 1350-1850 were

  2. Implementation of MAR within the Rio Grande Basin of Central New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Robert; Blandford, T. Neil; Ewing, Amy; Webb, Larry; Yuhas, Katherine

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation has identified the Rio Grande basin within Central New Mexico as one of several regions where water supplies are over-allocated and future conflicts over the inadequate resource are highly likely. Local water providers have consistently identified managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as an important tool to provide conjunctive management of surface-water, groundwater, and reclaimed water sources in order to extend the useful life of existing water sources. However, MAR projects have been slow to take root partly due to rigorous demonstration requirements, groundwater quality protection concerns, and ongoing water right uncertainties. At first glance the several thousand meters of unconsolidated basin-fill sediments hosting the regional aquifer appear to provide an ideal environment for the subsurface storage of surplus water. However, the basin has a complex structural and depositional history that impacts the siting and overall effectiveness of MAR systems. Several recharge projects are now in various stages of implementation and are overcoming site specific challenges including source water and ambient groundwater compatibility, low-permeability sediments and compartmentalization of the aquifer by extensive faulting, well clogging, and overall water quality management. This presentation will highlight ongoing efforts of these water providers to develop full-scale recharge facilities. The performance of natural in-channel infiltration, engineered infiltration galleries, and direct injection systems designed to introduce from 500 to 5,000 mega-liters per annum to target intervals present from 150 to 600 meters below ground surface will be described. Source waters for recharge operations include inter-basin transferred surface water and highly treated reclaimed water sources requiring from minor to extensive treatment pre-recharge and post-recovery. Operational complexities have raised concerns related to long-term operation and maintenance

  3. Pleistocene glaciation of volcano Ajusco, central Mexico, and comparison with the standard Mexican glacial sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sidney E.; Valastro, Salvatore

    1984-01-01

    Three Pleistocene glaciations and two Holocene Neoglacial advances occurred on volcano Ajusco in central Mexico. Lateral moraines of the oldest glaciation, the Marqués, above 3250 m are made of light-gray indurated till and are extensively modified by erosion. Below 3200 m the till is dark red, decomposed, and buried beneath volcanic colluvium and tephra. Very strongly to strongly developed soil profiles (Inceptisols) have formed in the Marqués till and in overlying colluvia and tephra. Large sharp-crested moraines of the second glaciation, the Santo Tomás, above 3300 m are composed of pale-brown firm till and are somewhat eroded by gullies. Below 3250 m the till is light reddish brown, cemented, and weathered. Less-strongly developed soil profiles (Inceptisols) have formed in the Santo Tomás till and in overlying colluvia and tephra. Narrow-crested moraines of yellowish-brown loose till of the third glaciation, the Albergue, are uneroded. Weakly developed soil profiles (Inceptisols) in the Albergue till have black ash in the upper horizon. Two small Neoglacial moraines of yellowish-brown bouldery till on the cirque floor of the largest valley support weakly developed soil profiles with only A and Cox horizons and no ash in the upper soil horizons. Radiocarbon dating of organic matter of the B horizons developed in tills, volcanic ash, and colluvial volcanic sand includes ages for both the soil-organic residue and the humic-acid fraction, with differences from 140 to 660 yr. The dating provides minimum ages of about 27,000 yr for the Marqués glaciation and about 25,000 yr for the Santo Tomás glaciation. Dates for the overlying tephra indicate a complex volcanic history for at least another 15,000 yr. Comparison of the Ajusco glacial sequence with that on Iztaccíhuatl to the east suggests that the Marqués and Santo Tomás glaciations may be equivalent to the Diamantes glaciation First and Second advances, the Albergue to the Alcalican glaciations, and the

  4. Examining the links between Slow Slip Events, crustal faults and subduction interface in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot, A.; Manighetti, I.; Vergnolle, M.; Campillo, M.

    2012-12-01

    We have analyzed the tectonic structures, active and more ancient, that dissect the upper plate, the subducting plate and the trench in Central Mexico, and examined the links between these structures, the historical and instrumental seismicity, and the SSEs and tremors (as described in Radiguet et al., 2012). We show that the tectonic architecture of the upper plate controls the location of the SSEs and of a large part of the instrumental seismicity. The large historical subduction ruptures do not extend further below than ≈ 30 km depth. The broken areas are underlined by a zone of dense instrumental seismicity that extends confined between the broken patches and a vertical WSW-trending fault that cuts across the upper plate down to the interface, with its trace halfway between Acapulco and Chilpancingo (AC fault). This fault shows no morphological evidence of recent activity. Another similar, parallel WNW-trending fault exists north of Chilpancingo (NC fault). Though it shows no morphological evidence of recent activity, it is underlined by a dense instrumental seismicity confined in the range 40-70 km of depth, whose focal mechanisms are all extensional. No instrumental seismicity is recorded between the two faults. By contrast, the slip zones of the 2002, 2006 and 2010 major SSEs appear confined exactly in between the two vertical fault planes, while the major zone of reported tremors extend immediately north of the NC fault plane. The occurrence of each SSE induces a slight increase in the density of instrumental seismicity related to the NC fault, and a marked increase in the density of instrumental seismicity recorded south of the AC fault. In details, the seismicity increases at the northern tips of the NE-trending faults that dissect the trench and hence also likely the down-going oceanic plate below. Simple static Coulomb stress transfer models confirm that each SSE likely increased the static stresses by ≈ 0.1 bars on both the shallower portion of the

  5. Differentiation in the water-use strategies among oak species from central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Romero, Rafael; Pineda-Garcia, Fernando; Paz, Horacio; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Oyama, Ken

    2017-07-01

    Oak species (Fagaceae: Quercus) differ in their distribution at the landscape scale, specializing to a certain portion of environmental gradients. This suggests that functional differentiation favors habitat partitioning among closely related species. To elucidate the mechanisms of species coexistence in oak forests, we explored patterns of interspecific variation in functional traits involved in water-use strategies. We tested the hypothesis that oak species segregate along key trade-offs between xylem hydraulic efficiency and safety, and between hydraulic safety and drought avoidance capacity, leading to species niche partitioning across a gradient of aridity. To do so, we quantified biophysical and physiological traits in four red and five white oak species (sections Lobatae and Quercus, respectively) across an aridity gradient in central Mexico. We also explored the trade-offs guiding species differentiation, particularly between the drought tolerance versus water acquisition capacity, and determined whether the water-use strategy was associated with the portion of the environmental gradient that the species occupy. In a trait-by-trait analysis, we detected differences between white and red oak species. However, a larger part of the variation was explained at the species rather than at the section level. We detected two primary axes of trait covariation. The first exhibited differences between species with dense tissues and species with soft tissues (the tissue construction cost axis); however, the oak sections did not constitute separate groups, while the second suggested a trade-off between xylem resistance to cavitation and tree deciduousness. As expected, the water-use strategies of the species were related to the environment; oak species from arid areas had more deciduousness and a higher instantaneous water-use efficiency. In contrast, their humid counterparts had less deciduousness and had a xylem that was more resistant to embolisms. Altogether, these

  6. Estado de hidalgo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSALBA MONTELONGO CASANOVA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelar la calidad del agua del río Tula, desde el emisor central hasta su confluencia con la presa Endhó, ha sido el objetivo central de este trabajo. Se evaluó durante dos años, considerando una longitud de 50 km en 4 zonas y 35 sitios de muestreo. La mayor cantidad de materia orgánica la aporta el emisor central, agua sin tratamiento de la Ciudad de México y zona conurbana. Los valores de DBO variaron desde 1.16 hasta 486.81 mg O2/L; el oxígeno disuelto entre 1.52 y 5.82 mg/L, esto implica afectación para el desarrollo de la vida acuática. La alcalinidad rebasó el criterio ecológico de calidad como fuente de agua potable con valor de 458.01 mg/L. Las grasas presentaron variaciones desde 0.9 mg/L hasta 18.1 mg/L y el nitrógeno amoniacal fuera de los límites establecidos para protección de la vida acuática con valores desde 0.09 a 64 mg/L; los nitratos (6.24 mg/L y nitritos (0.5-1.304 mg/L rebasan el criterio ecológico. Los metales cadmio, plomo, hierro, manganeso y zinc están en concentraciones por encima de lo permisible en y en algunos tramos se reportó presencia de mercurio. Los coniformes fecales fueron detectados en valores desde 2.1 x104 hasta 2.40 x1011 NMP/100 ml. En general la toxicidad en las descargas de aguas residuales demostró que todas se presentan de moderada a alta. Solamente tres estaciones de monitoreo (19 % con excelente calidad, DBO5 menores o iguales a 3 mg/L, lo que se considera como agua no contaminada por materia orgánica biodegradable.

  7. Soil-geomorphology and “wet” cycles in the Holocene record of North-Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Karl W.; Abbott, James T.; Frederick, Charles D.; Lehman, Paul H.; Cordova, Carlos E.; Oswald, John F.

    2008-10-01

    The distinction between the impact of climatic periodicities or land-use practices on soil erosion is an important issue for Pre-Hispanic and Colonial Mexico. That question can best be addressed by first documenting the dynamics of changing "wet" cycles during the Holocene in the central Mexican region between the northern limits of Pre-Hispanic agriculture and its southern margins in northwestern Chihuahua. Consequently the Laguna Project targeted a 125,000 km 2 sector of North-Central Mexico, 250 km from north to south and 500 km from east to west, from Saltillo to Durango. Some 40 sedimentary profiles with multiple cumulic soils were studied in the field and laboratory, supported by 163 conventional 14C and AMS dates on charcoal and soil humates. We distinguish: (1) wet floodplains (with humic paleosols, redox phenomena reflecting high water tables, channel-ponding sequences, and interbedded tufas) that imply aquifer recharge, sustained base flow, and mainly low-energy conditions; and (2) high-energy pulses of discharge that mobilized cobble gravels or forced channel entrenchment ("gullying") and were tied to episodic, excessive rains that promoted valley and slope instability. In between such "wet" cycles and recurrent disequilibrium events, climate was similar to today, probably less humid, with limited geomorphologic change or slow soil formation. "Wet" cycles were rare at the end of the Pleistocene, but prominent during the Holocene. Disequilibrium proxies became common and dramatic after 2500 BP. The drainages from the Eastern and Western Sierra Madres responded in phase, but varied in detail. Around AD 1050-1200 "natural" erosion led to loss of soil organic carbon, as alternating severe droughts and heavy rains destroyed the ground cover and led to ecological aridification, well before arrival of Spanish miners and settlers. The evidence that human activity triggered Pre-Hispanic or Colonial erosion in Central Mexico should therefore be re

  8. Gulf of Mexico Sales 147 and 150: Central and Western planning areas. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 1: Sections 1 through 4.C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) covers the proposed 1994 Gulf of Mexico OCS oil and gas lease sales [Central Gulf of Mexico Sale 147 (March 1994) and Western Gulf of Mexico Sale 150 (August 1994)]. This document includes the purpose and background of the proposed actions, the alternatives, the descriptions of the affected environment, and the potential environmental impacts of the proposed actions and alternatives. Proposed mitigating measures and their effects are analyzed, in addition to potential cumulative impacts resulting from proposed activities.

  9. Power factor correction at the Miguel Hidalgo refinery; Correccion del factor de potencia en la refineria Miguel Hidalgo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Gonzalez, Gustavo [Petroleos Mexicanos, Refineria Miguel Hidalgo, Tula de Allende (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    In this paper the theoretical fundament and formulae of the power factor are analyzed and a relationship among kilowatts, kilovars and power factor, is shown; also it deals with power factor in combination with load groups, as well as the numerical calculation of the required kvar for the desired improvement of the power factor. Additionally the technical and economical aspects of the capacitors and synchronous motors are contemplated, as well as their location in the electric system in order to achieve the maximum benefits. Finally, the savings obtained with the installation of capacitors in the electric power system of the Miguel Hidalgo refinery, are explained. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se analizan los fundamentos teoricos y formulas del factor de potencia y se muestra la relacion entre kilowatts, kilovars y factor de potencia; tambien trata al factor de potencia combinado de grupos de cargas, asi como el calculo numerico de los KVAR necesarios para la mejora deseada del factor de potencia. Ademas se contemplan aspectos tecnicos y economicos de los capacitores y los motores sincronos, asi como la ubicacion de los mismos en el sistema electrico para lograr los maximos beneficios. Finalmente se explican las ganancias economicas que se obtuvieron al instalarse capacitores en el sistema electrico de potencia de la refineria Miguel Hidalgo.

  10. Land subsidence in major cities of Central Mexico: Interpreting InSAR-derived land subsidence mapping with hydrogeological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Pascal; Arroyo-Domínguez, Norma; Martel, Richard; Calderhead, Angus I.; Normand, Jonathan C. L.; Gárfias, Jaime; Rivera, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    Significant structural damages to urban infrastructures caused by compaction of over-exploited aquifers are an important problem in Central Mexico. While the case of Mexico City has been well-documented, insight into land subsidence problems in other cities of Central Mexico is still limited. Among the cities concerned, we present and discuss the cases of five of them, located within the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB): Toluca, Celaya, Aguascalientes, Morelia, and Queretaro. Applying the SBAS-InSAR method to C-Band RADARSAT-2 data, five high resolution ground motion time-series were produced to monitor the spatio-temporal variations of displacements and fracturing from 2012 to 2014. The study presents recent changes of land subsidence rates along with concordant geological and water data. It aims to provide suggestions to mitigate future damages to infrastructure and to assist in groundwater resources management. Aguascalientes, Celaya, Morelia and Queretaro (respectively in order of decreasing subsidence rates) are typical cases of fault-limited land subsidence of Central Mexico. It occurs as a result of groundwater over-exploitation in lacustrine and alluvial deposits covering highly variable bedrock topography, typical of horst-graben geological settings. Aguascalientes and Toluca show high rates of land subsidence (up to 10 cm/yr), while Celaya and Morelia show lower rates (from 2 to 5 cm/yr). Comparing these results with previous studies, it is inferred that the spatial patterns of land subsidence have changed in the city of Toluca. This change appears to be mainly controlled by the spatial heterogeneity of compressible sediments since no noticeable change occurred in groundwater extraction and related drawdown rates. While land subsidence of up to 8 cm/yr has been reported in the Queretaro Valley before 2011, rates inferior to 1 cm/yr are measured in 2013-2014. The subsidence has been almost entirely mitigated by major changes in the water management

  11. Modeling groundwater levels on the Calera Aquifer Region in Central Mexico using ModFLow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A conceptual model for the Calera Aquifer has been created to represent the aquifer system beneath the Calera Aquifer Region (CAR) in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. The CAR area was uniformly partitioned into a 500 X 500 m grid generating a high resolution model that represented the natural boundar...

  12. Pre-Laramide tectonics - possible control on locus of Turonian-Coniacian parallic Coal Basins, west-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricker, G.D.; Anderson, O.J.

    1985-05-01

    Published evidence indicates that Late Cretaceous shorelines trended northwest through west-central New Mexico and adjacent Arizona. Our investigations delineate these shorelines through time and relate them to the prominent northwest-trending monoclinal flexures in the Zuni and southwestern San Juan basins. We related the transgressive (T)-regressive (R) marine cycles (T2-R2, T3-R3, T4-R4) of C.M. Molenaar to deep-rooted monoclinal or asymmetric anticlinal structures. The T2-R2 turn-around is coincident with the Pinon Springs anticline in the northern part of the Zuni basin and appears to be controlled by the Atarque and Gallestina monoclines in the southern part of this basin. Shoreline configurations during the T3 and T4 transgressive maximums coincide with the axis of the Nutria monocline and relate to some subtle pre-Laramide movements along this structure. The R2 regression is unique to New Mexico, suggesting local tectonic control on the configuration of the seaway. The subsequent T3 transgression, which was a major widespread event elsewhere in the Western Interior, was abbreviated in west-central New Mexico near the location of the Nutria monocline. The T2-R2 through T4-R4 shoreline turnarounds produced numerous parallic basins favorable for the accumulation of organic detritus. A turn-around probably represents a period of slow rates of shoreline migration which allowed a thicker, more extensive accumulation of plant material and hence thicker coals. The present and most of the past coal production in the Zuni and southwestern San Juan basins is from coals formed in parallic basins just landward of the turnarounds caused by pre-Laramide tectonics.

  13. Structural Vulnerability Among Migrating Women and Children Fleeing Central America and Mexico: The Public Health Impact of "Humanitarian Parole".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Elizabeth Salerno; Valdez, Luis A; Sabo, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the US. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project helping hands (PHHs) utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here, we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency. These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US-Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing population.

  14. Helminth infracommunity structure of the sympatric garter snakes Thamnophis eques and Thamnophis melanogaster from the Mesa Central of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, F Agustin; García-Prieto, Luis; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2002-06-01

    Seventy-two Mexican garter snakes (Thamnophis eques) and 126 black-bellied garter snakes (T. melanogaster) were collected from 4 localities of the Mesa Central of Mexico between July 1996 and February 1998 and examined for helminths. Both species of garter snakes occurred sympatrically in every locality except in Lake Cuitzeo. Both species of snakes shared 9 helminth species, and in general, T. melanogaster hosted a larger number of species than T. eques. In each locality, a different helminth species showed the highest levels of prevalence and abundance (Spiroxys susanae in Ciénaga de Lerma, Telorchis corti in Lago de Pátzcuaro, Proteocephalus variabilis in Lago de Cuitzeo, and Contracaecum sp. in Lago de Chapala). Helminth communities in garter snakes of the Mesa Central are depauperate and dominated by a single parasite species. In those localities where the snakes occurred in sympatry, helminth communities were, in general, more diverse and species-rich in T. melanogaster. Differences in the ecology and physiology of these species of garter snakes may explain this pattern because black-bellied garter snakes (T. melanogaster) are more aquatic than Mexican garter snakes (T. eques) and primarily eat aquatic prey, potentially exposing themselves to a larger number of helminths transmitted by predator-prey infection. The helminth infracommunities of garter snakes in the Mesa Central of Mexico show a strong Nearctic influence because most of the species infecting these hosts have been recorded in other Nearctic colubrid snakes. However, the helminth infracommunities of these garter snakes are less species-rich and less diverse than those in colubrid snakes in more temperate latitudes. The widespread ecological perturbation of sampling sites in the Mesa Central because of human activity, and geographic differences in foraging ecology of the hosts and, thus, exposure to parasites transmitted by intermediate hosts may help to explain these patterns.

  15. The cultural and chronological context of early Holocene maize and squash domestication in the Central Balsas River Valley, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranere, Anthony J; Piperno, Dolores R; Holst, Irene; Dickau, Ruth; Iriarte, José

    2009-03-31

    Molecular evidence indicates that the wild ancestor of maize is presently native to the seasonally dry tropical forest of the Central Balsas watershed in southwestern Mexico. We report here on archaeological investigations in a region of the Central Balsas located near the Iguala Valley in Guerrero state that show for the first time a long sequence of human occupation and plant exploitation reaching back to the early Holocene. One of the sites excavated, the Xihuatoxtla Shelter, contains well-stratified deposits and a stone tool assemblage of bifacially flaked points, simple flake tools, and numerous handstones and milling stone bases radiocarbon dated to at least 8700 calendrical years B.P. As reported in a companion paper (Piperno DR, et al., in this issue of PNAS), starch grain and phytolith residues from the ground and chipped stone tools, plus phytoliths from directly associated sediments, provide evidence for maize (Zea mays L.) and domesticated squash (Cucurbita spp.) in contexts contemporaneous with and stratigraphically below the 8700 calendrical years B.P. date. The radiocarbon determinations, stratigraphic integrity of Xihuatoxtla's deposits, and characteristics of the stone tool assemblages associated with the maize and squash remains all indicate that these plants were early Holocene domesticates. Early agriculture in this region of Mexico appears to have involved small groups of cultivators who were shifting their settlements seasonally and engaging in a variety of subsistence pursuits.

  16. Graben calderas of the Sierra Madre Occidental: The case of Guanajuato, central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Tristán-González, M.; Labarthe-Hernández, G.; Marti, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) volcanic province is characterized by voluminous silicic ignimbrites that reach an accumulated thickness of 500 to 1500 m. A single ignimbrite can reach up to 350 m thick in its outflow facies. This ignimbrite sequence formed mostly within 38-23 Ma, building up a total estimated volume of ca. 580,000 km3 making the SMO the largest ignimbrite province of the world. We have showed that several and probably most of the SMO ignimbrites were erupted from fissures associated to Basin and Range fault systems or grabens (Geology, 2003), thus naming these volcano-tectonic structures as graben calderas (Caldera Volcanism book, Elsevier, 2008). Generally, the sequence observed in graben calderas include, from oldest to youngest, alluvial fan deposits combined with lacustrine deposits, pyroclastic surge deposits and minor volume ignimbrites, a large-volume ignimbrite that could be massive or made of successive layers, and sometimes silicic lava domes and/or mafic fissural lavas both with vents aligned with the graben trend. Fallout deposits, plinian or non-plinian, are not observed in the sequence. Thus, onset of caldera collapse represented by the major ignimbrite must occur just after deposition of continental sediments within the graben domain. A similar volcano-tectonic development is observed in pull-apart grabens. Therefore, extensional or transtensional tectonics, before and during caldera collapse, and the emplacement of a subgraben shallow silicic magma chamber are the necessary conditions for the development of graben calderas. We describe here the case of the Guanajuato graben caldera, located in the central part of Mexico and in the southeastern portion of the SMO volcanic province. The caldera is part of the economically important mining district of Guanajuato, with 28 silver mines, some active since the 16th century. The caldera structure, a rectangle of 10 x 16 km, was controlled by NW and NE regional fault systems. Most ore

  17. Age of the Xalnene Ash, Central Mexico: A Rock Magnetic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, J. M.; Renne, P. R.; Waters, M. R.; Arroyo-Cabrales, J.; Ochoa-Castillo, P.; Perez-Campo, M.

    2007-05-01

    Features interpreted as human footprints ~40 ka old have been reported from the Toluquilla quarry near Valsequillo Reservoir, 15 km south of the city of Puebla in central Mexico (Gonzalez et al., 2006). The indentations were found in an indurated basaltic lapilli tuff informally known as the Xalnene Ash. The ~40 ka age of the tuff was based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) analysis of baked quartz-rich materials incorporated into the ash during eruption. If true, this ~40 ka age suggests that humans migrated into the Americas at a far earlier time than is currently believed. In contrast to the conclusions of Gonzalez et al. (2006), the age of the Xalnene ash was determined as 1.30 ± 0.03 Ma (2σ) based on highly reproducible 40Ar/39Ar analyses of homogenous basaltic lapilli (Renne et al., 2005). This age is further supported by paleomagnetic data, which shows a reversed polarity for the Xalnene Ash, consistent with deposition during chron C1r.2r (1.77 to 1.07 Ma). The magnetic mineralogy within the Xalnene Ash is not straightforward, and is a reflection of its volcanic origin modified by its subsequent hydrous alteration via prolonged exposure to varying water levels in Lake Valsequillo. Submicron titanomagnetite grains occur within the cores of the lapilli and are characterized by Curie temperatures between 400-500 °C corresponding to unoxidized compositions ranging from Fe2.82Ti0.18O4 to Fe2.68Ti0.32O4. Two components of magnetization were revealed during progressive alternating field (AF) demagnetization of oriented, individual lapilli: a low coercivity, reversed component that is typically removed after 15-20 mT, and a randomly oriented, but well-defined, higher coercivity component. The directions associated with the low coercivity component are consistent with the direction of the bulk rock characteristic remanent magnetization. This low coercivity component may have been acquired immediately after deposition during the final stages of cooling, or

  18. Rotationally Resolved Spitzer Spectra of Comet-Asteroid Transition Object 944 Hidalgo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campins, Humberto; Kelley, M. S.; Fernández, Y. R.; Ziffer, J.; Licandro, J.; Emery, J.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Hergenrother, C.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Hargrove, K.; Clautice, D.

    2007-10-01

    Last year (Campins et al. 2006), we reported near-infrared rotational variability in ground-based spectra of comet-asteroid transition object 944 Hidalgo. Since then, we carried out a rotationally resolved study of Hidalgo at mid-infrared wavelengths using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. We obtained 7 to 38 micron spectra of Hidalgo at 10 different rotational phases. These observations were carried out on July 24, 2006, when Hidalgo was at heliocentric and Spitzer-centric distances of 4.83 AU and 4.84 AU. In an initial analysis, we normalized the spectra with a thermal model fit to the continuum (which varied as the cross section of this non-spherical object changed with rotational phase). No detectable rotational variability in the emissivity was found across the wavelength range. All the spectra show clear emissions from silicates. These emissions are qualitatively similar to those seen in the spectra of Trojan asteroids (Emery et al. 2006) and in the spectrum of comet Hale-Bopp (Crovisier et al. 1997). Given the lack of emissivity variability, we averaged all our spectra and compared them with the other Spitzer spectrum of Hidalgo, which was obtained as part of the guaranteed time observations (GTO) on February 10, 2005 when Hidalgo was at heliocentric and Spitzer-centric distances of 1.96 AU and 1.71 AU. Although the 2005 spectrum has better signal-to-noise than the combined 2006 spectra, the two are identical within the uncertainties, save for changes in the thermal continuum. It is not clear why there is spectral variability in the near-infrared and not the longer wavelengths. One possible explanation is that the mineralogy across Hidalgo's surface is similar but some areas have been affected differently by space weathering, i.e., one or more collisions may have exposed fresh material on some of Hidalgo's surface.

  19. José Luis Hidalgo, poeta de los muertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román GARCÍA-CAMINO MATEOS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La figura de José Luis Hidalgo (Torres, 1919-Madrid, 1947, poeta y pintor, ha de tomar un nuevo relieve como representante de una generación de autores montañeses que surgió en torno a los años cuarenta. Destaca en su breve obra, al igual que su corta pero intensa vida, la extrema sensibilidad de su poesía en el uso de imágenes, metáforas que acercan sus versos hacia el terreno de lo plástico y sensorial. Las preocupaciones son de profunda raigambre existencialista, al ser nuestro poeta un joven lector de pensadores como Nietzsche, Schopenhauer o Unamuno; es con este último con el que guarda una ineludible afinidad de ideas. La búsqueda que emprende José Luis Hidalgo hacia la verdad se sitúa dentro de una metafísica trascendente y una vertiente religiosa muy significativa, en un diálogo sincero y directo con Dios. Contrasta la sencillez formal de su poesía con el complejo sistema simbólico de elementos naturales, espacios... en los que se mueve dentro del marco fluctuante entre la tradición y la vanguardia; encontramos resonancias que nos llevan desde el romanticismo becqueriano, pasando por el simbolismo, hasta los movimientos vanguardistas —sobre todo el surrealismo— y el grupo poético del 27. La obra de Los muertos supone un momento culmen del dilatado periodo de posguerra.ABSTRACT: The literary figure of José Luis Hidalgo (Torres, 1919-Madrid, 1947, both a poet and a painter, achieves renown once more as a representative of a generation of writers from Cantabria (in the north of Spain which came to light around the 1940's. His work, as brief as his short but intense life, is remarkable for the great feeling of his poetry in the use of imagery and metaphors, which draw his verse near the domain of the vivid and sensorial. His concerns have deep existentialist roots; as a young man the poet was a devoted reader of great thinkers such as Nietzsche, Schopenhauer or Unamuno; it is the latter with whom he has an

  20. Centrality of Event across Cultures. Emotionally Positive and Negative Events in Mexico, China, Greenland, and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Berntsen, Dorthe

    During their lifetime, people experience both emotionally positive and negative events. The Centrality of Event Scale (CES; Berntsen and Rubin, 2006; Berntsen, Rubin and Siegler, 2011) measures the extent to which an event is central to someone’s identity and life story. An event becomes central...... an emotional event into our life story and our identity. Key findings: 1) Positive events are rated as more central to identity than negative events; 2) The extent to which highly traumatic and negative events become central to a person’s life story and identity varies as a function of post-traumatic stress...... disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms: Participants with higher PTSD and depression scores reported that a traumatic or negative event was highly central to their identity and life story; and 3) A significant number of positive event occurred during participants’ adolescence and early adulthood, while...

  1. The ~ 2000 yr BP Jumento volcano, one of the youngest edifices of the Chichinautzin Volcanic Field, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, J. L.; Muñoz-Salinas, E.; Castillo, M.; Salinas, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Chichinautzin Volcanic Field is situated at the southern limit of the Basin of Mexico and the Metropolitan area of Mexico City, the third most populated city around the world. The Chichinautzin Volcanic field holds more than 220 monogenetic volcanoes. Xitle is the youngest of these with an estimated age of 1.6 ky BP. Xitle's eruptive activity took place during the Mesoamerican Mexican Pre-classic period and is related to the destruction of Cuicuilco Archaeological Site, the oldest civilization known in Central Mexico. However, there are still several regional cones that have not been dated. Based on 14C ages, stratigraphic and geomorphologic criteria, we conclude that the Jumento volcano, located to the west of Xitle, is one of the youngest cones of the Chichinautzin Volcanic Field. The Jumento volcano has a basaltic andesite composition, and its eruptive activity was initially hydromagmatic, followed by Strombolian and finally effusive events occurred recorded through: (1) a sequence of hydromagmatic pyroclastic surges and ashfall layers emplaced at a radius of > 5 km from the crater with charcoal fragments at its base; this activity built the Jumento's cone with slopes of 32°; and (2) lava flows that breached the southern part of the cone and flowed for up to 2.5 km from the vent. The resulting 14C ages for this volcano yielded a maximum age of 2 ky BP. Morphometric analysis indicates that the state of degradation of Jumento cone is similar to the Xitle, suggesting that the Jumento could be in the state of degradation of a volcanic structure of similar age or younger adding credence to the probable radiocarbon age of 2 ky BP for the Jumento edifice.

  2. Population Genetics of Overwintering Monarch Butterflies, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus), from Central Mexico Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA and Microsatellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Edward; Nazario-Yepiz, Nestor O; Pérez-Gálvez, Fernan; Chávez-Mora, Cristina Alejandra; Laclette, Mariana Ramírez Loustalot; Rendón-Salinas, Eduardo; Markow, Therese Ann

    2017-03-01

    Population genetic variation and demographic history in Danaus plexippus (L.), from Mexico were assessed based on analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI; 658 bp) and subunit II (COII; 503 bp) gene segments and 7 microsatellite loci. The sample of 133 individuals included both migratory monarchs, mainly from 4 overwintering sites within the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR) in central Mexico (states of Michoacán and México), and a nonmigratory population from Irapuato, Guanajuato. Haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were relatively low, averaging 0.466 and 0.00073, respectively, for COI, and 0.629 and 0.00245 for COII. Analysis of molecular variance of the COI data set, which included additional GenBank sequences from a nonmigratory Costa Rican population, showed significant population structure between Mexican migratory monarchs and nonmigratory monarchs from both Mexico and Costa Rica, suggesting limited gene flow between the 2 behaviorally distinct groups. Interestingly, while the COI haplotype frequencies of the nonmigratory populations differed from the migratory, they were similar to each other, despite the great physical distance between them. Microsatellite analyses, however, suggested a lack of structure between the 2 groups, possibly owing to the number of significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium resulting from heterzoygote deficiencies found for most of the loci. Estimates of demographic history of the combined migratory MBBR monarch population, based on the mismatch distribution and Bayesian skyline analyses of the concatenated COI and COII data set (n = 89) suggested a population expansion dating to the late Pleistocene (~35000-40000 years before present) followed by a stable effective female population size (Nef) of about 6 million over the last 10000 years. © The American Genetic Association 2016.

  3. Population Genetics of Overwintering Monarch Butterflies, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus), from Central Mexico Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA and Microsatellite Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Edward; Nazario-Yepiz, Nestor O.; Pérez-Gálvez, Fernan; Chávez-Mora, Cristina Alejandra; Laclette, Mariana Ramírez Loustalot; Rendón-Salinas, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Population genetic variation and demographic history in Danaus plexippus (L.), from Mexico were assessed based on analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI; 658 bp) and subunit II (COII; 503 bp) gene segments and 7 microsatellite loci. The sample of 133 individuals included both migratory monarchs, mainly from 4 overwintering sites within the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR) in central Mexico (states of Michoacán and México), and a nonmigratory population from Irapuato, Guanajuato. Haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were relatively low, averaging 0.466 and 0.00073, respectively, for COI, and 0.629 and 0.00245 for COII. Analysis of molecular variance of the COI data set, which included additional GenBank sequences from a nonmigratory Costa Rican population, showed significant population structure between Mexican migratory monarchs and nonmigratory monarchs from both Mexico and Costa Rica, suggesting limited gene flow between the 2 behaviorally distinct groups. Interestingly, while the COI haplotype frequencies of the nonmigratory populations differed from the migratory, they were similar to each other, despite the great physical distance between them. Microsatellite analyses, however, suggested a lack of structure between the 2 groups, possibly owing to the number of significant deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium resulting from heterzoygote deficiencies found for most of the loci. Estimates of demographic history of the combined migratory MBBR monarch population, based on the mismatch distribution and Bayesian skyline analyses of the concatenated COI and COII data set (n = 89) suggested a population expansion dating to the late Pleistocene (~35000–40000 years before present) followed by a stable effective female population size (Nef) of about 6 million over the last 10000 years. PMID:28003372

  4. Starch grain and phytolith evidence for early ninth millennium B.P. maize from the Central Balsas River Valley, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, Dolores R; Ranere, Anthony J; Holst, Irene; Iriarte, Jose; Dickau, Ruth

    2009-03-31

    Questions that still surround the origin and early dispersals of maize (Zea mays L.) result in large part from the absence of information on its early history from the Balsas River Valley of tropical southwestern Mexico, where its wild ancestor is native. We report starch grain and phytolith data from the Xihuatoxtla shelter, located in the Central Balsas Valley, that indicate that maize was present by 8,700 calendrical years ago (cal. B.P.). Phytolith data also indicate an early preceramic presence of a domesticated species of squash, possibly Cucurbita argyrosperma. The starch and phytolith data also allow an evaluation of current hypotheses about how early maize was used, and provide evidence as to the tempo and timing of human selection pressure on 2 major domestication genes in Zea and Cucurbita. Our data confirm an early Holocene chronology for maize domestication that has been previously indicated by archaeological and paleoecological phytolith, starch grain, and pollen data from south of Mexico, and reshift the focus back to an origin in the seasonal tropical forest rather than in the semiarid highlands.

  5. A new species of Cletocamptus Schmankewitsch, 1875 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida from a high altitude saline lake in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Suarez Morales

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available During the analysis of littoral samples collected from a high-altitude saline crater lake in Central Mexico, several female and male specimens of harpacticoid copepods were recovered and taxonomically examined. They were found to represent an undescribed species of the canthocamptid genus Cletocamptus Schmankewitsch, 1875. The new species, C. gomezi n. sp. is described herein based on specimens of both sexes. It resembles C. stimpsoni Gómez, Fleeger, Rocha-Olivares and Foltz, 2004 from Louisiana but also C. trichotus Kiefer, 1929. The new species differs from C. stimpsoni and from other congeners by details of the maxillular armature, the setation of the endopodal segments of legs 2 and 3, and the armature of the third exopodal segment of legs 3 and 4. Also, the dorsal (VII and the outer (IV caudal setae are both relatively shorter than in C. stimpsoni. This is the second species of the genus known to be distributed in Mexico. The occurrence of the new species in a high-altitude saline lake, the isolation of the type locality, and its absence from adjacent freshwater lakes suggest that this species is endemic to this site.

  6. Hantavirus testing in rodents of north-central New Mexico 1993-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Salisbury, M. [and others

    1996-03-01

    In 1993, an outbreak of a new strain of hantavirus in the southwestern US indicated that deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the primary carrier of the virus. In 1993, 1994, and 1995 the Ecological Studies Team (EST) at Los Alamos National Laboratory surveyed small mammal populations using live capture-recapture methods in Los Alamos County, New Mexico, to determine seroprevalence of hantavirus in this region. EST used trapping grids in 1993 and 1994 and used trapping webs in 1995. Grids were 120 m x 120 m (400 ft x 400 ft) with 144 trap stations at each grid. Three webs consisting of 148 traps each were used in 1995. Trapping took place over 4 to 8 consecutive nights. Programs CAPTURE and Distance were used to determine density estimates for grids and webs, respectively. Blood samples were analyzed in 1993 by the Centers for Disease Control and the University of New Mexico, School of Medicine. The 1994 and 1995 samples were analyzed by the University of New Mexico, School of Medicine. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most commonly captured species at all locations except one site where voles (Microtus spp.) were the most commonly captured species. Other species sampled included: harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), woodrats (Neotoma spp.), shrews (Sorex spp.), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), pinyon mice (Peromyscus trueii), and brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii). Results of the 1993, 1994, and 1995 testing identified a total overall seroprevalence rate among deer mice of approximately 5.5%, 4.2%, and 0%, respectively. Several other species tested positive for the hantavirus but it is uncertain if it is Sin Nombre virus. Further studies will be necessary to quantify seroprevalence rates in those species. Higher seroprevalence rates were found in males than females. Seroprevalence rates for Los Alamos County were much lower than elsewhere in the region.

  7. Structure of central and southern Mexico from velocity and attenuation tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ting; Robert W. Clayton

    2012-01-01

    The 3D V_p, V_p/_Vs, P- and S-wave attenuation structure of the Cocos subduction zone in Mexico is imaged using earthquakes recorded by two temporary seismic arrays and local stations. Direct P wave arrivals on vertical components and direct S wave arrivals on transverse components from local earthquakes are used for velocity imaging. Relative delay times for P and PKP phases from teleseismic events are also used to obtain a deeper velocity structure beneath the southern seismic array. Using ...

  8. Paleomagnetic and AMS studies of the El Castillo ignimbrite, central-east Mexico: Source and rock magnetic nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Agarwal, A.; Caballero-Miranda, C.; García-Amador, B. I.; Morales-Barrera, W.; Rodríguez-Elizarraráz, S.; Rodríguez-Trejo, A.

    2017-04-01

    Lithological, petromagnetic, paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies are employed to determine the flow direction and the location of the source of the, 2.44 to 2.21 Ma, El Castillo ignimbrite in the central-east Mexico. Based on the increasing matrix to pumice ratio and decreasing pumice size, the ignimbrite field is divided into the northwestern, central and south-southeastern sectors. Lithological comparisons among the three sectors reveal that the ignimbrite had flowed from NW to SE, and the source is in the NW part of the study area. Thermomagnetic results concur with the increasing matrix proportions from the proximal to the distal sector. The coercivity and magnetization ratios of the hysteresis parameters are lower in the SE sector than in the NW and central sectors. The dominant flow direction inferred through magnetic fabrics, at most sites, is NW to SE, which coincides with the direction inferred from lithological comparisons. However, at some sites magnetic fabrics demonstrate flow towards ENE or other various directions. The paleomagnetic analysis and field observations reveal that these anomalous directions are a consequence of anticlockwise block rotation and tilting due to normal and lateral faulting in the region.

  9. Diversity and effective population size of four horse breeds from microsatellite DNA markers in South-Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Vázquez-Armijo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The South-Central region of Mexico has experienced a sizeable introduction of purebred horses for recreational aims. A study was designed to assess effective population sizes and genetic diversity and to verify the genetic integrity of four horse breeds. Using a 12-microsatellite panel, Quarter Horse, Azteca, Thoroughbred and Creole (CRL horses were sampled and analysed for diversity and genetic structure. Genetic diversity parameters showed high numbers of heterozygous horses but small effective population sizes in all breeds. Population structure results suggested some degree of admixture of CRL with the other reference breeds. The highly informative microsatellite panel allowed the verification of diversity in introduced horse populations and the confirmation of small effective population sizes, which suggests a risk for future breed integrity.

  10. [The inclusion of human rights in AIDS/HIV norms in Mexico and Central America: 1993-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra-Hernández, Silvia Magali; Leyva-Flores, René; Hernández-Rosete, Daniel; Bronfman-Pertzovsky, Mario N

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the inclusion of human rights in HIV/AIDS norms in Mexico and Central America for the 1993-2000 period. Norms and regulations for HIV/AIDS prevention and control in this region were analyzed. A constructivist perspective of judiciary subsystems and human rights was used as a reference framework, to establish categories of analysis with significance codes based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. During the study period, human rights were included within a vigorous legislative activity for HIV/AIDS transmission prevention. In some cases (as in the Panama Law and the Honduras Proposal) there were passages of law violating the right to non-discrimination and privacy. These laws lead to either of two conflicting paths: one ensuring human rights, and another increasing the vulnerability of some groups. The authors emphasize the importance of gaining a new understanding of social subjects and epidemiological surveillance, based on norms that incorporate human rights issues.

  11. Structure of the Cocos subduction zone in central and southern Mexico from three-dimensional body-wave attenuation and travel time tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Clayton, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    The 3D P- and S-wave attenuation and velocity structure of the Cocos subduction zone in Mexico is imaged using seismic events recorded by the MASE (100 seismometers running across central Mexico, 2005-2007) and VEOX (47 seismometers running across southern Mexico, 2007-2009) arrays, supplemented by stations from the National Seismic Network in Mexico (SSN). Using a spectral-decay method, we obtain a path attenuation operator t* for each seismogram in the frequency band 1 to 30 Hz, depending on the signal quality. These measurements are then inverted for 3D spatial variations in attenuation. Direct body-wave arrivals from local events are used for 3D velocity inversion. Deeper velocity structures along MASE and VEOX arrays are obtained by including teleseismic events. Inversion results show low attenuation associated with the Cocos slab, and show the slab dip angle increases from central to southern Mexico. High attenuation is imaged in the mantle wedge and the crust above. The highest attenuation is found in the crust near the active Los Tuxtlas volcanic field, probably related to the dehydration and melting process. Low velocity is observed in the mantle wedge and the crust above from velocity inversion. The Cocos slab is traced as high-velocity structure. The Cocos slab dips down to about 500 km in central Mexico along MASE array as shown by previous study (Perez-Campos, GRL, 2008). In southern Mexico along VEOX line, no clear continuous Cocos slab is observed deeper than about 150 km, which is also found by receiver function studies (Kim et al., in press; Perez-Campos et al., in press). There are some indications that the Cocos slab in southern Mexico near the Isthmus of Tehuantepec is truncated by some high-velocity structure dipping south from the Gulf of Mexico. This anomalous south-dipping structure is also seen in receiver function images, and may be related to the collision between the Yucatan Block and Mexico in the Miocene (Kim et al., in press).

  12. The water and energy exchange of a shaded coffee plantation in the lower montane cloud forest zone of central Veracruz, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, F.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Barradas, V.L.; Cervantes, J.

    2013-01-01

    The water and energy fluxes of a shaded coffee plantation in the lower montane cloud forest (LMCF) zone of central Veracruz, Mexico, were measured over a two-year period (September 2006-August 2008) using the eddy covariance method. Complementary measurements of throughfall and stemflow were made to

  13. [Fusarium species associated with basal rot of garlic in North Central Mexico and its pathogenicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Ortiz, Juan C; Ochoa-Fuentes, Yisa M; Cerna-Chávez, Ernesto; Beltrán-Beache, Mariana; Rodríguez-Guerra, Raúl; Aguirre-Uribe, Luis A; Vázquez-Martínez, Otilio

    Garlic in Mexico is one of the most profitable vegetable crops, grown in almost 5,451ha; out of which more than 83% are located in Zacatecas, Guanajuato, Sonora, Puebla, Baja California and Aguascalientes. Blossom-end rot caused by Fusarium spp is widely distributed worldwide and has been a limiting factor in onion and garlic production regions, not only in Mexico but also in other countries. The presence of Fusarium oxysporum has been reported in Guanajuato and Aguascalientes. Fusarium culmorum has been reported in onion cultivars of Morelos; and Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium solani and Fusarium acuminatum have been previously reported in Aguascalientes. The goal of this work was identifying the Fusarium species found in Zacatecas, Guanajuato and Aguascalientes, to assess their pathogenicity. Plants with disease symptoms were collected from hereinabove mentioned States. The samples resulted in the identification of: F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, F. solani and F. acuminatum species; out of which Aguascalientes AGS1A (F. oxysporum), AGS1B (F. oxysporum) and AGSY-10 (F. acuminatum) strains showed higher severity under greenhouse conditions. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of DDT levels in selected environmental media and biological samples from Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Trejo, Antonio; Ruepert, Clemens; Jovel, Reyna del Carmen; Méndez, Mónica Patricia; Ferrari, Mirtha; Saballos-Sobalvarro, Emilio; Alexander, Carlos; Yáñez-Estrada, Leticia; Lopez, Dania; Henao, Samuel; Pinto, Emilio R; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2010-03-01

    Taking into account the environmental persistence and the toxicity of DDT, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) organized a surveillance program in Mesoamerica which included the detection of residual DDT in environmental (soil) and biological samples (fish tissue and children's blood). This program was carried out in communities from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. This paper presents the first report of that program. As expected, the results show that the levels for [summation operator] DDT in soil (outdoor or indoor) and fish samples in the majority of the locations studied are below guidelines. However, in some locations, we found children with high concentrations of DDT as in Mexico (mean level 50.2 ng/mL). Furthermore, in some communities and for some matrices, the DDT/DDE quotient is higher than one and this may reflect a recent DDT exposure. Therefore, more efforts are needed to avoid exposure and to prevent the reintroduction of DDT into the region. In this regard it is important to know that under the surveillance of PAHO and with the support of UNEP, a regional program in Mesoamerica for the collection and disposal of DDT and other POPs stockpiles is in progress. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Coyotes, Concessions and Construction Companies: Illegal Water Markets and Legally Constructed Water Scarcity in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Reis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of (semiarid Mexico, such as the Valley of Toluca, face challenges due to rapid growth and the simultaneous overexploitation of groundwater. The water reform of the 1990s introduced individual water rights concessions granted through the National Water Commission (Comisión Nacional del Agua, or CONAGUA. Since then, acquiring new water rights in officially 'water-scarce' aquifers is only possible through official rights transmissions from users ceding their rights. With the law prohibiting the sale of water rights, a profitable illegal market for these rights has emerged. The key actor in the water rights allocation network is the coyote, functioning as a broker between a people wanting to cede water rights and those needing them, and b the formal and informal spheres of water rights allocation. Actors benefitting from water rights trading include the coyote and his 'working brigades', water users selling surplus rights, and (senior and lower-level staff in the water bureaucracy. The paper concludes that legally constructed water scarcity is key to the reproduction of illegal water rights trading. This has important implications regarding the current push for expanding regularisation of groundwater extraction in Mexico. Currently, regularisation does not counter overexploitation, while possibly leading to a de facto privatisation of groundwater.

  16. A new species of Torrestrongylus (Trichostrongylidae, Anoplostrongylinae) from Macrotus waterhousii (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Peralta-Rodríguez, Jorge Luis; Galindo-García, María Guadalupe; Jiménez, Francisco Agustín

    2015-01-01

    A new species of nematode, Torrestrongylus tetradorsalis n. sp., is described herein, based on specimens recovered from the small intestine of the leaf-nosed bat, Macrotus waterhousii, from the Biosphere Reserve “Sierra de Huautla” in the state of Morelos, Mexico. The new species is included in Torrestrongylus because it features a bursa of the type 3 – 2, a divided cephalic vesicle with an anterior half in the shape of an umbrella, and a posterior widened half. The new species can be distinguished from the only other congener T. torrei Pérez-Vigueras, 1935 by four key features: first, by the absence of cervical alae in both males and females; second, by the relatively longer second half of the cephalic cap; third, by the configuration of the dorsal ray, that does not have a medial terminal ray, and finally, by the structure of the spicules. This is the second species in the genus, previously known from bats of the families Phyllostomidae and Molossidae in Cuba, and now in Mexico. PMID:26514594

  17. Knowledge and Understanding of the Hydrogeology of the Salt Basin in South-Central New Mexico and Future Study Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, G.F.; Chace, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Salt Basin covers about 2,400 square miles of south-central New Mexico and extends across the State line into Texas. As much as 57 million acre-feet of ground water may be stored within the New Mexico part of the Salt Basin of which 15 million acre-feet are potentially potable and recoverable. Recent work suggests that the volume of ground water in storage within the New Mexico portion of the Salt Basin may be substantially greater than 57 million acre-feet. In this report, aquifers contained in the San Andres, Bone Spring, and Victorio Peak Limestones and in the Yeso, Hueco, and Abo Formations are collectively referred to as the carbonate aquifer. Porosity and permeability of the major aquifer are primarily determined by the density and interconnectedness of fractures and karstic solution channels. The spatial variability of these fractures and karstic features leads to a large spatial variability in hydraulic properties in the carbonate aquifer. Ground water generally moves southward away from recharge areas along the northern border of the Salt Basin and generally moves eastward to southeastward away from areas of distributed recharge on the Otero Mesa and the Diablo Plateau. Ground water originating from these recharge areas generally moves toward the central valley. Present day discharge is mostly through ground-water withdrawal for agricultural irrigation. A zone of relatively low hydraulic gradient, corresponding to the location of the Otero Break, extends from near the Sacramento River watershed southward toward Dell City, Texas. Ground water in the carbonate aquifer generally is very hard and has dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 500 to 6,500 milligrams per liter. Substantial variability exists in current estimates of (1) ground-water recharge, (2) natural ground-water discharge, (3) the volume of ground water in storage, (4) the volume of recoverable ground water, (5) the conceptual model of ground-water flow, (6) the distribution of ground

  18. Paleomagnetism and Magnetostratigraphy of the Upper Triassic Chinle Group in North- Central, Western and Eastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, K. E.; Geissman, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    The Upper Triassic Chinle Group spans most of the Late Triassic and was deposited by a large scale fluvial system. Chinle Group strata are composed of predominantly red to purple mudstones with lesser orange siltstones and buff to red sandstones. In the Chama Basin, north-central New Mexico, both lower and upper Chinle strata are well-exposed and sections at several localities have been sampled to develop a more complete magnetic reversal chronology for the Late Triassic of the American Southwest. Localities in eastern and west- central New Mexico were also sampled for comparative purposes. Sampling at all sections concentrated on hematitic mudrocks and these materials typically carry a well-defined, well-grouped, dual polarity magnetization dominated by pigmentary hematite with laboratory unblocking temperatures about 660C we interpret as a primary, Late Triassic remanence (e.g., Painted Desert Mbr., corrected grand mean: D = 182.9°, I = 4.4°, α95 = 2.9°, k = 61.7, N/No = 40/45 sites (14 levels of N polarity, 26 levels of R polarity). The Shinarump Formation (lowest unit of the Chinle Group) failed to yield interpretable magnetizations. The Salitral, Poleo, Petrified Forest and Rock Point formations all yielded magnetizations with either south or north-seeking declinations and shallow inclinations, comparable to those of the Painted Desert Member(e.g.: Poleo Formation grand mean: D = 183.1°, I = 0.3deg, α95 = 5.7°, k = 33.9, N/No = 20/30). Although the Chinle Group of New Mexico was sampled at a relatively coarse sampling interval, the composite, yet incomplete,magnetic reversal chronology derived from these sections compares, at a gross scale, to similar age strata from Arizona, eastern North America and the Tethyan region of southern Europe. Chinle Group strata of Carnian age (based on palynostratigraphy) are of mixed polarity. Lower Norian strata are dominantly of reverse polarity and upper Norian strata are of mixed polarity. Paleopoles calculated from

  19. 77 FR 47816 - Foreign-Trade Zone 12-McAllen, TX Application for Subzone TST NA TRIM, LLC Hidalgo, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Hidalgo, TX An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) by the McAllen... TST NA TRIM, LLC, located in Hidalgo, Texas. The application was submitted pursuant to the provisions.... Olmos in Hidalgo. A notification of proposed production activity has been submitted and will be...

  20. Estudio de eliminación de arsénico con resinas de intercambio iónico en agua potable de Zimapán, Estado de Hidalgo, México

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Moreno, F.; F Prieto-García; Rojas-Hernández, A.; Marmolejo-Santillán, Y.; Salinas-Rodríguez, E.; F Patiño-Cardona

    2006-01-01

    Anionic exchange resins were research with respect its capacity for removal arsenic content in water. Water of well V from Zimapán Hidalgo Mexico was used to make this research, because this water have a mean concentration of 480 ± 11 μg·L-1 of arsenic and it is
    available as drinking water. The exchange resins employed were two strong anionic, one macroreticular (IRA-900) and other gel type (IRA-400), as soon as one thi...

  1. Taxonomic and floristic novelties for Echeveria (Crassulaceae) in Central Michoacan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, Ignacio; Valentín-Martínez, Dagoberto; Carrillo-Reyes, Pablo; Costea, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Echeveria coruana, is described and illustrated from the malpaís near San Andrés Corú, Michoacan, Mexico. The species belongs to series Gibbiflorae and the new taxon was compared with Echeveria purhepecha and Echeveria patriotica, with whom it shares the closest morphological affinities. Additionally, Echeveria yalmanantlaensis an endangered species from Sierra of Manantlán Biosphere Reserve, State of Colima, was also discovered near San Andrés Corú and is reported for the first time from the State of Michoacan. The conservation status of both species was (re)evaluated according to the criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

  2. Taxonomic and floristic novelties for Echeveria (Crassulaceae in Central Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio García-Ruiz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Echeveria coruana, is described and illustrated from the malpaís near San Andrés Corú, Michoacan, Mexico. The species belongs to series Gibbiflorae and the new taxon was compared with E. purhepecha and E. patriotica, with whom it shares the closest morphological affinities. Additionally, E. yalmanantlaensis an endangered species from Sierra of Manantlán Biosphere Reserve, State of Colima, was also discovered near San Andrés Corú and is reported for the first time from the State of Michoacan. The conservation status of both species was (reevaluated according to the criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

  3. Reflections on Critical Incidents of EFL Teachers During Career Entry in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martha Lengeling

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the reflections of critical incidents of eight beginning English as a foreign language teachers and one of their trainers in Mexico. Based upon narrative inquiry and through the use of journals, critical incidents and how they have impacted beginning teachers in their thinking were specifically looked at. From the data we found seven emerging themes which basically revolve around the relationships that are established between the teacher and the students, the emerging professional identities of the beginning teachers, and the tutor’s reflection on knowledge transfer. Results showed how these teachers reflected upon their teaching practice and how the critical incidents helped them to analyze and evaluate their teaching process.

  4. Evaluating the Impacts of Climate Change on Soil Erosion Rates in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Martínez-Santiago

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although water-eroded soil (WES resulting from human activities has been recognized as the leading global cause of land degradation, the soil erosion risks from climate change are not clear. Studies have reported that WES is the second most significant cause of soil loss in Mexico, and its future trajectory has not been sufficiently evaluated. The aims of this study are to 1 determine the impacts of climate change on WES and its distribution for the State of Aguascalientes, Mexico, and to 2 compare the present and future soil loss rates for the study unit (SU. The State of Aguascalientes is located in the “Region del Bajio.” The impact of climate change on WES was evaluated using the near-future divided world scenario (A2 presented in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. Daily temperature and precipitation data from 18 weather stations were downscaled to model historic laminar water erosion (HLWE and changes therein in the A2 near-future scenario for 2010–2039 (LWEScA2. Due to future changes in mean annual rainfall (MAR levels, a change in the LWEScA2 of between 1.6 and 8.9% could result in average soil losses up to 475.4 t ha-1 yr-1, representing a loss of slightly more than a 30-mm layer of mountain soil per year. The risk zones, classified as class 4 for LWE, are located to western of the State in part of municipalities of Calvillo, Jesus María, San José de Gracia y Cosio, where there are typical hills and falls with soil very sensitive to rain erosion.

  5. Detection of ULF geomagnetic signals associated with seismic events in Central Mexico using Discrete Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chavez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic observatory of Juriquilla Mexico, located at longitude –100.45° and latitude 20.70°, and 1946 m a.s.l., has been operational since June 2004 compiling geomagnetic field measurements with a three component fluxgate magnetometer. In this paper, the results of the analysis of these measurements in relation to important seismic activity in the period of 2007 to 2009 are presented. For this purpose, we used superposed epochs of Discrete Wavelet Transform of filtered signals for the three components of the geomagnetic field during relative seismic calm, and it was compared with seismic events of magnitudes greater than Ms > 5.5, which have occurred in Mexico. The analysed epochs consisted of 18 h of observations for a dataset corresponding to 18 different earthquakes (EQs. The time series were processed for a period of 9 h prior to and 9 h after each seismic event. This data processing was compared with the same number of observations during a seismic calm. The proposed methodology proved to be an efficient tool to detect signals associated with seismic activity, especially when the seismic events occur in a distance (D from the observatory to the EQ, such that the ratio D/ρ < 1.8 where ρ is the earthquake radius preparation zone. The methodology presented herein shows important anomalies in the Ultra Low Frequency Range (ULF; 0.005–1 Hz, primarily for 0.25 to 0.5 Hz. Furthermore, the time variance (σ2 increases prior to, during and after the seismic event in relation to the coefficient D1 obtained, principally in the Bx (N-S and By (E-W geomagnetic components. Therefore, this paper proposes and develops a new methodology to extract the abnormal signals of the geomagnetic anomalies related to different stages of the EQs.

  6. Tomography of the subducting Cocos plate in central Mexico: Images of a truncated slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husker, A. L.; Davis, P. M.

    2007-12-01

    The location of the subducting slab beneath Mexico City and its relation to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) has been unknown because of the absence of deep seismicity that could be used to define the Wadati-Benioff zone. We used data from a temporary seismic network to locate the slab using seismic tomography. A break is seen in the Cocos plate under the TMVB. The break is seen with both P-wave and S-wave tomography and in a constrained tomographic inversion that finds parameters for a simple slab temperature model. The data used are 172 teleseismic earthquakes recorded by the Middle American Subduction Experiment (MASE). MASE was made up of 100 broadband seismometers spaced every 5 km running from Acapulco north through Mexico City almost to the Gulf Coast. In order to determine arrival time differences, Dt, across the array, waveforms were cross correlated. When Dt is plotted with respect to the latitude of the seismometer at which it was recorded, a Dt minimum (early arrivals) is seen near the TMVB. This minimum is shifted northward for back azimuths from the south, and southward for back azimuths from the north. The shift in the Dt minimum is indicative of a fast structure at depth. If there were no break in the slab, the localized minimum would not be seen. Tomography reveals an approximately 50-80 km thick slab diving into the mantle at about 75° to approximately 550 km depth and 375 km inland from Acapulco. We speculate the absence of deep earthquakes is due to low stresses in a young plate that has been truncated at depth.

  7. Used battery collection in central Mexico: metal content, legislative/management situation and statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-García, José Antonio; Montiel-Corona, Virginia

    2012-03-01

    A statistical analysis of a used battery collection campaign in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico, is presented. This included a study of the metal composition of spent batteries from formal and informal markets, and a critical discussion about the management of spent batteries in Mexico with respect to legislation. A six-month collection campaign was statistically analyzed: 77% of the battery types were "AA" and 30% of the batteries were from the informal market. A substantial percentage (36%) of batteries had residual voltage in the range 1.2-1.4 V, and 70% had more than 1.0 V; this may reflect underutilization. Metal content analysis and recovery experiments were performed with the five formal and four more frequent informal trademarks. The analysis of Hg, Cd and Pb showed there is no significant difference in content between formal and informal commercialized batteries. All of the analyzed trademarks were under the permissible limit levels of the proposed Mexican Official Norm (NOM) NMX-AA-104-SCFI-2006 and would be classified as not dangerous residues (can be thrown to the domestic rubbish); however, compared with the EU directive 2006/66/EC, 8 out of 9 of the selected battery trademarks would be rejected, since the Mexican Norm content limit is 20, 7.5 and 5 fold higher in Hg, Cd and Pb, respectively, than the EU directive. These results outline the necessity for better regulatory criteria in the proposed Mexican NOM in order to minimize the impact on human health and the environment of this type of residues. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. College Success for All: How the Hidalgo Independent School District Is Adopting Early College as a District-Wide Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodine, Thad

    2010-01-01

    The Hidalgo Independent School District (ISD) in Texas has raised the bar on what it means for a school system to focus on college readiness. This paper tells the story of how Hidalgo ISD, located in one of the most economically depressed metropolitan areas with one of the lowest number of college-educated adults, is preparing all of its students…

  9. Chemical and nutritional composition of tejate, a traditional maize and cacao beverage from the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Angela; Soleri, Daniela; Wacher, Carmen; Sánchez-Chinchillas, Argelia; Argote, Rosa Maria

    2012-06-01

    Foam-topped cacao and maize beverages have a long history in Mesoamerica. Tejate is such a beverage found primarily in the Zapotec region of the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico. Historically tejate has been ceremonially important but also as an essential staple, especially during periods of hard fieldwork. However, the nutritional contribution of traditional foods such as tejate has not been investigated. We analyzed tejate samples from three Central Valley communities, vendors in urban Oaxaca markets and one migrant vendor in California, USA for their proximate composition, amino acid content and scores, and mineral and methylxanthine content. Nutritional and chemical variation exists among tejate recipes, however, the beverage is a source of energy, fat, methylxanthines, K, Fe and other minerals although their availability due to presence of phytates remains to be determined. Tejate is a source of protein comparable to an equal serving size of tortillas, with protein quality similarly limited in both. Tejate provides the nutritional benefits of maize, and some additional ones, in a form appealing during hot periods of intense work, and year round because of its cultural significance. Its substitution by sodas and other high glycemic beverages may have negative nutritional, health and cultural consequences.

  10. 77 FR 40376 - Outer Continental Shelf, Oil and Gas Lease Sales in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Mexico Planning Area (CPA) and the Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA), Beginning With WPA Sale... Call, by undertaking a series of important steps to increase the transparency of the process and... Ocean Energy Management, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region, 1201 Elmwood Park Boulevard, New Orleans, Louisiana...

  11. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Christian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC, anhydrosugars, Cl, NO3, and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Global biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600 Tg/y. With several simple case studies we show that cooking fires can be a major, or the major, source of several gases and fine particles in developing countries. Insulated cook stoves with chimneys were earlier shown to reduce indoor air pollution and the fuel use per cooking task. We confirm that they also reduce the emissions of VOC pollutants per mass of fuel burned by about half. We did not detect HCN emissions from cooking fires in Mexico or Africa. Thus, if regional source attribution is based on HCN emissions typical for other types of biomass burning (BB, then biofuel use and total BB will be underestimated in much of the developing world. This is also significant because cooking fires are not detected from space. We estimate that ~2000 Tg/y of garbage are generated globally and about half may be burned, making this a commonly overlooked major global source of emissions. We estimate a fine particle emission factor (EFPM2.5 for garbage burning of ~10.5±8.8 g/kg, which is in reasonable agreement with very limited previous work. We observe large HCl emission factors in the range 2–10 g/kg. Consideration of the Cl content of the global waste stream suggests that garbage burning may generate as much as 6–9 Tg/yr of HCl, which would make it a major source of this compound. HCl generated by garbage burning in dry environments may have a relatively greater atmospheric impact than HCl generated in humid areas. Garbage burning PM2.5 was found to contain levoglucosan and K in concentrations similar to those for

  12. Trace gas and particle emissions from domestic and industrial biofuel use and garbage burning in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, T. J.; Yokelson, R. J.; Cárdenas, B.; Molina, L. T.; Engling, G.; Hsu, S.-C.

    2010-01-01

    In central Mexico during the spring of 2007 we measured the initial emissions of 12 gases and the aerosol speciation for elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC), anhydrosugars, Cl-, NO3-, and 20 metals from 10 cooking fires, four garbage fires, three brick making kilns, three charcoal making kilns, and two crop residue fires. Global biofuel use has been estimated at over 2600 Tg/y. With several simple case studies we show that cooking fires can be a major, or the major, source of several gases and fine particles in developing countries. Insulated cook stoves with chimneys were earlier shown to reduce indoor air pollution and the fuel use per cooking task. We confirm that they also reduce the emissions of VOC pollutants per mass of fuel burned by about half. We did not detect HCN emissions from cooking fires in Mexico or Africa. Thus, if regional source attribution is based on HCN emissions typical for other types of biomass burning (BB), then biofuel use and total BB will be underestimated in much of the developing world. This is also significant because cooking fires are not detected from space. We estimate that ~2000 Tg/y of garbage are generated globally and about half may be burned, making this a commonly overlooked major global source of emissions. We estimate a fine particle emission factor (EFPM2.5) for garbage burning of ~10.5±8.8 g/kg, which is in reasonable agreement with very limited previous work. We observe large HCl emission factors in the range 2-10 g/kg. Consideration of the Cl content of the global waste stream suggests that garbage burning may generate as much as 6-9 Tg/yr of HCl, which would make it a major source of this compound. HCl generated by garbage burning in dry environments may have a relatively greater atmospheric impact than HCl generated in humid areas. Garbage burning PM2.5 was found to contain levoglucosan and K in concentrations similar to those for biomass burning, so it could be a source of interference in some areas when using

  13. Lead isotope studies of the Guerrero composite terrane, west-central Mexico: implications for ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potra, Adriana; Macfarlane, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    New thermal ionization mass spectrometry and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry Pb isotope analyses of three Cenozoic ores from the La Verde porphyry copper deposit located in the Zihuatanejo-Huetamo subterrane of the Guerrero composite terrane are presented and the metal sources are evaluated. Lead isotope ratios of 3 Cenozoic ores from the El Malacate and La Esmeralda porphyry copper deposits located in the Zihuatanejo-Huetamo subterrane and of 14 ores from the Zimapan and La Negra skarn deposits from the adjoining Sierra Madre terrane are also presented to look for systematic differences in the lead isotope trends and ore metal sources among the proposed exotic tectonostratigraphic terranes of southern Mexico. Comparison among the isotopic signatures of ores from the Sierra Madre terrane and distinct subterranes of the Guerrero terrane supports the idea that there is no direct correlation between the distinct suspect terranes of Mexico and the isotopic signatures of the associated Cenozoic ores. Rather, these Pb isotope patterns are interpreted to reflect increasing crustal contribution to mantle-derived magmas as the arc advanced eastward onto a progressively thicker continental crust. The lead isotope trend observed in Cenozoic ores is not recognized in the ores from Mesozoic volcanogenic massive sulfide and sedimentary exhalative deposits. The Mesozoic ores formed prior to the amalgamation of the Guerrero composite terrane to the continental margin, which took place during the Late Cretaceous, in intraoceanic island arc and intracontinental marginal basin settings, while the Tertiary deposits formed after this event in a continental arc setting. Lead isotope ratios of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic ores appear to reflect these differences in tectonic setting of ore formation. Most Pb isotope values of ores from the La Verde deposit (206Pb/204Pb = 18.674-18.719) are less radiogenic than those of the host igneous rocks, but plot within the

  14. Use of Groundwater Tracers to Assess Climate Change in North-Central New Mexico during the Holocene Epoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanicak, S. M.; Dale, M.; Granzow, K.; Longmire, P.; Perkins, G.

    2014-12-01

    The groundwater system at Los Alamos, New Mexico encompasses a complex shallow mountain-block and mountain-front zone; intermediate-depth perched zones located east of the mountain front; and an extensive regional aquifer occupying the Rio Grande rift. In the study area, groundwater-flow paths in the regional aquifer are generally from the northwest to southeast that laterally extend 17 km before discharging to the Rio Grande. This system is unconfined and variable mixing occurs at greater distances east of the primary recharge zones. Since 1943, the regional aquifer has been mined for industrial processes and residential use and consumption at Los Alamos. A large data set for groundwater-age and inorganic solutes has been assembled for the intermediate-depth perched zones and regional aquifer, which provides a potential archive record of paleoclimate-change occurring during the past 10,000 years. Groundwater ages range from modern groundwater to approximately 9,700 years before present. Unadjusted radiocarbon-age results for groundwater samples collected from 58 background-monitoring wells and 10 springs correlate well with natural chloride and perchlorate concentrations and δ18O values. Background concentrations of dissolved perchlorate and chloride increase with increasing groundwater age and residence time. Values of δ18O are slightly heavier in groundwater samples having increasing age, suggesting that warmer climatic conditions occurred 10,000 years before present. Perchlorate and δ18O datasets correlate the strongest with average groundwater age, showing Pearson correlations of 0.81 and 0.71, respectively. The Pearson correlations for chloride to age and perchlorate to chloride are 0.62 and 0.81, respectively. Overall, this dataset suggests that climatic cooling has gradually occurred in north-central New Mexico during the Holocene, and does corroborate previous Holocene climate-change studies conducted in the southwestern United States.

  15. Beyond health gain: the range of health system benefits expressed by social groups in Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Block, M A; Sandiford, P; Ruiz, J A; Rovira, J

    2001-05-01

    Current health reform proposals in most developing countries stress health gain as the chief evaluation criterion. Essential service packages are formulated using cost-effectiveness methods for the selection of interventions without sufficient regard for other factors that are significant for successful implementation and acceptance by the needy. This paper presents the results of research undertaken in Mexico and Central America to test the hypothesis that population groups view health gain as only one among several benefits derived from health systems. The goal at this stage was two-fold: (a) to identify through qualitative methods the range of benefits that are significant for a wide cross-section of social groups and (b) to classify such benefits in types amenable to be used in the development of instruments to measure the benefits intended and actually produced by health systems. Fourteen focus groups were undertaken in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico and Nicaragua representing diverse age, gender, occupation and social conditions. Six major types of health system benefits were identified besides health gain: reassurance/uncertainty reduction, economic security, confidence in health system quality, financial benefits derived from the system, health care process utility and health system fairness. Benefits most often mentioned can be classed under health care process utility and confidence in system quality. They also have the most consensus across social groups. Other benefits mentioned have an affinity with social conditions. Human resource-derived utility stands out by its frequency in the range of benefits mentioned. Health systems and health sector reform proposals must emphasise those aspects of quality related to human resources to be in accord with population expectations.

  16. Groundwater depletion in Central Mexico: Use of GRACE and InSAR to support water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellazzi, Pascal; Martel, Richard; Rivera, Alfonso; Huang, Jianliang; Pavlic, Goran; Calderhead, Angus I.; Chaussard, Estelle; Garfias, Jaime; Salas, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater deficits occur in several areas of Central Mexico, where water resource assessment is limited by the availability and reliability of field data. In this context, GRACE and InSAR are used to remotely assess groundwater storage loss in one of Mexico's most important watersheds in terms of size and economic activity: the Lerma-Santiago-Pacifico (LSP). In situ data and Land Surface Models are used to subtract soil moisture and surface water storage changes from the total water storage change measured by GRACE satellites. As a result, groundwater mass change time-series are obtained for a 12 years period. ALOS-PALSAR images acquired from 2007 to 2011 were processed using the SBAS-InSAR algorithm to reveal areas subject to ground motion related to groundwater over-exploitation. In the perspective of providing guidance for groundwater management, GRACE and InSAR observations are compared with official water budgets and field observations. InSAR-derived subsidence mapping generally agrees well with official water budgets, and shows that deficits occur mainly in cities and irrigated agricultural areas. GRACE does not entirely detect the significant groundwater losses largely reported by official water budgets, literature and InSAR observations. The difference is interpreted as returns of wastewater to the groundwater flow systems, which limits the watershed scale groundwater depletion but suggests major impacts on groundwater quality. This phenomenon is enhanced by ground fracturing as noticed in the field. Studying the fate of the extracted groundwater is essential when comparing GRACE data with higher resolution observations, and particularly in the perspective of further InSAR/GRACE combination in hydrogeology.

  17. de migración internacional: Hidalgo y Nayarit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Vega Briones

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo fue observar la relación entre tamaño y tipo del hogar y recepción de remesas provenientes de Estados Unidos en hogares de migrantes y no migrantes de los estados de Nayarit e Hidalgo. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de algunas características sociodemográficas y económicas que se encuentran asociadas a la recepción de remesas en los hogares de estas entidades y se encontró que los hogares con remesas tienen jefes en edad avanzada, con bajo nivel escolar, con una importante participación de las mujeres como jefas, principalmente de localidades rurales, en su mayoría hogares nucleares y ampliados, de menor tamaño y con vivienda propia, con presencia de miembros migrantes y de retorno de Estados Unidos entre 1995 y 2000. En segundo lugar, la importante participación de las mujeres como jefas en los hogares nayaritas e hidalguenses con remesas puede estar asociada, directa o indirectamente, con la migración masculina.

  18. Origin and age of the Volcanic Rocks of Tláloc Volcano, Sierra Nevada, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, M.; Grobéty, B.; Arce, J. L.; Rueda, H.

    2007-05-01

    The Tláloc volcano (TV) is a 4125 m high stratovolcano of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and is located in the northern end of the N-S trending Sierra Nevada, 30 km NE of Mexico City. Few data on the petrological and temporal evolution of TV have been published to date. Recently dated deposits gave ages between 32'000 and 34'500±500 years BP (Huddart and Gonzalez, 2004). Mapping and sampling of extrusive rocks in the summit region of TV revealed a dome structure with radiating lava flows consisting of dacitic rocks containing plagioclase and hornblende phenocrysts. Some flows, however, seem to be associated with a collapse structure E of the main summit. Crossing relationships indicate that this structure is older (“Paleo Tláloc”). A stratigraphy of the pyroclastic deposits was established along the northern slope of TV. From the numerous pyroclastic flows, separated by paleosoils and fluviatile deposits, only two pumice and one block and ash flow (BAF) have regional extent. Their thickness - distance relationship and their granulometry point to major explosive events. A carbonized wood sample from the BAF deposit gave ages similar to the previous ages (33'180±550 yr BP and 23'170±270 yr BP), a sample from a pyroclastic flow gave even a younger age (16'620±110 yr BP), suggesting that TV remained active also after the volcanoes Iztaccíhuatl and Popocatépetl further to the South started their activity. Based on these preliminary data it may be necessary to reconsider the accepted scenario of the temporal evolution of the central section of the TMVB, which assumes that the activity migrates from North to South with time. Huddart, D. and Gonzalez, S., 2004. Pyroclastic flows and associated sediments, Tláloc-Telapón, piedmont fringe of the eastern basin of Mexico. In: G.J. Aguirre-Diaz, Macías, J.L., and Siebe, C., (Editor), Penrose Conference. UNAM, Metepec, Puebla, Mexico, pp. 35.

  19. Hydrogeology in the sub basins of apan-tochac, Hidalgo and Tlaxcala states, Mexico; Hidrogeologia de la subcuencia de apan-tochac, estados de Hidalgo y Tlaxcala, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizar Alvarez, Rafael [Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    This study presents the hydrogeologic model of the Apan-Tochac sub-basin, obtained from geologic and geo electric soundings. These data were interpreted with the lithological description of three well-logs. This information allows to identify and map three different aquifers: intergranular, fissure and mixed. These three aquifers are hydraulically connected. The first one is located in the discharge zone and has semi-confined conditions in the center of the Tochac plain and is unconfined toward the periphery of the same plan. The other two aquifers are located mainly in the recharge zone. The hydraulic conductivity values are: 3x10-3 ms{sub 1} a 10-4 ms{sub 1} for the intergranular aquifer, 3x10-3 ms{sub 1} for the fissured and the third aquifer has not data available but it is assigned a value of 2x10-6 ms{sub 1}. The chemical analyses of groundwater (anions and cations) indicate that its mineralization forms two hydrochemical facies: a low mineralization facies corresponding to the recharge area, and a high mineralization facies corresponding to the discharge zone. The results also show that groundwater is of good quality for human consumption (Secretaria de Salubridad y Asistencia, and the World Health Organization), except for the concentrations of lead and chromium due to incipient contamination. Therefore, it is necessary to start actions to protect the aquifers and to foresee possible damages in the health of the inhabitants of the region, which use this groundwater. The preliminary hydrogeologic balance shows that the aquifer system of this sub-basin is almost in equilibrium. [Spanish] Este estudio presenta el modelo hidrogeologico de la subcuenca Apan-Tochac, apoyado en la informacion geologica y sondeos geoelectricos, interpretados estos ultimos con la descripcion litologica de tres perforadores. De esta forma, se reconocio y cartografio los siguientes acuiferos: (i) intergranular, (ii) fisurado y (iii) mixto. Estos tres acuiferos tienen relacion hidraulica. El primero forma la zona de descarga, es de tipo semiconfinado hacia el centro de la planicie Tochac y de condicion libre hacia la periferia de la misma. Los dos ultimos se localizan en la zona recarga principalmente. Los valores de la conductividad hidraulica son: 3x10-3 ms-1 a 10-4 ms-1 para el integranular, 3x10-3 ms-1 para el fisurado, el tercero no tuvo datos, pero se le asigno un valor de 2x10-6 ms-1. El analisis de los aniones y cationes del agua subterranea indica que por su mineralizacion existen en esa subcuenca dos facies hidroquimicas: (a) baja mineralizacion, que corresponde a la zona de recarga, y (b) alta mineralizacion, correspondiente a la zona de descarga, manifestando la direccion del flujo del agua subterranea. Asimismo, de acuerdo con la norma de calidad del agua (mexicana y de la Organizacion Mundial de la Salud), el agua de esta area es de buena calidad para consumo humano; la presencia de Pb y Cr en el agua de varios pozos, manifiesta que es preciso iniciar acciones para proteger los acuiferos y prever posible dano en la salud de la poblacion de esta zona. El balance hidrogeologico preliminar muestra que el sistema acuifero de esta subcuenca esta casi en equilibrio.

  20. Air Pollutant Characterization in Tula Industrial Corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100 m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000 m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average PM10 at Jasso (JAS and Tepeji (TEP was 75.1 and 36.8 μg/m3, respectively while average PM2.5 was 31.0 and 25.7 μg/m3. JAS was highly impacted by local limestone dust, while TEP was a receptor of major sources of combustion emissions with 70% of the PM10 constituted by PM2.5. Average hourly aerosol light absorption was 22 Mm−1, while aerosol scattering (76 Mm−1 was higher compared to a rural site but much lower than at Mexico City. δ13C values in the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata show that the emission plume directly affects the SW sector of Mezquital Valley and is then constrained by a mountain range preventing its dispersion. Air pollutants may exacerbate acute and chronic adverse health effects in this region.

  1. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Carribbean area, and Mexico in 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, C.S.

    1982-11-01

    Petroleum developments in 1981 continued in the pattern of recent years of increasing exploration and exploitation in response to the second catastrophic surge in crude oil prices thrust on the world economy in 1979. Production of crude oil increased in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Guatemala, and Mexico, whereas Venezuela, Trinidad, Peru, and Bolivia experienced declines. Exploratory surveys, exploratory drilling, and development drilling all increased in most of the countries reporting. Significant successful exploratory drilling is reported for several countries. In Argentina, the producing zone of the Austral basin has been extended farther offshore, and is reportedly productive in what is apparently the upper Malvinas basin. In Brazil, extensions to several producing areas are reported in the Campos basin. Also, the Jurua gas province of western Amazonas reportedly had an encouraging extension. Colombia had several discoveries in the Magdalena basins, but the 2 Llanos discoveries are considered much more significant. For a variety of reasons, several countries have undertaken or are undertaking changes in laws and regulations to attract foreign companies into exploration risk ventures. In some countries, exploitation ventures are also offered.

  2. [Aquatic insects in dune lakes of the central region of the Gulf of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Luis A; Deloya, Cuauhtémoc; Moreno-Casasola, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to register the presence of aquatic insects during the rainy and dry seasons, in 15 dune lakes of the Gulf of Mexico's coastal zone. These ecosystems lodge a wealth of 62 families, 60 of them present during the rainy season and 46 during the dry period. At both times Coleoptera is the order with a greater number of families, followed by Diptera. The first one is the most diverse, but Chironomidae (Diptera) is the most abundant, representing 40% of the total number of individuals. We used high rank taxa to quantify the biodiversity based on the principle that a high number of families or genus is supposed to include a greater number of species. There were not significant differences in the alpha diversity within the same lake during the two climatic seasons. The trophic structure is dominated by the detritivorous groups (57% of scrapers, collectors, gatherers, shredders), followed by predators (38%) and herbivores (5%). These numbers indicate that dune lakes have a great amount of organic matter. The results obtained contradict our working hypothesis, thus it was rejected, in summary, because there were no important differences in family composition, abundance of individuals and trophic structure of the lakes between the rainy and dry seasons.

  3. Late Holocene Vegetation Change in the Sierra Madre Oriental of Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conserva, Maria Elena; Byrne, Roger

    2002-09-01

    Past vegetation and climate changes reconstructed from a sediment core from Laguna Atezca, Molango, Mexico, provide new insights into the environmental and cultural histories of the Sierra Madre Oriental during the last 1700 yr. Pollen, microscopic charcoal, sediment chemistry, loss on ignition, and magnetic susceptibility indicate that three phases of human occupation, deforestation, and erosion (ca. A.D. 280-890, ca. A.D. 1030-1420, and ca. A.D. 1680-present) alternate with two phases of abandonment (ca. A.D. 890-1030 and ca. A.D. 1420-1680). Forest composition of the two abandonment phases differed, with cloud forest taxa ( Liquidambar, Ostrya/Carpinus, Ulmus, etc.) dominating the pollen record during the first phase, and Quercus and Pinus pollen characterizing phase two. These differences may reflect a climate change in which the second phase was drier than the first; Alternatively, the increase in Pinus and Quercus may have been caused by a human-induced decline in soil fertility. The Laguna Atezca record also differs from several other Mesoamerican paleoenvironmental records in that it shows no evidence of drought at the end of the Classic Period, ca. A.D. 900.

  4. Air Pollutant Characterization in Tula Industrial Corridor, Central Mexico, during the MILAGRO Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, G.; Vega, E.; González-Avalos, E.; Mora, V.; López-Veneroni, D.

    2013-01-01

    Pollutant emissions and their contribution to local and regional air quality at the industrial area of Tula were studied during a four-week period as part of the MILAGRO initiative. A recurrent shallow stable layer was observed in the morning favoring air pollutants accumulation in the lower 100 m atmospheric layer. In the afternoon the mixing layer height reached 3000 m, along with a featuring low level jet which was responsible of transporting air pollutants at regional scales. Average PM10 at Jasso (JAS) and Tepeji (TEP) was 75.1 and 36.8 μg/m3, respectively while average PM2.5 was 31.0 and 25.7 μg/m3. JAS was highly impacted by local limestone dust, while TEP was a receptor of major sources of combustion emissions with 70% of the PM10 constituted by PM2.5. Average hourly aerosol light absorption was 22 Mm−1, while aerosol scattering (76 Mm−1) was higher compared to a rural site but much lower than at Mexico City. δ 13C values in the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata show that the emission plume directly affects the SW sector of Mezquital Valley and is then constrained by a mountain range preventing its dispersion. Air pollutants may exacerbate acute and chronic adverse health effects in this region. PMID:23484131

  5. A taxonomic study of Albizia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae: Ingeae) in Mexico and Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Rico Arce, María de Lourdes; Gale, S. L.; Maxted, N.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Albizia is economically and environmentally important because many elements are multipurpose trees. A taxonomic study of 12 Central American and Mexican Albizia species is presented. Identification keys, illustrations and ecological information are provided together with some taxonomic comments. Distribution maps and conservation status are given for each native species in the area. Three epithets are lectotypyfied and three new name combinations are made. An interactive identificat...

  6. Characterization of a Mineral of the District of Zimapan, Mina Concordia, Hidalgo, for the Viability of the Recovery of Tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Reyes P.; Miguel, Perez L.; Julio, Cesar Juárez T.; Aislinn, Michelle Teja R.; Francisco, Patiño C.; Mizraim, Uriel Flores G.; Iván, A. Reyes D.

    A sulfide-type mineral of the district of Zimapan, Hidalgo, Mexico, was chemically and mineralogically analyzed with the aim of detecting minor species with added value for their subsequent beneficiation. Apart from the usual species of the site, the X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) detected the presence of tungsten sulfate (WS2) and the mineral species typical of a base-metal sulfide site, as well as impurities such as: orthoclase, quartz, magnesium-silicon oxide, magnesioferrite, monticellite, andradite, magnetite and calcite, the latter being the mineral matrix. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) mapping confirmed the presence of the typical elements of the mineral: W, Si, O, Mg, Ca, C, Al, K, Fe, S, Zn and Cu. The Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICP) analysis indicates an average concentration of 380 g W ton"1, as well as 1.81% Zn, 3.41% S, 0.15% Cu, 2.36% Fe, 0.78% Pb, 0.04% Mn, Sb 0.05% and 0.01% Ag. This mineral is a potential source for the extraction of tungsten

  7. Herbivory of sympatric elk and cattle on Lincoln National Forest, south-central New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather H. Halbritter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Wildlife and livestock grazing are important products of forest ecosystems, but can be controversial. Herbivory by North American elk and domestic cattle is a contentious management issue throughout western North America, often driving management proposals to decrease cattle and elk numbers based on perceived overutilization of forages. Such observations are often site level rather than landscape, and may confuse ecological sustainability with desired conditions. Methods We used line transects to document vegetation composition, structure, and grazing and browsing utilization for 4 key habitat types: mountain meadows, aspen, thinned conifer, and burned conifer on Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, USA. We documented relative habitat use of these types by elk, mule deer, and cattle and modeled relative use on residual grass biomass of mountain meadows and browse utilization of forested types. We determined diets and diet quality of elk and cattle to assess degree of competition. Results Use of grasses in meadows was below management thresholds, and combined elk, cattle, and deer relative habitat use accounted for < 14 % of the variance in residual stubble height of Poa pratensis, the most abundant grass. Palatable browse was limited in habitat types (< 107 stems·ha -1 , use was generally high, and elk presence was correlated with the majority of browsing. Elk and cattle diets did not significantly overlap (Schoener’s index 0.54–0.57; elk fed primarily on deciduous shrubs (34 %–55 % of annual diets and cattle on grass (72 %–77 %. Digestibility and crude protein levels of cattle diets and body condition of elk indicated high quality diets for cattle and marginal–good quality diets for elk. Conclusions At observed stocking levels and densities, cattle and elk were not competing for forage based on diet similarity, nor were key habitat types being used beyond sustainable levels. Low browse availability indicates that

  8. Symbolism and ritual practices related to hunting in Maya communities from central Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Fita, Dídac; Naranjo, Eduardo J; Estrada, Erin I J; Mariaca, Ramón; Bello, Eduardo

    2015-09-29

    Some Mayan peasant-hunters across the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico still carry out a hunting ritual -Loojil Ts'oon, Loj Ts'oon or Carbine Ceremony- in which they renew the divine permission for hunting in order to continue deserving the gift of prey after a period of hunt. Thus they are granted access to game by the gods and the Lords of the Animals, particularly the spirit/evil-wind call. This paper focuses on the acts within the Loojil Ts'oon -which is performed in the X-Pichil community and surrounding area- that make it unique among the hunting rituals performed in other parts of the Peninsula. The Loojil Ts'oon hunting ritual was observed and registered in audiovisual format in two different occasions in X-Pichil (Friday 04/29/2011 and Friday 07/29/2011). Afterwards, we delivered digital videodisks (DVD) to hunters and their families and to the j-men (the magic-medic-ritual specialist) who participated in these ceremonies. This delivery produced confidence among participants to talk more openly and in-depth about the Loojil Ts'oon, revealing symbolic, psychological, and material details previously unknown to outsiders. Qualitative information was obtained through the ethnographic method using techniques such as participant observation and guided tours. Semi-structured interviews were carried out to obtain complementary information. On one hand, we describe the preparation and cleansing of the "Sip soup", as well as its parading and distribution -delivery to the spirit/evil-wind Sip- on the streets of the community (highlingting the role of the rooster as a counter-gift). On the other hand, the cleansing of the jaws (of deer: Odocoileus virginianus, Mazama spp.; and peccaries: Tayassuidae) and their return to the Lords of Animals in the hills so that they may give these animals new life. By performing the Loojil Ts'oon, the act of killing an animal is legitimized. The kill transforms into an exchange to perpetuate life, in which gods and Lords of animals grant

  9. Bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere of three cactus species from semi-arid highlands in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Garrido, J Félix; Montiel-Lugo, Daniel; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Torres-Cortes, Gloria; Millán, Vicenta; Toro, Nicolás; Martínez-Abarca, Francisco; Ramírez-Saad, Hugo C

    2012-05-01

    The nature reserve of Tehuacan-Cuicatlan in central Mexico is known for its diversity and endemism mainly in cactus plants. Although the xerophytic flora is reasonably documented, the bacterial communities associated with these species have been largely neglected. We assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities in bulk (non-rhizospheric) soil and the rhizosphere of three cactus plant species: Mammillaria carnea, Opuntia pilifera and Stenocereus stellatus, approached using cultivation and molecular techniques, considering the possible effect of dry and rainy seasons. Cultivation-dependent methods were focused on putative N(2)-fixers and heterotrophic aerobic bacteria, in the two media tested the values obtained for dry season samples grouped together regardless of the sample type (rhizospheric or non-rhizospheric), these groups also included the non-rhizospheric sample for rainy season, on each medium. These CFU values were smaller and significantly different from those obtained on rhizospheric samples from rainy season. Genera composition among isolates of the rhizospheric samples was very similar for each season, the most abundant taxa being α-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Interestingly, the genus Ochrobactrum was highly represented among rhizospheric samples, when cultured in N-free medium. The structure of the bacterial communities was approached with molecular techniques targeting partial 16S rRNA sequences such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and serial analysis of ribosomal sequence tags. Under these approaches, the most represented bacterial phyla were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The first two were also highly represented when using isolation techniques.

  10. PREVALENCE OF Cryptosporidium spp. AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS IN FEMALE CALVES IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Romero Salas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and its associated risk factors in female calves in central Veracruz, Mexico. A cross-sectional study with a convenience sampling was conducted. One fecal sample was obtained from each of 120 female calves. The lateral flow immunochromatographic (LFIC and the Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN tests were performed. A questionnaire was applied in each farm to obtain individual and herd information. Overall prevalence was 3.33% (CI95% 1-8 through LFIC and 12.50% (CI95% 8-20 through ZN. Prevalence by municipality was 0 to 9.1% (CI95% 0.03-0.24 through LFIC and 0 to 30.43% (CI95% 16-51 through ZN. Prevalence by age was 0% at 31-45 days and 9.10% at 1-15 days through LFIC, and 0% at 31-45 days and 18.8% at 1-15 days through ZN. The calves with diarrhea had the highest prevalence, which was 14.3% (CI95% 3-51 through LFIC and 57.1% (CI95% 25-84 through ZN. The protective factors were calves housed in individual stalls, compared with those in common stalls but separated one from the other (OR=0.27; 0.09-0.85, P

  11. Economic contribution of draught animals to Mazahua smallholder Campesino farming systems in the highlands of Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga-Jordán, C M; Pedraza-Fuentes, A M; Velázquez-Beltrán, L G; Nava-Bernal, E G; Chávez-Mejía, M C

    2005-10-01

    The economic contribution of draught animals to smallholder Mazahua campesino systems in two mountain villages of San Felipe del Progreso, in the central highlands of Mexico, was assessed. Campesinos rely on draught animals for cultivation tasks, as pack animals, and as transport for agricultural and domestic activities. The villages were San Pablo Tlalchichilpa (SPT) and La Concepción Mayorazgo (LCM). Twelve households that possessed draught animals were monitored from July 1999 to June 2000, nine in SPT and three in LCM, in terms of animal inventories and income from their draught animals, in cash and opportunity values. Equines in SPT have substituted bulls, and are recognized for their multipurpose contribution, while in LCM bulls are still used for ploughing the land. Overall total mean gross income was US dollar 490.78 per farm per year, plus US dollar 56 as opportunity value of the fertilizer value of manure for both villages. Deducting estimated costs, owning draught animals leaves a mean net margin of US dollar 412.50/year in SPT and of US dollar 285.64/year in LCM. There is a significant correlation (p campesino families.

  12. Late Cretaceous volcanism in south-central New Mexico: Conglomerates of the McRae and Love Ranch Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman-Fahey, J.L.; McMillan, N.J.; Mack, G.H.; Seager, W.R. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Evidence to support Late Cretaceous volcanism in south central New Mexico is restricted to a small area of 75-Ma-old andesitic rocks at Copper Flats near Hillsboro, and volcanic clasts in the McRae (Late Cretaceous/Paleocene ) and Love Ranch (Paleocene/Eocene). Formations located in the Jornada del Muerto basin east and northeast of the Caballo Mountains. Major and trace element data and petrographic analysis of 5 samples from Copper Flats lavas and 40 samples of volcanic clasts from the McRae and Love Ranch conglomerates will be used to reconstruct the Cretaceous volcanic field. The McRae Formation consists of two members: the lower Jose Creek and the upper Hall Lake. The lowermost Love Ranch Formation is unconformable in all places on the Hall Lake Member. Stratigraphic variations in clast composition from volcanic rocks in the lower Love Ranch Formation to Paleozoic and Precambrian clasts in the upper Love Ranch Formation reflect the progressive unroofing of the Laramide Rio Grande Uplift. Volcanic clasts in the McRae and Love Ranch Formations were derived from the west and south of the depositional basin, but the source area for McRae clasts is less well constrained. Stratigraphic, chemical, and petrographic data will be used to reconstruct the volcanic complex and more clearly define magma genesis and metasomatism associated with Laramide deformation.

  13. Artificial nest predation in hedgerows and scrub forest in a human-dominated landscape of central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuria, Iriana; Gates, J. Edward; Castellanos, Ignacio

    2007-03-01

    Hedgerows as well as other narrow corridors could be valuable habitats for birds in regions of intensive agriculture, however, it is still not clear how successful breeding birds are in different types of hedgerows as compared to birds nesting in their natural habitats. We used artificial nests to examine whether hedgerows were sinks (ecological traps) for birds by comparing rates of predation in two types of hedgerows with different vegetation structure (simple and complex), and in a tract of scrub forest in an agricultural landscape of central Mexico. We determined also the types of predators responsible for egg predation. Ground and elevated nests were baited with one Japanese quail Coturnix japonica egg and one plasticine egg and placed alternately along transects. Significantly, greater predation rates were found in scrub forest and complex hedgerows than in simple hedgerows. Higher predation rates in complex habitats seemed to reflect the higher number of predator types found there. The most important predator types were carnivores followed by rodents, birds, and humans. Carnivores and rodents mainly predated ground nests, whereas birds and humans predated elevated nests. Simple hedgerows in this landscape appeared to offer relatively safe nest sites in terms of predation pressure when compared to more complex habitats (complex hedgerows and scrub forest).

  14. Terminal Pleistocene to early Holocene volcanic eruptions at Zuni Salt Lake, west-central New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Jill; Forman, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Zuni Salt Lake (ZSL) is a large maar in the Red Hill-Quemado volcanic field located in west-central New Mexico in the southwestern USA. Stratigraphic analysis of sections in and around the maar, coupled with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating, indicate that ZSL volcanic activity occurred between ˜13.4 and 9.9 ka and was most likely confined to a ≤500-year interval sometime between ˜12.3 and 11.0 ka. The basal volcanic unit consists of locally widespread basaltic ash fallout interpreted to represent a violent or wind-aided strombolian eruption tentatively attributed to Cerro Pomo, a scoria cone ˜10 km south of ZSL. Subsequent eruptions emanated from vents near or within the present-day ZSL maar crater. Strombolian eruptions of multiple spatter and scoria cones produced basaltic lava and scoria lapilli fallout. Next, a phreatomagmatic eruption created the maar crater and surrounding tephra rim and apron. ZSL eruptions ended with strombolian eruptions that formed three scoria cones on the crater floor. The revised age range of ZSL is younger and more precise than the 190-24 ka 2-sigma age range derived from previous argon dating. This implies that other morphologically youthful, argon-dated volcanoes on the southern margin of the Colorado Plateau might be substantially younger than previously reported.

  15. Crust and upper-mantle seismic anisotropy variations from the coast to inland in central and Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Jorge; Pérez-Campos, Xyoli; Valenzuela, Raúl; Husker, Allen; Ferrari, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Subduction zones are among the most dynamic tectonic environments on Earth. Deformation mechanisms of various scales produce networks of oriented structures and faulting systems that result in a highly anisotropic medium for seismic wave propagation. In this study, we combine shear wave splitting inferred from receiver functions and the results from a previous SKS-wave study to quantify and constrain the vertically averaged shear wave splitting at different depths along the 100-station MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment array. This produces a transect that runs perpendicular to the trench across the flat slab portion of the subduction zone below central and southern Mexico. Strong anisotropy in the continental crust is found below the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and above the source region of slow-slip events. We interpret this as the result of fluid/melt ascent. The upper oceanic crust and the overlying low-velocity zone exhibit highly complex anisotropy, while the oceanic lower crust is relatively homogeneous. Regions of strong oceanic crust anisotropy correlate with previously found low Vp/Vs regions, indicating that the relatively high Vs is an anisotropic effect. Upper-mantle anisotropy in the southern part of the array is in trench-perpendicular direction, consistent with the alignment of type-A olivine and with entrained subslab flow. The fast polarization direction of mantle anisotropy changes to N-S in the north, likely reflecting mantle wedge corner flow perpendicular to the TMVB.

  16. Levels of total organic carbon in The Suelo de Conservación of the Distrito Federal, Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Vela Blanco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Suelo de Conservación (SC of the Distrito Federal (Central Mexico is a reservoir of carbon, so it is important to have storage-capacity data under different types of vegetation. In this paper we estimated the total organic carbon content in soils (TOCS of land cover areas of forest, forested areas and agricultural use. Geomorphogenetic units were delineated that were the basis for soil sampling. In total 50 sites were considered with soil samples taken at a 0-30 cm depth with different land cover. We determined the total amount of organic carbon in soil (TOCS from an equation considering the bulk density, porosity and surface area. The highest content of TOCS is presented in the soils of sites reforested with Abies religiosa, Pinus spp. and Pinus-Cupressus. The agricultural soils contain less than a half of COS in relation the forest soils. Higher levels of TOCS content are located in the Las Cruces and Guadalupe Ranges, as well as the volcanic soils of the Pelado, Tláloc and Cuautzin volcanoes. Local administrative units whose soils have the highest concentration of TOCS are Cuajimalpa and Magdalena Contreras. It is necessary to assess, from an economic-environmental approach the ecosystem services provided by the SC, in this case as a soil carbon storage, so that economic incentives are attractive to the local land-owners.

  17. Economic analysis of alternative nutritional management of dual-purpose cow herds in central coastal Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalón-Medina, Victor Antonio; Nicholson, Charles F; Blake, Robert W; Fox, Danny Gene; Juárez-Lagunes, Francisco I; Canudas-Lara, Eduardo G; Rueda-Maldonado, Bertha L

    2012-08-01

    Market information was combined with predicted input-output relationships in an economic analysis of alternative nutritional management for dual-purpose member herds of the Genesis farmer organization of central coastal Veracruz, Mexico. Cow productivity outcomes for typical management and alternative feeding scenarios were obtained from structured sets of simulations in a companion study of productivity limitations and potentials using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model (Version 6.0). Partial budgeting methods and sensitivity analysis were used to identify economically viable alternatives based on expected change in milk income over feed cost (change in revenues from milk sales less change in feed costs). Herd owners in coastal Veracruz have large economic incentives, from $584 to $1,131 in predicted net margin, to increase milk sales by up to 74% across a three-lactation cow lifetime by improving diets based on good quality grass and legume forages. This increment is equal to, or exceeds, in value the total yield from at least one additional lactation per cow lifetime. Furthermore, marginal rates of return (change in milk income over feed costs divided by change in variable costs when alternative practices are used) of 3.3 ± 0.8 indicate clear economic incentives to remove fundamental productivity vulnerabilities due to chronic energy deficits and impeded growth of immature cows under typical management. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the economic outcomes are robust for a variety of market conditions.

  18. Gonopodial system review and a new fish record of Poeciliopsis infans (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae) for Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan, central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Villegas, Jorge; Sosa-Lima, F

    2002-01-01

    Since 1997, Poeciliopsis infans Woolman 1894 has been recognized as a new inhabitant of Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan in Central Mexico. Between February 1997 and October 1998, nine fish samples were collected at Lake Patzcuaro. Morphometric and meristic counts were conducted on a random selection of 40 organisms of both sexes of Poeciliopsis infans. Males of these viviparous fish posses a modified anal fin called gonopodium. The characteristic hemal spine on the 18th caudal vertebra for this species is described herein and the bony components of the gonopodial structure and suspensoria that together comprise the gonopodial system, which is important for taxonomic studies at various levels of classification were reviewed. Poeciliopsis infans displays a high degree of sexual dimorphism in body shape and anal fin anatomy with the most conspicuous difference observed in anal fin height, which averages 40% of SI in males and 17% in females. Comparisons between male and female anal fins are described herein as well as the possible impacts of this species on Lake Patzcuaro fish fauna.

  19. Hidalgo County 2010 Census Voting District County-based (VTD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  20. Hidalgo County 2010 Census County Subdivision County-based

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The TIGER/Line Files are shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census...

  1. The Teotihuacan Anomaly: The Historical Trajectory of Urban Design in Ancient Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Michael E.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ancient Mexican city of Teotihuacan had the most aberrant design of any city in ancient Mesoamerica. I examine similarities and differences between the design of Teotihuacan and other Mesoamerican cities. During the Preclassic period, a set of common Mesoamerican planning principles emerged. The designers of Teotihuacan rejected most of these principles in favor of a new and radical set of planning concepts. After the fall of Teotihuacan, subsequent urban planners ignored the Teotihuacan principles and returned to ancient Mesoamerican planning ideas. Elements of the Teotihuacan plan did not resurface until the Mexica of Tenochtitlan revived them for a specific goal. The historical sequence of central Mexican city layouts highlights the anomalous character of Teotihuacan’s principles of urban design within the canons of ancient Mesoamerican urbanism.

  2. Religiosity and Adolescent Substance Use in Central Mexico: Exploring the Influence of Internal and External Religiosity on Cigarette and Alcohol Use

    OpenAIRE

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Hoffman, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the multidimensional nature of religiosity on substance use among adolescents living in central Mexico. From a social capital perspective, this article investigates how external church attendance and internal religious importance interact to create differential pathways for adolescents, and how these pathways exert both risk and protective influences on Mexican youth. The data come from 506 self-identified Roman Catholic youth (ages 14–17) living in a semi-rural area in th...

  3. Tillandsia usneoides L, a biomonitor in the determination of Ce, La and Sm by neutron activation analysis in an industrial corridor in Central Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac-Olive, K. [Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Tollocan s/n, esq. Jesus Carranza, Toluca, 50120 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Solis, C., E-mail: corina@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Martinez-Carrillo, M.A; Andrade, E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Lopez, C.; Longoria, L.C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Salazar, 50045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lucho-Constantino, C.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Carretera Pachuca-Cd. Sahagun, Km. 20., Hidalgo, Mexico (Mexico); Beltran-Hernandez, R.I. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo. Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo km. 4.5, 42184, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2012-04-15

    The atmosphere of the Tula Industrial Corridor in Central Mexico is contaminated due to several industries including oil refining while station monitoring in this area are limited. Lanthanides are considered fingerprint of oil refinery activities, and La, Ce and Sm have been previously detected in this area using filters. The suitability of T. usneoides as a biomonitor assessing the La, Ce and Sm concentrations in Particulate Matter is evaluated by NAA. Results of both biomonitor and filters are highly correlated.

  4. Host compatibility of the cloud forest mistletoe Psittacanthus schiedeanus (Loranthaceae) in Central Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buen, Lorena López de; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2002-01-01

    The consequences of the seed deposition of the parasitic mistletoe Psittacanthus schiedeanus were evaluated in a 32-mo study. We conducted a field seed inoculation experiment to determine variation in seed adhesion, seed germination, seedling establishment, and plant survival to reproduction among five host species and to evaluate whether these post-dispersal processes explain mistletoe prevalence and specificity at the regional scale. Seeds without an exocarp were inoculated onto branches of individuals of the five most common host species identified in nature in central Veracruz, México. Seed fate was monitored for 2 yr, at weekly intervals for the first 2 mo and at 2-mo intervals thereafter. The height and diameter of experimental host branches and canopy cover above them were measured to see if these factors affected mistletoe establishment. Significant differences in seed attachment and seed germination were found among host species. Fewer seeds remained attached on experimental branches of Quercus germana than those of Liquidambar styraciflua, Acacia pennatula, and Platanus mexicana. Although significant differences in seed germination were observed among species (significantly greater on A. pennatula), >70% of mistletoe seeds germinated within the first 5 wk on all host species. Towards the end of the inoculation experiment, more mistletoe seedlings survived, grew, and then flowered on Liquidambar styraciflua than on A. pennatula, P. mexicana, Q. germana, or Q. leiophylla. Host branch initial height and diameter did not affect seedling survival, but seedlings survived better on trees where the canopy was more open. Our results suggest that Liquidambar styraciflua is the most compatible host species with P. schiedeanus in central Veracruz. Not surprisingly, Liquidambar is by far the most common host tree for P. schiedeanus in this area as well. We suggest that the observed local specialization is a result of seed dispersal as consequence of bird foraging and

  5. Risk factors for diabetes, but not for cardiovascular disease, are associated with family history of Type 2 diabetes in subjects from central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Ginez, Irma; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo; Baez-Duarte, Blanca G; Revilla-Monsalve, Cristina; Brambila, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    Independent of obesity, family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (FHT2DM) is another important risk factor for developing diabetes. To establish the association among FHT2DM, risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in subjects from central Mexico. Clinical and biochemical studies were performed in 383 first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes and 270 subjects unrelated to patients with type 2 diabetes-all subjects were from the city of Puebla in central Mexico. Logistic regressions were used to assess the association between FHT2DM and metabolic parameters. Cardiovascular risk was classified by dyslipidemia and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). FHT2DM was associated with risk factors for diabetes, such as increased fasting insulin levels (OR = 1.731, 95% CI = 1.041-2.877), decreased insulin sensitivity (OR = 1.951, 95% CI = 1.236-3.080) and pre-diabetes (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.14-2.33). FHT2DH was not associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as dyslipidemia (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.70-1.79) and FRS (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.40-1.36) when adjusted for gender, age, smoking and obesity. Diabetic risk factors, but not cardiovascular disease risk factors, are associated with a positive family history of diabetes in subjects from central Mexico, independent of the presence of obesity.

  6. Two new species of the genus Notropis Rafinesque, 1817 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) from the Lerma River Basin in Central Mexico Dos nuevas especies del género Notropis Rafinesque, 1817 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae), de la cuenca del río Lerma, México central

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Domínguez-Domínguez; Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez; Luis Humberto Escalera-Vázque; Ignacio Doadrio

    2009-01-01

    Prior findings suggest the existence of undescribed species among the cyprinids of central Mexico. Within the genus Notropis distributed across central Mexico and adjacent areas sometimes reaching southern basins, two groups have been recognized: a Southern Mexican clade and a central Mexican clade. Within this last clade, Notropis calientis has been defined as a species complex of four small minnows inhabiting upland areas. Here we describe two new species of this complex based on morphometr...

  7. RELATIONS, GENDER AND SEXUALITY AMONG RURAL YOUTH OF SALINAS DE HIDALGO, SAN LUIS POTOSÍ, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Tania Hernández-Guerrero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to reflect on the influence of traditional socio-cultural beliefs about sexuality and reproduction of rural youth in Salinas de Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí, and present the perceptions and practices of gender relations regarding sexuality and reproduction among rural adolescents Salinas de Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí. The theoretical foundation is based on the Gender Perspective and Feminism. Qualitative methodology in-depth interviews and participatory observation. Fieldwork was conducted in Salinas de Hidalgo, San Luis Potosi in 2012 with young population, family, prosecutors and social worker.

  8. Hidalgo Sets Sail: A School District Supports All Students in Earning College Credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodine, Thad R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Hidalgo Independent School District made an ambitious commitment. In partnership with nearby University of Texas-Pan American, the University of Texas System, the Communities Foundation of Texas/Texas High School Project, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the district promised that all of its students, not just a select…

  9. A taxonomic study of Albizia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae: Ingeae in Mexico and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico Arce, María de Lourdes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Albizia is economically and environmentally important because many elements are multipurpose trees. A taxonomic study of 12 Central American and Mexican Albizia species is presented. Identification keys, illustrations and ecological information are provided together with some taxonomic comments. Distribution maps and conservation status are given for each native species in the area. Three epithets are lectotypyfied and three new name combinations are made. An interactive identification electronic key is available from the authors if requested. Full specimen records are available at www.kew.org/herbcat .El género Albizia tiene importancia económica y ecológica porque en su mayoría está integrado por árboles con usos múltiples. Se presenta un estudio taxonómico para 12 especies con distribución en México y Centro América, se incluyen claves para la identificación de las especies, ilustraciones, mapas de distribución, estados de conservación de las especies nativas del área y comentarios ecológicos y taxonómicos. Se formaliza la lectipificacion de tres epítetos y se proponen tres nuevas combinaciones. Una clave electrónica interactiva para la identificación de las especies se puede solicitar a los autores. Finalmente el conjunto completo de los ejemplares de herbario puede ser consultado en el sitio Web de los Jardines Reales de Kew: www.kew.org/herbcat.

  10. GPR and Magnetic Modeling on an Archaeological Site in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, R. E.; Argote, D. L.; Camara, M. E.; Cifuentes, G.; Lopez, P.

    2007-05-01

    A geophysical study was carried out in an archaeological site called Los Teteles de Ocotitla, which means `bunch of rocks'. The area is located within the central portion of the Sierra de Ocotitla, towards the northeast of La Malinche volcano, in the municipality of Altzayanca, State of Tlaxcala. This site is conformed of several artificial terraces with evidence of human occupation, probably from the Teotihuacan or Tenanyecac phase. At first the presence of several hills, which are the remains of small pyramids can be seen. Also, some exposed walls and floors can be appreciated. The geophysical work included magnetic (vertical field) and GPR observations in five terraces. The magnetic data depicted a series of dipolar anomalies probably related to walls, and stairways. A report from a previous archaeological excavation carried out almost 30 years ago on an upper terrace, mentioned the discovery of an ancient burial. The tomb was a room (3x2x2 m3) to a depth of 1 m, where corpse remains were found, along other archaeological artifacts. Magnetic and GPR profiles were observed in this area to define geophysical signatures of the mentioned ancient structure, to later compare with anomalies obtained in other terraces. Two interesting anomalies were observed in two lower terraces that compared well with the signatures obtained. The magnetic anomalies were modeled employing a 3D inverse approach, assuming that the Earth is conformed of a series of magnetic dipoles. The final result produced a magnetic block of 5x3x3 m3 to a depth of 1.5 m, approximately. The GPR anomalies helped to constrain the initial geometry of the archaeological structure.

  11. Morphological and molecular data for a new species of Pomphorhynchus Monticelli, 1905 (Acanthocephala: Pomphorhynchidae) in the Mexican redhorse Moxostoma austrinum Bean (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Varela, Martín; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; Choudhury, Anindo; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2017-11-01

    Pomphorhynchus purhepechus n. sp. is described from the intestine of the Mexican redhorse Moxostoma austrinum Bean (Catostomidae) in central Mexico. The new species can be distinguished from the other seven described species of Pomphorhynchus Monticelli, 1905 in the Americas by a subspherical proboscis and 14 longitudinal rows with 16-18 hooks each; the third and the fourth row of hooks are alternately longest. Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and the large subunit (LSU) rDNA (including the domains D2-D3) were used to corroborate the morphological distinction between the new species and Pomphorhynchus bulbocolli Linkins in Van Cleave, 1919, a species widely distributed in several freshwater fish species across Canada, USA, and Mexico. The genetic divergence estimated between the new species and the isolates of P. bulbocolli ranged between 13 and 14% for cox1, and between 0.6 and 0.8% for LSU. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses of each dataset showed that the isolates of P. bulbocolli parasitising freshwater fishes from three families, the Catostomidae, Cyprinidae and Centrarchidae, represent a separate lineage, and that the acanthocephalans collected from two localities in central Mexico comprise an independent lineage. In addition, our analysis of the genetic variation of P. bulbocolli demonstrates that individuals of this acanthocephalan from different host species are conspecific. Finally, the distribution, host-association, and phylogenetic relationship of the new species, when placed in the context of the region's geological history, suggest that both host and parasite underwent speciation after their ancestors became isolated in Central Mexico.

  12. Initial Time Of Two High Altitude Crater Lakes (Nevado De Toluca, Central Mexico Recorded In Subfossil Cladocera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeroczyńska Krystyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the recognition and reconstruction of the origin of two high altitude lakes and the ecological conditions of their early existence based on subfossil Cladocera and chemical analyses. The study focused on the oldest lacustrine sediments from Lake Sol and Lake Luna, located in the crater of Volcano Nevado de Toluca (Central Mexico. The Nevado de Toluca crater developed approximately 12 ka yr BP. According to the literature, the volcano was last active approximately 3.3 ka yr BP, and the lakes developed after that eruption. The remains of nine Cladocera species were found in the bottom sediments of both lakes. The most dominant taxa were two endemic littoral species: Alona manueli and Iliocryptus nevadensis. The total frequency of Cladocera specimens in both of the sediment cores was very low. No Cladocera remains were recorded in the sediment layer at depths between 123–103 m from Lake Luna. The results of the lithological and geochemical analyses showed that this sediment layer was composed of allochthonous material, probably originating from slid down from the volcanic cone. This was suggested by the content of silica (up to 13%, iron (up to 12%, and titanium (up to 4%. The Cladocera remains recorded in the bottom sediments suggested that both reservoirs developed as freshwater lakes at the beginning of the sedimentation. The calibrated radiocarbon dates obtained for the bottom samples were 4040 to 3990 yr BP for Lake Luna (129 cm and 4485 to 4485 yr BP for Lake Sol (89 cm. The obtained ages were older than the dates of the last eruption, which occurred approximately 3300 yr BP. This result was likely related to the type of radiocarbon dated materials (charcoals.

  13. Contribution of family labour to the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy production systems in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadas-Domínguez, Rodolfo Rogelio; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Martínez-Castañeda, Francisco Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the effect of family labour on the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy farms in the highlands of Central Mexico. Economic data from 37 farms were analysed from a stratified statistical sampling with a Neyman assignment. Three strata were defined taking herd size as criterion. Stratum 1: herds from 3 to 9 cows plus replacements, Stratum 2: herds from 10 to 19 cows and Stratum 3: herds from 20 to 30 cows. The policy analysis matrix was used as the method to determine profitability and competitiveness. The coefficient of private profitability (CPP) when the economic cost of family labour is included in the cost structure was 8.0 %, 31.0 % and 46.0 %. When the economic cost of family labour is not included, CPP increase to 47.0 %, 57.0 % and 66.0 % for each strata, respectively. The private cost ratio (PCR) when family labour is included was 0.79, 0.51 and 0.42 for strata 1, 2 and 3, respectively. When family labour is not included, the PCR was 0.07, 0.25 and 0.26. Net profit per litre of milk including family labour was US$0.03 l(-1) for Stratum 1, US$0.09 for Stratum 2 and US$0.12 l(-1) for Stratum 3; but increased to $0.12, 0.14 and 0.15, respectively, when the economic cost of family labour is not included. It is concluded that family labour is a crucial factor in the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy production.

  14. Effect of habitat disturbance on pollination biology of the columnar cactus Stenocereus quevedonis at landscape-level in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Oseguera, A G; Casas, A; Herrerías-Diego, Y; Pérez-Negrón, E

    2013-05-01

    Stenocereus quevedonis ('pitire') is a columnar cactus endemic to central Mexico, grown for its edible fruit. Phenology, pollination biology and behaviour of flower visitors of this species were compared in six conserved and disturbed sites, hypothesising that: (i) pitire pollination is self-incompatible, requiring animal vectors; (ii) higher incidence of radiation on plants in cleared forest may lead to a higher number of flowers per pitire plant and longer blooming season, and disturbing and differential spatial availability of flower resources may determine differential attraction of pollinators to conserved and disturbed areas; (iii) if pitire pollination system is specialised, reproductive success would decrease with pollinator scarcity, or other species may substitute for main pollinators. In all sites, pitire reproduction started in January, flowering peak occurring in April, anthesis duration was 15 h and predominantly nocturnal (9 h), pollen was released at 23:00 h, nectar was produced throughout anthesis, and breeding system was self-incompatible. Flower production per plant was similar in disturbed and conserved sites, but flower availability was higher (because of higher tree density) and longer in disturbed sites. Pollination is nocturnal, the most frequent legitimate pollinator being the bat Leptonycteris yerbabuenae; diurnal pollination is rare but possible, carried out by bee species. Fruit and seed set in control and nocturnal pollination treatments at disturbed sites were higher than in conserved sites. Frequency of L. yerbabuenae visits was similar among site types, but more visits of complementary nocturnal and diurnal pollinators were recorded in disturbed sites, which could explain differences in reproductive success. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Revisions to the stratigraphic nomenclature of the Abiquiu Formation, Abiquiu and contiguous areas, north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian; Kelley, Shari A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratigraphic studies and geologic mapping on the Abiquiu 7.5-min quadrangle have led to revision of the stratigraphic nomenclature for the Oligocene to Miocene Abiquiu Formation in north-central New Mexico. The Abiquiu Formation had previously been defined to include informal upper, middle (Pedernal chert member), and lower members. The basement-derived conglomeratic lower member in the northern Jemez Mountains and Abiquiu embayment is here redefined. We propose removing the "lower member" from the Abiquiu Formation because provenance of these coarse sediments is dramatically different than the volcaniclastic strata of the "upper member." Furthermore, we propose that the term "lower member of the Abiquiu Formation" be replaced with an existing unit name, the Ritito Conglomerate of Barker (1958), and that the name Abiquiu Formation be restricted to the volcaniclastic succession. The lower part of the Ritito Conglomerate in Arroyo del Cobre on the Abiquiu quadrangle is 47 m (155 ft) thick and is composed of arkosic conglomeratic beds interbedded with arkosic sands and siltstones. Clasts include, in descending order of abundance, Proterozoic quartzite, granite, metavolcanic rocks, quartz, schist, and gneiss and a trace of Mesozoic sandstone and Paleozoic chert. Clasts are predominantly of pebble and cobble size but range from granule to boulder size. Paleocurrent data collected in the Arroyo del Cobre area indicate that the Ritito Conglomerate was deposited by a south-flowing river system during the Oligocene, eroding Laramide highlands such as the Tusas Mountains to the northeast, which contain predominantly Proterozoic rocks. This depositional setting has also been suggested by previous workers. The middle member or Pedernal chert member is present both at the top of the Ritito Conglomerate and as lenses within the lower part of the Abiquiu Formation. This post-depositional diagenetic chert remains an informal unit called the Pedernal chert.

  16. Quaternary volcanism in the Acambay graben, Mexican Volcanic Belt: Re-evaluation for potential volcanic danger in central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Lacan, P.; Roldan-Quintana, J.; Ortuňo, M.; Zuniga, R. R.; Laurence, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) is best known for the major active stratovolcanoes, such as Popocatépetl, Citlaltépetl and Colima. The most common stratovolcanoes in this province are modest-size cones with heights of 800 to 1000 m. Examples are Tequila, Sangangüey, Las Navajas, Culiacán, La Joya, El Zamorano, Temascalcingo and Altamirano; these last two were formed within the Acambay Graben in central MVB. The Acambay graben (20 x 70 km) is 100 km to the NW of Mexico City, with E-W trending seismically active normal faults; in particular the Acambay-Tixmadejé fault related to a mB =7 earthquake in 1912. Within the graben there are many volcanic structures, including calderas, domes, cinder cones and stratovolcanoes; Temascalcingo and Altamirano are the largest, with about 800 and 900 m heights, respectively. Temascalcingo is mostly composed of dacitic lavas and block and ash flow deposits. Includes a 3 x 2.5 km summit caldera and a magmatic sector collapse event with the associated debris avalanche deposit. 14C ages of 37-12 ka correspond to the volcano's latest phases that produced pyroclastic deposits. A major plinian eruption formed the San Mateo Pumice with an age of deposits, and pumice fallouts. Morphologically is better preserved than Temascalcingo, and it should be younger. 14C ages of 4.0-2.5 ka were performed in charcoal within pyroclastic flow deposits that apparently were erupted from Altamirano. An undated 3 m thick pumice fallout on the flanks of Altamirano volcano could be also Holocene. It represents a major explosive event. The relatively young ages found in volcanic deposits within the Acambay graben raise the volcanic danger level in this area, originally thought as an inactive volcanic zone. The two major volcanoes, Temascalcingo and Altamirano, should be considered as dormant volcanoes that could restart activity at any time. We thanks grant DGAPA-UNAM-PAPIIT IN-104615.

  17. Megacities air pollution problems: Mexico City Metropolitan Area critical issues on the central nervous system pediatric impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Kulesza, Randy J; Doty, Richard L; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    The chronic health effects associated with sustained exposures to high concentrations of air pollutants are an important issue for millions of megacity residents and millions more living in smaller urban and rural areas. Particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) concentrations close or above their respective air quality standards during the last 20 years affect 24 million people living in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Herein we discuss PM and O3 trends in MCMA and their possible association with the observed central nervous system (CNS) effects in clinically healthy children. We argue that prenatal and postnatal sustained exposures to a natural environmental exposure chamber contribute to detrimental neural responses. The emerging picture for MCMA children shows systemic inflammation, immunodysregulation at both systemic and brain levels, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, small blood vessel pathology, and an intrathecal inflammatory process, along with the early neuropathological hallmarks for Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases. Exposed brains are briskly responding to their harmful environment and setting the bases for structural and volumetric changes, cognitive, olfactory, auditory and vestibular deficits and long term neurodegenerative consequences. We need to improve our understanding of the PM pediatric short and long term CNS impact through multidisciplinary research. Public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce fine PM levels and pediatric exposures and establishing preventative screening programs targeting pediatric populations that are most at risk. We fully expect that the health of 24 million residents is important and blocking pediatric air pollution research and hiding critical information that ought to be available to our population, health, education and social workers is not in the best interest of our children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The diversity of the Chagas parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, infecting the main Central American vector, Triatoma dimidiata, from Mexico to Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Dorn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the strains of Trypanosoma cruzi circulating in Central America and specifically in the most important vector in this region, Triatoma dimidiata. Approximately six million people are infected with T. cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, which has the greatest negative economic impact and is responsible for ~12,000 deaths annually in Latin America. By international consensus, strains of T. cruzi are divided into six monophyletic clades called discrete typing units (DTUs TcI-VI and a seventh DTU first identified in bats called TcBat. TcI shows the greatest geographic range and diversity. Identifying strains present and diversity within these strains is important as different strains and their genotypes may cause different pathologies and may circulate in different localities and transmission cycles, thus impacting control efforts, treatment and vaccine development. To determine parasite strains present in T. dimidiata across its geographic range from Mexico to Colombia, we isolated abdominal DNA from T. dimidiata and determined which specimens were infected with T. cruzi by PCR. Strains from infected insects were determined by comparing the sequence of the 18S rDNA and the spliced-leader intergenic region to typed strains in GenBank. Two DTUs were found: 94% of infected T. dimidiata contained TcI and 6% contained TcIV. TcI exhibited high genetic diversity. Geographic structure of TcI haplotypes was evident by Principal Component and Median-Joining Network analyses as well as a significant result in the Mantel test, indicating isolation by distance. There was little evidence of association with TcI haplotypes and host/vector or ecotope. This study provides new information about the strains circulating in the most important Chagas vector in Central America and reveals considerable variability within TcI as well as geographic structuring at this large geographic scale. The lack of association with particular vectors

  19. A comparison of speleothem and lake sediment core \\delta18O records from the north-central Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodell, D. A.; Brenner, M.; Curtis, J. H.; Gallup, C. C.

    2004-12-01

    Paleoclimate studies in the Maya lowlands of Mesoamerica using lake sediment cores revealed relationships between times of drought and Maya cultural change. Here we test lake-based climatic inferences using oxygen isotopes of calcite from a stalagmite collected in a cave near Hobonil, Mexico, on the northern-central Yucatan Peninsula. The 30-cm stalagmite (Hobo-2) yielded a basal U/Th age of 1746\\pm123 years ( ˜250 AD.). This suggests that it grew throughout the Early and Late Classic Periods (250 - 800 AD.) when the Maya reached their cultural apex, and during the terminal Classic Period ( ˜800-1000 AD.) when the civilization declined. Samples were drilled every 0.5 mm along the speleothem growth axis, yielding a mean temporal sampling resolution of 2.5 years, assuming a constant growth rate of ˜0.2 mm per year. The mean \\delta18O value over the stalagmite's length is -3.3\\permil with a range of ˜2\\permil (from -2.3 to -4.3\\permil). Oxygen isotope variation in Hobo-2 is interpreted to reflect the \\delta18O of weighted mean annual precipitation, which is correlated with rainfall amount in the region. Evaporation effects on \\delta18O are also possible because the stalagmite was collected relatively near the cave entrance. We define dry conditions as periods when \\delta18O values exceed 1-standard deviation of the mean. The longest duration of dry climate for the last 1750 yrs occurred during the Terminal Classic period between ~800 and 1000 AD, confirming previous paleolimnological evidence for a protracted drought at that time. Dry events of shorter duration are centered at ˜620, 1410, and 1620 AD. The speleothem chronology is preliminary and based on the assumption of constant growth rate. Nonetheless, the oxygen isotope record of Hobo-2 is very similar to the \\delta18O records from shell carbonate in nearby Lakes Chichancanab and Punta Laguna, providing independent evidence of the climate history of the north-central part of the Yucatan Peninsula

  20. Gonopodial system review and a new fish record of Poeciliopsis infans (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae for Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan, central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Galindo-Villegas

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1997, Poeciliopsis infans Woolman 1894 has been recognized as a new inhabitant of Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan in Central Mexico. Between February 1997 and October 1998, nine fish samples were collected at Lake Patzcuaro. Morphometric and meristic counts were conducted on a random selection of 40 organisms of both sexes of Poeciliopsis infans. Males of these viviparous fish posses a modified anal fin called gonopodium. The characteristic hemal spine on the 18,h caudal vertebra for this species is describes herein and the bony components of the gonopodial structure and suspensorio that together comprise the gonopodial system, which is important for taxonomic studies at various levels of classification were reviewed. Poeciliopsis infans displays a high degree of sexual dimorphism in body shape and anal fin anatomy with the most conspicuous difference observed in anal fin height, which averages 40% of SI in males and 17% in females. Comparisons between male and female anal fins are describes herein as well as the possible impacts of this species on Lake Patzcuaro fish fauna.A partir de Febrero de 1997 la especie Poeciliopsis infans Woolman 1894 es reconocida como un habitante más en las aguas del Lago de Pátzcuaro, el cual se sitúa en la meseta central mexicana. Nueve colectas ictiológicas se efectuaron en este lago dentro del periodo comprendido entre febrero de 1997 y octubre de 1998. Conteos meristicos y mediciones morfométricas se efectuaron en 40 organismos de ambos sexos seleccionados al azar. Los machos de esta especie presentan una aleta anal modificada que recibe el nombre de gonopodio. En este artículo se llevo a cabo una revisión y se describe la dieciochoava espina hemal que es una característica única de esta especie así mismo se describe el sistema gonopódico el cual está comprendido por la estructura gonopodial y el suspensorio. P. infans muestra un alto grado de dimorfismo sexual tanto en la forma del cuerpo como en

  1. The diversity of the Chagas parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, infecting the main Central American vector, Triatoma dimidiata, from Mexico to Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Patricia L; McClure, Annie G; Gallaspy, Meghan D; Waleckx, Etienne; Woods, Adrienne S; Monroy, Maria Carlota; Stevens, Lori

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about the strains of Trypanosoma cruzi circulating in Central America and specifically in the most important vector in this region, Triatoma dimidiata. Approximately six million people are infected with T. cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, which has the greatest negative economic impact and is responsible for ~12,000 deaths annually in Latin America. By international consensus, strains of T. cruzi are divided into six monophyletic clades called discrete typing units (DTUs TcI-VI) and a seventh DTU first identified in bats called TcBat. TcI shows the greatest geographic range and diversity. Identifying strains present and diversity within these strains is important as different strains and their genotypes may cause different pathologies and may circulate in different localities and transmission cycles, thus impacting control efforts, treatment and vaccine development. To determine parasite strains present in T. dimidiata across its geographic range from Mexico to Colombia, we isolated abdominal DNA from T. dimidiata and determined which specimens were infected with T. cruzi by PCR. Strains from infected insects were determined by comparing the sequence of the 18S rDNA and the spliced-leader intergenic region to typed strains in GenBank. Two DTUs were found: 94% of infected T. dimidiata contained TcI and 6% contained TcIV. TcI exhibited high genetic diversity. Geographic structure of TcI haplotypes was evident by Principal Component and Median-Joining Network analyses as well as a significant result in the Mantel test, indicating isolation by distance. There was little evidence of association with TcI haplotypes and host/vector or ecotope. This study provides new information about the strains circulating in the most important Chagas vector in Central America and reveals considerable variability within TcI as well as geographic structuring at this large geographic scale. The lack of association with particular vectors/hosts or ecotopes

  2. Religiosity and adolescent substance use in central Mexico: exploring the influence of internal and external religiosity on cigarette and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Ayers, Stephanie L; Hoffman, Steven

    2012-03-01

    This study explores the multidimensional nature of religiosity on substance use among adolescents living in central Mexico. From a social capital perspective, this article investigates how external church attendance and internal religious importance interact to create differential pathways for adolescents, and how these pathways exert both risk and protective influences on Mexican youth. The data come from 506 self-identified Roman Catholic youth (ages 14-17) living in a semi-rural area in the central state of Guanajuato, Mexico, and attending alternative secondary schools. Findings indicate that adolescents who have higher church attendance coupled with higher religious importance have lower odds of using alcohol, while cigarette use is lower among adolescents who have lower church attendance and lower religious importance. Adolescents are most at risk using alcohol and cigarettes when church attendance is higher but religious importance is lower. In conclusion, incongruence between internal religious beliefs and external church attendance places Mexican youth at greater risk of alcohol and cigarette use. This study not only contributes to understandings of the impact of religiosity on substance use in Mexico, but highlights the importance of understanding religiosity as a multidimensional phenomenon which can lead to differential substance use patterns.

  3. Water-quality assessment of the Central Arizona Basins, Arizona and northern Mexico; environmental setting and overview of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Gail E.; Rees, Julie A.; Edmonds, Robert J.; Gebler, Joseph B.; Wirt, Laurie; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.; Anning, David W.

    1998-01-01

    The Central Arizona Basins study area in central and southern Arizona and northern Mexico is one of 60 study units that are part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. The purpose of this report is to describe the physical, chemical, and environmental characteristics that may affect water quality in the Central Arizona Basins study area and present an overview of water quality. Covering 34,700 square miles, the study area is characterized by generally north to northwestward-trending mountain ranges separated by broad, gently sloping alluvial valleys. Most of the perennial rivers and streams are in the northern part of the study area. Rivers and streams in the south are predominantly intermittent or ephemeral and flow in response to precipitation such as summer thunderstorms. Effluent-dependent streams do provide perennial flow in some reaches. The major aquifers in the study area are in the basin-fill deposits that may be as much as 12,000 feet thick. The 1990 population in the study area was about 3.45 million, and about 61 percent of the total was in Maricopa County (Phoenix and surrounding cities). Extensive population growth over the past decade has resulted in a twofold increase in urban land areas and increased municipal water use; however, agriculture remains the major water use. Seventy-three percent of all water with drawn in the study area during 1990 was used for agricultural purposes. The largest rivers in the study area-the Gila, Salt, and Verde-are perennial near their headwaters but become intermittent downstream because of impoundments and artificial diversions. As a result, the Central Arizona Basins study area is unique compared to less arid basins because the mean surface-water outflow is only 528 cubic feet per second from a total drainage area of 49,650 square miles. Peak flows in the northern part of the study area are the result of snowmelt runoff; whereas, summer thunderstorms account for the peak flows in

  4. Hidalgo County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  5. Hidalgo County Block Groups, Housing Vacancy Status (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  6. Hidalgo County Block Groups, Median Age by Sex (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  7. Hidalgo County Block Groups, Households by Type (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  8. Hidalgo County Block Groups, Housing Occupancy Status (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  9. Hidalgo County Block Groups, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  10. Hidalgo County Blocks, Race and Hispanic Ethnicity (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  11. Identification of phenolic compounds by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in seventeen species of wild mushrooms in Central Mexico and determination of their antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Elhadi M; Gutiérrez-Orozco, Fabiola; Moreno-Pérez, Marco A

    2017-07-01

    Wild mushrooms are important for the diet of some communities in Mexico. However, limited information exists on their chemical composition, contribution to the diet, and health effects. We characterized seventeen wild mushroom species growing in the state of Queretaro in Central Mexico. Most species analyzed were edible, but also included nonedible, medicinal, poisonous and toxic specimens. Whole mushrooms (caps and stipes) were characterized for water content, color, and total content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins. In vitro antioxidant capacity was measured by FRAP and DPPH assays. Phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by HPLC-mass spectrometry. All species analyzed were found to possess antioxidant activity in vitro and a wide range of phenolic and organic compounds were identified. Our results add to the limited information available on the composition and potential nutritional and health value of wild mushrooms. Further analyses of their bioactivities are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diffuse control of gas turbines in power stations of combined cycle; Contral difuso de turbinas de gas en centrales de ciclo combinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez P, Marino; Garduno R, Raul; De Lara J, Salvadror; Castelo C, Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this article the application of the technology of the fuzzy logic to the control of gas turbines is presented in order to evaluate it in one of the most difficult processes and with stricter control requirements that exist in the electrical generation industry. For being important for the generation electrical sector, given their use in Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), the first selected prototype was the gas turbines model W501 of Westinghouse, installed in the of combined cycle power stations of Dos Bocas, Veracruz, Gomez Palacio, Durango and Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. The second selected prototype was the one of the turbo gas units type 5001 (that applies to the GE 5001 models and Westinghouse of series 191 and 251). Based on the analysis of the performance of the system of conventional control previously made, the controllers of speed and generation of electrical power were selected to be replaced by diffuse controllers. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta la aplicacion de la tecnologia de la logica difusa al control de turbinas de gas con el proposito de evaluarla en uno de los procesos mas dificiles y con requerimientos mas estrictos de control que existen en la industria de generacion electrica. Por ser importantes para el sector electrico de generacion, dada su utilizacion en Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), el primer prototipo seleccionado fueron las turbinas de gas modelo W501 de Westinghouse, instaladas en la central de ciclo combinado de Dos Bocas, Veracruz, Gomez Palacio, Durango y Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. El segundo prototipo seleccionado fue el de unidades turbogas tipo 5001 (que aplica a los modelos GE 5001 y Westinghouse de la serie 191 y 251). Basados en el analisis del desempeno del sistema de control convencional realizado previamente, los controladores de velocidad y de generacion de potencia electrica fueron seleccionados para ser sustituidos por controladores difusos.

  13. Sedimentary Record of the Back-Arc Basins of South-Central Mexico: an Evolution from Extensional Basin to Carbonate Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Rojas, M. I.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Lawton, T. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Cretaceous depositional systems of southwestern Oaxaquia, in south-central Mexico, were controlled by tectonic processes related to the instauration of a continental arc and the accretion of the Guerrero arc to mainland Mexico. The Atzompa Formation refers to a succession of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, and limestone that crop out in southwestern Mexico with Early Cretaceous fauna and detrital zircon maximum depositional ages. The sedimentary record shows a transition from early fluvial/alluvial to shallow marine depositional environments. The first stage corresponds to juvenile fluvial/alluvial setting followed by a deep lacustrine depositional environment, suggesting the early stages of an extensional basin. The second stage is characterized by anabranched deposits of axial fluvial systems flowing to the NE-SE, showing deposition during a period of rapid subsidence. The third and final stage is made of tidal deposits followed, in turn, by abrupt marine flooding of the basin and development of a Barremian-Aptian carbonate ramp. We interpret the Tentzo basin as a response to crustal extension in a back-arc setting, with high rates of sedimentation in the early stages of the basin (3-4 mm/m.y), slower rates during the development of starved fluvial to tidal systems and carbonate ramps, and at the top of the Atzompa Formation an abrupt deepening of the basin due to flexural subsidence related to terrane docking and attendant thrusting to the west. These events were recorded in the back-arc region of a continental convergent margin (Zicapa arc) where syn-sedimentary magmatism is indicated by Early Cretaceous detrital and volcanic clasts from alluvial fan facies west of the basin. Finally, and as a response to the accretion of the Guerrero superterrane to Oaxaquia during the Aptian, a carbonate platform facing toward the Gulf of Mexico was established in central to eastern Oaxaquia.

  14. Persistence of Carbonate Platform Environments in Central Mexico during the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2: impact of the Carribean Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomou, Brahimsamba; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl; Arnaud-Vanneau, Annie; Fleitmann, Dominik

    2010-05-01

    The Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 is described as an interruption of normal pelagic sediment deposition by several distinct intervals of widespread oceanic anoxia (Schlanger & Jenkyns, 1976; Jenkyns, 1980; Arthur et al., 1990) characterized by black shales deposition coinciding with a positive shift in carbon isotope excursion. Some authors show a relationship between OAEs and massive volcanic events associated with the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) and sea floor spreading at mid-ocean ridges (Kuroda et al., 2007; Snow et al., 2005). High metal abundance anomalies recorded in pelagic sections (e.g. Pueblo, Colorado) coincide with the massive volcanism that built the Carribean plateau (around 93-94 Ma), associated with the onset of OAE 2 (Snow et al., 2005). Mort et al., (2007) demonstrate that the onset of the OAE 2 was triggered by a short-lived but significant increase in phosphorus burial. The bottom waters became anoxic and switched from being a P sink to a P source, sustaining the productivity in a positive feedback loop. However, the behaviour of phosphorus and trace metals at larger scale, in different paleogeography and paleodepht is still poorly known. The Axaxacualco and Baranca el Cañon sections, located at the Guerrero-Morelos carbonate platform in southern Mexico exhibit a fully correlateable d13C curves. In the distal part of the carbonate platform at Axaxacualco, the maximum d13C positive excursion coincides with oligotrophic carbonate platform environments supported by low concentrations in P and characterized by abundant and diversified benthic microfauna and rudists. The impact of OAE appears may be more significant in the proximal part of the carbonate platform at Barranca, characterized by the deposition of thick laminated microbialites indicative of mesotrophic conditions. The Morelos Carbonate platform with oligotrophic to mesotrophic conditions was persistent throughout the entire OAE2 in Central Mexico despite

  15. Consumo de alcohol y drogas en estudiantes de Pachuca, Hidalgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Guiot Estela

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Determinar la prevalencia del consumo de drogas y bebidas alcohólicas entre estudiantes, así como la relación de este consumo con variables sociodemográficas, tiempo libre, actos antisociales, normas y conflictos familiares, entre otras. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Los datos se derivan de una encuesta representativa de 1 929 estudiantes de enseñanza media y media superior de la ciudad de Pachuca, estado de Hidalgo, México, levantada en 1996, de los cuales 44.9% son hombres y 52.5% mujeres, con una media de edad de 14 años. Se utilizó un cuestionario autoaplicable, que incluye indicadores de consumo de drogas y alcohol elaborados por algunos países, entre ellos México, con la Organización Mundial de la Salud. RESULTADOS. El 47.9% ha probado bebidas alcohólicas; 12.6% bebieron cantidades considerables -cinco copas o más por ocasión- durante el mes anterior a la encuesta. Las bebidas preferidas son la cerveza y los coolers; el alcohol lo compraron principalmente en tiendas donde no les piden identificación y lo consumen en su casa o en la de otras personas. El 5.1% ha consumido drogas, sobre todo inhalables, mariguana y tranquilizantes. Una cifra mayor de varones consume drogas ilegales, y las mujeres, medicamentos sin prescripción. Un número superior de hombres toma más cantidades de alcohol y consume drogas, tienen mayor edad y trabajaron de medio tiempo durante el año anterior a la encuesta. Los consumidores de drogas y de altas cantidades de alcohol se distinguieron porque un número considerable informó que se aburría en su tiempo libre, se va a beber con sus amigos o ha cometido actos antisociales. Respecto a la familia, manifiestan cumplir menos con las normas parentales y muestran menor interés en hacerlo. Asimismo, un porcentaje más elevado informó que sus padres pelean con frecuencia, han pedido ayuda por esa razón y han intentado separarse. CONCLUSIONES. Los estudiantes que beben cantidades elevadas de alcohol

  16. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2015-10-21

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is hydrologically defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande through the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project began. A 20-percent population increase in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent population increase from 2000 to 2010 resulted in an increased demand for water.

  17. TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO: Definition and List of Community Land Grants in New Mexico. Exposure Draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Sandoval Casa Colorado (Town of) 1823 Socorro Cebolla (Juan Carlos Santistevan) 1846 Taos Domingo Fernández (Ethan W. Eaton; Pueblo de San Cristóbal...Dismissed by claimant Cebolla 1896 f f Juan Carlos Santistevan Chaca Mesa 1895 1899 47,258.71 Ignacio Chávez Chamisos Arroyo Rejected Bartolomé Marques

  18. Employment performance by sector in Hidalgo, County, Texas, 2007–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vera Vázquez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the sectoral performance of the economy of Hidalgo County, Texas, using as reference the 2007–2011 recession period of the U.S. economy. The results of the investigation show that Hidalgo County avoided the contraction of the U.S. employment rate of –4.4%, as evidenced by a positive local employment rate of 5.2%. This recession–proof profile is explained by its orientation toward a service economy, including the public administration sector as a strategic field for correcting market failures. The shift–share technique was applied to provide an account of sectoral performance, supplied with data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The data obtained are discussed in the framework of the theoretical discussion related to the implementation of Keynesian–style active policies.

  19. Enigmas y paradojas en El Cerco Oblicuo de Gonzalo Hidalgo Bayal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo Revilla, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the analysis of El cerco oblicuo (1993, by Gonzalo Hidalgo Bayal. Through the study of the intertextual links that form the imaginery universe of this travel novel, we try to explain some of the thematic and stylistic key elements that are characteristic of the labryinthine and enigmatic construction of the author’s narrative.El presente artículo se centra en el análisis de El cerco oblicuo (1993, de Gonzalo Hidalgo Bayal. A través del estudio de las huellas intertextuales que configuran el universo imaginario de esta novela de viaje, pretendemos dilucidar algunas de sus claves temáticas y estilísticas que presiden su construcción narrativa laberíntica y enigmática.

  20. Epidemiology of central nervous system tumors at the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez-Pérez, L; Jiménez-Marcial, M E; Martínez-Martínez, J E

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of different Central Nervous System Tumors (CNST) diagnosed at the Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery) from Mexico City over a 10-year period (1990 to 1999) by means of a hospital survey. This institute is a reference hospital that provides medical attention to a very high number of adult neurological patients every year (approximately 6,000 new patients per year besides emergency cases). From a total number of 2,041 CNST cases, we found that the most frequent tumors were those affecting the neuroepithelial tissue (32.8 %), followed by tumors of the anterior pituitary gland (26.2 %) and tumors of the meninges and similar tissues (24.1 %). In both, male and female patients the higher frequency of CNST was found in patients whose age ranged from 25 to 44 years, and CNST were slightly more frequent in women than in men. Most of the CNST patients lived in the southern districts of Mexico City, it could be because of the great number of people living in the southern districts of the city, or perhaps due to the presence of certain yet unidentified environmental carcinogenic substance in this area. Since CNST are among the more frequent malignant neoplasms, it is necessary to improve the registration system to include frequency, prevalence, incidence and mortality of these diseases in Mexico, in order to plan health policies like in developed countries.

  1. The Impact of Education on Views of Homosexuality in the Senior Clergy of Hidalgo County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, John; Perez, Pamela R; Ramírez-Johnson, Johnny

    2016-06-01

    This study explores clergy perspectives on homosexuality and mental health. Interviews were conducted with 245 senior clergy of faith-based organizations in Hidalgo County, Texas. Analyses revealed that the less education the individual had, the more likely he or she viewed homosexuals as being more psychologically disturbed than heterosexuals. Clergy also expressed uncertainty in their views and actions regarding referral practices. A need for clergy education on views of homosexuality is documented. Suggestions are made for future research and education.

  2. Use of Network Centrality Measures to Explain Individual Levels of Herbal Remedy Cultural Competence among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Allison

    2011-08-01

    Common herbal remedy knowledge varies and is transmitted among individuals who are connected through a social network. Thus, social relationships have the potential to account for some of the variation in knowledge. Cultural consensus analysis (CCA) and social network analysis (SNA) were used together to study the association between intracultural variation in botanical remedy knowledge and social relationships in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico. CCA, a theory of culture as agreement, was used to assess the competence of individuals in a domain of herbal remedies by measuring individual competence scores within that domain. There was a weak but positive association between these competence scores and network centrality scores. This association disappeared when age was included in the model. People in Tabi, who have higher competence in herbal remedies tend to be older and more centrally located in the herbal remedy inquiry network. The larger implication of the application of CCA and SNA for understanding the acquisition and transmission of cultural knowledge is also explored.

  3. A new species of bark beetle, Dendroctonus mesoamericanus sp nov. (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), in southern Mexico and Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Armendariz-Toledano; Alicia Nino; Brian T. Sullivan; Lawrence R. Kirkendall; Gerado Zunig

    2015-01-01

    The bark beetle Dendroctonus mesoamericanus sp. nov. is described from a population in Parque Nacional Lagunas de Montebello, La Trinitaria, Chiapas, Mexico. This species belongs to the D. frontalis complex, which includes D. adjunctus Blandford 1897, D. approximatus Dietz 1890, D....

  4. 75 FR 70023 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western and Central Planning Areas, Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Oil and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... (excluding whole and partial blocks within the boundary of the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary... expectations for handling predecisional information. Agencies should also consider the ``Factors for... Environment (MS 5410), Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement, Gulf of Mexico OCS...

  5. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer control strategies in Central America: the cases of Costa Rica and Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niens, L.M.; Zelle, S.G.; Gutierrez-Delgado, C.; Rivera Pena, G.; Hidalgo Balarezo, B.R.; Rodriguez Steller, E.; Rutten, F.F.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects were measured in

  6. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer control strategies in Central America: The cases of Costa Rica and Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Niëns (Laurens); S.G. Zelle (Sten); C. Gutiérrez-Delgado (Cristina); A. Peña (Alberto); B.R. Hidalgo Balarezo (Blanca Rosa); E.P. Steller (Erick); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects

  7. 76 FR 14040 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central and Western Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... possible conflicts between future OCS oil and gas activities that may result from the proposed sales and... Western Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales for Years 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... (GOM) Planning Areas to be included in the OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017. Ten lease...

  8. Structural Vulnerability Among Migrating Women and Children Fleeing Central America and Mexico: The Public Health Impact of “Humanitarian Parole”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Elizabeth Salerno; Valdez, Luis A.; Sabo, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Since October 2013, US Customs and Border Patrol has apprehended 15,979 families on the Southwest Border of the US. Daily, migrating women and children from Mexico and Central America that qualify for humanitarian parole are released from immigration detention to a humanitarian aid organization in Southern Arizona. After several days in detention facilities, these families arrive tired, hungry, dehydrated, and with minimal direction regarding their final destination, and adherence to the parameters of their parole. Project helping hands (PHHs) utilizes a network of volunteers to provide the women and children with food, water, clothing, hygiene products, hospitality, and legal orientation. The aim of this assessment was to document the experiences of families granted humanitarian parole through the lens of structural vulnerability. Here, we apply qualitative methods to elicit PHH lead volunteer perspectives regarding the migration experience of migrating families. Using inductive analysis, we found six major themes emerged from the qualitative data: reasons for leaving, experience on the journey, dehumanization in detention, family separation, vulnerability, and resiliency. These findings elucidate the different physical and psychological distresses that migrating families from Mexico and Central America experience before, during and after their arrival at the US–Mexico border. We posit that these distresses are a result of, or exacerbated by, structural vulnerability. Structural vulnerability has life-long health implications for a sub-population of young mothers and their children. The number of migrating families who have experienced traumatic events before and during their migration experience continues to expand and thus warrants consideration of mental health surveillance and intervention efforts for these families. More public health research is needed to better understand and combat the health challenges of this growing population. PMID:26157791

  9. Regional Distribution of Metals and C and N Stable Isotopes in the Epiphytic Ball Moss (Tillandsia Recurvata) at the Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Garcia, A.; López-Veneroni, D.; Rojas, A.; Torres, A.; Sosa, G.

    2007-05-01

    As a part of the MILAGRO Field Campaign 2006, the influence of anthropogenic sources to metal air pollution in the Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo State, was explored by biomonitoring techniques. This valley is a major industrial- agriculture area located in central Mexico. An oil refinery, an electrical power plant, several cement plants with open-pit mines, as well as intensive wastewater-based agricultural areas, all within a 50 km radius, are some of the most important local sources of particulate air pollution. The concentrations of 25 metals and elements were determined by ICP-AES (EPA 610C method) for triplicate composite samples of the "ball moss" (T. recurvata ) collected at 50 sites. In addition, the ratios of two stable isotopes ((13C/12C and 15N/14N) were determined by continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry in order to assess their potential as tracers for industrial emissions. Preliminary results showed high to very high average contents of several metals in the biomonitor compared to values from similar studies in other world regions, indicating a high degree of local air pollution. In contrast, most samples had Ag, As, Be, Se and Tl contents below detection levels (DL = 0.05 mg/kg of sample dry weight) indicating low levels of pollution by these metals. Metals such as Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, Li, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti, V and Zn concentrated the most at the South portion of the valley, where the Tepeji-Tula-Apaxco industrial corridor is located. A transect parallel to the along-wind direction (N-S) showed a higher concentration of metals farther away from the sources relative to a cross-wind transect, which is consistent with the eolian transport of metal-enriched particles. Regional distribution maps of metals in the biomonitor showed that Al, Ba, Fe, Mo, Ni, Sr, Ti and V had higher levels at the industrial sampling sites; whereas K, Na and P were more abundant near to agriculture areas. Vanadium, a common element of crude oil, reflected better the influence from

  10. The Miocene Tepoztlan Formation (Central Mexico) - Key to a Better Understanding of the Initial Phase of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, N.; Hinderer, M.; Hornung, J.; Torres-Alvarado, I.; Boehnel, H.

    2007-12-01

    In Miocene times, a major volcano-tectonic change took place in West and Central Mexico due to a reorganization of the tectonic plates in the western Pacific region. Since the mid-Miocene, the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) began to form. Until present, few data exist on its initial phase since older volcanic products of the TMVB are widely covered by young volcanic rocks. Furthermore, it is hard to infer the volcano-tectonic history of a region from mostly reworked and redeposited rocks. The studied lower to mid-Miocene volcaniclastic deposits (Tepoztlan Formation) of the southern edge of the TMVB are covered by Quaternary volcanic rocks. Based on sedimentological, petrographical, palaeomagnetic, and geochemical studies we aim to establish a stratigraphic framework and a palaeoenvironmental interpretation of the Tepoztlan Formation, contributing to the decipherment of the origin of the TMVB. The 800 m thick Tepoztlan Formation consists of pyroclastic rocks (flow, surge and fall deposits), lahar deposits (debris-flow and hyperconcentrated-flow deposits), fluvial and lacustrine sediments and occasional lava flows. The clastic material is of volcanic origin exclusively, documenting the environmental response and long-term posteruptive sedimentation effects after initial explosive and effusive eruptions. Based on K/Ar analyses, the Tepoztlan Formation is preliminary dated between 21.8 ± 0.2 Ma and 19.0 ± 1.2 Ma. Palaeomagnetic data show several pole reversals within the studied sequence, allowing a more precise subdivision of the depositional period and thus a better correlation of the sections. Principally, the volcanic rocks of the Tepoztlan Formation show andesitic to dacitic composition; basaltic andesite and rhyolite samples are also present. REE patterns are homogenous with enrichment in LREE and no remarkable element anomaly is present, probably indicating a single magmatic origin. This hypothesis is supported by the relatively short period of deposition

  11. Potential postwildfire debris-flow hazards—A prewildfire evaluation for the Jemez Mountains, north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Haas, Jessica R.

    2016-08-11

    and Rio Grande-Santa Fe watershed areas. No subbasins in this group have basin areas less than 1.0 km2. Many of these areas already had significant mass‑wasting episodes following the Las Conchas Fire in 2011. Other subbasins with integrated hazard index values in the top 2 percent are scattered throughout the Jemez River watershed area, including some subbasins in the interior of the Valles Caldera. Only a few subbasins in the top integrated hazard index group are in the Rio Chama watershed area.This prewildfire assessment approach is valuable to resource managers because the analysis of the debris-flow threat is made before a wildfire occurs, which facilitates prewildfire management, planning, and mitigation. In north‑central New Mexico, widespread watershed restoration efforts are being done to safeguard vital watersheds against the threat of catastrophic wildfire. This study was designed to help select ideal locations for the restoration efforts that could have the best return on investment.

  12. Diversidad de reptiles en tres tipos de vegetación del estado de Hidalgo, México Diversity of reptiles in three vegetation types of the Hidalgo state, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raciel Cruz-Elizalde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La zona sureste del estado de Hidalgo presenta diversos tipos de vegetación, como el bosque mesófilo de montaña, bosque de pino-encino y bosque de pino, con alta riqueza de reptiles. En este estudio, se analizó la diversidad alfa y beta de los reptiles en los 3 tipos de vegetación presentes en la zona sureste. Durante el periodo de recolección, de junio 2008 a agosto del 2009, se realizaron 12 salidas, 1 por mes, con duración de 3 días cada una. La diversidad de reptiles está compuesta por 25 especies, incluyendo un registro nuevo para el estado, la culebra Thamnophis scaliger. El bosque mesófilo de montaña (BMM presentó la mayor riqueza, con 15 especies, seguido del bosque de pino (BP, con 13, y el bosque de pino-encino (BPE, con 12. Las asociaciones realizadas entre el BMM-BP y BMM-BPE presentaron la más alta disimilitud en especies, y el menor valor fue para el BPE-BP. Este estudio muestra la riqueza y distribución de las especies de los reptiles en los diferentes tipos de vegetación del sureste del estado y presenta nuevos registros de especies para la entidad. El conocimiento de la riqueza de especies por tipos de vegetación de este estudio sienta las bases sobre la biodiversidad, lo que ayuda a plantear estudios dirigidos a la conservación de este grupo.The southeast of Hidalgo in Mexico includes various vegetation types, such as cloud forest, pine-oak forest and pine forest, all harbouring a high species richness of reptiles. In this study we analyzed the alpha and beta diversity of reptiles in 3 vegetation types in the southeast of the state. The field work period was from June 2008 to August 2009, comprising 12 sampling periods of 3 days, 1 per month. The diversity of reptiles is composed of 25 species, reporting the snake Thamnophis scaliger as a new record for the state. The cloud forest (CF has the highest richness, with 15 species, followed by pine forest (PF, with 13, and finally, the pine-oak forest (POF, with 12

  13. Redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) and description of a new species from freshwater cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

    2013-05-01

    A redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado (An Inst Biol Univ Nal Autón Méx, Ser Zool 49:35-47, 1978) is presented, based on adult specimens collected from the type host Paraneetroplus fenestratus from the type location, the Lago de Catemaco lake, Veracruz state, Mexico, and its presence is recorded in other cichlids. Detailed studies of N. (N.) golvani using light microscopy revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported features, such as the size and shape of fully developed adult males and females, and the structure of the eggs. Morphological variability in N. (N.) golvani is described. Based on these data, the geographic distribution of this species is documented. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) panucensis n. sp. is described from Herichthys labridens (Pellegrin), Amatitlania nigrofasciata (Günther), and Herichthys cyanoguttatus Baird and Girard (all of them Cichlidae), collected in the Río Atlapexco, a tributary to the upper Río Panuco basin, Hidalgo State, Mexico. This new species stand up alone because of its minute proboscis (♂ 50 × 60, ♀ 42-55 (48.5) × 48-63 (57.7)) and anterior hooks (♂ 27-30 (28.8) × 3-5 (4), ♀ 28-32 (30) × 5 (5)). A key to the species of Neoechinorhynchus recorded from freshwater fishes in Central and South America is included.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer control strategies in Central America: the cases of Costa Rica and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niëns, Laurens M; Zelle, Sten G; Gutiérrez-Delgado, Cristina; Rivera Peña, Gustavo; Hidalgo Balarezo, Blanca Rosa; Rodriguez Steller, Erick; Rutten, Frans F H

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Costs were assessed in 2009 United States Dollars (US$). To the extent available, analyses were based on locally obtained data. In Costa Rica, the current strategy of treating breast cancer in stages I to IV at a 80% coverage level seems to be the most cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$4,739 per DALY averted. At a coverage level of 95%, biennial clinical breast examination (CBE) screening could improve Costa Rica's population health twofold, and can still be considered very cost-effective (ICER US$5,964/DALY). For Mexico, our results indicate that at 95% coverage a mass-media awareness raising program (MAR) could be the most cost-effective (ICER US$5,021/DALY). If more resources are available in Mexico, biennial mammography screening for women 50-70 yrs (ICER US$12,718/DALY), adding trastuzumab (ICER US$13,994/DALY) or screening women 40-70 yrs biennially plus trastuzumab (ICER US$17,115/DALY) are less cost-effective options. We recommend both Costa Rica and Mexico to engage in MAR, CBE or mammography screening programs, depending on their budget. The results of this study should be interpreted with caution however, as the evidence on the intervention effectiveness is uncertain. Also, these programs require several organizational, budgetary and human resources, and the accessibility of breast cancer diagnostic, referral, treatment and palliative care facilities should be improved simultaneously. A gradual implementation of early detection programs should give the respective Ministries of Health the time to negotiate the required budget, train the required human resources and understand possible

  15. Volcanic settings and their reservoir potential: An outcrop analog study on the Miocene Tepoztlán Formation, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Nils; Götz, Annette E.

    2011-07-01

    The reservoir potential of volcanic and associated sedimentary rocks is less documented in regard to groundwater resources, and oil and gas storage compared to siliciclastic and carbonate systems. Outcrop analog studies within a volcanic setting enable to identify spatio-temporal architectural elements and geometric features of different rock units and their petrophysical properties such as porosity and permeability, which are important information for reservoir characterization. Despite the wide distribution of volcanic rocks in Mexico, their reservoir potential has been little studied in the past. In the Valley of Mexico, situated 4000 m above the Neogene volcanic rocks, groundwater is a matter of major importance as more than 20 million people and 42% of the industrial capacity of the Mexican nation depend on it for most of their water supply. Here, we present porosity and permeability data of 108 rock samples representing five different lithofacies types of the Miocene Tepoztlán Formation. This 800 m thick formation mainly consists of pyroclastic rocks, mass flow and fluvial deposits and is part of the southern Transmexican Volcanic Belt, cropping out south of the Valley of Mexico and within the two states of Morelos and Mexico State. Porosities range from 1.4% to 56.7%; average porosity is 24.8%. Generally, permeabilities are low to median (0.2-933.3 mD) with an average permeability of 88.5 mD. The lavas are characterized by the highest porosity values followed by tuffs, conglomerates, sandstones and tuffaceous breccias. On the contrary, the highest permeabilities can be found in the conglomerates, followed by tuffs, tuffaceous breccias, sandstones and lavas. The knowledge of these petrophysical rock properties provides important information on the reservoir potential of volcanic settings to be integrated to 3D subsurface models.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer control strategies in Central America: the cases of Costa Rica and Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens M Niëns

    Full Text Available This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted. Costs were assessed in 2009 United States Dollars (US$. To the extent available, analyses were based on locally obtained data. In Costa Rica, the current strategy of treating breast cancer in stages I to IV at a 80% coverage level seems to be the most cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of US$4,739 per DALY averted. At a coverage level of 95%, biennial clinical breast examination (CBE screening could improve Costa Rica's population health twofold, and can still be considered very cost-effective (ICER US$5,964/DALY. For Mexico, our results indicate that at 95% coverage a mass-media awareness raising program (MAR could be the most cost-effective (ICER US$5,021/DALY. If more resources are available in Mexico, biennial mammography screening for women 50-70 yrs (ICER US$12,718/DALY, adding trastuzumab (ICER US$13,994/DALY or screening women 40-70 yrs biennially plus trastuzumab (ICER US$17,115/DALY are less cost-effective options. We recommend both Costa Rica and Mexico to engage in MAR, CBE or mammography screening programs, depending on their budget. The results of this study should be interpreted with caution however, as the evidence on the intervention effectiveness is uncertain. Also, these programs require several organizational, budgetary and human resources, and the accessibility of breast cancer diagnostic, referral, treatment and palliative care facilities should be improved simultaneously. A gradual implementation of early detection programs should give the respective Ministries of Health the time to negotiate the required budget, train the required human resources and understand

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Breast Cancer Control Strategies in Central America: The Cases of Costa Rica and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niëns, Laurens M.; Zelle, Sten G.; Gutiérrez-Delgado, Cristina; Rivera Peña, Gustavo; Hidalgo Balarezo, Blanca Rosa; Rodriguez Steller, Erick; Rutten, Frans F. H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Costs were assessed in 2009 United States Dollars (US$). To the extent available, analyses were based on locally obtained data. In Costa Rica, the current strategy of treating breast cancer in stages I to IV at a 80% coverage level seems to be the most cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$4,739 per DALY averted. At a coverage level of 95%, biennial clinical breast examination (CBE) screening could improve Costa Rica's population health twofold, and can still be considered very cost-effective (ICER US$5,964/DALY). For Mexico, our results indicate that at 95% coverage a mass-media awareness raising program (MAR) could be the most cost-effective (ICER US$5,021/DALY). If more resources are available in Mexico, biennial mammography screening for women 50–70 yrs (ICER US$12,718/DALY), adding trastuzumab (ICER US$13,994/DALY) or screening women 40–70 yrs biennially plus trastuzumab (ICER US$17,115/DALY) are less cost-effective options. We recommend both Costa Rica and Mexico to engage in MAR, CBE or mammography screening programs, depending on their budget. The results of this study should be interpreted with caution however, as the evidence on the intervention effectiveness is uncertain. Also, these programs require several organizational, budgetary and human resources, and the accessibility of breast cancer diagnostic, referral, treatment and palliative care facilities should be improved simultaneously. A gradual implementation of early detection programs should give the respective Ministries of Health the time to negotiate the required budget, train the required human resources and understand possible

  18. Prevalence, concordance and determinants of human papillomavirus infection among heterosexual partners in a rural region in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parada Rocio

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although human papillomavirus (HPV infection in heterosexual couples has been sparsely studied, it is relevant to understand disease burden and transmission mechanisms. The present study determined the prevalence and concordance of type-specific HPV infection as well as the determinants of infection in heterosexual couples in a rural area of Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 504 clinically healthy heterosexual couples from four municipalities in the State of Mexico, Mexico. HPV testing was performed using biotinylated L1 consensus primers and reverse line blot in cervical samples from women and in genital samples from men. Thirty-seven HPV types were detected, including high-risk oncogenic types and low-risk types. Multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to evaluate factors associated with HPV. Results The prevalence of HPV infection was 20.5% in external male genitals and 13.7% in cervical samples. In 504 sexual couples participating in the study, concordance of HPV status was 79%; 34 partners (6.7% were concurrently infected, and 21 out of 34 partners where both were HPV positive (61.8% showed concordance for one or more HPV types. The principal risk factor associated with HPV DNA detection in men as well as women was the presence of HPV DNA in the respective regular sexual partner (OR = 5.15, 95%CI 3.01-8.82. In men, having a history of 10 or more sexual partners over their lifetime (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.3 - 4.8 and having had sexual relations with prostitutes (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.01 - 2.8 increased the likelihood of detecting HPV DNA. Conclusions In heterosexual couples in rural regions in Mexico, the prevalence of HPV infection and type-specific concordance is high. High-risk sexual behaviors are strong determinants of HPV infection in men.

  19. Formation of sulphation deposits in cables in the electricity generation plant of Los Humeros geothermal field, Mexico; Sulfatacion de cables en la central geotermoelectrica Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara Rangel, Agustin [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Perote, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    In the construction of a central electrical generation plant using geothermal fluids, high quality standards are applied in all aspects of engineering. Los Humeros generation units were installed through trenches, ducts and trays according to norms for cables of control, force and power, specifically in point to point cables and connections. Performance of the power plant has been affected by electric momentary and sequence flaws due to problems of cable sulfating, which were solved by tinning the conductors. [Spanish] En la construccion de centrales generadoras de electricidad con fluidos geotermicos se aplican criterios de calidad de diseno en todos los aspectos de la ingenieria. En Los Humeros Puebla, se realizo la instalacion conforme a normas de cables de control, fuerza y potencia a traves de trincheras, ductos y charolas y especificamente en el cableado asi como en las conexiones de punta a punta. Todos estos aspectos son referidos a planos de los componentes y equipos electricos existentes en una central. Al paso del tiempo existieron fallas electricas momentaneas y secuenciales por el problema de sulfatacion en cables, los cuales fueron resueltos con el estanado de conductores.

  20. Children’s Migration to the United States from Mexico and Central America: Evidence from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine M. Donato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of rising numbers of unaccompanied minors at the Mexico-US border in 2014, this article examines child migration from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. Using data from the Mexican and Latin American Migration Projects that permit us to go beyond simple descriptive analysis about children apprehended at the border, we investigate the extent to which children from these countries: (1 enter without legal authorization to do so; (2 are more likely to cross the border now than in the past; and (3 are tied to their parents’ migration. In theory, if immigration and refugee protections worked well for children and offered them legal pathways to reunify with their families, then we would expect low levels of unauthorized entry and no dramatic shifts over time. However, our examination of child migration shows that it is strongly linked to unauthorized entry, period of entry, and parents’ US experience.The findings show that the migration of children is closely linked to their parents’ migration history. Although the overall likelihood of a Mexican child making a first US trip is quite low, it is practically non-existent for children whose parents have no US experience. Thus, the increase in child migration from Central America, and the continued high levels of child migration from Mexico result from widespread migration networks and the United States’ long-standing reliance on the children’s parents as immigrant workers. The findings suggest that these children need protection in the form of family reunification and permanent legal status.

  1. Morphological, morphometrical and molecular (CO1 and ITS) analysis of the rotifer Asplanchna brightwellii from selected freshwater bodies in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Contreras, Jorge; Sarma, S S S; Calderón-Torres, Marissa; Nandini, S

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated different strains of the rotifer Asplanchna brightwellii collected from central Mexico using morphology, morphometry and molecular tools (CO1 and ITS). Three distinct clonal populations from each of the 3 regions (Mexico City, State of Mexico and State of Guerrero) were established under laboratory conditions. For a given waterbody, morphometric comparisons within the populations of A. brightwellii showed almost stable measurements of trophi and with no statistically significant differences among them (p > 0.05). However, asplanchnid body length and width as well as the cyst diameter varied significantly depending on the waterbody from which A. brightwellii was collected. The smallest adults (about 700 microm) were from Valerio Trujano lake (Guerrero State) samples while the largest were from Xochimilco lake. Similar tendencies were reflected in the diameter of resting eggs. In addition, morphologically the cysts of A. brightwellii from the three waterbodies showed slightly different pattern. The number of globular structures on the surface of cysts was smaller for Valerio Trujano strain, while these were larger and less numerous for both Xochimilco and Zumpango strains. The ITS region tree displayed two groups Xochimilco and Valerio Trujano -Zumpango, this analysis did not reflect the morphological grouping; on the contrary the CO1 gene tree separated the populations according to morphological clusters and location (Xochimilco, Valerio Trujano and Zumpango lakes). When the tree was built using the combination of both ITS and CO1 sequences, the phylogenetic relationships observed on CO1 gene were consistent; but showed differences with the relationships observed on ITS region tree (only two groups).

  2. Characterization of obsidian devices come from San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico by Neutron Activation Analysis; Caracterizacion de artefactos de obsidiana provenientes de San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico con Analisis por Activacion Neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almazan T, M.G.; Jimenez R, M.; Monroy G, F.; Tenorio C, D. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an efficient multielemental technique for determination of elements in low concentration (ppm), what has been result useful in the study of origin of archaeological material. In this work that technique was used for characterizing obsidian devices coming from the San Miguel Ixtapan site, Estado de Mexico and it was found that these come from three important beds which are: Sierra de Pachuca, Hidalgo, Zinapecuaro and Zinaparo-Varal in the Michoacan state. (Author)

  3. Subsoil TPH and other petroleum fractions-contamination levels in an oil storage and distribution station in north-central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturbe, Rosario; Flores, Carlos; Flores, Rosa Ma; Torres, Luis G

    2005-12-01

    Many oil industry related sites have become contaminated due to the activities characteristic of this industry, such as oil exploration and production, refining, and petro-chemistry. In Mexico, reported hydrocarbon spills for the year 2000 amounted to 185203, equivalent to 6252 tons (PEMEX, 2000). The first step for the remediation of these polluted sites is to assess the size and intensity of the oil contamination affecting the subsoil and groundwater, followed by a health risk assessment to establish clean up levels. The aim of this work was to characterize the soil and water in a north-central Mexico Oil Storage and Distribution Station (ODSS), in terms of TPHs, gasoline and diesel fractions, BTEX, PAHs, MTBE, and some metals. Besides, measurements of the explosivity index along the ODSS were made and we describe and discuss the risk health assessment analysis performed at the ODSS, as well as the recommendations arising from it. Considering soils with TPH concentrations higher than 2000 mg kg(-1), the contaminated areas corresponding to the railway zone is about 12776.5 m2, to the south of the storage tanks is about 6558 m2, and to the south of the filling tanks is about 783 m2. Total area to be treated is about 20107 m2 (volume of 20107 m3), considering 1m depth.

  4. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 3. Appendix C. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.W.; Fargion, G.S.

    1996-05-24

    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. Appendix C Part 2 contains the hydrogrpahic data collected during TIO Cruises 5-7. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  5. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 3. Appendix C. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.W.; Fargion, G.S.

    1996-05-24

    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. Appendix C Part 1 contains the hydrographic data collected during TIO Cruises 1-4. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  6. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.W.; Fargion, G.S.

    1996-05-24

    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. This volume summarizes the results of the study. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  7. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.W.; Fargion, G.S.

    1996-05-24

    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. This volume summarizes the results of the study. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  8. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 3. Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-24

    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. Appendix B contains the hydrographic data collected during all four NMFS-SEFSC cruises. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  9. Impact of external industrial sources on the regional and local SO2 and O3 levels of the Mexico megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, V. H.; Molina, L. T.; Li, G.; Fast, J.; Sosa, G.

    2014-08-01

    Tlaxcala, eastern Hidalgo, and farther northeast of the State of Mexico, but with rather low values. A first estimate of the potential contribution from flaring activities to regional ozone levels is presented. Results suggest that up to 30% of the total regional ozone from TIC could be related to flaring activities. Finally, the influence on SO2 levels from technological changes in the existing refinery is briefly discussed. These changes are due to the upcoming construction of a new refinery in Tula. The combination of emission reductions in the power plant, the refinery and in local sources in the MCMA could result in higher reductions on the average SO2 concentration. Reductions in external sources tend to affect more the northern part of the basin (-16 to -46%), while reductions of urban sources in the megacity tend to diminish SO2 levels substantially in the central, southwest, and southeast regions (-31 to -50%).

  10. The Authors of the Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Kalenić Ramšak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Even today literary criticism still considers the novel Don Quixote the first modern European novel because it fundamentally changes both the concept of literary creation and the findings regarding literary reception. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra published the first part of his chivalric novel in 1605 in Madrid with the title El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha. He published the second part, titled El ingenioso caballero don Quijote de la Mancha, ten years later (i.e., in 1615, again in Madrid. Why did Cervantes change the title in the second part of his novel and thus transform Don Quixote the hidalgo ‘nobleman’ into Don Quixote the caballero ‘knight, nobleman, horseman’? In Spanish literature of Cervantes’ time, writers often borrowed texts from one another, wrote sequels to them, and reworked them into humorous poems, jocular one-act plays, or unusual parodies. The Baroque concept of imitation was not understood as plagiarism, but rather as a positive approach to creativity. One of Cervantes’ most enthusiastic imitators was Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda. He hated Cervantes, but loved Don Quixote so much that he wrote a sequel to it in the form of a chivalric novel. In 1614, Avellaneda published his novel titled Segundo tomo del ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha (The Second Part of the Ingenious Hidalgo of La Mancha in Tarragona. Who is hidden behind the name Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda? To date, literary history has not been able to establish with certainty who the author of this “second part” was; this work represents the greatest literary mystery of all time in Spanish literature. In the 1960s a theory developed among Cervantes experts that for now seems to be the most convincing in determining Avellaneda’s true identity. In his article “ El Quijote y los libros” (Don Quixote and Books of 1969, Martín de Riquer presented the first well-founded hypothesis claiming that the writer Alonso Fern

  11. 77 FR 29682 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf, Central Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 216/222

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... operations, except: (1) Blocks that were previously included within the GOM's Eastern Planning Area (EPA) and... Continental Shelf, Central Planning Area, Oil and Gas Lease Sale 216/222 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... and Gas Lease Sale: 2012 Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sale 216/222 Authority: This NOA is...

  12. Fiesta! Mexico and Central America: A Global Awareness Program for Children in Grades 2-5. Bridges between Nations Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Barbara; Judd, Dick

    Mexican and Central American cultures are a blend of Native American influences and Spanish traditions and religions. These are seen in aspects of Mexican and Central American celebrations. This book explores those celebrations through activities in art, folk and classical music, dances and fiestas. The book is organized into two sections to…

  13. Geochemistry of soils along a transect from Central Mexico to the Pacific Coast: a pilot study for continental-scale geochemical mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiprés, J.A.; de la Calleja,; Tellez, J.I.; Jiménez, F.; Cruz, Carlos; Guerrero, E.G.; Castro, J.; Monroy, M.G.; Salinas, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mexican Geological Survey (SGM), the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (INEGI) and the Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi (UASLP) have established a multidisciplinary team with the objective of creating a national program of geochemical mapping of soils in Mexico. This is being done as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in partnership with the US Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada. As the first step, a pilot study was conducted over a transect that extends from the Mexico–US border near Ciudad Juarez in the north to the Pacific Ocean in the south. This pilot transect was conducted in two phases, and this paper presents results from the first phase, which sampled soils at about a 40-km spacing along a 730-km transect beginning in Central Mexico and ending at the Pacific Coast. Samples were collected from the A and C horizons at each site and 60 elements were analyzed. This pilot study demonstrates that geochemical mapping based on a 40-km spacing is adequate to identify broad-scale geochemical patterns. Geologic influence (i.e., soil parent material) was the most important factor influencing the distribution of elements along the transect, followed by the influence of regional mineralization. The study also showed that influence by human activities over the transect is minimal except possibly in large mining districts. A comparison of element abundance in the A horizon with the environmental soil guidelines in Mexico showed that the natural concentrations of the studied soils were lower than the established threshold for soil restoration with the exception of V and As. The former had a median value (75 mg/kg) approximately equal to the value established in Mexico for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands (78 mg/kg), and the latter had three values higher than the 22 mg/kg threshold for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands. These cases demonstrate

  14. Ten Years of Rainfall and Community-Based Streamflow Monitoring in the Tropical Montane Cloud Forest Region of Central Veracruz, Mexico: What Do These Data Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holwerda, F.; Aranda-Delgado, E.; Castilleja-Delgado, E.; Munoz-Villers, L.

    2016-12-01

    Montane ecosystems and the water resources provided by them play a crucial role in the development and growth of cities and the productive sector in Mexico. For the planning and sustainable management of these resources, it is necessary to quantify the key hydrological components and have (at least some) basic understanding of the water cycle at the operational watershed-scale. However, the difficulty of implementing and maintaining rainfall-discharge observation networks due to the lack of financial resources and well-trained personnel, coupled with poor accessibility and safety, as well as the complexity of the biophysical and climatic conditions in montane regions have hampered progress in hydrological research and the generation of basic knowledge for the benefit of society. In 2005, research-motivated measurements of rainfall (P) and community-based observations of streamflow (Q) were initiated independently in the tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF) region of central Veracruz, Mexico. In this presentation, we will explore these data to study the seasonal and annual P inputs and Q outputs of the ca. 11,000 ha Pixquiac river watershed as observed during the past ten years (2005-2015). The P data used in this analysis include continuous measurements from the major recharge zone within the study area (2000-2300 m asl), supplemented with observations from lower and higher altitudes to determine the P-elevation relationship. The Q data of the Pixquiac river consist of monthly measurements made near the outlet of the watershed (1300-1400 m asl) by citizen volunteers using the Global Water Watch methodology. We expect that these observations will contribute to an improved understanding of the hydrometeorology of mesoscale TMCF watersheds in central Veracruz, which is a prerequisite for sustainable planning and management of the water resources in this region.

  15. Seismic Scenario in the Acambay Graben and Possible Affectations in the Miguel Hidalgo Refinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama Membrillo, S.; Aguirre, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we presented synthetic acceleration records in the Miguel Hidalgo refinery, Hidalgo due to a seismic scenario originated in the graben Acambay, such as occurred in 1912 (70 km distance to it). This earthquake had a magnitude of 6.9 and caused extensive damage, according to reports caused 164 deaths and numerous houses collapsing. To simulate the event of M = 6.9 we used the empirical Greeńs function method proposed by Irikura (1986). Due to the low seismic activity we have not any small earthquake record or an "element earthquake" so that we generated a synthetic seismogram of M = 4.1 to be used as empirical Greeńs function. The seismogram was constructed in two parts. For low frequencies we constructed from cross-correlations of seismic noise, while for high frequencies we made a stochastic simulation. Subsequently, we applied a "matched filter" to join the two frequency bands of synthetic earthquake. For the construction of seismic scenario the method of Irikura (1986) was used. We consider a square fault of 47.75 km long, a radial rupture propagation, rupture velocity of 3.06 m/s, and with the following focal mechanism: strike of 280°, dip of 66 ° and rake of -138 °. With these parameters we obtained the synthetic seismograms. Since there was not any observed earthquake to validate the model, the 1912 event was simulated and then from relationships of intensity (obtained Wald et al.,2005; Sandoval et al., 2013; and Arias, 1969), we estimated the Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) for the refinery. We compare our result with isoseismal map obtained by Suter et al. (1996) for the earthquake of 1912. In agreement with Suter, our results shown a MMI V-VI for the Miguel Hidalgo refinery. With this qualitative validation we search the seismic scenario with the higher accelerations and from this synthetic seismogram, we obtained parameters that are of interest in engineering to estimate the possible affectations to the Miguel Hidalgo refinery, such as

  16. Cut and carry vs. grazing of cultivated pastures in small-scale dairy systems in the central highlands of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Estefania Pincay-Figueroa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale dairy systems are an option to alleviate poverty and contribute up to 37% of milk production in Mexico; however high costs affect their economic sustainability. Since grazing may reduce feeding costs, a participatory on farm experiment was undertaken to compare animal performance and feeding costs of the traditional cut-and-carry strategy or grazing cultivated pastures, during the dry season in the highlands of Mexico. Pastures of perennial and annual ryegrasses with white clover were utilised, complemented with maize silage and commercial concentrate. Five dairy cows were assigned to each strategy. The experiment ran for 12 weeks, recording weekly milk yields and fat and milk protein content; live-weight and body condition score every 14 days. Analysis was as a split-plot design. The adjusted (covariance mean milk yield was 18.78 kg/cow/day with no significant differences (P>0.05 between treatments, and no significant differences for live-weight or body condition score. There were no significant differences for milk fat (P>0.05, but there were for protein in milk (P

  17. Paleoecological studies at Lake Patzcuaro on the west-central Mexican Plateau and at Chalco in the basin of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, W.A.; Bradbury, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    A 1520-cm sediment core from Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico, is 44,000 yr old at the base. All parts of the core have abundant pollen of Pinus (pine), Alnus (alder), and Quercus (oak) with frequent Abies (fir). The interval dated from 44,000 to 11,000 yr ago has a homogeneous flora characterized by abundant Juniperus (juniper) pollen and frequent Artemisia (sagebrush). It is believed to represent an appreciably drier and colder climate than at present. The Holocene at Lake Patzcuaro is characterized by a moderate increase in Pinus pollen and the loss of Juniperus pollen, as the modern type of climate succeeded. Alnus was abundant until about 5000 yr ago; its abrupt decrease with the first appearance of herbaceous weed pollen may reflect the cutting of lake-shore and stream-course alder communities for agricultural purposes, or it may simply reflect a drying tendency in the climate. Pollen of Zea (corn) appears at Lake Patzcuaro along with low peaks of chenopod and grass pollen at 3500 yr B.P. apparently recording a human population large enough to modify the natural environment, as well as the beginning of agriculture. A rich aquatic flora in this phase suggests eutrophication of the lake by slope erosion. In the most recent period corn is absent from the sediments, perhaps reflecting a change in agricultural practices. The environment changes at Lake Patzcuaro are similar to and correlate with those in the Cuenca de Mexico, where diatom stratigraphy from the Chalco basin indicates fluctuations in lake levels and lake chemistry in response to variations in available moisture. Before 10,000 yr ago climates there were cool and dry, and the Chalco basin was occupied by a shallow freshwater marsh that drained north to Lake Texcoco, where saline water accumulated by evaporation. Increases in effective moisture and possible melting of glaciers during the Holocene caused lake levels to rise throughout the Cuenca de Mexico, and Lake Texcoco flooded the Chalco basin with

  18. Review of the genus Arhaphe (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Largidae) with descriptions of nine new species from Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlík, Jaroslav L; Brailovsky, Harry

    2016-03-24

    Nine new species of the genus Arhaphe Herrich-Schaeffer, 1850 are described: A. ferruginea sp. nov. from Mexico (Guerrero), A. flavoantennata sp. nov. from Costa Rica (Guanacaste Province), Honduras (Intibuca Department) and Nicaragua (Granada Province), A. hirsuta sp. nov. from Mexico (Oaxaca), A. kmenti sp. nov. from Mexico (Guanajuato, Michoacán), A. longula sp. nov. from Mexico (Guerrero), A. magna sp. nov. from Mexico (Colima), A. myrmicoides sp. nov. from Mexico (Guerrero, Nayarit), A. oaxacana sp. nov. from Mexico (Oaxaca), and A. pilifera sp. nov. from Mexico (Nayarit). The fifth instar larvae of A. arguta (Bliven, 1956), A. carolina Herrich-Schaeffer, 1850, A. cicindeloides Walker, 1873, A. flavoantennata sp. nov., A. mexicana Halstead, 1972, and A. morelensis Brailovsky & Marquez, 1974 are described. Additional state faunistic records of the already described species are provided: A. arguta (Bliven, 1956) (Mexico: Guanajuato, Sonora), A. capitata Halstead, 1972 (Costa Rica; Mexico: Chiapas, Estado de México, Guerrero, Michoacán, Oaxaca, Puebla), A. carolina Herrich-Schaeffer, 1850 (Mexico: Guanajuato, Tamaulipas), A. cicindeloides Walker, 1873 (Mexico: Hidalgo, Querétaro), A. deviatica Brailovsky, 1981 (Nicaragua), A. furcata Brailovsky, 1981 (Mexico: Michoacán), A. halsteadi Brailovsky, 1981 (Mexico: Oaxaca), A. mimetica Barber, 1911 (Mexico: Chihuahua), A. morelensis Brailovsky & Marquez, 1974 (Mexico: Estado de México, Guerrero, Puebla), and A. rustica Brailovsky, 1981 (Mexico: Morelos, Oaxaca).

  19. Genetic characterization of indigenous peoples from Oaxaca, Mexico, and its relation to linguistic and geographic isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto-Cortés, Consuelo D; Arriola, Luis A; García-Hughes, Gianella; García-López, Rodrigo; Molina, Diana P; Flores, Margarita; Palacios, Rafael; Piñero, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    We used 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, VWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA) to genetically characterize 361 individuals from 11 indigenous populations (Amuzgo, Chinanteco, Chontal, Huave, Mazateco, Mixe, Mixteco, Triqui, Zapoteco del Istmo, Zapoteco del Valle, and Zoque) from Oaxaca, Mexico. We also used previously published data from other Mexican peoples (Maya, Chol, Tepehua, Otomí, and Mestizos from northern and central Mexico) to delineate genetic relations, for a total of 541 individuals. Average heterozygosity (H) was lower in most populations from Oaxaca (range 0.687 in Zoque to 0.756 in Chontal) than values observed in Mestizo populations from Mexico (0.758 and 0.793 in central and northern Mestizo, respectively) but higher than values observed in other Amerindian populations from South America; the same relation was true for the number of alleles (n(a) ). We tested (using the software Structure) whether major geographic or linguistic barriers to gene flow existed among the populations of Oaxaca and found that the populations appeared to constitute one or two genetic groups, suggesting that neither geographic location nor linguistics had an effect on the genetic structure of these culturally and linguistically highly diverse indigenous peoples. Moreover, we found a low but statistically significant between-population differentiation. In addition, the genetic structure of Oaxacan populations did not fit an isolation-by-distance model. Finally, using AMOVA and a Bayesian clustering approach, we did not detect significant geographic or linguistic barriers to gene flow within Oaxaca. These results suggest that the indigenous communities of Oaxaca, although culturally isolated, can be genetically defined as a large, nearly panmictic population in which migration could be a more important population mechanism than genetic drift. Finally, compared with outgroups in Mexico (both

  20. No Evidence of Dengue Virus Infections in Several Species of Bats Captured in Central and Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Romo, S; Max Ramirez, C; Recio-Tótoro, B; Tolentino-Chi, J; Lanz, H; Del Ángel, R M; Sánchez-Cordero, V; Rodríguez-Moreno, Á; Ludert, J E

    2016-12-01

    Bats are reservoirs for viruses with zoonotic potential in the Americas, and scattered evidence exists suggesting that bats may act as reservoirs for dengue virus (DENV). To explore further the role of bats as part of DENV sylvatic cycles, 240 bats of 18 species were captured in 2 states of Mexico with contrasting ecological characteristics but concurrent DENV activity in humans. RT-PCR analysis of RNA extracted from liver or spleen tissue from de bats failed to show evidence for the presence of DENV nucleic acids in these organs. In addition, plasma assayed by plaque reduction neutralization test showed no evidence of neutralizing anti-DENV antibodies. These results suggest that American bats may not be reservoirs or amplification host for DENV infection. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi and parasitic nematodes on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in Central Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm larvae (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) were collected from whorl-stage cornfields, between the V2 and V4 stages, in 22 localities of Central, Chiapas, México, called "La Frailesca" during late June 2009 to determine the occurrence of native entomopathogens and parasitic nema...

  2. Seasonal Changes in a Maize-Based Polyculture of Central Mexico Reshape the Co-occurrence Networks of Soil Bacterial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollar, Eria A; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Roessler, Kyria; Gaut, Brandon S; Alcaraz, Luis D; Benítez, Mariana; Escalante, Ana E

    2017-01-01

    The milpa is a traditional maize-based polyculture in Mexico that is typically practiced as rainfed agriculture. Because milpa cultivation has been practiced over a vast range of environmental and cultural conditions, this agroecosystem is recognized as an important repository of biological and cultural diversity. As for any agroecosystem, the relationship between plant development and the biogeochemical processes of the soil is critical. Although the milpa has been studied from different perspectives, the diversity and structure of microbial communities within milpa soils remain largely unexplored. In this study, we surveyed a milpa system in Central Mexico across cropping season: before planting (dry season; t1), during the early growth of plants (onset of the rainy season; t2), and before harvest (end of the rainy season; t3). In order to examine changes in community structure through time, we characterized bacterial diversity through high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and recorded the nutrient status of multiple (5-10) soil samples from our milpa plots. We estimated microbial diversity from a total of 90 samples and constructed co-occurrence networks. Although we did not find significant changes in diversity or composition of bacterial communities across time, we identified significant rearrangements in their co-occurrence network structure. We found particularly drastic changes between the first and second time points. Co-occurrence analyses showed that the bacterial community changed from a less structured network at (t1) into modules with a non-random composition of taxonomic groups at (t2). We conclude that changes in bacterial communities undetected by standard diversity analyses can become evident when performing co-occurrence network analyses. We also postulate possible functional associations among keystone groups suggested by biogeochemical processes. This study represents the first contribution on soil microbial diversity of a maize

  3. Seasonal Changes in a Maize-Based Polyculture of Central Mexico Reshape the Co-occurrence Networks of Soil Bacterial Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eria A. Rebollar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The milpa is a traditional maize-based polyculture in Mexico that is typically practiced as rainfed agriculture. Because milpa cultivation has been practiced over a vast range of environmental and cultural conditions, this agroecosystem is recognized as an important repository of biological and cultural diversity. As for any agroecosystem, the relationship between plant development and the biogeochemical processes of the soil is critical. Although the milpa has been studied from different perspectives, the diversity and structure of microbial communities within milpa soils remain largely unexplored. In this study, we surveyed a milpa system in Central Mexico across cropping season: before planting (dry season; t1, during the early growth of plants (onset of the rainy season; t2, and before harvest (end of the rainy season; t3. In order to examine changes in community structure through time, we characterized bacterial diversity through high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and recorded the nutrient status of multiple (5–10 soil samples from our milpa plots. We estimated microbial diversity from a total of 90 samples and constructed co-occurrence networks. Although we did not find significant changes in diversity or composition of bacterial communities across time, we identified significant rearrangements in their co-occurrence network structure. We found particularly drastic changes between the first and second time points. Co-occurrence analyses showed that the bacterial community changed from a less structured network at (t1 into modules with a non-random composition of taxonomic groups at (t2. We conclude that changes in bacterial communities undetected by standard diversity analyses can become evident when performing co-occurrence network analyses. We also postulate possible functional associations among keystone groups suggested by biogeochemical processes. This study represents the first contribution on soil microbial

  4. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 3. Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.W.; Fargion, G.S.

    1996-05-24

    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. Appendix A contains: the cetacean, trutle, and bird sighting data from all shipboard and aerial visual surveys; contact data from the shipboard acoustic survey; and the cetacean environmental profiles. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  5. Integrative taxonomy identifies a new species of Phyllodistomum (Digenea: Gorgoderidae) from the twospot livebearer, Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae), in Central Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Phyllodistomum inecoli n. sp. is described from the twospot livebearer, Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae), collected in the Río La Antigua basin, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is described and characterised by using a combination of morphology, scanning electron microscopy, and sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Diagnostic characters of the new species of Phyllodistomum include a genital pore opening at the level of the caecal bifurcation; oval vitellarium, situated just posterior to the ventral sucker and not extended laterally and anterior extracaecal uterine loops variable in extension (reaching the anterior, median or posterior margin of the ventral sucker). P. inecoli n. sp. most closely resembles P. brevicecum, a species described as a parasite of the central mudminnow, Umbra limi, in other parts of North America; however, the genital pore in P. brevicecum is situated between the caecal bifurcation and the ventral sucker, the ovary is larger, the vitellarium is lobed and extended laterally and the anterior portion of the uterus extends to the posterior margin of the ventral sucker. Comparison of about 1,500–2,200 nucleotides of cox1 and 28S rDNA and ITS1 strongly supports the status of P. inecoli as a new species. Bayesian inference analysis of combined datasets of 28S rDNA and cox1 sequences showed that P. inecoli n. sp. and the other species found in freshwater fishes of Mexico, including the species complex of P. lacustri, are not sister species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 28S rDNA sequences of several gorgoderid taxa revealed the close relationship of P. inecoli n. sp. with several species of Phyllodistomum, Gorgodera and Gorgoderina with cystocercous cercariae developing in sphaeriid bivalves. Dot-plot analysis of ITS1 sequences of P. inecoli n. sp. revealed the presence of eight repetitive elements with different length, which together represent almost half the length of ITS1.

  6. Repeated volcanic disasters in Prehispanic time at Popocatépetl, central Mexico: Past key to the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebe, Claus; Abrams, Michael; Macías, José Luis; Obenholzner, Johannes

    1996-05-01

    The Holocene eruptive history of Popocatépetl volcano is characterized by recurrent voluminous Plinian eruptions every 1000 to 3000 yr, the most recent of which destroyed human settlements. Major eruptions occurred between 3195 and 2830 B.C., 800 and 215 B.C., and A.D. 675 and 1095. The three eruptions followed a similar pattern and started with minor ash fall and ash flows. The eruptions reached their peak with a main Plinian pulse that produced deposition of a pumice fall, the emplacement of hot ash flows, and finally extensive mudflows. Each time the area of devastation had become repopulated, before being devastated once again. During the last eruption several settlements, including Cholula (a major urban center), were inundated by lahars. A scenario of the possible recurrence of an eruption of similar magnitude, which would have disastrous consequences for the now highly populated areas around Popocatépetl, should be considered seriously in any volcano emergency contingency plan. This is especially important because more than one million people are living within a radius of 35 km around the volcano (the outskirts of Mexico City are at a distance of 40 km), and Popocatépetl resumed emitting ash on December 21, 1994, after decades of dormancy.

  7. Household risk factors associated to infestation of Triatoma dimidiata, the Chagas disease vector in Central Region of Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Ruiz, César A; Guevara, Roger; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate risk factors facilitating the colonization of dwellings by Triatoma dimidiata in the central region of the state of Veracruz. We applied socioeconomic questionnaires and entomologic surveys in three localities (Chavarrillo, Soyacuautla and Arroyo Agrio) in central Veracruz involving 115 households. We found that the main risk factors were the predominance of unplastered walls and particularly those made of light weight aggregate concrete blocks and wood. At Chavarrillo, houses usually have unplastered walls, whereas in Soyocuautla walls are commonly manufactured with wood. In Arroyo Agrio, the phenomenon was seasonal, and bugs were commonly found in the dry season, particularly in relatively new houses, less than 20 years old. These results help to improve the surveillance capacity for this vector and the control strategies to reduce the transmission of Chagas disease in the state of Veracruz and other sites where this species is present.

  8. Mexico Terrain Corrected Free Air Anomalies (97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity anomaly grid for Mexico, North-Central America and the Western Caribbean Sea is NOT the input data set used in the development of the MEXICO97 model....

  9. Nutritional status and dental fluorosis among schoolchildren in communities with different drinking water fluoride concentrations in a central region in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoyen-Camacho, M E; García Pérez, A; Mejía González, A; Huizar Alvarez, R

    2016-01-15

    Poor water quality and under nutrition are important factors affecting the health of many communities in developing countries. The aims of this study were: i) to describe the fluoride water concentration and the hydrogeological conditions in a region of a state located in the central in Mexico ii) to measure the association between undernutrition and dental fluorosis in children living in communities with different drinking water fluoride concentrations in a state located in the central region of Mexico. Field work was performed in the region to identify the prevailing groundwater flow characteristics and water wells were sampled to analyze water fluoride concentration. Children were selected from three communities that had different drinking water fluoride concentrations (i.e., 0.56, 0.70 and 1.60 mg/l). Fluoridated salt was available in these communities. The Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI) was used to assess dental fluorosis. Categories four or higher of this index involve changes in the entire tooth surface (ITF ≥ 4). The weight and height of the children were measured. The assessment of undernutrition was based on the World Health Organization criteria: children were classified as being at risk of low-height (Height-for-Age Z score water captured by the wells is the result of a reaction with volcanic materials. The water fluoride concentration in the region ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 mg/l. A total of 734 schoolchildren participated in the study. The percentage of children in fluorosis categories (ITF ≥ 4) was 15.9%, 21.1% of the children were at risk of low height-for-age, and 8.0% had low height-for-age. The percentage of children with fluorosis (ITF ≥ 4) was 6.3%, 9.1% and 31.9% (p ˂ 0.001) and low high-for-age was 2.9%, 2.5% and 8.4% (p ˂ 0.001), for the communities with F concentrations of 0.56 mg/l, 0.70 mg/l and 1.6 mg/l, respectively. The logistic regression model showed an association between dental fluorosis (TFI ≥ 4) and low height-for-age (OR

  10. Redes de interacción colibrí-planta del centro-este de México Hummingbird-plant mutualistic networks in central-eastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Zoe Lara-Rodríguez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Las interacciones mutualistas han moldeado la biodiversidad en la tierra. A pesar de ello, hasta recientemente era difícil encontrar patrones en la estructura de este tipo de interacciones en las comunidades. En años recientes se ha promovido el análisis de las interacciones mutualistas como redes que muestran las conexiones entre las especies. Esta aproximación permite la descripción de patrones estructurales que operan en las interacciones ecológicas en el nivel de comunidad y constituye un nuevo campo en la ecología. En este estudio definimos, caracterizamos y analizamos 4 subredes de polinización, formadas por las interacciones entre colibríes y plantas en varios paisajes del centro-este de México. Las interacciones en las comunidades analizadas muestran un patrón anidado en su estructura, similar al reportado para otras redes de mutualismos. Se ha sugerido que esta característica, en conjunto con otras que se han descrito para este tipo de redes, promueve la coexistencia de las especies en una comunidad, teniendo por lo tanto implicaciones ecológicas y conservacionistas para las comunidades de colibríes y plantas del centro-este de México.Several studies report that mutualistic interactions have molded global biodiversity. However, in the past, it was difficult to find structural patterns in them when they were assessed from a community perspective. Mutualistic networks approach has been proposed as a new method to represent and study interactions. It allows to describe structural patterns in the interactions at community level. Here, we describe and assess 4 pollination sub networks of hummingbird-plant communities located in several landscapes of Central-eastern Mexico. The interactions recorded in the communities show a nested structural pattern, similar to the reported in other networks. It has been suggested that such characteristics, together with others described for this kind of networks, can promote the species

  11. The scrapers of obsidian from Metztitlan, Hidalgo. Typology and tools function with the application of the Sem, PIXE and NAA techniques; Los raspadores de obsidiana del senorio de Metztitlan, Hidalgo. Tipologia y funcion de herramientas con la aplicacion de tecnicas de SEM, PIXE y NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde R, S.V.; Mandujano A, C

    2000-07-01

    In the last 50 years have been enormous changes and the archaeology has been benefited with the technology development, as computation, the advancements in nuclear physics, the electron microscopy, the particle accelerator and the DNA analysis. As first approach to studied material it was realized in cabinet the morphological and technological analysis to establish a typology and to know the manufacturer process of the scrapers (tool used for to scrape a cavity after cutting its lance-shaping leaves at the maguey core obtaining so the sap commonly named hydromel at the Hidalgo state region in Mexico). On the other hand the studies which carried out in the ININ consist in the functional analysis of use traces in scanning electron microscopy (Sem) and stereoscopic to know about the type of work which were addressed the scrapers. Also were carried out the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and the Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) with the purpose to know the obsidian site which was supplied the Dominion population. (Author)

  12. Environmental evaluation of fluoride in drinking water at "Los Altos de Jalisco," in the central Mexico region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Roberto; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge

    Naturally occurring fluoride has been detected and quantified in drinking water in several cities of the "Los Altos de Jalisco" (LAJ) region. LAJ is located in the northeastern part of the state of Jalisco-Mexico, covering an area of 16,410 km2 with a population of 696,318 in 20 municipalities. Drinking water comes mainly from groundwater aquifers, located in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, which is a volcanic region characterized by hydrothermal activity. Results indicated that water supply from 42% of the municipalities had a fluoride concentration over the Mexican standards of 1.5 mg/L. It is important to notice that there are three cities, Lagos de Moreno (1.66-5.88 mg/L F(-)), Teocaltiche (3.82-18.58 mg/L F(-)), and Encarnación de Díaz (2.58-4.40 mg/L F(-)) where all water samples resulted in fluoride concentration over the maximum contaminant level. The total population from these three cities is over 122,000 inhabitants. Another important city with high levels of fluoride in the water supply was Tepatitlán de Morelos (2 wells with 6.54 and 13.47 mg/L F(-)). In addition to water supply, 30 samples of brand-name bottled water were tested. Surprisingly, 8 samples (27%) demonstrated fluoride level over the standards, mainly Agua de Lagos with 5.27 mg/L. Fluoridated table salt (200-300 mg/kg F(-)) is another important source of fluoride. A large number of people living in the region, mainly school children, might be under adverse health risk because they are consuming contaminated drinking water. It is well known that long-term exposure to water with high levels of fluoride produces severe health problems.

  13. Summary of the mineral- and energy-resource endowment, BLM roswell resource area, east-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Sutphin, D.M.; Ball, M.M.; Korzeb, S.L.; Kness, R.F.; Dutchover, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    In this summary of two comprehensive resource reports produced by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we discuss the mineral- and energyresource endowment of the 14-millon-acre Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico, managed by the Bureau of Land Management. The Bureau and Survey reports result from separate studies that are compilations of published and unpublished data and integrate new findings on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral, industrial, and energy commodities, and resources for the seven-county area. The reports have been used by the Bureau of Land Management in preparation of the Roswell Resource Area Resource Management Plan, and will have future use in nationwide mineral- and energy-resource inventories and assessments, as reference and training documents, and as public-information tools. In the Roswell Resource Area, many metals, industrial mineral commodities, and energy resources are being, or have been, produced or prospected. These include metals and high-technology materials, such as copper, gold, silver, thorium, uranium and/or vanadium, rare-earth element minerals, iron, manganese, tungsten, lead, zinc, and molybdenum; industrial mineral resources, including barite, limestone/dolomite, caliche, clay, fluorspar, gypsum, scoria, aggregate, and sand and gravel; and fuels and associated resources, such as oil, gas, tar sand and heavy oil, coal, and gases associated with hydrocarbons. Other commodities that have yet to be identified in economic concentrations include potash, halite, polyhalite, anhydrite, sulfur, feldspar, building stone and decorative rock, brines, various gases associated with oil and gas exploration, and carbon dioxide. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  14. Mountain cloud forest and grown-shade coffee plantations: A comparison of tree biodiversity in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Zamora, A.; Esperón-Rodríguez, M.; Barradas, V.L.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: The objective of this work is to compare tree diversity and richness among one grown-shade coffee plantation (CAE) and two sites of montane cloud forests, one preserved (MCF1) and other perturbed (MCF2). We also develop an analysis of the importance of coffee plantations as a refuge of tree species, holding a potential role for conservation. Area of study: Our study area is the coffee region of Coatepec-Xico, in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Material and methods: We compiled a list of all tree species in each site to determine tree diversity and floristic similarity (dissimilarity). We used different similarity indices and a cluster analysis to show relations among sites. Main results: 2721 individuals from 154 species were registered in the montane cloud forests as a whole. In the grown-shade coffee plantation we registered 2947 individuals from 64 species. The most similar sites were the perturbed montane cloud forest and the grown-shade coffee plantation and the least similar were the preserved montane cloud forest and the grown-shade coffee plantation. The high biodiversity found in all sites and the differences in tree composition between the two montane cloud forests supports evidence of the ecosystems richness in the region. Research highlight: Diversity differences among sites determine that the grown-shade coffee plantation is not substitute for montane cloud forest. CAE’s are developed under similar environmental conditions than the MCF; therefore, coexistence and recombination (replacement) of species make them particularly complementary. CAE’s in Veracruz have a potential role as refuge for biodiversity. (Author)

  15. Highly discordant serology against Trypanosoma cruzi in central Veracruz, Mexico: role of the antigen used for diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Gómez, Daniel; López-Monteon, Aracely; de la Soledad Lagunes-Castro, María; Álvarez-Martínez, Carolina; Hernández-Lutzon, Manuel Jesús; Dumonteil, Eric; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel

    2015-09-17

    Chagas disease is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. In Mexico, the burden of the disease is difficult to estimate and improving surveillance for Chagas disease is an important priority. We aimed here at determining the seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in humans in a rural community in Veracruz. Serum samples (196) were analyzed for T. cruzi infection using five enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests: two in-house tests based on crude parasite extract and three commercial ELISA kits. Because of highly discordant results, we further explored the importance of parasite antigens and strains by western-blot analysis. A total of 74 samples (37.7 %) were reactive with at least one ELISA, but discordance among tests was very high. The best agreement was between Chagatest recombinant and Chagatek ELISA (Kappa index = 0.798). The agreement between other combinations of tests ranged from 0.038 to 0.518. Discordant samples were confirmed by western-blot analysis using up to nine parasite strains, giving a seroprevalence of 33.7 %. Commercial tests had a very limited ability to detect T. cruzi infection in the study population. In-house tests based on crude parasite antigens showed a greater sensitivity but were still unable to detect all cases of T. cruzi infection, even when based on a local parasite strain. The high seroprevalence confirmed the hyper-endemicity of T. cruzi infection in the region. Reliable epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease will require the development of improved diagnostic tests.

  16. Biogeographic implications of a packrat midden sequence from the Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Devender, Thomas R.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Wimberly, Mark

    1984-11-01

    Thirteen packrat ( Neotoma spp.) and two porcupine ( Erethizon dorsatum) middens from 1555 to 1690 m elevation from the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico, provide an 18,000-yr vegetation record in the northern Chiuahuan Desert. The vegetation sequence is a mesic, Wisconsin fullglacial (18,000-16,000 yr B.P.) pinyon-juniper-oak woodland; a xeric, early Holocene (ca. 11,000-8000 yr B.P.) juniper-oak woodland; a middle Holocene (ca. 8000-4000 yr B.P.) desert-grassland; and a late Holocene (ca. 4000 yr B.P. to present) Chihuahuan desertscrub. The frequency of spring freezes and summer droughts in the late Wisconsin probably set the northern limits of Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma at about 34°N, or 6° south of today's limit. Rising summer tempratures in the early Holocene eliminated pinyon and other mesic woodland plants from the desert lowlands and allowed the woodland to move upslope. At this time pinyon-juniper woodland and pine forest dominated by Pinus ponderosa probably began their spectacular Holocene expansions to the north. Continued warming in the middle Holocene led to very warm summers with strong monsoons, relatively dry, cold winters, and widespread desert-grasslands. Desertscrub communities in the northern Chihuahuan Desert did not develop until the late Holocene when the biseasonal rainfall shifted slightly back toward the winter, catastrophic winter freezes decreased, and droughts in all seasons increased. The creosote bush desertscrub corridor across the Continental Divide between the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts was probably connected for the first time since the last interglaciation.

  17. Mountain cloud forest and grown-shade coffee plantations: A comparison of tree biodiversity in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo González-Zamora

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The objective of this work is to compare tree diversity and richness among one grown-shade coffee plantation (CAE and two sites of montane cloud forests, one preserved (MCF1 and other perturbed (MCF2. We also develop an analysis of the importance of coffee plantations as a refuge of tree species, holding a potential role for conservation.Area of study: Our study area is the coffee region of Coatepec-Xico, in the state of Veracruz, Mexico.Material and methods: We compiled a list of all tree species in each site to determine tree diversity and floristic similarity (dissimilarity. We used different similarity indices and a cluster analysis to show relations among sites.Main results: 2721 individuals from 154 species were registered in the montane cloud forests as a whole. In the grown-shade coffee plantation we registered 2947 individuals from 64 species. The most similar sites were the perturbed montane cloud forest and the grown-shade coffee plantation and the least similar were the preserved montane cloud forest and the grown-shade coffee plantation. The high biodiversity found in all sites and the differences in tree composition between the two montane cloud forests supports evidence of the ecosystems richness in the region.Research highlight: Diversity differences among sites determine that the grown-shade coffee plantation is not substitute for montane cloud forest. CAE’s are developed under similar environmental conditions than the MCF; therefore, coexistence and recombination (replacement of species make them particularly complementary. CAE’s in Veracruz have a potential role as refuge for biodiversity.

  18. [The effects of rural-urban migration on the age and sex composition of the population: the case of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, C; Corona, R

    1985-01-01

    The authors examine some consequences of internal migration for the age and sex structure of a developing country population, using the example of rural-urban migration in Mexico. They first review general demographic characteristics of the country's population during the twentieth century. They then trace the demographic development of the population from 1940 to 1970 in two study areas of Mexico: the Federal District and the state of Hidalgo. The impact of migration on family structure and the labor force is considered, and possible future trends are discussed.

  19. New state records and updated checklist of Aphodiini and Eupariini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae) from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Pablo

    2017-03-22

    Thirty one new state records of species of Aphodiinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Mexico are presented, 24 species belong to Aphodiini and seven species to Eupariini into the genera Agrilinellus, Alloblackburneus, Aphotaenius, Ataenius, Blackburneus, Cephalocyclus, Coelotrachelus, Euparia, Euparixia, Geomyphilus, Gonaphodiellus, Gonaphodiopsis, Haroldiellus, Liothorax, Nialaphodius, Odontolytes, Oscarinus, Pharaphodius, and Planolinellus. New records are from the states of Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Colima, Chiapas, Estado de México, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Puebla, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Zacatecas, and Distrito Federal. A checklist with updated nomenclature is included for the recorded species of Aphodiini and Eupariini from Mexico.

  20. Accumulation of Pharmaceuticals, Enterococcus, and Resistance Genes in Soils Irrigated with Wastewater for Zero to 100 Years in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebe, Christina; Willaschek, Elisha; Sakinc, Tuerkan; Huebner, Johannes; Amelung, Wulf; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Siemens, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Irrigation with wastewater releases pharmaceuticals, pathogenic bacteria, and resistance genes, but little is known about the accumulation of these contaminants in the environment when wastewater is applied for decades. We sampled a chronosequence of soils that were variously irrigated with wastewater from zero up to 100 years in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico, and investigated the accumulation of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, clarithromycin, carbamazepine, bezafibrate, naproxen, diclofenac, as well as the occurrence of Enterococcus spp., and sul and qnr resistance genes. Total concentrations of ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and carbamazepine increased with irrigation duration reaching 95% of their upper limit of 1.4 µg/kg (ciprofloxacin), 4.3 µg/kg (sulfamethoxazole), and 5.4 µg/kg (carbamazepine) in soils irrigated for 19–28 years. Accumulation was soil-type-specific, with largest accumulation rates in Leptosols and no time-trend in Vertisols. Acidic pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, naproxen, bezafibrate) were not retained and thus did not accumulate in soils. We did not detect qnrA genes, but qnrS and qnrB genes were found in two of the irrigated soils. Relative concentrations of sul1 genes in irrigated soils were two orders of magnitude larger (3.15×10−3±0.22×10−3 copies/16S rDNA) than in non-irrigated soils (4.35×10−5±1.00×10−5 copies/16S rDNA), while those of sul2 exceeded the ones in non-irrigated soils still by a factor of 22 (6.61×10–4±0.59×10−4 versus 2.99×10−5±0.26×10−5 copies/16S rDNA). Absolute numbers of sul genes continued to increase with prolonging irrigation together with Enterococcus spp. 23S rDNA and total 16S rDNA contents. Increasing total concentrations of antibiotics in soil are not accompanied by increasing relative abundances of resistance genes. Nevertheless, wastewater irrigation enlarges the absolute concentration of resistance genes in soils due to a long-term increase in

  1. Accumulation of pharmaceuticals, Enterococcus, and resistance genes in soils irrigated with wastewater for zero to 100 years in central Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Dalkmann

    Full Text Available Irrigation with wastewater releases pharmaceuticals, pathogenic bacteria, and resistance genes, but little is known about the accumulation of these contaminants in the environment when wastewater is applied for decades. We sampled a chronosequence of soils that were variously irrigated with wastewater from zero up to 100 years in the Mezquital Valley, Mexico, and investigated the accumulation of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, clarithromycin, carbamazepine, bezafibrate, naproxen, diclofenac, as well as the occurrence of Enterococcus spp., and sul and qnr resistance genes. Total concentrations of ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and carbamazepine increased with irrigation duration reaching 95% of their upper limit of 1.4 µg/kg (ciprofloxacin, 4.3 µg/kg (sulfamethoxazole, and 5.4 µg/kg (carbamazepine in soils irrigated for 19-28 years. Accumulation was soil-type-specific, with largest accumulation rates in Leptosols and no time-trend in Vertisols. Acidic pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, naproxen, bezafibrate were not retained and thus did not accumulate in soils. We did not detect qnrA genes, but qnrS and qnrB genes were found in two of the irrigated soils. Relative concentrations of sul1 genes in irrigated soils were two orders of magnitude larger (3.15 × 10(-3 ± 0.22 × 10(-3 copies/16S rDNA than in non-irrigated soils (4.35 × 10(-5± 1.00 × 10(-5 copies/16S rDNA, while those of sul2 exceeded the ones in non-irrigated soils still by a factor of 22 (6.61 × 10(-4 ± 0.59 × 10(-4 versus 2.99 × 10(-5 ± 0.26 × 10(-5 copies/16S rDNA. Absolute numbers of sul genes continued to increase with prolonging irrigation together with Enterococcus spp. 23S rDNA and total 16S rDNA contents. Increasing total concentrations of antibiotics in soil are not accompanied by increasing relative abundances of resistance genes. Nevertheless, wastewater irrigation enlarges the absolute concentration of resistance genes in soils due to a

  2. Direct and indirect estimates of gene flow among wild and managed populations of Polaskia chichipe, an endemic columnar cactus in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Arnaiz, Adriana; Casas, Alejandro; Hamrick, James L

    2005-12-01

    Microsatellite markers were used to obtain direct and indirect estimates of gene flow in populations of Polaskia chichipe under different management regimes, in order to understand the genetic consequences of gene flow in the evolutionary process of domestication. P. chichipe is a columnar cactus endemic to the Tehuacan Valley, Central Mexico, and has come under domestication for its edible fruit. Morphological, phenological, physiological, and reproductive differences, apparently attributable to artificial selection, exist between wild and managed populations, which grow sympatrically. However, strong gene flow may counteract the effects of this selection. In this study, we used paternity analysis to demonstrate that although most of the pollinations occur among individuals within the same population at distances < 40 m, pollen flow from other populations is considerable (27 +/- 5%). Heterogeneity in pollen clouds sampled by mother plants (FST = 0.12) indicated nonrandom mating, which is probably due to temporal heterogeneity in pollen movement. Spatial structure on local and regional scales is consistent with an isolation-by-distance model. The similarity of indirect, direct and demographic estimates of neighbourhood size (74-250 individuals) suggests that this genetic structure is representative of an equilibrium state. These results suggest that traditional management practices have conserved the genetic resources of this species in situ, but also that gene flow is counteracting the effect of domestication to some degree. We discuss our results in the general context of genetic exchange between cultivated and wild populations during the domestication process.

  3. Correlating Remote Sensing Data with the Abundance of Pupae of the Dengue Virus Mosquito Vector, Aedes aegypti, in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max J. Moreno-Madriñán

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Using a geographic transect in Central Mexico, with an elevation/climate gradient, but uniformity in socio-economic conditions among study sites, this study evaluates the applicability of three widely-used remote sensing (RS products to link weather conditions with the local abundance of the dengue virus mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti. Field-derived entomological measures included estimates for the percentage of premises with the presence of Ae. aegypti pupae and the abundance of Ae. aegypti pupae per premises. Data on mosquito abundance from field surveys were matched with RS data and analyzed for correlation. Daily daytime and nighttime land surface temperature (LST values were obtained from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS/Aqua cloud-free images within the four weeks preceding the field survey. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM-estimated rainfall accumulation was calculated for the four weeks preceding the field survey. Elevation was estimated through a digital elevation model (DEM. Strong correlations were found between mosquito abundance and RS-derived night LST, elevation and rainfall along the elevation/climate gradient. These findings show that RS data can be used to predict Ae. aegypti abundance, but further studies are needed to define the climatic and socio-economic conditions under which the correlations observed herein can be assumed to apply.

  4. Quantity and location of groundwater recharge in the Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico (USA), and their relation to the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawling, Geoffrey C.; Newton, B. Talon

    2016-06-01

    The Sacramento Mountains and the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin, in south-central New Mexico (USA), comprise a regional hydrologic system, wherein recharge in the mountains ultimately supplies water to the confined basin aquifer. Geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and climatologic data were used to delineate the area of recharge in the southern Sacramento Mountains. The water-table fluctuation and chloride mass-balance methods were used to quantify recharge over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Extrapolation of the quantitative recharge estimates to the entire Sacramento Mountains region allowed comparison with previous recharge estimates for the northern Sacramento Mountains and the Roswell Artesian Basin. Recharge in the Sacramento Mountains is estimated to range from 159.86 × 106 to 209.42 × 106 m3/year. Both the location of recharge and range in estimates is consistent with previous work that suggests that ~75 % of the recharge to the confined aquifer in the Roswell Artesian Basin has moved downgradient through the Yeso Formation from distal recharge areas in the Sacramento Mountains. A smaller recharge component is derived from infiltration of streamflow beneath the major drainages that cross the Pecos Slope, but in the southern Sacramento Mountains much of this water is ultimately derived from spring discharge. Direct recharge across the Pecos Slope between the mountains and the confined basin aquifer is much smaller than either of the other two components.

  5. Medical therapeutic itineraries of women with breast cancer diagnosis affiliated to the People's Health Insurance in San Luis Potosí, central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Tayabas, Luz María; Salcedo, Liseth Amell; Espino, Joel Monárrez

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to describe the medical itineraries followed by breast cancer women affiliated to the People's Health Insurance in San Luis Potosí, central Mexico. We used an ethnographic approach based on oral histories of 12 women diagnosed with breast cancer in the year prior to the first meeting. Two face-to-face sessions per participant lasting 60 minutes each were conducted followed by a telephone interview. Content and diachronic analyses were used. Three main itineraries were identified: (1) diagnostic process, (2) final diagnosis to treatment, and (3) cancer control and relapse. Findings suggested that infrastructure and human resources to adequately screen and timely diagnose breast cancer were scant and insufficiently trained, respectively. Deferral of medical assessment was related with lack of information about breast cancer consequences, with women being afraid of a positive result, and with economic constraints. The current screening program needs to be redesigned to prevent diagnostic delays, as these seem to explain the high frequency of advanced stages reported at the time of diagnosis.

  6. Medical therapeutic itineraries of women with breast cancer diagnosis affiliated to the People's Health Insurance in San Luis Potosí, central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Tejada-Tayabas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the medical itineraries followed by breast cancer women affiliated to the People's Health Insurance in San Luis Potosí, central Mexico. We used an ethnographic approach based on oral histories of 12 women diagnosed with breast cancer in the year prior to the first meeting. Two face-to-face sessions per participant lasting 60 minutes each were conducted followed by a telephone interview. Content and diachronic analyses were used. Three main itineraries were identified: (1 diagnostic process, (2 final diagnosis to treatment, and (3 cancer control and relapse. Findings suggested that infrastructure and human resources to adequately screen and timely diagnose breast cancer were scant and insufficiently trained, respectively. Deferral of medical assessment was related with lack of information about breast cancer consequences, with women being afraid of a positive result, and with economic constraints. The current screening program needs to be redesigned to prevent diagnostic delays, as these seem to explain the high frequency of advanced stages reported at the time of diagnosis.

  7. A Study on the Knowledge, Perception, and Use of Breast Cancer Screening Methods and Quality of Care Among Women from Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Castillo, Andrea B; Hernández-Valero, María A; Hovick, Shelly R; Campuzano-González, Martha Elva; Karam-Calderón, Miguel Angel; Bustamante-Montes, L Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Studies on health behaviors have observed several barriers to breast cancer screening, including lack of breast cancer knowledge, distrust of health care providers, and long waiting times to be screened or to receive screening results. We conducted a nested case-control study among a subsample of 200 women 21 years of age and older [100 patients (cases)], who had been diagnosed with breast cancer, and 100 controls, who were screened and found to be free of breast cancer), all residing in the Toluca metropolitan area in central Mexico. We examined how knowledge of breast cancer screening guidelines, perceptions of screening methods, and quality of health care influenced the use of breast cancer screening among study participants. Our study found that the most important factor associated with the decision to have breast cancer screenings was having a positive perception of the quality of care provided by the local health care centers, such as having competent clinic personnel, sufficient screening equipment, and reasonable waiting times to receive screening and to receive the screening results. Therefore, individual health care centers need to focus on the patients' perception of the services received by optimizing the care provided and, in so doing, increase the rates of early diagnosis and reduce the rate of mortality from breast cancer as well as its associated treatment costs.

  8. Analysis of diatomite sediments from a paleolake in central Mexico using PIXE, X-ray tomography and X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J.; Oliver, A.; Vilaclara, G.; Rico-Montiel, R.; Macías, V. M.; Ruvalcaba, J. L.; Zenteno, M. A.

    1994-03-01

    Diatomite samples from paleolake Tlaxcala, in Central Mexico, have been analyzed using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), X-ray tomography and X-ray diffraction. Chiseled blocks were scanned with a 0.7 MeV proton beam, 0.1 mm in diameter, in 0.25 mm steps across the sediments. X-ray tomography with the same step sizes was then applied, in order to compare the concentrations obtained with PIXE and the material density in the sediment layers. Three different kinds of layers were found, related to their colors: dark, white and gray. The composition of the layers is fairly uniform. The dark zone is enriched in Al, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe. This dark layer may be associated with eruptions of the Malitzin volcano. The white zone is found to contain diatomite of a high purity, with traces of K, Ca, and Fe, while the gray zones are also Al enriched, suggesting a clay contamination of the diatomite. X-ray diffraction of materials obtained from each main layer showed that the white and gray phases are highly amorphous, with a small component of cristobalite, as expected from the diatom sediment diagenesis, while the dark layer contains also important amounts of anorthite and orthoclase, supporting the volcanic origin of this layer.

  9. Heavy metal concentrations in diploid and triploid oysters (Crassostrea gigas) from three farms on the north-central coast of Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Sevilla, Norma Patricia; Villanueva-Fonseca, Brenda Paulina; Góngora-Gómez, Andrés Martin; García-Ulloa, Manuel; Domínguez-Orozco, Ana Laura; Ortega-Izaguirre, Rogelio; Campos Villegas, Lorena Elizabeth

    2017-10-03

    The concentrations of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Hg in diploid and triploid oysters from three farms (Guasave, Ahome, and Navolato) on the north-central coast of Sinaloa, Mexico, were assessed based on samples recovered during a single culture cycle 2013-2014. Metal burdens were more strongly correlated (p  Cu > Cd > Pb > Hg. For all three farms, the mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in Crassostrea gigas were high, ranging from 2.52 to 7.98 μg/g wet weight for Cd and from 0.91 to 2.83 μg/g wet weight for Pb. Diploid and triploid oysters from the Guasave farm contained high levels of Cu (76.41 and 68.97 μg/g wet weight, respectively). Cu, Cd, and Zn were highly correlated (p < 0.05), and their concentrations may be influenced by agrochemical inputs. The mean levels of Cu for the Guasave farm and of Cd and Pb for all three farms exceeded permissible limits and represented a threat to human health during the sampling period (July 2014 to July 2014).

  10. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25-40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when surface water from the Rio Grande began being treated and integrated into the system. An increase of about 20 percent in the basin human population from 1990 to 2000 and about a 22 percent increase from 2000 to 2010 also resulted in an increased demand for water. A network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin from April 1982 through September 1983. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2010), the network consists of 124 wells and piezometers (a piezometer is a small-diameter subwell usually nested within a larger well). To better help the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority manage water use, this report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at those 124 sites through water year 2010.

  11. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25-40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when surface water from the Rio Grande began being treated and integrated into the system. A population increase of about 20 percent in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22 percent increase from 2000 to 2010 resulted in an increased demand for water. An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2012), the network consists of 126 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA), currently (2012) measures and reports water levels from the 126 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 126 sites through water year 2012.

  12. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when surface water from the Rio Grande began being treated and integrated into the system. An increase of about 20 percent in the basin human population from 1990 to 2000 and of about 22 percent increase from 2000 to 2010 also resulted in an increased demand for water. A network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2011), the network consists of 126 wells and piezometers (a piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer and is often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths). This report presents water-level data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel at those 126 sites through water year 2011 to better help the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority manage water use.

  13. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beman, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift within the basin. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande began. A population increase of about 20 percent in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent increase from 2000 to 2010 resulted in an increased demand for water. An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the basin. This network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly in 1983. Currently (2013), the network consists of 123 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, currently (2013) measures and reports water levels from the 123 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 123 sites through water year 2013.

  14. Gastrointestinal nematode burden in working equids from humid tropical areas of central Veracruz, Mexico, and its relationship with body condition and haematological values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdéz-Cruz, Maura Pilar; Hernández-Gil, Mariano; Galindo-Rodríguez, Leticia; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Angel

    2013-02-01

    The east coast of Veracruz, Mexico, has an important equine population used for working in rural production systems. The objectives of this study were (1) to calculate the prevalence of tropical working equids (donkeys, mules and horses) infected with gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) and the GINs involved, and (2) to measure the body condition score (BCS) and haematological values for each working equid and its relationship with faecal worm egg count (EPG). One hundred and forty working equids were randomly selected from five different villages along the central coast of the state of Veracruz and faecal and blood samples were obtained from each animal. Gastrointestinal parasite burdens were determined using the McMaster technique. Packed cell volume, total plasma proteins, red blood cell count and white blood cell count were measured from each blood sample. Prevalence of infected equids was higher than 90 %. Mules had the highest median faecal worm egg counts (875 EPG), followed by horses and donkeys with 400 EPG. There was no correlation between EPG and BCS or haematological values (p > 0.05). Results suggest that despite the high prevalence and parasite burdens, equids involved in this trial are not being seriously affected. This study provides information which might help in designing future strategies to control nematode infections in working equids in the Mexican tropics; more emphasis should be placed on other inputs (nutrition perhaps), with individual anthelminthic treatment to those animals with the highest EPG or when signs present themselves.

  15. Effectiveness of bats as pollinators of Stenocereus stellatus (Cactaceae) in wild, managed in situ, and cultivated populations in La Mixteca Baja, central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Cóyotl, Ethel; Stoner, Kathryn E; Casas, Alejandro

    2006-11-01

    Stenocereus stellatus is an endemic, self-incompatible, columnar cactus found in central Mexico where many of its wild populations have been fragmented. As an economically important species of fruit-producing cactus, S. stellatus occurs in wild, managed in situ, and cultivated populations. The objectives of this study were to determine the effective pollinators of S. stellatus, to compare pollinator visits and reproductive parameters among the three types of populations, and to determine if nectar feeding-bats are moving among populations. Effective pollinators were the nectarivorous bats Choeronycteris mexicana, Leptonycteris curasoae, and L. nivalis. Fewer total visits per flower per night and fewer visits by Choeronycteris were observed in cultivated populations, while the opposite pattern was observed for Leptonycteris. One aggressive interaction was filmed in which Choeronycteris was physically displaced by Leptonycteris, and Choeronycteris visits were significantly affected by Leptonycteris visits. Cultivated populations received more pollen grains and had more fruit set. Variation in pollinator visits between different populations and the consequent effects on reproductive success were likely a result of competition between bat species, and differences in foraging and in sensitivity of bat species to human populations. Three marked L. curasoae traveled 15 km from their roosting site to their foraging area, and one visited cultivated and managed populations, suggesting that this species may be particularly important in moving pollen among populations.

  16. Trace metals in sediments and Zostera marina of San Ignacio and Ojo de Liebre lagoons in the central pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Zamora, J V; Sánchez-Osorio, J L; Ríos-Mendoza, L M; Ramírez-Alvarez, N; Huerta-Díaz, M A; López-Sánchez, D

    2008-08-01

    San Ignacio and Ojo de Liebre lagoons in central Baja California, Mexico are nursery and grazing grounds for whales and turtles. Ojo de Liebre Lagoon also supports a salt mine operation. By concentrating trace metals via evaporation, this activity might harm biota. Consequently, salt mining might be incompatible with the lagoon's ecological role. Eelgrass can incorporate these elements and reroute them to other organisms. Trace metals in sediments (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Fe) were measured at both lagoons. Some (Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) were also measured in Zostera marina patches at both lagoons. The results did not show elevated metal concentration at any lagoon, either for sediments or eelgrass. No statistically significant differences between lagoons were found. However, eelgrass at both lagoons showed larger concentration ranges than in sediments. Also, a correlation exists between sediment metal concentration and its concentration in eelgrass. Surprisingly, several sediment metal concentrations are higher than those considered as elevated for the Southern California Bight.

  17. Epilithic diatom communities of selected streams from the Lerma-Chapala Basin, Central Mexico, with the description of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Demetrio; Carmona, Javier; Jahn, Regine; Zimmermann, Jonas; Abarca, Nélida

    2017-01-01

    The Lerma-Chapala Basin, in Central Mexico, is geologically heterogeneous, climatically diverse and boasts high biodiversity, lying within two Biodiversity Hotspots, namely Mesoamerica and the Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands. Epilithon and water samples were collected in the basin from 14 sampling sites three times each, two sampling campaigns during the rainy season and one in the dry season. A total of 274 infrageneric taxa in 48 genera were recorded. The taxonomic composition observed was dominated by taxa from the genera Nitzschia , Gomphonema , Pinnularia , Navicula , Sellaphora and Eunotia . About a third of the taxa found could not be identified to the species level. From those unidentified morphodemes, two are described as new species, namely Brachysira altepetlensis and Sellaphora queretana . Furthermore, Eolimna rhombica is transferred to Sellaphora . Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) revealed that specific conductivity and pH were the main environmental factors driving the community composition observed. Three groups of samples were identified after the CCA: 1) characterized by acidic waters and low conductivity; 2) with circumneutral waters, low specific conductivity and high temperature and phosphorous concentrations; and 3) characterized by circumneutral waters, high conductivity and low nitrogen concentrations. The indicator value method (IndVal), based on the relative abundance and relative frequency of the most abundant taxa was calculated based on the groups observed in the CCA, identifying the characteristic taxa for each of the three groups.

  18. Interactions between payments for hydrologic services, landowner decisions, and ecohydrological consequences: synergies and disconnection in the cloud forest zone of central Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Asbjornsen

    2017-06-01

    hydrologic services and people's decisions, behavior, and knowledge regarding forest conservation and water. Using central Veracruz as our case study, we identify areas of both synchrony and disconnection between PHS goals and outcomes. Mature and regenerating cloud forests (targeted by PHS were found to produce enhanced hydrologic services relative to areas converted to pasture, including reduced peak flows during large rain events and maintenance of dry-season base flows. However, unexpectedly, these hydrologic benefits from cloud forests were not necessarily greater than those from other vegetation types. Consequently, the location of forests in strategic watershed positions (e.g., where deforestation risk or hydrologic recharge are high may be more critical than forest type in promoting hydrologic functions within watersheds and should be considered when targeting PHS payments. While our results suggest that participation in PHS improved the level of knowledge among watershed inhabitants about forest-water relationships, a mismatch existed between payment amounts and landowner opportunity costs, which may contribute to the modest success in targeting priority areas within watersheds. Combined, these findings underscore the complexity of factors that influence motivations for PHS participation and land use decisions and behavior, and the importance of integrating understanding of both ecohydrological and socioeconomic dynamics into PHS design and implementation. We conclude by identifying opportunities for improving the design of PHS programs and recommending priority areas for future research and monitoring, both in Mexico and globally.

  19. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-04-15

    The principal research effort for the first six months of Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization. Understanding the burial and thermal maturation histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in petroleum system characterization. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicate that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was the Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa shale was an effective local petroleum source rock in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and a possible local source bed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Reservoir rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata. Seal rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary anhydrite and shale beds. Petroleum traps include structural and combination traps.

  20. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Paul Aharon; Donald A. Goddard; Roger Barnaby

    2005-10-28

    The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization and modeling. Understanding the burial, thermal maturation, and hydrocarbon expulsion histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in hydrocarbon resource assessment. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and initial thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicated that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The initial modeling also indicated that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and that hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Refined thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling and additional petroleum source rock analysis have confirmed that the major source rock in the onshore interior salt basins and subbasins is Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were initiated in the Early to Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary.

  1. Intercropped oats (Avena sativa) - common vetch (Vicia sativa) silage in the dry season for small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño-Castro, Y; Espinoza-Ortega, A; González-Esquivel, C E; Mateo-Salazar, B; Arriaga-Jordán, C M

    2009-06-01

    Small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico require feeding strategies based on quality home-grown forage that may reduce high concentrate costs. Eight Holstein cows paired by parity and date of calving were used in a split-plot experiment to evaluate supplementing 6 kg DM/cow/d of oat-vetch silage (OVS) in comparison to maize silage (MS) as dry season feeding, for a more intensive use of the land through an oat-vetch catch crop. Cows had 9 h/d access to continuous grazing of perennial ryegrass - white clover pasture and 4 kg/d of commercial concentrate. The 9 week experiment, recorded weekly milk yield and composition, and body condition score and live-weight every fortnight. Milk yield was 20.1 kg/cow/d for OVS and 15.4 for MS (SEM +/-2.9, P > 0.05), with no differences for fat or protein content, body condition score, or live-weight (P > 0.05). The economic analysis showed that although feeding costs were higher for OVS, margins were greater than for MS, with feeding cost per litre of $0.21 for MS and $0.16 for OVS. OVS is a viable catch crop after the MS harvest that can substitute MS in the dry season enabling a more intensive use of the land.

  2. A new species of Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) from the Ameca River basin, in Central Mexico Una especie nueva de Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) en la cuenca del río Ameca en el centro de México

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez; Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León; Omar Domínguez-Domínguez; Ignacio Doadrio

    2009-01-01

    A morphological comparative analysis was performed among different populations of the cyprinid Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 from the Lerma-Chapala and Ameca River basins in central Mexico. A new species, Algansea amecae n. sp. is described from individuals collected from small tributary in the headwaters of the Ameca basin. The new species differs from Lerma-Chapala populations of A. tincella by having a lower number of transversal scales, a lower number of infraorbital pores, a promi...

  3. Strain Localisation at Rift Segment Boundaries: An Example from the Bocana Transfer Zone in Central Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, C.; Gleadow, A. J.; Kohn, B. P.

    2012-12-01

    Rifts are commonly segmented into several hundred kilometre long zones of opposing upper-plate transport direction with boundaries defined by accommodation and transfer zones. A number of such rift segments have been recognized in the northern Gulf of California, a youthful oceanic basin that is currently undergoing the rift-drift transition. However, detailed field studies have so far failed to identify suitable structures that could accommodate the obvious deformation gradients between different rift segments, and the nature of strain transfer at segment boundaries remains enigmatic. The situation is even less clear in central and southern Baja California, where a number of rift segments have been hypothesized but it is unknown whether the intervening segment boundaries facilitate true reversals in the upper-plate transport direction, or whether they simply accommodate differences in the timing, style or magnitude of deformation. The Bocana transfer zone (BTZ) in central Baja California is a linear, WNW-ESE striking structural discontinuity separating two rift segments with different magnitudes and styles of extensional deformation. North of the BTZ, the Libertad fault is part of the Main Gulf Escarpment, which represents the breakaway fault that separates the Gulf of California rift to the east from the relatively stable western portion of the Baja peninsula. The N-striking Libertad escarpment developed during the Late Miocene (~10-8Ma) and exhibits a topographic relief of ca. 1,000m along a strike-length of ca. 50km. Finite displacement decreases from ~1000m in the central fault segment to ~500m further south, where the fault bends SE and merges with the BTZ. In the hanging wall of the Libertad fault, a series of W-tilted horsts are bound along their eastern margins by two moderate-displacement E-dipping normal faults. South of the BTZ, extension was much less than further north, which explains the comparatively subdued relief and generally shallower tilt of

  4. Tepexpan revisited: A multiple proxy of local environmental changes in relation to human occupation from a paleolake shore section in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedov, Sergey; Lozano-García, Socorro; Solleiro-Rebolledo, Elizabeth; McClung de Tapia, Emily; Ortega-Guerrero, Beatriz; Sosa-Nájera, Susana

    2010-10-01

    Building up a scenario of Late Pleistocene-Holocene environmental change and human-landscape interactions in Central Mexico - one of the key areas for the natural and cultural history of America - requires development of local paleoenvironmental reconstructions. We studied the Tepexpan section at the edge of Texcoco a paleolake, near the mouth of Teotihuacan Valley as a multiproxy record of the environmental dynamics at the shore in the Basin of Mexico throughout the period of human occupation. The section is located in an ecotone affected by intensive and variable geomorphic processes and includes lacustrine, fluvial and volcanic sediments as well as paleosols. Our chronological scale is based on 6 AMS 14C dates from pollen concentrates and paleosol organic matter. The lower segment of the section dominated by the lacustrine sediments yielded pollen spectra; in the upper segment the record is based on the pedogenetic characteristics of paleosols. Different proxies agree in demonstrating the general trend (although some reversals are apparent) of decreasing effective moisture since MIS3: it is reflected first in the increase of herbaceous pollen after 27 ka BP, the decrease of lake level, the cessation of lacustrine sedimentation and beginning of marsh soil development at 10 ka BP and finally, the shift from hydromorphic to dryland semiarid pedogenesis in the Late Holocene. We assume that this trend was climatically controlled, whereas the deposition of sedimentary layers enriched with tephra are related to the pulses of volcanic activity; the pedosedimentary features associated with the upper soil are human-induced. Comparing the proposed scheme of environmental change with the archaeological record we propose that the initial settlers, Late Paleolithic hunters, could have utilized the wet swampy meadows which expanded on the Basin bottom as the lake level lowered and provided the niche for large herbivores during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Development

  5. Can government be self-organized? A mathematical model of the collective social organization of ancient Teotihuacan, central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Tom; Gershenson, Carlos; Manzanilla, Linda R

    2014-01-01

    Teotihuacan was the first urban civilization of Mesoamerica and one of the largest of the ancient world. Following a tradition in archaeology to equate social complexity with centralized hierarchy, it is widely believed that the city's origin and growth was controlled by a lineage of powerful individuals. However, much data is indicative of a government of co-rulers, and artistic traditions expressed an egalitarian ideology. Yet this alternative keeps being marginalized because the problems of collective action make it difficult to conceive how such a coalition could have functioned in principle. We therefore devised a mathematical model of the city's hypothetical network of representatives as a formal proof of concept that widespread cooperation was realizable in a fully distributed manner. In the model, decisions become self-organized into globally optimal configurations even though local representatives behave and modify their relations in a rational and selfish manner. This self-optimization crucially depends on occasional communal interruptions of normal activity, and it is impeded when sections of the network are too independent. We relate these insights to theories about community-wide rituals at Teotihuacan and the city's eventual disintegration.

  6. Can government be self-organized? A mathematical model of the collective social organization of ancient Teotihuacan, central Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Froese

    Full Text Available Teotihuacan was the first urban civilization of Mesoamerica and one of the largest of the ancient world. Following a tradition in archaeology to equate social complexity with centralized hierarchy, it is widely believed that the city's origin and growth was controlled by a lineage of powerful individuals. However, much data is indicative of a government of co-rulers, and artistic traditions expressed an egalitarian ideology. Yet this alternative keeps being marginalized because the problems of collective action make it difficult to conceive how such a coalition could have functioned in principle. We therefore devised a mathematical model of the city's hypothetical network of representatives as a formal proof of concept that widespread cooperation was realizable in a fully distributed manner. In the model, decisions become self-organized into globally optimal configurations even though local representatives behave and modify their relations in a rational and selfish manner. This self-optimization crucially depends on occasional communal interruptions of normal activity, and it is impeded when sections of the network are too independent. We relate these insights to theories about community-wide rituals at Teotihuacan and the city's eventual disintegration.

  7. Definition of groundwater recharge and discharge zones through surface indicators: Centre-South of the Mesa Central, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Andrea Peñuela Arévalo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the delimitation of groundwater recharge and discharge zones in the centresouth portion of the Mesa Central. This was achieved using groundwater flow systems theory, which has proved to be a valuable tool since it considers a systemic perspective of the environment, integrating several natural elements. There are various physical, chemical and biological processes generated in the subsoil within which groundwater is incorporated. This involvement is caused by the natural gravitational movement of groundwater which is manifested on the surface by contrasting evidences in the recharge and discharge zones. Therefore, the objective of this paper includes the demonstration of the usefulness of the analysis of those indicators to locate priority areas and also provides an approximation of groundwater functioning. The definition of recharge and discharge zones included the analysis of maps describing soil type, vegetation, topographic elevation, groundwater flowpath direction, springs, and presence of natural water bodies. Such analysis was carried out through the overlaying tool of ArcMap™ software. The results suggest that the highlands of Fría, San Miguelito and Santa Bárbara as recharge zones. Natural discharge zones were originally present in the plain of the Aguascalientes tectonic depression, and some flat and topographic low zones in the vicinity of Altos de Jalisco, Santa María del Río and Ojuelos.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Downstream Flooding due to a Flexible-Dam Collapse. The case of "La Esperanza" dam, Hidalgo-México: Implication on Hazard Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areu Rangel, O. S., Sr.; Mendoza-Sanchez, I.; Bonasia, R.

    2015-12-01

    The risk of flooding of settlements located downstream of a dam is high due to the large number of people living on natural waterways. Risk assessment of flooding could help in projecting containment and protection in case of a dam-break. For projecting containment and protection works, the assessment should take into account velocities, densities and impact pressure of the water on the villages in risk. Therefore, it is appealing to conduct a series of numerical simulations of downstream flooding including velocity and pressure fields, and their temporal and spatial fluctuations. The present work focuses on the real case of "La Esperanza" dam, located in the state of Hidalgo (Mexico). The dam was built 70 years ago and currently two thirds of its capacity is covered with silt, which implies a very high horizontal thrust. The simulation of the flood due to failure of the dam was carried on using the DualSPHysics code, a new implementation of the mesh-free Lagrangian Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) method. For the boundary conditions, a Digital Elevation Model of the potentially affected area was built using satellite images, the actual bathymetry of the dam and cross sections of the channel. In order to evaluate the hazard posed to the villages located downstream of the dam, different collapse scenarios were simulated, with particular focus on the consequences of the temporal variation of rainfall. Preliminary results show acceleration and dynamic pressure values of water in especially selected areas that are subjected to high risk for the elevated number of inhabitant.

  9. Central nervous system effects and chemical composition of two subspecies of Agastache mexicana; an ethnomedicine of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Reyes, Rosa; López-Rubalcava, C; Ferreyra-Cruz, Octavio Alberto; Dorantes-Barrón, Ana María; Heinze, G; Moreno Aguilar, Julia; Martínez-Vázquez, Mariano

    2014-04-11

    Agastache mexicana subspecies mexicana (Amm) and xolocotziana (Amx) are used in Mexican traditional medicine to relief cultural affiliation syndromes known as "susto" or "espanto", for "nervous" condition, and as a sleep aid. Despite its intensive use, neuropharmacological studies are scarce, and the chemical composition of the aqueous extracts has not been described. Aims of the study are: (1) To analyze the chemical composition of aqueous extracts from aerial parts of Amm and Amx. (2) To evaluate the anxiolytic-like, sedative, antidepressant-like effects. (3) Analyze the general toxic effects of different doses. Anxiolytic-like and sedative effects were measured in the avoidance exploratory behavior, burying behavior and the hole-board tests. The antidepressant-like actions were studied in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Finally, general activity and motor coordination disturbances were evaluated in the open field, inverted screen and rota-rod tests. The acute toxicity of Amm and Amx was determined by calculating their LD50 (mean lethal dose). The chemical analyses were performed employing chromatographic, photometric and HPLC-ESI-MS techniques. Low doses of Amm and Amx (0.1σ1.0mg/kg) induced anxiolytic-like actions; while higher doses (over 10mg/kg) induced sedation and reduced the locomotor activity, exerting a general inhibition in the central nervous system (CNS). Results support the use of Amm and Amx in traditional medicine as tranquilizers and sleep inducers. Additionally, this paper contributes to the knowledge of the chemical composition of the aqueous extracts of these plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Relative abundance of the gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Carnívora: Canidae) in Veracruz central area, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Sonia; López Colunga, Paloma; Valdespino, Carolina; Farías, Verónica

    2016-03-01

    The gray fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus, is a medium-size canid widely distributed in México. Most studies on this species focus on habitat use, home range, diet, intraguild competence, and lanscape distribution between urban and rural sites. In central Veracruz, gray foxes are present in fragments of cloud forest and in shaded coffee plantations; nevertheless, its abundance has not yet been compared among other vegetation types found in the area, such as sugarcane plantations. In this study we described gray foxes abundance variations using 500 m transects, among sugarcane plantations, shaded coffee plantations, and cloud forest fragments throughout eight months, by scat counting in three sites of each cover type. We reported the relative abundance index for each cover type and each month, and evaluated its relationship with four landscape features: (a) shade percent, (b) trail density, (c) human population density, and (d) habitat juxtaposition, in influence areas of 450 ha around sampling sites. Abundance comparison among cover types showed lower abundances in cloud forest fragments and higher abundances in coffee and sugarcane plantations. No significant differences were found throughout months (p = 0.476). We proposed that higher abundances in plantations may be related to the presence of rodent plagues and fruit trees which offer food resources to gray foxes. The evaluation of landscape features showed that only medium-impact trail density and human population density were positively correlated with gray fox abundance; fact that demonstrates that this canid can coexist with humans in rural sites. We highlight the gray fox capacity to take advantage of heterogeneous landscapes.

  11. Postwildfire preliminary debris flow hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Las Conchas Fire during the summer of 2011 was the largest in recorded history for the state of New Mexico, burning 634 square kilometers in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 321 basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 28.0 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence interval), the probabilities of debris flows estimated for basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire were greater than 80 percent for two-thirds (67 percent) of the modeled basins. Basins with a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in tributaries to Santa Clara and Rio del Oso Canyons in the northeastern part of the burned area; some steep areas in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Los Alamos, and Guaje Canyons in the east-central part of the burned area; tributaries to Peralta, Colle, Bland, and Cochiti canyons in the southwestern part of the burned area; and tributaries to Frijoles, Alamo, and Capulin Canyons in the southeastern part of the burned area (within Bandelier National Monument). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 400 cubic meters to greater than 72,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 40,000 cubic meters) were estimated for basins in Santa Clara, Los Alamos, and Water Canyons, and for two

  12. A detailed paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic investigation of the Matuyama-Bruhnes geomagnetic reversal recorded in tephra-paleosol sequence of Tlaxcala(Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Soler-Arechalde

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetic reversals are global phenomena, for about 50 years the paleomagnetists attempted to acquire as many detailed records as possible using the magnetic memory of sediments and lava flows. Yet, transitional field behavior remains poorly characterized largely because of sporadic aspect of volcanic eruptions. In some specific cases, paleosols such as those developed from alluvial or aeolian sediments, may also record the variations of the Geomagnetic Field across the polarity changes. Here, we report a detailed paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic investigation on some radiometrically dated chromic luvisols located in Central Mexico carrying detrital or chemical remanent magnetization. The research was developed in order i to demonstrate the primary origin of the magnetic remanence and ii to show that paleosoils are good candidates to provide a high resolution record of the behavior of geomagnetic field during reversals. The lower part of the paleosoil sequence shows a clearly defined reverse polarity magnetization followed by geomagnetically unstable transitional field and ended by normal polarity remanence. Our AMS and rock magnetic data suggest that magnetization is acquired during the initial stage of soil formation in context of active volcanic activity since magnetic fabric is essentially sedimentary and reverse and normal polarity paleodirections are almost antipodal. Titanomagnetites are identified as main magnetic carriers of rock-magnetic measurements including thermomagnetics and hysteresis cycles. We propose that the transition recorded in this study correspond to the B-M boundary, considering the K-Ar datings available at the sequence bottom and that the chromic luvisols are potentially good recorders of the paleosecular variation. The identification of the B-M boundary within the studied sequence has fundamental significance for improving the chronological scale of Tlaxcala paleosol-sedimentary sequence and its correlation with the

  13. Geology, geochronology, and geochemistry of basaltic flows of the Cat Hills, Cat Mesa, Wind Mesa, Cerro Verde, and Mesita Negra, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, F.; Budahn, J.R.; Peters, L.; Unruh, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The geochronology, geochemistry, and isotopic compositions of basaltic flows erupted from the Cat Hills, Cat Mesa, Wind Mesa, Cerro Verde, and Mesita Negra volcanic centres in central New Mexico indicate that each of these lavas had unique origins and that the predominant mantle involved in their production was an ocean-island basalt type. The basalts from Cat Hills (0.11 Ma) and Cat Mesa (3.0 Ma) are similar in major and trace element composition, but differences in MgO contents and Pb isotopic values are attributed to a small involvement of a lower crustal component in the genesis of the Cat Mesa rocks. The Cerro Verde rock is comparable in age (0.32 Ma) to the Cat Hills lavas, but it is more radiogenic in Sr and Nd, has higher MgO contents, and has a lower La/Yb ratio. This composition is explained by the melting of an enriched mantle source, but the involvement of another crustal component cannot be disregarded. The Wind Mesa rock is characterized by similar age (4.01 Ma) and MgO contents, but it has enriched rare-earth element contents compared with the Cat Mesa samples. These are attributed to a difference in the degree of partial melting of the Cat Mesa source. The Mesita Negra rock (8.11 Ma) has distinctive geochemical and isotopic compositions that suggest a different enriched mantle and that large amounts of a crustal component were involved in generating this magma. These data imply a temporal shift in magma source regions and crustal involvement, and have been previously proposed for Rio Grande rift lavas. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  14. Geophysical Characterization by the SAGE Program of a Newly Proposed, Low Temperature-EGS Prospect in the Central Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiracek, G. R.; Zablowski, P.; Castro, B.; Le Pape, F.; Biagini, B.; Kennedy, M.; Feucht, D. W.; Pellerin, L.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Hasterok, D. P.; Biehler, S.; McPhee, D. K.; Ferguson, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    In 2011 the SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) program began initial field evaluation of a recently proposed geothermal prospect located approximately 20 km northwest of Santa Fe, New Mexico. New magnetotelluric (MT) and gravity measurements in the Caja del Rio volcanic field have been combined with previous industry seismic results and SAGE MT, gravity, and seismic data to define parameters important for potential low temperature and EGS development. A thick, 2.0-2.5 km-deep, water-saturated, electrically conductive section overlies resistive basement, presumably Paleozoic limestone on top of Precambrian granite. Therefore, by projecting a measured 58oC/km near-surface temperature gradient, the area would easily meet the criterion for high grade EGS of impermeable basement rock at >200oC at less than 4 km depth. MT-derived depth estimates of a ubiquitous, highly conductive midcrustal conductor along with thermal conductivity values, and estimates of radiogenic heat flow allowed thermal modeling of the entire upper crust. This relies on recent evidence that the midcrustal conductor depth is a good proxy for the depth to the 500oC isotherm in active tectonic areas. The resulting thermal calculations yield a surface heat flow of 80 mW/m2 for a 2 km-deep sedimentary column and a 14 km-deep conductor. Forced, westward flowing groundwater convection over a basement high has been proposed for the thermal anomaly. Our initial geophysical results do not provide strong evidence for this. Rather, we favor the possibility that deeply penetrating, permeable fault conduits provide pathways for ascending warm water beneath the volcanic field. This is supported by high 3He/4He ratios measured in groundwater samples. The Caja del Rio area appears to be the most attractive geothermal prospect in the central Rio Grande rift outside of the near-by, world-class Valles caldera geothermal area.

  15. A detailed paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic investigation of the Matuyama-Bruhnes geomagnetic reversal recorded in tephra-paleosol sequence of Tlaxcala(Central Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Arechalde, Ana; Goguitchaichvili, Avtandyl; Carrancho, Ángel; Sedov, Sergey; Caballero-Miranda, Cecilia; Ortega, Beatriz; Solís, Berenice; Morales Contreras, Juan; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Bautista, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    Geomagnetic reversals are global phenomena, for about 50 years the paleomagnetists attempted to acquire as many detailed records as possible using the magnetic memory of sediments and lava flows. Yet, transitional field behavior remains poorly characterized largely because of sporadic aspect of volcanic eruptions. In some specific cases, paleosols such as those developed from alluvial or aeolian sediments, may also record the variations of the Geomagnetic Field across the polarity changes. Here, we report a detailed paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic investigation on some radiometrically dated chromic luvisols located in Central Mexico carrying detrital or chemical remanent magnetization. The research was developed in order i) to demonstrate the primary origin of the magnetic remanence and ii) to show that paleosoils are good candidates to provide a high resolution record of the behavior of geomagnetic field during reversals. The lower part of the paleosoil sequence shows a clearly defined reverse polarity magnetization followed by geomagnetically unstable transitional field and ended by normal polarity remanence. Our AMS and rock magnetic data suggest that magnetization is acquired during the initial stage of soil formation in context of active volcanic activity since magnetic fabric is essentially sedimentary and reverse and normal polarity paleodirections are almost antipodal. Titanomagnetites are identified as main magnetic carriers of rock-magnetic measurements including thermomagnetics and hysteresis cycles. We propose that the transition recorded in this study correspond to the B-M boundary, considering the K-Ar datings available at the sequence bottom and that the chromic luvisols are potentially good recorders of the paleosecular variation. The identification of the B-M boundary within the studied sequence has fundamental significance for improving the chronological scale of Tlaxcala paleosol-sedimentary sequence and its correlation with the global proxies.

  16. Water-level data for the Albuquerque Basin and adjacent areas, central New Mexico, period of record through September 30, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beman, Joseph E.; Bryant, Christina F.

    2016-10-27

    The Albuquerque Basin, located in central New Mexico, is about 100 miles long and 25–40 miles wide. The basin is hydrologically defined as the extent of consolidated and unconsolidated deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age that encompasses the structural Rio Grande Rift between San Acacia to the south and Cochiti Lake to the north. Drinking-water supplies throughout the basin were obtained solely from groundwater resources until December 2008, when the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (ABCWUA) began treatment and distribution of surface water from the Rio Grande through the San Juan-Chama Drinking Water Project. A 20-percent population increase in the basin from 1990 to 2000 and a 22-percent population increase from 2000 to 2010 may have resulted in an increased demand for water in areas within the basin.An initial network of wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Albuquerque from April 1982 through September 1983 to monitor changes in groundwater levels throughout the Albuquerque Basin. In 1983, this network consisted of 6 wells with analog-to-digital recorders and 27 wells where water levels were measured monthly. The network currently (2015) consists of 124 wells and piezometers. (A piezometer is a specialized well open to a specific depth in the aquifer, often of small diameter and nested with other piezometers open to different depths.) The USGS, in cooperation with the ABCWUA, currently (2015) measures and reports water levels from the 124 wells and piezometers in the network; this report presents water-level data collected by USGS personnel at those 124 sites through water year 2015 (October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015).

  17. Effect of stocking rate and supplementation on performance of dairy cows grazing native grassland in small-scale systems in the highlands of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz-Sánchez, Pedro Alan; López-González, Felipe; Estrada-Flores, Julieta Gertrudis; Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The use and management of native grassland for dairy production during the rainy season was studied on two small-scale dairy farms in the highlands of central Mexico. Two stocking rates (2 and 4 cows/ha) and two levels of supplementation with commercial concentrate (4 and 6 kg/cow/day) under grazing were given to 12 milking Holstein cows in a 4 × 4 Latin square design replicated three times in a factorial arrangement. Net herbage accumulation (NHA), sward height, chemical composition, and in vitro digestibility of organic matter were recorded for the grassland, as well as vegetation cover and herbage mass 12 weeks post experiment. Animal performance variables were milk yield and composition, live weight, and body condition score. A partial budget analysis of feeding costs, returns, and margins was calculated. There were no differences between periods for NHA and herbage height and between plots for chemical composition (P > 0.05). However, there were highly significant differences among periods (P  0.05) between treatments for milk yield, chemical composition of milk, live weight, or body condition score. Post-experimental vegetation cover was 72 % for both stocking rates, indicating there was no degradation of the grassland. Lower feeding costs were for the low supplementation treatments. It is concluded that a high stocking rate in studied native grasslands of 4 cows/ha with moderate concentrate supplementation supports a mean milk yield of 11.9 kg/cow/day during the rainy season without deleterious effects on the grassland.

  18. Description of the third instar larvae of five species of Cyclocephala (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Morón

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of the third instar larvae of five species of Cyclocephala (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae, Dynastinae from Mexico. Larvae of four species of Cyclocephala are described for the first time based on specimens collected in Mexican localities: C. barrerai Martínez, 1969 from Puebla, C. sinaloae Howden & Endrödi, 1966 from Sinaloa, C. fasciolata Bates, 1888 from Veracruz, and C. jalapensis Casey, 1915 from Hidalgo. Larva of C. lunulata Burmeister, 1847, is redescribed based on specimens from the Mexican states of Morelos, Puebla, and Veracruz. Diagnostic structures are illustrated and the differences and similarities of each species with other previously described larvae of the genus are commented.

  19. [Prevalence of rhinitis allergic in populations of several states of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Hernández, Eleazar; Medina-Ávalos, Miguel Alejandro; Barnica-Alvarado, Raúl Humberto; Soto-Candia, Diego; Guerrero-Venegas, Rosario; Zecua-Nájera, Yahvéh

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of the nasal mucosa, characterized by symptoms of itching, rhinorrhea, nasal congestion and sneezing induced by an IgE-mediated response. In Mexico we have reports of prevalence, with fluctuations of 5.5% to 47.7% with the question of rhinitis symptoms the past 12 months. To determine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in schoolchildren from various states of Mexico. A descriptive study of prevalence in which a questionnaire was applied to preschool, elementary-, middle- and high-school population. It was performed in four cities in four states of Mexico: Puebla, Puebla, Tulancingo, Hidalgo, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala and Cancun, Quintana Roo. Parents answered questionnaires of preschool and elementary school and middle- and high-school students answered their questionnaires. The study was conducted from June 2014 to January 2015. The instrument used was: questionnaire diagnosis of allergic rhinitis for epidemiological studies. Of the surveys, 8,159 completed questionnaires were obtained, in the city of Puebla: 2,267, Tulancingo, Hidalgo: 2,478, Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala: 2,574, Cancun, Quintana Roo: 840; total male: 4,190 (51%). The overall average rate of prevalence of allergic rhinitis among four states including all respondents ages was 15%. With the use of the questionnaire diagnosis of allergic rhinitis for epidemiological studies in the four cities in four different states, we found a prevalence of allergic rhinitis of 15% in ≥13 yearpopulation and 13% in ≤12 year-old children.

  20. Ancient Human Footprints in Mexico?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holden, Constance

    2005-01-01

    .... Geochronologist Silvia Gonzalez of Liverpool John Moores University in the UK stumbled upon the prints in an abandoned quarry along what had once been a lake in the Valsequillo basin in central Mexico...