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Sample records for hhh tcp fddi

  1. FDDI experience at the SSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, M.

    1993-04-01

    The Physics Detector Simulation Facility (PDSF) is an assemblage of UNIX/RISC workstations and servers which use LAN networking components and standards in a unique way. The PDSF is configured using FDDI much like an internal system bus to a computer system and thus serves as the foundation for the entire PDSF system. This paper will describe the utilization of FDDI in the system, system monitoring, and the interfacing of the PDSF to the local site LAN and WAN environment

  2. FDDI experience at the SSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Physics Detector Simulation Facility (PDSF) is an assemblage of UNIX/RISC workstations and servers which use LAN networking components and standards in a unique way. The PDSF is configured using FDDI much like an internal system bus to a computer system and thus serves as the foundation for the entire PDSF system. This paper will describe the utilization of FDDI in the system, system monitoring, and the interfacing of the PDSF to the local site LAN and WAN environment

  3. Fiber distributed data interface [FDDI] technology report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. Fiber Distributed Data Interface [FDDI] is the American National Standard Institute's proposed standard for a 100 Mbps token-passing ring using an optical fibre medium. The FDDI standard has become a focal point for optical technology application in the LAN environment. The market place is filling with products in every category from complete systems to optical transceivers. The 1990s see FDDI as the predominant high speed LAN and backbone. The latest edition of this report is thoroughly updated and gives a complete overview of FDDI technol

  4. "A Fiber Optic Ethernet With Inherent Migration Capability To FDDI"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Kenneth D.; Chan, Tammy S.

    1988-12-01

    A Local Area Network (LAN) designed to a standard commercial interface, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.3 or Ethernet, has been developed using fiber optics as the physical medium. The LAN, WhisperNet, operates in an active ring and thus has an inherent low cost migration path to a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) implementation.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix: Table 1 to... - List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) for Subpart HHH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) for Subpart HHH Table Appendix: Table 1 to Subpart HHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... HHH of Part 63—List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) for Subpart HHH CAS Number a Chemical name 75070...

  6. Simple algorithm for improved security in the FDDI protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, G. M.; Jones, Benjamin

    1993-02-01

    We propose a modification to the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) protocol based on a simple algorithm which will improve confidential communication capability. This proposed modification provides a simple and reliable system which exploits some of the inherent security properties in a fiber optic ring network. This method differs from conventional methods in that end to end encryption can be facilitated at the media access control sublayer of the data link layer in the OSI network model. Our method is based on a variation of the bit stream cipher method. The transmitting station takes the intended confidential message and uses a simple modulo two addition operation against an initialization vector. The encrypted message is virtually unbreakable without the initialization vector. None of the stations on the ring will have access to both the encrypted message and the initialization vector except the transmitting and receiving stations. The generation of the initialization vector is unique for each confidential transmission and thus provides a unique approach to the key distribution problem. The FDDI protocol is of particular interest to the military in terms of LAN/MAN implementations. Both the Army and the Navy are considering the standard as the basis for future network systems. A simple and reliable security mechanism with the potential to support realtime communications is a necessary consideration in the implementation of these systems. The proposed method offers several advantages over traditional methods in terms of speed, reliability, and standardization.

  7. Design and evaluation of FDDI fiber optics networkfor Ethernets, VAX's and Ingraph work stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicki, M. Chris

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and evaluate the FDDI Fiber Optics Network for Ethernets, VAX's, and Ingraph work stations. From the KSC Headquarters communication requirement, it would be necessary to develop the FDDI network based on IEEE Standards outlined in the ANSI X3T9.5, Standard 802.3 and 802.5 topology - direct link via intermediate concentrator and bridge/router access. This analysis should examine the major factors that influence the operating conditions of the Headquarters Fiber plant. These factors would include, but are not limited to the interconnecting devices such as repeaters, bridges, routers and many other relevant or significant FDDI characteristics. This analysis is needed to gain a better understanding of overall FDDI performance.

  8. Design and evaluation of FDDI fiber optics networkfor Ethernets, VAX's and Ingraph work stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernicki, M. Chris

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and evaluate the FDDI Fiber Optics Network for Ethernets, VAX's, and Ingraph work stations. From the KSC Headquarters communication requirement, it would be necessary to develop the FDDI network based on IEEE Standards outlined in the ANSI X3T9.5, Standard 802.3 and 802.5 topology - direct link via intermediate concentrator and bridge/router access. This analysis should examine the major factors that influence the operating conditions of the Headquarters Fiber plant. These factors would include, but are not limited to the interconnecting devices such as repeaters, bridges, routers and many other relevant or significant FDDI characteristics. This analysis is needed to gain a better understanding of overall FDDI performance.

  9. Diagnosis and high incidence of hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinemia (HHH) syndrome in northern Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoro, AbdulRazaq A H; Lepage, Joyce; Antonishyn, Nick; McDonald, Ryan; Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl; Irvine, James; Lehotay, Denis C

    2010-12-01

    Mutations in the SLC25A15 gene, encoding the human inner mitochondrial membrane ornithine transporter, are thought to be responsible for hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinemia (HHH) syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive condition. HHH syndrome has been detected in several small, isolated communities in northern Saskatchewan (SK). To determine the incidence of HHH syndrome in these communities, a PCR method was set up to detect F188Δ, the common French-Canadian mutation. Neonatal blood spots collected from all newborns from the high risk area were genotyped for the F188Δ mutation for seven consecutive years. Using DNA analysis, we estimated that the heterozygote frequency for the mutant allele for HHH syndrome to be about 1 in 19 individuals, predicting one affected child with HHH syndrome for approximately every 1,500 individuals (1 in 1,550 live births; 1 child every 12 years) in this isolated population. The frequency for the mutant allele for HHH syndrome in this isolated community is probably the highest in the world for this rare disorder. We determined that ornithine levels, by tandem mass spectrometry, were not abnormal in newborns with F188Δ mutation, carriers and normals. Ornithine rises to abnormally high levels at some time after birth well past the time that the newborn screening blood spot is collected. The timing or the reasons for the delayed rise of ornithine in affected children with HHH syndrome have not been determined. Newborn screening for HHH Syndrome in this high risk population is only possible by detection of the mutant allele using DNA analysis.

  10. ID-1 mass storage system for mainframe by using FDDI network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Y.; Fujii, H.; Inoue, E.; Kodama, H. Manabe, A.; Miyamoto, A.; Nomachi, M.; Watase, Y.; Yasu, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have developed an ID-1 mass storage system as a distributed data server for Fujitsu mainframe computers. The system consists of a SONY ID-1 recorder DIR-1000, a tape robot system DMS-24 and a SCSI-II interface DFC-1500, which are connected to Spar Station 10 with an FDDI interface. The maximum speed of 7.5 Mbytes/sec is achieved for data transfer between Sparc Station 10 memory and DIR-1000 with a buffer size of 1 Mbytes. The system has been used successfully since last October to migrate more than 1 Tbytes data

  11. Optimizing TCP Performance over UMTS with Split TCP Proxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Dittmann, Lars

    2009-01-01

    . To cope with large delay bandwidth product, we propose a novel concept of split TCP proxy which is placed at GGSN between UNITS network and Internet. The split proxy divides the bandwidth delay product into two parts, resulting in two TCP connections with smaller bandwidth delay products which can...... be pipelined and thus operating at higher speeds. Simulation results show, the split TCP proxy can significantly improve the TCP performance in terms of RLC throughput under high bit rate DCH channel scenario (e.g.256 kbps). On the other hand, it only brings small performance improvement under low bit rate DCH...... scenario (e.g.64 kbps). Besides, the split TCP proxy brings more performance gain for downloading large files than downloading small ones. To the end, for the configuration of the split proxy, an aggressive initial TCP congestion window size (e.g. 10 MSS) at proxy is particularly useful for radio links...

  12. Using the ACR/NEMA standard with TCP/IP and Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimiak, William J.; Williams, Rodney C.

    1991-07-01

    There is a need for a consolidated picture archival and communications system (PACS) in hospitals. At the Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University (BGSM), the authors are enhancing the ACR/NEMA Version 2 protocol using UNIX sockets and TCP/IP to greatly improve connectivity. Initially, nuclear medicine studies using gamma cameras are to be sent to PACS. The ACR/NEMA Version 2 protocol provides the functionality of the upper three layers of the open system interconnection (OSI) model in this implementation. The images, imaging equipment information, and patient information are then sent in ACR/NEMA format to a software socket. From there it is handed to the TCP/IP protocol, which provides the transport and network service. TCP/IP, in turn, uses the services of IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) to complete the connectivity. The advantage of this implementation is threefold: (1) Only one I/O port is consumed by numerous nuclear medicine cameras, instead of a physical port for each camera. (2) Standard protocols are used which maximize interoperability with ACR/NEMA compliant PACSs. (3) The use of sockets allows a migration path to the transport and networking services of OSIs TP4 and connectionless network service as well as the high-performance protocol being considered by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Standards Organization (ISO) -- the Xpress Transfer Protocol (XTP). The use of sockets also gives access to ANSI's Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) as well as other high-speed network standards.

  13. Insights into the mutation-induced HHH syndrome from modeling human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Fang Wang

    Full Text Available Human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1 is reported in coupling with the hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. For in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanism of the disease, it is crucially important to acquire the 3D structure of human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1. Since no such structure is available in the current protein structure database, we have developed it via computational approaches based on the recent NMR structure of human mitochondrial uncoupling protein (Berardi MJ, Chou JJ, et al. Nature 2011, 476:109-113. Subsequently, we docked the ligand L-ornithine into the computational structure to search for the favorable binding mode. It was observed that the binding interaction for the most favorable binding mode is featured by six remarkable hydrogen bonds between the receptor and ligand, and that the most favorable binding mode shared the same ligand-binding site with most of the homologous mitochondrial carriers from different organisms, implying that the ligand-binding sites are quite conservative in the mitochondrial carriers family although their sequences similarity is very low with 20% or so. Moreover, according to our structural analysis, the relationship between the disease-causing mutations of human mitochondrial ornithine transporter-1 and the HHH syndrome can be classified into the following three categories: (i the mutation occurs in the pseudo-repeat regions so as to change the region of the protein closer to the mitochondrial matrix; (ii the mutation is directly affecting the substrate binding pocket so as to reduce the substrate binding affinity; (iii the mutation is located in the structural region closer to the intermembrane space that can significantly break the salt bridge networks of the protein. These findings may provide useful insights for in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanism of the HHH syndrome and

  14. Internetworking with TCP/IP

    CERN Document Server

    Comer, Douglas E

    2014-01-01

    An internationally best-selling, conceptual introduction to the TCP/IP protocols and Internetworking, this book interweaves a clear discussion of fundamentals and scientific principles with details and examples drawn from the latest technologies. Leading author Douglas Comer covers layering and packet formats for all the Internet protocols, includingTCP, IPv4, IPv6, DHCP, and DNS. In addition, the text explains new trends in Internet systems, including packet classification, Software Defined Networking (SDN), and mesh protocols used in The Internet of Things. The text is appropriate for individuals interested in learning more about TCP/IP protocols, Internet architecture, and current networking technologies, as well as engineers who build network systems. It is suitable for junior to graduate-level courses in Computer Networks, Data Networks, Network Protocols, and Internetworking.

  15. TCP Performance Enhancement for UMTS Access Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang

    2008-01-01

    is between UMTS access network and Internet. The split proxy divides the bandwidth delay product into two parts, resulting in two TCP connections with smaller bandwidth delay products. Simulation results show, the split TCP proxy can significantly improve the TCP performance under high bit rate DCH channel......We aim at optimize the TCP performance over UMTS access network challenged by the large delay bandwidth product that is mainly caused by the latency from the link layer ARQ retransmissions and diversity technique at physical layer. We propose to place a split TCP proxy at GGSN nodes which...

  16. OSI and TCP/IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Lynwood P.

    1994-01-01

    The Open Systems Interconnection Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (OSI TCP/IP) and the Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) are compared and described in terms of Federal internetworking. The organization and functions of the Federal Internetworking Requirements Panel (FIRP) are discussed and the panel's conclusions and recommendations with respect to the standards and implementation of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) are presented.

  17. TCP/IP Network Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Craig

    2002-01-01

    This complete guide to setting up and running a TCP/IP network is essential for network administrators, and invaluable for users of home systems that access the Internet. The book starts with the fundamentals -- what protocols do and how they work, how addresses and routing are used to move data through the network, how to set up your network connection -- and then covers, in detail, everything you need to know to exchange information via the Internet. Included are discussions on advanced routing protocols (RIPv2, OSPF, and BGP) and the gated software package that implements them, a tutorial

  18. Structure-guided mutational analysis of the OB, HhH, and BRCT domains of Escherichia coli DNA ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Kai; Nair, Pravin A; Shuman, Stewart

    2008-08-22

    NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases (LigAs) are ubiquitous in bacteria and essential for growth. LigA enzymes have a modular structure in which a central catalytic core composed of nucleotidyltransferase and oligonucleotide-binding (OB) domains is linked via a tetracysteine zinc finger to distal helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) and BRCT (BRCA1-like C-terminal) domains. The OB and HhH domains contribute prominently to the protein clamp formed by LigA around nicked duplex DNA. Here we conducted a structure-function analysis of the OB and HhH domains of Escherichia coli LigA by alanine scanning and conservative substitutions, entailing 43 mutations at 22 amino acids. We thereby identified essential functional groups in the OB domain that engage the DNA phosphodiester backbone flanking the nick (Arg(333)); penetrate the minor grove and distort the nick (Val(383) and Ile(384)); or stabilize the OB fold (Arg(379)). The essential constituents of the HhH domain include: four glycines (Gly(455), Gly(489), Gly(521), Gly(553)), which bind the phosphate backbone across the minor groove at the outer margins of the LigA-DNA interface; Arg(487), which penetrates the minor groove at the outer margin on the 3 (R)-OH side of the nick; and Arg(446), which promotes protein clamp formation via contacts to the nucleotidyltransferase domain. We find that the BRCT domain is required in its entirety for effective nick sealing and AMP-dependent supercoil relaxation.

  19. Summary of CARE-HHH Mini-Workshop on LHC Crab Cavity Validation, 21 August 2008

    CERN Document Server

    Calaga, R; Garoby, R; Linnecar, T; Tomás, R; Zimmermann, F; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2008-01-01

    A global LHC crab-cavity collaboration is rapidly advancing the R&D of a complete crab cavity cryomodule and performing the associated beam dynamics simulations compatible with a prototype test in the phase 0/I upgrade with the aim of establishing a full crab crossing scheme for the phase II upgrade of the LHC. A one day CARE-HHH mini-workshop was held on August 21, 2008 at CERN to discuss crab crossing in the LHC phase 0/I & II upgrades and this reports summarizes the activities of the four sessions that took place during the workshop. The goals of this crab-cavity workshop were fourfold: (1) to discuss prospects of crab cavities in LHC upgrades (2) to review the status of the cryomodule development and beam dynamics, (3) to establish validity requirements for LHC crab cavities which need to be demonstrated prior to their installation into the LHC, and (4) to provide guidance & coordination for the global collaborators.

  20. OpenVPN and Multipath TCP

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Aloïs

    2015-01-01

    Testing the performances of using Multipath TCP and OpenVPN on a consumer grade router to aggregate multiple Internet connections and provide a fast and reliable connection to individuals and small companies. Master [60] en sciences informatiques, Université catholique de Louvain, 2015

  1. Study of TCP densification via image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.C.; Alencastro, F.S.; Oliveira, R.N.; Soares, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Among ceramic materials that mimic human bone, β-type tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) has shown appropriate chemical stability and superior resorption rate when compared to hydroxyapatite. In order to increase its mechanical strength, the material is sintered, under controlled time and temperature conditions, to obtain densification without phase change. In the present work, tablets were produced via uniaxial compression and then sintered at 1150°C for 2h. The analysis via XRD and FTIR showed that the sintered tablets were composed only by β-TCP. The SEM images were used for quantification of grain size and volume fraction of pores, via digital image analysis. The tablets showed small pore fraction (between 0,67% and 6,38%) and homogeneous grain size distribution (∼2μm). Therefore, the analysis method seems viable to quantify porosity and grain size. (author)

  2. Compatibility Issues of IPSec and TCP in Wireless Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hai-yang; XIN Yang

    2004-01-01

    Due to the problems arising when the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is applied over wireless networks, many TCP performance enhancement mechanisms have been proposed. However, such mechanisms aren't compatible with IPSec protocol. The paper reviews the TCP performance enhancement mechanisms in wireless networks. Then the conflicts between them are analyzed. Several proposals for solving theconflicts are discussed, and their benefit and limitations are examined.

  3. A New TCP Congestion Control Supporting RTT-Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Kazumine; Nemoto, Yohei; Su, Zhou; Katto, Jiro

    This paper focuses on RTT-fairness of multiple TCP flows over the Internet, and proposes a new TCP congestion control named “HRF (Hybrid RTT-Fair)-TCP”. Today, it is a serious problem that the flows having smaller RTT utilize more bandwidth than others when multiple flows having different RTT values compete in the same network. This means that a user with longer RTT may not be able to obtain sufficient bandwidth by the current methods. This RTT fairness issue has been discussed in many TCP papers. An example is CR (Constant Rate) algorithm, which achieves RTT-fairness by multiplying the square of RTT value in its window increment phase against TCP-Reno. However, the method halves its windows size same as TCP-Reno when a packet loss is detected. This makes worse its efficiency in certain network cases. On the other hand, recent proposed TCP versions essentially require throughput efficiency and TCP-friendliness with TCP-Reno. Therefore, we try to keep these advantages in our TCP design in addition to RTT-fairness. In this paper, we make intuitive analytical models in which we separate resource utilization processes into two cases: utilization of bottleneck link capacity and that of buffer space at the bottleneck link router. These models take into account three characteristic algorithms (Reno, Constant Rate, Constant Increase) in window increment phase where a sender receives an acknowledgement successfully. Their validity is proved by both simulations and implementations. From these analyses, we propose HRF-TCP which switches two modes according to observed RTT values and achieves RTT fairness. Experiments are carried out to validate the proposed method. Finally, HRF-TCP outperforms conventional methods in RTT-fairness, efficiency and friendliness with TCP-Reno.

  4. Analisis Throughput Varian TCP Pada Model Jaringan WiMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medi Taruk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is a protocol that works at the transport layer of the OSI model. TCP was originally designed more destined for a wired network. However, to meet the need for the development of a very fast network technology based on the needs of the use by the user, it needs further development to the use of TCP on wireless devices. One implementation of a wireless network based on Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX network is a model that offers a variety advantage, particularly in terms of access speed. In this case, use NS-2 to see throughput at TCP variants tested, namely TCP-Tahoe, TCP-Reno, TCP-Vegas, and TCP-SACK over WiMAX network model, with few observations scenarios. The first is a look at each of these variants throughput of TCP when only one particular variant of the work in the network. Second observe all variants of TCP throughput at the same time and have the equivalent QoS, but with the possibility of a small congestion based on the capacity of the link is made sufficient. Third observed throughput with multi congestion. In WiMAX network has scheduling services are UGS, rtPS and ertPS using UDP protocol and nrtPS and BE using the TCP Protocol. By using the software network simulator (NS-2 to obtain performance comparison TCP protocol-based services on the WiMAX network with QoS parameters are throughput, packet loss, fairness and time delay.

  5. Transformation and biodegradation of 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP)

    OpenAIRE

    Samin, Ghufrana; Janssen, Dick B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) is a persistent groundwater pollutant and a suspected human carcinogen. It is also is an industrial chemical waste that has been formed in large amounts during epichlorohydrin manufacture. In view of the spread of TCP via groundwater and its toxicity, there is a need for cheap and efficient technologies for the cleanup of TCP-contaminated sites. In situ or on-site bioremediation of TCP is an option if biodegradation can be achieved and stimulated. This pap...

  6. Transformation and biodegradation of 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samin, Ghufrana; Janssen, Dick B

    2012-09-01

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) is a persistent groundwater pollutant and a suspected human carcinogen. It is also is an industrial chemical waste that has been formed in large amounts during epichlorohydrin manufacture. In view of the spread of TCP via groundwater and its toxicity, there is a need for cheap and efficient technologies for the cleanup of TCP-contaminated sites. In situ or on-site bioremediation of TCP is an option if biodegradation can be achieved and stimulated. This paper presents an overview of methods for the remediation of TCP-contaminated water with an emphasis on the possibilities of biodegradation. Although TCP is a xenobiotic chlorinated compound of high chemical stability, a number of abiotic and biotic conversions have been demonstrated, including abiotic oxidative conversion in the presence of a strong oxidant and reductive conversion by zero-valent zinc. Biotransformations that have been observed include reductive dechlorination, monooxygenase-mediated cometabolism, and enzymatic hydrolysis. No natural organisms are known that can use TCP as a carbon source for growth under aerobic conditions, but anaerobically TCP may serve as electron acceptor. The application of biodegradation is hindered by low degradation rates and incomplete mineralization. Protein engineering and genetic modification can be used to obtain microorganisms with enhanced TCP degradation potential.

  7. CARE-HHH-APD Workshop on Finalizing the Roadmap for the Upgrade of the CERN and GSI Accelerator Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank; BEAM'07; BEAM 2007; Finalizing the Roadmap for the Upgrade of the LHC and GSI Accelerator Complex

    2008-01-01

    This report contains the Proceedings of the CARE-HHH-APD Event BEAM’07, “Finalizing the Roadmap for the Upgrade of the CERN & GSI Accelerator Complex,” which was held at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, from 1 to 5 October 2007. BEAM’07 was primarily devoted to beam dynamics limitations for the two, or three, alternative baseline scenarios of the LHC luminosity upgrade and to critical design choices for the upgrade of the LHC injector complex at CERN and for the FAIR complex at GSI. It comprised five parts: (1) a Mini-Workshop on LHC+ Beam Performance, (2) a CERN-GSI Meeting on Collective Effects, (3) the Francesco Ruggiero Memorial Symposium, (4) a Mini-Workshop on the LHC Injectors Upgrade, and (5) the BEAM’07 Summaries. Topics addressed in the first mini-workshop of BEAM’07 ranged from the luminosity performance reach of the upgraded LHC in different scenarios, over the generation and stability of the future LHC beams, the turnaround time, beam–beam effects, luminosity levelling methods, and ...

  8. Joint CARE-ELAN, CARE-HHH-APD, and EUROTEV-WP3 Workshop on Electron Cloud Clearing

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter; Schulte, D; Zimmermann, F; Electron Cloud Effects and Technological Consequences; ECL2

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the Proceedings of the joint CARE-HHH-APD, CARE-ELAN, and EUROTEV-WP3 Mini-Workshop on 'Electron Cloud Clearing - Electron Cloud and Technical Consequences', "ECL2", held at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, 1-2 March 2007). The ECL2 workshop explored novel technological remedies against electron-cloud formation in an accelerator beam pipe. A primary motivation for the workshop was the expected harmful electron-cloud effects in the upgraded LHC injectors and in future linear colliders, as well as recent beam observations in operating facilities like ANKA, CESR, KEKB, RHIC, and SPS. The solutions discussed at ECL2 included enamel-based clearing electrodes, slotted vacuum chambers, NEG coating, and grooves. Several of the proposed cures were assessed in terms of their clearing efficiency and the associated beam impedance. The workshop also reviewed new simulation tools like the 3D electron-ion build-up 'Faktor', modeling assumptions, analytical calculations, beam experiments, and laboratory meas...

  9. Microwave sintering of nano size powder β-TCP bioceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhadi B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A nano sized beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP powder was conventional sintered (CS and microwave sintered (MW, in order to obtain dense β-TCP ceramics. In this work the effect of microwave sintering conditions on the microstructure, phase composition and mechanical properties of materials based on tricalcium phosphate (TCP was investigated by SEM (scanning electron microscopyand XRD(X-ray diffraction and then compared with conventional sintered samples. Nano-size β-TCP powders with average grain size of 80 nm were prepared by the wet chemical precipitation method with calcium nitrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate as calcium and phosphorus precursors, respectively. The precipitation process employed was also found to be suitable for the production of submicrometre β-TCP powder in situ. The β-TCP samples microwave (MW sintered for 15 min at 1100°C, with average grain size of 3μm, showed better densification, higher density and certainly higher hardness than samples conventionally sintered for 2 h at the same temperature. By comparing sintered and MW sintered β-TCP samples, it was concluded that MW sintered β-TCP samples have superior mechanical properties.

  10. Genomewide analysis of TCP transcription factor gene family in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 93; Issue 3. Genomewide ... Teosinte branched1/cycloidea/proliferating cell factor1 (TCP) proteins are a large family of transcriptional regulators in angiosperms. They are ... To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of a genomewide analysis of apple TCP gene family.

  11. Chitosan Fibers Modified with HAp/β–TCP Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Wawro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for preparing chitosan fibers modified with hydroxyapatite (HAp, tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP, and HAp/β-TCP nanoparticles. Fiber-grade chitosan derived from the northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis and nanoparticles of tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP and hydroxyapatite (HAp suspended in a diluted chitosan solution were used in the investigation. Diluted chitosan solution containing nanoparticles of Hap/β-TCP was introduced to a 5.16 wt% solution of chitosan in 3.0 wt% acetic acid. The properties of the spinning solutions were examined. Chitosan fibers modified with nanoparticles of HAp/β-TCP were characterized by a level of tenacity and calcium content one hundred times higher than that of regular chitosan fibers.

  12. Analysis of Malicious Traffic in Modbus/TCP Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tiago H.; Batista, Aguinaldo B.; Medeiros, João Paulo S.; Filho, José Macedo F.; Brito, Agostinho M.; Pires, Paulo S. Motta

    This paper presents the results of our analysis about the influence of Information Technology (IT) malicious traffic on an IP-based automation environment. We utilized a traffic generator, called MACE (Malicious trAffic Composition Environment), to inject malicious traffic in a Modbus/TCP communication system and a sniffer to capture and analyze network traffic. The realized tests show that malicious traffic represents a serious risk to critical information infrastructures. We show that this kind of traffic can increase latency of Modbus/TCP communication and that, in some cases, can put Modbus/TCP devices out of communication.

  13. TCP Congestion Control for the Networks with Markovian Jump Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOMENI, H. R.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of TCP congestion control for the class of communication networks with random parameters. The linear dynamic model of TCP New Reno in congestion avoidance mode is considered which contains round trip delays in both state and input. The randomness of link capacity, round trip time delay and the number of TCP sessions is modeled with a continuous-time finite state Markov process. An Active Queue Management (AQM technique is then used to adjust the queue level of the congested link to a predefined value. For this purpose, a dynamic output feedback controller with mode dependent parameters is synthesized to stochastically stabilize the TCP/AQM dynamics. The procedure of the control synthesis is implemented by solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI. The results are tested within a simulation example and the effectiveness of the proposed design method is verified.

  14. A Novel Congestion Detection Scheme in TCP Over OBS Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem; Ho, Pin-Han; Zhang, Qiong

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel congestion detection scheme for high-bandwidth TCP flows over optical burst switching (OBS) networks, called statistical additive increase multiplicative decrease (SAIMD). SAIMD maintains and analyzes a number

  15. Global Connections for Lasting Impressions: Experiential Learning about TCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Colin; Miller, Alan; Oliver, Iain; Sturgeon, Thomas

    “Tell me and I forget, Show me and I remember, Involve me and I understand”. This paper discusses the motivation for, and design of, a learning resource which allows students to explore the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). TCP is responsible for transporting over 80% of the traffic on the Internet - all web and e-mail for example - and in addition is the primary means of achieving Internet congestion control. TCP is therefore core to modern life. It is a protocol under constant study with a view to evolution, and it is incumbent on all ICT curricula to provide education at appropriate levels about its dynamics, strengths and weaknesses. There are no shortages of good textbooks which provide information on TCP, but these are no substitute for experiential learning in order to provide a lasting understanding. The TCP Live learning resource allows students to explore the behavior of TCP on the global Internet, and see the wide variety of conditions that the protocol has to cope with, thereby extending their viewpoint outwith the limited scope of their own institutional firewalls.

  16. TCP Packet Trace Analysis. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    Examination of a trace of packets collected from the network is often the only method available for diagnosing protocol performance problems in computer networks. This thesis explores the use of packet traces to diagnose performance problems of the transport protocol TCP. Unfortunately, manual examination of these traces can be so tedious that effective analysis is not possible. The primary contribution of this thesis is a graphical method of displaying the packet trace which greatly reduce, the tediousness of examining a packet trace. The graphical method is demonstrated by the examination of some packet traces of typical TCP connections. The performance of two different implementations of TCP sending data across a particular network path is compared. Traces many thousands of packets long are used to demonstrate how effectively the graphical method simplifies examination of long complicated traces. In the comparison of the two TCP implementations, the burstiness of the TCP transmitter appeared to be related to the achieved throughput. A method of quantifying this burstiness is presented and its possible relevance to understanding the performance of TCP is discussed.

  17. Study of dynamical properties in β-Tcp/Ch layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mina, A.; Caicedo, J. C.; Aperador, W.

    2015-01-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate/Chitosan (β-Tcp/Ch) coatings were deposited on 316l stainless steel (316l Ss) substrates by a cathodic electrodeposition technique at different coating compositions. The crystal lattice arrangements were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, and the results indicated that the crystallographic structure of β-Tcp was affected by the inclusion of the chitosan content. The changes in the surface morphology as a function of increasing chitosan in the coatings via scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed the root-mean squares hardness of the β-Tcp/Ch coatings decreased by further increasing chitosan percentage. The elastic-plastic characteristics of the coatings were determined by conducting nano indentation test, indicating that the increase if chitosan percentage is directly related to increasing the hardness and elastic modulus of the β-Tcp/Ch coatings. Tribological characterization was performed by scratch test and pin-on-disk test to analyze the changes in the surface wear the β-Tcp/Ch coatings. Finally, the results indicated an improvement in the mechanical and tribological properties of the β-Tcp/Ch coatings as a function of increasing of the chitosan percentage. (Author)

  18. Study of dynamical properties in β-Tcp/Ch layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mina, A.; Caicedo, J. C. [Universidad del Valle, Tribology, Powder Metallurgy and Processing of Solid Recycled Research Group, Cali, Valle del Cauca (Colombia); Aperador, W., E-mail: jacaicedoangulo1@gmail.com [Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Departamento de Ingenieria, 80 Entrada A La KR11 No. 101, Bogota (Colombia)

    2015-07-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate/Chitosan (β-Tcp/Ch) coatings were deposited on 316l stainless steel (316l Ss) substrates by a cathodic electrodeposition technique at different coating compositions. The crystal lattice arrangements were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, and the results indicated that the crystallographic structure of β-Tcp was affected by the inclusion of the chitosan content. The changes in the surface morphology as a function of increasing chitosan in the coatings via scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed the root-mean squares hardness of the β-Tcp/Ch coatings decreased by further increasing chitosan percentage. The elastic-plastic characteristics of the coatings were determined by conducting nano indentation test, indicating that the increase if chitosan percentage is directly related to increasing the hardness and elastic modulus of the β-Tcp/Ch coatings. Tribological characterization was performed by scratch test and pin-on-disk test to analyze the changes in the surface wear the β-Tcp/Ch coatings. Finally, the results indicated an improvement in the mechanical and tribological properties of the β-Tcp/Ch coatings as a function of increasing of the chitosan percentage. (Author)

  19. Performance Analysis of TCP Enhancements in Satellite Data Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyles, Ren H.

    1999-01-01

    This research examines two proposed enhancements to the well-known Transport Control Protocol (TCP) in the presence of noisy communication links. The Multiple Pipes protocol is an application-level adaptation of the standard TCP protocol, where several TCP links cooperate to transfer data. The Space Communication Protocol Standard - Transport Protocol (SCPS-TP) modifies TCP to optimize performance in a satellite environment. While SCPS-TP has inherent advantages that allow it to deliver data more rapidly than Multiple Pipes, the protocol, when optimized for operation in a high-error environment, is not compatible with legacy TCP systems, and requires changes to the TCP specification. This investigation determines the level of improvement offered by SCPS-TP's Corruption Mode, which will help determine if migration to the protocol is appropriate in different environments. As the percentage of corrupted packets approaches 5 %, Multiple Pipes can take over five times longer than SCPS-TP to deliver data. At high error rates, SCPS-TP's advantage is primarily caused by Multiple Pipes' use of congestion control algorithms. The lack of congestion control, however, limits the systems in which SCPS-TP can be effectively used.

  20. A Novel Congestion Detection Scheme in TCP Over OBS Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem

    2009-02-01

    This paper introduces a novel congestion detection scheme for high-bandwidth TCP flows over optical burst switching (OBS) networks, called statistical additive increase multiplicative decrease (SAIMD). SAIMD maintains and analyzes a number of previous round-trip time (RTTs) at the TCP senders in order to identify the confidence with which a packet loss event is due to network congestion. The confidence is derived by positioning short-term RTT in the spectrum of long-term historical RTTs. The derived confidence corresponding to the packet loss is then taken in the developed policy for TCP congestion window adjustment. We will show through extensive simulation that the proposed scheme can effectively solve the false congestion detection problem and significantly outperform the conventional TCP counterparts without losing fairness. The advantages gained in our scheme are at the expense of introducing more overhead in the SAIMD TCP senders. Based on the proposed congestion control algorithm, a throughput model is formulated, and is further verified by simulation results.

  1. TCP Throughput Profiles Using Measurements over Dedicated Connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Liu, Qiang [ORNL; Sen, Satyabrata [ORNL; Towsley, Don [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Vardoyan, Gayane [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Kettimuthu, R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Foster, Ian [University of Chicago

    2017-06-01

    Wide-area data transfers in high-performance computing infrastructures are increasingly being carried over dynamically provisioned dedicated network connections that provide high capacities with no competing traffic. We present extensive TCP throughput measurements and time traces over a suite of physical and emulated 10 Gbps connections with 0-366 ms round-trip times (RTTs). Contrary to the general expectation, they show significant statistical and temporal variations, in addition to the overall dependencies on the congestion control mechanism, buffer size, and the number of parallel streams. We analyze several throughput profiles that have highly desirable concave regions wherein the throughput decreases slowly with RTTs, in stark contrast to the convex profiles predicted by various TCP analytical models. We present a generic throughput model that abstracts the ramp-up and sustainment phases of TCP flows, which provides insights into qualitative trends observed in measurements across TCP variants: (i) slow-start followed by well-sustained throughput leads to concave regions; (ii) large buffers and multiple parallel streams expand the concave regions in addition to improving the throughput; and (iii) stable throughput dynamics, indicated by a smoother Poincare map and smaller Lyapunov exponents, lead to wider concave regions. These measurements and analytical results together enable us to select a TCP variant and its parameters for a given connection to achieve high throughput with statistical guarantees.

  2. Identification and expression profiling analysis of TCP family genes involved in growth and development in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wenbo; Jiang, Pengfei; Huang, Guoyu; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Xiaoyu

    2017-10-01

    The TCP family is a group of plant-specific transcription factors. TCP genes encode proteins harboring bHLH structure, which is implicated in DNA binding and protein-protein interactions and known as the TCP domain. TCP genes play important roles in plant development and have been evolutionarily and functionally elaborated in various plants, however, no overall phylogenetic analysis or expression profiling of TCP genes in Zea mays has been reported. In the present study, a systematic analysis of molecular evolution and functional prediction of TCP family genes in maize ( Z . mays L.) has been conducted. We performed a genome-wide survey of TCP genes in maize, revealing the gene structure, chromosomal location and phylogenetic relationship of family members. Microsynteny between grass species and tissue-specific expression profiles were also investigated. In total, 29 TCP genes were identified in the maize genome, unevenly distributed on the 10 maize chromosomes. Additionally, ZmTCP genes were categorized into nine classes based on phylogeny and purifying selection may largely be responsible for maintaining the functions of maize TCP genes. What's more, microsynteny analysis suggested that TCP genes have been conserved during evolution. Finally, expression analysis revealed that most TCP genes are expressed in the stem and ear, which suggests that ZmTCP genes influence stem and ear growth. This result is consistent with the previous finding that maize TCP genes represses the growth of axillary organs and enables the formation of female inflorescences. Altogether, this study presents a thorough overview of TCP family in maize and provides a new perspective on the evolution of this gene family. The results also indicate that TCP family genes may be involved in development stage in plant growing conditions. Additionally, our results will be useful for further functional analysis of the TCP gene family in maize.

  3. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Theodoridis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  4. TCP-Call Admission Control Interaction in Multiplatform Space Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseti Cesare

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of efficient call admission control (CAC algorithms is useful to prevent congestion and guarantee target quality of service (QoS. When TCP protocol is adopted, some inefficiencies can arise due to the peculiar evolution of the congestion window. The development of cross-layer techniques can greatly help to improve efficiency and flexibility for wireless networks. In this frame, the present paper addresses the introduction of TCP feedback into the CAC procedures in different nonterrestrial wireless architectures. CAC performance improvement is shown for different space-based architectures, including both satellites and high altitude platform (HAP systems.

  5. "De-Randomizing" Congestion Losses to Improve TCP Performance over Wired-Wireless Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biaz, Saad; Vaidya, Nitin H

    2004-01-01

    .... This paper proposes a simple biased queue management scheme that "de-randomizes" congestion losses and enables a TCP receiver to diagnose accurately the cause of a loss and inform the TCP sender to react appropriately...

  6. Construction of a nuclear data server using TCP/IP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Sakai, Osamu [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    We construct a nuclear data server which provides data in the evaluated nuclear data library through the network by means of TCP/IP. The client is not necessarily a user but a computer program. Two examples with a prototype server program are demonstrated, the first is data transfer from the server to a user, and the second is to a computer program. (author)

  7. Versatile Markovian models for networks with asymmetric TCP sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Foreest, N.D.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we use Stochastic Petri Nets (SPNs) to study the interaction of multiple TCP sources that share one or two buffers, thereby considerably extending earlier work. We first consider two sources sharing a buffer and investigate the consequences of two popular assumptions for the loss

  8. Genomewide analysis of TCP transcription factor gene family in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-12-09

    Dec 9, 2014 ... study of a genomewide analysis of apple TCP gene family. These results provide .... synthesize the first-strand cDNA using the PrimeScript First. Strand cDNA ..... only detected in the stem, leaf and fruit (figure 8). When.

  9. Adaptive optimization for active queue management supporting TCP flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldi, S.; Kosmatopoulos, Elias B.; Pitsillides, Andreas; Lestas, Marios; Ioannou, Petros A.; Wan, Y.; Chiu, George; Johnson, Katie; Abramovitch, Danny

    2016-01-01

    An adaptive decentralized strategy for active queue management of TCP flows over communication networks is presented. The proposed strategy solves locally, at each link, an optimal control problem, minimizing a cost composed of residual capacity and buffer queue size. The solution of the optimal

  10. Performance of TCP over UMTS common and dedicated channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lo, Anthony; Heijenk, Geert; Bruma, Cezar; Gameiro, A.

    2003-01-01

    Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third-generation cellular network that enables high-speed wireless Internet access. This paper investigates the performance of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) over UMTS utilizing a common and four dedicated transport channels with bit rates

  11. Synthesis and degradation properties of β-TCP/BG porous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -TCP/BG porous composite materials were successfully fabricated by foaming technology. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the crystal structure of powders. The pore size and distribution of the resulting materials were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The porosity and degradation performance of ...

  12. Ohio Marketing Management and Research. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document provides a framework for a broad-based secondary and postsecondary curriculum to prepare students for employment in marketing management and research (MMR). The first part of the technical competency profile (TCP) contains the following items: an explanation of the purpose and scope of Ohio's TCPs; college tech prep program…

  13. Improving TCP Network Performance by Detecting and Reacting to Packet Reordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Hans; Ostermann, Shawn; Allman, Mark

    2003-01-01

    There are many factors governing the performance of TCP-basec applications traversing satellite channels. The end-to-end performance of TCP is known to be degraded by the reordering, delay, noise and asymmetry inherent in geosynchronous systems. This result has been largely based on experiments that evaluate the performance of TCP in single flow tests. While single flow tests are useful for deriving information on the theoretical behavior of TCP and allow for easy diagnosis of problems they do not represent a broad range of realistic situations and therefore cannot be used to authoritatively comment on performance issues. The experiments discussed in this report test TCP s performance in a more dynamic environment with competing traffic flows from hundreds of TCP connections running simultaneously across the satellite channel. Another aspect we investigate is TCP's reaction to bit errors on satellite channels. TCP interprets loss as a sign of network congestion. This causes TCP to reduce its transmission rate leading to reduced performance when loss is due to corruption. We allowed the bit error rate on our satellite channel to vary widely and tested the performance of TCP as a function of these bit error rates. Our results show that the average performance of TCP on satellite channels is good even under conditions of loss as high as bit error rates of 10(exp -5)

  14. Design of feedback controller for TCP/AQM networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukant Kishoro Bisoy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel proportional-differential-type feedback controller called Novel-PD as new active queue management (AQM to regulate the queue length with small oscillation. It measures the current queue length and uses the current queue length and differential error signals to adjust packet drop probability dynamically. We provide control theoretic analysis of system stability and develop guidelines to select control gain parameters of Novel-PD. The design of Novel-PD for TCP/AQM system is given in details. NS2 is used for conducting extensive simulation. The proposed controller is compared with random early detection (RED, random exponential marking (REM, proportional integrator (PI and proportional derivative (PD controller. Result shows that, Novel-PD is stable and achieves faster response in dynamic environments where number of TCP connections, bottleneck capacity, round trip time (RTT keeps changing. The proposed controller outperforms other AQM schemes.

  15. Passive Mobile Bandwidth Classification Using Short Lived TCP Connections

    OpenAIRE

    Michelinakis, Foivos; Kreitz, Gunnar; Petrocco, Riccardo; Zhang, Boxun; Widmer, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of multimedia content is moving from a residential environment to mobile phones. Optimizing Quality of Experience—smooth, quick, and high quality playback—is more difficult in this setting, due to the highly dynamic nature of wireless links. A key requirement for achieving this goal is estimating the available bandwidth of mobile devices. Ideally, this should be done quickly and with low overhead. One challenge is that the majority of connections on mobiles are short-lived TCP con...

  16. Optimising TCP for cloud-based mobile networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artuso, Matteo; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2016-01-01

    Cloud-based mobile networks are foreseen to be a technological enabler for the next generation of mobile networks. Their design requires substantial research as they pose unique challenges, especially from the point of view of additional delays in the fronthaul network. Commonly used network...... implementations of 3 popular operating systems are investigated in our network model. The results on the most influential parameters are used to design an optimized TCP for cloud-based mobile networks....

  17. Optimization of wide-area ATM and local-area ethernet/FDDI network configurations for high-speed telemedicine communications employing NASA's ACTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, W R; Tri, J L; Mitchell, M P; Levens, S P; Wondrow, M A; Huie, L M; Khandheria, B K; Gilbert, B K

    1999-01-01

    A high data rate terrestrial and satellite network was implemented to transfer medical images and data. This article describes the a optimization of the workstations and switching equipment incorporated into the network. Topics discussed in this article include tuning of the network software, the configuration of the Sun Microsystems workstations, the FORE Systems asynchronous transfer mode switches, as well as the throughput results of two telemedicine experiments undertaken by Mayo's physician staff. The technical staff was successful in achieving the data throughput needed by the telemedicine software; particularly important was the proper determination of peak throughput and TCP window sizes to ensure optimum use of the resources available on the Sun Microsystems and Hewlett Packard workstations.

  18. A novel implementation of TCP Vegas for optical burst switched networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem

    2010-07-01

    TCP performance over bufferless Optical Burst Switched (OBS) networks could be significantly degraded due to the misinterpretation of network congestion status (referred to as false congestion detection). It has been reported that burst retransmission in the OBS domain can improve the TCP throughput by hiding burst loss events from the upper TCP layer, which can effectively reduce the congestion window fluctuation at the expense of introducing additional delay. However, the additional delay may cause performance degradation for delay-based TCP implementations that are sensitive to packet round trip time in estimating the network congestion status. In this paper, a novel implementation of TCP Vegas that adopts a threshold-based mechanism is proposed for identifying the network congestion status in OBS networks. Analytical models are developed to evaluate the throughput of conventional TCP Vegas and threshold-based Vegas over OBS networks with burst retransmission. Simulation is conducted to validate the analytical model and to compare threshold-based Vegas with a number of legacy TCP implementations, such as TCP Sack and TCP Reno. The analytical model can be used to obtain a proper threshold value that results in an optimal steady state TCP throughput.

  19. FAST TCP over optical burst switched networks: Modeling and stability analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem

    2013-04-01

    FAST TCP is important for promoting data-intensive applications since it can cleverly react to both packet loss and delay for detecting network congestion. This paper provides a continuous time model and extensive stability analysis of FAST TCP congestion-control mechanism in bufferless Optical Burst Switched Networks (OBS). The paper first shows that random burst contentions are essential to stabilize the network, but cause throughput degradation in FAST TCP flows when a burst with all the packets from a single round is dropped. Second, it shows that FAST TCP is vulnerable to burst delay and fails to detect network congestion due to the little variation of round-trip time, thus unstable. Finally it shows that introducing extra delays by implementing burst retransmission stabilizes FAST TCP over OBS. The paper proves that FAST TCP is not stable over barebone OBS. However, it is locally, exponentially, and asymptotically stable over OBS with burst retransmission.

  20. Application Filters for TCP/IP Industrial Automation Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Aguinaldo B.; Kobayashi, Tiago H.; Medeiros, João Paulo S.; Brito, Agostinho M.; Motta Pires, Paulo S.

    The use of firewalls is a common approach usually meant to secure Automation Technology (AT) from Information Technology (TI) networks. This work proposes a filtering system for TCP/IP-based automation networks in which only certain kind of industrial traffic is permitted. All network traffic which does not conform with a proper industrial protocol pattern or with specific rules for its actions is supposed to be abnormal and must be blocked. As a case study, we developed a seventh layer firewall application with the ability of blocking spurious traffic, using an IP packet queueing engine and a regular expression library.

  1. In vivo labeling of phencyclidine (PCP) receptors with 3H-TCP in the mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurice, T.; Vignon, J.

    1990-01-01

    The phencyclidine (PCP) derivative N-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]-piperidine (3H-TCP) was used to label in vivo the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-associated ionic channel in the mouse brain. After the injection of a tracer dose of 3H-TCP, a spread labeling throughout the brain was observed, but was the highest in the cerebellum. Preadministration of unlabeled TCP (30 mg/kg) resulted in a 90% reduction of 3H-TCP binding. PCP, TCP, MK-801, dexoxadrol, ketamine, and SKF 10,047 isomers dose-dependently prevented the in vivo 3H-TCP binding. ID50 determined in the cerebrum and the cerebellum were respectively correlated with K0.5 for 3H TCP high (rat cortex) and low affinity (rat cerebellum) sites in vitro. The pharmacological specificity of the 3H-TCP binding site in the cerebellum was significantly different from that in the cerebrum. ID50 values were generally higher than in the cerebrum and, particularly, MK-801, the most potent drug in the cerebrum, was without significant effect in the cerebellum, at any time and at doses as high as 30 mg/kg. N-[1-(2-benzo(b) thiophenyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine (BTCP), desipramine, and atropine showed a more efficient prevention of 3H-TCP binding in the cerebellum than in the cerebrum. The prevention of the binding by TCP or PCP, at doses close to their ID50 values, was rapid and then decreased slowly. The effect of MK-801 was long-lasting. This study confirm previous in vitro studies: 3H-TCP is an efficient tool for the labeling of the NMDA receptor-associated ionic channel

  2. SDTCP: Towards Datacenter TCP Congestion Control with SDN for IoT Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yifei; Ling, Zhen; Zhu, Shuhong; Tang, Ling

    2017-01-08

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has gained popularity in recent years. Today's IoT applications are now increasingly deployed in cloud platforms to perform Big Data analytics. In cloud data center networks (DCN), TCP incast usually happens when multiple senders simultaneously communicate with a single receiver. However, when TCP incast happens, DCN may suffer from both throughput collapse for TCP burst flows and temporary starvation for TCP background flows. In this paper, we propose a software defined network (SDN)-based TCP congestion control mechanism, referred to as SDTCP, to leverage the features, e.g., centralized control methods and the global view of the network, in order to solve the TCP incast problems. When we detect network congestion on an OpenFlow switch, our controller can select the background flows and reduce their bandwidth by adjusting the advertised window of TCP ACK packets of the corresponding background flows so as to reserve more bandwidth for burst flows. SDTCP is transparent to the end systems and can accurately decelerate the rate of background flows by leveraging the global view of the network gained via SDN. The experiments demonstrate that our SDTCP can provide high tolerance for burst flows and achieve better flow completion time for short flows. Therefore, SDTCP is an effective and scalable solution for the TCP incast problem.

  3. Arabidopsis TCP Transcription Factors Interact with the SUMO Conjugating Machinery in Nuclear Foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena J. Mazur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis more than 400 proteins have been identified as SUMO targets, both in vivo and in vitro. Among others, transcription factors (TFs are common targets for SUMO conjugation. Here we aimed to exhaustively screen for TFs that interact with the SUMO machinery using an arrayed yeast two-hybrid library containing more than 1,100 TFs. We identified 76 interactors that foremost interact with the SUMO conjugation enzyme SCE1 and/or the SUMO E3 ligase SIZ1. These interactors belong to various TF families, which control a wide range of processes in plant development and stress signaling. Amongst these interactors, the TCP family was overrepresented with several TCPs interacting with different proteins of the SUMO conjugation cycle. For a subset of these TCPs we confirmed that the catalytic site of SCE1 is essential for this interaction. In agreement, TCP1, TCP3, TCP8, TCP14, and TCP15 were readily SUMO modified in an E. coli sumoylation assay. Strikingly, these TCP-SCE1 interactions were found to redistribute these TCPs into nuclear foci/speckles, suggesting that these TCP foci represent sites for SUMO (conjugation activity.

  4. SDTCP: Towards Datacenter TCP Congestion Control with SDN for IoT Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT has gained popularity in recent years. Today’s IoT applications are now increasingly deployed in cloud platforms to perform Big Data analytics. In cloud data center networks (DCN, TCP incast usually happens when multiple senders simultaneously communicate with a single receiver. However, when TCP incast happens, DCN may suffer from both throughput collapse for TCP burst flows and temporary starvation for TCP background flows. In this paper, we propose a software defined network (SDN-based TCP congestion control mechanism, referred to as SDTCP, to leverage the features, e.g., centralized control methods and the global view of the network, in order to solve the TCP incast problems. When we detect network congestion on an OpenFlow switch, our controller can select the background flows and reduce their bandwidth by adjusting the advertised window of TCP ACK packets of the corresponding background flows so as to reserve more bandwidth for burst flows. SDTCP is transparent to the end systems and can accurately decelerate the rate of background flows by leveraging the global view of the network gained via SDN. The experiments demonstrate that our SDTCP can provide high tolerance for burst flows and achieve better flow completion time for short flows. Therefore, SDTCP is an effective and scalable solution for the TCP incast problem.

  5. The battle between standards: TCP/IP vs OSI victory through path dependency or by quality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maathuis, Ivo; Smit, Willem A.; Egyedi, T.M.; Krechmer, K.; Jakobs, K.

    2003-01-01

    Between the end of the 1970s and 1994 a fierce competition existed between two possible standards, TCP/IP and OSI, to solve the problem of interoperability of computer networks. Around 1994 it became evident that TCP/IP and not OSI had become the dominant standard. We specifically deal with the

  6. MAC-layer protocol for TCP fairness in Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Nawab, Faisal; Jamshaid, Kamran; Shihada, Basem; Ho, Pin-Han

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the interactions of TCP and IEEE 802.11 MAC in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). We use a Markov chain to capture the behavior of TCP sessions, particularly the impact on network throughput performance due to the effect of queue

  7. Robustness of Multiple High Speed TCP CUBIC Connections Under Severe Operating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilimon, Artur; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2015-01-01

    We study the adaptation capabilities and robustness of the high-speed TCP CUBIC algorithm. For this purpose we consider a network environment with variable and high random packet loss and a large Bandwidth-Delay product, shared by multiple heterogeneous TCP connections. The analysis is based on a...

  8. DETERMINATION OF 3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDINOL (TCP) BY ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sensitive, competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 3,5,6-trichloro-2pyridinol (TCP) has been developed to quantitate parts per billion (ppb) amounts of the analyte in urine. TCP is a major metabolite and environmental degradation product of the insecticide c...

  9. Cross-layer TCP Performance Analysis in IEEE 802.11 Vehicular Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janevski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide a performance analysis of TCP in IEEE 802.11 vehicular environments for different well-known TCP versions, such as Tahoe, Reno, New Reno, Vegas, and Sack. The parameters of interest from the TCP side are the number of Duplicate Acknowledgements - DupAck, and the number of Delayed Acknowledgements - DelAck, while on the wireless network side the analyzed parameter is the interface queue - IFQ. We have made the analysis for the worst-case distance scenario for single-hop and worst-case multihop vehicular environments. The results show that the number of wireless hops in vehicular environments significantly reduces the TCP throughput. The best average performances considering all scenarios were obtained for TCP Vegas. However, the results show that the interface queue at wireless nodes should be at least five packets or more. On the other side, due to shorter distances in the vehicular wireless network, results show possible flexibility of using different values for the DupAck without degradation of the TCP throughput. On the other side, the introduction of the DelAck parameter provides enhancement in the average TCP throughput for all TCP versions.

  10. Research on TCP/IP network communication based on Node.js

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Cai, Lixiong

    2018-04-01

    In the face of big data, long connection and high synchronization, TCP/IP network communication will cause performance bottlenecks due to its blocking multi-threading service model. This paper presents a method of TCP/IP network communication protocol based on Node.js. On the basis of analyzing the characteristics of Node.js architecture and asynchronous non-blocking I/O model, the principle of its efficiency is discussed, and then compare and analyze the network communication model of TCP/IP protocol to expound the reasons why TCP/IP protocol stack is widely used in network communication. Finally, according to the large data and high concurrency in the large-scale grape growing environment monitoring process, a TCP server design based on Node.js is completed. The results show that the example runs stably and efficiently.

  11. TCP, quantum gravity, the cosmological constant and all that .

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, T.

    1985-01-01

    We study cosmology from the point of view of quantum gravity. Some light is thrown on the nature of time, and it is suggested that the cosmological arrow of time is generated by a spontaneous breakdown of TCP. Conventional cosmological models in which quantum fields interact with a time-dependent gravitational field are shown to describe an approximation to the quantum gravitational wave function which is valid in the long-wavelength limit. Two problems with initial conditions are resolved in models in which a negative bare cosmological constant is cancelled by the classical excitation of a Bose field eta with a very flat potential. These models can also give a natural explanation for the observed value of the cosmological constant. (orig.)

  12. STUDY OF TCP PHASE PRECIPITATING IN GH4199 SUPERALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Cui; Y.S.Zhang; S.W.Guo; L.Wang; H.C.Yang

    2004-01-01

    The precipitating regulation and mechanism of TCP phase (μ phase and σ phase) are studied, using electron hole number (EHN) theory, phase analysis technology and TEM observation. The results indicate that the EHN in studied alloy is 2.311-2.348 which is higher than that of critical EHN of μ phase precipitate (2.30), so μ phase could precipitate if there is enough thermo-exposition. In contrast, the calculated EHN is less than that of critical EHN of σ phase precipitate (2.52). However the σ phase is also observed by TEM.Enrich of Cr and Mo around γ phase after γ' phase precipitated leads to σ phase precipitated.

  13. Evaluation of the biotissue of PCL and β-TCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomao, Zenaide; Zavaglia, Cecilia A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The use of biomaterials to replace, repair injured tissues and organs of human beings has increased due to population growth and its higher life expectancy. The tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field that integrates principles of biology, chemistry, genetics, materials science and biomedical engineering, to produce composite three-dimensional, capable of replacing biological tissues. The development of new biomaterials using the method of evaporation of the solvent can help to solvent this problem. This work aimed to characterized the membranes of poly (ε-caprolactone) dense and porous (scaffolds) of PCL/B-TCP; and make an in vitro evaluation. Techniques were used to: SEM, EDS, XRD, TGA, DSC, mechanical traction tests, test cell viability and activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The hydrolytic degradation was analyzed in phosphate buffer (PBS) and the biocompatibility through standards (ASTM and ABNT) concluding that the materials are biocompatible and are used with great potential for replacement of the bone tissue. (author)

  14. Application of Azolla for 2, 4, 6-Trichlorophenol (TCP Removal from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Zazouli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: The 2, 4, 6-Trichlorophenol (TCP is a phenolic compound which it can produce adverse effects on human and environment. Therefore, the removal of these compounds is necessary. The aim of this study is the investigation of TCP removal by using Azolla filiculoides biomass. Materials & Methods: The Azolla biomass was dried in the sunlight, and then it was crushed and sieved to particle sizes in range of 1-2 mm. Next treated with 0.1M HCl for a period of 5h. The Azolla was washed with distilled water and it was used as adsorbent. The effect of operating parameters such as pH, contact time, TCP concentration and adsorbent dose on the TCP removal efficiency was investigated. The residues concentration of TCP was measured by spectrophotometer in λ max of 296 nm. Results: In optimum condition (pH 3, contact time 120 min , adsorbent dose 10 gr/l and TCP concentration 10 ppm, Azolla was able to remove 95% of TCP from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium data follows the Langmuir isotherm and the proper kinetic model is pseudo-second model. Conclusions: Adsorption process by Azolla filiculoides is an efficient method for removal of 2, 4, 6-Trichlorophenol from aqueous solutions.

  15. Poly (γ-glutamic acid)/beta-TCP nanocomposites via in situ copolymerization: Preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiu-Lin; Shi, Qing-Shan; Feng, Jin; Yang, Yun-Hua; Zhou, Gang; Li, Wen-Ru

    2016-07-01

    A series biodegradable poly (γ-glutamic acid)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (γ-PGA/TCP) nanocomposites were prepared which were composed of poly-γ-glutamic acid polymerized in situ with β-tricalcium phosphate and physiochemically characterized as bone graft substitutes. The particle size via dynamic light scattering, the direct morphological characterization via transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscope, which showed that γ-PGA and β-TCP were combined compactly at 80℃, and the γ-PGA/TCP nanocomposites had homogenous and nano-sized grains with narrow particle size distributions. The water uptake and retention abilities, in vitro degradation properties, cytotoxicity in the simulated medium, and protein release of these novel γ-PGA/TCP composites were investigated. Cell proliferation in composites was nearly twice than β-TCP when checked in vitro using MC3T3 cell line. We also envision the potential use of γ-PGA/TCP systems in bone growth factor or orthopedic drug delivery applications in future bone tissue engineering applications. These observations suggest that the γ-PGA/TCP are novel nanocomposites with great potential for application in the field of bone tissue engineering. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. A transport layer protocol for the future high speed grid computing: SCTP versus fast tcp multihoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, M.J.; Mian, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is designed for reliable data transfer on the global Internet today. One of its strong points is its use of flow control algorithm that allows TCP to adjust its congestion window if network congestion is occurred. A number of studies and investigations have confirmed that traditional TCP is not suitable for each and every type of application, for example, bulk data transfer over high speed long distance networks. TCP sustained the time of low-capacity and short-delay networks, however, for numerous factors it cannot be capable to efficiently deal with today's growing technologies (such as wide area Grid computing and optical-fiber networks). This research work surveys the congestion control mechanism of transport protocols, and addresses the different issues involved for transferring the huge data over the future high speed Grid computing and optical-fiber networks. This work also presents the simulations to compare the performance of FAST TCP multihoming with SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) multihoming in high speed networks. These simulation results show that FAST TCP multihoming achieves bandwidth aggregation efficiently and outperforms SCTP multihoming under a similar network conditions. The survey and simulation results presented in this work reveal that multihoming support into FAST TCP does provide a lot of benefits like redundancy, load-sharing and policy-based routing, which largely improves the whole performance of a network and can meet the increasing demand of the future high-speed network infrastructures (such as in Grid computing). (author)

  17. TCP is hardly resorbed and not osteoconductive in a non-loading calvarial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschel, Jörg; Wiesmann, Hans Peter; Stratmann, Udo; Kleinheinz, Johannes; Meyer, Ulrich; Joos, Ulrich

    2002-04-01

    Tricalciumphosphate (TCP) has been used as a ceramic bone substitute material in the orthopedic field as well as in craniofacial surgery. Some controversies exist concerning the osteoconductive potential of this material in different implantation sites. This study was designed to evaluate the biological response of calvarial bone towards TCP granules under non-loading conditions to assess the potential of TCP as a biodegredable and osteoconductive bone substitue material for the cranial vault. Full-thickness non-critical size defects were made bilaterally in the calvaria of 21 adult Wistar rats. One side was filled by TCP granules, the contralateral side was left empty and used as a control. Animals were sacrified in defined time intervals up to 6 months. Bone regeneration was analyzed with special respect toward the micromorphological and microanalytical features of the material-bone interaction by electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis. Histologic examination revealed no TCP degradation even after 6 months of implantation. In contrast, a nearly complete bone regeneration of control defects was found after 6 months. At all times TCP was surrounded by a thin fibrous layer without presence of osteoblasts and features of regular mineralization. As far as degradation and substitution are concerned, TCP is a less favourable material tinder conditions of non-loading.

  18. Static friction of porous bioceramic beta-TCP on intestinal mucus films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Yu; Han, Ying-Chao; Jiang, Xin; Dai, Hong-Lian; Li, Shi-Pu

    2006-09-01

    The static friction behavior between a porous bioceramic material and an intestinal mucus film was investigated in order to develop a new intestine robotic endoscope. Here, the friction couple is porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) and an artificial intestine mucus film. The effect of pore size of the beta-TCP material on the friction behavior is investigated. The results illustrated that in this friction system there is a relatively small normal force upon the intestinal mucus film of the intestine wall during locomotion. The maximum static friction force in this friction couple varies with the pore size of the porous beta-TCP material.

  19. Static friction of porous bioceramic β-TCP on intestinal mucus films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinyu; Han Yingchao; Jiang Xin; Dai Honglian; Li Shipu

    2006-01-01

    The static friction behavior between a porous bioceramic material and an intestinal mucus film was investigated in order to develop a new intestine robotic endoscope. Here, the friction couple is porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and an artificial intestine mucus film. The effect of pore size of the β-TCP material on the friction behavior is investigated. The results illustrated that in this friction system there is a relatively small normal force upon the intestinal mucus film of the intestine wall during locomotion. The maximum static friction force in this friction couple varies with the pore size of the porous β-TCP material

  20. Analysis of CBRP for UDP and TCP Traffic-Classes to measure throughput in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardeep Singh Rayait

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the throughput of both TCP and UDP traffic classes for cluster based routing protocol for mobile ad hoc network. It uses clustering structure to improve throughput , decrease average end-to-end delay and improve the average packet delivery ratio. We simulate our routing protocol for nodes running the IEEE802.11 MAC for analysis of throughput for both UDP and TCP traffic classes. The application layer protocol used for UDP is CBR and for TCP is FTP.

  1. ALP gene expression in cDNA samples from bone tissue engineering using a HA/TCP/Chitosan scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie, N.; Katarina, H.; Amir, L. R.; Gunawan, H. A.

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the potential use of hydroxyapatite (HA)/tricalcium phosphate (TCP)/Chitosan as a bone tissue engineering scaffold. The potential for using HA/TCP/chitosan as a scaffold was analyzed by measuring expression of the ALP osteogenic gene in cDNA from bone biopsies from four Macaque nemestrina. Experimental conditions included control (untreated), treatment with HA/TCP 70:30, HA/TCP 50:50, and HA/TCP/chitosan. cDNA samples were measured quantitively with Real-Time PCR (qPCR) and semi-quantitively by gel electrophoresis. There were no significant differences in ALP gene expression between treatment subjects after two weeks, but the HA/TCP/chitosan treatment gave the highest level of expression after four weeks. The scaffold using the HA/TCP/chitosan combination induced a higher level of expression of the osteogenic gene ALP than did scaffold without chitosan.

  2. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of BrrTCP Transcription Factors in Brassica rapa ssp. rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancan Du

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The teosinte branched1/cycloidea/proliferating cell factor (TCP gene family is a plant-specific transcription factor that participates in the control of plant development by regulating cell proliferation. However, no report is currently available about this gene family in turnips (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa. In this study, a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed in turnips. Thirty-nine TCP genes in turnip genome were identified and distributed on 10 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis clearly showed that the family was classified as two clades: class I and class II. Gene structure and conserved motif analysis showed that the same clade genes have similar gene structures and conserved motifs. The expression profiles of 39 TCP genes were determined through quantitative real-time PCR. Most CIN-type BrrTCP genes were highly expressed in leaf. The members of CYC/TB1 subclade are highly expressed in flower bud and weakly expressed in root. By contrast, class I clade showed more widespread but less tissue-specific expression patterns. Yeast two-hybrid data show that BrrTCP proteins preferentially formed heterodimers. The function of BrrTCP2 was confirmed through ectopic expression of BrrTCP2 in wild-type and loss-of-function ortholog mutant of Arabidopsis. Overexpression of BrrTCP2 in wild-type Arabidopsis resulted in the diminished leaf size. Overexpression of BrrTCP2 in triple mutants of tcp2/4/10 restored the leaf phenotype of tcp2/4/10 to the phenotype of wild type. The comprehensive analysis of turnip TCP gene family provided the foundation to further study the roles of TCP genes in turnips.

  3. "De-Randomizing" Congestion Losses to Improve TCP Performance over Wired-Wireless Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biaz, Saad; Vaidya, Nitin H

    2004-01-01

    .... With Internet becoming more heterogeneous with more and more wireless error-prone links, a TCP connection may unduly throttle its sending rate and experience poor performance over paths experiencing...

  4. Influence of different naf concentration on the mechanical and morphological properties on sintered β-TCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, L.; Cardoso, H.A.I.; Zavaglia, C.A.C.; Motisuke, M.

    2011-01-01

    Among the bioceramics, [beta]-tricalcium phosphate, β-TCP, is currently used in biomedical applications due to its in vivo reabsorption and chemical composition, important for bone formation and repair. Researchers showed that the addition of sodium fluoride (NaF) up to 2wt.% increases β-TCP mechanical properties without altering its biocompatibility and bioactivity. In this work, the effect of different NaF concentrations (2wt.% to 5wt.%) on β-TCP properties was studied. The samples were sintered at 1250 deg C during four hours. Afterwards, it were determined its mechanical resistance, density, morphology and chemical composition as a function of NaF content. The results showed that the presence of NaF does not lead to an increase on the mechanical properties. This fact is probably related to the formation of a mixture of TCP, apatite and sodium and calcium phosphates; and a visible increase on samples' density.(author)

  5. Impact of window decrement rate on TCP performance in an adhoc network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Hutasuhut, Arief T. W.; Badra, Khaldun; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Transmission control protocol (TCP) is a reliable transport protocol handling end to end connection in TCP/IP stack. It works well in copper or optical fibre link, but experiences increasing delay in wireless network. Further, TCP experiences multiple retransmissions due to higher collision probability within wireless network. The situation may get worsen in an ad hoc network. This paper examines the impact half window or window reduction rate to the overall TCP performances. The evaluation using NS-2 simulator shows that the smaller the window decrement rate results the smaller end to end delay. Delay is reduced to 17.05% in average when window decrement rate decreases. Average jitter also decreases 4.15%, while packet loss is not affected.

  6. Active queue management controller design for TCP communication networks: Variable structure control approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-K.; Liao, T.-L.; Yan, J.-J.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of variable structure control (VSC), an active queue management (AQM) controller is presented for a class of TCP communication networks. In the TCP/IP networks, the packet drop probability is limited between 0 and 1. Therefore, we modeled TCP/AQM as a rate-based non-linear system with a saturated input. The objective of the VSC-based AQM controller is to achieve the desired queue size and to guarantee the asymptotic stability of the closed-loop TCP non-linear system with saturated input. The performance and effectiveness of the proposed control law are then validated for different network scenarios through numerical simulations in both MATLAB and Network Simulator-2 (NS-2). Both sets of simulation results have confirmed that the proposed scheme outperforms other AQM schemes.

  7. Active queue management controller design for TCP communication networks: Variable structure control approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.-K. [Department of Engineering Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Liao, T.-L. [Department of Engineering Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: tlliao@mail.ncku.edu; Yan, J.-J. [Department of Computer and Communication, Shu-Te University, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan (China)

    2009-04-15

    On the basis of variable structure control (VSC), an active queue management (AQM) controller is presented for a class of TCP communication networks. In the TCP/IP networks, the packet drop probability is limited between 0 and 1. Therefore, we modeled TCP/AQM as a rate-based non-linear system with a saturated input. The objective of the VSC-based AQM controller is to achieve the desired queue size and to guarantee the asymptotic stability of the closed-loop TCP non-linear system with saturated input. The performance and effectiveness of the proposed control law are then validated for different network scenarios through numerical simulations in both MATLAB and Network Simulator-2 (NS-2). Both sets of simulation results have confirmed that the proposed scheme outperforms other AQM schemes.

  8. New approach in subjective and objective speech transmission quality measurement in TCP/IP networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souček, Pavel; Slavata, Oldřich; Holub, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with problems of speech transmission quality measurement in modern telecommunication networks. It focuses on problems caused by specific types of distortions and errors caused present in transmissions using TCP/IP networks

  9. {beta}-TCP porous pellets as an orthopaedic drug delivery system: ibuprofen/carrier physicochemical interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baradari, Hiba; Damia, Chantal; Dutreih-Colas, Maggy; Champion, Eric; Chulia, Dominique; Viana, Marylene, E-mail: hiva.baradari@etu.unilim.fr [SPCTS-Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12 Rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges CEDEX (France)

    2011-10-15

    Calcium phosphate bone substitute materials can be loaded with active substances for in situ, targeted drug administration. In this study, porous {beta}-TCP pellets were investigated as an anti-inflammatory drug carrier. Porous {beta}-TCP pellets were impregnated with an ethanolic solution of ibuprofen. The effects of contact time and concentration of ibuprofen solution on drug adsorption were studied. The ibuprofen adsorption equilibrium time was found to be one hour. The adsorption isotherms fitted to the Freundlich model, suggesting that the interaction between ibuprofen and {beta}-TCP is weak. The physicochemical characterizations of loaded pellets confirmed that the reversible physisorption of ibuprofen on {beta}-TCP pellets is due to Van der Waals forces, and this property was associated with the 100% ibuprofen release.

  10. A novel implementation of TCP Vegas for optical burst switched networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem; Zhang, Qiong; Ho, Pin-Han; Jue, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    TCP performance over bufferless Optical Burst Switched (OBS) networks could be significantly degraded due to the misinterpretation of network congestion status (referred to as false congestion detection). It has been reported that burst

  11. FAST TCP over optical burst switched networks: Modeling and stability analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Shihada, Basem; El-Ferik, Sami; Ho, Pin-Han

    2013-01-01

    congestion-control mechanism in bufferless Optical Burst Switched Networks (OBS). The paper first shows that random burst contentions are essential to stabilize the network, but cause throughput degradation in FAST TCP flows when a burst with all the packets

  12. Characterization of General TCP Traffic under a Large Number of Flows Regime

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tinnakornsrisuphap, Peerapol; La, Richard J; Makowski, Armand M

    2002-01-01

    .... Accurate traffic modeling of a large number of short-lived TCP flows is extremely difficult due to the interaction between session, transport, and network layers, and the explosion of the size...

  13. TULIP: A Link-Level Protocol for Improving TCP over Wireless Links

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parsa, Christina; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J

    1999-01-01

    We present the transport unaware link improvement protocol (TULIP), which dramatically improves the performance of TCP over lossy wireless links, without competing with or modifying the transport- or network-layer protocols...

  14. β-TCP porous pellets as an orthopaedic drug delivery system: ibuprofen/carrier physicochemical interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradari, Hiba; Damia, Chantal; Dutreih-Colas, Maggy; Champion, Eric; Chulia, Dominique; Viana, Marylene

    2011-01-01

    Calcium phosphate bone substitute materials can be loaded with active substances for in situ, targeted drug administration. In this study, porous β-TCP pellets were investigated as an anti-inflammatory drug carrier. Porous β-TCP pellets were impregnated with an ethanolic solution of ibuprofen. The effects of contact time and concentration of ibuprofen solution on drug adsorption were studied. The ibuprofen adsorption equilibrium time was found to be one hour. The adsorption isotherms fitted to the Freundlich model, suggesting that the interaction between ibuprofen and β-TCP is weak. The physicochemical characterizations of loaded pellets confirmed that the reversible physisorption of ibuprofen on β-TCP pellets is due to Van der Waals forces, and this property was associated with the 100% ibuprofen release.

  15. On TCP-based Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Server Overload Control

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Charles; Schulzrinne, Henning

    2010-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) server overload management has attracted interest since SIP is being widely deployed in the Next Generation Networks (NGN) as a core signaling protocol. Yet all existing SIP overload control work is focused on SIP-over-UDP, despite the fact that TCP is increasingly seen as the more viable choice of SIP transport. This paper answers the following questions: is the existing TCP flow control capable of handling the SIP overload problem? If not, why and how c...

  16. MULTIMEDIA DATA TRANSMISSION THROUGH TCP/IP USING HASH BASED FEC WITH AUTO-XOR SCHEME

    OpenAIRE

    R. Shalin; D. Kesavaraja

    2012-01-01

    The most preferred mode for communication of multimedia data is through the TCP/IP protocol. But on the other hand the TCP/IP protocol produces huge packet loss unavoidable due to network traffic and congestion. In order to provide a efficient communication it is necessary to recover the loss of packets. The proposed scheme implements Hash based FEC with auto XOR scheme for this purpose. The scheme is implemented through Forward error correction, MD5 and XOR for providing efficient transmissi...

  17. Tumour control probability (TCP) for non-uniform activity distribution in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusijaervi, Helena; Bernhardt, Peter; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Non-uniform radionuclide distribution in tumours will lead to a non-uniform absorbed dose. The aim of this study was to investigate how tumour control probability (TCP) depends on the radionuclide distribution in the tumour, both macroscopically and at the subcellular level. The absorbed dose in the cell nuclei of tumours was calculated for 90 Y, 177 Lu, 103m Rh and 211 At. The radionuclides were uniformly distributed within the subcellular compartment and they were uniformly, normally or log-normally distributed among the cells in the tumour. When all cells contain the same amount of activity, the cumulated activities required for TCP = 0.99 (A-tilde TCP=0.99 ) were 1.5-2 and 2-3 times higher when the activity was distributed on the cell membrane compared to in the cell nucleus for 103m Rh and 211 At, respectively. TCP for 90 Y was not affected by different radionuclide distributions, whereas for 177 Lu, it was slightly affected when the radionuclide was in the nucleus. TCP for 103m Rh and 211 At were affected by different radionuclide distributions to a great extent when the radionuclides were in the cell nucleus and to lesser extents when the radionuclides were distributed on the cell membrane or in the cytoplasm. When the activity was distributed in the nucleus, A-tilde TCP=0.99 increased when the activity distribution became more heterogeneous for 103m Rh and 211 At, and the increase was large when the activity was normally distributed compared to log-normally distributed. When the activity was distributed on the cell membrane, A-tilde TCP=0.99 was not affected for 103m Rh and 211 At when the activity distribution became more heterogeneous. A-tilde TCP=0.99 for 90 Y and 177 Lu were not affected by different activity distributions, neither macroscopic nor subcellular

  18. Fabrication of individual alginate-TCP scaffolds for bone tissue engineering by means of powder printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Miguel; Rodrigues, Jorge; Pires, Inês; Gouveia, Barbara; Pereira, Manuel; Moseke, Claus; Groll, Jürgen; Ewald, Andrea; Vorndran, Elke

    2015-01-06

    The development of polymer-calcium phosphate composite scaffolds with tailored architectures and properties has great potential for bone regeneration. Herein, we aimed to improve the functional performance of brittle ceramic scaffolds by developing a promising biopolymer-ceramic network. For this purpose, two strategies, namely, direct printing of a powder composition consisting of a 60:40 mixture of α/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) powder and alginate powder or vacuum infiltration of printed TCP scaffolds with an alginate solution, were tracked. Results of structural characterization revealed that the scaffolds printed with 2.5 wt% alginate-modified TCP powders presented a uniformly distributed and interfusing alginate TCP network. Mechanical results indicated a significant increase in strength, energy to failure and reliability of powder-modified scaffolds with an alginate content in the educts of 2.5 wt% when compared to pure TCP, as well as to TCP scaffolds containing 5 wt% or 7.5 wt% in the educts, in both dry and wet states. Culture of human osteoblast cells on these scaffolds also demonstrated a great improvement of cell proliferation and cell viability. While in the case of powder-mixed alginate TCP scaffolds, isolated alginate gels were formed between the calcium phosphate crystals, the vacuum-infiltration strategy resulted in the covering of the surface and internal pores of the TCP scaffold with a thin alginate film. Furthermore, the prediction of the scaffolds' critical fracture conditions under more complex stress states by the applied Mohr fracture criterion confirmed the potential of the powder-modified scaffolds with 2.5 wt% alginate in the educts as structural biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.

  19. Fabrication of individual alginate-TCP scaffolds for bone tissue engineering by means of powder printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilho, Miguel; Rodrigues, Jorge; Pires, Inês; Gouveia, Barbara; Pereira, Manuel; Moseke, Claus; Groll, Jürgen; Ewald, Andrea; Vorndran, Elke

    2015-01-01

    The development of polymer-calcium phosphate composite scaffolds with tailored architectures and properties has great potential for bone regeneration. Herein, we aimed to improve the functional performance of brittle ceramic scaffolds by developing a promising biopolymer–ceramic network. For this purpose, two strategies, namely, direct printing of a powder composition consisting of a 60:40 mixture of α/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) powder and alginate powder or vacuum infiltration of printed TCP scaffolds with an alginate solution, were tracked. Results of structural characterization revealed that the scaffolds printed with 2.5 wt% alginate-modified TCP powders presented a uniformly distributed and interfusing alginate TCP network. Mechanical results indicated a significant increase in strength, energy to failure and reliability of powder-modified scaffolds with an alginate content in the educts of 2.5 wt% when compared to pure TCP, as well as to TCP scaffolds containing 5 wt% or 7.5 wt% in the educts, in both dry and wet states. Culture of human osteoblast cells on these scaffolds also demonstrated a great improvement of cell proliferation and cell viability. While in the case of powder-mixed alginate TCP scaffolds, isolated alginate gels were formed between the calcium phosphate crystals, the vacuum-infiltration strategy resulted in the covering of the surface and internal pores of the TCP scaffold with a thin alginate film. Furthermore, the prediction of the scaffolds’ critical fracture conditions under more complex stress states by the applied Mohr fracture criterion confirmed the potential of the powder-modified scaffolds with 2.5 wt% alginate in the educts as structural biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. (paper)

  20. TCP/IP Communication System for Controlling a Vehicular Traffic Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedraza-Martínez Luis Fernando

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a prototype of a vehicular traffic controller, whose system of communication is based on the TCP/IP protocol, in order to re- motely monitor and control the operation of traffic lights for a vehicular intersection. The results show the times of communication between the central and the traffic controller. The conclusions highlight the importance of using the TCP/IP protocol in traffic light systems.

  1. ATM QoS Experiments Using TCP Applications: Performance of TCP/IP Over ATM in a Variety of Errored Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Brian D.; Ivancic, William D.

    2001-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Quality of Service (QoS) experiments using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) were performed for various link delays. The link delay was set to emulate a Wide Area Network (WAN) and a Satellite Link. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate the ATM QoS requirements for applications that utilize advance TCP/IP protocols implemented with large windows and Selective ACKnowledgements (SACK). The effects of cell error, cell loss, and random bit errors on throughput were reported. The detailed test plan and test results are presented herein.

  2. Compact Modbus TCP/IP protocol for data acquisition systems based on limited hardware resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Q.; Jin, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.; Liu, X.

    2018-04-01

    The Modbus TCP/IP has been a standard industry communication protocol and widely utilized for establishing sensor-cloud platforms on the Internet. However, numerous existing data acquisition systems built on traditional single-chip microcontrollers without sufficient resources cannot support it, because the complete Modbus TCP/IP protocol always works dependent on a full operating system which occupies abundant hardware resources. Hence, a compact Modbus TCP/IP protocol is proposed in this work to make it run efficiently and stably even on a resource-limited hardware platform. Firstly, the Modbus TCP/IP protocol stack is analyzed and the refined protocol suite is rebuilt by streamlining the typical TCP/IP suite. Then, specific implementation of every hierarchical layer is respectively presented in detail according to the protocol structure. Besides, the compact protocol is implemented in a traditional microprocessor to validate the feasibility of the scheme. Finally, the performance of the proposed scenario is assessed. The experimental results demonstrate that message packets match the frame format of Modbus TCP/IP protocol and the average bandwidth reaches to 1.15 Mbps. The compact protocol operates stably even based on a traditional microcontroller with only 4-kB RAM and 12-MHz system clock, and no communication congestion or frequent packet loss occurs.

  3. Quantitative localization of (/sup 3/H)TCP binding in rat brain by light microscopy autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sircar, R; Zukin, S R

    1985-09-30

    The anatomical localization of phencyclidine (PCP)/sigma-opiate receptors in rat brain was determined by quantitative light microscopy autoradiography using the new ligand N-(1-(2-thienyl) cyclohexyl(/sup 3/H) piperidine ((/sup 3/H)TCP). TCP is a potent analog of PCP which possesses a higher affinity for PCP/sigma-opiate receptor than does PCP itself. The highest level of (/sup 3/H)TCP binding was detected in the hippocampus. Intermediate levels were found in frontal cortex, striatum, amygdala and cerebellum. Specific (/sup 3/H)TCP binding was undetectable in anterior commissure and corpus callosum. The distribution pattern of (/sup 3/H)TCP binding sites is similar to the pattern obtained with (/sup 3/H)PCP but more sharply defined. On the basis of its greater potency and specificity, (/sup 3/H)TCP may prove superior to (/sup 3/H)PCP as a molecular probe for the study of brain sigma opiate/phencyclidine receptors. 13 refs.; 1 figure; 1 table.

  4. Functional form comparison between the population and the individual Poisson based TCP models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinkel, C.; Stavreva, N.; Stavrev, P.; Carlone, M.; Fallone, B.G.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the functional form similarity between the individual and fundamental population TCP models is investigated. Using the fact that both models can be expressed in terms of the geometric parameters γ 50 and D 50 , we show that they have almost identical functional form for values of γ 50 ≥1. The conceptual inadequacy of applying an individual model to clinical data is also discussed. A general individual response TCP expression is given, parameterized by D f and γ f - the dose corresponding to a control level of f, and the normalized slope at that point. It is shown that the dose-response may be interpreted as an individual response only if γ 50 is sufficiently high. Based on the functional form equivalency between the individual and the population TCP models, we discuss the possibility of applying the individual TCP model for the case of heterogeneous irradiations. Due to the fact that the fundamental population TCP model is derived for homogeneous irradiations only, we propose the use of the EUD, given by the generalized mean dose, when the fundamental population TCP model is used to fit clinical data. (author)

  5. The effect of Tricresyl-Phosphate (TCP) as an additive on wear of Iron (Fe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Hiren M.; Ferrante, John; Honecy, Frank C.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of tricresyl phosphate (TCP) as an antiwear additive in lubricant trimethyol propane triheptanoate (TMPTH) was investigated. The objective was to examine step loading wear by use of surface analysis, wetting, and chemical bonding changes in the lubricant. The investigation consisted of steploading wear studies by a pin or disk tribometer, the effects on wear related to wetting by contact angle and surface tension measurements of various liquid systems, the chemical bonding changes between lubricant and TCP chromatographic analysis, and by determining the reaction between the TCP and metal surfaces through wear scar analysis by Auger emission spectroscopy (AES). The steploading curve for the base fluid alone shows rapid increase of wear rate with load. The steploading curve for the base fluid in presence of 4.25 percent by volume TCP under dry air purge has shown a great reduction of wear rate with all loads studied. It has also been found that the addition of 4.25 percent by volume TCP plus 0.33 percent by volume water to the base lubricant under N2 purge also greatly reduces the wear rate with all loads studied. AES surface analysis reveals a phosphate type wear resistant film, which greatly increases load-bearing capacity, formed on the iron disk. Preliminary chromatographic studies suggest that this film forms either because of ester oxidation or TCP degradation. Wetting studies show direct correlation between the spreading coefficient and the wear rate.

  6. Comparative histomorphometric analysis between α-Tcp cement and β-Tcp/Ha granules in the bone repair of rat calvaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Grandi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of two bioceramics on the process of bone repair: α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP cement and β-tricalcium phosphate hydroxyapatite particles (β-TCP/HA. Calvarial defects were created in 50 rats, divided into two groups (α and β/HA. Software was used at 7, 21, 60, 90 and 120 days to assess bone formation. Mean new bone formation rates were as follows: α group, 1.6% at 7 days, 5.24% at 21 days, 24% at 60 days, 30.21% at 90 days and 50.59% at 120 days; β/HA group, 1.94% at 7 days, 2.53% at 21 days, 12.47% at 60 days, 26.84% at 90 days and 38.82% at 120 days; control group, 0.15% at 7 days, 10.12% at 21 days, 15.10% at 60 days, 18.94% at 90 days, 48.50% at 120 days. Both materials are osteoconductive and biocompatible. Perhaps the larger rate of new bone formation observed in the α-TCP group, it also occurs in the β-TCP/HA group within a longer time period.

  7. Combining phylogenetic and syntenic analyses for understanding the evolution of TCP ECE genes in eudicots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène L Citerne

    Full Text Available TCP ECE genes encode transcription factors which have received much attention for their repeated recruitment in the control of floral symmetry in core eudicots, and more recently in monocots. Major duplications of TCP ECE genes have been described in core eudicots, but the evolutionary history of this gene family is unknown in basal eudicots. Reconstructing the phylogeny of ECE genes in basal eudicots will help set a framework for understanding the functional evolution of these genes. TCP ECE genes were sequenced in all major lineages of basal eudicots and Gunnera which belongs to the sister clade to all other core eudicots. We show that in these lineages they have a complex evolutionary history with repeated duplications. We estimate the timing of the two major duplications already identified in the core eudicots within a timeframe before the divergence of Gunnera and after the divergence of Proteales. We also use a synteny-based approach to examine the extent to which the expansion of TCP ECE genes in diverse eudicot lineages may be due to genome-wide duplications. The three major core-eudicot specific clades share a number of collinear genes, and their common evolutionary history may have originated at the γ event. Genomic comparisons in Arabidopsis thaliana and Solanumlycopersicum highlight their separate polyploid origin, with syntenic fragments with and without TCP ECE genes showing differential gene loss and genomic rearrangements. Comparison between recently available genomes from two basal eudicots Aquilegiacoerulea and Nelumbonucifera suggests that the two TCP ECE paralogs in these species are also derived from large-scale duplications. TCP ECE loci from basal eudicots share many features with the three main core eudicot loci, and allow us to infer the makeup of the ancestral eudicot locus.

  8. Clinical implications of alternative TCP models for nonuniform dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deasy, J. O.

    1995-01-01

    Several tumor control probability (TCP) models for nonuniform dose distributions were compared, including: (a) a logistic/inter-patient-heterogeneity model, (b) a probit/inter-patient-heterogeneity model, (c) a Poisson/radioresistant-strain/identical-patients model, (d) a Poisson/inter-patient-heterogeneity model and (e) a Poisson/intra-tumor- and inter-patient-heterogeneity model. The models were analyzed in terms of the probability of controlling a single tumor voxel (the voxel control probability, or VCP), as a function of voxel volume and dose. Alternatively, the VCP surface can be thought of as the effect of a small cold spot. The models based on the Poisson equation which include inter-patient heterogeneity ((d) and (e)) have VCP surfaces (VCP as a function of dose and volume) which have a threshold 'waterfall' shape: below the waterfall (in dose), VCP is nearly zero. The threshold dose decreases with decreasing voxel volume. However, models (a), (b), and (c) all show a high probability of controlling a voxel (VCP>50%) with very low dose (e.g., 1 Gy) if the voxel is small (smaller than about 10 -3 of the tumor volume). Model (c) does not have the waterfall shape at low volumes due to the assumption of patient uniformity and a neglect of the effect of the clonogens which are more radiosensitive (and more numerous). Models (a) and (b) deviate from the waterfall shape at low volumes due to numerical differences between the functions used and the Poisson function. Hence, the Possion models which include inter-patient heterogeneities ((d) and (e)) are more sensitive to the effects of small cold spots than the other models considered

  9. A Cross Layer Solution to Address TCP Intra-flow Performance Degradation in Multihop Ad hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rakocevic, V.; Hamadani, E.

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating the concept of TCP end-to-end congestion control for wireless networks is one of the primary concerns in designing ad hoc networks since TCP was primarily designed and optimized based on the assumptions for wired networks. In this study, our interest lies on tackling the TCP instability and in particular intra-flow instability problem since due to the nature of applications in multihop ad hoc networks, connection instability or starvation even for a short period of time can have...

  10. The TCP4 transcription factor of Arabidopsis blocks cell division in yeast at G1 → S transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Pooja; Padmanabhan, Bhavna; Bhat, Abhay; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Sadhale, Parag P.; Nath, Utpal

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → TCP4 is a class II TCP transcription factor, that represses cell division in Arabidopsis. → TCP4 expression in yeast retards cell division by blocking G1 → S transition. → Genome-wide expression studies and Western analysis reveals stabilization of cell cycle inhibitor Sic1, as possible mechanism. -- Abstract: The TCP transcription factors control important aspects of plant development. Members of class I TCP proteins promote cell cycle by regulating genes directly involved in cell proliferation. In contrast, members of class II TCP proteins repress cell division. While it has been postulated that class II proteins induce differentiation signal, their exact role on cell cycle has not been studied. Here, we report that TCP4, a class II TCP protein from Arabidopsis that repress cell proliferation in developing leaves, inhibits cell division by blocking G1 → S transition in budding yeast. Cells expressing TCP4 protein with increased transcriptional activity fail to progress beyond G1 phase. By analyzing global transcriptional status of these cells, we show that expression of a number of cell cycle genes is altered. The possible mechanism of G1 → S arrest is discussed.

  11. LWD–TCP complex activates the morning gene CCA1 in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing-Fen; Tsai, Huang-Lung; Joanito, Ignasius; Wu, Yi-Chen; Chang, Chin-Wen; Li, Yi-Hang; Wang, Ying; Hong, Jong Chan; Chu, Jhih-Wei; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Wu, Shu-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    A double-negative feedback loop formed by the morning genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1)/LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and the evening gene TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1) contributes to regulation of the circadian clock in Arabidopsis. A 24-h circadian cycle starts with the peak expression of CCA1 at dawn. Although CCA1 is targeted by multiple transcriptional repressors, including PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR9 (PRR9), PRR7, PRR5 and CCA1 HIKING EXPEDITION (CHE), activators of CCA1 remain elusive. Here we use mathematical modelling to infer a co-activator role for LIGHT-REGULATED WD1 (LWD1) in CCA1 expression. We show that the TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1-CYCLOIDEA-PCF20 (TCP20) and TCP22 proteins act as LWD-interacting transcriptional activators. The concomitant binding of LWD1 and TCP20/TCP22 to the TCP-binding site in the CCA1 promoter activates CCA1. Our study reveals activators of the morning gene CCA1 and provides an action mechanism that ensures elevated expression of CCA1 at dawn to sustain a robust clock. PMID:27734958

  12. LWD-TCP complex activates the morning gene CCA1 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing-Fen; Tsai, Huang-Lung; Joanito, Ignasius; Wu, Yi-Chen; Chang, Chin-Wen; Li, Yi-Hang; Wang, Ying; Hong, Jong Chan; Chu, Jhih-Wei; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Wu, Shu-Hsing

    2016-10-13

    A double-negative feedback loop formed by the morning genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1)/LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and the evening gene TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1) contributes to regulation of the circadian clock in Arabidopsis. A 24-h circadian cycle starts with the peak expression of CCA1 at dawn. Although CCA1 is targeted by multiple transcriptional repressors, including PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR9 (PRR9), PRR7, PRR5 and CCA1 HIKING EXPEDITION (CHE), activators of CCA1 remain elusive. Here we use mathematical modelling to infer a co-activator role for LIGHT-REGULATED WD1 (LWD1) in CCA1 expression. We show that the TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1-CYCLOIDEA-PCF20 (TCP20) and TCP22 proteins act as LWD-interacting transcriptional activators. The concomitant binding of LWD1 and TCP20/TCP22 to the TCP-binding site in the CCA1 promoter activates CCA1. Our study reveals activators of the morning gene CCA1 and provides an action mechanism that ensures elevated expression of CCA1 at dawn to sustain a robust clock.

  13. Low modulus and bioactive Ti/α-TCP/Ti-mesh composite prepared by spark plasma sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Tan, Yanni; Liu, Yong; Liu, Shifeng; Zhou, Rui; Tang, Hanchun

    2017-11-01

    A titanium mesh scaffold composite filled with Ti/α-TCP particles was prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The microstructures and interfacial reactions of the composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The compressive strength and elastic modulus were also measured. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility was evaluated by using simulated body fluid and cells culture, respectively. After high temperature sintering, Ti oxides, Ti x P y and CaTiO 3 were formed. The formation of Ti oxides and Ti x P y were resulted from the diffusion of O and P elements from α-TCP to Ti. CaTiO 3 was the reaction product of Ti and α-TCP. The composite of 70Ti/α-TCP incorporated with Ti mesh showed a high compressive strength of 589MPa and a low compressive modulus of 30GPa. The bioactivity test showed the formation of a thick apatite layer on the composite and well-spread cells attachment. A good combination of mechanical properties and bioactivity indicated a high potential application of Ti/α-TCP/Ti-mesh composite for orthopedic implants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Identification of two combined genes responsible for dechlorination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in Cupriavidus pauculus P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Xu, Jianhong; Wu, Guang; Li, Mingxing; Jiang, Jiandong; He, Jian; Li, Shunpeng; Hong, Qing

    2013-09-15

    Dehalogenation is an important mechanism for degrading and detoxifying halogenated aromatics in microbes. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of dehalogenation of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) are still unknown. In this study, a novel 6012 bp gene cluster was cloned from TCP-degrading strain P2, which was responsible for the dehalogenation of TCP. The cluster included a monooxygenase gene (tcpA1), a flavin reductase gene (tcpB1), tcpR1, orf1 and orf2. TcpA1 and TcpB1 were indispensable for the dehalogenation of TCP. They worked together to catalyze the dehalogenation of three chlorine of TCP, and generated a more readily biodegradable product of 3,6-dihydroxypyridine-2,5-dione. TcpA1 displayed the highest activity against TCP at 40°C and at pH 8.0. Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Hg(2+) significantly inhibited enzyme activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a gene cluster responsible for TCP degradation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The application of PRP combined with TCP in repairing avascular necrosis of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-L; Wang, Y-M; Chu, K; Wang, Z-H; Liu, Y-H; Jiang, L-H; Chen, X; Zhou, Z-Y; Yin, G

    2018-02-01

    In view of the high occurrence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) after femoral neck fracture and the difficulties in the treatment, our work aimed to explore the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combined with tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) on the repair of ANFH after femoral neck fracture and to provide reference for clinical treatment. Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into control group, TCP group, and PRP+TCP group. The rabbit ANFH model was established and femoral head tissues were collected. HE staining was used for histological observation. Image analysis and statistical analysis were used to calculate the New Bone Area fraction (NBA %). The levels of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a in serum were detected by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). The new bone area of TCP group was significantly lower than that of PRP+TCP group (pPRP+TCP groups (pPRP+TCP group was higher than that in TCP group. TCP and PRP+TCP can both significantly reduce the content of IL-6 and TNF-a (pPRP+TCP group compared with the TCP group at 8 weeks after injection. PRP combined with TCP, which can promote new bone formation and inhibit inflammatory response, showed higher efficiency in repairing ANFH than internal fixation alone.

  16. Cascade Probability Control to Mitigate Bufferbloat under Multiple Real-World TCP Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Linh To

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistently full buffer problem, commonly known as bufferbloat, causes unnecessary additional latency and throughput degradation whenever congestion happens in Internet. Several proposed queue management schemes, with the debloat mission, are almost based on the modification of one-loop feedback control where the instability and bad transient behavior are still big challenges. In this paper, we present a cascade probability control scheme using margin optimal method to address such challenges under different kinds of real-world TCP stacks. Simulation results guarantee the measured round trip time tracking to a low value of delay (e.g., ≈180 ms under TCP Reno, and ≈130 ms under TCP Cubic and ≈50% delay reduction in comparison to current deployed queue management schemes in network devices.

  17. A GA-based PID active queue management control design for TCP/IP networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, H-H; Chen, C-K; Liao, T-L [Department of Engineering Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Yan, J-J [Department of Computer and Communication, Shu-Te University, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: tlliao@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2008-02-15

    In this paper, a genetic algorithm-based (GA-based) proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller as an active queue manager for Internet routers is proposed to reduce packet loss and improve network utilization in TCP/IP networks. Based on the window-based nonlinear dynamics, the TCP network was modeled as a time-delayed system with a saturated input due to the limitations of packet-dropping probability and the effects of propagation delays in TCP networks. An improved genetic algorithm is employed to derive optimal or near optimal PID control gains such that a performance index of integrated-absolute error (IAE) in terms of the error between the router queue length and the desired queue length is minimized. The performance of the proposed control scheme was evaluated in various network scenarios via a series of numerical simulations. The simulation results confirm that the proposed scheme outperforms other AQM schemes.

  18. A GA-based PID active queue management control design for TCP/IP networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, H-H; Chen, C-K; Liao, T-L; Yan, J-J

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a genetic algorithm-based (GA-based) proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller as an active queue manager for Internet routers is proposed to reduce packet loss and improve network utilization in TCP/IP networks. Based on the window-based nonlinear dynamics, the TCP network was modeled as a time-delayed system with a saturated input due to the limitations of packet-dropping probability and the effects of propagation delays in TCP networks. An improved genetic algorithm is employed to derive optimal or near optimal PID control gains such that a performance index of integrated-absolute error (IAE) in terms of the error between the router queue length and the desired queue length is minimized. The performance of the proposed control scheme was evaluated in various network scenarios via a series of numerical simulations. The simulation results confirm that the proposed scheme outperforms other AQM schemes

  19. A new method in prediction of TCP phases formation in superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousavi Anijdan, S.H.; Bahrami, A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to develop a model for prediction of topologically closed-packed (TCP) phases formation in superalloys. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANN), using several different network architectures, were used to investigate the complex relationships between TCP phases and chemical composition of superalloys. In order to develop an optimum ANN structure, more than 200 experimental data were used to train and test the neural network. The results of this investigation shows that a multilayer perceptron (MLP) form of the neural networks with one hidden layer and 10 nodes in the hidden layer has the lowest mean absolute error (MAE) and can be accurately used to predict the electron-hole number (N v ) and TCP phases formation in superalloys

  20. Achieving Fair Throughput among TCP Flows in Multi-Hop Wireless Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ting-Chao; Hsu, Chih-Wei

    Previous research shows that the IEEE 802.11 DCF channel contention mechanism is not capable of providing throughput fairness among nodes in different locations of the wireless mesh network. The node nearest the gateway will always strive for the chance to transmit data, causing fewer transmission opportunities for the nodes farther from the gateway, resulting in starvation. Prior studies modify the DCF mechanism to address the fairness problem. This paper focuses on the fairness study when TCP flows are carried over wireless mesh networks. By not modifying lower layer protocols, the current work identifies TCP parameters that impact throughput fairness and proposes adjusting those parameters to reduce frame collisions and improve throughput fairness. With the aid of mathematical formulation and ns2 simulations, this study finds that frame transmission from each node can be effectively controlled by properly controlling the delayed ACK timer and using a suitable advertised window. The proposed method reduces frame collisions and greatly improves TCP throughput fairness.

  1. Strategy for Developing Expert-System-Based Internet Protocols (TCP/IP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1997-01-01

    The Satellite Networks and Architectures Branch of NASA's Lewis Research is addressing the issue of seamless interoperability of satellite networks with terrestrial networks. One of the major issues is improving reliable transmission protocols such as TCP over long latency and error-prone links. Many tuning parameters are available to enhance the performance of TCP including segment size, timers and window sizes. There are also numerous congestion avoidance algorithms such as slow start, selective retransmission and selective acknowledgment that are utilized to improve performance. This paper provides a strategy to characterize the performance of TCP relative to various parameter settings in a variety of network environments (i.e. LAN, WAN, wireless, satellite, and IP over ATM). This information can then be utilized to develop expert-system-based Internet protocols.

  2. Determination of physical properties for β-TCP + chitosan biomaterial obtained on metallic 316L substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mina, A.; Castaño, A.; Caicedo, J.C.; Caicedo, H.H.; Aguilar, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Material surface modification, particularly the deposition of special coatings on the surface of surgical implants, is extensively used in bone tissue engineering applications. β-Tricalcium phosphate/Chitosan (β-TCP/Ch) coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel (316L SS) substrates by a cathodic electro-deposition technique at different coating compositions. The crystal lattice arrangements were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and the results indicated that the crystallographic structure of β-TCP was affected by the inclusion of the chitosan content. The changes in the surface morphology as a function of increasing chitosan in the coatings via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that root-mean square values of the β-TCP/Ch coatings decreased by further increasing chitosan percentage. The elastic–plastic characteristics of the coatings were determined by conducting nanoindentation test, indicating that increase of chitosan percentage is directly related to increase of hardness and elastic modulus of the β-TCP/Ch coatings. Tribological characterization was performed by scratch test and pin-on-disk test to analyze the changes in the surface wear of β-TCP/Ch coatings. Finally, the results indicated an improvement in the mechanical and tribological properties of the β-TCP/Ch coatings as a function of increasing of the chitosan percentage. This new class of coatings, comprising the bioactive components, is expected not only to enhance the bioactivity and biocompatibility, but also to protect the surface of metallic implants against wear and corrosion. - Highlights: • Superficial phenomenon that occurs in tribological surface of β-tricalcium phosphate-chitosan coatings. • Improvement on surface mechanical properties of ceramic-polymeric and response to surface tribological damage. • β-tricalcium phosphate-chitosan coatings that offer highest performance in the biomedical devices

  3. Geometrical versus Random β-TCP Scaffolds: Exploring the Effects on Schwann Cell Growth and Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Sweet

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that Schwann cells (SCs play a role in nerve regeneration; however, their role in innervating a bioceramic scaffold for potential application in bone regeneration is still unknown. Here we report the cell growth and functional behavior of SCs on β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffolds arranged in 3D printed-lattice (P-β-TCP and randomly-porous, template-casted (N-β-TCP structures. Our results indicate that SCs proliferated well and expressed the phenotypic markers p75LNGFR and the S100-β subunit of SCs as well as displayed growth morphology on both scaffolds, but SCs showed spindle-shaped morphology with a significant degree of SCs alignment on the P-β-TCP scaffolds, seen to a lesser degree in the N-β-TCP scaffold. The gene expressions of nerve growth factor (β-ngf, neutrophin-3 (nt-3, platelet-derived growth factor (pdgf-bb, and vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf-a were higher at day 7 than at day 14. While no significant differences in protein secretion were measured between these last two time points, the scaffolds promoted the protein secretion at day 3 compared to that on the cell culture plates. These results together imply that the β-TCP scaffolds can support SC cell growth and that the 3D-printed scaffold appeared to significantly promote the alignment of SCs along the struts. Further studies are needed to investigate the early and late stage relationship between gene expression and protein secretion of SCs on the scaffolds with refined characteristics, thus better exploring the potential of SCs to support vascularization and innervation in synthetic bone grafts.

  4. Analyzing the Effect of TCP and Server Population on Massively Multiplayer Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Suznjevic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs use TCP flows for communication between the server and the game clients. The utilization of TCP, which was not initially designed for (soft real-time services, has many implications for the competing traffic flows. In this paper we present a series of studies which explore the competition between MMORPG and other traffic flows. For that aim, we first extend a source-based traffic model, based on player’s activities during the day, to also incorporate the impact of the number of players sharing a server (server population on network traffic. Based on real traffic traces, we statistically model the influence of the variation of the server’s player population on the network traffic, depending on the action categories (i.e., types of in-game player behaviour. Using the developed traffic model we prove that while server population only modifies specific action categories, this effect is significant enough to be observed on the overall traffic. We find that TCP Vegas is a good option for competing flows in order not to throttle the MMORPG flows and that TCP SACK is more respectful with game flows than other TCP variants, namely, Tahoe, Reno, and New Reno. Other tests show that MMORPG flows do not significantly reduce their sending window size when competing against UDP flows. Additionally, we study the effect of RTT unfairness between MMORPG flows, showing that it is less important than in the case of network-limited TCP flows.

  5. Determination of physical properties for β-TCP + chitosan biomaterial obtained on metallic 316L substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mina, A. [Tribology, Powder Metallurgy and Processing of Solid Recycled Research Group, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Tecno-Academia ASTIN SENA Reginal Valle (Colombia); Castaño, A. [Tribology, Powder Metallurgy and Processing of Solid Recycled Research Group, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Caicedo, J.C., E-mail: julio.cesar.caicedo@correo.univalle.edu.co [Tribology, Powder Metallurgy and Processing of Solid Recycled Research Group, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Caicedo, H.H. [Biologics Research, Biotechnology Center of Excellence, Janssen R& D, LLC, Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, Spring House, PA 19477 (United States); National Biotechnology & Pharmaceutical Association, Chicago, IL 60606 (United States); Aguilar, Y. [Tribology, Powder Metallurgy and Processing of Solid Recycled Research Group, Universidad del Valle, Cali (Colombia)

    2015-06-15

    Material surface modification, particularly the deposition of special coatings on the surface of surgical implants, is extensively used in bone tissue engineering applications. β-Tricalcium phosphate/Chitosan (β-TCP/Ch) coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel (316L SS) substrates by a cathodic electro-deposition technique at different coating compositions. The crystal lattice arrangements were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and the results indicated that the crystallographic structure of β-TCP was affected by the inclusion of the chitosan content. The changes in the surface morphology as a function of increasing chitosan in the coatings via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that root-mean square values of the β-TCP/Ch coatings decreased by further increasing chitosan percentage. The elastic–plastic characteristics of the coatings were determined by conducting nanoindentation test, indicating that increase of chitosan percentage is directly related to increase of hardness and elastic modulus of the β-TCP/Ch coatings. Tribological characterization was performed by scratch test and pin-on-disk test to analyze the changes in the surface wear of β-TCP/Ch coatings. Finally, the results indicated an improvement in the mechanical and tribological properties of the β-TCP/Ch coatings as a function of increasing of the chitosan percentage. This new class of coatings, comprising the bioactive components, is expected not only to enhance the bioactivity and biocompatibility, but also to protect the surface of metallic implants against wear and corrosion. - Highlights: • Superficial phenomenon that occurs in tribological surface of β-tricalcium phosphate-chitosan coatings. • Improvement on surface mechanical properties of ceramic-polymeric and response to surface tribological damage. • β-tricalcium phosphate-chitosan coatings that offer highest performance in the biomedical devices.

  6. MULTIMEDIA DATA TRANSMISSION THROUGH TCP/IP USING HASH BASED FEC WITH AUTO-XOR SCHEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shalin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most preferred mode for communication of multimedia data is through the TCP/IP protocol. But on the other hand the TCP/IP protocol produces huge packet loss unavoidable due to network traffic and congestion. In order to provide a efficient communication it is necessary to recover the loss of packets. The proposed scheme implements Hash based FEC with auto XOR scheme for this purpose. The scheme is implemented through Forward error correction, MD5 and XOR for providing efficient transmission of multimedia data. The proposed scheme provides transmission high accuracy, throughput and low latency and loss.

  7. Reducing Communication Overhead by Scheduling TCP Transfers on Mobile Devices using Wireless Network Performance Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard-Hansen, Kim; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    The performance of wireless communication networks has been shown to have a strong location dependence. Measuring the performance while having accurate location information available makes it possible to generate performance maps. In this paper we propose a framework for the generation and use...... of such performance maps. We demonstrate how the framework can be used to reduce the retransmissions and to better utilise network resources when performing TCP-based file downloads in vehicular M2M communication scenarios. The approach works on top of a standard TCP stack hence has to map identified transmission...

  8. YottaYotta announces new world record set for TCP disk-to-disk bulk transfer

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Yottabyte NetStorage(TM) Company, today announced a new world record for TCP disk-to-disk data transfer using the company's NetStorager(R) System. The record-breaking demonstration transferred 5 terabytes of data between Chicago, Il. to Vancouver, BC and Ottawa, ON, at a sustained average throughput of 11.1 gigabits per second. Peak throughput exceeded 11.6 gigabits per second, more than 15-times faster than previous records for TCP transfer from disk-to-disk (1 page).

  9. Osteoconductivity and Biodegradability of Collagen Scaffold Coated with Nano-β-TCP and Fibroblast Growth Factor 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako Ibara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle bioceramics have become anticipated for biomedical applications. Highly bioactive and biodegradable scaffolds would be developed using nanoparticles of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP. We prepared collagen scaffolds coated by nano-β-TCP and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 and evaluated the effects on new bone augmentation and biodegradation. The collagen sponge was coated with the nano-TCP dispersion and freeze-dried. Scaffold was characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, compressive testing and cell seeding. Subsequently, the nano-β-TCP/collagen scaffold, collagen sponge, and each material loaded with FGF2 were implanted on rat cranial bone. As a control, no implantation was performed. Nano-TCP particles were found to be attached to the fibers of the collagen sponge by SEM and TEM observations. Scaffold coated with nano-TCP showed higher compressive strength and cytocompatibility. In histological evaluations at 10 days, inflammatory cells were rarely seen around the residual scaffold, suggesting that the nano-TCP material possesses good tissue compatibility. At 35 days, bone augmentation and scaffold degradation in histological samples receiving nano-β-TCP scaffold were significantly greater than those in the control. By loading of FGF2, advanced bone formation is facilitated, indicating that a combination with FGF2 would be effective for bone tissue engineering.

  10. The Arabidopsis Transcription Factor AtTCP15 Regulates Endoreduplication by Modulating Expression of Key Cell-cycle Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-Yu Li; Bin Li; Ai-Wu Dong

    2012-01-01

    Plant cells frequently undergo endoreduplication,a modified cell cycle in which genome is repeatedly replicated without cytokinesis.As the key step to achieve final size and function for cells,endoreduplication is prevalent during plant development.However,mechanisms to control the balance between endoreduplication and mitotic cell division are still poorly understood.Here,we show that the Arabidopsis TCP (CINCINNATA-like TEOSINTE BRANCHED1-CYCLOIDEA-PCF)-family transcription factor gene AtTCP15 is expressed in trichomes,as well as in rapidly dividing and vascular tissues.Expression of AtTCP15SRDX,AtTCP15 fused with a SRDX repressor domain,induces extra endoreduplication in trichomes and cotyledon cells in transgenic Arabidopsis.On the contrary,overexpression of AtTCP15 suppresses endoreduplication in trichomes and other examined cells.Misregulation of AtTCP15 affects the expression of several important genes involved in cell-cycle regulation.AtTCP15 protein binds directly to the promoter regions of CYCA2;3 and RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED (RBR) genes,which play key roles in endoreduplication.Taken together,AtTCP15 plays an important role in regulating endoreduplication during Arabidopsis development.

  11. Synthesis of 3-[18F]-fluoromethyl-TCP1, a potential tool for PET study of the NMDA receptor channel complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponchant, M.; Crouzel, C.

    1992-01-01

    In an attempt to visualize the NMDA glutamatergic receptors and after checking the biological activity of the cold 3-fluoromethyl-TCP, 3-[ 18 F]-fluoro-methyl-TCP was synthesized by a nucleophilic substitution of 3-bromomethyl-TCP with [ 18 F - ]. (author)

  12. Evaluation of TCP Congestion Control Algorithms on the Windows Vista Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yee-Ting; /SLAC

    2006-07-07

    CTCP, an innovative TCP congestion control algorithm developed by Microsoft, is evaluated and compared to HSTCP and StandardTCP. Tests were performed on the production Internet from Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to various geographically located hosts to give a broad overview of the performances. We find that certain issues were apparent during testing (not directly related to the congestion control algorithms) which may skew results. With this in mind, we find that CTCP performed similarly to HSTCP across a multitude of different network environments. However, to improve the fairness and to reduce the impact of CTCP upon existing StandardTCP traffic, two areas of further research were investigated. Algorithmic additions to CTCP for burst control to reduce the aggressiveness of its cwnd increments demonstrated beneficial improvements in both fairness and throughput over the original CTCP algorithm. Similarly, {gamma} auto-tuning algorithms were investigated to dynamically adapt CTCP flows to their network conditions for optimal performance. While the effects of these auto-tuning algorithms when used in addition to burst control showed little to no benefit to fairness nor throughput for the limited number of network paths tested, one of the auto-tuning algorithms performed such that there was negligible impact upon StandardTCP. With these improvements, CTCP was found to perform better than HSTCP in terms of fairness and similarly in terms of throughput under the production environments tested.

  13. ejIP: A TCP/IP Stack for Embedded Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    present the design and implementation of a network stack written entirely in Java. This implementation serves as an example how to implement system functions in a safe language and gives evidence that Java can be used for operating system related functionality. The described TCP/IP stack ejIP has already...

  14. β-TCP/HA with or without enamel matrix proteins for maxillary sinus floor augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nery, James Carlos; Pereira, Luís Antônio Violin Dias; Guimarães, George Furtado

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is still unclear whether enamel matrix proteins (EMD) as adjunct to bone grafting enhance bone healing. This study compared histomorphometrically maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA) with β-TCP/HA in combination with or without EMD in humans. METHODS: In ten systemically healthy...

  15. A robust fractional-order PID controller design based on active queue management for TCP network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidian, Hamideh; Beheshti, Mohammad T. H.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a robust fractional-order controller is designed to control the congestion in transmission control protocol (TCP) networks with time-varying parameters. Fractional controllers can increase the stability and robustness. Regardless of advantages of fractional controllers, they are still not common in congestion control in TCP networks. The network parameters are time-varying, so the robust stability is important in congestion controller design. Therefore, we focused on the robust controller design. The fractional PID controller is developed based on active queue management (AQM). D-partition technique is used. The most important property of designed controller is the robustness to the time-varying parameters of the TCP network. The vertex quasi-polynomials of the closed-loop characteristic equation are obtained, and the stability boundaries are calculated for each vertex quasi-polynomial. The intersection of all stability regions is insensitive to network parameter variations, and results in robust stability of TCP/AQM system. NS-2 simulations show that the proposed algorithm provides a stable queue length. Moreover, simulations show smaller oscillations of the queue length and less packet drop probability for FPID compared to PI and PID controllers. We can conclude from NS-2 simulations that the average packet loss probability variations are negligible when the network parameters change.

  16. Improving TCP Performance over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Busy Tone Assisted Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Lin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that transmission control protocol (TCP performance degrades severely in IEEE 802.11-based wireless ad hoc networks. We first identify two critical issues leading to the TCP performance degradation: (1 unreliable broadcast, since broadcast frames are transmitted without the request-to-send and clear-to-send (RTS/CTS dialog and Data/ACK handshake, so they are vulnerable to the hidden terminal problem; and (2 false link failure which occurs when a node cannot successfully transmit data temporarily due to medium contention. We then propose a scheme to use a narrow-bandwidth, out-of-band busy tone channel to make reservation for broadcast and link error detection frames only. The proposed scheme is simple and power efficient, because only the sender needs to transmit two short messages in the busy tone channel before sending broadcast or link error detection frames in the data channel. Analytical results show that the proposed scheme can dramatically reduce the collision probability of broadcast and link error detection frames. Extensive simulations with different network topologies further demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve TCP throughput by 23% to 150%, depending on user mobility, and effectively enhance both short-term and long-term fairness among coexisting TCP flows in multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  17. TCP (truncated compound Poisson) process for multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastave, P.P.

    1990-01-01

    On using the Poisson distribution truncated at zero for intermediate cluster decay in a compound Poisson process, the authors obtain TCP distribution which describes quite well the multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions. A detailed comparison is made between TCP and NB for UA5 data. The reduced moments up to the fifth agree very well with the observed ones. The TCP curves are narrower than NB at high multiplicity tail, look narrower at very high energy and develop shoulders and oscillations which become increasingly pronounced as the energy grows. At lower energies the distributions, of the data for fixed intervals of rapidity for UA5 data and for the data (at low energy) for e + e - annihilation and pion-proton, proton-proton and muon-proton scattering. A discussion of compound Poisson distribution, expression of reduced moments and Poisson transforms are also given. The TCP curves and curves of the reduced moments for different values of the parameters are also presented

  18. High-dispersion spectroscopy of the probable microlensing event TCP J05074264+2447555

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehara, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    We report the spectroscopic observation of TCP J05074264+2447555 which was discovered by Tadashi Kojima at 10.8 mag on 2017-10-31.7340 (http://www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/unconf/followups/J05074264+2447555.html).

  19. ComboCoding: Combined intra-/inter-flow network coding for TCP over disruptive MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chia Chen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available TCP over wireless networks is challenging due to random losses and ACK interference. Although network coding schemes have been proposed to improve TCP robustness against extreme random losses, a critical problem still remains of DATA–ACK interference. To address this issue, we use inter-flow coding between DATA and ACK to reduce the number of transmissions among nodes. In addition, we also utilize a “pipeline” random linear coding scheme with adaptive redundancy to overcome high packet loss over unreliable links. The resulting coding scheme, ComboCoding, combines intra-flow and inter-flow coding to provide robust TCP transmission in disruptive wireless networks. The main contributions of our scheme are twofold; the efficient combination of random linear coding and XOR coding on bi-directional streams (DATA and ACK, and the novel redundancy control scheme that adapts to time-varying and space-varying link loss. The adaptive ComboCoding was tested on a variable hop string topology with unstable links and on a multipath MANET with dynamic topology. Simulation results show that TCP with ComboCoding delivers higher throughput than with other coding options in high loss and mobile scenarios, while introducing minimal overhead in normal operation.

  20. Evaluation of TCP Congestion Control Algorithms on the Windows Vista Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y

    2006-01-01

    CTCP, an innovative TCP congestion control algorithm developed by Microsoft, is evaluated and compared to HSTCP and StandardTCP. Tests were performed on the production Internet from Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to various geographically located hosts to give a broad overview of the performances. We find that certain issues were apparent during testing (not directly related to the congestion control algorithms) which may skew results. With this in mind, we find that CTCP performed similarly to HSTCP across a multitude of different network environments. However, to improve the fairness and to reduce the impact of CTCP upon existing StandardTCP traffic, two areas of further research were investigated. Algorithmic additions to CTCP for burst control to reduce the aggressiveness of its cwnd increments demonstrated beneficial improvements in both fairness and throughput over the original CTCP algorithm. Similarly, auto-tuning algorithms were investigated to dynamically adapt CTCP flows to their network conditions for optimal performance. Whilst the effects of these auto-tuning algorithms when used in addition to burst control showed little to no benefit to fairness nor throughput for the limited number of network paths tested, one of the auto-tuning algorithms performed such that there was negligible impact upon StandardTCP. With these improvements, CTCP was found to perform better than HSTCP in terms of fairness and similarly in terms of throughput under the production environments tested

  1. Analysis of functional redundancies within the Arabidopsis TCP transcription factor family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danisman, S.; Dijk, van A.D.J.; Bimbo, A.; Wal, van der F.; Hennig, L.; Folter, de S.; Angenent, G.C.; Immink, R.G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of the functions of TEOSINTE-LIKE1, CYCLOIDEA, and ROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factors have been hampered by functional redundancy between its individual members. In general, putative functionally redundant genes are predicted based on sequence similarity and confirmed by

  2. beta-TCP Versus Autologous Bone for Repair of Alveolar Clefts in a Goat Model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, A. de; Meijer, G.J.; Dormaar, T.; Janssen, N.; Bilt, A. van der; Slootweg, P.J.; Bruijn, J. de; Rijn, L. van; Koole, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective : The aim of this study in goats was to test the hypothesis that a novel synthetic bone substitute beta tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) can work as well as autologous bone harvested from the iliac crest for grafting and repair of alveolar clefts. Design : Ten adult Dutch milk goats ( Capra

  3. TCP Transcription Factors at the Interface between Environmental Challenges and the Plant's Growth Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danisman, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    Plants are sessile and as such their reactions to environmental challenges differ from those of mobile organisms. Many adaptions involve growth responses and hence, growth regulation is one of the most crucial biological processes for plant survival and fitness. The plant-specific TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF1 (TCP) transcription factor family is involved in plant development from cradle to grave, i.e., from seed germination throughout vegetative development until the formation of flowers and fruits. TCP transcription factors have an evolutionary conserved role as regulators in a variety of plant species, including orchids, tomatoes, peas, poplar, cotton, rice and the model plant Arabidopsis. Early TCP research focused on the regulatory functions of TCPs in the development of diverse organs via the cell cycle. Later research uncovered that TCP transcription factors are not static developmental regulators but crucial growth regulators that translate diverse endogenous and environmental signals into growth responses best fitted to ensure plant fitness and health. I will recapitulate the research on TCPs in this review focusing on two topics: the discovery of TCPs and the elucidation of their evolutionarily conserved roles across the plant kingdom, and the variety of signals, both endogenous (circadian clock, plant hormones) and environmental (pathogens, light, nutrients), TCPs respond to in the course of their developmental roles.

  4. MICROCT AND PREPARATION OF ß-TCP GRANULAR MATERIAL BY THE POLYURETHANE FOAM METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Filmon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercial ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP is commercialy available in granules manufactured by sintering of powders. We have evaluated the different steps of the manufacturing process of ß-TCP ceramics granules prepared from blocks obtained with the polyurethane foam technology. Three types of slurry were prepared with 10, 15 and 25 g of ß-TCP per gram of polyurethane foam. Analysis was done by scanning electron microscopy, EDX, Raman spectroscopy and microcomputed tomography combined with image analysis. A special algorithm was used to identify the internal microporosity (created by the calcination of the foam from the internal macroporosity due to the spatial repartition of the material. The low ß-TCP dosages readily infiltrated the foam and the slurry was deposited along the polymer rods. On the contrary, the highest concentration produced inhomogeneous infiltrated blocks and foam cavities appeared completely filled in some areas. 2D microcomputed sections and reconstructed 3D models evidenced this phenomenon and the frequency distribution of the thickness and separation of material trabeculae confirmed the heterogeneity of the distribution. When crushed, blocks prepared with the 25 g slurry provided the largest and irregular granulates.

  5. A Network Steganography Lab on Detecting TCP/IP Covert Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zseby, Tanja; Vázquez, Félix Iglesias; Bernhardt, Valentin; Frkat, Davor; Annessi, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a network security laboratory to teach data analysis for detecting TCP/IP covert channels. The laboratory is mainly designed for students of electrical engineering, but is open to students of other technical disciplines with similar background. Covert channels provide a method for leaking data from protected systems, which is a…

  6. Structural and degradation characteristics of an innovative porous PLGA/TCP scaffold incorporated with bioactive molecular icaritin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Xinhui; Wang Xinluan; Zhang Ge; He Yixin; Liu Zhong; Peng Jiang; Qin Ling [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wang Xiaohong; He Kai [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology, Ministry of Education and Center of Organ Manufacturing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Leng Yang, E-mail: lingqin@cuhk.edu.h [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-10-01

    Phytomolecules may chemically bind to scaffold materials for medical applications. The present study used an osteoconductive porous poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide)/tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/TCP) to incorporate an exogenous phytoestrogenic molecule icaritin to form a PLGA/TCP/icaritin composite scaffold material with potential slow release of icaritin during scaffold degradation. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate its in vitro degradation characteristics and the release pattern of icaritin at three different doses (74 mg, 7.4 mg and 0.74 mg per 100 g PLGA/TCP, i.e. in the PLGA/TCP/icaritin-H, -M and -L groups, respectively). A PLGA/TCP/icaritin porous composite scaffold was fabricated using a computer-controlled printing machine. The PLGA/TCP/icaritin scaffolds were incubated in saline at 37 {sup 0}C for 12 weeks and the pure PLGA/TCP scaffold served as a control. During the 12 weeks in vitro degradation, the scaffolds in all four groups showed changes, including a decrease in weight, volume and pore size of the composite scaffold, while there was a decrease in acidity and an increase in Ca and lactic acid concentrations in the degradation medium, especially after 7 weeks. The rate of degradation was explained by the relationship with the content of icaritin incorporated into the scaffolds. The higher the icaritin content in the scaffolds, the slower the degradation could be observed during 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, the SEM showed that the surface of the PLGA/TCP and PLGA/TCP/icaritin-L groups was relatively smooth with a gradual decrease in number and size of the micropores, while the porous morphology on the surface of the PLGA/TCP/icaritin-M and PLGA/TCP/icaritin-H groups was partly maintained, accompanied by a decrease in phosphate (P) and calcium (Ca) contents at the surface. Though the mechanical property of the PLGA/TCP/icaritin scaffold decreased after degradation, its porous structure was maintained, which was essential for cell

  7. Surface biofunctionalization of β-TCP blocks using aptamer 74 for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardjomandi, N.; Huth, J. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Tübingen (Germany); Stamov, D.R. [JPK Instruments AG, Berlin (Germany); Henrich, A. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Tübingen (Germany); Klein, C. [Dental Practice Zahngesundheit Waiblingen, Waiblingen (Germany); Wendel, H.-P. [Department of Thoracic, Cardiac and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital, Tübingen (Germany); Reinert, S. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Tübingen (Germany); Alexander, D., E-mail: dorothea.alexander@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Tübingen (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    Successful bone regeneration following oral and maxillofacial surgeries depends on efficient functionalization strategies that allow the recruitment of osteogenic progenitor cells at the tissue/implant interface. We have previously identified aptamer 74, which exhibited a binding affinity for osteogenically induced jaw periosteal cells (JPCs). In the present study, this aptamer was used for the surface biofunctionalization of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) blocks. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements showed increased binding activity of aptamer 74 towards osteogenically induced JPCs compared to untreated controls. The immobilization efficiency of aptamer 74 was analyzed using the QuantiFluor ssDNA assay for 2D surfaces and by amino acid analysis for 3D β-TCP constructs. Following the successful immobilization of aptamer 74 in 2D culture wells and on 3D constructs, in vitro assays showed no significant differences in cell proliferation compared to unmodified surfaces. Interestingly, JPC mineralization was significantly higher on the 2D surfaces and higher cell adhesion was detected on the 3D constructs with immobilized aptamer. Herein, we report an established, biocompatible β-TCP matrix with surface immobilization of aptamer 74, which enhances properties such as cell adhesion on 3D constructs and mineralization on 2D surfaces. Further studies need to be performed to improve the immobilization efficiency and to develop a suitable approach for JPC mineralization growing within 3D β-TCP constructs. - Highlights: • Covalent binding of aptamer 74 on PLGA-coated β-tricalcium phosphate constructs. • AFM analysis of rupture forces between aptamer 74 and jaw periosteal cells. • Analysis of jaw periosteal cell functions on aptamer coated β-TCP constructs.

  8. Surface biofunctionalization of β-TCP blocks using aptamer 74 for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardjomandi, N.; Huth, J.; Stamov, D.R.; Henrich, A.; Klein, C.; Wendel, H.-P.; Reinert, S.; Alexander, D.

    2016-01-01

    Successful bone regeneration following oral and maxillofacial surgeries depends on efficient functionalization strategies that allow the recruitment of osteogenic progenitor cells at the tissue/implant interface. We have previously identified aptamer 74, which exhibited a binding affinity for osteogenically induced jaw periosteal cells (JPCs). In the present study, this aptamer was used for the surface biofunctionalization of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) blocks. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements showed increased binding activity of aptamer 74 towards osteogenically induced JPCs compared to untreated controls. The immobilization efficiency of aptamer 74 was analyzed using the QuantiFluor ssDNA assay for 2D surfaces and by amino acid analysis for 3D β-TCP constructs. Following the successful immobilization of aptamer 74 in 2D culture wells and on 3D constructs, in vitro assays showed no significant differences in cell proliferation compared to unmodified surfaces. Interestingly, JPC mineralization was significantly higher on the 2D surfaces and higher cell adhesion was detected on the 3D constructs with immobilized aptamer. Herein, we report an established, biocompatible β-TCP matrix with surface immobilization of aptamer 74, which enhances properties such as cell adhesion on 3D constructs and mineralization on 2D surfaces. Further studies need to be performed to improve the immobilization efficiency and to develop a suitable approach for JPC mineralization growing within 3D β-TCP constructs. - Highlights: • Covalent binding of aptamer 74 on PLGA-coated β-tricalcium phosphate constructs. • AFM analysis of rupture forces between aptamer 74 and jaw periosteal cells. • Analysis of jaw periosteal cell functions on aptamer coated β-TCP constructs.

  9. Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells on akermanite and β-TCP bioceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Xia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of akermanite as compared to β-TCP on attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and actin filament labeling were used to reveal attachment and growth of hPDLCs seeded on β-TCP and akermanite ceramic. Cell proliferation was tested by lactic acid production and MTT analysis, while osteogenic differentiation was assayed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP expression and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis on markers of osteopontin (OPN, dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein-1 (DMP-1, and osteocalcin (OCN, and further detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis (ELISA analysis for OCN expression. Besides, the ions released from akermanite and their effect on hPDLCs was also measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES, MTT analysis, ALP expression and real-time PCR analysis. hPDLCs attached well on both ceramics, but showed better spreading on akermanite. hPDLCs proliferated more rapidly on akermanite than β-TCP. Importantly, osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs was enhanced on akermanite compared to β-TCP. Besides, Ca, Mg and Si ions were released from akermanite, while only Ca ions were released from β-TCP. Moreover, more pronounced proliferation and higher osteogenic gene expression for hPDLCs cultured with akermanite extract were detected as compared to cells cultured on akermanite. Therefore, akermanite ceramic showed an enhanced effect on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs, which might be attributed to the release of ions containing Ca, Mg and Si from the material. It is suggested that akermanite ceramics may serve as a potential material for periodontal bone regeneration.

  10. Bone Regeneration of Rat Tibial Defect by Zinc-Tricalcium Phosphate (Zn-TCP Synthesized from Porous Foraminifera Carbonate Macrospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Chou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foraminifera carbonate exoskeleton was hydrothermally converted to biocompatible and biodegradable zinc-tricalcium phosphate (Zn-TCP as an alternative biomimetic material for bone fracture repair. Zn-TCP samples implanted in a rat tibial defect model for eight weeks were compared with unfilled defect and beta-tricalcium phosphate showing accelerated bone regeneration compared with the control groups, with statistically significant bone mineral density and bone mineral content growth. CT images of the defect showed restoration of cancellous bone in Zn-TCP and only minimal growth in control group. Histological slices reveal bone in-growth within the pores and porous chamber of the material detailing good bone-material integration with the presence of blood vessels. These results exhibit the future potential of biomimetic Zn-TCP as bone grafts for bone fracture repair.

  11. On the Behavior of ECN/RED Gateways Under a Large Number of TCP Flows: Limit Theorems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tinnakornsrisuphap, Peerapol; Makowski, Armand M

    2005-01-01

    .... As the number of competing flows becomes large, the asymptotic queue behavior at the gateway can be described by a simple recursion and the throughput behavior of individual TCP flows becomes asymptotically independent...

  12. Trivalent Chromium Process (TCP) as a Sealer for MIL-A-8625F Type II, IIB, and IC Anodic Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matzdorf, Craig; Beck, Erin; Hilgeman, Amy; Prado, Ruben

    2008-01-01

    This report documents evaluations of trivalent chromium compositions (TCP) as sealers for MIL-A-8625F Type II, IIB, and IC anodic coatings conducted from March 2001 through December 2007 by Materials Engineering...

  13. MAC-layer protocol for TCP fairness in Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Nawab, Faisal

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we study the interactions of TCP and IEEE 802.11 MAC in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). We use a Markov chain to capture the behavior of TCP sessions, particularly the impact on network throughput performance due to the effect of queue utilization and packet relaying. A closed form solution is derived to numerically determine the throughput. Based on the developed model, we propose a distributed MAC protocol to alleviate the unfairness problem in WMNs. Our protocol uses the age of packet as a priority metric for packet scheduling. Simulation is conducted to validate our model and to illustrate the fairness characteristics of our proposed MAC protocol. We conclude that we can achieve fairness with only little impact on network capacity.

  14. Active Queue Management in TCP Networks Based on Fuzzy-Pid Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein ASHTIANI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel and robust active queue management (AQM scheme based on a fuzzy controller, called hybrid fuzzy-PID controller. In the TCP network, AQM is important to regulate the queue length by passing or dropping the packets at the intermediate routers. RED, PI, and PID algorithms have been used for AQM. But these algorithms show weaknesses in the detection and control of congestion under dynamically changing network situations. In this paper a novel Fuzzy-based proportional-integral derivative (PID controller, which acts as an active queue manager (AQM for Internet routers, is proposed. These controllers are used to reduce packet loss and improve network utilization in TCP/IP networks. A new hybrid controller is proposed and compared with traditional RED based controller. Simulations are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and show that, the new hybrid fuzzy PID controller provides better performance than random early detection (RED and PID controllers

  15. Truncated power control for improving TCP/IP performance over CDMA wireless links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cianca, Ernestina; Prasad, Ramjee; De Sanctis, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    The issue of the performance degradation of transmission control protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over wireless links due to the presence of noncongestion-related packet losses has been addressed with a physical layer approach. The effectiveness of automatic repeat request techniques...... in enhancing TCP/IP performance depends on the tradeoff between frame transmission delay and residual errors after retransmissions. The paper shows how a truncated power control can be effectively applied to improve that tradeoff so that a higher transmission reliability is provided without increasing...... the frame transmission delay through the radio link layer and without increasing the energy consumption. An analytical framework has been developed to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed power control. The analytical results, which are carried out assuming a constant multiuser...

  16. How Equalization Techniques Affect the TCP Performance of MC-CDMA Systems in Correlated Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Leonardi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of several equalization techniques for multicarrier code division multiple access systems on the performance at both lower and upper layers (i.e., physical and TCP layers. Classical techniques such as maximal ratio combining, equal gain combining, orthogonality restoring combining, minimum mean square error, as well as a partial equalization (PE are investigated in time- and frequency-correlated fading channels with various numbers of interferers. Their impact on the performance at upper level is then studied. The results are obtained through an integrated simulation platform carefully reproducing all main aspects affecting the quality of service perceived by the final user, allowing an investigation of the real gain produced by signal processing techniques at TCP level.

  17. DeltaShaper: Enabling Unobservable Censorship-resistant TCP Tunneling over Videoconferencing Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barradas Diogo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the possibility of using the encrypted video channel of widely used videoconferencing applications, such as Skype, as a carrier for unobservable covert TCP/IP communications. We propose and evaluate different alternatives to encode information in the video stream in order to increase available throughput while preserving the packet-level characteristics of the video stream. We have built a censorship-resistant system, named DeltaShaper, which offers a data-link interface and supports TCP/IP applications that tolerate low throughput / high latency links. Our results show that it is possible to run standard protocols such as FTP, SMTP, or HTTP over Skype video streams.

  18. TRAP: A Three-Way Handshake Server for TCP Connection Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Hau Hsu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Distributed denial of service attacks have become more and more frequent nowadays. In 2013, a massive distributed denial of service (DDoS attack was launched against Spamhaus causing the service to shut down. In this paper, we present a three-way handshaking server for Transmission Control Protocol (TCP connection redirection utilizing TCP header options. When a legitimate client attempted to connect to a server undergoing an SYN-flood DDoS attack, it will try to initiate a three-way handshake. After it has successfully established a connection, the server will reply with a reset (RST packet, in which a new server address and a secret is embedded. The client can, thus, connect to the new server that only accepts SYN packets with the corrected secret using the supplied secret.

  19. TCP/IP Interface for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2009-01-01

    The Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet protocol (TCP/IP) interface for the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) provides the means for the software to establish real-time interfaces with other software. Such interfaces can operate between two programs, either on the same computer or on different computers joined by a network. The SOAP TCP/IP module employs a client/server interface where SOAP is the server and other applications can be clients. Real-time interfaces between software offer a number of advantages over embedding all of the common functionality within a single program. One advantage is that they allow each program to divide the computation labor between processors or computers running the separate applications. Secondly, each program can be allowed to provide its own expertise domain with other programs able to use this expertise.

  20. ESTRATEGIA PARA EL PRONÓSTICO DEL RTO DE FAST TCP, MEDIANTE LÓGICA DIFUSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Peña

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el diseño y la simulación de una estrategia para el pronóstico del temporizador de retransmisión del algoritmo de control de la congestión FAST TCP. La estrategia utiliza la técnica de inteligencia computacional denominada lógica difusa. Los resultados de la simulación demuestran que a través de esta nueva forma de pronóstico del RTO, FAST TCP hace un mejor seguimiento a la situación real de congestión de la red, en el marco de una conexión entre dos extremos de la misma.

  1. Satellite communication on pipeline supervision using TCP-IP Protocol; Comunicacao via satelite na supervisao de dutos usando o protocolo TCP-IP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Agliberto Pessoa da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Brunette, Sergio Henrique de Moraes

    2003-07-01

    Bit transparent type or X-25 protocols have been used in VSAT satellite communication by PETROBRAS pipeline Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) as access protocol. Both solutions have inconveniences. By the first one, difficulties exist for analysis and diagnosis of connection flaws, and therefore, for a ready identification by the system management stations of abnormality location. On the other hand, the usage of the X-25 brings an additional over-head in the communication since this is not an available option in most of the equipment that compose the SCADA. The access to VSAT through Ethernet, in the opposite, makes available all networks management tools of the TCP/IP platform and it allows a direct connection to the field devices, since the main models of the several makers of Programmable Controllers and Remote Terminal Units have Ethernet port. An additional earnings is the possibility of standardization that this solution allows. This paper describes a series of communication tests between two Programmable Controllers communicating through the satellite, using a protocol over Ethernet/TCP/IP. (author)

  2. Fabrication of 3D porous SF/β-TCP hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jung; Min, Kyung Dan; Lee, Min Chae; Kim, Soo Hyeon; Lee, Ok Joo; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Lee, Jung Min; Park, Ye Ri; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Ju Yeon; Park, Chan Hum

    2016-07-01

    Bio-ceramic is a biomaterial actively studied in the field of bone tissue engineering. But, only certain ceramic materials can resolve the corrosion problem and possess the biological affinity of conventional metal biomaterials. Therefore, the recent development of composites of hybrid composites and polymers has been widely studied. In this study, we aimed to select the best scaffold of silk fibroin and β-TCP hybrid for bone tissue engineering. We fabricated three groups of scaffold such as SF (silk fibroin scaffold), GS (silk fibroin/small granule size of β-TCP scaffold) and GM (silk fibroin/medium granule size of β-TCP scaffold), and we compared the characteristics of each group. During characterization of the scaffold, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for structural analysis. We compared the physiological properties of the scaffold regarding the swelling ratio, water uptake and porosity. To evaluate the mechanical properties, we examined the compressive strength of the scaffold. During in vitro testing, we evaluated cell attachment and cell proliferation (CCK-8). Finally, we confirmed in vivo new bone regeneration from the implanted scaffolds using histological staining and micro-CT. From these evaluations, the fabricated scaffold demonstrated high porosity with good inter-pore connectivity, showed good biocompatibility and high compressive strength and modulus. In particular, the present study indicates that the GM scaffold using β-TCP accelerates new bone regeneration of implanted scaffolds. Accordingly, our scaffold is expected to act a useful application in the field of bone tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1779-1787, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. TINY TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS WITH 32 BIT MICROCONTROLLER

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Praful M. Godhankar; Mr. Maske Vishnu Dattatraya; Prof. Shahzia Sayyad

    2015-01-01

    The scope of embedded devices is increasing day by day and the demand will be further more when networking technology is incorporated into these devices. Many embedded systems not only communicate with each other, but also with computers using a network. All systems connected to the Internet, wireless networks such as WLAN and GPRS, and many local area networks communicate using the standard TCP/IP protocol suite. An embedded system may have as little memory, the memory constraints make progr...

  4. Communication-Gateway Software For NETEX, DECnet, And TCP/IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, B.; Ferry, D.; Fendler, E.

    1990-01-01

    Communications gateway software, GATEWAY, provides process-to-process communication between remote applications programs in different protocol domains. Communicating peer processes may be resident on any paired combination of NETEX, DECnet, or TCP/IP hosts. Provides necessary mapping from one protocol to another and facilitates practical intermachine communications in cost-effective manner by eliminating need to standardize on single protocol or to implement multiple protocols in host computers. Written in Ada.

  5. Effect of citric acid on setting reaction and tissue response to β-TCP granular cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Naoyuki; Tsuru, Kanji; Mori, Yoshihide; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2017-02-24

    We recently reported that when an acidic calcium phosphate solution is mixed with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules, the resulting dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) crystals form bridges between the β-TCP granules, creating a set interconnected porous structure in approximately 1 min. Although this self-setting β-TCP granular cement (β-TCPGC) is useful for clinical applications, the short setting time is a key drawback for handling. In this study, the setting time of β-TCPGC was adjusted with the addition of citric acid, which is a known inhibiter of DCPD crystal growth. As the concentration of citric acid in the acidic calcium phosphate solution increased, the amount of DCPD formation in the set β-TCPGC decreased, and the crystal morphology of DCPD became elongated. β-TCPGC prepared with various citric acid concentrations were used as grafting material in rat calvarial bone defects to evaluate bone regeneration in vivo. Four weeks after implantation, no inflammatory reaction and approximately 20% new bone formation were observed, regardless of the presence or absence of citric acid in the liquid phase of β-TCPGC. We concluded, therefore, that citric acid might be a useful retarder of β-TCPGC setting times.

  6. Rapid restoration of methanogenesis in an acidified UASB reactor treating 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Báez, María Consuelo; Valderrama-Rincon, Juan Daniel

    2017-02-15

    Anaerobic bioreactors are often used for removal of xenobiotic and highly toxic pollutants from wastewater. Most of the time, the pollutant is so toxic that the stability of the reactor becomes compromised. It is well known that methanogens are one of the most sensitive organisms in the anaerobic consortia and hence the stability of the reactors is highly dependant on methanogenesis. Unfortunately few studies have focused on recovering the methanogenic activity once it has been inhibited by highly toxic pollutants. Here we establish a quick recovery strategy for neutralization of an acidified UASB reactor after failure by intoxication with an excess of TCP in the influent. Once the reactor returned to pH values compatible with methanogenesis, biogas production was re-started after one day and the system was re-acclimated to TCP. Successful removal of TCP from synthetic wastewater was shown for concentrations up to 70mg/L after restoration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modulation of release kinetics by plasma polymerization of ampicillin-loaded β -TCP ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labay, C; Buxadera-Palomero, J; Avilés, M; Canal, C; Ginebra, M P

    2016-01-01

    Beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β -TCP) bioceramics are employed in bone repair surgery. Their local implantation in bone defects puts them in the limelight as potential materials for local drug delivery. However, obtaining suitable release patterns fitting the required therapeutics is a challenge. Here, plasma polymerization of ampicillin-loaded β -TCP is studied for the design of a novel antibiotic delivery system. Polyethylene glycol-like (PEG-like) coating of β -TCP by low pressure plasma polymerization was performed using diglyme as precursor, and nanometric PEG-like layers were obtained by simple and double plasma polymerization processes. A significant increase in hydrophobicity, and the presence of plasma polymer was visible on the surface by SEM and quantified by XPS. As a main consequence of the plasma polymerisation, the release kinetics were successfully modified, avoiding burst release, and slowing down the initial rate of release leading to a 4.5 h delay in reaching the same antibiotic release percentage, whilst conservation of the activity of the antibiotic was simultaneously maintained. Thus, plasma polymerisation on the surface of bioceramics may be a good strategy to design controlled drug delivery matrices for local bone therapies. (paper)

  8. A TCP/IP transport layer for the DAQ of the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlovszky, M.

    2004-01-01

    The CMS collaboration is currently investigating various networking technologies that may meet the requirements of the CMS Data Acquisition System (DAQ). During this study, a peer transport component based on TCP/IP has been developed using object-oriented techniques for the distributed DAQ framework named XDAQ. This framework has been designed to facilitate the development of distributed data acquisition systems within the CMS Experiment. The peer transport component has to meet 3 main requirements. Firstly, it had to provide fair access to the communication medium for competing applications. Secondly, it had to provide as much of the available bandwidth to the application layer as possible. Finally, it had to hide the complexity of using non-blocking TCP/IP connections from the application layer. This paper describes the development of the peer transport component and then presents and draws conclusions on the measurements made during tests. The major topics investigated include: blocking versus non-blocking communication, TCP/IP configuration options, multi-rail connections

  9. Optimizing TCP Performance in Multi-AP Residential Broadband Connections via Minislot Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Giustiniano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The high bandwidth demand of Internet applications has recently driven the need of increasing the residential download speed. A practical solution to the problem is to aggregate the bandwidth of 802.11 access points (APs backhauls in range. Since 802.11 devices are usually single radio, the communication to APs on different radio channels requires a time-division multiple access (TDMA policy at the client station. With an in-depth experimental analysis and a customized 802.11 driver, in this paper, we show that the usage of multi-AP TDMA policy may cause degradation of the TCP throughput and an underutilization of the AP backhauls. We then introduce a simple analytical model that accurately predicts the TCP round-trip time (RTT with a multi-AP TDMA policy and propose a resource allocation algorithm to reduce the observed TCP RTT with a very low computational cost. Our proposed scheme runs locally at the client station and improves the aggregate throughput up to 1.5 times compared to state-of-the-art allocations. We finally show that the throughput achieved by our algorithm is very close to the theoretical upper bound in key simulation scenarios.

  10. Microfibrous {beta}-TCP/collagen scaffolds mimic woven bone in structure and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shen; Zhang Xin; Cai Qing; Yang Xiaoping [Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Bo; Deng Xuliang, E-mail: yangxp@mail.buct.edu.c [Department of VIP Dental Service, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Woven bone, as the initial form of bone tissue, is always found in developing and repairing bone. It is thought of as a temporary scaffold for the deposition of osteogenic cells and the laying down of lamellar bone. Thus, we hypothesize that a matrix which resembles the architecture and components of woven bone can provide an osteoblastic microenvironment for bone cell growth and new bone formation. In this study, woven-bone-like beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP)/collagen scaffolds were fabricated by sol-gel electrospinning and impregnating methods. Optimization studies on sol-gel synthesis and electrospinning process were conducted respectively to prepare pure {beta}-TCP fibers with dimensions close to mineralized collagen fibrils in woven bone. The collagen-coating layer prepared by impregnation had an adhesive role that held the {beta}-TCP fibers together, and resulted in rapid degradation and matrix mineralization in in vitro tests. MG63 osteoblast-like cells seeded on the resultant scaffolds showed three-dimensional (3D) morphologies, and merged into multicellular layers after 7 days culture. Cytotoxicity test further revealed that extracts from the resultant scaffolds could promote the proliferation of MG63 cells. Therefore, the woven-bone-like matrix that we constructed favored the attachment and proliferation of MG63 cells in three dimensions. It has great potential ability to shorten the time of formation of new bone.

  11. Development of PLGA-coated β-TCP scaffolds containing VEGF for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Arash; Fahimipour, Farahnaz; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Jafarian, Mohammad; Jahangir, Shahrbanoo; Bastami, Farshid; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Karkhaneh, Akbar; Tayebi, Lobat

    2016-12-01

    Bone tissue engineering is sought to apply strategies for bone defects healing without limitations and short-comings of using either bone autografts or allografts and xenografts. The aim of this study was to fabricate a thin layer poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) coated beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold with sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). PLGA coating increased compressive strength of the β-TCP scaffolds significantly. For in vitro evaluations, canine mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs) and canine endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs) were isolated and characterized. Cell proliferation and attachment were demonstrated and the rate of cells proliferation on the VEGF released scaffold was significantly more than compared to the scaffolds with no VEGF loading. A significant increase in expression of COL1 and RUNX2 was indicated in the scaffolds loaded with VEGF and MSCs compared to the other groups. Consequently, PLGA coated β-TCP scaffold with sustained and localized release of VEGF showed favourable results for bone regeneration in vitro, and this scaffold has the potential to use as a drug delivery device in the future. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Microfibrous β-TCP/collagen scaffolds mimic woven bone in structure and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shen; Zhang Xin; Cai Qing; Yang Xiaoping; Wang Bo; Deng Xuliang

    2010-01-01

    Woven bone, as the initial form of bone tissue, is always found in developing and repairing bone. It is thought of as a temporary scaffold for the deposition of osteogenic cells and the laying down of lamellar bone. Thus, we hypothesize that a matrix which resembles the architecture and components of woven bone can provide an osteoblastic microenvironment for bone cell growth and new bone formation. In this study, woven-bone-like beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/collagen scaffolds were fabricated by sol-gel electrospinning and impregnating methods. Optimization studies on sol-gel synthesis and electrospinning process were conducted respectively to prepare pure β-TCP fibers with dimensions close to mineralized collagen fibrils in woven bone. The collagen-coating layer prepared by impregnation had an adhesive role that held the β-TCP fibers together, and resulted in rapid degradation and matrix mineralization in in vitro tests. MG63 osteoblast-like cells seeded on the resultant scaffolds showed three-dimensional (3D) morphologies, and merged into multicellular layers after 7 days culture. Cytotoxicity test further revealed that extracts from the resultant scaffolds could promote the proliferation of MG63 cells. Therefore, the woven-bone-like matrix that we constructed favored the attachment and proliferation of MG63 cells in three dimensions. It has great potential ability to shorten the time of formation of new bone.

  13. Release Kinetics and Antibacterial Efficacy of Microporous β-TCP Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Seidenstuecker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to impregnate microporous β-TCP scaffolds with different antibiotic solutions and to determine their release behavior. Materials and Methods. We impregnated a β-TCP scaffold with antibiotics by using three methods: drop, dip, and stream coating with 120 mg/mL of antibiotic solution. After drying for 72 h at 37°C, 2 mL of distilled water was added to the antibiotic-coated plugs and incubated at 37°C. After defined time points (1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 14 days, the liquid was completely replaced. The extracted liquid was analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis and the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion test. For statistical analysis, we calculated a mean and standard deviation and carried out an analysis of variance using ANOVA. Results. The VAN and CLI release from the β-TCP scaffolds was rapid, occurring within 24 h with 89 ± 0.8% VAN and 90.4 ± 1.5% CLI regardless of the type of insulation. After six days, the VAN and CLI were completely released. All samples taken at later time points had a VAN or CLI concentration below the detection limit of 4 µg/mL. The released amounts of VAN and CLI within the first three days revealed antimicrobial activity.

  14. Enhanced Critical Size Defect Repair in Rabbit Mandible by Electrospun Gelatin/β-TCP Composite Nanofibrous Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and fabrication of biodegradable barrier membranes with satisfactory structure and composition remain a considerable challenge for periodontal tissue regeneration. We have developed a biomimetic nanofibrous membrane made from a composite of gelatin and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP. We previously confirmed the in vitro biological performance of the membrane material, but the efficacy of the membranes in promoting bone repair in situ has not yet been examined. Gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibers were fabricated by incorporation of 20 wt.% β-TCP nanoparticles into electrospun gelatin nanofibers. Electron microscopy showed that the composite membranes presented a nonwoven structure with an interconnected porous network and had a rough surface due to the β-TCP nanoparticles, which were distributed widely and uniformly throughout the gelatin-fiber matrix. The repair efficacy of rabbit mandible defects implanted with bone substitute (Bio-Oss and covered with the gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibrous membrane was evaluated in comparison with pure gelatin nanofibrous membrane. Gross observation, histological examination, and immunohistochemical analysis showed that new bone formation and defect closure were significantly enhanced by the composite membranes compared to the pure gelatin ones. From these results, we conclude that nanofibrous gelatin/β-TCP composite membranes could serve as effective barrier membranes for guided tissue regeneration.

  15. Potential implications of the bystander effect on TCP and EUD when considering target volume dose heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderson, Michael J; Kirkby, Charles

    2015-01-01

    In light of in vitro evidence suggesting that radiation-induced bystander effects may enhance non-local cell killing, there is potential for impact on radiotherapy treatment planning paradigms such as the goal of delivering a uniform dose throughout the clinical target volume (CTV). This work applies a bystander effect model to calculate equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and tumor control probability (TCP) for external beam prostate treatment and compares the results with a more common model where local response is dictated exclusively by local absorbed dose. The broad assumptions applied in the bystander effect model are intended to place an upper limit on the extent of the results in a clinical context. EUD and TCP of a prostate cancer target volume under conditions of increasing dose heterogeneity were calculated using two models: One incorporating bystander effects derived from previously published in vitro bystander data ( McMahon et al. 2012 , 2013a); and one using a common linear-quadratic (LQ) response that relies exclusively on local absorbed dose. Dose through the CTV was modelled as a normal distribution, where the degree of heterogeneity was then dictated by changing the standard deviation (SD). Also, a representative clinical dose distribution was examined as cold (low dose) sub-volumes were systematically introduced. The bystander model suggests a moderate degree of dose heterogeneity throughout a target volume will yield as good or better outcome compared to a uniform dose in terms of EUD and TCP. For a typical intermediate risk prostate prescription of 78 Gy over 39 fractions maxima in EUD and TCP as a function of increasing SD occurred at SD ∼ 5 Gy. The plots only dropped below the uniform dose values for SD ∼ 10 Gy, almost 13% of the prescribed dose. Small, but potentially significant differences in the outcome metrics between the models were identified in the clinically-derived dose distribution as cold sub-volumes were introduced. In terms of

  16. Hypo-fractionated treatment in radiotherapy: radio-biological models Tcp and NTCP; Tratamiento hipofraccionado en radioterapia: modelos radiobiologicos TCP y NTCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astudillo V, A. J.; Mitsoura, E. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, 50180 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Paredes G, L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Resendiz G, G., E-mail: lydia.paredes@inin.gob.mx [Hospital Medica Sur, Departamento de Radioterapia, Puente de Piedra 150, Col. Toriello Guerra, 14050 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    At the present time the breast cancer in Mexico has the first place of incidence of the malignant neoplasia s in the women, and represents 11.34% of all the cancer cases. On the other hand, the treatments for cancer by means of ionizing radiations have been dominated under the approaches of the medical radio-oncologists which have been based on test and error by many years. The radio-biological models, as the Tcp, NTCP and dosimetric variables, for their clinical application in the conventional radiotherapy with hypo-fractionation have as purpose predicting personalized treatment plans that they present most probability of tumor control and minor probability of late reactions, becoming this way support tools in the decisions taking for the patient treatments planning of Medical Physicists and Radio-oncologists. (Author)

  17. Tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP-HA) bone scaffold as potential candidate for the formation of tissue engineered bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Shamsul Bin; Keong, Tan Kok; Cheng, Chen Hui; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj

    2013-06-01

    Various materials have been used as scaffolds to suit different demands in tissue engineering. One of the most important criteria is that the scaffold must be biocompatible. This study was carried out to investigate the potential of HA or TCP/HA scaffold seeded with osteogenic induced sheep marrow cells (SMCs) for bone tissue engineering. HA-SMC and TCP/HA-SMC constructs were induced in the osteogenic medium for three weeks prior to implantation in nude mice. The HA-SMC and TCP/HA-SMC constructs were implanted subcutaneously on the dorsum of nude mice on each side of the midline. These constructs were harvested after 8 wk of implantation. Constructs before and after implantation were analyzed through histological staining, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and gene expression analysis. The HA-SMC constructs demonstrated minimal bone formation. TCP/HA-SMC construct showed bone formation eight weeks after implantation. The bone formation started on the surface of the ceramic and proceeded to the centre of the pores. H&E and Alizarin Red staining demonstrated new bone tissue. Gene expression of collagen type 1 increased significantly for both constructs, but more superior for TCP/HA-SMC. SEM results showed the formation of thick collagen fibers encapsulating TCP/HA-SMC more than HA-SMC. Cells attached to both constructs surface proliferated and secreted collagen fibers. The findings suggest that TCP/HA-SMC constructs with better osteogenic potential compared to HA-SMC constructs can be a potential candidate for the formation of tissue engineered bone.

  18. Human Urine Derived Stem Cells in Combination with β-TCP Can Be Applied for Bone Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Guan

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering requires highly proliferative stem cells that are easy to isolate. Human urine stem cells (USCs are abundant and can be easily harvested without using an invasive procedure. In addition, in our previous studies, USCs have been proved to be able to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. Therefore, USCs may have great potential and advantages to be applied as a cell source for tissue engineering. However, there are no published studies that describe the interactions between USCs and biomaterials and applications of USCs for bone tissue engineering. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the interactions between USCs with a typical bone tissue engineering scaffold, beta-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP, and to determine whether the USCs seeded onto β-TCP scaffold can promote bone regeneration in a segmental femoral defect of rats. Primary USCs were isolated from urine and seeded on β-TCP scaffolds. Results showed that USCs remained viable and proliferated within β-TCP. The osteogenic differentiation of USCs within the scaffolds was demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content. Furthermore, β-TCP with adherent USCs (USCs/β-TCP were implanted in a 6-mm critical size femoral defect of rats for 12 weeks. Bone regeneration was determined using X-ray, micro-CT, and histologic analyses. Results further demonstrated that USCs in the scaffolds could enhance new bone formation, which spanned bone defects in 5 out of 11 rats while β-TCP scaffold alone induced modest bone formation. The current study indicated that the USCs can be used as a cell source for bone tissue engineering as they are compatible with bone tissue engineering scaffolds and can stimulate the regeneration of bone in a critical size bone defect.

  19. SET: Session Layer-Assisted Efficient TCP Management Architecture for 6LoWPAN with Multiple Gateways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar AliHammad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 6LoWPAN (IPv6 based Low-Power Personal Area Network is a protocol specification that facilitates communication of IPv6 packets on top of IEEE 802.15.4 so that Internet and wireless sensor networks can be inter-connected. This interconnection is especially required in commercial and enterprise applications of sensor networks where reliable and timely data transfers such as multiple code updates are needed from Internet nodes to sensor nodes. For this type of inbound traffic which is mostly bulk, TCP as transport layer protocol is essential, resulting in end-to-end TCP session through a default gateway. In this scenario, a single gateway tends to become the bottleneck because of non-uniform connectivity to all the sensor nodes besides being vulnerable to buffer overflow. We propose SET; a management architecture for multiple split-TCP sessions across a number of serving gateways. SET implements striping and multiple TCP session management through a shim at session layer. Through analytical modeling and ns2 simulations, we show that our proposed architecture optimizes communication for ingress bulk data transfer while providing associated load balancing services. We conclude that multiple split-TCP sessions managed in parallel across a number of gateways result in reduced latency for bulk data transfer and provide robustness against gateway failures.

  20. Microstructure, mechanical property and corrosion behavior of interpenetrating (HA + β-TCP)/MgCa composite fabricated by suction casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Dong, L.H.; Li, J.T.; Li, X.L.; Ma, X.L.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2013-01-01

    The novel interpenetrating (HA + β-TCP)/MgCa composites were fabricated by infiltrating MgCa alloy into porous HA + β-TCP using suction casting technique. The microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviors of the composites have been evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical testing, electrochemical and immersion tests. It was shown that the composites had compact structure and the interfacial bonding between MgCa alloy and HA + β-TCP scaffolds was very well. The ultimate compressive strength of the composites was about 500–1000 fold higher than that of the original porous scaffolds, and it still retained quarter-half of the strength of the bulk MgCa alloy. The electrochemical and immersion tests indicated that the corrosion resistance of the composites was better than that of the MgCa matrix alloy, and the corrosion products of the composite surface were mainly Mg(OH) 2 , HA and Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 . Meanwhile, the mechanical and corrosive properties of the (HA + β-TCP)/MgCa composites were adjustable by the choice of HA content. - Highlights: • The composites were fabricated by infiltrating MgCa alloy into porous HA + β-TCP. • The microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties were investigated. • It showed composites had compact structures and good interfacial bonding. • The mechanical and corrosive properties can be adjustable by the HA content. • The corrosion mechanism of the composite has been explained

  1. Specific proliferation rates of human osteoblasts on calcium phosphate surfaces with variable concentrations of α-TCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Euler A. dos; Farina, Marcos; Soares, Gloria A.

    2007-01-01

    Ideally, ceramics used in the repair of bone defects need to be resorbed and replaced by newly formed bone in vivo. Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) has been widely used in association with hydroxyapatite (HA) due to its higher resorption kinetics when compared with HA alone. The aim of our study was to quantitatively investigate the effect of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) on human osteoblasts' adhesion and proliferation. Ceramic samples with variable concentrations of α-TCP and HA were produced by the calcination of calcium-deficient and stoichiometric HA. Human osteoblasts were cultured on the materials in three distinct experiments with different concentrations of cells. Numerical evaluation of cellular growth along time in culture was performed for each condition. The quantity of cells seeded onto the ceramics seems to influence the osteoblast behavior once proliferation was lower when more cells were seeded onto the samples. However, a smaller content of α-TCP in relation to that of HA did not significantly modify the specific proliferation rates of the osteoblasts. Only after a long time in culture, the increasing of the α-TCP content seems to change the cells' behavior

  2. Effect of Water-Glass Coating on HA and HA-TCP Samples for MSCs Adhesion, Proliferation, and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Bajpai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ca-P and silicon based materials have become very popular as bone tissue engineering materials. In this study, water-glass (also known as sodium silicate glass was coated on sintered hydroxyapatite (HA and HA-TCP (TCP stands for tricalcium phosphate samples and subsequently heat-treated at 600°C for 2 hrs. X-rays diffraction showed the presence of β- and α-TCP phases along with HA in the HA-TCP samples. Samples without coating, with water-glass coating, and heat-treated after water-glass coating were used to observe the adhesion and proliferation response of bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Cell culture was carried out for 4 hrs, 1 day, and 7 days. Interestingly, all samples showed similar response for cell adhesion and proliferation up to 7-day culture but fibronectin, E-cadherin, and osteogenic differentiation related genes (osteocalcin and osteopontin were significantly induced in heat-treated water-glass coated HA-TCP samples. A water-glass coating on Ca-P samples was not found to influence the cell proliferation response significantly but activated some extracellular matrix genes and induced osteogenic differentiation in the MSCs.

  3. Production and characterization of chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP scaffolds for improved bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, I.R.; Fradique, R.; Vallejo, M.C.S.; Correia, T.R.; Miguel, S.P.; Correia, I.J., E-mail: icorreia@ubi.pt

    2015-10-01

    Recently, bone tissue engineering emerged as a viable therapeutic alternative, comprising bone implants and new personalized scaffolds to be used in bone replacement and regeneration. In this study, biocompatible scaffolds were produced by freeze-drying, using different formulations (chitosan, chitosan/gelatin, chitosan/β-TCP and chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP) to be used as temporary templates during bone tissue regeneration. Sample characterization was performed through attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Mechanical characterization and porosity analysis were performed through uniaxial compression test and liquid displacement method, respectively. In vitro studies were also done to evaluate the biomineralization activity and the cytotoxic profile of the scaffolds. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy analysis were used to study cell adhesion and proliferation at the scaffold surface and within their structure. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the scaffolds was also evaluated through the agar diffusion method. Overall, the results obtained revealed that the produced scaffolds are bioactive and biocompatible, allow cell internalization and show antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Such, make these 3D structures as potential candidates for being used on the bone tissue regeneration, since they promote cell adhesion and proliferation and also prevent biofilm development at their surfaces, which is usually the main cause of implant failure. - Highlights: • Production of 3D scaffolds composed by chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP by freeze-drying for bone regeneration • Physicochemical characterization of the bone substitutes by SEM, FTIR, XRD and EDS • Evaluation of the cytotoxic profile and antibacterial activity of the 3D structures through in vitro assays.

  4. Production and characterization of chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP scaffolds for improved bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, I.R.; Fradique, R.; Vallejo, M.C.S.; Correia, T.R.; Miguel, S.P.; Correia, I.J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, bone tissue engineering emerged as a viable therapeutic alternative, comprising bone implants and new personalized scaffolds to be used in bone replacement and regeneration. In this study, biocompatible scaffolds were produced by freeze-drying, using different formulations (chitosan, chitosan/gelatin, chitosan/β-TCP and chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP) to be used as temporary templates during bone tissue regeneration. Sample characterization was performed through attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Mechanical characterization and porosity analysis were performed through uniaxial compression test and liquid displacement method, respectively. In vitro studies were also done to evaluate the biomineralization activity and the cytotoxic profile of the scaffolds. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy analysis were used to study cell adhesion and proliferation at the scaffold surface and within their structure. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the scaffolds was also evaluated through the agar diffusion method. Overall, the results obtained revealed that the produced scaffolds are bioactive and biocompatible, allow cell internalization and show antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Such, make these 3D structures as potential candidates for being used on the bone tissue regeneration, since they promote cell adhesion and proliferation and also prevent biofilm development at their surfaces, which is usually the main cause of implant failure. - Highlights: • Production of 3D scaffolds composed by chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP by freeze-drying for bone regeneration • Physicochemical characterization of the bone substitutes by SEM, FTIR, XRD and EDS • Evaluation of the cytotoxic profile and antibacterial activity of the 3D structures through in vitro assays

  5. Comparison of performance between TCP/IP over ATM e ATM nativo

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Silva Freitas

    2001-01-01

    Com o recente desenvolvimento de tecnologias de redes de altas taxas de transmissão, tais como Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), o problema da carência por largura de banda foi solucionado. A questão atual é a implementação de sistemas que suportem os protocolos ATM de forma nativa e integral. Atualmente tem-se utilizado aplicativos tradicionais baseados nos protocolos TCP(UDP)/IP no topo da pilha de protocolos ATM. Tal modelo traz redundâncias que implicam diretamente em aumento de overhead ...

  6. Optical Spectroscopy of TCP J04432130+4721280 (V392 Per) Confirms a Nova Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. M.; Terndrup, D.; Darnley, M. J.; Starrfield, S.; Woodward, C. E.; Henze, M.

    2018-04-01

    Following reports of a new transient of magnitude 6.2 in Perseus on 2018 April 29.4740 UT discovered by Y. Nakamura designated TCP J04432130+4721280 (http://www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/unconf/followups/J04432130+4721280.html) and positionally coincident with the previously known U Gem type dwarf nova V392 Per, we obtained an optical spectrum on 2018 April 30.116 UT (range: 396-687 nm; resolution 0.3 nm) with the 2.4 m Hiltner telescope (+OSMOS) of the MDM Observatory on Kitt Peak.

  7. Leo Satellite Communication through a LEO Constellation using TCP/IP Over ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foore, Lawrence R.; Konangi, Vijay K.; Wallett, Thomas M.

    1999-01-01

    The simulated performance characteristics for communication between a terrestrial client and a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite server are presented. The client and server nodes consist of a Transmission Control Protocol /Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over ATM configuration. The ATM cells from the client or the server are transmitted to a gateway, packaged with some header information and transferred to a commercial LEO satellite constellation. These cells are then routed through the constellation to a gateway on the globe that allows the client/server communication to take place. Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) is specified as the quality of service (QoS). Various data rates are considered.

  8. Nano SiO2 and MgO Improve the Properties of Porous β-TCP Scaffolds via Advanced Manufacturing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengde Gao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nano SiO2 and MgO particles were incorporated into β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffolds to improve the mechanical and biological properties. The porous cylindrical β-TCP scaffolds doped with 0.5 wt % SiO2, 1.0 wt % MgO, 0.5 wt % SiO2 + 1.0 wt % MgO were fabricated via selective laser sintering respectively and undoped β-TCP scaffold was also prepared as control. The phase composition and mechanical strength of the scaffolds were evaluated. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the phase transformation from β-TCP to α-TCP was inhibited after the addition of MgO. The compressive strength of scaffold was improved from 3.12 ± 0.36 MPa (β-TCP to 5.74 ± 0.62 MPa (β-TCP/SiO2, 9.02 ± 0.55 MPa (β-TCP/MgO and 10.43 ± 0.28 MPa (β-TCP/SiO2/MgO, respectively. The weight loss and apatite-forming ability of the scaffolds were evaluated by soaking them in simulated body fluid. The results demonstrated that both SiO2 and MgO dopings slowed down the degradation rate and improved the bioactivity of β-TCP scaffolds. In vitro cell culture studies indicated that SiO2 and MgO dopings facilitated cell attachment and proliferation. Combined addition of SiO2 and MgO were found optimal in enhancing both the mechanical and biological properties of β-TCP scaffold.

  9. Fabrication and evaluation of 3D β-TCP scaffold by novel direct-write assembly method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, Min Woo; Kim, Jong Young

    2015-01-01

    Various scaffold fabrication methods have been explored to enhance the cell interaction effects and mechanical properties of scaffolds in bone regeneration. Rapid prototyping (RP) for tissue engineering is a useful technology that may provide a potential scaffolding structure to regenerate, restore, and repair a damaged bone tissue or organ, that is, RP is a promising tissue engineering technique through a 3D scaffold fabrication by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing system. In this study, 3D β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds were fabricated by a novel direct-write assembly method. The mechanical property of β-TCP scaffolds was analyzed by stress-strain curves by using a compression testing machine. Furthermore, an in vitro CCK-8 assay of osteosarcoma MG-63 cells showed the significant cell attachment and proliferation in the β-TCP scaffold.

  10. Fabrication and evaluation of 3D β-TCP scaffold by novel direct-write assembly method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Min Woo; Kim, Jong Young [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Various scaffold fabrication methods have been explored to enhance the cell interaction effects and mechanical properties of scaffolds in bone regeneration. Rapid prototyping (RP) for tissue engineering is a useful technology that may provide a potential scaffolding structure to regenerate, restore, and repair a damaged bone tissue or organ, that is, RP is a promising tissue engineering technique through a 3D scaffold fabrication by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing system. In this study, 3D β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds were fabricated by a novel direct-write assembly method. The mechanical property of β-TCP scaffolds was analyzed by stress-strain curves by using a compression testing machine. Furthermore, an in vitro CCK-8 assay of osteosarcoma MG-63 cells showed the significant cell attachment and proliferation in the β-TCP scaffold.

  11. A TCP/IP framework for ethernet-based measurement, control and experiment data distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaya, R. O.; Minny, J.

    2010-11-01

    A complete modular but scalable TCP/IP based scientific instrument control and data distribution system has been designed and realized. The system features an IEEE 802.3 compliant 10 Mbps Medium Access Controller (MAC) and Physical Layer Device that is suitable for the full-duplex monitoring and control of various physically widespread measurement transducers in the presence of a local network infrastructure. The cumbersomeness of exchanging and synchronizing data between the various transducer units using physical storage media led to the choice of TCP/IP as a logical alternative. The system and methods developed are scalable for broader usage over the Internet. The system comprises a PIC18f2620 and ENC28j60 based hardware and a software component written in C, Java/Javascript and Visual Basic.NET programming languages for event-level monitoring and browser user-interfaces respectively. The system exchanges data with the host network through IPv4 packets requested and received on a HTTP page. It also responds to ICMP echo, UDP and ARP requests through a user selectable integrated DHCP and static IPv4 address allocation scheme. The round-trip time, throughput and polling frequency are estimated and reported. A typical application to temperature monitoring and logging is also presented.

  12. Modeling of twisted and coiled polymer (TCP) muscle based on phenomenological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Farzad; Tadesse, Yonas

    2017-12-01

    Twisted and coiled polymers (TCP) muscles are linear actuators that respond to change in temperature. Exploiting high negative coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and helical geometry give them a significant ability to change length in a limited temperature range. Several applications and experimental data of these materials have been demonstrated in the last few years. To use these actuators in robotics and control system applications, a mathematical model for predicting their behavior is essential. In this work, a practical and accurate phenomenological model for estimating the displacement of TCP muscles, as a function of the load as well as input electrical current, is proposed. The problem is broken down into two parts, i.e. modeling of the electro-thermal and then the thermo-elastic behavior of the muscles. For the first part, a differential equation, with changing electrical resistance term, is derived. Next, by using a temperature-dependent modulus of elasticity and CTE as well as taking the geometry of the muscles into account, an expression for displacement is derived. Experimental data for different loads and actuation current levels are used for verifying the model and investigating its accuracy. The result shows a good agreement between the simulation and experimental results for all loads.

  13. Predictive functional control for active queue management in congested TCP/IP networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdeli, N; Haeri, M

    2009-01-01

    Predictive functional control (PFC) as a new active queue management (AQM) method in dynamic TCP networks supporting explicit congestion notification (ECN) is proposed. The ability of the controller in handling system delay along with its simplicity and low computational load makes PFC a privileged AQM method in the high speed networks. Besides, considering the disturbance term (which represents model/process mismatches, external disturbances, and existing noise) in the control formulation adds some level of robustness into the PFC-AQM controller. This is an important and desired property in the control of dynamically-varying computer networks. In this paper, the controller is designed based on a small signal linearized fluid-flow model of the TCP/AQM networks. Then, closed-loop transfer function representation of the system is derived to analyze the robustness with respect to the network and controller parameters. The analytical as well as the packet-level ns-2 simulation results show the out-performance of the developed controller for both queue regulation and resource utilization. Fast response, low queue fluctuations (and consequently low delay jitter), high link utilization, good disturbance rejection, scalability, and low packet marking probability are other features of the developed method with respect to other well-known AQM methods such as RED, PI, and REM which are also simulated for comparison.

  14. Analysis of SCTP and TCP based communication in high-speed clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlovszky, M.; Berceli, T.; Kutor, L.

    2006-01-01

    Performance and financial constraints are pushing modern DAQs (Data Acquisition Systems) to use distributed cluster environments instead of monolith one-box systems. Inside clusters application communication layers should support outstanding high performance requirements. We are currently investigating different network protocols that could meet the requirements of high speed/low latency peer-to-peer communication within DAQ clusters. We have carried out various performance measurements with TCP and SCTP over Fast and Gigabit Ethernet. We are focusing on Ethernet Technologies, because this transport medium is broad deployed, cost efficient and it has much better cost/throughput ratio than other available communication alternatives (e.g.: Myrinet, Infiniband). During this study, a protocol performance measurement application with different peer transport components has been developed. In the first part of the paper, we give a short comparison of the two protocols (SCTP and TCP), and an introduction of the transport layer structure developed. Later on we discuss the performance results of single/multi-stream peer-to-peer communication, give overview about application code transition possibilities from application developer point of view between the two protocols, and draw conclusions about usability

  15. TCP Performance in Multi-Polling Game Theory-Based IEEE 802.11 Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuzanauskas Tomas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Easy usage and integration with various applications made IEEE 802.11 one of the most used technologies these days, both at home and business premises. Over the years, there have been many additional improvements to the 802.11 standards. Nevertheless, the algorithms and Media Access Control (MAC layer methods are almost the same as in previous Wi-Fi versions. In this paper, a set of methods to improve the total system capacity is proposed – such as efficient transmit power management based on Game Theory with a custom wireless medium protocol. The transmit power management and wireless medium protocol is verified by both simulation and real application scenarios. The results conclude that the capacity of the proposed wireless medium protocol is overall 20 percent higher than the standard 802.11 wireless medium access protocols. Additional TCP Acknowledgment filtering, which was tested together with the proposed wireless medium access protocol, can provide up to 10-percent-higher TCP throughput in high-density scenarios, especially for asymmetrical traffic cases. The conducted research suggests that efficient power management could result in lighter transmit power allocation rules that are currently set by the local regulators for current Wi-Fi devices. Thus, better propagation characteristics and wireless medium management would lead to an overall higher wireless system capacity.

  16. Development of readout system for FE-I4 pixel module using SiTCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teoh, J.J., E-mail: jjteoh@champ.hep.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan); Hanagaki, K. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan); Ikegami, Y.; Takubo, Y.; Terada, S.; Unno, Y. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki-ken 305-0801 (Japan)

    2013-12-11

    The ATLAS pixel detector will be replaced in the future High Luminosity-Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) upgrade to preserve or improve the detector performance at high luminosity environment. To meet the tight requirements of the upgrade, a new pixel Front-End (FE) Integrated Circuit (IC) called FE-I4 has been developed. We have then devised a readout system for the new FE IC. Our system incorporates Silicon Transmission Control Protocol (SiTCP) technology (Uchida, 2008 [1]) which utilizes the standard TCP/IP and UDP communication protocols. This technology allows direct data access and transfer between a readout hardware chain and PC via a high speed Ethernet. In addition, the communication protocols are small enough to be implemented in a single Field-Programable Gate Array (FPGA). Relying on this technology, we have been able to construct a very compact, versatile and fast readout system. We have developed a firmware and software together with the readout hardware chain. We also have established basic functionalities for reading out FE-I4.

  17. GATEWAY - COMMUNICATIONS GATEWAY SOFTWARE FOR NETEX, DECNET, AND TCP/IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, B.

    1994-01-01

    The Communications Gateway Software, GATEWAY, provides process-to-process communication between remote applications programs in different protocol domains. Communicating peer processes may be resident on any paired combination of NETEX, DECnet, or TCP/IP hosts. The gateway provides the necessary mapping from one protocol to another and will facilitate practical intermachine communications in a cost effective manner by eliminating the need to standardize on a single protocol or the need to implement multiple protocols in the host computers. The purpose of the gateway is to support data transfers between application programs on different host computers using different protocols. The gateway computer must be physically connected to both host computers and must contain the system software needed to use the communication protocols of both host computers. The communication process between application partners can be divided into three phases: session establishment, data transfer, and session termination. The communication protocols supported by GATEWAY (DECnet, NETEX, and TCP/IP) have addressing mechanisms that allow an application to identify itself and distinguish among other applications on the network. The exact form of the address varies depending on whether an application is passively offering (awaiting the receipt of a network connection from another network application) or actively connecting to another network. When the gateway is started, GATEWAY reads a file of address pairs. One of the address pairs is used by GATEWAY for passively offering on one network while the other address in the pair is used for actively connecting on the other network establishing the session. Now the two application partners can send and receive data in a manner appropriate to their home networks. GATEWAY accommodates full duplex transmissions. Thus, if the application partners are sophisticated enough, they can send and receive simultaneously. GATEWAY also keeps track of the number

  18. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of nanostructured TiO2/TCP composite coating by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Hongjie; Liu, Xuanyong; Ding, Chuanxian

    2010-01-01

    Porous and nanostructured TiO 2 /tricalcium phosphate (TCP) composite coating on titanium substrate was prepared by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). The microstructure and phase composition of the coating were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Its bioactivity was evaluated by simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion tests. MG63 cells were cultured on the surface of the coating to investigate its cytocompatibility. Potentiodynamic polarization tests were applied to measure its corrosion resistance. The results revealed that rough and hydrophilic TiO 2 /TCP composite coating with pores of several micrometers and grains of 50-200 nm was prepared by one-step PEO treatment. The TiO 2 /TCP composite coating showed good apatite-forming ability in SBF, and the TCP phase in the coating played an important role in inducing apatite formation. MG63 cells could adhere and proliferate on the surface of the coating, indicating its good cytocompatibility. The composite coating also exhibited good corrosion resistance in 0.9% NaCl solution.

  19. Novel β-TCP/PVA bilayered hydrogels with considerable physical and bio-functional properties for osteochondral repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hang; Kang, Junpei; Li, Weichang; Liu, Jian; Xie, Renjian; Wang, Yingjun; Liu, Sa; Wang, Dong-An; Ren, Li

    2017-12-07

    Cartilage repairing grafts have been widely studied, and osteochondral replacement hydrogels have proven to be an excellent method in research and clinical fields. However, it has been difficult to simultaneously solve three main issues in osteochondral replacement preparation: surface lubrication, overall mechanical support and good simulations of cell regeneration. A novel integrated bilayered hydrogel osteochondral replacement was constructed by blending polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in this study. Separated nano-ball milling with ultrasound dispersion prepared β-TCP demonstrated suitable properties of tiny particle size, high purity and ideal distribution, improving the mechanical properties of the novel integrated hydrogel, and providing a cartilage-like lubrication effect and high biocompatibility, including cytocompatibility and osteogenesis. The reinforcement of β-TCP and integrated molding technology enabled the hydrogel to demonstrate excellent component compatibility and good bonding between the two layers, which promoted the strengthening of the compression modulus and tensile modulus up to three times by mechanical testing. The surface lubrication properties of the novel osteochondral hydrogel were similar to the natural cartilage by friction coefficient characterization. The two layers of the novel integrated graft provided a considerable bio-function by co-culturing with chondrocytes and synovium mesenchymal stem cells: chondrocytes promoted adherence achieved by the upper density layer and better osteogenesis performance of the porous lower layer. The design of the bilayered β-TCP/PVA osteochondral hydrogel is promising for use in articular cartilage repair.

  20. Chest tcpO2 changes during constant-load treadmill walking tests in patients with claudication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, N; Leftheriotis, G; Abraham, P; Feuilloy, M; Mahe, G; Saumet, J-L

    2011-01-01

    Changes in chest transcutaneous-pO 2 at rest (ΔtcpO 2 ) mimic absolute changes in arterial-pO 2 during moderate exercise, although the absolute starting values may dramatically differ. We retrospectively studied 485 patients (group 1), prospectively studied 292 new patients (group 2) and estimated the intra-test and the test–retest reproducibility of ΔtcpO 2 during constant-load treadmill tests: 3.2 km h −1 , 10% grade, using the cross correlation technique. Patients were classified into groups according to their best fit to nine pre-defined mathematic models. Respectively, 71% and 76% of patients of groups 1 and 2 fitted with a model showing a ΔtcpO 2 increase during and a decrease following exercise. Another 18% and 12% of the patients of groups 1 and 2 respectively fitted with a model that showed an abrupt decrease at exercise onset, a slow increase during walking and an overshoot in the recovery period, referred here as a walking-induced transcutaneous hack (WITH) profile. The mean r max value for the cross-correlation analysis was 0.919 ± 0.091 and 0.800 ± 0.129 for intra-test and test–retest reproducibility. Most profiles show the expected ΔtcpO 2 exercise-induced increase. Future studies are needed to confirm and explain the WITH profiles that we found, and screen for potential-associated diseases

  1. A Novel HA/β-TCP-Collagen Composite Enhanced New Bone Formation for Dental Extraction Socket Preservation in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Ning Ho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Past studies in humans have demonstrated horizontal and vertical bone loss after six months following tooth extraction. Many biomaterials have been developed to preserve bone volume after tooth extraction. Type I collagen serves as an excellent delivery system for growth factors and promotes angiogenesis. Calcium phosphate ceramics have also been investigated because their mineral chemistry resembles human bone. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a novel bioresorbable purified fibrillar collagen and hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP ceramic composite versus collagen alone and a bovine xenograft-collagen composite in beagles. Collagen plugs, bovine graft-collagen composite and HA/β-TCP-collagen composite were implanted into the left and right first, second and third mandibular premolars, and the fourth molar was left empty for natural healing. In total, 20 male beagle dogs were used, and quantitative and histological analyses of the extraction ridge was done. The smallest width reduction was 19.09% ± 8.81% with the HA/β-TCP-collagen composite at Week 8, accompanied by new bone formation at Weeks 4 and 8. The HA/β-TCP-collagen composite performed well, as a new osteoconductive and biomimetic composite biomaterial, for socket bone preservation after tooth extraction.

  2. Biocompatibility evaluation of HDPE-UHMWPE reinforced β-TCP nanocomposites using highly purified human osteoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrgozar, M A; Farokhi, M; Rajaei, F; Bagheri, M H A; Azari, Sh; Ghasemi, I; Mottaghitalab, F; Azadmanesh, K; Radfar, J

    2010-12-15

    Biocompatibility of β-TCP/HDPE-UHMWPE nanocomposite as a new bone substitute material was evaluated by using highly purified human osteoblast cells. Human osteoblast cells were isolated from bone tissue and characterized by immunofluorescence Staining before and after purification using magnetic bead system. Moreover, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase production, cell attachment, calcium deposition, gene expression, and morphology of osteoblast cells on β-TCP/HDPE-UHMWPE nanocomposites were evaluated. The results have shown that the human osteoblast cells were successfully purified and were suitable for subsequent cell culturing process. The high proliferation rate of osteoblast cells on β-TCP/HDPE-UHMWPE nanocomposite confirmed the great biocompatibility of the scaffold. Expression of bone-specific genes was taken place after the cells were incubated in composite extract solutions. Furthermore, osteoblast cells were able to mineralize the matrix next to composite samples. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that cells had normal morphology on the scaffold. Thus, these results indicated that the nanosized β-TCP/HDPE-UHMWPE blend composites could be potential scaffold, which is used in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effect of PDGF-BB and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on bone formation around dental implants: a pilot study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Tina; Marino, Victor; Bartold, P Mark

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of a combination of purified recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor (rhPDGF-BB) mixed with a synthetic beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on bone healing around dental implants with critical size circumferential defects. Three critical size circumferential defects were prepared in the ilium of six sheep. Three dental implants were placed into the centre of each defect and the 3.25 mm circumferential gap was filled with (a) blood clot alone; (b) β-TCP; (c) rhPDGF-BB (0.3 mg/ml) with β-TCP. All the defects in each group were covered with a Bio-Gide(®) resorbable barrier membrane. The sheep were sacrificed at 2 and 4 weeks and histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed to determine the percentage of new mineralized bone formation and residual β-TCP graft particles in the defects. Defects filled with rhPDGF-BB/β-TCP showed the highest rate of bone formation after 2 and 4 weeks with limited degradation of the β-TCP particles over 4 weeks. Defects filled with β-TCP showed the least bone fill after 2 and 4 weeks, and faster degradation of the β-TCP particles over 4 weeks compared with defects filled with rhPDGF-BB/β-TCP. Percentage of new mineralized bone was comparable in defects to blood clot alone and β-TCP after 4 weeks of healing, but there was a collapse in the defect area in defects with blood clot alone. In comparison, the space was maintained when β-TCP was used in defects at 4 weeks. Defects which had β-TCP alone showed an inhibition in bone healing at 2 and 4 weeks; however, the combination of rhPDGF-BB with β-TCP enhanced bone regeneration in these peri-implant bone defects at the same time intervals. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Adsorption of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) to meet a MCL of 5 ppt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Roger W; Harada, Bryce K; Lamichhane, Krishna M; Tsubota, Korey T

    2018-02-01

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) is a groundwater contaminant in the drinking water aquifers in Hawaii and some other states. Granular activated carbon (GAC) has been used for 30 years to treat approximately 60 million gallons per day of TCP-contaminated groundwater in Hawaii. The State of Hawaii's current maximum contaminant level (MCL) for TCP is 600 ng/L (ppt), and consideration is being given to lower the MCL to 5 ppt. There is no EPA MCL for TCP. A study was conducted to determine if any GAC could meet a 5 ppt MCL for TCP, and if so, how many bedvolumes (BVs) could be treated prior to breakthrough. Constant Diffusivity-Rapid Small-Scale Column Tests (CD-RSSCTs) were performed to evaluate GAC adsorption of TCP. Three different groundwaters and six different GACs were utilized. The RSSCTs with the currently-utilized GAC were predictive of the performance of the GAC contactors (50,000 BVs to breakthrough). Any of the six GACs could meet a MCL of 5 ppt and some could do so for 150,000 or more BVs. No single GAC was optimal for all three well sites, indicating effects of subtle undefined differences in the water matrix and/or GAC physiochemical properties. The coal-based direct-activated carbon currently being used is the least optimal for all three well sites with respect to meeting a potential new TCP MCL of 5 ppt. The most effective GACs for Kunia were the Calgon coal-based GAC and the Siemens enhanced coconut shell GAC, while the most effective for Waipahu were the Siemens regular and enhanced coconut shell GACs, and the most effective for Mililani was the Calgon coal-based GAC. Choosing just one GAC for use at all three well sites (rather than the optimal for each site) would result in a reduction of treatment run time of 1 year at one well site (63% reduction). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Suboptimal RED Feedback Control for Buffered TCP Flow Dynamics in Computer Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved dynamic system that simulates the behavior of TCP flows and active queue management (AQM system. This system can be modeled by a set of stochastic differential equations driven by a doubly stochastic point process with intensities being the controls. The feedback laws proposed monitor the status of buffers and multiplexor of the router, detect incipient congestion by sending warning signals to the sources. The simulation results show that the optimal feedback control law from the class of linear as well as quadratic polynomials can improve the system performance significantly in terms of maximizing the link utilization, minimizing congestion, packet losses, as well as global synchronization. The optimization process used is based on random recursive search technique known as RRS.

  6. A New Method for Fabrication of Nanohydroxyapatite and TCP from the Sea Snail Cerithium vulgatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gunduz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic bioceramic nanopowders of hydroxyapatite (HA and β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP were prepared from shells of the sea snail Cerithium vulgatum (Bruguière, 1792 using a novel chemical method. Calcination of the powders produced was carried out at varying temperatures, specifically at 400°C and 800°C, in air for 4 hours. When compared to the conventional hydrothermal transformation method, this chemical method is very simple, economic, due to the fact that it needs inexpensive and safe equipment, because the transformation of the aragonite and calcite of the shells into the calcium phosphate phases takes place at 80°C under the atmospheric pressure. The powders produced were determined using infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The features of the powders produced along with the fact of their biological origin qualify these powders for further consideration and experimentation to fabricate nanoceramic biomaterials.

  7. Hypo-fractionated treatment in radiotherapy: radio-biological models Tcp and NTCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astudillo V, A. J.; Mitsoura, E.; Paredes G, L.; Resendiz G, G.

    2014-08-01

    At the present time the breast cancer in Mexico has the first place of incidence of the malignant neoplasia s in the women, and represents 11.34% of all the cancer cases. On the other hand, the treatments for cancer by means of ionizing radiations have been dominated under the approaches of the medical radio-oncologists which have been based on test and error by many years. The radio-biological models, as the Tcp, NTCP and dosimetric variables, for their clinical application in the conventional radiotherapy with hypo-fractionation have as purpose predicting personalized treatment plans that they present most probability of tumor control and minor probability of late reactions, becoming this way support tools in the decisions taking for the patient treatments planning of Medical Physicists and Radio-oncologists. (Author)

  8. Parallel evolution of TCP and B-class genes in Commelinaceae flower bilateral symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Jill C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flower bilateral symmetry (zygomorphy has evolved multiple times independently across angiosperms and is correlated with increased pollinator specialization and speciation rates. Functional and expression analyses in distantly related core eudicots and monocots implicate independent recruitment of class II TCP genes in the evolution of flower bilateral symmetry. Furthermore, available evidence suggests that monocot flower bilateral symmetry might also have evolved through changes in B-class homeotic MADS-box gene function. Methods In order to test the non-exclusive hypotheses that changes in TCP and B-class gene developmental function underlie flower symmetry evolution in the monocot family Commelinaceae, we compared expression patterns of teosinte branched1 (TB1-like, DEFICIENS (DEF-like, and GLOBOSA (GLO-like genes in morphologically distinct bilaterally symmetrical flowers of Commelina communis and Commelina dianthifolia, and radially symmetrical flowers of Tradescantia pallida. Results Expression data demonstrate that TB1-like genes are asymmetrically expressed in tepals of bilaterally symmetrical Commelina, but not radially symmetrical Tradescantia, flowers. Furthermore, DEF-like genes are expressed in showy inner tepals, staminodes and stamens of all three species, but not in the distinct outer tepal-like ventral inner tepals of C. communis. Conclusions Together with other studies, these data suggest parallel recruitment of TB1-like genes in the independent evolution of flower bilateral symmetry at early stages of Commelina flower development, and the later stage homeotic transformation of C. communis inner tepals into outer tepals through the loss of DEF-like gene expression.

  9. Procesamiento cerámico de β-TCP para la fabricación de piezas implantables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco, J.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a method for obtaining large-scale productions of β-TCP by mass-precipitation from calcium and phosphate solutions. The setting of the synthesis conditions was made by studying operational parameters like the concentrations of the reagents, the speed of the mixing of the reagents, pH of precipitation and ageing of the precipitate. This synthesis procedure allows obtaining high purity β-TCP under ASTM F1088-87. Starting from synthesized β-TCP were made rods for implantation by die pressing, slip casting, gel casting and low pressure injection moulding. These rods were well characterized and implanted in Beagle dogs. Thin film histological results for 2, 7, and 14 months of implantation period, shown a good biocompatibility for the material and its resorbable behaviour.

    El trabajo describe la puesta a punto de un método de obtención de grandes cantidades de fosfato tricálcico (β-TCP, por precipitación a partir de disoluciones de sales de calcio y de fosfatos. Para ello se estudia la influencia de los parámetros de operación tales como concentración de reactivos, velocidad de adición, pH de precipitación y tiempo de envejecimiento del precipitado. El procedimiento, que es escalable a nivel industrial, permite obtener β-TCP de elevada pureza, que cumple ASTM F1088-87. Con el material obtenido se procesan barras implantables por prensado, colado, gel-casting e inyección, que se caracterizan detalladamente, y posteriormente se implantan en la tibia de perros Beagle. El estudio histológico en lámina delgada de los implantes, tras períodos de implantación de 2, 7 y 14 meses, permite evaluar la excelente biocompatibilidad del material y su carácter reabsorbible.

  10. Comparative Efficacies of a 3D-Printed PCL/PLGA/β-TCP Membrane and a Titanium Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyung Shim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a 3D-printed resorbable polycaprolactone/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid/β-tricalcium phosphate (PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membrane on bone regeneration and osseointegration in areas surrounding implants and to compare results with those of a non-resorbable titanium mesh membrane. After preparation of PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes using extrusion-based 3D printing technology; mechanical tensile testing and in vitro cell proliferation testing were performed. Implant surgery and guided bone regeneration were performed randomly in three groups (a no membrane group, a titanium membrane group, and a PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membrane group (n = 8 per group. Histological and histometric analyses were conducted to evaluate effects on bone regeneration and osseointegration. Using the results of mechanical testing; a PCL/PLGA/β-TCP ratio of 2:6:2 was selected. The new bone areas (% in buccal defects around implants were highest in the PCL/PLGA/β-TCP group and significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.05. Bone-to-implant contact ratios (% were also significantly higher in the PCL/PLGA/β-TCP and titanium groups than in the control group (p < 0.05. When the guided bone regeneration procedure was performed using the PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membrane; new bone formation around the implant and osseointegration were not inferior to those of the non-resorbable pre-formed titanium mesh membrane.

  11. Radioiodination of protein using 2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl 3-(nido-carboranyl) propionate (TCP) as a potential bi-functional linker: Synthesis and biodistribution in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Rushan; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Li Bing; Liao Jiali; Jin Jiannan

    2009-01-01

    2,3,5,6-Tetrafluorophenyl 3-(nido-carboranyl) propionate (TCP), as a new potential bi-functional linker for radiohalogenation of proteins or peptides, was synthesized. With this bi-functional linker, the first attempt to conjugate bovine serum albumin (BSA) with 125 I was made and the biodistribution of the conjugated BSA ( 125 I-TCP-BSA) was investigated in NIH strain mice. By the use of TCP as the linker, BSA was conjugated with 125 I in a labeling yield of 58-75% and with radiochemical purity of 99.8% after purification by Sephadex TM G-50. Even after being kept at room temperature for 72 h, the radiochemical purity of 125 I-TCP-BSA was still more than 98%, much higher than that of the directly 125 I-labeled BSA ( 125 I-BSA). Meanwhile, biodistribution experiments in mice indicated that the uptake of 125 I with 125 I-TCP-BSA into thyroid was obviously less than that with 125 I-BSA post-injection. All the results implied that the 125 I-conjugated BSA ( 125 I-TCP-BSA) was considerably stable in vivo as well as in vitro, and TCP was regarded as a promising bi-functional linker for radiohalogenation of proteins

  12. Electrospun Gelatin/β-TCP Composite Nanofibers Enhance Osteogenic Differentiation of BMSCs and In Vivo Bone Formation by Activating Ca2+-Sensing Receptor Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate- (CaP- based composite scaffolds have been used extensively for the bone regeneration in bone tissue engineering. Previously, we developed a biomimetic composite nanofibrous membrane of gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP and confirmed their biological activity in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo. However, how these composite nanofibers promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs is unknown. Here, gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibers were fabricated by incorporating 20 wt% β-TCP nanoparticles into electrospun gelatin nanofibers. Electron microscopy showed that the composite β-TCP nanofibers had a nonwoven structure with a porous network and a rough surface. Spectral analyses confirmed the presence and chemical stability of the β-TCP and gelatin components. Compared with pure gelatin nanofibers, gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibers caused increased cell attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteogenic gene expression in rat BMSCs. Interestingly, the expression level of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR was significantly higher on the composite nanofibrous scaffolds than on pure gelatin. For rat calvarial critical sized defects, more extensive osteogenesis and neovascularization occurred in the composite scaffolds group compared with the gelatin group. Thus, gelatin/β-TCP composite scaffolds promote osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo by activating Ca2+-sensing receptor signaling.

  13. 3D printed scaffolds of calcium silicate-doped β-TCP synergize with co-cultured endothelial and stromal cells to promote vascularization and bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuan; Jiang, Chuan; Li, Cuidi; Li, Tao; Peng, Mingzheng; Wang, Jinwu; Dai, Kerong

    2017-07-17

    Synthetic bone scaffolds have potential application in repairing large bone defects, however, inefficient vascularization after implantation remains the major issue of graft failure. Herein, porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds with calcium silicate (CS) were 3D printed, and pre-seeded with co-cultured human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) to construct tissue engineering scaffolds with accelerated vascularization and better bone formation. Results showed that in vitro β-TCP scaffolds doped with 5% CS (5%CS/β-TCP) were biocompatible, and stimulated angiogenesis and osteogenesis. The results also showed that 5%CS/β-TCP scaffolds not only stimulated co-cultured cells angiogenesis on Matrigel, but also stimulated co-cultured cells to form microcapillary-like structures on scaffolds, and promoted migration of BMSCs by stimulating co-cultured cells to secrete PDGF-BB and CXCL12 into the surrounding environment. Moreover, 5%CS/β-TCP scaffolds enhanced vascularization and osteoinduction in comparison with β-TCP, and synergized with co-cultured cells to further increase early vessel formation, which was accompanied by earlier and better ectopic bone formation when implanted subcutaneously in nude mice. Thus, our findings suggest that porous 5%CS/β-TCP scaffolds seeded with co-cultured cells provide new strategy for accelerating tissue engineering scaffolds vascularization and osteogenesis, and show potential as treatment for large bone defects.

  14. Effects of BMP-2 and dexamethasone on osteogenic differentiation of rat dental follicle progenitor cells seeded on three-dimensional beta-TCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Lulu; Jin Zuolin; Duan Yinzhong [Department of Orthodontics, Stomatological College, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Liu Hongchen; Wang Dongsheng; E Lingling [Department of Stomatology, China PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Xu Lin, E-mail: jinzuolin88@yahoo.com.c, E-mail: duanyinzhong@yahoo.com.c [Department of Stomatology, the First Hospital of PLA, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BMP-2 and dexamethasone (Dex) on osteogenic differentiation of rat dental follicle progenitor cells (RDFCs) seeded on three-dimensional beta-TCP. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the calcium and phosphonium, the osteocalcin in media of the third passage RDFCs on biomaterial beta-TCP after 1-3, 3-7, 7-14 days of culture were examined respectively. The growth of cells on the scaffolds was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after 3, 7 days of culture and by implanting in the backs of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice for bone regeneration. The third passage RDFCs could be seen adhered, extended and proliferated on the beta-TCP by scanning electron microscopy. The ALP activity, the calcium and phosphoniums and the osteocalcin content of dexamethasone (10{sup -8} M) or/and BMP-2 (100 ng ml{sup -1}) were significantly higher than their existence in the control group. They were the significantly highest among four groups after joint application of BMP-2 and dexamethasone. After 8 weeks of implantation, the percentage of the new bones formed area in the RDFCs+beta-TCP+BMP-2+Dex group was significantly higher than that in the RDFCs+beta-TCP+BMP-2 group. In contrast, beta-TCP, RDFCs+beta-TCP+Dex and control constructs lacked new bone formation by histological staining and histomorphometric analysis. The BMP-2+Dex could significantly promote osteogenic differentiation of RDFCs on beta-TCP. beta-TCP supported fast cellular adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of RDFCs. The feasibility of its application in periodontal tissue engineering was also proved.

  15. Effects of BMP-2 and dexamethasone on osteogenic differentiation of rat dental follicle progenitor cells seeded on three-dimensional β-TCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lulu; Jin Zuolin; Duan Yinzhong; Liu Hongchen; Wang Dongsheng; E Lingling; Xu Lin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BMP-2 and dexamethasone (Dex) on osteogenic differentiation of rat dental follicle progenitor cells (RDFCs) seeded on three-dimensional β-TCP. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the calcium and phosphonium, the osteocalcin in media of the third passage RDFCs on biomaterial β-TCP after 1-3, 3-7, 7-14 days of culture were examined respectively. The growth of cells on the scaffolds was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after 3, 7 days of culture and by implanting in the backs of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice for bone regeneration. The third passage RDFCs could be seen adhered, extended and proliferated on the β-TCP by scanning electron microscopy. The ALP activity, the calcium and phosphoniums and the osteocalcin content of dexamethasone (10 -8 M) or/and BMP-2 (100 ng ml -1 ) were significantly higher than their existence in the control group. They were the significantly highest among four groups after joint application of BMP-2 and dexamethasone. After 8 weeks of implantation, the percentage of the new bones formed area in the RDFCs+β-TCP+BMP-2+Dex group was significantly higher than that in the RDFCs+β-TCP+BMP-2 group. In contrast, β-TCP, RDFCs+β-TCP+Dex and control constructs lacked new bone formation by histological staining and histomorphometric analysis. The BMP-2+Dex could significantly promote osteogenic differentiation of RDFCs on β-TCP. β-TCP supported fast cellular adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of RDFCs. The feasibility of its application in periodontal tissue engineering was also proved.

  16. αTCP ceramic doped with dicalcium silicate for bone regeneration applications prepared by powder metallurgy method: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Pablo; Luklinska, Zofia B; Meseguer-Olmo, Luis; Mate-Sanchez de Val, Jose E; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael A; Calvo-Guirado, Jose L; Ramirez-Fernandez, Ma P; de Aza, Piedad N

    2013-07-01

    This study reports on the in vitro and in vivo behavior of α-tricalcium phosphate (αTCP) and also αTCP doped with either 1.5 or 3.0 wt % of dicalcium silicate (C2 S). The ceramics were successfully prepared by powder metallurgy method combined with homogenization and heat treatment procedures. All materials were composed of a single-phase, αTCP in the case of a pure material, or solid solution of C2 S in αTCP for the doped αTCP, which were stable at room temperature. The ceramics were tested for bioactivity in simulated body fluid, cell culture medium containing adult mesenchymal stem cells of human origin, and in animals. Analytical scanning electron microscopy combined with chemical elemental analysis was used and Fourier transform infrared and conventional histology methods. The in vivo behavior of the ceramics matched the in vitro results, independently of the C2 S content in αTCP. Carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA) layer was formed on the surface and within the inner parts of the specimens in all cases. A fully mineralized new bone growing in direct contact with the implants was found under the in vivo conditions. The bioactivity and biocompatibility of the implants increased with the C2 S content in αTCP. The C2 S doped ceramics also favoured a phase transformation of αTCP into CHA, important for full implant integration during the natural bone healing processes. αTCP ceramic doped with 3.0 wt % C2 S showed the best bioactive in vitro and in vivo properties of all the compositions and hence could be of interest in specific applications for bone restorative purposes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Influence of the addition of β-TCP on the morphology, thermal properties and cell viability of poly (lactic acid) fibers obtained by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, L. [Laboratory of Bioceramics, Institute of Science and Technology, UNIFESP, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Passador, F.R. [Laboratory of Polymer Processing, Institute of Science and Technology, UNIFESP, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Costa, M.M. [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Development Research Institute IP& D, UNIVAP, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Lobo, A.O., E-mail: aolobo@pq.cnpq.br [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Development Research Institute IP& D, UNIVAP, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Sousa, E., E-mail: eliandra.sousa@unifesp.br [Laboratory of Bioceramics, Institute of Science and Technology, UNIFESP, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Electrospinning is a simple and low-cost way to fabricate fibers. Among the various polymers used in electrospinning process, the poly (lactic acid) (PLA) stands out due to its excellent biodegradability and biocompatibility. Calcium phosphate ceramics has been recognized as an attractive biomaterial because their chemical composition is similar to the mineral component of the hard tissue in the body. Furthermore, they are bioactive and osteoinductive and some are even quite biodegradable. The beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) particles were synthesized by solid state reaction. Different contents of β-TCP particles were incorporated in polymer matrices to form fibers of PLA/β-TCP composites by electrospinning aiming a possible application as a scaffold for tissue engineering. The fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The average diameter of the fibers varied in the range of 260–519.6 ± 50 nm. The presence of β-TCP particles promoted changes on thermal properties of the fibers. The composite with 8 wt-% of β-TCP showed a low degree of crystallinity and can be used for application in tissue engineering. The cell viability was analyzed by reduction of the methyl tetrazolium salt by the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzymatic complex present in the matrix of mitochondria (MTT test). All PLA fiber groups, with different contents of β-TCP, showed cytocompatibility ability with non-cytotoxicity effect and bioactive properties using SBF assay. - Highlights: • PLA fibers with β-TCP particles incorporated were obtained by electrospinning aiming an application in tissue engineering.. • The average diameter of the fibers varied in the range of 260–519.6 ± 50 nm. • The composite with 8 wt.% of β-TCP showed a low degree of crystallinity and can be used for application in tissue engineering. • All PLA fibers groups, with different contents of

  18. WE-F-304-05: Cranial TCP/NTCP Modeling Insights and Caveats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naqa, I. [University of Michigan (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) was introduced clinically more than twenty years ago, and many subsequent publications have reported safety and efficacy data. The AAPM Working Group on Biological Effects of Hypofractionated Radiotherapy/SBRT (WGSBRT) extracted published treatment outcomes data from extensive literature searches to summarize and construct tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for six anatomical regions: Cranial, Head and Neck, Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic, and Spinal. In this session, we present the WGSBRT’s work for cranial sites, and recurrent head and neck cancer. From literature-based data and associated models, guidelines to aid with safe and effective hypofractionated radiotherapy treatment are being determined. Further, the ability of existing and proposed radiobiological models to fit these data is considered as to the ability to distinguish between the linear-quadratic and alternative radiobiological models such as secondary cell death from vascular damage, immunogenic, or bystander effects. Where appropriate, specific model parameters are estimated. As described in “The lessons of QUANTEC,” (1), lack of adequate reporting standards continues to limit the amount of useful quantitative information that can be extracted from peer-reviewed publications. Recommendations regarding reporting standards are considered, to enable such reviews to achieve more complete characterization of clinical outcomes. 1 Jackson A, Marks LB, Bentzen SM, Eisbruch A, Yorke ED, Ten Haken RK, Constine LS, Deasy JO. The lessons of QUANTEC: recommendations for reporting and gathering data on dose-volume dependencies of treatment outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010 Mar 1;76(3 Suppl):S155–60. Learning Objectives: Describe the techniques, types of cancer and dose schedules used in treating recurrent H&N cancers with SBRT List the radiobiological models that compete with the linear-quadratic model

  19. WE-F-304-02: Recurrent HNC Treated with SBRT: TCP-Based Outcome Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clump, D. [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) was introduced clinically more than twenty years ago, and many subsequent publications have reported safety and efficacy data. The AAPM Working Group on Biological Effects of Hypofractionated Radiotherapy/SBRT (WGSBRT) extracted published treatment outcomes data from extensive literature searches to summarize and construct tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for six anatomical regions: Cranial, Head and Neck, Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic, and Spinal. In this session, we present the WGSBRT’s work for cranial sites, and recurrent head and neck cancer. From literature-based data and associated models, guidelines to aid with safe and effective hypofractionated radiotherapy treatment are being determined. Further, the ability of existing and proposed radiobiological models to fit these data is considered as to the ability to distinguish between the linear-quadratic and alternative radiobiological models such as secondary cell death from vascular damage, immunogenic, or bystander effects. Where appropriate, specific model parameters are estimated. As described in “The lessons of QUANTEC,” (1), lack of adequate reporting standards continues to limit the amount of useful quantitative information that can be extracted from peer-reviewed publications. Recommendations regarding reporting standards are considered, to enable such reviews to achieve more complete characterization of clinical outcomes. 1 Jackson A, Marks LB, Bentzen SM, Eisbruch A, Yorke ED, Ten Haken RK, Constine LS, Deasy JO. The lessons of QUANTEC: recommendations for reporting and gathering data on dose-volume dependencies of treatment outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010 Mar 1;76(3 Suppl):S155–60. Learning Objectives: Describe the techniques, types of cancer and dose schedules used in treating recurrent H&N cancers with SBRT List the radiobiological models that compete with the linear-quadratic model

  20. WE-F-304-02: Recurrent HNC Treated with SBRT: TCP-Based Outcome Estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clump, D.

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) was introduced clinically more than twenty years ago, and many subsequent publications have reported safety and efficacy data. The AAPM Working Group on Biological Effects of Hypofractionated Radiotherapy/SBRT (WGSBRT) extracted published treatment outcomes data from extensive literature searches to summarize and construct tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for six anatomical regions: Cranial, Head and Neck, Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic, and Spinal. In this session, we present the WGSBRT’s work for cranial sites, and recurrent head and neck cancer. From literature-based data and associated models, guidelines to aid with safe and effective hypofractionated radiotherapy treatment are being determined. Further, the ability of existing and proposed radiobiological models to fit these data is considered as to the ability to distinguish between the linear-quadratic and alternative radiobiological models such as secondary cell death from vascular damage, immunogenic, or bystander effects. Where appropriate, specific model parameters are estimated. As described in “The lessons of QUANTEC,” (1), lack of adequate reporting standards continues to limit the amount of useful quantitative information that can be extracted from peer-reviewed publications. Recommendations regarding reporting standards are considered, to enable such reviews to achieve more complete characterization of clinical outcomes. 1 Jackson A, Marks LB, Bentzen SM, Eisbruch A, Yorke ED, Ten Haken RK, Constine LS, Deasy JO. The lessons of QUANTEC: recommendations for reporting and gathering data on dose-volume dependencies of treatment outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010 Mar 1;76(3 Suppl):S155–60. Learning Objectives: Describe the techniques, types of cancer and dose schedules used in treating recurrent H&N cancers with SBRT List the radiobiological models that compete with the linear-quadratic model

  1. WE-F-304-05: Cranial TCP/NTCP Modeling Insights and Caveats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naqa, I.

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) was introduced clinically more than twenty years ago, and many subsequent publications have reported safety and efficacy data. The AAPM Working Group on Biological Effects of Hypofractionated Radiotherapy/SBRT (WGSBRT) extracted published treatment outcomes data from extensive literature searches to summarize and construct tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for six anatomical regions: Cranial, Head and Neck, Thoracic, Abdominal, Pelvic, and Spinal. In this session, we present the WGSBRT’s work for cranial sites, and recurrent head and neck cancer. From literature-based data and associated models, guidelines to aid with safe and effective hypofractionated radiotherapy treatment are being determined. Further, the ability of existing and proposed radiobiological models to fit these data is considered as to the ability to distinguish between the linear-quadratic and alternative radiobiological models such as secondary cell death from vascular damage, immunogenic, or bystander effects. Where appropriate, specific model parameters are estimated. As described in “The lessons of QUANTEC,” (1), lack of adequate reporting standards continues to limit the amount of useful quantitative information that can be extracted from peer-reviewed publications. Recommendations regarding reporting standards are considered, to enable such reviews to achieve more complete characterization of clinical outcomes. 1 Jackson A, Marks LB, Bentzen SM, Eisbruch A, Yorke ED, Ten Haken RK, Constine LS, Deasy JO. The lessons of QUANTEC: recommendations for reporting and gathering data on dose-volume dependencies of treatment outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010 Mar 1;76(3 Suppl):S155–60. Learning Objectives: Describe the techniques, types of cancer and dose schedules used in treating recurrent H&N cancers with SBRT List the radiobiological models that compete with the linear-quadratic model

  2. Network protocol changes can improve DisCom WAN performance : evaluating TCP modifications and SCTP in the ASC tri-lab environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolendino, Lawrence F.; Hu, Tan Chang

    2005-06-01

    The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Distance Computing (DisCom) Wide Area Network (WAN) is a high performance, long distance network environment that is based on the ubiquitous TCP/IP protocol set. However, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the algorithms that govern its operation were defined almost two decades ago for a network environment vastly different from the DisCom WAN. In this paper we explore and evaluate possible modifications to TCP that purport to improve TCP performance in environments like the DisCom WAN. We also examine a much newer protocol, SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) that claims to provide reliable network transport while also implementing multi-streaming, multi-homing capabilities that are appealing in the DisCom high performance network environment. We provide performance comparisons and recommendations for continued development that will lead to network communications protocol implementations capable of supporting the coming ASC Petaflop computing environments.

  3. The therapeutic effect on bone mineral formation from biomimetic zinc containing tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP in zinc-deficient osteoporotic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Chou

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of biomimetic zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP produced by hydrothermally converting calcium carbonate exoskeletons from foraminifera, in the treatment of osteoporotic mice. X-Ray powder diffraction showed crystallographic structures matching JCPDS profile for tricalcium phosphate. Mass spectroscopy used to calculate total composition amount showed similar amount of calcium (5×10(4 µg/g and phosphate (4×10(4 ppm after conversion and the presence of zinc (5.18×10(3 µg/g. In vitro zinc release showed no release in PBS buffer and <1% zinc release in 7 days. In vivo evaluation was done in ovariectomized mice by implanting the ZnTCP samples in the soft tissues near the right femur bone for four weeks. Thirty ddY mice (5 weeks old, average weight of 21 g were divided into six experimental groups (normal, sham, OVX, β-TCP, ZnTCP and direct injection of zinc. CT images were taken every two weeks where the bone mineral density (BMD and bone mineral content (BMC were calculated by software based on CT images. The ZnTCP group exhibits cortical and cancellous bone growth of 45% and 20% respectively. While sham, OVX and β-TCP suffered from bone loss. A correlation was made between the significant body weight increase in ZnTCP with the significant increase in plasma zinc level compared with OVX. The presented results indicate that biomimetic ZnTCP were effective in preventing and treating bone loss in osteoporotic mice model.

  4. Effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 with beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Jun; Kitamura, Masahiro; Nozaki, Takenori; Nagayasu, Toshie; Terashima, Akio; Asano, Taiji; Murakami, Shinya

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Concomitant use of FGF-2 and β-TCP (an osteo-conductive scaffold) significantly promotes periodontal regeneration in the severe periodontitis model (1-wall defect model) of beagle dog. → FGF-2 enhanced new bone formation via β-TCP at the defects. → In particular, FGF-2 dramatically regenerated new periodontal ligament and cementum formations at the defects, that is one of the most important healing outcomes during the process of periodontal regeneration. → Epithelial downgrowth (undesirable wound healing) was decreased by administration of FGF-2. → This manuscript indicates for the first time that concomitant use of FGF-2 and β-TCP is efficacious in regenerating periodontal tissue following severe destruction of the tissue by progression of periodontitis. -- Abstract: The effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on periodontal regeneration were investigated in the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model. One-wall periodontal defects were created in the mesial portion of both sides of the mandibular first molars, and 0.3% FGF-2 plus β-TCP or β-TCP alone was administered. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the periodontium with the defect site was removed and histologically analyzed. Radiographic findings showed that co-administration of FGF-2 significantly increased bone mineral contents of the defect sites compared with β-TCP alone. Histologic analysis revealed that the length of the regenerated periodontal ligament, the cementum, distance to the junctional epithelium, new bone height, and area of newly formed bone were significantly increased in the FGF-2 group. No abnormal inflammatory response or ankylosis was observed in either group. These findings indicate the efficacy of concomitant use of FGF-2 and β-TCP as an osteoconductive material for periodontal regeneration following severe destruction by progressive

  5. Efficacy of rhBMP-2 Loaded PCL/β-TCP/bdECM Scaffold Fabricated by 3D Printing Technology on Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Bin Bae

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of 3D printed polycaprolactone (PCL/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffold containing bone demineralized and decellularized extracellular matrix (bdECM and human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 on bone regeneration. Scaffolds were divided into PCL/β-TCP, PCL/β-TCP/bdECM, and PCL/β-TCP/bdECM/BMP groups. In vitro release kinetics of rhBMP-2 were determined with respect to cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. These three reconstructive materials were implanted into 8 mm diameter calvarial bone defect in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were sacrificed four weeks after implantation for micro-CT, histologic, and histomorphometric analyses. The findings obtained were used to calculate new bone volumes (mm3 and new bone areas (%. Excellent cell bioactivity was observed in the PCL/β-TCP/bdECM and PCL/β-TCP/bdECM/BMP groups, and new bone volume and area were significantly higher in the PCL/β-TCP/bdECM/BMP group than in the other groups (p<.05. Within the limitations of this study, bdECM printed PCL/β-TCP scaffolds can reproduce microenvironment for cells and promote adhering and proliferating the cells onto scaffolds. Furthermore, in the rat calvarial defect model, the scaffold which printed rhBMP-2 loaded bdECM stably carries rhBMP-2 and enhances bone regeneration confirming the possibility of bdECM as rhBMP-2 carrier.

  6. Comparative Efficacies of Collagen-Based 3D Printed PCL/PLGA/?-TCP Composite Block Bone Grafts and Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Substitute for Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Kyoung-Sub; Choi, Jae-Won; Kim, Jae-Hun; Chung, Ho Yun; Jin, Songwan; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Yun, Won-Soo; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare bone regeneration and space maintaining ability of three-dimensional (3D) printed bone grafts with conventional biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). After mixing polycaprolactone (PCL), poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) in a 4:4:2 ratio, PCL/PLGA/?-TCP particulate bone grafts were fabricated using 3D printing technology. Fabricated particulate bone grafts were mixed with atelocollagen to produce collagen-based PCL/P...

  7. Effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 with beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzai, Jun, E-mail: anzai_jun@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kitamura, Masahiro, E-mail: kitamura@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nozaki, Takenori, E-mail: tnozaki@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nagayasu, Toshie, E-mail: nagayasu_toshie@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Terashima, Akio, E-mail: terashima_akio@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Asano, Taiji, E-mail: asano_taiji@kaken.co.jp [Pharmacology Department, Central Research Laboratories, Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 14, Shinomiya, Minamigawara-cho, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8042 (Japan); Murakami, Shinya, E-mail: ipshinya@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP (an osteo-conductive scaffold) significantly promotes periodontal regeneration in the severe periodontitis model (1-wall defect model) of beagle dog. {yields} FGF-2 enhanced new bone formation via {beta}-TCP at the defects. {yields} In particular, FGF-2 dramatically regenerated new periodontal ligament and cementum formations at the defects, that is one of the most important healing outcomes during the process of periodontal regeneration. {yields} Epithelial downgrowth (undesirable wound healing) was decreased by administration of FGF-2. {yields} This manuscript indicates for the first time that concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP is efficacious in regenerating periodontal tissue following severe destruction of the tissue by progression of periodontitis. -- Abstract: The effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on periodontal regeneration were investigated in the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model. One-wall periodontal defects were created in the mesial portion of both sides of the mandibular first molars, and 0.3% FGF-2 plus {beta}-TCP or {beta}-TCP alone was administered. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the periodontium with the defect site was removed and histologically analyzed. Radiographic findings showed that co-administration of FGF-2 significantly increased bone mineral contents of the defect sites compared with {beta}-TCP alone. Histologic analysis revealed that the length of the regenerated periodontal ligament, the cementum, distance to the junctional epithelium, new bone height, and area of newly formed bone were significantly increased in the FGF-2 group. No abnormal inflammatory response or ankylosis was observed in either group. These findings indicate the efficacy of concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP as an osteoconductive material for periodontal

  8. Study of Radiation Induced Radicals in HAP and β-TCP Based Bone Graft Materials by ERP Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltar-Strmecki, N.; Matkovic, I.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphates such as beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) are frequently used as dental implants due to proven excellent biocompatibility. Because of their resorption in the body and direct contact with tissues, in order to inactivate bacteria, fungal spores and viruses, they are usually sterilized by γ-irradiation. However, literature provides little information about effects of γ-irradiation on the formation and stability of the free radicals in the bone graft materials during and after sterilization procedure. In this study EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) spectroscopy was used to investigate HAP and β-TCP based dental implants present on the market. Eight dental graft materials present on the market were investigated: Bioresorb R Macropore, Poresorb R -TCP, Easy-Graft T M and Cerasorb R synthetic β-tricalcium phosphates, Easy-Graft T M crystal and Ossceram R two phase synthetic CaP consisting of 60 % HAP and 40 % β-TCP, and Dexabone R and Bio-Oss R bone graft material of bovine origin. EPR study shows that this is the only technique for characterization of free radicals that can simultaneously determine not only the presence and content, but also the position and the structure of free radicals formed by γ-sterilization in the investigated materials, as well as the paramagnetic substitutions incorporated in the materials during the synthesis (such as Mn 2+ , Fe 3+ or Cr 2+ ). Additionally, EPR provides information on stability of irradiation-induced radicals (CO 2 - , trapped H-atoms, NO 3 2 etc.) and processes for reducing them. Results show that EPR should be considered as a valuable technique in improving the quality of bone graft materials, which must be sterile, and to offer the high quality, efficacy and reliable materials to the patients.(author)

  9. Implementasi Protokol Keamanan TLS pada Aplikasi Layanan Komunikasi Suara Melalui Jaringan TCP/IP (VoIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Hariady, Ricky

    2011-01-01

    Saat ini layanan komunikasi suara melalui jaringan TCP/IP atau yang lebih dikenal dengan VoIP (Voice over IP) telah semakin banyak digunakan, namun teknologi VoIP yang ada saat ini masih rentan terhadap penyadapan ataupun pencurian data. Sementara protokol kriptografi TLS (Transport Layer Security) telah teruji dan banyak digunakan untuk mengamankan komunikasi melalui internet seperti pada layanan email dan web. Dengan mengimplementasikan protokol TLS pada sebuah aplikasi Vo...

  10. The Association between State Value-added Taxes and Tobacco Use in India- Evidence from GATS and TCP India Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh S

    2017-08-30

    State value-added taxes (VAT) on tobacco products have been increased significantly in recent years in India. Evidence on how these VATs were associated with smoking is highly needed. State bidi and cigarette VAT rates were linked to Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India 2009-2010 and Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Survey waves 1 (2010-2011) and 2 (2012-2013), respectively. These linked data were used to analyze the associations between bidi VAT rates and bidi smoking, between cigarette VAT rates and cigarette smoking, and between the two VAT rates and dual use of bidis and cigarettes. Weighted logistic regressions were employed to examine GATS cross-sectional data, whereas Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were employed to examine longitudinal TCP data. We further stratified the analyses by gender. A 10% increase in cigarette VAT rates was associated with a 6.5% (p<0.001) decrease in dual use of cigarettes and bidis among adults and a 0.9% decrease (p<0.05) in cigarette smoking among males in TCP; and with a 21.6% decrease (p<0.05) in dual use among adults and a 17.2% decrease (p<0.001) in cigarette smoking among males in GATS. TCP analyses controlling for state fixed effects are less likely to be biased and indicate a cigarette price elasticity of - 0.44. As female smoking prevalence was extremely low, these associations were non-significant for females. Higher state cigarette VAT rates in India were significantly associated with lower cigarette smoking and lower dual use of cigarettes and bidis. Increasing state VAT rates may significantly reduce smoking in India. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Design and development of FPGA based TCP/IP module for real time computers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasri, G. Janani; Santhana Raj, A.; Gour, Aditya; Murali, N.; Manikandan, J.

    2013-01-01

    An VME (Virtual Module Europa) bus based Real Time Computer's (RTC's) are being developed for Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) which is in an advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam, where the RTC's have to communicate to the central process computer on the data collected from the field instrument and receive data from the central process computer. A Distributed Digital Control System (DDSC) architecture has been designed for this communication which is based on Transfer Communication Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over Ethernet. Currently the RTC's uses 'Wiznet Module', a bought out chip which implements the TCP/IP stack in hardware. This project concentrates on the design and development of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based TCP/IP module that runs on Microblaze, a 32-bit softcore processor, to take care of the communication as that of Wiznet module. Advantage of switching over to FPGA based system are its reconfigurability, desired number of sockets, and the design is stable even if the FPGA's get obsolete. (author)

  12. A Rate-Adaptive MAC Protocol Based on TCP throughput for Ad Hoc Networks in Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Uchida

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless technology is becoming a leading option for future Internet access. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is one of the protocols designed on the basis of the transmission characteristics in wired networks. It is known that the TCP performance deteriorates drastically under a wireless communication environment. On the other hand, many wireless networking standards such as IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g have multirate capability. Therefore, adaptive rate control methods have been proposed for ad hoc networks. However, almost methods require the modification of the request to send (RTS and clear to send (CTS packets. Therefore, the conventional methods are not compatible with the standardized system. In this paper, we propose adaptive rate control mechanisms for ad hoc networks. Our mechanisms are based on the RTS/CTS mechanisms. However, no modifications to the RTS and CTS packets are required in the proposed method. Therefore, our proposed method can attempt to satisfy the conventional IEEE 802.11 standards. Moreover, an adequate transmission rate is selected based on an estimated TCP throughput performance. From simulation results, it is observed that the proposed method can improve the throughput performance without any modification of packet structures.

  13. Brucella TIR-like protein TcpB/Btp1 specifically targets the host adaptor protein MAL/TIRAP to promote infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenna; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Yang, Mingjuan; Gao, Junguang; Zhan, Shaoxia; Xinying, Du; Huang, Liuyu; Li, Wenfeng; Chen, Zeliang; Li, Juan

    2016-08-26

    Brucella spp. are known to avoid host immune recognition and weaken the immune response to infection. Brucella like accomplish this by employing two clever strategies, called the stealth strategy and hijacking strategy. The TIR domain-containing protein (TcpB/Btp1) of Brucella melitensis is thought to be involved in inhibiting host NF-κB activation by binding to adaptors downstream of Toll-like receptors. However, of the five TIR domain-containing adaptors conserved in mammals, whether MyD88 or MAL, even other three adaptors, are specifically targeted by TcpB has not been identified. Here, we confirmed the effect of TcpB on B.melitensis virulence in mice and found that TcpB selectively targets MAL. By using siRNA against MAL, we found that TcpB from B.melitensis is involved in intracellular survival and that MAL affects intracellular replication of B.melitensis. Our results confirm that TcpB specifically targets MAL/TIRAP to disrupt downstream signaling pathways and promote intra-host survival of Brucella spp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Avoiding Biased-Feeding in the Scheduling of Collaborative Multipath TCP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hsun Tsai

    Full Text Available Smartphones have become the major communication and portable computing devices that access the Internet through Wi-Fi or mobile networks. Unfortunately, users without a mobile data subscription can only access the Internet at limited locations, such as hotspots. In this paper, we propose a collaborative bandwidth sharing protocol (CBSP built on top of MultiPath TCP (MPTCP. CBSP enables users to buy bandwidth on demand from neighbors (called Helpers and uses virtual interfaces to bind the subflows of MPTCP to avoid modifying the implementation of MPTCP. However, although MPTCP provides the required multi-homing functionality for bandwidth sharing, the current packet scheduling in collaborative MPTCP (e.g., Co-MPTCP leads to the so-called biased-feeding problem. In this problem, the fastest link might always be selected to send packets whenever it has available cwnd, which results in other links not being fully utilized. In this work, we set out to design an algorithm, called Scheduled Window-based Transmission Control (SWTC, to improve the performance of packet scheduling in MPTCP, and we perform extensive simulations to evaluate its performance.

  15. Avoiding Biased-Feeding in the Scheduling of Collaborative Multipath TCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Hsun; Chou, Chien-Ming; Lan, Kun-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones have become the major communication and portable computing devices that access the Internet through Wi-Fi or mobile networks. Unfortunately, users without a mobile data subscription can only access the Internet at limited locations, such as hotspots. In this paper, we propose a collaborative bandwidth sharing protocol (CBSP) built on top of MultiPath TCP (MPTCP). CBSP enables users to buy bandwidth on demand from neighbors (called Helpers) and uses virtual interfaces to bind the subflows of MPTCP to avoid modifying the implementation of MPTCP. However, although MPTCP provides the required multi-homing functionality for bandwidth sharing, the current packet scheduling in collaborative MPTCP (e.g., Co-MPTCP) leads to the so-called biased-feeding problem. In this problem, the fastest link might always be selected to send packets whenever it has available cwnd, which results in other links not being fully utilized. In this work, we set out to design an algorithm, called Scheduled Window-based Transmission Control (SWTC), to improve the performance of packet scheduling in MPTCP, and we perform extensive simulations to evaluate its performance.

  16. Rapid-prototyped PLGA/β-TCP/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite scaffolds in a rabbit femoral defect model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinku; McBride, Sean; Alvarez-Urena, Pedro; Song, Young-Hye; Hollinger, Jeffrey O; Tellis, Brandi; Dean, David D; Sylvia, Victor L; Elgendy, Hoda; Ong, Joo

    2012-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering scaffolds composed of poly(d,l-lactide:glycolide) (DL-PLGA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) nanocomposites were prepared and characterized. Scaffolds with two specific architectures were produced via fused deposition modeling (FDM), a type of extrusion freeform fabrication. Microfilaments deposited at angles of 0° and 90° were designated as the ‘simple’ scaffold architecture, while those deposited at angles alternating between 0°, 90°, 45° and −45° were designated as the ‘complex’ scaffold architecture. In addition, the simple and complex scaffolds were coated with hydroxyapatite (HA). The surface morphology of the scaffolds was assessed before and after HA coating and uniform distribution of HA coating on the surface was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The scaffolds were implanted into rabbit femoral unicortical bone defects according to four treatment groups based on pore structure and HA coating. After 6 and 12 weeks, scaffolds and host bone were recovered and processed for histology. Data suggest that all configurations of the scaffolds integrated with the host bone and were biocompatible and thus may offer an exciting new scaffold platform for delivery of biologicals for bone regeneration. (paper)

  17. Robotic hand with locking mechanism using TCP muscles for applications in prosthetic hand and humanoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharan, Lokesh; Tadesse, Yonas

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a biomimetic, lightweight, 3D printed and customizable robotic hand with locking mechanism consisting of Twisted and Coiled Polymer (TCP) muscles based on nylon precursor fibers as artificial muscles. Previously, we have presented a small-sized biomimetic hand using nylon based artificial muscles and fishing line muscles as actuators. The current study focuses on an adult-sized prosthetic hand with improved design and a position/force locking system. Energy efficiency is always a matter of concern to make compact, lightweight, durable and cost effective devices. In natural human hand, if we keep holding objects for long time, we get tired because of continuous use of energy for keeping the fingers in certain positions. Similarly, in prosthetic hands we also need to provide energy continuously to artificial muscles to hold the object for a certain period of time, which is certainly not energy efficient. In this work we, describe the design of the robotic hand and locking mechanism along with the experimental results on the performance of the locking mechanism.

  18. Polyvalent fuel treatment facility (TCP): shearing and dissolution of used fuel at La Hague facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueziere, J.; Tribout-Maurizi, A.; Durand, L.; Bertrand, N. [Recycling Business Unit, AREVA, 1 place de la coupole, 92084 Paris La defense Cedex (France)

    2013-07-01

    Although many used nuclear fuel types have already been recycled, recycling plants are generally optimized for Light Water Reactor (LWR) UO{sub x} fuel. Benefits of used fuel recycling are consequently restricted to those fuels, with only limited capacity for the others like LWR MOX, Fast Reactor (FR) MOX or Research and Test Reactor (RTR) fuel. In order to recycle diverse fuel types, an innovative and polyvalent shearing and dissolving cell is planned to be put in operation in about 10 years at AREVA's La Hague recycling plant. This installation, called TCP (French acronym for polyvalent fuel treatment) will benefit from AREVA's industrial feedback, while taking part in the next steps towards a fast reactor fuel cycle development using innovative treatment solutions. Feasibility studies and R/Development trials on dissolution and shearing are currently ongoing. This new installation will allow AREVA to propose new services to its customers, in particular in term of MOX fuel, Research Test Reactors fuel and Fast Reactor fuel treatment. (authors)

  19. Experimental Evaluation of TCP-Based DTN for Cislunar Communications in Presence of Long Link Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhensheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay/disruption tolerant networking (DTN technology is considered a new solution to highly stressed communications in space environments. To date, little work has been done in evaluating the effectiveness and performance of the available DTN protocols when they are applied to an interplanetary Internet, especially in presence of a long link disruption. In this paper, we present an experimental investigation of the DTN architecture with a Bundle Protocol (BP running over TCP-based convergence layer (TCPCL protocol in a simulated cislunar communication environment characterized by a long link disruption. The intent of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of the TCPCL-based DTN protocol in coping with long link disruptions, through realistic file transfer experiments using a PC-based test-bed. The experiment results show that the DTN protocol is effective in handling a long link disruption experienced in data transmission accompanied by a cislunar link delay and a high BER. The performance of the DTN is most adversely affected by link disruption time in comparison to the effect of link delay and BER. For the transmissions with a very long link disruption of hours, the variations in goodput are nominal with respect to the change in cislunar link delay.

  20. Cyber Security in Industrial Control Systems and SCADA Applications: Modbus TCP Protocol Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal IRMAK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy generation, transmission and distribution systems are evaluated in terms of national security dimension and defined as critical infrastructures. Monitoring and controlling of these systems is provided by Industrial Control Systems (ICS or Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA systems. According to the latest advances in communication and internet technology, ICS/SCADA systems have started to become integrated with these systems. As a result of this situation, current or existing vulnerabilities in information and communication technology affect to SCADA systems directly. Therefore, this paper focuses on the cyber security of ICS/SCADA systems. It has been proved that the lack of authentication detected in Modbus TCP protocol, one of the most used in ICS/SCADA systems, can be exploited. In order to solve this security issue, a software is developed using the Python programming language for blocking or mitigating the cyber attacks. The proposed solution is subjected to several tests and results show that the attacks can be prevented successfully. Thus, it is considered that the proposed work will contribute to the security of ICS/SCADA systems and the industrial protocols using for communicating these systems.

  1. SU-E-J-30: Benchmark Image-Based TCP Calculation for Evaluation of PTV Margins for Lung SBRT Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M [Wayne State Univeristy, Detroit, MI (United States); Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhong, H [Henry Ford Hospital System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumor control probability (TCP) calculated with accumulated radiation doses may help design appropriate treatment margins. Image registration errors, however, may compromise the calculated TCP. The purpose of this study is to develop benchmark CT images to quantify registration-induced errors in the accumulated doses and their corresponding TCP. Methods: 4DCT images were registered from end-inhale (EI) to end-exhale (EE) using a “demons” algorithm. The demons DVFs were corrected by an FEM model to get realistic deformation fields. The FEM DVFs were used to warp the EI images to create the FEM-simulated images. The two images combined with the FEM DVF formed a benchmark model. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) images, created from the EI and simulated images, were used to develop IMRT plans. Two plans with 3 and 5 mm margins were developed for each patient. With these plans, radiation doses were recalculated on the simulated images and warped back to the EI images using the FEM DVFs to get the accumulated doses. The Elastix software was used to register the FEM-simulated images to the EI images. TCPs calculated with the Elastix-accumulated doses were compared with those generated by the FEM to get the TCP error of the Elastix registrations. Results: For six lung patients, the mean Elastix registration error ranged from 0.93 to 1.98 mm. Their relative dose errors in PTV were between 0.28% and 6.8% for 3mm margin plans, and between 0.29% and 6.3% for 5mm-margin plans. As the PTV margin reduced from 5 to 3 mm, the mean TCP error of the Elastix-reconstructed doses increased from 2.0% to 2.9%, and the mean NTCP errors decreased from 1.2% to 1.1%. Conclusion: Patient-specific benchmark images can be used to evaluate the impact of registration errors on the computed TCPs, and may help select appropriate PTV margins for lung SBRT patients.

  2. SU-E-J-30: Benchmark Image-Based TCP Calculation for Evaluation of PTV Margins for Lung SBRT Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M; Chetty, I; Zhong, H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor control probability (TCP) calculated with accumulated radiation doses may help design appropriate treatment margins. Image registration errors, however, may compromise the calculated TCP. The purpose of this study is to develop benchmark CT images to quantify registration-induced errors in the accumulated doses and their corresponding TCP. Methods: 4DCT images were registered from end-inhale (EI) to end-exhale (EE) using a “demons” algorithm. The demons DVFs were corrected by an FEM model to get realistic deformation fields. The FEM DVFs were used to warp the EI images to create the FEM-simulated images. The two images combined with the FEM DVF formed a benchmark model. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) images, created from the EI and simulated images, were used to develop IMRT plans. Two plans with 3 and 5 mm margins were developed for each patient. With these plans, radiation doses were recalculated on the simulated images and warped back to the EI images using the FEM DVFs to get the accumulated doses. The Elastix software was used to register the FEM-simulated images to the EI images. TCPs calculated with the Elastix-accumulated doses were compared with those generated by the FEM to get the TCP error of the Elastix registrations. Results: For six lung patients, the mean Elastix registration error ranged from 0.93 to 1.98 mm. Their relative dose errors in PTV were between 0.28% and 6.8% for 3mm margin plans, and between 0.29% and 6.3% for 5mm-margin plans. As the PTV margin reduced from 5 to 3 mm, the mean TCP error of the Elastix-reconstructed doses increased from 2.0% to 2.9%, and the mean NTCP errors decreased from 1.2% to 1.1%. Conclusion: Patient-specific benchmark images can be used to evaluate the impact of registration errors on the computed TCPs, and may help select appropriate PTV margins for lung SBRT patients

  3. SU-F-J-187: The Statistical NTCP and TCP Models in the Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, S [Princeton Radiation Oncology, Princeton Radiation Oncology (United States); Frometa, T [Theoretical and Computational Methods Working Group of IMAG, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Pyakuryal, A [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States); Sio, T [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Piseaux, R [Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Acosta, S [Provincial Hospital of Santiago de Cuba, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Ocana, K [Faculty of Electrics of the University of Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The statistical models (SM) are typically used as a subjective description of a population for which there is only limited sample data, and especially in cases where the relationship between variables is known. The normal tissue complications and tumor control are frequently stochastic effects in the Radiotherapy (RT). Based on probabilistic treatments, it recently has been formulated new NTCP and TCP models for the RT. Investigating the particular requirements for their clinical use in the proton therapy (PT) is the goal of this work. Methods: The SM can be used as phenomenological or mechanistic models. The former way allows fitting real data and getting theirparameters. In the latter one, we should do efforts for determining the parameters through the acceptable estimations, measurements, and/or simulation experiments. Experimental methodologies for determination of the parameters have been developed from the fraction cells surviving the proton irradiation curves in tumor and OAR, and precise RBE models are used for calculating the variable of effective dose. As the executions of these methodologies have a high costs, so we have developed computer tools enable to perform simulation experiments as complement to limitations of the real ones. Results: The requirements for the use of the SM in the PT, such as validation and improvement of the elaborated and existent methodologies for determining the SM parameters and effective dose respectively, were determined. Conclusion: The SM realistically simulates the main processes in the PT, and for this reason these can be implemented in this therapy, which are simples, computable and they have other advantages over some current models. It has been determined some negative aspects for some currently used probabilistic models in the RT, like the LKB NTCP and others derived from logistic functions; which can be improved with the proposed methods in this study.

  4. The growth of stem cells within {beta}-TCP scaffolds in a fluid-dynamic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Shanglong [School of Mechatronics Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology, Chengdu (China); State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Manufacture System Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Li Dichen [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Manufacture System Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)], E-mail: dcli@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Xie Youzhuan; Lu Jianxi; Dai Kerong [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2008-01-10

    A three-dimensional dynamic perfusion system was developed to provide mass transport and nutrient supply to permit the cell proliferation during the long-term culture inside a {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) scaffold. Also the flow field throughout the scaffold was studied. The porous cylindrical scaffold with a central channel was seeded with the sheep mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Then the cell-seeded scaffolds were continuously perfused with the complete {alpha}-MEM medium by a peristaltic pump for 7, 14 and 28 days, respectively. Histological study showed that the cell proliferation rates were different throughout the whole scaffolds and the different cell coverage was shown in different positions of the scaffold. Unoccupied spaces were found in many macropores. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was used to simulate the flow conditions within perfused cell-seeded scaffolds to give an insight into the mechanisms of these cell growth phenomena. Relating the simulation results to perfusion experiments, the even fluid velocity (approximately 0.52 mm/s) and shear stress (approximately 0.0055 Pa) were found to correspond to increased cell proliferation within the cell-scaffold constructs. Flow speeds were between 0.25 and 0.75 mm/s and shear stresses were between 0.003 and 0.008 Pa in approximately 75% of the regions. This method exhibits novel capabilities to compare the results obtained for different perfusion rates or different scaffold microarchitectures. It may allow specific fluid velocities and shear stresses to be determined to optimize the perfusion flow rate, porous scaffold architecture and distribution of in vitro tissue growth.

  5. The growth of stem cells within β-TCP scaffolds in a fluid-dynamic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shanglong; Li Dichen; Xie Youzhuan; Lu Jianxi; Dai Kerong

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional dynamic perfusion system was developed to provide mass transport and nutrient supply to permit the cell proliferation during the long-term culture inside a β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold. Also the flow field throughout the scaffold was studied. The porous cylindrical scaffold with a central channel was seeded with the sheep mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Then the cell-seeded scaffolds were continuously perfused with the complete α-MEM medium by a peristaltic pump for 7, 14 and 28 days, respectively. Histological study showed that the cell proliferation rates were different throughout the whole scaffolds and the different cell coverage was shown in different positions of the scaffold. Unoccupied spaces were found in many macropores. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was used to simulate the flow conditions within perfused cell-seeded scaffolds to give an insight into the mechanisms of these cell growth phenomena. Relating the simulation results to perfusion experiments, the even fluid velocity (approximately 0.52 mm/s) and shear stress (approximately 0.0055 Pa) were found to correspond to increased cell proliferation within the cell-scaffold constructs. Flow speeds were between 0.25 and 0.75 mm/s and shear stresses were between 0.003 and 0.008 Pa in approximately 75% of the regions. This method exhibits novel capabilities to compare the results obtained for different perfusion rates or different scaffold microarchitectures. It may allow specific fluid velocities and shear stresses to be determined to optimize the perfusion flow rate, porous scaffold architecture and distribution of in vitro tissue growth

  6. Ethernet TCP/IP based building energy management system in a university campus in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jomoah, Ibrahim M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Kumar, R. Sreerama; Abdel-Shafi, Nabil Yassien [Saudi Electricity Company Chair for DSM and EE, Vice Presidency for Projects, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abdulaziz, Abdulaziz Uthman M.; Obaid, Ramzy R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Building Energy Management System (BMS) installed in the typical buildings in the main campus of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. As the domestic electricity and hence the oil consumption in Saudi Arabia is increasing at a very alarming rate compared to the other countries in the world, it is of paramount importance to resort to urgent measures in various industrial, commercial and residential sectors in the country to implement energy conservation measures. The major electrical load in the buildings in the University corresponds to air-handling units and lighting. If the Hajj period, during which millions of pilgrims visit Holy Makah, coincides with the summer, the electricity demand in the country further increases. Considering these issues, the university has taken initiatives to minimize energy consumption in the campuses through the various energy conservation measures. Towards this end, BMS is installed in a few of the typical classrooms and office buildings utilizing the existing campus Ethernet TCP/IP. The data analysis is performed over the period from April to September as it is the peak load period due to summer season. The effectiveness of the BMS in the minimization of the energy consumption in these buildings is established by comparing the results of data analysis with BMS against those before the installation of BMS over the peak period. The investigations reveal that appreciable saving in energy consumption can be achieved with the installation of BMS, the magnitude being dependent upon factors such as building characteristics, type of building, its utilization and period of use.

  7. A Human Clinical, Histological, Histomorphometrical, and Radiographical Study on Biphasic HA-Beta-TCP 30/70 in Maxillary Sinus Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Carlo; Sinjari, Bruna; Shibli, Jamil A; Mangano, Francesco; Hamisch, Sabine; Piattelli, Adriano; Perrotti, Vittoria; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2015-06-01

    By mixing hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics can be obtained, and by varying their ratio it is possible to tailor the characteristics of the biomaterial. The aim of the present human study was to evaluate the histological and radiographical aspects of bone formation in maxillary sinus augmentation using a 30/70 HA-beta-TCP with a reticular structure. A total of 12 patients, undergoing two-stage sinus augmentation procedure using HA-beta-TCP at a ratio of 30/70, were included in the present study. After a 6-month healing period, during implant insertion, radiographical analysis was performed, and then the bone core biopsies were harvested and processed for histology. At radiographic evaluation, the bone gain was on average 6.85 ± 0.60 mm. HA-beta-TCP 30/70 appeared to be lined by newly formed bone, with no gaps at the interface. The histomorphometric analysis revealed 26 ± 2% of residual grafted biomaterial, 29 ± 3% of newly formed bone, and 45 ± 2% of marrow spaces. The present results indicate histologically the high biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of HA-beta-TCP 30/70, and clinically its successful use for sinus augmentation procedures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Nano-beta-tricalcium phosphates synthesis and biodegradation: 2. Biodegradation and apatite layer formation on nano-{beta}-TCP synthesized via microwave treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, Wafa I; Elkhooly, Tarek A, E-mail: nrcfifi@yahoo.co [Department of Biomaterials, National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-06-01

    The degradation and/or apatite layer precipitation ability of porous {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) samples treated and untreated with microwave radiation during synthesis is investigated. Microwave heating was used to accelerate the formation of CDHA with the Ca/P ratio 1.5 in a shorter processing time which later forms {beta}-TCP at around 650 {sup 0}C. Soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for several periods (4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h) is performed in a cumulative manner. The deposition of an apatite layer is followed through diffuse reflected FT-IR, SEM and EDS. A microwave-treated sample having a smaller particle size than its parent induces the formation of a homogeneous carbonated apatite layer on its surface. On the other hand, the parent {beta}-TCP sample exhibited less ability to induce Ca-P formation after being soaked in SBF. The formation of an apatite layer is attributed to the increase in surface area consequent to reduced particle and grain sizes besides the presence of a minor amount of hydroxyapatite phase in the microwave-treated {beta}-TCP sample. The results prove that it is possible to control the biodegradation and apatite layer formation on sintered {beta}-TCP porous disks through controlling the particle size.

  9. In vitro biological evaluation of beta-TCP/HDPE--A novel orthopedic composite: a survey using human osteoblast and fibroblast bone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaeigohar, S Sh; Shokrgozar, M A; Khavandi, A; Sadi, A Yari

    2008-02-01

    Beta-tricalcium phosphate reinforced high density polyethylene (beta-TCP/HDPE) was prepared to simulate bone composition and to study its capacity to act as bone tissue. This material was produced by replacing the mineral component and collagen soft tissue of the bone with beta-TCP and HDPE, respectively. The biocompatibility of the composite samples with different volume fractions of TCP (20, 30 and 40 vol %) was examined in vitro using two osteoblast cell lines G-292 and Saos-2, and also a type of fibroblast cell isolated from bone tissue, namely human bone fibroblast (HBF) by proliferation, and cell adhesion assays. Cell-material interaction with the surface of the composite samples was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of beta-TCP/HDPE on the behavior of osteoblast and fibroblast cells was compared with those of composite and negative control samples; polyethylene (PE) and tissue culture polystyrene (TPS), respectively. In general, the results showed that the composite samples containing beta-TCP as reinforcement supported a higher rate of proliferation by various bone cells after 3, 7, and 14 days of incubation compared to the composite control sample. Furthermore, more osteoblast cells were attached to the surface of the composite samples when compared to the composite control samples after the above incubation periods (p HDPE composites are biocompatible, nontoxic, and act to stimulate proliferation and adhesion of the cells, whether osteoblast or fibroblast. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2008.

  10. Combination of BMP-2-releasing gelatin/β-TCP sponges with autologous bone marrow for bone regeneration of X-ray-irradiated rabbit ulnar defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaya; Hokugo, Akishige; Takahashi, Yoshitake; Nakano, Takayoshi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of gelatin sponges incorporating β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granules (gelatin/β-TCP sponges) to enhance bone regeneration at a segmental ulnar defect of rabbits with X-ray irradiation. After X-ray irradiation of the ulnar bone, segmental critical-sized defects of 20-mm length were created, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-releasing gelatin/β-TCP sponges with or without autologous bone marrow were applied to the defects to evaluate bone regeneration. Both gelatin/β-TCP sponges containing autologous bone marrow and BMP-2-releasing sponges enhanced bone regeneration at the ulna defect to a significantly greater extent than the empty sponges (control). However, in the X-ray-irradiated bone, the bone regeneration either by autologous bone marrow or BMP-2 was inhibited. When combined with autologous bone marrow, the BMP-2 exhibited significantly high osteoinductivity, irrespective of the X-ray irradiation. The bone mineral content at the ulna defect was similar to that of the intact bone. It is concluded that the combination of bone marrow with the BMP-2-releasing gelatin/β-TCP sponge is a promising technique to induce bone regeneration at segmental bone defects after X-ray irradiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Manufacture of β-TCP/alginate scaffolds through a Fab@home model for application in bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diogo, G S; Gaspar, V M; Serra, I R; Fradique, R; Correia, I J

    2014-01-01

    The growing need to treat bone-related diseases in an elderly population compels the development of novel bone substitutes to improve patient quality of life. In this context, the advent of affordable and effective rapid prototyping equipment, such as the Fab@home plotter, has contributed to the development of novel scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In this study, we report for the first time the use of a Fab@home plotter for the production of 3D scaffolds composed by beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/alginate hybrid materials. β-TCP/alginate mixtures were used in a proportion of 50/50% (w/w), 30/70% (w/w) and 20/80% (w/w). The printing parameters were optimized to a nozzle diameter of 20 Gauge for the production of rigid scaffolds with pre-defined architectures. We observed that, despite using similar printing parameters, both the precision and resolution of the scaffolds were significantly affected by the blend's viscosity. In particular, we demonstrate that the higher viscosity of 50/50 scaffolds (150.0 ± 3.91 mPa s) provides a higher precision in the extrusion process. The physicochemical and biological characterization of the samples demonstrated that the 50/50 scaffolds possessed a resistance to compression comparable to that of native trabecular bone. Moreover, this particular formulation also exhibited a Young's modulus that was higher than that of trabecular bone. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy analysis revealed that osteoblasts were able to adhere, proliferate and also penetrate into the scaffold's architecture. Altogether, our findings suggest that the Fab@home printer can be employed in the manufacture of reproducible scaffolds, using a formulation 50/50 alginate-β-TCP that has suitable properties to be applied as bone substitutes in the future. (paper)

  12. The FEROL40, a microTCA card interfacing custom point-to-point links and standard TCP/IP

    CERN Document Server

    Gigi, Dominique; Behrens, Ulf; Branson, James; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Contescu, Cristian; da Silva Gomes, Diego; Darlea, Georgiana-Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dobson, Marc; Doualot, Nicolas; Erhan, Samim; Fulcher, Jonathan Richard; Gladki, Maciej; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Ceballos, Guillelmo; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, Andre; Janulis, Mindaugas; Lettrich, Michael; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius K; Morovic, Srecko; O'Dell, Vivian; Orn, Samuel Johan; Orsini, Luciano; Papakrivopoulos, Ioannis; Paus, Christoph; Petrova, Petia; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Rabady, Dinyar; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Sakulin, Hannes; Schwick, Christoph; Simelevicius, Dainius; Vazquez Velez, Cristina; Vougioukas, Michail; Zejdl, Petr

    2017-01-01

    In order to accommodate new back-end electronics of upgraded CMS sub-detectors, a new FEROL40 card in the microTCA standard has been developed. The main function of the FEROL40 is to acquire event data over multiple point-to-point serial optical links, provide buffering, perform protocol conversion, and transmit multiple TCP/IP streams (4x10Gbps) to the Ethernet network of the aggregation layer of the CMS DAQ (data acquisition) event builder. This contribution discusses the design of the FEROL40 and experience from operation.

  13. Evaluation of 3D printed PCL/PLGA/β-TCP versus collagen membranes for guided bone regeneration in a beagle implant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, J-Y; Park, C-Y; Bae, J-H; Ahn, G; Kim, C; Lim, D-H; Cho, D-W; Yun, W-S; Shim, J-H; Huh, J-B

    2016-10-07

    Here, we compared 3D-printed polycaprolactone/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate (PCL/PLGA/β-TCP) membranes with the widely used collagen membranes for guided bone regeneration (GBR) in beagle implant models. For mechanical property comparison in dry and wet conditions and cytocompatibility determination, we analyzed the rate and pattern of cell proliferation of seeded fibroblasts and preosteoblasts using the cell counting kit-8 assay and scanning electron microscopy. Osteogenic differentiation was verified using alizarin red S staining. At 8 weeks following implantation in vivo using beagle dogs, computed tomography and histological analyses were performed after sacrifice. Cell proliferation rates in vitro indicated that early cell attachment was higher in collagen than in PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes; however, the difference subsided by day 7. Similar outcomes were found for osteogenic differentiation, with approximately 2.5 times greater staining in collagen than PCL/PLGA/β-TCP, but without significant difference by day 14. In vivo, bone regeneration in the defect area, represented by new bone formation and bone-to-implant contact, paralleled those associated with collagen membranes. However, tensile testing revealed that whereas the PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membrane mechanical properties were conserved in both wet and dry states, the tensile property of collagen was reduced by 99% under wet conditions. Our results demonstrate in vitro and in vivo that PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes have similar levels of biocompatibility and bone regeneration as collagen membranes. In particular, considering that GBR is always applied to a wet environment (e.g. blood, saliva), we demonstrated that PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes maintained their form more reliably than collagen membranes in a wet setting, confirming their appropriateness as a GBR membrane.

  14. An effector of apple proliferation phytoplasma targets TCP transcription factors-a generalized virulence strategy of phytoplasma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Katrin; Mithöfer, Axel; Raffeiner, Margot; Stellmach, Hagen; Hause, Bettina; Schlink, Katja

    2017-04-01

    The plant pathogen Candidatus Phytoplasma mali (P. mali) is the causative agent of apple proliferation, a disease of increasing importance in apple-growing areas within Europe. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of disease manifestation within apple trees. In this study, we identified two TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR) transcription factors of Malus x domestica as binding partners of the P. mali SAP11-like effector ATP_00189. Phytohormone analyses revealed an effect of P. mali infection on jasmonates, salicylic acid and abscisic acid levels, showing that P. mali affects phytohormonal levels in apple trees, which is in line with the functions of the effector assumed from its binding to TCP transcription factors. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of the molecular targets of a P. mali effector and thus provides the basis to better understand symptom development and disease progress during apple proliferation. As SAP11 homologues are found in several Phytoplasma species infecting a broad range of different plants, SAP11-like proteins seem to be key players in phytoplasmal infection. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  15. SU-F-T-686: Considerations About Dose Protraction Factor in TCP Calculations for Prostate VMAT Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, F; Perez-Vara, C; Clavo, M [Herranz Hospital Central de la Defensa “Gomez Ulla”, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dose protraction factor should be considered in order to model the TCP calculations. Nevertheless, this study describes a brief discussion showing that the lack of its inclusion should not invalidate these calculations for prostate VMAT treatments. Methods: Dose protraction factor (G) modifies the quadratic term of the linear-quadratic expression in order to take into account the sublethal damage repair of protracting the dose delivery. If the delivery takes a short time (instantaneous), G = 1. For any other dose delivery pattern, G < 1. The Lea-Catcheside dose protraction factor for external beam radiotherapy contains terms depending of on the tissue specific repair parameter (λ) and the irradiation time (T). Expanding the exponential term using a Taylor’s series and neglecting terms of order (λT){sup 3}, the approximation leads to G = 1. The described situation occurs for 3DCRT techniques, where treatment times are about few minutes. For IMRT techniques, fraction times are prolonged compared to 3DCRT times. Wang et al. (2003) and Fowler et al. (2004) investigated the protraction effect with respect to IMRT treatments, reporting clinically significant loss in biological effect associated with IMRT delivery times. Results: Treatment times are noticeably reduced for prostate treatments using VMAT techniques. These times are comparable to 3DCRT times, leading to consider the previous approximation. Conclusion: Dose protraction factor can be approximated by G = 1 in TCP calculations for prostate treatments using VMAT techniques.

  16. Empirical investigation on the dependence of TCP downstream throughput on SNR in an IEEE802.11b WLAN system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikponmwosa Oghogho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of TCP downstream throughput (TCPdownT on signal to noise ratio (SNR in an IEEE802.11b WLAN system was investigated in various environments and varieties of QoS traffic. TCPdownT was measured for various SNR observed. An Infrastructure based IEEE802.11b WLAN system having networked computers on which measurement software were installed, was set up consecutively in various environments (open corridor, small offices with block walls and plaster boards and free space. Empirical models describing TCPdownT against SNR for different signal ranges (all ranges of signals, strong signals only, grey signals only and weak signals only were statistically generated and validated. As the SNR values changed from high (strong signals through low (grey signals to very low (weak signals, our results show a strong dependence of TCPdownT on the received SNR. Our models showed lower RMS errors when compared with other similar models. We observed RMS errors of 0.6734791 Mbps, 0.472209 Mbps, 0.9111563 Mbps and 0.5764460 Mbps for general (all SNR model, strong signals model, grey signals model and Weak signals model respectively. Our models will provide researchers and WLAN systems users with a tool to estimate the TCP downstream throughput in a real network in various environments by monitoring the received SNR.

  17. Proyecto Grannacional ALBASALUD para Centro Regulador de Medicamentos Esenciales de los países del ALBA-TCP Grand-national Project ALBASALUD for Regulatory Center of Essential Drugs for the ALBA-TCP countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Aurora Sánchez González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La Autoridad Reguladora de Medicamentos de Cuba, coordina un Proyecto de la Alianza Bolivariana para los pueblos de América-Tratado de Libre Comercio (ALBA-TCP, dirigido al desarrollo de un Centro Regulador para los países del ALBA como nuevo organismo regional de integración farmacéutica, en aras de contar con un Registro Grannacional válido en todos los países partes, como herramienta para facilitar el acceso a medicamentos esenciales de calidad. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo diseñar y conducir desde el punto de vista técnico un proyecto para crear las bases legales y metodológicas del futuro centro y sus funciones básicas. Se emplearon técnicas de grupo nominal, puntos de referencia, consultas a expertos y se crearon metodologías específicas para planear y confeccionar los documentos necesarios. Se utilizaron lineamientos de organismos reguladores internacionales, cuadros básicos de medicamentos y reglamentación farmacéutica de los países participantes. Se desarrollaron y aplicaron documentos y estrategias para el trabajo del proyecto durante la etapa de preinversión, se definió el primer listado de medicamentos esenciales del ALBA y se aprobaron las fundamentales disposiciones legales y la reglamentación para las funciones de registro, vigilancia, inspecciones, laboratorios y liberación de lotes. El Proyecto Grannacional ALBASALUD "Centro Regulador de Medicamentos del ALBA-TCP" aplicado ha demostrado su eficiencia y capacidad para alcanzar los objetivos trazados mediante un trabajo científico-técnico con participación colectiva, que ha garantizado las disposiciones y lineamientos requeridos para sus funciones básicas y respaldo legal.The Drug Regulatory Authority of Cuba is coordinating a Project of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of America- Free Trade Agreement (ALBA-TCP aimed at developing a Regulatory Center that will operate as a new regional body of pharmaceutical integration for the ALBA

  18. Structural and chemical analysis of silica-doped β-TCP ceramic coatings on surgical grade 316L SS for possible biomedical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuppasamy Prem Ananth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel approach to introduce silica-doped β-tricalcium phosphate (Si-β-TCP on 316L SS substrates for enhanced biological properties. Doping of β-TCP with silica loadings ranging from 0 to 8 mol% was carried out using chemical precipitation method. Si-β-TCP powder was sintered at 800 °C followed by coating it on 316L SS substrate using electrophoretic deposition. The coated and uncoated samples were investigated by various characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF. Biomineralization ability of the coatings was evaluated by immersing in simulated body fluid (SBF solution for different number of days such as 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The results obtained in our study have shown that the apatite formation ability was high for the 8 mol% of Si-β-TCP. This will promote better biomineralization ability compared to the other coatings.

  19. Effects of DCPD cement chemistry on degradation properties and cytocompatibility: comparison of MCPM/β-TCP and MCPM/HA formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, Daniel L; Goebel, W Scott; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) cements are attractive biomaterials for bone repair, and a number of different DCPD cement formulations have been proposed in the literature. In this study, we have specifically compared monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM)/hydroxyapatite (HA) and MCPM/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) formulations to test the hypothesis that DCPD cement chemistry affects the degradation properties and cytocompatibility of the cement. Using simple in vitro models we found that MCPM/β-TCP formulations degraded primarily by DCPD dissolution, which was associated with a slight pH drop and relatively low mass loss. Cytocompatibility testing of cement conditioned culture media revealed no significant change in cell viability relative to the negative control for all of the MCPM/β-TCP formulations. In contrast, the MCPM/HA formulations were prone to undergo rapid conversion of DCPD to HA, resulting in a sharp pH drop and extensive mass loss. A stoichiometric excess of HA in the cement was found to accelerate the conversion process, and significant cytotoxicity was observed for the MCPM/HA formulations containing excess HA. Collectively, these results show that, although the product of the setting reaction is the same, DCPD cements produced with MCPM/HA and MCPM/β-TCP formulations differ significantly in their degradation properties and cytocompatibility. These differences may have important implications for the selection of a DCPD cement formulation for clinical application. (paper)

  20. Analysis of the influence of two different milling processes in the properties of precursor powder and [Beta]-TCP cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, H.A.I.; Pereira, C.H.R.; Zavaglia, C.A.C.; Motisuke, M.

    2011-01-01

    There are several characteristics that put calcium phosphate cements in evidence, like its bioactivity and in vivo resorption. The influence of two milling processes in the morphological properties of the [beta]-tricalcium phosphate powder, [beta]-TCP, and in the mechanical properties of the cement were analyzed. The powder was obtained by solid state reaction of CaCO_3 and CaHPO_4 at 1050 ° C. It showed high phase purity and absence of toxic elements. The powder was processed in ball mill (A) and high-energy vibratory mill (B), with posterior analyze by SEM and particle size distribution. The powders showed different average and distribution of grain size. Finally, the cement obtained by the process (B) showed values of axial tensile strength significantly greater than that obtained by the process (A). The milling process (B) is much more efficient than the process (A). (author)

  1. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of TCP and TCS collimators for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of 40 TCP and TCS collimators for the LHC cleaning insertions. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with CERCA (FR), the lowest bidder, for the supply of 40 collimators for a total amount of 1 122 173 euros (1 718 720 Swiss francs), not subject to revision, with options for up to 11 collimators for an amount of up to 279 280 euros (427 745 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from 1 January 2007, bringing the total amount to 1 401 453 euros (2 146 465 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from 1 January 2007. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender.

  2. Feasibility of TCP-based dose painting by numbers applied to a prostate case with 18F-choline PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirscherl, Thomas; Bogner, Ludwig; Rickhey, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: A biologically adaptive radiation treatment method to maximize the TCP is shown. Functional imaging is used to acquire a heterogeneous dose prescription in terms of Dose Painting by Numbers and to create a patient-specific IMRT plan. Method and Materials: Adapted from a method for selective dose escalation under the guidance of spatial biology distribution, a model, which translates heterogeneously distributed radiobiological parameters into voxelwise dose prescriptions, was developed. At the example of a prostate case with 18 F-choline PET imaging, different sets of reported values for the parameters were examined concerning their resulting range of dose values. Furthermore, the influence of each parameter of the linear-quadratic model was investigated. A correlation between PET signal and proliferation as well as cell density was assumed. Using our in-house treatment planning software Direct Monte Carlo Optimization (DMCO), a treatment plan based on the obtained dose prescription was generated. Gafchromic EBT films were irradiated for evaluation. Results: When a TCP of 95% was aimed at, the maximal dose in a voxel of the prescription exceeded 100 Gy for most considered parameter sets. One of the parameter sets resulted in a dose range of 87.1 Gy to 99.3 Gy, yielding a TCP of 94.7%, and was investigated more closely. The TCP of the plan decreased to 73.5% after optimization based on that prescription. The dose difference histogram of optimized and prescribed dose revealed a mean of -1.64 Gy and a standard deviation of 4.02 Gy. Film verification showed a reasonable agreement of planned and delivered dose. Conclusion: If the distribution of radiobiological parameters within a tumor is known, this model can be used to create a dose-painting by numbers plan which maximizes the TCP. It could be shown, that such a heterogeneous dose distribution is technically feasible. (orig.)

  3. In vitro study of 3D PLGA/n-HAp/β-TCP composite scaffolds with etched oxygen plasma surface modification in bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Hee-Sang [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61452 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sang-Chul [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sunchon National University, 255 Jungang-ro, Sunchon 57922 (Korea, Republic of); Kook, Min-Suk [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61186 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Hoon, E-mail: kim5055@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61452 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • PLGA and PLGA/n-HAp/β-TCP scaffolds were successfully fabricated by 3D printing. • Oxygen plasma etching increases the wettability and surface roughness. • Bioceramics and oxygen plasma etching and could be used to improve the cell affinity. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds have many advantageous properties for bone tissue engineering application, due to its controllable properties such as pore size, structural shape and interconnectivity. In this study, effects on oxygen plasma surface modification and adding of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on the 3D PLGA/n-HAp/β-TCP scaffolds for improving preosteoblast cell (MC3T3-E1) adhesion, proliferation and differentiation were investigated. The 3D PLGA/n-HAp/β-TCP scaffolds were fabricated by 3D Bio-Extruder equipment. The 3D scaffolds were prepared with 0°/90° architecture and pore size of approximately 300 μm. In addition 3D scaffolds surface were etched by oxygen plasma to enhance the hydrophilic property and surface roughness. After oxygen plasma treatment, the surface chemistry and morphology were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. And also hydrophilic property was measured by contact angle. The MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and differentiation were investigated by MTT assay and ALP activity. In present work, the 3D PLGA/HAp/beta-TCP composite scaffold with suitable structure for the growth of osteoblast cells was successfully fabricated by 3D rapid prototyping technique. The surface hydrophilicity and roughness of 3D scaffold increased by oxygen plasma treatment had a positive effect on cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Furthermore, the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cell was significantly enhanced by adding of n-HAp and β-TCP on 3D PLGA scaffold. As a result, combination of bioceramics and oxygen plasma treatment showed a synergistic effect on

  4. Uso de novos materiais para o capeamento pulpar (hidroxiapatita - HAp e fosfato tricálcico - β-TCP The use of new materials for pulp capping (hydroxyapatite - HAp and tricalcium phosphate - β-TCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Delfino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O capeamento pulpar é uma medida importante e muito usada no cotidiano da prática odontológica e, quando realizado de forma consciente, baseado em um bom diagnóstico da condição pulpar no momento da exposição, pode prevenir o dente de sofrer uma intervenção endodôntica. Além do hidróxido de cálcio, outros materiais vêm sendo testados quanto a sua ação em promover o reparo pulpar pela formação de ponte de dentina, após capeamento pulpar direto. Uma das alternativas de materiais viáveis para o capeamento pulpar são as cerâmicas à base de fosfatos de cálcio, destacando-se a hidroxiapatita (HAp e o fosfato tricálcico (β-TCP. Estes materiais não promovem a formação de área necrótica, característica da utilização do hidróxido de cálcio, são biocompatíveis e favorecem o reparo do tecido pulpar. Para avaliar os efeitos desses materiais no capeamento pulpar foi realizada esta revisão de literatura, abordando desde a resposta do tecido pulpar, até o protocolo para o uso clínico.Pulp capping is an important measure and one with a high rate of use in daily dental practice, and when it is conscientiously performed, based on good diagnosis of the pulp condition at the time of its exposure, it may prevent the tooth from requiring endodontic intervention. In addition to calcium hydroxide, other materials have been tested with regard to their action in promoting pulp repair by the formation of a dentin bridge after direct pulp capping. Some of the feasible alternative materials for pulp capping are calcium phosphate-based ceramics, with hydroxyapatite (HAp and tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP being outstanding. These materials do not promote formation of a necrotic area, characteristic of the use of calcium hydroxide, are biocompatible and favor pulp tissue repair. To evaluate the effects of these materials on pulp capping, this literature review was conducted, the approach being wide ranging in scope, from pulp response

  5. Influence of different naf concentration on the mechanical and morphological properties on sintered β-TCP; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas e morfologicas de [Beta]-fosfato tricalcico sinterizado com a adicao de diferentes concentracoes de NaF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, L.; Cardoso, H.A.I.; Zavaglia, C.A.C., E-mail: liasaito89@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (LABIOMEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Motisuke, M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Among the bioceramics, [beta]-tricalcium phosphate, β-TCP, is currently used in biomedical applications due to its in vivo reabsorption and chemical composition, important for bone formation and repair. Researchers showed that the addition of sodium fluoride (NaF) up to 2wt.% increases β-TCP mechanical properties without altering its biocompatibility and bioactivity. In this work, the effect of different NaF concentrations (2wt.% to 5wt.%) on β-TCP properties was studied. The samples were sintered at 1250 deg C during four hours. Afterwards, it were determined its mechanical resistance, density, morphology and chemical composition as a function of NaF content. The results showed that the presence of NaF does not lead to an increase on the mechanical properties. This fact is probably related to the formation of a mixture of TCP, apatite and sodium and calcium phosphates; and a visible increase on samples' density.(author)

  6. Use of Ethernet and TCP/IP socket communications library routines for data acquisition and control in the LEP RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciapala, E.; Collier, P.; Lienard, P.

    1991-01-01

    A general move is being made at CERN towards the direct connection of intelligent equipment and device controllers to the control room consoles by the use of local Ethernet segments bridged to the main Token Ring networks. Communications is based on standard TCP/IP protocols which allows immediate use of standard software packages. The Data Managers which control the LEP RF accelerating units and transverse feedback systems have recently been connected. The implementation of Ethernet and TCP/IP socket communications routines for RF data acquisition and control is described. The adaptation of almost all of the existing software for RF system control, data acquisition and diagnostics to make use of this means of communication has proved straightforward. Furthermore the transparent transfer of data in the form of 'C' structures from the Data Managers to the control center workstations and other computers has considerably simplified the software required for remote surveillance and data logging with a corresponding increase in speed and reliability

  7. Carbothermic Reduction Kinetics of Phosphorous Vaporization from Tri-calcium Phosphate (TCP) Under Microwave Rapid Heating With/Without the Presence of Fe3O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Noboru; Sunako, Manami; Kawahira, Keita; Suzuki, Koki; Miyamoto, Kazunori; Taniguchi, Shoji

    2018-03-01

    The kinetics of vapor phase dephosphorization from tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) by carbothermic reduction was studied with and without the presence of Fe3O4. Microwave heating was utilized to obtain large variations in the heating rate (HR). In the reduction of TCP alone, the phosphorous removal fraction (RF; equal to ΔP2O5/P2O5 0 , where ΔP2O5 is the weight change and P2O5 0is the P2O5 weight before heating) decreased as the HR increased. In other words, a shorter residence time at a high temperature resulted in a smaller reduction fraction of TCP. An apparently third-order reaction was postulated to account for the kinetics using a fitting simulation based on the additive law of the reaction progress. On the other hand, the phosphorous removal (dephosphorization) rate (RR; equal to ΔP2O3/t MW, where tMW is the microwave heating time period) increased as the HR increased above 1200 °C. The reduction ratio of Fe3O4 above 1100 °C is higher than 97 pct regardless of the heating rate. The reduction of TCP in the presence of Fe3O4 showed that RF increased slightly with increasing HR despite a shorter residence time at a high temperature. The RR also increased with the HR even though RF decreased to half of the values observed in the cases without Fe3O4 for temperatures above 1200 °C. The practicality and optimal operation conditions of phosphorus vapor removal were discussed.

  8. INT WFC pre-discovery detection of the nova M31N 2017-11a (AT2017hvi, PTSS-17zap, TCP J00425419+4130425)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantero-Castaneda, E. A.; Hernandez-Sanchez, M.; Arce-Tord, C.; Esteban-Gutierrez, A.; Garcia-Broock, E.; Garcia-Rivas, M.; Gonzalez-Cuesta, L.; Hermosa-Munoz, L.; Jimenez-Gallardo, A.; Lopez-Navas, E.; Otero-Santos, J.; Prendin, M. G.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M.; Perez-Fournon, I.

    2017-12-01

    We report the pre-discovery detection of the nova M31N 2017-11a (AT2017hvi, PTSS-17zap, TCP J00425419+4130425) with the Isaac Newton Telescope* Wide Field Camera on the night of 29 October 2017, 4.845 days before the discovery observations on 2017/11/04.695 by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS).

  9. Carbothermic Reduction Kinetics of Phosphorous Vaporization from Tri-calcium Phosphate (TCP) Under Microwave Rapid Heating With/Without the Presence of Fe3O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Noboru; Sunako, Manami; Kawahira, Keita; Suzuki, Koki; Miyamoto, Kazunori; Taniguchi, Shoji

    2018-06-01

    The kinetics of vapor phase dephosphorization from tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) by carbothermic reduction was studied with and without the presence of Fe3O4. Microwave heating was utilized to obtain large variations in the heating rate (HR). In the reduction of TCP alone, the phosphorous removal fraction (RF; equal to ΔP2O5/P2O 5 0 , where ΔP2O5 is the weight change and P2O 5 0 is the P2O5 weight before heating) decreased as the HR increased. In other words, a shorter residence time at a high temperature resulted in a smaller reduction fraction of TCP. An apparently third-order reaction was postulated to account for the kinetics using a fitting simulation based on the additive law of the reaction progress. On the other hand, the phosphorous removal (dephosphorization) rate (RR; equal to ΔP2O3/ t MW, where tMW is the microwave heating time period) increased as the HR increased above 1200 °C. The reduction ratio of Fe3O4 above 1100 °C is higher than 97 pct regardless of the heating rate. The reduction of TCP in the presence of Fe3O4 showed that RF increased slightly with increasing HR despite a shorter residence time at a high temperature. The RR also increased with the HR even though RF decreased to half of the values observed in the cases without Fe3O4 for temperatures above 1200 °C. The practicality and optimal operation conditions of phosphorus vapor removal were discussed.

  10. Bone Regeneration Using a Mixture of Silicon-Substituted Coral HA and β-TCP in a Rat Calvarial Bone Defect Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Roh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand of bone graft materials has been increasing. Among various origins of bone graft materials, natural coral composed of up to 99% calcium carbonate was chosen and converted into hydroxyapatite (HA; silicon was then substituted into the HA. Then, the Si-HA was mixed with β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP in the ratios 100:0 (S100T0, 70:30 (S70T30, 60:40 (S60T40, and 50:50 (S50T50. The materials were implanted for four and eight weeks in a rat calvarial bone defect model (8 mm. The MBCPTM (HA:β-TCP = 60:40, Biomatalante, Vigneux de Bretagne, France was used as a control. After euthanasia, the bone tissue was analyzed by making histological slides. From the results, S60T40 showed the fastest bone regeneration in four weeks (p < 0.05. In addition, S60T40, S50T50, and MBCPTM showed significant new bone formation in eight weeks (p < 0.05. In conclusion, Si-HA/TCP showed potential as a bone graft material.

  11. Bone regeneration of critical calvarial defect in goat model by PLGA/TCP/rhBMP-2 scaffolds prepared by low-temperature rapid-prototyping technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, D; Li, Q; Mu, X; Chang, T; Xiong, Z

    2008-10-01

    Active artificial bone composed of poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA)/ tricalcium phosphate (TCP) was prefabricated using low-temperature rapid-prototyping technology so that the process of osteogenesis could be observed in it. PLGA and TCP were the primary materials, they were molded at low temperature, then recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) was added to form an active artificial bone. Goats with standard cranial defects were randomly divided into experimental (implants with rhBMP-2 added) and control (implants without rhBMP-2) groups, and osteogenesis was observed and evaluated by imaging and biomechanical and histological examinations. The PLGA-TCP artificial bone scaffold (90% porosity) had large and small pores of approximately 360microm and 3-5microm diameter. Preliminary and complete repair of the cranial defect in the goats occurred 12 and 24 weeks after surgery, respectively. The three-point bending strength of the repaired defects attained that of the normal cranium. In conclusion, low-temperature rapid-prototyping technology can preserve the biological activity of this scaffold material. The scaffold has a good three-dimensional structure and it becomes an active artificial bone after loading with rhBMP-2 with a modest degradation rate and excellent osteogenesis in the goat.

  12. Achieving High Performance With TCP Over 40 GbE on NUMA Architectures for CMS Data Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bawej, Tomasz; et al.

    2014-01-01

    TCP and the socket abstraction have barely changed over the last two decades, but at the network layer there has been a giant leap from a few megabits to 100 gigabits in bandwidth. At the same time, CPU architectures have evolved into the multicore era and applications are expected to make full use of all available resources. Applications in the data acquisition domain based on the standard socket library running in a Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) architecture are unable to reach full efficiency and scalability without the software being adequately aware about the IRQ (Interrupt Request), CPU and memory affinities. During the first long shutdown of LHC, the CMS DAQ system is going to be upgraded for operation from 2015 onwards and a new software component has been designed and developed in the CMS online framework for transferring data with sockets. This software attempts to wrap the low-level socket library to ease higher-level programming with an API based on an asynchronous event driven model similar to the DAT uDAPL API. It is an event-based application with NUMA optimizations, that allows for a high throughput of data across a large distributed system. This paper describes the architecture, the technologies involved and the performance measurements of the software in the context of the CMS distributed event building.

  13. Chlorella vulgaris cultivation in sludge extracts from 2,4,6-TCP wastewater treatment for toxicity removal and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Chen, Xiurong; Wang, Hualin; Zhang, Yuying; Tang, Qingjie; Li, Jiahui

    2017-02-01

    Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in different proportions of activated sludge extracts, which was from the treatment of the synthetic wastewater containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The nutrients, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), were removed over 45% and 90%, respectively. The maximum reduction amount of ecotoxicity and total organic carbon (TOC) occurred in the 100% sludge group on the 8th day (68%; 86.2 mg L -1 ). The variations of Excitation-emission matrix spectra (EEMs) and TOC indicated that extracellular organic matters (EOM) produced by algae led to TOC increase in the medium. The cell density was close to each other for groups with sludge extract proportion below 50%; sludge extracts (below 75% addition) had a stimulating effect on the accumulation of chlorophyll-a in per unit algal cell. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) variation demonstrated that C. vulgaris response positively to sludge extracts addition. Lipid content in C. vulgaris was up to its maximum value on the 8th day. Considering the performance on nutrients removal, toxicity reduction and algal growth, the optimal cultivation period for C. vulgaris before harvesting was around 8 days with sludge extracts proportion below 50%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. α-TCP cements prepared by syringe-foaming: Influence of Na2HPO4 and surfactant concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, A F; Domínguez, S; Loureiro Dos Santos, L A

    2017-12-01

    The lack of intrinsic open porosity in calcium phosphate cements slows down the resorption rate and bone ingrowth when implanted In Vivo. In this study, macroporous structures were obtained by mixing α-TCP cement with a foamed liquid phase containing different concentrations of sodium hydrogen phosphate and a nonionic surfactant. The cement paste was prepared by hand mixing in a novel system of two syringes connected by a tube. Two different liquid to powder (L/P) ratios were used to prepare the cement paste. The cement samples showed open macropores with diameters>100μm. The specimens prepared with lower L/P ratio showed smaller porosity, macroporosity and pore size distribution. The cohesion of the cement paste in liquid solutions was assessed by adding 2wt% sodium alginate to the liquid phase. This study suggests that the final macrostructure of the foamed cements can be controlled by varying the phosphate and surfactant concentrations in the liquid phase and the L/P ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy of Ganoderma sp. JAS4 in bioremediation of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolyzing metabolite TCP from agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silambarasan, Sivagnanam; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    A novel fungal strain JAS4 was isolated from agricultural soil and was found to be highly effective in degrading chlorpyrifos and its major degradation product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). The molecular characterization based on 18S rRNA sequence analysis, revealed strain JAS4 as Ganoderma sp. which could able to degrade chlorpyrifos and its metabolite in an aqueous medium with rate constant of 0.8460 day(-1), following first order rate kinetics, and the time in which the initial insecticide concentration was reduced by 50% (DT(50)) was 0.81 days. Studies on biodegradation in soil with nutrients showed that JAS4 strain exhibited efficient degradation of insecticide with a rate constant of 0.9 day(-1), and DT(50) was 0.73 day. In contrast, degradation of insecticide in soil without nutrients was characterized by a rate constant of 0.7576 day(-1) and the DT(50) was 0.91 day. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. 3D porous architecture of stacks of β-TCP granules compared with that of trabecular bone: a microCT, vector analysis and compression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eCHAPPARD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 3D arrangement of porous granular biomaterials usable to fill bone defects has received little study. Granular biomaterials occupy 3D space when packed together in a manner that creates a porosity suitable for the invasion of vascular and bone cells. Granules of β-TCP were prepared with either 12.5 or 25g of β-TCP powder in the same volume of slurry. When the granules were placed in a test tube, this produced 3D stacks with a high (HP or low porosity (LP, respectively. Stacks of granules mimic the filling of a bone defect by a surgeon. The aim of this study was to compare the porosity of stacks of β-TCP granules with that of cores of trabecular bone. Biomechanical compression tests were done on the granules stacks. Bone cylinders were prepared from calf tibia plateau, constituted high density (HD blocks. Low density (LD blocks were harvested from aged cadaver tibias. Microcomputed tomography was used on the β-TCP granule stacks and the trabecular bone cores to determine porosity and specific surface. A vector projection algorithm was used to image porosity employing a frontal plane image which was constructed line by line from all images of a microCT stack. Stacks of HP granules had porosity (75.3 ± 0.4% and fractal lacunarity (0.043 ± 0.007 intermediate between that of HD (resp. 69.1 ± 6.4%, p<0.05 and 0.087 ± 0.045, p<0.05 and LD bones (resp. 88.8 ± 1.57% and 0.037 ± 0.014 but exhibited a higher surface density (5.56 ± 0.11 mm2/mm3 vs. 2.06 ± 0.26 for LD, p<0.05. LP granular arrangements created large pores coexisting with dense areas of material. Frontal plane analysis evidenced a more regular arrangement of β-TCP granules than bone trabeculae. Stacks of HP granules represent a scaffold that resembles trabecular bone in its porous microarchitecture.

  17. [Lincomycin applied to the alveolus on TCP carrier and its effect on wound healing after surgical extraction of a third molar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Izabela; Slósarczyk, Anna; Myśliwiec, Leszek; Sporniak-Tutak, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    The dental surgeon is often confronted by complications particularly after extraction ofunerupted lower third molars. The most common complication is alveolar periostitis. The healing process after extraction is accompanied by physiologic atrophy of the alveolus involving on the average 30% of bone tissue. Beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) is a synthetic material used in medicine to fill up bone defects caused by pathologic processes. The properties of TCP are appropriate for the material to be used as a carrier for drugs, in particular antibiotics. This study was undertaken to determine whether lincomycin applied to the alveolus on TCP carrier can be used to accelerate wound healing and reduce inflammation after surgical extraction of a third molar. We enrolled 80 patients (males and females between the age of 18 and 50 years) who underwent extraction of a third molar at the Department of Dental Surgery, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. Surgical difficulty in the patients according to the Pederson scale corresponded to grade 2 or 3 (medium or high difficulty). The study group consisted of 40 patients who received lincomycin on TCP. Beta-tricalcium phosphate (300-700 microm pores) obtained from the Department of Technology of Ceramics and Refractories, AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow, was soaked with 500 mg of lincomycin in solution and applied to the dental alveolus after tooth extraction. The alveolus was tightly sutured. The control group comprised 40 patients not treated with lincomycin. The patients reappeared for examination on the first, third, and seventh day after surgery. Attention during follow-up was directed to alveolar periostitis, pain, and trismus. Pain intensity was assessed with the 10-degree Visual Analog Scale (VAS). We analyzed the subjective pain intensity reported during follow-up by the patients. In the study group, 20 patients reported no pain 24 hours after extraction. On the third day after surgery, alveolar

  18. Evaluation of autogenous PRGF+β-TCP with or without a collagen membrane on bone formation and implant osseointegration in large size bone defects. A preclinical in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batas, Leonidas; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Papadimitriou, Serafim; Nyengaard, Jens R; Konstantinidis, Antonios

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the adjunctive use of a collagen membrane enhances bone formation and implant osseointegration in non-contained defects grafted with chair-side prepared autologous platelet-rich growth factor (PRGF) adsorbed on a β-TCP particulate carrier. Large box-type defects (10 × 6 mm; W × D) were prepared in the edentulated and completely healed mandibles of six Beagles dogs. An implant with moderately rough surface was placed in the center of each defect leaving the coronal 6 mm of the implant not covered with bone. The remaining defect space was then filled out with chair-side prepared autologous PRGF adsorbed on β-TCP particles and either covered with a collagen membrane (PRGF/β-TCP+CM) (6 defects) or left without a membrane (PRGF/β-TCP) (5 defects). Histology 4 months post-op showed new lamellar and woven bone formation encompassing almost entirely the defect and limited residual β-TCP particles. Extent of osseointegration of the previously exposed portion of the implants varied, but in general was limited. Within the defect, new mineralized bone (%) averaged 43.2 ± 9.86 vs. 39.9 ± 13.7 in the PRGF/β-TCP+CM and PRGF/β-TCP group (P = 0.22) and relative mineralized bone-to-implant contact (%) averaged 26.2 ± 16.45 vs. 35.91 ± 24.45, respectively (P = 0.5). First, bone-to-implant contact from the implant top was 4.1 ± 1.5 and 3.2 ± 2.3 (P = 0.9), in the PRGF/β-TCP+CM and PRGF/β-TCP group, respectively. Implantation of chair-side prepared autologous PRGF adsorbed on a β-TCP carrier in non-contained peri-implant defects resulted in large amounts of bone regeneration, but osseointegration was limited. Provisions for GBR with a collagen membrane did not significantly enhance bone regeneration or implant osseointegration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Evidence of CP violation in B -> hhh charmless decays

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    We present the first evidence of CP violation in the B+→ pi+pi-pi+,  B+→ K+pi+pi-, B+→ K+K-pi+ and B+→K+K-K+ decays using the 1.0 fb-1 of data collected by the LHCb experiment during 2011. The results show that the 3pi and Kpipi channels present a positive asymmetry while the KKpi and KKK modes present a negative asymmetry. We also study the variation of the CP violation effects in the phase space of each three-body decay.  We find significant inhomogeneities that reveal regions with particularly large asymmetries in the pipi and KK low mass regions in B+→pi+pi-pi+ and B+→K+K-pi+ respectively.

  20. STUDY THE EFFECTIVENESS APPLICATIONS OF FUZZY CONTROLLER WITH TWO ENTRANCES IN THE SYSTEM OF ACTIVE QUEUE MANAGEMENT THE PACKETS IN TCP/IP NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Nevdachyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach to solving the overloading problem in TCP/IP networks. Offered fuzzy controller with two inputs for system of active queue management packages in TCP/IP networks, and investigated its use in these systems with a random change of traffic load. Proposed controller has two inputs, one of which is the value of the difference between the current queue length and the second – the difference between the current level of usage of the buffer. The output of the fuzzy controller calculates the probability of discarding packet.Mathematical model system of active queue management that is studied is presented in an interactive MATLAB system, in wherein also is demonstrated the processes occurring in the system with a random change of traffic load. The research results show that the AQM-system with fuzzy controller with two entrances stable enough maintains the desired current length the queue for sufficiently small values of the probability of dropping/marking packets (at acceptable size of queue q0= 200 packets, the average probability of dropping / marking is not more than 3,5×10–3 or less 0,35% packets is discarded or marked from the total number of incoming packets. The results obtained will help improve the efficiency of the functioning and operation of TCP / IP networks by increasing data transmission quality. this happens due introduction of the proposed controller at the design of new, more efficient routers for networks to minimize the delay of information.

  1. Radiation damage, repopulation and cell recovery analysis of in vitro tumour cell megacolony culture data using a non-Poissonian cell repopulation TCP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavrev, P; Weldon, M; Warkentin, B; Stavreva, N; Fallone, B G

    2005-01-01

    The effects of radiation damage, tumour repopulation and cell sublethal damage repair and the possibility of extracting information about the model parameters describing them are investigated in this work. Previously published data on two different cultured cell lines were analysed with the help of a tumour control probability (TCP) model that describes tumour cell dynamics properly. Different versions of a TCP model representing the cases of full or partial cell recovery between fractions of radiation, accompanied by repopulation or no repopulation were used to fit the data and were ranked according to statistical criteria. The data analysis shows the importance of the linear-quadratic mechanism of cell damage for the description of the in vitro cell dynamics. In a previous work where in vivo data were analysed, the employment of the single hit model of cell kill and cell repopulation produced the best fit, while ignoring the quadratic term of cell damage in the current analysis leads to poor fits. It is also concluded that more experiments using different fractionation regimes producing diverse data are needed to help model analysis and better ranking of the models

  2. Pandemic serotypes of Vibrio cholerae isolated from ships' ballast tanks and coastal waters: assessment of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes (tcpA and ctxA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Fred C; Goodrich, Amanda L; Thomson, Frank K; Hynes, Wayne

    2013-05-01

    There is concern that ships' ballasting operations may disseminate Vibrio cholerae to ports throughout the world. Given evidence that the bacterium is indeed transported by ships, we isolated pandemic serotypes O1 and O139 from ballast tanks and characterized them with respect to antibiotic resistance and virulence genes ctxA and tcpA. We carried out concurrent studies with V. cholerae isolated from coastal waters. Of 284 isolates, 30 were serotype O1 and 59 were serotype O139. These serotypes were overrepresented in ballast tanks relative to the coastal waters sampled. All locations, whether coastal waters or ballast tanks, yielded samples from which serotype O1, O139, or both were isolated. There were three groups among the 62 isolates for which antibiotic characterization was conclusive: those exhibiting β-lactamase activity and resistance to at least one of the 12 antibiotics tested; those negative for β-lactamase but having antibiotic resistance; those negative for β-lactamase and registering no antibiotic resistance. When present, antibiotic resistance in nearly all cases was to ampicillin; resistance to multiple antibiotics was uncommon. PCR assays revealed that none of the isolates contained the ctxA gene and only two isolates, one O139 and one O1, contained the tcpA gene; both isolates originated from ballast water. These results support the bacteriological regulations proposed by the International Maritime Association for discharged ballast water.

  3. Periodontal wound healing/regeneration following the application of rhGDF-5 in a beta-TCP/PLGA carrier in critical-size supra-alveolar periodontal defects in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, David H; Bisch, Frederick C; Herold, Robert W; Pompe, Cornelius; Bastone, Patrizia; Rodriguez, Nancy A; Susin, Cristiano; Wikesjö, Ulf M E

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a novel recombinant human GDF-5 (rhGDF-5) construct intended for onlay and inlay indications on periodontal wound healing/regeneration. Contralateral, surgically created, critical-size, 6-mm, supra-alveolar periodontal defects in five adult Hound Labrador mongrel dogs received rhGDF-5 coated onto beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) particles and immersed in a bioresorbable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite or the beta-TCP/PLGA carrier alone (control). The rhGDF-5 and control constructs were moulded around the teeth and allowed to set. The gingival flaps were then advanced; flap margins were adapted 3-4 mm coronal to the teeth and sutured. The animals were euthanized at 8 weeks post-surgery when block biopsies were collected for histometric analysis. Healing was generally uneventful. A few sites exhibited minor exposures. Three control sites and one rhGDF-5 site (in separate animals) experienced more extensive wound dehiscencies. The rhGDF-5 and control constructs were easy to apply and exhibited adequate structural integrity to support the mucoperiosteal flaps in this challenging onlay model. Limited residual beta-TCP particles were observed at 8 weeks for both rhGDF-5/beta-TCP/PLGA and beta-TCP/PLGA control sites. The rhGDF-5/beta-TCP/PLGA sites showed significantly greater cementum (2.34 +/- 0.44 versus 1.13 +/- 0.25 mm, p=0.02) and bone (2.92 +/- 0.66 versus 1.21 +/- 0.30 mm, p=0.02) formation compared with the carrier control. Limited ankylosis was observed in four of five rhGDF-5/beta-TCP/PLGA sites but not in control sites. Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that rhGDF-5 is a promising candidate technology in support of periodontal wound healing/regeneration. Carrier and rhGDF-5 dose optimization are necessary before further advancement of the technology towards clinical evaluation.

  4. Real time data acquisition for a time projection chamber using a high speed DEC-RT11 to UNIX UDP-TCP/IP interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.; Douglas, M.; Watanabe, R.; Henrikson, H.E.; Iqbal, M.Z.; Mitchell, L.W.; O'Callaghan, B.M.G.; Wong, H.T.K.; Melvin, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors built a high pressure xenon Time Projection Chamber to study double beta decay, a process of fundamental interest which, if observed, would indicate that the neutrino is a massive Majorana particle. Raw data rates from the TPC exceed 200 Kbytes per second. The TPC is operated through a CAMAC interface with a DEC LSI-11/73 computer networked to a Tektronix 6130 workstation. Data is transmitted at about 15 Kbytes per second although the network is capable of transmitting data at 80 Kbytes per second. The only system level programming required was to write a UDP-TCP/IP driver for the DEC-DEQNA Ethenet board on the 11/73

  5. EFECTO DE LOS OBSTÁCULOS TIPO POLIMERO RESINA EN RENDIMIENTO DE REDES TCP/IP/IEEE 802.11g MODO AD-HOC

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Barriobero, David

    2011-01-01

    La investigación tiene como objetivo primordial el desarrollo de un modelo matemático para evaluar el efecto de los obstáculos de tipo polímero resina en el rendimiento de redes TCP/IP/IEEE 802.11g modo ad-hoc; esto con el propósito de establecer la relación existente entre el diámetro de los obstáculos de tipo polímero resina y el rendimiento de una red inalámbrica en modo ad-hoc, al transmitir datos vía protocolo FTP. El tipo de investigación es explicativa con un diseño experimental. Los t...

  6. Análise de estado de tráfego de redes TCP/IP para aplicação em detecção de intrusão

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Henrique Peixoto Caetano Chaves

    2002-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de reconstrução de sessões para o tráfego de redes TCP/IP. Esta metodologia baseia-se em um modelo, gerado a partir de dados extraídos do tráfego de rede, que permite reconstruir e rastrear o estado das sess~oes, utilizando apenas o cabe calho dos pacotes. Através da extrapolação do conceito de "sessão", esta modelagem permite não são reconstruir e rastrear o estado das sessões TCP, mas também reconstruir sessões ICMP e UDP. O model...

  7. A novel germ cell protein, SPIF (sperm PKA interacting factor), is essential for the formation of a PKA/TCP11 complex that undergoes conformational and phosphorylation changes upon capacitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Simone J; Law, Estelle A; Jamsai, Duangporn; O'Bryan, Moira K; Nixon, Brett; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Aitken, R John; Roman, Shaun D

    2016-08-01

    Spermatozoa require the process of capacitation to enable them to fertilize an egg. PKA is crucial to capacitation and the development of hyperactivated motility. Sperm PKA is activated by cAMP generated by the germ cell-enriched adenylyl cyclase encoded by Adcy10 Male mice lacking Adcy10 are sterile, because their spermatozoa are immotile. The current study was designed to identify binding partners of the sperm-specific (Cα2) catalytic subunit of PKA (PRKACA) by using it as the "bait" in a yeast 2-hybrid system. This approach was used to identify a novel germ cell-enriched protein, sperm PKA interacting factor (SPIF), in 25% of the positive clones. Homozygous Spif-null mice were embryonically lethal. SPIF was coexpressed and coregulated with PRKACA and with t-complex protein (TCP)-11, a protein associated with PKA signaling. We established that these 3 proteins form part of a novel complex in mouse spermatozoa. Upon capacitation, the SPIF protein becomes tyrosine phosphorylated in >95% of sperm. An apparent molecular rearrangement in the complex occurs, bringing PRKACA and TCP11 into proximity. Taken together, these results suggest a role for the novel complex of SPIF, PRKACA, and TCP11 during sperm capacitation, fertilization, and embryogenesis.-Stanger, S. J., Law, E. A., Jamsai, D., O'Bryan, M. K., Nixon, B., McLaughlin, E. A., Aitken, R. J., Roman, S. D. A novel germ cell protein, SPIF (sperm PKA interacting factor), is essential for the formation of a PKA/TCP11 complex that undergoes conformational and phosphorylation changes upon capacitation. © FASEB.

  8. Diseño e implementación de un algoritmo para translación de protocolo entre las normas IEC60870-5-104 y MODBUS TCP/IP

    OpenAIRE

    Feria Briceño, John Henry; Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo muestra los resultados del proceso de diseño, implementación y prueba de un algoritmo para hacer la translación de protocolo entre las normas IEC 60870-5-104 y MODBUS TCP/IP, éste modelo de algoritmos son de amplio uso en los procesos de supervisión y automatización en sub-estaciones eléctricas.

  9. Efficacy of rhBMP-2 loaded PCL/PLGA/β-TCP guided bone regeneration membrane fabricated by 3D printing technology for reconstruction of calvaria defects in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo; Jang, Jinah; Jeong, Sung-In; Cho, Dong-Woo; Yoon, Min-Chul

    2014-01-01

    We successfully fabricated a three-dimensional (3D) printing-based PCL/PLGA/β-TCP guided bone regeneration (GBR) membrane that slowly released rhBMP-2. To impregnate the GBR membrane with intact rhBMP-2, collagen solution encapsulating rhBMP-2 (5 µg ml −1 ) was infused into pores of a PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membrane constructed using a 3D printing system with four dispensing heads. In a release profile test, sustained release of rhBMP-2 was observed for up to 28 d. To investigate the efficacy of the GBR membrane on bone regeneration, PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes with or without rhBMP-2 were implanted in an 8 mm calvaria defect of rabbits. Bone formation was evaluated at weeks 4 and 8 histologically and histomorphometrically. A space making ability of the GBR membrane was successfully maintained in both groups, and significantly more new bone was formed at post-implantation weeks 4 and 8 by rhBMP-2 loaded GBR membranes. Interestingly, implantation with rhBMP-2 loaded GBR membranes led to almost entire healing of calvaria defects within 8 weeks. (paper)

  10. Sci—Fri PM: Topics — 04: What if bystander effects influence cell kill within a target volume? Potential consequences of dose heterogeneity on TCP and EUD on intermediate risk prostate patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balderson, M.J.; Kirkby, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Jack Ady Cancer Centre, Lethbridge, Alberta (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    In vitro evidence has suggested that radiation induced bystander effects may enhance non-local cell killing which may influence radiotherapy treatment planning paradigms. This work applies a bystander effect model, which has been derived from published in vitro data, to calculate equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and tumour control probability (TCP) and compare them with predictions from standard linear quadratic (LQ) models that assume a response due only to local absorbed dose. Comparisons between the models were made under increasing dose heterogeneity scenarios. Dose throughout the CTV was modeled with normal distributions, where the degree of heterogeneity was then dictated by changing the standard deviation (SD). The broad assumptions applied in the bystander effect model are intended to place an upper limit on the extent of the results in a clinical context. The bystander model suggests a moderate degree of dose heterogeneity yields as good or better outcome compared to a uniform dose in terms of EUD and TCP. Intermediate risk prostate prescriptions of 78 Gy over 39 fractions had maximum EUD and TCP values at SD of around 5Gy. The plots only dropped below the uniform dose values for SD ∼ 10 Gy, almost 13% of the prescribed dose. The bystander model demonstrates the potential to deviate from the common local LQ model predictions as dose heterogeneity through a prostate CTV is varies. The results suggest the potential for allowing some degree of dose heterogeneity within a CTV, although further investigations of the assumptions of the bystander model are warranted.

  11. Sci—Fri PM: Topics — 04: What if bystander effects influence cell kill within a target volume? Potential consequences of dose heterogeneity on TCP and EUD on intermediate risk prostate patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balderson, M.J.; Kirkby, C.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro evidence has suggested that radiation induced bystander effects may enhance non-local cell killing which may influence radiotherapy treatment planning paradigms. This work applies a bystander effect model, which has been derived from published in vitro data, to calculate equivalent uniform dose (EUD) and tumour control probability (TCP) and compare them with predictions from standard linear quadratic (LQ) models that assume a response due only to local absorbed dose. Comparisons between the models were made under increasing dose heterogeneity scenarios. Dose throughout the CTV was modeled with normal distributions, where the degree of heterogeneity was then dictated by changing the standard deviation (SD). The broad assumptions applied in the bystander effect model are intended to place an upper limit on the extent of the results in a clinical context. The bystander model suggests a moderate degree of dose heterogeneity yields as good or better outcome compared to a uniform dose in terms of EUD and TCP. Intermediate risk prostate prescriptions of 78 Gy over 39 fractions had maximum EUD and TCP values at SD of around 5Gy. The plots only dropped below the uniform dose values for SD ∼ 10 Gy, almost 13% of the prescribed dose. The bystander model demonstrates the potential to deviate from the common local LQ model predictions as dose heterogeneity through a prostate CTV is varies. The results suggest the potential for allowing some degree of dose heterogeneity within a CTV, although further investigations of the assumptions of the bystander model are warranted

  12. Synthesis and characterization of injectable composites of poly[D,L-lactide-co-(ε-caprolactone)] reinforced with β-TCP and CaCO3 for intervertebral disk augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Persson, Cecilia; Hilborn, Jöns; Engqvist, Håkan

    2010-10-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disk constitutes one of the major causes of low back pain in adults aged 20-50 years old. In this study, injectable, in situ setting, degradable composites aimed for intervertebral disk replacement were prepared. β-TCP and calcium carbonate particles were mixed into acrylic-terminated oligo[D,L-lactide-co-(ε-caprolactone)], which were crosslinked at room temperature. The structure of the oligomers was confirmed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The composites were examined via SEM, and the mechanical properties of the crosslinked networks were determined. The porous β-TCP particles showed good mechanical anchorage to the matrix due to polymer penetration into the pores. In vitro degradation tests showed that the composites containing β-TCP slowly degraded, whereas the composites containing CaCO3 exhibited apatite formation capacity. It was concluded that the surface area, morphology, and solubility of the fillers might be used to control the degradation properties. The incorporation of fillers also increased both the elastic modulus and the maximum compression strength of the composites, properties that were similar to those of the physiological disk. These materials have potential for long-term intervertebral disk replacement and regenerative scaffolds because of their low degradation rates, bioactivity, and mechanical properties.

  13. Biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP of hydroxyapatite (HA and tricalcium phosphate (TCP as bone substitutes: Importance of physicochemical characterizations in biomaterials studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ebrahimi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Biphasic calcium phosphates bioceramics (HA/TCP: Concept, physicochemical properties and the impact of standardization of study protocols in biomaterials research” [1]. This article provides in depth study of BCP bone substitutes as valuable option in the field of tissue engineering. However, there are discrepancies in the literature regarding the ideal physicochemical properties of BCP and the ideal balance between different phase compositions for enhanced bone tissue engineering (M. Ebrahimi, M.G. Botelho, S.V. Dorozhkin, 2016; M. Ebrahimi, P. Pripatnanont, S. Suttapreyasri, N. Monmaturapoj, 2014 [1,2]. This is found to be mainly because of improper characterization of BCP bioceramics in basic studies and lack of standard study protocols in in vitro and in vivo research. This data article along with original article provide the basic data required for ideal characterization of BCP and other bioceramics in an attempt to provide basic standardized protocols for future studies.

  14. Awareness of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Gupta, Prakash C; Sinha, Dhirendra N

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (padvertising and promotion of tobacco products in India. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Awareness of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use: Findings from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Quah, Anne C.K.; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Sinha, Dhirendra N.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (padvertising and promotion of tobacco products in India. PMID:25455648

  16. Medium-Term Function of a 3D Printed TCP/HA Structure as a New Osteoconductive Scaffold for Vertical Bone Augmentation: A Simulation by BMP-2 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Moussa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A 3D-printed construct made of orthogonally layered strands of tricalcium phosphate (TCP and hydroxyapatite has recently become available. The material provides excellent osteoconductivity. We simulated a medium-term experiment in a sheep calvarial model by priming the blocks with BMP-2. Vertical bone growth/maturation and material resorption were evaluated. Materials and methods: Titanium hemispherical caps were filled with either bare- or BMP-2 primed constructs and placed onto the calvaria of adult sheep (n = 8. Histomorphometry was performed after 8 and 16 weeks. Results: After 8 weeks, relative to bare constructs, BMP-2 stimulation led to a two-fold increase in bone volume (Bare: 22% ± 2.1%; BMP-2 primed: 50% ± 3% and a 3-fold decrease in substitute volume (Bare: 47% ± 5%; BMP-2 primed: 18% ± 2%. These rates were still observed at 16 weeks. The new bone grew and matured to a haversian-like structure while the substitute material resorbed via cell- and chemical-mediation. Conclusion: By priming the 3D construct with BMP-2, bone metabolism was physiologically accelerated, that is, enhancing vertical bone growth and maturation as well as material bioresorption. The scaffolding function of the block was maintained, leaving time for the bone to grow and mature to a haversian-like structure. In parallel, the material resorbed via cell-mediated and chemical processes. These promising results must be confirmed in clinical tests.

  17. Knowledge of Health Effects and Intentions to Quit Among Smokers in India: Findings From the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP India Pilot Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh S. Pednekar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of the health risks of smoking is an important factor in predicting smoking-related behaviour; however, little is known about the knowledge of health risks in low-income countries such as India. The present study examined beliefs about the harms of smoking and the impact of health knowledge on intentions to quit among a sample of 249 current smokers in both urban and rural areas in two states (Maharashtra and Bihar from the 2006 TCP India Pilot Survey, conducted by the ITC Project. The overall awareness among smokers in India of the specific health risks of smoking was very low compared to other ITC countries, and only 10% of respondents reported that they had plans to quit in the next six months. In addition, smokers with higher knowledge were significantly more likely to have plans to quit smoking. For example, 26.2% of respondents who believed that smoking cause CHD and only 5.5% who did not believe that smoking causes CHD had intentions to quit (χ2 = 16.348, p < 0.001. Important differences were also found according to socioeconomic factors and state: higher levels of knowledge were found in Maharashtra than in Bihar, in urban compared to rural areas, among males, and among smokers with higher education. These findings highlight the need to increase awareness about the health risks of smoking in India, particularly in rural areas, where levels of education and health knowledge are lower.

  18. The induction of dentin bridge-like structures by constructs of subcultured dental pulp-derived cells and porous HA/TCP in porcine teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yusuke; Honda, Masaki J; Ohshima, Hayato; Tonomura, Akiko; Ohara, Takayuki; Itaya, Toshimitsu; Kagami, Hideaki; Ueda, Minoru

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate dentin-bridge formation in teeth following the transplantation of dental pulp-derived cells seeded on hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) scaffolds. The dental pulp tissues were removed from the extracted first molar teeth of miniature pigs and single cell populations were subcultured. Second-passage cells that had alkaline phosphatase activity were combined with scaffolds. Cell-scaffold constructs were placed in contact with the exposed pulp tissue. The dimensions of the exposed pulp site were approximately 1-2.5 mm in diameter and 2-3 mm in depth from the tooth surface. After placing the constructs, the tooth was restored with composite resin. Six weeks after transplantation, hard tissue formation was observed on the pulp tissue in histology. Dentinal tubule-like structures were observed in most of the hard tissue generated, and columnar cells, which showed positive immunoreactions with dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and heat shock protein (HSP)-25, were aligned beneath the hard tissues. When only scaffolds were placed on the pulp tissues, particles of hard tissue were formed, however dentinal tubule-like structures and odontoblasts were not observed despite the formation of hard tissue. In conclusion, the implantation of dental pulp constructs into pulp exposed stimulates the formation of calcified dentin-like structures.

  19. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a macro porous β-TCP granule-shaped bone substitute fabricated by the fibrous monolithic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Hee; Jyoti, M Anirban; Song, Ho-Yeon; Youn, Min-Ho; Lee, Byong-Taek; Youn, Hyung-Sun; Seo, Hyung-Seok

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a new porous beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) granule was fabricated using the fibrous monolithic (FM) process and its in vitro biocompatibility and in vivo bone formation were evaluated. SEM micrograph images showed that MG-63 cells attached to the surfaces of the implant and were well proliferated. Cellular viability was as high as 75% in a 50% extract dilution solution. cDNA micro array analysis was also carried out. In this analysis, we found a total of 12 up-regulated and 25 down-regulated genes. Four rabbits were used in the in vivo experiments. 3D micro-CT images showed that the formation of new bone was almost three times greater than that of normal trabecular bone (BV/TV). The histomorphometric results correlated with the micro-CT findings; a greater amount of new bone formation and osteoblast lineage along with osteocytes were observed in the implanted animals. Also x-ray radiographic and 2D micro-CT images were taken to demonstrate the superior biodegradability of the porous granule. As biodegradation occurred along with bone formation, 6 months after implantation, the porous granule structure was not distinguishable separately from that of the trabecular bone.

  20. Long-term changes in brain following continuous phencyclidine administration: An autoradiographic study using flunitrazepam, ketanserin, mazindol, quinuclidinyl benzilate, piperidyl-3,4-{sup 3}H(N)-TCP, and AMPA receptor ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, Gaylord; Keys, Alan; Noguchi, Kevin [Univ. of California Los Angeles, Dept. of Psychology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Phencyclidine induces a model psychosis which can persist for prolonged periods and presents a strong drug model of schizophrenia. When given continuously for several days to rats, phencyclidine and other N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists induce neural degeneration in a variety of limbic structures, including retrosplenial cortex, hippocampus, septohippocampal projections, and piriform cortex. In an attempt to further clarify the mechanisms underlying these degeneration patterns, autoradiographic studies using a variety of receptor ligands were conducted in animals 21 days after an identical dosage of the continuous phencyclidine administration employed in the previous degeneration studies. The results indicated enduring alterations in a number of receptors: these included decreased piperidyl-3,4-{sup 3}H(N)-TCP (TCP), flunitrazepam, and mazindol binding in many of the limbic regions in which degeneration has been reported previously. Quinuclidinyl benzilate and (AMPA) binding were decreased in anterior cingulate and piriform cortex, and in accumbens and striatum. Piperidyl-3,4-{sup 3}H(N)-TCP binding was decreased in most hippocampal regions. Many of these long-term alterations would not have been predicted by prior studies of the neurotoxic effects of continuous phencyclidine, and these results do not suggest a unitary source for the neurotoxicity. Whereas retrosplenial cortex, the structure which degenerates earliest, showed minimal alterations, some of the most consistent, long term alterations were in structures which evidence no immediate signs of neural degeneration, such as anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus. In these structures, some of the receptor changes appeared to develop gradually (they were not present immediately after cessation of drug administration), and thus were perhaps due to changed input from regions evidencing neurotoxicity. Some of these findings, particularly in anterior cingulate, may have implications for models of

  1. Long-term changes in brain following continuous phencyclidine administration: An autoradiographic study using flunitrazepam, ketanserin, mazindol, quinuclidinyl benzilate, piperidyl-3,4-3H(N)-TCP, and AMPA receptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, Gaylord; Keys, Alan; Noguchi, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Phencyclidine induces a model psychosis which can persist for prolonged periods and presents a strong drug model of schizophrenia. When given continuously for several days to rats, phencyclidine and other N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists induce neural degeneration in a variety of limbic structures, including retrosplenial cortex, hippocampus, septohippocampal projections, and piriform cortex. In an attempt to further clarify the mechanisms underlying these degeneration patterns, autoradiographic studies using a variety of receptor ligands were conducted in animals 21 days after an identical dosage of the continuous phencyclidine administration employed in the previous degeneration studies. The results indicated enduring alterations in a number of receptors: these included decreased piperidyl-3,4- 3 H(N)-TCP (TCP), flunitrazepam, and mazindol binding in many of the limbic regions in which degeneration has been reported previously. Quinuclidinyl benzilate and (AMPA) binding were decreased in anterior cingulate and piriform cortex, and in accumbens and striatum. Piperidyl-3,4- 3 H(N)-TCP binding was decreased in most hippocampal regions. Many of these long-term alterations would not have been predicted by prior studies of the neurotoxic effects of continuous phencyclidine, and these results do not suggest a unitary source for the neurotoxicity. Whereas retrosplenial cortex, the structure which degenerates earliest, showed minimal alterations, some of the most consistent, long term alterations were in structures which evidence no immediate signs of neural degeneration, such as anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus. In these structures, some of the receptor changes appeared to develop gradually (they were not present immediately after cessation of drug administration), and thus were perhaps due to changed input from regions evidencing neurotoxicity. Some of these findings, particularly in anterior cingulate, may have implications for models of

  2. Bone regeneration with active angiogenesis by basic fibroblast growth factor gene transfected mesenchymal stem cells seeded on porous beta-TCP ceramic scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaodong; Zheng, Qixin; Kulbatski, Iris; Yuan, Quan; Yang, Shuhua; Shao, Zengwu; Wang, Hong; Xiao, Baojun; Pan, Zhengqi; Tang, Shuo

    2006-09-01

    Large segmental bone defect repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on combining gene transfer with tissue engineering techniques. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is one of the most prominent osteogenic growth factors that has the potential to accelerate bone healing by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the regeneration of capillary vasculature. However, the short biological half-lives of growth factors may impose severe restraints on their clinical usefulness. Gene-based delivery systems provide a better way of achieving a sustained high concentration of growth factors locally in the defect and delivering a more biologically active product than that achieved by exogenous application of recombinant proteins. The objective of this experimental study was to investigate whether the bFGF gene modified MSCs could enhance the repair of large segmental bone defects. The pcDNA3-bFGF gene transfected MSCs were seeded on biodegradable porous beta tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) ceramics and allografted into the 15 mm critical-sized segmental bone defects in the radius of 18 New Zealand White rabbits. The pcDNA3 vector gene transfected MSCs were taken as the control. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks. Scanning electron microscopic, roentgenographic, histologic and immunohistological studies were used to assess angiogenesis and bone regeneration. In vitro, the proliferation and differentiation of bFGF gene transfected MSCs were more active than that of the control groups. In vivo, significantly more new bone formation accompanied by abundant active capillary regeneration was observed in pores of the ceramics loaded with bFGF gene transfected MSCs, compared with control groups. Transfer of gene encoding bFGF to MSCs increases their osteogenic properties by enhancing capillary regeneration, thus providing a rich blood supply for new bone formation. This new b

  3. Bone regeneration with active angiogenesis by basic fibroblast growth factor gene transfected mesenchymal stem cells seeded on porous {beta}-TCP ceramic scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Xiaodong [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng Qixin [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China); Kulbatski, Iris [Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Toronto Western Research Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8 (Canada); Yuan Quan [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yang Shuhua [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China); Shao Zengwu [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China); Wang Hong [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China); Xiao Baojun [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China); Pan Zhengqi [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China); Tang Shuo [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2006-09-15

    Large segmental bone defect repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on combining gene transfer with tissue engineering techniques. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is one of the most prominent osteogenic growth factors that has the potential to accelerate bone healing by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the regeneration of capillary vasculature. However, the short biological half-lives of growth factors may impose severe restraints on their clinical usefulness. Gene-based delivery systems provide a better way of achieving a sustained high concentration of growth factors locally in the defect and delivering a more biologically active product than that achieved by exogenous application of recombinant proteins. The objective of this experimental study was to investigate whether the bFGF gene modified MSCs could enhance the repair of large segmental bone defects. The pcDNA3-bFGF gene transfected MSCs were seeded on biodegradable porous {beta} tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) ceramics and allografted into the 15 mm critical-sized segmental bone defects in the radius of 18 New Zealand White rabbits. The pcDNA3 vector gene transfected MSCs were taken as the control. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks. Scanning electron microscopic, roentgenographic, histologic and immunohistological studies were used to assess angiogenesis and bone regeneration. In vitro, the proliferation and differentiation of bFGF gene transfected MSCs were more active than that of the control groups. In vivo, significantly more new bone formation accompanied by abundant active capillary regeneration was observed in pores of the ceramics loaded with bFGF gene transfected MSCs, compared with control groups. Transfer of gene encoding bFGF to MSCs increases their osteogenic properties by enhancing capillary regeneration, thus providing a rich blood supply for new bone formation. This new

  4. Bone regeneration with active angiogenesis by basic fibroblast growth factor gene transfected mesenchymal stem cells seeded on porous β-TCP ceramic scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaodong; Zheng Qixin; Kulbatski, Iris; Yuan Quan; Yang Shuhua; Shao Zengwu; Wang Hong; Xiao Baojun; Pan Zhengqi; Tang Shuo

    2006-01-01

    Large segmental bone defect repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on combining gene transfer with tissue engineering techniques. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is one of the most prominent osteogenic growth factors that has the potential to accelerate bone healing by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the regeneration of capillary vasculature. However, the short biological half-lives of growth factors may impose severe restraints on their clinical usefulness. Gene-based delivery systems provide a better way of achieving a sustained high concentration of growth factors locally in the defect and delivering a more biologically active product than that achieved by exogenous application of recombinant proteins. The objective of this experimental study was to investigate whether the bFGF gene modified MSCs could enhance the repair of large segmental bone defects. The pcDNA3-bFGF gene transfected MSCs were seeded on biodegradable porous β tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics and allografted into the 15 mm critical-sized segmental bone defects in the radius of 18 New Zealand White rabbits. The pcDNA3 vector gene transfected MSCs were taken as the control. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks. Scanning electron microscopic, roentgenographic, histologic and immunohistological studies were used to assess angiogenesis and bone regeneration. In vitro, the proliferation and differentiation of bFGF gene transfected MSCs were more active than that of the control groups. In vivo, significantly more new bone formation accompanied by abundant active capillary regeneration was observed in pores of the ceramics loaded with bFGF gene transfected MSCs, compared with control groups. Transfer of gene encoding bFGF to MSCs increases their osteogenic properties by enhancing capillary regeneration, thus providing a rich blood supply for new bone formation. This new b

  5. Adquisición, registro y transmisión en tiempo real de señales sismológicas bajo TCP/IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas-jiménez Carlos A.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available

    The constant evolution of network technologies has made possible the development of applications facilitating the real time access to the information. This way, it is possible the implementation of remote monitoring systems that using PCs achieves efficient transmission of signals through computer networks. In this work, the procedures system design and implementation procedures are explain in Client/Server environment that, based on TCP/lP, transmits in real time 16 seismological signals over LAN network and the Internet. The server is a PC endowed with an acquisition data card and it is the one in charge of carrying out the signal Analog/Digital conversion, to store in files those that correspond to seismic events and, at the same time, to assist the applications of the different clients. The client's software allows the users to view in real time the signals that the server is acquiring and to carry out a basicn processing to the signals that have been registered in the server.

    Se presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de monitoreo de variables sísmicas, que incluye la adquisición y adecuación de 16 canales simultáneos, el preproceso, la grabación y la transmisión sobre redes IP en tiempo real. EI sistema esta orientado al sistema Windows, para lo cual se emplearon librerías dinámicas orientadas al acceso de dispositivos en tiempo real. Así mismo, el acceso de datos al PC se realiza vfa DMA, para implementar el proceso múltiple de señales en tiempo real. La arquitectura de la red IP de monitoreo sísmico es cliente/servidor, en la cual se tome como servidor un PC dotado de una tarjeta de adquisición de datos, encargado de realizar la conversión an

  6. Improved measurements of the two-body decays B → hh(h = K, π)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Gagan

    2013-01-01

    We report improved measurements of the branching fractions and CP violation asymmetries for B → Kπ,ππ and K K decays based on the final data sample 772 million BB pairs collected with the Belle detector. We set a 90% confidence-level upper limit for B 0 →K + K; all other decays are observed with branching fraction ranging from 10 6 to 10 5

  7. Summy of the working groupI of the care HHH LUMI-2005 workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Brüning, Oliver Sim

    2006-01-01

    The working group I of the LUMI-2005 workshop was asked to put together a catalogue of basic design options for the IR solutions for an LHC-upgrade. The goal of the working group was to discuss the different solutions with respect to the maximum beta-functions inside the first focusing quadrupole magnets and the resulting required quadrupole apertures the chromatic aberrations on the one hand and the implications for the magnet technology on the other hand. Such a comparison requires a wide range of input data ranging from the expected loss patterns at the magnetic elements and the resulting peak and average heat deposition to the obtainable peak magnetic field and quench limits for different magnet design options and the correct ability of the chromatic aberrations for a given optics design. Given the wide spectrum of relevant input data the working group could not yet prepare a final ranking of the various design options. Rather the working group succeeded in fixing some of the key boundary conditions in or...

  8. La Alianza Bolivariana para las Américas-Tratado de Comercio de los Pueblos (ALBA-TCP: análisis de un proyecto de integración regional latinoamericana con una fuerte dimensión altermundialista.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ullán de la Rosa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El ALBA-TCP es una de las organizaciones internacionales de más reciente creación. Es, sin duda, un proyecto original, diferente a las fórmulas de integración regional conocidas y preexistentes: fuertemente dirigido desde lo político, se propone como un mecanismo para planificar desde lo público las relaciones económicas y comerciales entre países, evitando o reduciendo en lo posible la competencia de mercado y fomentando la cooperación y las sinergias desde valores socialistas y de solidaridad. Y todo esto como expresión de una encrucijada ideológica donde crecen y se mezclan, con la lógica del collage posmoderno, casi todas las corrientes del pensamiento social de izquierda. El ALBA y los gobiernos que lo integran se encuentran en medio de una confrontación geopolítica e ideológica de escala continental que sesga enormemente la objetividad de los análisis. Este artículo pretende superar dichos sesgos presentando un análisis académico riguroso y sin toma de partido alguno. En él se analizan las circunstancias históricas que envuelven el nacimiento y evolución del ALBA y se incursiona en el análisis de su programa ideológico y sus proyectos concretos, señalando su convergencia con los del movimiento altermundialista latinoamericano y mundial. Por último, se apuntan algunas estadísticas de desarrollo concretas a fin de valorar los resultados en la práctica de las políticas económicas de este bloque regional.

  9. Stochastic Model of TCP SYN Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ramanauskaitė

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A great proportion of essential services are moving into internet space making the threat of DoS attacks even more actual. To estimate the real risk of some kind of denial of service (DoS attack in real world is difficult, but mathematical and software models make this task easier. In this paper we overview the ways of implementing DoS attack models and offer a stochastic model of SYN flooding attack. It allows evaluating the potential threat of SYN flooding attacks, taking into account both the legitimate system flow as well as the possible attack power. At the same time we can assess the effect of such parameters as buffer capacity, open connection storage in the buffer or filte­ring efficiency on the success of different SYN flooding attacks. This model can be used for other type of memory depletion denial of service attacks.Article in Lithuanian

  10. TCP/IP Implementations and Vendors Guide,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    DOCUMENTATION PAGE la. REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION lb. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS 2a. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3. DISTRIBUTION/ AVAILABILIT OF...UNIX System V (5.2) IMPLEMENTATION-LANGUAGE: C DISTRIBUTOR: UNIQ Digital Technologies 28 S. Water St. Batavia, fI1 60510 (312) 879-1008 CONTACT

  11. Study and realisation of a gateway between a MIL1553 network and an Ethernet network. Implementation of the OS9NET homogeneous network and of the TCP/IP heterogeneous network on the OS-9/68000 real time operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricot-Censier, Pascal

    1989-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the design of a homogeneous network for machines acquiring data in real time, and the interconnection by a heterogeneous network of this group with three groups of mini-computers, workstations, and personal computers. Thus, this work involved hardware as well as software designs and developments. After a recall of main notions related to networks, and a presentation of the OS9 real time core, the author reports the design and development of the Ethernet controller card. He reports the design and realisation of a gateway between Ethernet and MIL1553 which is notably based on the previously mentioned controller card. An Ethernet driver is then designed for the OS9 operating system. As the connection with other machines which do not support OS9, requires the development of applications using TCP/IP protocols, the author describes how software designed for PCs have been adapted for a use in real time and for the OS9 operating system. He presents an additional software layer to TCP/IP for an inter-process communication through a heterogeneous network. This layer allows the development of applications distributed among systems which possess different processors and operating systems. Finally, the author presents a test protocol which ensures the fast transfer of memory blocks between OS9 machines [fr

  12. INFLUENCIA DE LAS CONDICIONES FISICOQUÍMICAS DEL SEDIMENTO Y LA INTERFASE AGUA-SEDIMENTO EN LA TRANSFERENCIA EXPERIMENTAL DEL O,O-DIETIL O?- 3,5,6 TRICLORO-2-PIRIDINIL FOSFOROTIATO (CLORPIRIFOS Y EL 3,5,6 TRICLORO-2-PIRIDINOL (TCP, EN EL EMBALSE RIOGRANDE II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana María Agudelo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación experimental se evaluó la influencia de algunas variables fisicoquímicas de sedimentos procedentes del embalse Riogrande II y de la interfase agua-sedimento en la transferencia de Clorpirifos y TCP. El análisis de clorpirifos y TCP en sedimentos y agua se realizó por extracción en fase sólida. Las muestras fueron detectadas por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (Trace GC Ultra MS 2030-Thermo Scientific. Se evidenció una fuerte adsorción de ambos compuestos en los sedimentos, dado el alto contenido de arcillas y de carbono orgánico, lo cual limitó su movilidad hacia la interfase. La interfase agua-sedimento se caracterizó por una condición de hipoxia durante toda la fase experimental, mientras que la conductividad eléctrica aumento en el tiempo. Se determinó que un pH neutro o ligeramente alcalino favoreció el aumento de la concentración de clorpirifos en la interfase agua-sedimento, lo cual sugiere un incremento de su transferencia desde el sedimento a la interfase, mientras que un pH ligeramente ácido favorece la transformación del compuesto parental en el sedimento.

  13. Synthesis and degradation properties of β-TCP/BG porous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for bone repair and bone regeneration, have recently received more and more attention due to similar mineral ... or damaged bone tissues repair and reconstruction in recent years. Moreover, it has been found that the ... nesium nitrate hexahydrate, calcium carbonate, sodium car- bonate, and ammonia were purchased from ...

  14. Ohio Financial Services and Risk Management. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document describes the essential competencies from secondary through post-secondary associate degree programs for a career in financial services and risk management. Ohio College Tech Prep Program standards are described, and a key to profile codes is provided. Sample occupations in this career area, such as financial accountant, loan…

  15. Designing TCP/IP Checksum Function for Acceleration in FPGA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    etim

    This has been solved by the wide deployment of optical fibers over the ... or 30% efficiency from a Pentium 4, 2.4 GHz processor to .... world, the system is set to run, given a data byte, and ... Figure 3: Checksum system with I/O ports. States and ...

  16. Ohio Legal Office Managment. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document, which lists core business and legal office management competencies identified by representatives from education and business and industry throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary associate degree…

  17. Multipath TCP for user cooperation in wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Dizhi

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents several enhancement modules to Multipath Transmission Control Protocol (MPTCP) in order to support stable and efficient multipath transmission with user cooperation in the Long Term Evolution (LTE) network. The text explains how these enhancements provide a stable aggregate throughput to the upper-layer applications; guarantee a steady goodput, which is the real application-layer perceived throughput; and ensure that the local traffic of the relays is not adversely affected when the relays are forwarding data for the destination. The performance of the proposed solutions is extensively evaluated using various scenarios. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed modules can achieve a stable aggregate throughput and significantly improve the goodput by 1.5 times on average. The brief also shows that these extensions can well respect the local traffic of the relays and motivate the relay users to provide the relaying service.

  18. TCP isoeffect analysis using a heterogeneous distribution of radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlone, Marco; Wilkins, David; Nyiri, Balazs; Raaphorst, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A formula for the α/β ratio is derived using the heterogeneous (population averaged) tumor control model. This formula is nearly identical to the formula obtained using the homogeneous (individual) tumor control model, but the new formula includes extra terms showing that the α/β ratio, the ratio of the mean value of α divided by the mean value of β that would be observed in a patient population, explicitly depends on the survival level and heterogeneity. The magnitude of this correction is estimated for prostate cancer, and this appears to raise the mean value of the ratio estimate by about 20%. The method also allows investigation of confidence limits for α/β based on a population distribution of radiosensitivity. For a widely heterogeneous population, the upper 95% confidence interval for the α/β ratio can be as high as 7.3 Gy, even though the population mean is between 2.3 and 2.6 Gy

  19. Fingerprinting Reverse Proxies Using Timing Analysis of TCP Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Message Protocol IG Information Grid IP Internet Protocol ISP Internet Service Provider IT Information Technology MITM Man-in-the-middle NAT Network...Unsuspecting users could be vulnerable to man-in-the-middle ( MITM ) attacks or web-based attacks [2] against web browsers and browser plug-ins. There is no

  20. Exploring Embedded Path Capacity Estimation in TCP Receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcondes, Cesar; Sanadidi, M.Y.; Gerla, Mario; Martinello, Magnos; de Souza Schwartz, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimation of network characteristics, such as capacity, based on non-intrusive measurements is a fundamental desire of several applications. For instance, P2P applications that build overlay networks can use path capacity for optimizing network performance. We present a simple technique to

  1. Study of CP violation in the B0 → h+h-(h = π, K) decay by the BaBar detector at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivk, Muriel

    2003-01-01

    The absence of antimatter in the universe imposes the study of the CP symmetry violation. This phenomenon first uncovered in the K meson systems has been recently evidenced in the B meson systems. The B factories PEP-II and KEK-B produce e + e - in the Υ(4S) resonance, which undergoes a decay into charged or neutral BB-bar pairs. Evidencing the CP violation requires a measurement of the difference between the B meson decays towards a precise final state and the B-bar meson decay, i.e. of the CP conjugate antiparticle of B. The work described in this thesis has been carried out since January 2001 with the detector BABAR. Namely, the subject matter of the thesis was the study of the neutral B meson decay into two charmless bodies in the final state B 0 /B 0 -bar → h + h - (h = π, K). Since events in these channels are extremely rare a major task of the analysis is to lower the background as much as possible. The decays allow studying the CP violation namely, through the α angle of the unitarity triangle describing the CP violation in the Standard Model. This new information added to the β angle and to other CKM matrix parameters, already measured, permits strengthening the constraints on the Standard Model parameters. This thesis is structured in three parts. The first one deals with the theory. First it presents a general description of the weak interaction within in the frame of the Standard Model, as well as a description of the B 0 /B 0 -bar system. The second chapter presents the B 0 → π + π - decay which is indeed the core of this thesis. Four theoretical models studied for the interpretation of the results are also described. The second part is devoted to the experimental setup. The PEP-II collider and the BABAR detector are described thoroughly to comprehend the key points of the analysis. The third part presents details of the analysis of experimental results from the data acquisition up to extraction of measurement magnitudes. The chapter four gives a general outlook of the analysis particularly of the event selection. The fundamental variables are here defined and exposed is the principle of the likelihood method used for extraction of the information in the last stage of the analysis. The chapter five is devoted to the fight against the background. The following chapter presents the adjustment made to shape the final stage of analysis which allows extraction of the branching ratios and parameters which measure the CP violation. Finally, the last chapter deals with the interpretation of the results in terms of constraints on parameters of CKM matrix of the Standard Model. Also, the results of Belle experiment are discussed. In conclusion, the following values were obtained for the branching ratios: B(B 0 → π + π - ) = 4.7 ± 0.6 ± 0.2 10 -6 ; B(B 0 → K + π - ) = 17.9 ± 0.9 ± 0.7 10 -6 ; B(B 0 → K + K - ) -6 (90%). These values are in good agreement with the data previously published but they have a higher precision. In the last case only an upper limit is given because the signal is as expected very low. The results for the parameters measuring the CP violation are: A Kπ = - 0.10 ± 0.05 ± 0.02; S ππ = 0.02 ± 0.34 ± 0.05; C ππ = - 0.30 ± 0.25 ± 0.04. These three values are compatible with the absence of CP violation. The interpretation of these results show that is still difficult to constrain significantly the alpha angle with the current statistics and isospin symmetry which is the only solid theoretical frame. Hopefully, the statistics of BABAR will increase till 2006 by a factor of five and the B 0 → π 0 π 0 ) decay branching will be measured sufficiently accurately to allow reaching the α angle. To get stronger constraints the theoretical models should be further elaborated and experimentally checked

  2. Performance evaluation of a high-speed switched network for PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Randy H.; Tao, Wenchao; Huang, Lu J.; Valentino, Daniel J.

    1998-07-01

    We have replaced our shared-media Ethernet and FDDI network with a multi-tiered, switched network using OC-12 (622 Mbps) ATM for the network backbone, OC3 (155 Mbps) connections to high-end servers and display workstations, and switched 100/10 Mbps Ethernet for workstations and desktop computers. The purpose of this research was to help PACS designers and implementers understand key performance factors in a high- speed switched network by characterizing and evaluating its image delivery performance, specifically, the performance of socket-based TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and DICOM 3.0 communications. A test network within the UCLA Clinical RIS/PACS was constructed using Sun UltraSPARC-II machines with ATM, Fast Ethernet, and Ethernet network interfaces. To identify performance bottlenecks, we evaluated network throughput for memory to memory, memory to disk, disk to memory, and disk to disk transfers. To evaluate the effect of file size, tests involving disks were further divided using sizes of small (514 KB), medium (8 MB), and large (16 MB) files. The observed maximum throughput for various network configurations using the TCP protocol was 117 Mbps for memory to memory and 88 MBPS for memory to disk. For disk to memory, the peak throughput was 98 Mbps using small files, 114 Mbps using medium files, and 116 Mbps using large files. The peak throughput for disk to disk became 64 Mbps using small files and 96 Mbps using medium and large files. The peak throughput using the DICOM 3.0 protocol was substantially lower in all categories. The measured throughput varied significantly among the tests when TCP socket buffer was raised above the default value. The optimal buffer size was approximately 16 KB or the TCP protocol and around 256 KB for the DICOM protocol. The application message size also displayed distinctive effects on network throughput when the TCP socket buffer size was varied. The throughput results for Fast Ethernet and Ethernet were expectedly

  3. Tcp and NTCP radiobiological models: conventional and hypo fractionated treatments in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astudillo V, A.; Paredes G, L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Resendiz G, G.; Posadas V, A. [Hospital Angeles Lomas, Av. Vialidad de la Barranca s/n, Col. Valle de las Palmas, 52763 Huixquilucan de Degallado, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Mitsoura, E. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan, Esq. Jesus Carranza s/n, Col. Moderna de la Cruz, 50180 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Rodriguez L, A.; Flores C, J. M., E-mail: armando.astudillo@inin.gob.mx [Hospital Medica Sur, Puente de Piedra 150, Col. Toriello Guerra, 14050 Tlalpan, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    The hypo and conventional fractionated schedules performance were compared in terms of the tumor control and the normal tissue complications. From the records of ten patients, treated for adenocarcinoma and without mastectomy, the dose-volume histogram was used. Using radiobiological models the probabilities for tumor control and normal tissue complications were calculated. For both schedules the tumor control was approximately the same. However, the damage in the normal tissue was larger in conventional fractionated schedule. This is important because patients assistance time to their fractions (15 fractions/25 fractions) can be optimized. Thus, the hypo fractionated schedule has suitable characteristics to be implemented. (Author)

  4. Controlled release of simvastatin from biomimetic β-TCP drug delivery system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Chou

    Full Text Available Simvastatin have been shown to induce bone formation and there is currently a urgent need to develop an appropriate delivery system to sustain the release of the drug to increase therapeutic efficacy whilst reducing side effects. In this study, a novel drug delivery system for simvastatin by means of hydrothermally converting marine exoskeletons to biocompatible beta-tricalcium phosphate was investigated. Furthermore, the release of simvastatin was controlled by the addition of an outer apatite coating layer. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mass spectroscopy confirming the conversion process. The in-vitro dissolution of key chemical compositional elements and the release of simvastatin were measured in simulated body fluid solution showing controlled release with reduction of approximately 25% compared with un-coated samples. This study shows the potential applications of marine structures as a drug delivery system for simvastatin.

  5. Effects of chlorpyrifos and TCP on human kidney cells using toxicity testing and proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework to apply molecular pathway-based data for use in risk assessment and regulatory decision support. The development of AOPs requires data on the effects of chemicals on biological processes (i.e., molecular initiating event...

  6. A fuzzy logic based network intrusion detection system for predicting the TCP SYN flooding attack

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkuzangwe, Nenekazi NP

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available decision tree which is one of the well-known machine learning techniques. The results indicate that the performance difference, in terms of predicting the proportion of attacks in the data, of the proposed system with respect to the decision tree...

  7. Analysis of Various Computer System Monitoring and LCD Projector through the Network TCP/IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoso Budijono

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many electronic devices have a network connection facility. Projectors today have network facilities to bolster its customer satisfaction in everyday use. By using a device that can be controlled, the expected availability and reliability of the presentation system (computer and projector can be maintained to keep itscondition ready to use for presentation. Nevertheless, there is still a projector device that has no network facilities so that the necessary additional equipment with expensive price. Besides, control equipment in large quantities has problems in timing and the number of technicians in performing controls. This study began with study of literature, from searching for the projectors that has LAN and software to control and finding a number of computer control softwares where the focus is easy to use and affordable. Result of this research is creating asystem which contains suggestions of procurement of computer hardware, hardware and software projectors each of which can be controlled centrally from a distance.

  8. A review of Covert Channels in TCP and HTTP protocols | James ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Covert channels are used by crackers who have breached an organisation's systems to download tools from outside, upload internal data to outside, create virtual network to outside machines and communicate to outside paths. They are also used by internal users who want to use forbidden protocols, who want to have ...

  9. Adipose Stem Cell Coating of Biomimetic β-TCP Macrospheres by Use of Laboratory Centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Joshua; Green, David W; Singh, Krishneel; Hao, Jia; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Milthorpe, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    Biomimetic materials such as coral exoskeletons possess unique architectural structures with a uniform and interconnected porous network that can be beneficial as a scaffold material. In addition, these marine structures can be hydrothermally converted to calcium phosphates, while retaining the original structural properties. The ability of biomaterials to stimulate the local microenvironment is one of the main focuses in tissue engineering, and directly coating the scaffold with stem cells facilitates future potential applications in therapeutics and regenerative medicine. In this article we describe a new and simple method that uses a laboratory centrifuge to coat hydrothermally derived beta-tricalcium phosphate macrospheres from coral exoskeleton with stem cells. In this research the optimal seeding duration and speed were determined to be 1 min and 700 g. Scanning electron micrographs showed complete surface coverage by stem cells within 7 days of seeding. This study constitutes an important step toward achieving functional tissue-engineered implants by increasing our understanding of the influence of dynamic parameters on the efficiency and distribution of stem cell attachment to biomimetic materials and how stem cells interact with biomimetic materials.

  10. Striding networks of inter-process communication based on TCP/IP protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Yi; Chen Haichun; Qian Jing; Chen Zhuomin

    2004-01-01

    A mode of process/thread communication between QNX and WINDOWS operating systems in isomerous computers is described. It is proved in practice to be an entirely feasible mode with high efficiency and reliability. A socket created by Socket API is used to communicate between two operating systems. (authors)

  11. BASIN TCP Stable Isotope Composition of CO2 in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports stable isotope ratio data of CO2 (13C/12C and 18O/16O) associated with photosynthetic and respiratory exchanges across the biosphere-atmosphere...

  12. BASIN TCP Stable Isotope Composition of CO2 in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports stable isotope ratio data of CO2 (13C/12C and 18O/16O) associated with photosynthetic and respiratory exchanges across the...

  13. Design of ion-pump power supply control software system based on TCP/IP protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Feiyu; Huang Jijiang; Guo Yuhui; Fang Zheng; Wang Yanyu

    2009-01-01

    This paper discuss a Ion-pump Power Supply control system making use of RS232 series bus and Intranet. The system's hardware VAC800 is composed of MSP430F149 mixed-signal processors produced by TI and UA7000A network model. MSP430F149 has advantages of ultra-low-power and high-integration. The Ion-pump Power Supply control system has the characteristics of strong function, simple structure, high reliability, strong resistance of noise, no peripheral chip, etc. Visual studio 2005 is used to design the system's software. The Ion-pump Power supplier control system can remotely monitor and control Ion-pump Power Suppliers. (authors)

  14. End to end adaptive congestion control in TCP/IP networks

    CERN Document Server

    Houmkozlis, Christos N

    2012-01-01

    This book provides an adaptive control theory perspective on designing congestion controls for packet-switching networks. Relevant to a wide range of disciplines and industries, including the music industry, computers, image trading, and virtual groups, the text extensively discusses source oriented, or end to end, congestion control algorithms. The book empowers readers with clear understanding of the characteristics of packet-switching networks and their effects on system stability and performance. It provides schemes capable of controlling congestion and fairness and presents real-world app

  15. Research on distributed QOS routing algorithm based on TCP/IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyue; Chen, Yongqiang

    2011-10-01

    At present, network environment follow protocol standard of IPV4 is intended to do the best effort of network to provide network applied service for users, however, not caring about service quality.Thus the packet loss rate is high, it cannot reach an ideal applied results. This article through the establishment of mathematical model, put forward a new distributed multi QOS routing algorithm, given the realization process of this distributed QOS routing algorithm, and simulation was carried out by simulation software. The results show the proposed algorithm can improve the utilization rate of network resources and the service quality of network application.

  16. An Empirical Study of Synchrophasor Communication Delay in a Utility TCP/IP Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kun; Chenine, Moustafa; Nordström, Lars; Holmström, Sture; Ericsson, Göran

    2013-07-01

    Although there is a plethora of literature dealing with Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) communication delay, there has not been any effort made to generalize empirical delay results by identifying the distribution with the best fit. The existing studies typically assume a distribution or simply build on analogies to communication network routing delay. Specifically, this study provides insight into the characterization of the communication delay of both unprocessed PMU data and synchrophasors sorted by a Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC). The results suggest that a bi-modal distribution containing two normal distributions offers the best fit of the delay of the unprocessed data, whereas the delay profile of the sorted synchrophasors resembles a normal distribution based on these results, the possibility of evaluating the reliability of a synchrophasor application with respect to a particular choice of PDC timeout is discussed.

  17. Airpower In The Information Age: Embracing TCP/IP Within Airborne Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    exploded beyond the four applications listed above with the addition of app stores built into common operating systems like IOS , Android , and Windows. Much...attacking the US force-on-force. Rather they seek asymmetric capabilities to attack our vulnerabilities . One of these vulnerabilities is the data

  18. Migration of TCP Connections with Layer-2 Support in Wireless Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Cortes, Mauricio; Janiszewski, Tom J.; McKie, Jim B.; Mullender, Sape J.; Rajkumar, Ajay; Recchione, Michael C.; Rossetti, David A.; Turner, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Example embodiments provide methods of transparently migrating a reliable transport layer connection between a user and a first base station and a second base station in a wireless network. The method includes receiving at least one transport layer connection state information parameter from the

  19. Design and Evaluation for the End-to-End Detection of TCP/IP Header Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    3.2.2 Outsourcing middleboxes Jingling [86] is a prototype outsourcing architecture where the network forwards data out to external “Feature...The relation to our problem is that Jingling could help proactively address broken and inadvertent middlebox behaviors, depending on the administrative

  20. Effect of sterilization on the properties of CDHA-OCP-beta-TCP biomaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Morejón-Alonso,Loreley; Carrodeguas,Raúl García; García-Menocal,José Ángel Delgado; Pérez,José Antonio Alonso; Manent,Salvador Martínez

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the method of sterilization on the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of a new bone repairing material was studied. The material was obtained by thermal hydrolysis of beta-tricalcium phosphate/orthophosphoric acid cement and was composed of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate (OCP), and beta-tricalcium phosphate. Partial decomposition of the OCP was observed after sterilization for the three methods. Decomposition increased to the following sequence...

  1. Effect of sterilization on the properties of CDHA-OCP-beta-TCP biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreley Morejón-Alonso

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the method of sterilization on the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of a new bone repairing material was studied. The material was obtained by thermal hydrolysis of beta-tricalcium phosphate/orthophosphoric acid cement and was composed of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate (OCP, and beta-tricalcium phosphate. Partial decomposition of the OCP was observed after sterilization for the three methods. Decomposition increased to the following sequence of sterilization methods: ethylene oxide; autoclaving; dry oven. On the other hand, mechanical strength decreased with regard to non sterilized material in the sterilization sequence: ethylene oxide; dry oven; autoclaving. The compressive strength was 8.5 ± 1.0; 9.0 ± 1.2; 8.2 ± 0.8 and 6.5 ± 1.0 MPa, whereas diametral tensile strength was 2.1 ± 0.3; 2.5 ± 0.1; 1.9 ± 0.9 and 1.6 ± 0.3 for the material sterilized by ethylene oxide, dry oven, and autoclaving, respectively. Several compositional and microstuctural changes were detected after dry heat and autoclave sterilization. Ethylene oxide sterilization had lesser effect on the chemical composition and strength than dry heat and autoclaving.

  2. Design Issues for Traffic Management for the ATM UBR + Service for TCP Over Satellite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj

    1999-01-01

    This project was a comprehensive research program for developing techniques for improving the performance of Internet protocols over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) based satellite networks. Among the service categories provided by ATM networks, the most commonly used category for data traffic is the unspecified bit rate (UBR) service. UBR allows sources to send data into the network without any feedback control. The project resulted in the numerous ATM Forum contributions and papers.

  3. Tcp and NTCP radiobiological models: conventional and hypo fractionated treatments in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astudillo V, A.; Paredes G, L.; Resendiz G, G.; Posadas V, A.; Mitsoura, E.; Rodriguez L, A.; Flores C, J. M.

    2015-10-01

    The hypo and conventional fractionated schedules performance were compared in terms of the tumor control and the normal tissue complications. From the records of ten patients, treated for adenocarcinoma and without mastectomy, the dose-volume histogram was used. Using radiobiological models the probabilities for tumor control and normal tissue complications were calculated. For both schedules the tumor control was approximately the same. However, the damage in the normal tissue was larger in conventional fractionated schedule. This is important because patients assistance time to their fractions (15 fractions/25 fractions) can be optimized. Thus, the hypo fractionated schedule has suitable characteristics to be implemented. (Author)

  4. A TCP model for external beam treatment of intermediate-risk prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Seán

    2013-03-01

    Biological models offer the ability to predict clinical outcomes. The authors describe a model to predict the clinical response of intermediate-risk prostate cancer to external beam radiotherapy for a variety of fractionation regimes.

  5. Deconstructing the mammal species richness pattern in Europe - towards and understanding of the relative importance of climate, biogeographic history, habitat heterogeneity and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløjgaard, Camilla; Normand, Signe; Skov, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    partitioning to assess the importance of macroclimate and HHH variables. The HHH variables included two historical factors, estimated by novel methodologies: (1) ice-age-driven dynamics, represented by accessibility to recolonization from hindcasting-estimated glacial refugia, and (2) biogeographic peninsular...

  6. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A5CB-2QUUC [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2QUU C 2QUUC ...in>C 2QUUC INKCPLLKPWAence> HHH...>2 2QUU C 2QUUC LKIGE--HTPSA...1A5CB-2QUUC 1A5C 2QUU B C ------LPADVAEELATTAQKLVQAGKGILAADESTQTI.../pdbChain> 1A5CB ence>LFGTK-GLGKFence> HHH -

  7. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1ACLA-1LPOA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available entryIDChain>1ACLA DEQFP-GFSGS > - HHH...O A 1LPOA PEGTYEENLPK ...> HHH> ATOM 474 CA PRO A 65 69.013 60.208 -6.968 1...Chain>A 1LPOA GSASD--KLACL re> --HHHHH...CLA NLNSDEELIHCL > HHHHHHHH

  8. Modelo de integração do WAP no apoio à gerência de redes TCP/IP

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Cristhian Flamariom Gomes de

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência da Computação. Com o crescimento do uso de redes de computadores e do aumento da complexidade das aplicações envolvidas, a importância do uso de mecanismos e sistemas de gerenciamento de redes vem aumentando ao longo dos últimos anos. Várias arquiteturas e ferramentas de gerência de redes foram desenvolvidas, se destacando o modelo SNMP e, atualmente, o modelo de gerênc...

  9. The Putative O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Transferase SPINDLY Inhibits Class I TCP Proteolysis to Promote Sensitivity to Cytokinin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steiner, E.; Livne, S.; Kobinson-Katz, T.; Tal, L.; Pri-Tal, O.; Mosquna, A.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mueller, B.; Tarkowski, P.; Weiss, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 2 (2016), s. 1485-1494 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : B RESPONSE REGULATORS * ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA * SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.456, year: 2016

  10. IEA Wind TCP Task 26: Impacts of Wind Turbine Technology on the System Value of Wind in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Riva, Alberto D [Ea Energy Analyses; Hethey, Janos [Ea Energy Analyses; Vitina, Aisma [Danish Energy Agency

    2018-05-01

    This report analyzes the impact of different land-based wind turbine designs on grid integration and related system value and cost. This topic has been studied in a number of previous publications, showing the potential benefits of wind turbine technologies that feature higher capacity factors. Building on the existing literature, this study aims to quantify the effects of different land-based wind turbine designs in the context of a projection of the European power system to 2030. This study contributes with insights on the quantitative effects in a likely European market setup, taking into account the effect of existing infrastructure on both existing conventional and renewable generation capacities. Furthermore, the market effects are put into perspective by comparing cost estimates for deploying different types of turbine design. Although the study focuses on Europe, similar considerations and results can be applied to other power systems with high wind penetration.

  11. PERANGKAT LUNAK TRAFFIC CONFIGURATOR DAN TRAFFIC MONITOR UNTUK PENGATURAN TRAFIK JARINGAN BERBASIS PROTOKOL TCP/IP DAN LIBRARY PACKET CAPTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royyana M. Ijtihadie

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Dengan semakin banyaknya orang yang mengakses internet untuk mendapatkan informasi dan tidak adanya pengaturan pada trafik data maka akan mengakibatkan jaringan menjadi lambat. Pengaturan trafik jaringan yang ada di Linux selama ini masih menggunakan scripts yang relatif lebih sulit untuk digunakan dan dimengerti oleh sebagian orang sehingga diperlukan alat bantu untuk mengkonfigurasikannya. Paper ini menjelaskan tentang pembuatan Traffic Management Configurator untuk mempermudah pengaturan traffic dalam gateway yang menghubungkan jaringan yang berbeda Aplikasi Network Monitoring digunakan untuk menghitung utilitas dan statistik jaringan. Kedua aplikasi tersebut menggunakan web sebagai interface kepada pengguna.   Kata Kunci : Network Monitoring, PCAP, Traffic Control, HTB, HTB GUI.

  12. Particulate composite on the basis of HA and TCP microparticles and nanoparticles as a possible biomaterial for spine therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rýglová, Šárka; Sucharda, Zbyněk; Černý, Martin; Suchý, Tomáš; Šupová, Monika; Žaloudková, Margit

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2010), s. 386-397 ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA3/131 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : particulate composite * preparation * hydroxyapatite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.297, year: 2010

  13. Adventures in the evolution of a high-bandwidth network for central servers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, K.L.; Cottrell, L.; Dart, M.

    1994-08-01

    In a small network, clients and servers may all be connected to a single Ethernet without significant performance concerns. As the number of clients on a network grows, the necessity of splitting the network into multiple sub-networks, each with a manageable number of clients, becomes clear. Less obvious is what to do with the servers. Group file servers on subnets and multihomed servers offer only partial solutions -- many other types of servers do not lend themselves to a decentralized model, and tend to collect on another, well-connected but overloaded Ethernet. The higher speed of FDDI seems to offer an easy solution, but in practice both expense and interoperability problems render FDDI a poor choice. Ethernet switches appear to permit cheaper and more reliable networking to the servers while providing an aggregate network bandwidth greater than a simple Ethernet. This paper studies the evolution of the server networks at SLAC. Difficulties encountered in the deployment of FDDI are described, as are the tools and techniques used to characterize the traffic patterns on the server network. Performance of Ethernet, FDDI, and switched Ethernet networks is analyzed, as are reliability and maintainability issues for these alternatives. The motivations for re-designing the SLAC general server network to use a switched Ethernet instead of FDDI are described, as are the reasons for choosing FDDI for the farm and firewall networks at SLAC. Guidelines are developed which may help in making this choice for other networks

  14. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1EP8B-1FAAA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1EP8B-1FAAA 1EP8 1FAA B A -------------GGSVIVIDSKAAWDAQLAKGKEEHKP...IVVAFTATWCGPCKMIAPLFETLSNDYAGKVIFLKVDVD-AVAAVAEAAGITAMPTFHVYKDGVKADDLVGASQDKLKALVAKHAAA LELALGT.../pdbChain> 1FAAA KLDCNQENKTL EEE HHH 1 1FAA A 1FAAA

  15. Dicty_cDB: AFH258 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6. 2 Translated Amino Acid sequence gllxskinikqi*k*kcqvvemvvii*kilaiilkkllfnhqkkqlql*ynkilmilk...vrqfqs*wvlinckl*iqsmvgfhqrcnkqimilkscllvf ywvplmhl*fgkvqerpq*fvdslkihfgvnkiisssirhqaqvmnisplsil*nlvipm vqyws...*nkkkl* Frame B: gllxskinikqi*k*kcqvvemvvii*kilaiilkkllfnhqkkqlql*ynkilmilkq* hhh*SQNPLVAVLVKINHHHHHHVVVVVIK

  16. The Use of Dexamethasone in Support of High-Altitude Ground Operations and Physical Performance: Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    rates vary dramatically, the physiological effect of hypobaric high-altitude hypoxia (HHH) is ubiquitous.1,2 Symptoms of less severe cases of HHH...staff member on a quarterly basis at the UHM Fellowship Program and Multiplace Hyperbaric Chamber Wilford Hall San Anto- nio MHS, Texas. Initially...oc- cupational, and undersea hyperbaric medicine. Lt Col (Ret) Wright, PhD, CAsP, is a full-time faculty member at the USAF School of Aerospace

  17. Development of high-reliable real-time communication network protocol for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Sang; Kim, Young Sik [Korea National University of Education, Chongwon (Korea); No, Hee Chon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In this research, we first define protocol subsets for SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) communication network based on the requirement of SMART MMIS transmission delay and traffic requirements and OSI(Open System Interconnection) 7 layers' network protocol functions. Also, current industrial purpose LAN protocols are analyzed and the applicability of commercialized protocols are checked. For the suitability test, we have applied approximated SMART data traffic and maximum allowable transmission delay requirement. With the simulation results, we conclude that IEEE 802.5 and FDDI which is an ANSI standard, is the most suitable for SMART. We further analyzed the FDDI and token ring protocols for SMART and nuclear plant network environment including IEEE 802.4, IEEE 802.5, and ARCnet. The most suitable protocol for SMART is FDDI and FDDI MAC and RMT protocol specifications have been verified with LOTOS and the verification results show that FDDI MAC and RMT satisfy the reachability and liveness, but does not show deadlock and livelock. Therefore, we conclude that FDDI MAC and RMT is highly reliable protocol for SMART MMIS network. After that, we consider the stacking fault of IEEE 802.5 token ring protocol and propose a fault tolerant MAM(Modified Active Monitor) protocol. The simulation results show that the MAM protocol improves lower priority traffic service rate when stacking fault occurs. Therefore, proposed MAM protocol can be applied to SMART communication network for high reliability and hard real-time communication purpose in data acquisition and inter channel network. (author). 37 refs., 79 figs., 39 tabs.

  18. Switch configuration for migration to optical fiber network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, George W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate the migration of an Ethernet LAN segment to fiber optics. At the present time it is proposed to support a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) backbone and to upgrade the VAX cluster to fiber optic interface. Possibly some workstations will have an FDDI interface. The remaining stations on the Ethernet LAN will be segmented. The rationale for migrating from the present Ethernet configuration to a fiber optic backbone is due to the increase in the number of workstations and the movement of applications to a windowing environment, extensive document transfers, and compute intensive applications.

  19. Evaluation of various tests for the diagnosis of soil contamination by 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, D.; Trasar-Cepeda, C.; Leiros, M.C.; Gil-Sotres, F.

    2008-01-01

    Soil response to contamination with 2,4,5-triclorophenol was studied to test the validity of the concept of Generic Reference Levels (GRL), the main criterion used to define soil contamination. Soil samples were artificially contaminated with doses between 0 and 5000 mg kg -1 of 2,4,5-triclorophenol, and analysed by various tests. Where possible, the response of soils to the contaminant was modelled by a sigmoidal dose-response curve in order to estimate the ED 50 values. The tests provided different responses, but only microbial biomass-C and dehydrogenase and urease activities demonstrated soil deterioration in response to contamination. The results suggest that the diagnosis of soil contamination has been greatly simplified in the legislation by the provision of a single figure for each compound, and that the GRL concept could perhaps be substituted by measurement of ED 50 values, which better reflect the alteration of a soil due to the presence of a xenobiotic substance. - The concentration of a toxic substance present in a soil cannot be considered as the only criteria to classify such soil as contaminated

  20. Hard tissue formation in a porous HA/TCP ceramic scaffold loaded with stromal cells derived from dental pulp and bone marrow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Osch, G.J.V.M. van; Dolder, J. van den; Jansen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the ability of hard tissue regeneration of four types of stem cells or precursors under both in vitro and in vivo situations. Primary cultures of rat bone marrow, rat dental pulp, human bone marrow, and human dental pulp cells were seeded onto a porous ceramic

  1. On the stability and multi-stability of a TCP/RED congestion control model with state-dependent delay and discontinuous marking function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Xu, Jian; Chung, Kwok-wai

    2015-05-01

    Random early detection (RED) is an effective algorithm to control the Internet congestion. However, researches on RED parameters are difficult since there are state-dependent delay and discontinuous terms on the right-hand side of the model. We smooth the model by hyperbolic tangent function and reformulate it by a switch function to keep state variables positive. Numerical simulations on the original system validates the reformulated model. The multi-stability phenomenon is observed and some suggestions on the selection of RED parameters are given to enhance the global stability of the model by numerical bifurcation continuation on the reformulated model.

  2. Leveraging Campus Network Capabilities at the Desktop: Helping Users Get Real Work Done or How Windows Sockets & MacTCP Changed My Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, Aaron B.

    At the University of New Mexico, stakeholders from the Computer and Information Resources and Technology (CIRT) department, Financial Systems, the Health Sciences Center, and the General Libraries, were involved in deciding on the goals of a project to replace Telnet with a suite of network middleware and productivity software on campus computer…

  3. Large Bone Vertical Augmentation Using a Three-Dimensional Printed TCP/HA Bone Graft: A Pilot Study in Dog Mandible

    OpenAIRE

    Carrel, Jean-Pierre; Wiskott, Anselm; Scherrer, Susanne; Durual, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Osteoflux is a three-dimensional printed calcium phosphate porous structure for oral bone augmentation. It is a mechanically stable scaffold with a well-defined interconnectivity and can be readily shaped to conform to the bone bed's morphology

  4. In Vivo Evaluation of 3D-Printed Polycaprolactone Scaffold Implantation Combined with β-TCP Powder for Alveolar Bone Augmentation in a Beagle Defect Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su A. Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient bone volume is one of the major challenges encountered by dentists after dental implant placement. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a customized three-dimensional polycaprolactone (3D PCL scaffold implant fabricated with a 3D bio-printing system to facilitate rapid alveolar bone regeneration. Saddle-type bone defects were surgically created on the healed site after extracting premolars from the mandibles of four beagle dogs. The defects were radiologically examined using computed tomography for designing a customized 3D PCL scaffold block to fit the defect site. After fabricating 3D PCL scaffolds using rapid prototyping, the scaffolds were implanted into the alveolar bone defects along with β-tricalcium phosphate powder. In vivo analysis showed that the PCL blocks maintained the physical space and bone conductivity around the defects. In addition, no inflammatory infiltrates were observed around the scaffolds. However, new bone formation occurred adjacent to the scaffolds, rather than directly in contact with them. More new bone was observed around PCL blocks with 400/1200 lattices than around blocks with 400/400 lattices, but the difference was not significant. These results indicated the potential of 3D-printed porous PCL scaffolds to promote alveolar bone regeneration for defect healing in dentistry.

  5. Large Bone Vertical Augmentation Using a Three-Dimensional Printed TCP/HA Bone Graft: A Pilot Study in Dog Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Jean-Pierre; Wiskott, Anselm; Scherrer, Susanne; Durual, Stéphane

    2016-12-01

    Osteoflux is a three-dimensional printed calcium phosphate porous structure for oral bone augmentation. It is a mechanically stable scaffold with a well-defined interconnectivity and can be readily shaped to conform to the bone bed's morphology. An animal experiment is reported whose aim was to assess the performance and safety of the scaffold in promoting vertical growth of cortical bone in the mandible. Four three-dimensional blocks (10 mm length, 5 mm width, 5 mm height) were affixed to edentulous segments of the dog's mandible and covered by a collagen membrane. During bone bed preparation, particular attention was paid not to create defects 0.5 mm or more so that the real potential of the three-dimensional block in driving vertical bone growth can be assessed. Histomorphometric analyses were performed after 8 weeks. At 8 weeks, the three-dimensional blocks led to substantial vertical bone growth up to 4.5 mm from the bone bed. Between 0 and 1 mm in height, 44% of the surface was filled with new bone, at 1 to 3 mm it was 20% to 35%, 18% at 3 to 4, and ca. 6% beyond 4 mm. New bone was evenly distributed along in mesio-distal direction and formed a new crest contour in harmony with the natural mandibular shape. After two months of healing, the three-dimensional printed blocks conducted new bone growth above its natural bed, up to 4.5 mm in a canine mandibular model. Furthermore, the new bone was evenly distributed in height and density along the block. These results are very promising and need to be further evaluated by a complete powerful study using the same model. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The expression of cytokines and β -defensin 2, - 3, -4 in rabbit bone tissue after hydroxyapatite (HAp), α- Tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamze, J; Pilmane, M; Skagers, A

    2012-01-01

    Bone loss induced by inflammation is one of the complications after biomaterial implantation. There is no much data on expression of cytokines and defensins into the bone tissue around the implants in literature. The aim of this work was to investigate the distribution and appearance of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and (β - defensin (BD)-2, BD-3, BD-4 after the implantation of different biomaterials. Bone developing zones, signs of bone-implant contact and low expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1, IL-6 and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in experimental tissue with pure HAp and unburned HAp implants indicate a potential advantage of this material in terms of its biocompatibility over the other materials used in our study.

  7. COMUNICACIÓN ENTRE UN ESCÁNER DEVICENET AUTÓNOMO Y UNA APLICACIÓN SOFTWARE MEDIANTE MODBUS/TCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfur Barandica López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las redes industriales para automatización han experimentado un gran auge en los últimos años y DeviceNet es uno de los protocolos con mayor popularidad. En una red DeviceNet se identifican dispositivos esclavos, por lo general sensores y actuadores, y al menos, un dispositivo escáner encargado de configurar y administrar las transacciones en la red. El escáner debe comunicarse directamente con los dispositivos de la red DeviceNet y entregar la información recolectada a un dispositivo de mayor nivel jerárquico como un PLC o un PC. Aunque existen especificaciones y recomendaciones para elaborar un dispositivo esclavo DeviceNet, no hay una pauta clara de cómo implementar el maestro o escáner DeviceNet, ni tampoco para diseñar el enlace de comunicación entre el escáner y el equipo de control. En este artículo, se presenta un esquema de comunicación diseñado especialmente para soportar el intercambio de datos entre un escáner DeviceNet y una aplicación software residente en un PC.

  8. Design of a Channel Error Simulator using Virtual Instrument Techniques for the Initial Testing of TCP/IP and SCPS Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Stephen; Wang, Ru-Hai

    1999-01-01

    There exists a need for designers and developers to have a method to conveniently test a variety of communications parameters for an overall system design. This is no different when testing network protocols as when testing modulation formats. In this report, we discuss a means of providing a networking test device specifically designed to be used for space communications. This test device is a PC-based Virtual Instrument (VI) programmed using the LabVIEW(TM) version 5 software suite developed by National Instruments(TM)TM. This instrument was designed to be portable and usable by others without special, additional equipment. The programming was designed to replicate a VME-based hardware module developed earlier at New Mexico State University (NMSU) and to provide expanded capabilities exceeding the baseline configuration existing in that module. This report describes the design goals for the VI module in the next section and follows that with a description of the design of the VI instrument. This is followed with a description of the validation tests run on the VI. An application of the error-generating VI to networking protocols is then given.

  9. The use of service limits for efficient operation of multi-station single-medium communication systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, S.C.; Boxma, O.J.; Levy, H.

    1995-01-01

    Time limits are the major mechanisms used for controlling a large variety of multistation single-medium computer-communication systems like the FDDI network and the IEEE 802.4 Token Bus. The proper use of these mechanisms is still not understood and rules for efficient system operation are not

  10. LANES - LOCAL AREA NETWORK EXTENSIBLE SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Local Area Network Extensible Simulator (LANES) provides a method for simulating the performance of high speed local area network (LAN) technology. LANES was developed as a design and analysis tool for networking on board the Space Station. The load, network, link and physical layers of a layered network architecture are all modeled. LANES models to different lower-layer protocols, the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and the Star*Bus. The load and network layers are included in the model as a means of introducing upper-layer processing delays associated with message transmission; they do not model any particular protocols. FDDI is an American National Standard and an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) draft standard for a 100 megabit-per-second fiber-optic token ring. Specifications for the LANES model of FDDI are taken from the Draft Proposed American National Standard FDDI Token Ring Media Access Control (MAC), document number X3T9.5/83-16 Rev. 10, February 28, 1986. This is a mature document describing the FDDI media-access-control protocol. Star*Bus, also known as the Fiber Optic Demonstration System, is a protocol for a 100 megabit-per-second fiber-optic star-topology LAN. This protocol, along with a hardware prototype, was developed by Sperry Corporation under contract to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a candidate LAN protocol for the Space Station. LANES can be used to analyze performance of a networking system based on either FDDI or Star*Bus under a variety of loading conditions. Delays due to upper-layer processing can easily be nullified, allowing analysis of FDDI or Star*Bus as stand-alone protocols. LANES is a parameter-driven simulation; it provides considerable flexibility in specifying both protocol an run-time parameters. Code has been optimized for fast execution and detailed tracing facilities have been included. LANES was written in FORTRAN 77 for implementation on a DEC VAX under VMS 4.6. It consists of two

  11. Evaluation of DEC`s GIGAswitch for distributed parallel computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Hutchins, J.; Brandt, J.

    1993-10-01

    One of Sandia`s research efforts is to reduce the end-to-end communication delay in a parallel-distributed computing environment. GIGAswitch is DEC`s implementation of a gigabit local area network based on switched FDDI technology. Using the GIGAswitch, the authors intend to minimize the medium access latency suffered by shared-medium FDDI technology. Experimental results show that the GIGAswitch adds 16.5 microseconds of switching and bridging delay to an end-to-end communication. Although the added latency causes a 1.8% throughput degradation and a 5% line efficiency degradation, the availability of dedicated bandwidth is much more than what is available to a workstation on a shared medium. For example, ten directly connected workstations each would have a dedicated bandwidth of 95 Mbps, but if they were sharing the FDDI bandwidth, each would have 10% of the total bandwidth, i.e., less than 10 Mbps. In addition, they have found that when there is no output port contention, the switch`s aggregate bandwidth will scale up to multiples of its port bandwidth. However, with output port contention, the throughput and latency performance suffered significantly. Their mathematical and simulation models indicate that the GIGAswitch line efficiency could be as low as 63% when there are nine input ports contending for the same output port. The data indicate that the delay introduced by contention at the server workstation is 50 times that introduced by the GIGAswitch. The authors conclude that the GIGAswitch meets the performance requirements of today`s high-end workstations and that the switched FDDI technology provides an alternative that utilizes existing workstation interfaces while increasing the aggregate bandwidth. However, because the speed of workstations is increasing by a factor of 2 every 1.5 years, the switched FDDI technology is only good as an interim solution.

  12. Higgs boson pair production at the photon linear collider in the two Higgs doublet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakawa, Eri; Harada, Daisuke; Okada, Yasuhiro; Kanemura, Shinya; Tsumura, Koji

    2009-02-01

    We calculate the cross section of the lightest Higgs boson pair production at the Photon Linear Collider in the two Higgs doublet model. We focus on the scenario in which the lightest Higgs boson has the standard model like couplings to gauge bosons. We take into account the one-loop correction to the hhh coupling as well as additional one-loop diagrams due to charged bosons to the γγ → hh helicity amplitudes. We discuss the impact of these corrections on the hhh coupling measurement at the Photon Linear Collider. (author)

  13. The Fanconi anemia associated protein FAAP24 uses two substrate specific binding surfaces for DNA recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wienk, H.L.J.; Slootweg, J.C.; Speerstra, S.; Kaptein, R.; Boelens, R.; Folkers, G.E.

    2013-01-01

    To maintain the integrity of the genome, multiple DNA repair systems exist to repair damaged DNA. Recognition of altered DNA, including bulky adducts, pyrimidine dimers and interstrand crosslinks (ICL), partially depends on proteins containing helix-hairpin-helix (HhH) domains. To understand how ICL

  14. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank; Bellodi, G; Benedetto, E; Dorda, U; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Papaphilippou, Y; Pieloni, T; Ruggiero, F; Rumolo, G; Schmidt, F; Todesco, E; Zotter, Bruno W; Payet, J; Bartolini, R; Farvacque, L; Sen, T; Chin, Y H; Ohmi, K; Oide, K; Furman, M; Qiang, J; Sabbi, G L; Seidl, P A; Vay, J L; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Cousineau, S M; Danilov, V; Holmes, J A; Shishlo, A; Kim, E S; Cai, Y; Pivi, M; Kaltchev, D I; Abell, D T; Katsouleas, Thomas C; Boine-Frankenheim, O; Franchetti, G; Hofmann, I; Machida, S; Wei, J

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic acceleratorphysics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  15. Solution structure and DNA-binding properties of the C-terminal domain of UvrC from E.coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S.; Folkers, G.E.; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.; Boelens, R.; Wechselberger, R.W.; Niztayev, A.; Kaptein, R.

    2002-01-01

    The C-terminal domain of the UvrC protein (UvrC CTD) is essential for 5' incision in the prokaryotic nucleotide excision repair process. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the UvrC CTD using heteronuclear NMR techniques. The structure shows two helix±hairpin±helix (HhH) motifs

  16. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1VL8A-2UVDE [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A5CB-2QUTC [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8 2QUT C 2QUTC ...ain>C 2QUTC ence>INKCPLLKPWA HH...T C 2QUTC ence>LKIGE--HTPSA...1A5CB-2QUTC 1A5C 2QUT B C ------LPADVAEELATTAQKLVQAGKGILAADESTQTI... 1A5CB LFGTK-GLGKFence> HHH - <

  18. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CG5A-2QU0C [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D> C 2QU0C ence>YFPHF-DLSHGence> 0 A C VLSSQNKKAIEELGNLIKANAEAWGADALARLFELHPQT...n> 1CG5 A 1CG5A ence>VNLQA-FTPVT...line> THR CA 269 2QU0 C 2QU...0C ence>CHLPNDFTPAVence> HHHH HHH

  19. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CG8A-2QU0A [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available /pdbChain> 2QU0A ence>YFPHF-DLSHGence> G - 0 A A VLSSQNKKAIEELGNLIKANAEAWGADALARLFELHPQT...hain> 1CG8 A 1CG8A ence>VNLQA-FTPVT...ine>THR CA 278 2QU0 A 2QU...0A ence>CHLPNDFTPAV HH HHHH HHH

  20. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A5CB-2QUVA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n14> 2QUV A 2QUVA ...V A 2QUVA ... 2QUVA LKIGE--HTPSAence> E -- H...1A5CB-2QUVA 1A5C 2QUV B A ------LPADVAEELATTAQKLVQAGKGILAADESTQTI... 1A5CB ence>LFGTK-GLGKFence> HHH -

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 2QU0A-2DXMB [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n>A 2QU0A WGKVGGNAGAYGence> HHH...2QU0A-2DXMB 2QU0 2DXM A B -VLSAADKSNVKAAWGKVGGNAGAYGAEALERMFLSFPT...ID> 0 2DXM B 2DXMB ...ence>WGKVN--VDEVGence> GGG --HHHHH VAL CA 716 GLY CA 753 2QU0

  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A5CB-2QUTA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4> 2QUT A 2QUTA ...yChain> 2QUT A 2QUTA ...hain>A 2QUTA ence>LKIGE--HTPSAence> ...1A5CB-2QUTA 1A5C 2QUT B A ------LPADVAEELATTAQKLVQAGKGILAADESTQTI...entryIDChain>1A5CB ence>LFGTK-GLGKFence> HHH -

  3. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BYPA-1FA4A [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dbChain>A 1BYPA SVTLT---EKGTY cture...>EEEE --- EEE> ATOM 522 CA SER A ...n> STTFPADAPAGEY ucture>EE ture...ucture> -- cture> ATOM 860 CA LYS A 57 7.87...yIDChain> TKISMPEEDLLN >HHH >

  4. Safety of Mixed Model Access Control in a Multilevel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    42  H.  FIREWALL AND IPS LANGUAGES...Research Laboratory AIS automated information system ANOA advance notice of arrival APT advanced persistent threat BFM boundary flow modeling...of Investigation FW firewall GENSER general service xvi GUI graphical user interface HAG high-assurance guard HGS high-grade service H-H-H High

  5. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1PVDA-2VBIA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1PVDA-2VBIA 1PVD 2VBI A A SEITLGKYLFERLKQVNVNTVFGLPGDFNLSLLDKIYEVEGMRWAGNANELNAAYAADGYARIKGMSCIITTFGVGELSALNGIAGSYAEHVG.../ss_2> 0 1PVD A 1PVDA SFNDN-SKIRM HHH ... 1PVD A 1PVD...A 233 ARG CA 308 GLN CA 388 1PVD

  6. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1PVDA-2VBIG [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1PVDA-2VBIG 1PVD 2VBI A G SEITLGKYLFERLKQVNVNTVFGLPGDFNLSLLDKIYEVEGMRWAGNANELNAAYAADGYARIKGMSCIITTFGVGELSALNGIAGSYAEHVG.../ss_2> 0 1PVD A 1PVDA SFNDN-SKIRM HHH ...ine>PRO CA 225 GLU CA 183 1PVD... A 1PVDA LQTPIDMSLKP

  7. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  8. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1EWOA-5PADA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1EWOA-5PADA 1EWO 5PAD A A APAAVDWRARGAVTAVKDQGQCGSCWAFSAIGNVECQWF...ryChain> 5PAD A 5PADA...>5PAD A 5PADA KRGTGNSYGVCGLY ...>A 5PADA LVAQY---GIHYR HHH...Chain>A 5PADA TYPYE---GVQRY

  9. Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T simultaneously transcribes many rdhA genes during organohalide respiration with 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,2,3-TCP as electron acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kalpataru; Bowman, Kimberly S; Rainey, Fred A; Siddaramappa, Shivakumara; Challacombe, Jean F; Moe, William M

    2014-05-01

    The genome sequence of the organohalide-respiring bacterium Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellensBL-DC-9(T) contains numerous loci annotated as reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdh) genes based on inferred protein sequence identity with functional dehalogenases of other bacterial species. Many of these genes are truncated, lack adjacent regulatory elements, or lack cognate genes coding for membrane-anchoring proteins typical of the functionally characterized active reductive dehalogenases of organohalide-respiring bacteria. To investigate the expression patterns of the rdh genes in D. lykanthroporepellensBL-DC-9(T), oligonucleotide primers were designed to uniquely target 25 rdh genes present in the genome as well as four putative regulatory genes. RNA extracts from cultures of strain BL-DC-9(T) actively dechlorinating three different electron acceptors, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane were reverse-transcribed and subjected to PCR amplification using rdh-specific primers. Nineteen rdh gene transcripts, including 13 full-length rdhA genes, six truncated rdhA genes, and five rdhA genes having cognate rdhB genes were consistently detected during the dechlorination of all three of the polychlorinated alkanes tested. Transcripts from all four of the putative regulatory genes were also consistently detected. Results reported here expand the diversity of bacteria known to simultaneously transcribe multiple rdh genes and provide insights into the transcription factors associated with rdh gene expression. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High-Bandwidth Tactical-Network Data Analysis in a High-Performance-Computing (HPC) Environment: Transport Protocol (Transmission Control Protocol/User Datagram Protocol [TCP/UDP]) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    the network Mac8 Medium Access Control ( Mac ) (Ethernet) address observed as destination for outgoing packets subsessionid8 Zero-based index of...15. SUBJECT TERMS tactical networks, data reduction, high-performance computing, data analysis, big data 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Integer index of row cts_deid Device (instrument) Identifier where observation took place cts_collpt Collection point or logical observation point on

  11. Networking issues---Lan and Wan needs---The impact of workstations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.

    1990-01-01

    This review focuses on the use of networks in the LEP experiments at CERN. The role of the extended LAN at CERN is discussed in some detail, with particular emphasis on the impact the sudden growth in the use of workstations is having. The problem of network congestion is highlighted and possible evolution to FDDI mentioned. The status and use of the wide area connections are also reported

  12. Performance issues in management of the Space Station Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    The onboard segment of the Space Station Information System (SSIS), called the Data Management System (DMS), will consist of a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) token-ring network. The performance of the DMS in scenarios involving two kinds of network management is analyzed. In the first scenario, how the transmission of routine management messages impacts performance of the DMS is examined. In the second scenario, techniques for ensuring low latency of real-time control messages in an emergency are examined.

  13. Navy Supplement to the DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    passage to, or destroying enemy submarines. basalt . An igneous rock that is a very productive water bearer. base course. (NATO) A reference course...Administration FDC fire direction center FDD flight deck director FDDI fiber -distributed data interface FDDS flag data display system FDE frequency...operating area FOB forward operating base; forward operations base; friendly order of battle FOC farthest-on circle; fiber -optic cable; firing officer’s

  14. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TCP performs poorly in wireless mobile networks due to large bit error rates. ... TCP, and find considerable improvement in data throughput over wireless links. ... Centre for Electronics Design and Technology, Indian Institute of Science, ...

  15. Correlations of folic acid, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and thrombopoietin to platelet count in HCV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayh S. Eissa

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion This study concluded that TCP in HCV-related chronic liver diseases is multifactorial and decreased FA is involved in its pathogenesis as an independent risk factor. Increased Hcy may cause TCP through platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction.

  16. A Pseudomonas putida Strain Genetically Engineered for 1,2,3-Trichloropropane Bioremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Samin, Ghufrana; Pavlova, Martina; Arif, M. Irfan; Postema, Christiaan P.; Damborsky, Jiri; Janssen, Dick B.

    2014-01-01

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) is a toxic compound that is recalcitrant to biodegradation in the environment. Attempts to isolate TCP-degrading organisms using enrichment cultivation have failed. A potential biodegradation pathway starts with hydrolytic dehalogenation to 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol (DCP), followed by oxidative metabolism. To obtain a practically applicable TCP-degrading organism, we introduced an engineered haloalkane dehalogenase with improved TCP degradation activity into the DCP...

  17. Characterization and in vitro evaluation of biphasic α-tricalcium phosphate/β-tricalcium phosphate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arahira, Takaaki; Maruta, Michito, E-mail: maruta@college.fdcnet.ac.jp; Matsuya, Shigeki

    2017-05-01

    Biphasic calcium phosphate consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate(β-TCP) is an excellent bone substitute with controllable bioresorbability. Fabrication of biphasic calcium phosphate with self-setting ability is expected to enhance its potential application as bone substitute. In this study, mixtures of α-TCP and β-TCP with various compositions were prepared through α-β phase transition of α-TCP powder at 1000 °C for various periods. These powders were mixed with 0.25 M Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} at a P/L ratio of 2, and then hardened at 37 °C at 100% RH for up to 24 h. Material properties of biphasic HA/β-TCP cement with different α-TCP/β-TCP composition were characterized. These cements were also evaluated with respect to cell response in vitro using MC3T3-E1 cell lines. In conclusion, mechanical and biological properties of HA/β-TCP cement could be controlled by changing the heat treatment time of α-TCP powder at 1000 °C. In vitro results indicated that cell proliferation and ALP activity increased with increase β-TCP content. - Highlights: • We could fabricate biphasic HA/β-TCP cements using heat treated α-TCP powder. • It is easy to control the ratio of α-TCP to β-TCP changing the heat treatment time up to 48 h. • Both cell number and ALP activity increased with increase in β-TCP content. • In vitro results showed that β-TCP has superior cell affinity to HA.

  18. Thrombocytopenia during pregnancy in women with HIV infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Thrombocytopenia (TCP) complicates 5 - 8% of pregnancies. Most cases of TCP are gestational, and the condition is usually mild and occurs in the latter part of pregnancy. Apart from pregnancy-associated medical complications such as pre-eclampsia, HIV infection is a recognised cause of TCP, and a ...

  19. Enhancement of Osteoblastic-Like Cell Activity by Glow Discharge Plasma Surface Modified Hydroxyapatite/β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisner Salamanca

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Glow discharge plasma (GDP treatments of biomaterials, such as hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP composites, produce surfaces with fewer contaminants and may facilitate cell attachment and enhance bone regeneration. Thus, in this study we used argon glow discharge plasma (Ar-GDP treatments to modify HA/β-TCP particle surfaces and investigated the physical and chemical properties of the resulting particles (HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP. The HA/β-TCP particles were treated with GDP for 15 min in argon gas at room temperature under the following conditions: power: 80 W; frequency: 13.56 MHz; pressure: 100 mTorr. Scanning electron microscope (SEM observations showed similar rough surfaces of HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP HA/β-TCP particles, and energy dispersive spectrometry analyses showed that HA/β-TCP surfaces had more contaminants than HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP surfaces. Ca/P mole ratios in HA/β-TCP and HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP were 1.34 and 1.58, respectively. Both biomaterials presented maximal intensities of X-ray diffraction patterns at 27° with 600 a.u. At 25° and 40°, HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP and HA/β-TCP particles had peaks of 200 a.u., which are similar to XRD intensities of human bone. In subsequent comparisons, MG-63 cell viability and differentiation into osteoblast-like cells were assessed on HA/β-TCP and HA/β-TCP + Ar-GDP surfaces, and Ar-GDP treatments led to improved cell growth and alkaline phosphatase activities. The present data indicate that GDP surface treatment modified HA/β-TCP surfaces by eliminating contaminants, and the resulting graft material enhanced bone regeneration.

  20. Global Journal of Engineering Science and Researches

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Rama Prabha K P; Prof. Jayanthi R

    2016-01-01

    Inside wireless LAN, access point always sends long term TCP packets first followed by short term TCP packets. Due to this, there is unfairness for short term packets. In this paper, we come up with a novel approach to address this issue using a priority based scheme and URG (urgent) flag in TCP header. At the same time round robin mechanism is used for non-priority based short term TCP packets which not only improves throughput of the network and provides fairness but also avoids TCP from im...

  1. Inhomogeneous dose escalation increases expected local control for NSCLC patients with lymph node involvement without increased mean lung dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tine B; Hansen, Olfred; Schytte, Tine

    2014-01-01

    in mediastinum, and the thorax wall. The dose was escalated using a TCP model implemented into the planning system. The difference in TCP values between the homogeneous and inhomogeneous plans were evaluated using two different TCP models. RESULTS: Dose escalation was possible for all patients. TCP values based...... to the mediastinum were observed: 2.5 Gy for aorta, 4.4 Gy for the connective tissue, 1.6 Gy for the heart, and 2.6 Gy for trachea + bronchi. CONCLUSION: Increased target doses and TCP values using inhomogeneous dose distributions could be achieved for all patients, regardless of lymph node involvement, tumour stage...

  2. A novel vascular-targeting peptide for gastric cancer delivers low-dose TNFα to normalize the blood vessels and improve the anti-cancer efficiency of 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lan; Li, Zhi Jie; Li, Long Fei; Shen, Jing; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ming Xing; Xiao, Zhan Gang; Wang, Jian Hao; Cho, Chi Hin

    2017-11-01

    Various vascular-targeted agents fused with tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) have been shown to improve drug absorption into tumor tissues and enhance tumor vascular function. TCP-1 is a peptide selected through in vivo phage library biopanning against a mouse orthotopic colorectal cancer model and is a promising agent for drug delivery. This study further investigated the targeting ability of TCP-1 phage and peptide to blood vessels in an orthotopic gastric cancer model in mice and assessed the synergistic anti-cancer effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with subnanogram TNFα targeted delivered by TCP-1 peptide. In vivo phage targeting assay and in vivo colocalization analysis were carried out to test the targeting ability of TCP-1 phage/peptide. A targeted therapy for improvement of the therapeutic efficacy of 5-FU and vascular function was performed through administration of TCP-1/TNFα fusion protein in this model. TCP-1 phage exhibited strong homing ability to the orthotopic gastric cancer after phage injection. Immunohistochemical staining suggested that and TCP-1 phage/TCP-1 peptide could colocalize with tumor vascular endothelial cells. TCP-1/TNFα combined with 5-FU was found to synergistically inhibit tumor growth, induce apoptosis and reduce cell proliferation without evident toxicity. Simultaneously, subnanogram TCP-1/TNFα treatment normalized tumor blood vessels. Targeted delivery of low-dose TNFα by TCP-1 peptide can potentially modulate the vascular function of gastric cancer and increase the drug delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Successful therapy with hemoperfusion and plasma exchange in acute 1,2,3-trichloropropane poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Liang, Y-G; Meng, Q-Y; Zhang, C-G; Wang, H-C; Zhang, X-G; Li, G; Liu, Z-Y; He, Y-Z

    2012-05-01

    1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP) is commonly used as an intermediate in pesticide and an industrial specialty solvent. Acute 1,2,3-TCP poisoning is rare but a medical emergency. Sporadic cases of toxic hepatic injury from 1,2,3-TCP in humans have been reported. Liver is a target organ for 1,2,3-TCP toxicity, which may ensue in a short period after ingestion. A specific antidote against 1,2,3-TCP is not available. So it is important to distinguish that a patient with 1,2,3-TCP poisoning constitutes a medical emergency. In this case study, the poisoned patient's clinical condition and laboratory values improved gradually after she received hemoperfusion (HP) and plasma exchange, which indicated that the therapy with HP and plasma exchange were helpful in the treatment of 1,2,3-TCP poisoning.

  4. A CSMP Commutation Model for Design Study of a Brushless DC Motor Power Conditioner for a Cruise Missile Fin Control Actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    miU PICJ 4- 00 OH ~0HH tiiI~ H L10 iP. iiiiUiiIIL’ Of 04 c HHHHHH go) 0000 MM3M M M HHII 1:0P 000000 01011 k-4 -4 000 ..44muWNWmu-4MU HHHHH H...14343(. HL4OH Qu).. "-(UI ) 06-40 k-iHU2(./24HUHw HHHHHHQ 71 H NO %0 00HNN 004H Hw* *4 HAQ* -4- 04W34 0104 c FIH EM *Ln2M N rz + 8 -14 Im HHHHHH ...HHH U) * * 02TC4 r4 A 4r1my (𔃾(N1 01010 wM1 ; -0w= .4 mm W004r rzl p HHHHHH P 110 pw Mm22 01 + + 0193 CDJ~ D CD 04 C00000 Q HHH -H" 0 00+0 Z: 010’ )CaM

  5. A Comparison between the Rhesus Monkey and the Human on the Effect of Atropine on the Electroencephalogram. Volume 2. Preliminary Statistical Analysis of Spectral EEG Waveforms in Rhesus Monkeys Exposed to Atropine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    000000 000000 000000 000000 000000 C) H rHI HHHH HHHHH - rIr- - rIr H HHHHH 1 1 l H HHHHH- rIr- -I ri - HHHHHH H E-1~~ o~o ~ N H W~r ~ ~ W~MqU) co ýH H aiI...NMlCMMH’DHOO I-NNNMNIr- I- NNNNOnMH U) toH H H z. 000000000 000000000 Cl) H HHHHHH HHHHHHqHHH H- E-4 N MWr-N H Mr- N wMn0~r-oMMN Wl MNHOMM0O’ ro m olq~w H...ý C4k 44 4 ýL 4C 00000 HHH.-4 1- HH H HHHH HHHH U) /u) co* o nvr r-IO NOHM H0(-if0 m i c4 HooD- 00 Z 0000 000000000 00000 VI) H HHHHHH HHHHH HHHH 1

  6. Higgs Pair Production in the $H(\\rightarrow \\tau\\tau)H(\\rightarrow b\\bar{b})$ channel at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Prospects studies are presented for the observation of double Higgs production in the channel $H(\\rightarrow b \\overline{b})H(\\rightarrow \\tau \\tau)$ for a total integrated luminosity of 3000~fb$ ^{-1}$ of $\\sqrt{s}=$14~TeV proton-proton collisions at the HL-LHC. A cut-based analysis strategy using MC data and a parametrisation of the ATLAS detector provide assessment to the measurement prospects performed under different assumptions for the trilinear Higgs couplings values. Assuming SM background and SM signal, we expect to set an upper limit of the cross section for the di-Higgs production of $4.3 \\times \\sigma(HH \\rightarrow b\\bar{b}\\tau^+\\tau^-)$ at 95\\% Confidence Level. Using an effective Lagrangian for the Higgs potential, and allowing its trilinear coupling to vary, we can project an exclusion of $\\lambda_{HHH}/\\lambda_{SM} \\leq -4$ and $\\lambda_{HHH}/\\lambda_{SM} \\geq 12$.

  7. A review on transport layer protocol performance for delivering video on an adhoc network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Suwendri; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    The transport layer protocol is responsible for the end to end data transmission. Transmission control protocol (TCP) provides a reliable connection and user datagram protocol (UDP) offers fast but unguaranteed data transfer. Meanwhile, the 802.11 (wireless fidelity/WiFi) networks have been widely used as internet hotspots. This paper evaluates TCP, TCP variants and UDP performances for video transmission on an adhoc network. The transport protocol - medium access cross-layer is proposed by prioritizing TCP acknowledgement to reduce delay. The NS-2 evaluations show that the average delays increase linearly for all the evaluated protocols and the average packet losses grow logarithmically. UDP produces the lowest transmission delay; 5.4% and 5.8% lower than TCP and TCP variant, but experiences the highest packet loss. Both TCP and TCP Vegas maintain packet loss as low as possible. The proposed cross-layer successfully decreases TCP and TCP Vegas delay about 0.12 % and 0.15%, although losses remain similar.

  8. Radiation synthesis of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ying [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu Ling, E-mail: lingxu@pku.edu.cn [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang Xiangmei; Zhao Yinghui [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wei Shicheng, E-mail: sc-wei@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhai Maolin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-05-01

    A series of biodegradable composite scaffolds was fabricated from an aqueous solution of gelatin, carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) by radiation-induced crosslinking at ambient temperature. Ultrasonic treatment on the polymer solutions significantly influenced the distribution of {beta}-TCP particles. An ultrasonic time of 20 min, followed by 30 kGy irradiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with homogeneous distribution of {beta}-TCP particles, interconnected porous structure, sound swelling capacity and mechanical strength. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis indicated that {beta}-TCP successfully incorporated with the network of gelatin and CM-chitosan. In vivo implantation of the scaffold into the mandible of beagle dog revealed that the scaffolds had excellent biocompatibility and the presence of {beta}-TCP can accelerate bone regeneration. The comprehensive results of this study paved way for the application of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-TCP composite scaffolds as candidate of bone tissue engineering material. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with interconnected porous structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic time of 20 min led to homogenerously distribution of {beta}-TCP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing amount of {beta}-TCP would restrict the swelling properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper fraction of {beta}-TCP will promote the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid of {beta}-TCP promoted the bone regeneration of the mandibles of beagle dogs.

  9. Coronary Arteries Segmentation Based on the 3D Discrete Wavelet Transform and 3D Neutrosophic Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Shuo-Tsung Chen; Tzung-Dau Wang; Wen-Jeng Lee; Tsai-Wei Huang; Pei-Kai Hung; Cheng-Yu Wei; Chung-Ming Chen; Woon-Man Kung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Most applications in the field of medical image processing require precise estimation. To improve the accuracy of segmentation, this study aimed to propose a novel segmentation method for coronary arteries to allow for the automatic and accurate detection of coronary pathologies. Methods. The proposed segmentation method included 2 parts. First, 3D region growing was applied to give the initial segmentation of coronary arteries. Next, the location of vessel information, HHH subband c...

  10. Development of a Distributed Breach for the Conical Shock Tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Ti - «<M’»<Mosm —vocvicocviosm —VO(VI cr»—vo •*— ro cvi ro • * m m is. vo N OO CO OS <c<c<c<c<r<c<coc<c<E<c«<c<c<coc<coi hht-HHI-1-Khhhl- hHhhHh

  11. Preclinical evaluation of technetium 99m-labeled P1827DS for infection imaging and comparison with technetium 99m IL-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Sabine; Rennen, Huub J.; Boerman, Otto C.; Baumann, Sabine; Cyr, John E.; Manchanda, Rajesh; Lister-James, John; Corstens, Frans C.; Dinkelborg, Ludger M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The technetium 99 m ( 99m Tc)-radiolabeled, leukocyte-avid peptide-glycoseaminoglycan complex, [ 99m Tc]P1827DS, has been synthesized as an improved infection/inflammation imaging agent to [ 99m Tc]P483H (LeukoTect, Diatide). In a phase I/II clinical trail, [ 99m Tc]P483H images were equivalent to those obtained with 111 In ex vivo labeled leukocytes. However, there was physiologic accumulation of radioactivity in the body that could hamper interpretation of the images. In this study, the potential of [ 99m Tc]P1827DS for infection imaging was assessed in comparison with [ 99m Tc]P483H and the well-described imaging agent [ 99m Tc] hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC)-interleukin 8 (IL-8). Methods: The binding of [ 99m Tc]P1827DS to human blood cell was studied in vitro. A rabbit Escherichia coli infection model was used to perform the biodistribution and imaging studies with [ 99m Tc]P1827DS, [ 99m Tc]P483H and [ 99m Tc]HYNIC-IL-8. Results: [ 99m Tc]P1827DS binds to leukocytes but not to erythrocytes. The leukocyte binding was not saturable up to an investigated concentration of 10 μM. The accumulation of [ 99m Tc]P1827/DS at the infection site strongly depends on the P1827/DS ratio and was optimal at a molar ratio of 10:1. [ 99m Tc]P1827DS shows improved biodistribution over [ 99m Tc]P483H with similar uptake at the infection site. Abscess uptake of [ 99m Tc]HYNIC-IL-8 was approximately three times higher than that of [ 99m Tc]P1827DS. [ 99m Tc]HYNIC-IL-8 showed high accumulation in the kidneys, whereas [ 99m Tc]P1827DS showed high lung uptake and slightly higher accumulation in the liver and spleen. Conclusion: [ 99m Tc]P1827DS is a potential new inflammation imaging agent, which clearly visualized the abscess in the rabbit E. coli infection model and showed improved biodistribution compared to [ 99m Tc]P483H. However, the infection uptake and biodistribution of [ 99m Tc]P1827DS is not superior to that of [ 99m Tc]HYNIC-IL-8 in this animal model

  12. Cloning, characterization and sub-cellular localization of gamma subunit of T-complex protein-1 (chaperonin) from Leishmania donovani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskar,; Kumari, Neeti [Division of Biochemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Chattar Manzil Palace, PO Box 173, Lucknow (India); Goyal, Neena, E-mail: neenacdri@yahoo.com [Division of Biochemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Chattar Manzil Palace, PO Box 173, Lucknow (India)

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study presents cloning and characterization of TCP1{gamma} gene from L. donovani. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TCP1{gamma} is a subunit of T-complex protein-1 (TCP1), a chaperonin class of protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LdTCP{gamma} exhibited differential expression in different stages of promastigotes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LdTCP{gamma} co-localized with actin, a cytoskeleton protein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The data suggests that this gene may have a role in differentiation/biogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report on this chapronin in Leishmania. -- Abstract: T-complex protein-1 (TCP1) complex, a chaperonin class of protein, ubiquitous in all genera of life, is involved in intracellular assembly and folding of various proteins. The gamma subunit of TCP1 complex (TCP1{gamma}), plays a pivotal role in the folding and assembly of cytoskeleton protein(s) as an individual or complexed with other subunits. Here, we report for the first time cloning, characterization and expression of the TCP1{gamma} of Leishmania donovani (LdTCP1{gamma}), the causative agent of Indian Kala-azar. Primary sequence analysis of LdTCP1{gamma} revealed the presence of all the characteristic features of TCP1{gamma}. However, leishmanial TCP1{gamma} represents a distinct kinetoplastid group, clustered in a separate branch of the phylogenic tree. LdTCP1{gamma} exhibited differential expression in different stages of promastigotes. The non-dividing stationary phase promastigotes exhibited 2.5-fold less expression of LdTCP1{gamma} as compared to rapidly dividing log phase parasites. The sub-cellular distribution of LdTCP1{gamma} was studied in log phase promastigotes by employing indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. The protein was present not only in cytoplasm but it was also localized in nucleus, peri-nuclear region, flagella, flagellar pocket and apical region. Co-localization of LdTCP1{gamma} with actin suggests

  13. Internetworking technological foundations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meinel, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    This book is supposed to serve as a comprehensive and instructive guide through the new world of digital communication. On the physical layer optical and electrical cabling technology are described as well as wireless communication technologies. On the data link layer local area networks (LANs) are introduced together with the most popular LAN technologies such as Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, and ATM as well as wireless LAN technologies including IEEE 802.x, Bluetooth, or ZigBee. A wide range of WAN technologies are covered including contemporary high speed technologies like PDH and SDH up to h

  14. Control system technology for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Matsuo, Keiichi; Maruyama, Takayuki.

    1995-01-01

    Control systems for particle accelerators are being designed around open-architecture systems, which allows easy upgrading, high-speed networks and high-speed processors. Mitsubishi Electric is applying realtime Unix operating systems, fiber-distributed data interface (FDDI), shared memory networks and remote I/O systems to achieve these objectives. In the area of vacuum control systems, which requires large-scale sequence control, the corporation is employing general-purpose programmable logic controllers (PLCs) to achieve cost-effective design. Software for these applications is designed around a library of application program interfaces (APIs) that give users direct access to key system functions. (author)

  15. Multi-Core Emptiness Checking of Timed Büchi Automata using Inclusion Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laarman, Alfons; Olesen, Mads Chr.; Dalsgaard, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the multi-core model checking of timed automata (TA) with respect to liveness properties, by investigating checking of TA Büchi emptiness under the very coarse inclusion abstraction or zone subsumption, an open problem in this field. We show that in general Büchi emptiness...... parallel LTL model checking algorithm for timed automata. The algorithms are implemented in LTSmin, and experimental evaluations show the effectiveness and scalability of both contributions: subsumption halves the number of states in the real-world FDDI case study, and the multi-core algorithm yields...

  16. Upgrade of GANIL control system cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, L.

    1998-01-01

    The GANIL control system was based on VAX 32 bit computers connected on a coaxial ethernet network. Since last year we are using an Alpha server with 64 bit Alpha workstations. At the same time the network is moving to twisted pair linked to a HUB concentrator, which is itself connected to the main FDDI ring. Solutions to solve the following problems are presented: the generalization of control graphical interfaces; extensive usage of the data base; the compilation of the more complex units; object programming; adaption to the new materials technologies; migration towards another operating system. Also described is the modification in the network imposed by the supplementary control of SPIRAL

  17. Mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cements obtained by solution combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkmer, Tiago M.; Barreiro, Oscar; Souza, Vania Caldas; Santos, Luis Alberto dos, E-mail: tiagovolkmer@gmail.com, E-mail: oscarbafer@hotmail.com, E-mail: vania.souza@ufrgs.br, E-mail: luis.santos@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Biomateriais

    2009-07-01

    Bioceramics based on calcium phosphates, especially hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphates (TCP) are the most used biomaterials as bone substitutes. The objective of this work is to evaluate the mechanical properties of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) synthesized by the solution combustion method. The solution combustion synthesis (SCS) can be considered as faster and simpler as other methods, furthermore it allows the obtainment of high purity α-TCP. In the calcium phosphates (CPC), α-TCP reacts with water forming needle like HA, which restrain the movement of grains, increasing mechanical resistance. In the present paper the influence of particle size on mechanical properties of α-TCP cements were evaluated. The α-TCP powder were characterized by XRD, TEM, BET and laser diffraction to asses particle size while the CPC bodies by SEM, Arquimedes method and compression tests. Increasing the milling time, the particle size decreases, resulting in samples with less porosity and consequently with higher compression resistance. (author)

  18. Six virtual inches to the left: The problem with IPng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ficarella, D. [Motorola (United States)

    1994-05-01

    This memo describes an Internet information track protocol for the Internet community. It proposes that a locator address (TA) be assigned to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The purpose of this TA is to uniquely identify an Internet node without specifing any routing information. This new version of TCP would contain support for high bandwidth-delay networks. Support for multiple network layer (Internet Protocol) protocols is also possible with this new TCP. Distribution of this document is unlimited. This RFC suggests that a new version of TCP be developed (TCPv11) and deployed. This version of TCP would contain a globally unique transport protocol address (TA). Assiging an address to TCP would allow for the support of multiple network layer protocols (IPng`s). The Ta would identify the location of an Internet node. The IPng layer would provide routing information to the Internet. Seperating the location and routing functions will greatly increase the versitily of the Internet.

  19. Low temperature preparation of α-tricalcium phosphate and its mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP was successfully prepared by the thermal transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP precursor. β-cyclodextrin (β-CD was used for preparation of ACP precursor and played an important role in designing its special structure. The phase composition and microstructures of the obtained α-TCP at different annealing temperature were analysed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope, and confirmed that α-TCP can be prepared at 650°C for 3 h using ACP as precursor, which is much lower than the phase transition temperature of α-TCP. Mechanical properties were tested 24 h after mixing the obtained α-TCP with 30 wt.% of deionised water. The compressive strength and the flexural strength were 26.4MPa and 12.0MPa, respectively. The flexural strength was higher than that of α-TCP prepared by other methods.

  20. Bandwidth Management in Resource Constrained Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Postgraduate School OSI Open Systems Interconnection QoS Quality of Service TCP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol TCP/IP Transmission...filtering. B. NORMAL TCP/IP COMMUNICATIONS The Internet is a “complex network WAN that connects LANs and clients around the globe” (Dean, 2009...of the Open Systems Interconnection ( OSI ) model allowing them to route traffic based on MAC address (Kurose & Ross, 2009). While switching

  1. Interaction of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol with high carbon iron filings: Reaction and sorption mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Alok [Environmental Engineering and Management Programme, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Bose, Purnendu [Environmental Engineering and Management Programme, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)], E-mail: pbose@iitk.ac.in

    2009-05-15

    Reductive dehalogenation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) by two types of high carbon iron filings (HCIF), HCIF-1 and HCIF-2 was studied in batch reactors. While the iron, copper, manganese and carbon content of the two types of HCIF was similar, the specific surface area of HCIF-1 and HCIF-2 were 1.944 and 3.418 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, respectively. During interaction with HCIF-1, 2,4,6-TCP adsorbed on HCIF-1 surface resulting in rapid reduction of aqueous phase 2,4,6-TCP concentration. However, reductive dehalogenation of 2,4,6-TCP was negligible. During interaction between 2,4,6-TCP and HCIF-2, both 2,4,6-TCP adsorption on HCIF-2, and 2,4,6,-TCP dechlorination was observed. 2,4,6-TCP partitioning between solid and aqueous phase could be described by a Freundlich isotherm, while 2,4,6-TCP dechlorination could be described by an appropriate rate expression. A mathematical model was developed for describing the overall interaction of 2,4,6-TCP with HCIF-2, incorporating simultaneous adsorption/desorption and dechlorination reactions of 2,4,6-TCP with the HCIF surface. 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) and minor amounts of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) evolved as 2,4,6-TCP dechlorination by-products. The evolved 2,4-DCP partitioned strongly to the HCIF surface. 4-CP and 2-CP accumulated in the aqueous phase. No transformation of 2-CP or 4-CP to phenol was observed.

  2. Trichoderma spp. decrease Fusarium root rot in common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of six Trichoderma-based commercial products (TCP in controlling Fusarium root rot (FRR in common bean was assessed under field conditions. Three TCP, used for seed treatment or applied in the furrow, increased seedling emergence as much as the fungicide fludioxonil. FRR incidence was not affected, but all TCP and fludioxonil reduced the disease severity, compared to control. Application of Trichoderma-based products was as effective as that of fludioxonil in FRR management.

  3. β-Tricalcium phosphate/poly(glycerol sebacate) scaffolds with robust mechanical property for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Xiaoyu; Ma, Yifan; Kan, Chao; Ma, Haiyan; Li, Yulin; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-11-01

    Despite good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, porous β-TCP scaffolds still lack the structural stability and mechanical robustness, which greatly limit their application in the field of bone regeneration. The hybridization of β-TCP with conventional synthetic biodegradable PLA and PCL only produced a limited toughening effect due to the plasticity of the polymers in nature. In this study, a β-TCP/poly(glycerol sebacate) scaffold (β-TCP/PGS) with well interconnected porous structure and robust mechanical property was prepared. Porous β-TCP scaffold was first prepared with polyurethane sponge as template and then impregnated into PGS pre-polymer solution with moderate viscosity, followed by in situ heat crosslinking and freezing-drying process. The results indicated that the freezing-drying under vacuum process could further facilitate crosslinking of PGS and formation of Ca(2+)-COO(-) ionic complexing and thus synergistically improved the mechanical strength of the β-TCP/PGS with in situ heat crosslinking. Particularly, the β-TCP/PGS with 15% PGS content after heat crosslinking at 130°C and freezing-drying at -50°C under vacuum exhibited an elongation at break of 375±25% and a compressive strength of 1.73MPa, 3.7-fold and 200-fold enhancement compared to the β-TCP, respectively. After the abrupt drop of compressive load, the β-TCP/PGS scaffolds exhibited a full recovery of their original shape. More importantly, the PGS polymer in the β-TCP/PGS scaffolds could direct the biomineralization of Ca/P from particulate shape into a nanofiber-interweaved structure. Furthermore, the β-TCP/PGS scaffolds allowed for cell penetration and proliferation, indicating a good cytobiocompatibility. It is believed that β-TCP/PGS scaffolds have great potential application in rigid tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Combinatorial metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for efficient mineralization of 1,2,3-trichloropropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ting; Xu, Xiaoqing; Che, You; Liu, Ruihua; Gao, Weixia; Zhao, Fengjie; Yu, Huilei; Liang, Jingnan; Xu, Ping; Song, Cunjiang; Yang, Chao

    2017-08-01

    An industrial waste, 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP), is toxic and extremely recalcitrant to biodegradation. To date, no natural TCP degraders able to mineralize TCP aerobically have been isolated. In this work, we engineered a biosafety Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 for aerobic mineralization of TCP by implantation of a synthetic biodegradation pathway into the chromosome and further improved TCP mineralization using combinatorial engineering strategies. Initially, a synthetic pathway composed of haloalkane dehalogenase, haloalcohol dehalogenase and epoxide hydrolase was functionally assembled for the conversion of TCP into glycerol in P. putida KT2440. Then, the growth lag-phase of using glycerol as a growth precursor was eliminated by deleting the glpR gene, significantly enhancing the flux of carbon through the pathway. Subsequently, we improved the oxygen sequestering capacity of this strain through the heterologous expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin, which makes this strain able to mineralize TCP under oxygen-limited conditions. Lastly, we further improved intracellular energy charge (ATP/ADP ratio) and reducing power (NADPH/NADP + ratio) by deleting flagella-related genes in the genome of P. putida KT2440. The resulting strain (named KTU-TGVF) could efficiently utilize TCP as the sole source of carbon for growth. Degradation studies in a bioreactor highlight the value of this engineered strain for TCP bioremediation.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured powders of hydroxyapatite and of three-calcium {beta} phosphate: elaboration of two phase compositions for application in the orthopedics and traumatology; Sintese e caracterizacao de pos nanoestruturados de hidroxiapatita e de fosfato tricalcico {beta}: elaboracao de composicoes bifasicas para aplicacoes na ortopedia e traumatologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmonico, G.M.L.; Pinheiro, D.M.; Camargo, N.H.A.; Orzechowki, L.G.; Goncalves, A.F.; Melnik, V.; Jesus, J.; Gemelli, E. [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas], e-mail: gidalmonico@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    This paper synthesized nano structured hydroxyapatite and three calcium {beta} phosphate, for elaboration of two phase compositions of HA/TCP in the concentration in volume of 80% HA/20% TCP-{beta}, 60% HA/40% TCP-{beta} and 50% HA/50% TCP-{beta}. For phase mixing realization, the method of mechanical fragmentation by attritor mill were used. The material recovered from the process of mechanical fragmentation was dried in rotate evaporator, supplying the two phase compositions. The preliminary studies shown the obtention of nano metric powders and a good phase dispersions inside the two phase compositions. (author)

  6. Network Analysis with SiLK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-06

    Carnegie Mellon University rwcut Default Display By default • sIP , sPort • dIP, dPort • protocol • packets, bytes • flags • sTime, eTime, duration...TCP/IP SOCKET IP address: 10.0.0.1 L4 protocol : TCP High-numbered ephemeral port # TCP/IP SOCKET IP address: 203.0.113.1 L4 protocol : TCP Low-numbered...Fields found to be useful in analysis: • source address, destination address • source port, destination port (Internet Control Message Protocol

  7. Comparison of TEAR and TFRC throughput for Drop tail and RED Queue Management Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parminderjeet Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of throughput for TEAR (TCP emulation at receivers and TFRC TCP friendly rate control in MANETs is done with varying Active queue Management Techniques. The analysis reveals that for bandwidth constraint links, TEAR and TFRC perform far better than normal traffic propagation through TCP. In case of TEAR, the processing and route congestion algorithm load is shared by the receiver resulting in lesser load at the transmitters. In TFRC the TCP traffic is propagated via an algorithm to curb acknowledgement congestions. The effect of these two techniques is monitored on Droptail and RED, two of the most common Active Queue Management Techniques.

  8. Honduras - Public Financial Management and Public-Private Partnerships

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Honduras Threshold Country Program (TCP) aims to increase the efficiency and transparency of public financial management (PFM) and public private partnerships...

  9. Design, Implementation and Evaluation of Congestion Control Mechanism for Video Streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi Noborio; Hiroyuki Hisamatsu; Hiroki Oda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, video streaming services over TCP, such as YouTube, have become more and more popular. TCP NewReno, the current TCP standard, performs greedy congestion control, which increases the congestion window size until packet loss occurs. Therefore, because TCP transmits data at a much higher rate than the video playback rate, the probability of packet loss in the network increases, which in turn takes bandwidth from other network traffic. In this paper, we propose a new transport-la...

  10. β-Tricalcium phosphate/poly(glycerol sebacate) scaffolds with robust mechanical property for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kai [The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Engineering Research Centre for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhang, Jing; Ma, Xiaoyu; Ma, Yifan; Kan, Chao [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Engineering Research Centre for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Ma, Haiyan [Engineering Research Centre for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Li, Yulin, E-mail: yulinli@ecust.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Yuan, Yuan, E-mail: yyuan@ecust.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Engineering Research Centre for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, Changsheng, E-mail: liucs@ecust.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Engineering Research Centre for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2015-11-01

    Despite good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity, porous β-TCP scaffolds still lack the structural stability and mechanical robustness, which greatly limit their application in the field of bone regeneration. The hybridization of β-TCP with conventional synthetic biodegradable PLA and PCL only produced a limited toughening effect due to the plasticity of the polymers in nature. In this study, a β-TCP/poly(glycerol sebacate) scaffold (β-TCP/PGS) with well interconnected porous structure and robust mechanical property was prepared. Porous β-TCP scaffold was first prepared with polyurethane sponge as template and then impregnated into PGS pre-polymer solution with moderate viscosity, followed by in situ heat crosslinking and freezing–drying process. The results indicated that the freezing–drying under vacuum process could further facilitate crosslinking of PGS and formation of Ca{sup 2+}–COO{sup −} ionic complexing and thus synergistically improved the mechanical strength of the β-TCP/PGS with in situ heat crosslinking. Particularly, the β-TCP/PGS with 15% PGS content after heat crosslinking at 130 °C and freezing–drying at − 50 °C under vacuum exhibited an elongation at break of 375 ± 25% and a compressive strength of 1.73 MPa, 3.7-fold and 200-fold enhancement compared to the β-TCP, respectively. After the abrupt drop of compressive load, the β-TCP/PGS scaffolds exhibited a full recovery of their original shape. More importantly, the PGS polymer in the β-TCP/PGS scaffolds could direct the biomineralization of Ca/P from particulate shape into a nanofiber-interweaved structure. Furthermore, the β-TCP/PGS scaffolds allowed for cell penetration and proliferation, indicating a good cytobiocompatibility. It is believed that β-TCP/PGS scaffolds have great potential application in rigid tissue regeneration. - Graphical abstract: Robust β-TCP/PGS porous scaffolds are developed by incorporation of poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS, a flexible

  11. Cloning, characterization and sub-cellular localization of gamma subunit of T-complex protein-1 (chaperonin) from Leishmania donovani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar,; Kumari, Neeti; Goyal, Neena

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The study presents cloning and characterization of TCP1γ gene from L. donovani. ► TCP1γ is a subunit of T-complex protein-1 (TCP1), a chaperonin class of protein. ► LdTCPγ exhibited differential expression in different stages of promastigotes. ► LdTCPγ co-localized with actin, a cytoskeleton protein. ► The data suggests that this gene may have a role in differentiation/biogenesis. ► First report on this chapronin in Leishmania. -- Abstract: T-complex protein-1 (TCP1) complex, a chaperonin class of protein, ubiquitous in all genera of life, is involved in intracellular assembly and folding of various proteins. The gamma subunit of TCP1 complex (TCP1γ), plays a pivotal role in the folding and assembly of cytoskeleton protein(s) as an individual or complexed with other subunits. Here, we report for the first time cloning, characterization and expression of the TCP1γ of Leishmania donovani (LdTCP1γ), the causative agent of Indian Kala-azar. Primary sequence analysis of LdTCP1γ revealed the presence of all the characteristic features of TCP1γ. However, leishmanial TCP1γ represents a distinct kinetoplastid group, clustered in a separate branch of the phylogenic tree. LdTCP1γ exhibited differential expression in different stages of promastigotes. The non-dividing stationary phase promastigotes exhibited 2.5-fold less expression of LdTCP1γ as compared to rapidly dividing log phase parasites. The sub-cellular distribution of LdTCP1γ was studied in log phase promastigotes by employing indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. The protein was present not only in cytoplasm but it was also localized in nucleus, peri-nuclear region, flagella, flagellar pocket and apical region. Co-localization of LdTCP1γ with actin suggests that, this gene may have a role in maintaining the structural dynamics of cytoskeleton of parasite.

  12. Bone regeneration by means of a three-dimensional printed scaffold in a rat cranial defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Doo Yeon; Park, Ji Hoon; Jang, So Hee; Park, Joon Yeong; Jang, Ju Woong; Min, Byoung Hyun; Kim, Wan-Doo; Lee, Hai Bang; Lee, Junhee; Kim, Moon Suk

    2018-02-01

    Recently, computer-designed three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques have emerged as an active research area with almost unlimited possibilities. In this study, we used a computer-designed 3D scaffold to drive new bone formation in a bone defect. Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) and bioactive β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) were simply mixed to prepare ink. PLLA + TCP showed good printability from the micronozzle and solidification within few seconds, indicating that it was indeed printable ink for layer-by-layer printing. In the images, TCP on the surface of (and/or inside) PLLA in the printed PLLA + TCP scaffold looked dispersed. MG-63 cells (human osteoblastoma) adhered to and proliferated well on the printed PLLA + TCP scaffold. To assess new bone formation in vivo, the printed PLLA + TCP scaffold was implanted into a full-thickness cranial bone defect in rats. The new bone formation was monitored by microcomputed tomography and histological analysis of the in vivo PLLA + TCP scaffold with or without MG-63 cells. The bone defect was gradually spontaneously replaced with new bone tissues when we used both bioactive TCP and MG-63 cells in the PLLA scaffold. Bone formation driven by the PLLA + TCP30 scaffold with MG-63 cells was significantly greater than that in other experimental groups. Furthermore, the PLLA + TCP scaffold gradually degraded and matched well the extent of the gradual new bone formation on microcomputed tomography. In conclusion, the printed PLLA + TCP scaffold effectively supports new bone formation in a cranial bone defect. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The APS control system network upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorowicz, K. v.; Leibfritz, D.; McDowell, W. P.

    1999-01-01

    When it was installed,the Advanced Photon Source (APS) control system network was at the state-of-the-art. Different aspects of the system have been reported at previous meetings [1,2]. As loads on the controls network have increased due to newer and faster workstations and front-end computers, we have found performance of the system declining and have implemented an upgraded network. There have been dramatic advances in networking hardware in the last several years. The upgraded APS controls network replaces the original FDDI backbone and shared Ethernet hubs with redundant gigabit uplinks and fully switched 10/100 Ethernet switches with backplane fabrics in excess of 20 Gbits/s (Gbps). The central collapsed backbone FDDI concentrator has been replaced with a Gigabit Ethernet switch with greater than 30 Gbps backplane fabric. Full redundancy of the system has been maintained. This paper will discuss this upgrade and include performance data and performance comparisons with the original network

  14. Data communication network at the ASRM facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Robert J., II; Smith, Wayne D.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the simulation of the overall communication network structure for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) facility being built at Yellow Creek near Iuka, Mississippi as of today. The report is compiled using information received from NASA/MSFC, LMSC, AAD, and RUST Inc. As per the information gathered, the overall network structure will have one logical FDDI ring acting as a backbone for the whole complex. The buildings will be grouped into two categories viz. manufacturing intensive and manufacturing non-intensive. The manufacturing intensive buildings will be connected via FDDI to the Operational Information System (OIS) in the main computing center in B_1000. The manufacturing non-intensive buildings will be connected by 10BASE-FL to the OIS through the Business Information System (BIS) hub in the main computing center. All the devices inside B_1000 will communicate with the BIS. The workcells will be connected to the Area Supervisory Computers (ASCs) through the nearest manufacturing intensive hub and one of the OIS hubs. Comdisco's Block Oriented Network Simulator (BONeS) has been used to simulate the performance of the network. BONeS models a network topology, traffic, data structures, and protocol functions using a graphical interface. The main aim of the simulations was to evaluate the loading of the OIS, the BIS, and the ASCs, and the network links by the traffic generated by the workstations and workcells throughout the site.

  15. CODA: A scalable, distributed data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.A. III; Chen, J.; Heyes, G.; Jastrzembski, E.; Quarrie, D.

    1994-01-01

    A new data acquisition system has been designed for physics experiments scheduled to run at CEBAF starting in the summer of 1994. This system runs on Unix workstations connected via ethernet, FDDI, or other network hardware to multiple intelligent front end crates -- VME, CAMAC or FASTBUS. CAMAC crates may either contain intelligent processors, or may be interfaced to VME. The system is modular and scalable, from a single front end crate and one workstation linked by ethernet, to as may as 32 clusters of front end crates ultimately connected via a high speed network to a set of analysis workstations. The system includes an extensible, device independent slow controls package with drivers for CAMAC, VME, and high voltage crates, as well as a link to CEBAF accelerator controls. All distributed processes are managed by standard remote procedure calls propagating change-of-state requests, or reading and writing program variables. Custom components may be easily integrated. The system is portable to any front end processor running the VxWorks real-time kernel, and to most workstations supplying a few standard facilities such as rsh and X-windows, and Motif and socket libraries. Sample implementations exist for 2 Unix workstation families connected via ethernet or FDDI to VME (with interfaces to FASTBUS or CAMAC), and via ethernet to FASTBUS or CAMAC

  16. Data communication network at the ASRM facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Robert J., II; Smith, Wayne D.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the simulation of the overall communication network structure for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) facility being built at Yellow Creek near Iuka, Mississippi as of today. The report is compiled using information received from NASA/MSFC, LMSC, AAD, and RUST Inc. As per the information gathered, the overall network structure will have one logical FDDI ring acting as a backbone for the whole complex. The buildings will be grouped into two categories viz. manufacturing intensive and manufacturing non-intensive. The manufacturing intensive buildings will be connected via FDDI to the Operational Information System (OIS) in the main computing center in B_1000. The manufacturing non-intensive buildings will be connected by 10BASE-FL to the OIS through the Business Information System (BIS) hub in the main computing center. All the devices inside B_1000 will communicate with the BIS. The workcells will be connected to the Area Supervisory Computers (ASCs) through the nearest manufacturing intensive hub and one of the OIS hubs. Comdisco's Block Oriented Network Simulator (BONeS) has been used to simulate the performance of the network. BONeS models a network topology, traffic, data structures, and protocol functions using a graphical interface. The main aim of the simulations was to evaluate the loading of the OIS, the BIS, and the ASCs, and the network links by the traffic generated by the workstations and workcells throughout the site.

  17. A new LAN concept for LEP machine networks

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, L E

    1995-01-01

    LEP networks, implemented in 1987, are based on two Token-ring backbones using TDM as the transmission medium. The general topology is based on routers and on a distributed backbone. To avoid the instabilities introduced by the TDM and all the conversion layers it has been decided to upgrade the LEP machine network and to evaluate a new concept for the overall network topology. The new concept will also fulfil the basic requirements for the future LHC network. The new approach relies on a large infrastructure which connects all the eight underground pits of LEP with single-mode fibres from the Prevessin control room (PCR). From the bottom of the pits, the two adjacent alcoves will be cabled with multi-mode fibres. FDDI has been selected as the MAC protocol. This new concept is based on switching and routing between the PCR and the eight pits. In each pit a hub will switch between the FDDI LMA backbone and the local Ethernet segments. Two of these segments will reach the alcoves by means of a 10Base-F link. In...

  18. The Development of a Service-Learning Program for First-Year Students Based on the Hallmarks of High Quality Service-Learning and Rigorous Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradley H.; Gahagan, James; McQuillin, Samuel; Haywood, Benjamin; Cole, Caroline Pender; Bolton, Clay; Wampler, Mary Katherine

    2011-01-01

    We describe six hallmarks of high quality service-learning and explain how these considerations guided the development of a Transitional Coaching Program (TCP) during the first three years of implementation. We have demonstrated that the TCP is acceptable, feasible, and sustainable. Improvements have been seen in the degree of impact on learning…

  19. Characterization of a newly isolated highly effective 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol degrading strain Cupriavidus pauculus P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Liu, Hongming; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Ke; Gu, Tao; Ni, Haiyan; Hong, Qing; Li, Shunpeng

    2012-09-01

    A bacterial strain P2 capable of degrading 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) was isolated and characterized. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that it belonged to the genus of Cupriavidus, because it showed the highest sequence similarity to Cupriavidus pauculus LMG 3413(T) (99.7 %) and DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain P2 and C. pauculus LMG 3413(T) was 76.8 %. In combination with morphological, physiological and biochemical characters, strain P2 was identified as C. pauculus. It could use TCP as the sole carbon source and energy source for its growth. It showed a high average degradation rate of 10 mg/L h in mineral salt medium amended with TCP (50-800 mg/L). During TCP degradation, chloridion was released into the medium in two obvious discontinuous stages. Along with this, two colorful metabolites were produced. Finally, the molarity of the total released chloridion was three times that of the initial TCP in the medium. This is the first report of TCP-degrading strain from the genus of Cupriavidus and the detection of two colorful metabolites during TCP degradation. Strain P2 might be a promising candidate for its application in the bioremediation of TCP-polluted environments.

  20. Efficacy of a small cell-binding peptide coated hydroxyapatite substitute on bone formation and implant fixation in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Andreasen, Christina Møller; Dencker, Mads L.

    2015-01-01

    hydroxyapatite (ABM/P-15); hydroxyapatite + βtricalciumphosphate+ Poly-Lactic-Acid (HA/βTCP-PDLLA); or ABM/P-15+HA/βTCP-PDLLA. After nine weeks, bone-implant blocks were harvested and sectioned for micro-CT scanning, push-out test, and histomorphometry. Significant bone formation and implant fixation could...

  1. The effects of a novel-reinforced bone substitute and Colloss®E on bone defect healing in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Røjskjaer, Jesper; Cheng, Liming

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxyappatite-β-tricalciumphosphate (HA/β-TCP) was reinforced with poly(D,L)-lactic acid (PDLLA) to overcome its weak mechanical properties. Two substitutes with porosities of 77% and 81% HA/β-TCP reinforced with 12 wt % PDLLA were tested in compression. The effects of allograft, substitute (HA...

  2. Extraction of Silica from Cassava Periderm using Modified Sol-Gel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    production (birth of semiconductor revolution) (Wikipedia,. 2018). It has been used ... and TCP were calcined separately at 700 oC for 4 hours to obtain their respective ... Figure 1 shows the TGA curves for UCP and TCP thermally decomposed ...

  3. Modeling tumor control probability for spatially inhomogeneous risk of failure based on clinical outcome data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin; Löck, Steffen; Jakobi, Annika

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Objectives of this work are (1) to derive a general clinically relevant approach to model tumor control probability (TCP) for spatially variable risk of failure and (2) to demonstrate its applicability by estimating TCP for patients planned for photon and proton irradiation. METHODS AND ...

  4. Induction of bone formation by smart biphasic hydroxyapatite tricalcium phosphate biomimetic matrices in the non-human primate Papio ursinus

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ripamonti, U

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies in the non-human primate Chacma baboon Papio ursinus were set to investigate the induction of bone formation by biphasic hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) biomimetic matrices. HA/β-TCP biomimetic matrices in a pre...

  5. The Impact of the Next Generation Internet (NGI) on Naval Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brig, Michael

    2000-01-01

    ...) family of protocols. The TCP/IPv6 protocol family will likely replace the TCP/IPv4 protocol family after an extended transition period, anticipated at up to 10 years, during which both protocol families will need to be supported...

  6. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Pawan Kumar Gupta. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 32 Issue 3 June 2007 pp 253-275. TCP with header checksum option for wireless links: An analytical approach towards performance evaluation · Pawan Kumar Gupta Joy Kuri · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. TCP performs poorly in ...

  7. 76 FR 62087 - Draft Conservation Plan and Draft Environmental Assessment; Dunes Sagebrush Lizard, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ...] Draft Conservation Plan and Draft Environmental Assessment; Dunes Sagebrush Lizard, Texas AGENCY: Fish... draft Texas Conservation Plan for the Dunes Sagebrush Lizard (TCP). The draft TCP will function as a... the Applicant for the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) throughout its range in Texas...

  8. Ceramic scaffolds produced by computer-assisted 3D printing and sintering: characterization and biocompatibility investigations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnke, P.H.; Seitz, H.; Warnke, F.; Becker, S.T.; Sivananthan, S.; Sherry, E.; Liu, Q.; Wiltfang, J.; Douglas, T.E.L.

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) are two very common ceramic materials for bone replacement. However, in general HAP and TCP scaffolds are not tailored to the exact dimensions of the defect site and are mainly used as granules or beads. Some scaffolds are available as ordinary

  9. A Pseudomonas putida strain genetically engineered for 1,2,3-trichloropropane bioremediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samin, Ghufrana; Pavlova, Martina; Arif, Muhammad; Postema, Christiaan P; Damborsky, Jiri; Janssen, Dick B

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) is a toxic compound that is recalcitrant to biodegradation in the environment. Attempts to isolate TCP-degrading organisms using enrichment cultivation have failed. A potential biodegradation pathway starts with hydrolytic dehalogenation to 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol (DCP),

  10. Impregnation of β-​tricalcium phosphate robocast scaffolds by in situ polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Vazquez, F.J.; Perera, F.H.; Meulen, van der I.; Heise, A.; Pajares, A.; Miranda, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ring-¿opening polymn. of e-¿caprolactone (e-¿CL) and L-¿lactide (LLA) was performed to impregnate ß-¿tricalcium phosphate (ß-¿TCP) scaffolds fabricated by robocasting. Concd. colloidal inks prepd. from ß-¿TCP com. powders were used to fabricate porous structures consisting of a 3D mesh of

  11. Zinc in calcium phosphate mediates bone induction: in vitro and in vivo model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Xiaoman; Barbieri, D.; Davison, N.; Yan, Y.; de Bruijn, Joost Dick; Yuan, Huipin

    2014-01-01

    Zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (Zn-TCP) was synthesized to investigate the role of zinc in osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis and in vivo bone induction in an ectopic implantation model. Zinc ions were readily released in the culture medium. Zn-TCP with the highest zinc content enhanced

  12. RAF and Protection Warfighting Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    countries and challenges (including both the Asian Pacific and the Middle East).10 To execute this strategy in an increasingly complex world, the...of the Force (GEF) to prepare and review theatre campaign plans (TCP).27 The TCP is the CCDR’s vehicle for operationalizing the theater strategy. The

  13. Tropical calcific pancreatitis and its association with CTRC and SPINK1 (p.N34S) variants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, M.H.; Szmola, R.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Sunderasan, S.; Chacko, A.; Drenth, J.P.H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP) is a relatively common form of chronic pancreatitis in parts of Asia and Africa. The SPINK1 variant p.N34S is strongly associated with TCP, but other genetic factors remain to be defined. Chymotrypsinogen C (CTRC) degrades trypsinogen and

  14. Chaperonin-Containing t-Complex Protein-1 Subunit β as a Possible Biomarker for the Phase of Glomerular Hyperfiltration of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ze Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In cell model, we discovered the association between chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 subunit β (TCP-1β and early diabetic nephropathy (DN. In this study, we further explored the relationships between TCP-1β and type 2 diabetic mellitus (DM. To mimic the clinical hyperfiltration state, a type 2 DM mice model was established by feeding a high-fat diet in combination with treatment of streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Blood and urine were collected to determine creatinine clearance (Ccr, and kidney tissues were harvested for evaluation of TCP-1β expression by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Meanwhile, clinical subjects of healthy controls and type 2 DM were recruited to strengthen the evidence with urine TCP-1β. Results showed that Ccr and the expression of TCP-1β in kidney were significantly higher one week after hyperglycemia development, suggesting that the hyperfiltration state was successfully established in the mice model. TCP-1β was expressed predominantly on renal tubules. By using the estimated glomerular filtration rate to index progression in clinical investigation, urine TCP-1β level was associated with the hyperfiltration phase in type 2 DM patients. Conclusively, we confirmed that TCP-1β is a possible biomarker for early nephropathy of type 2 DM, but further mechanistic study to elucidate its cause and pathway is needed.

  15. On Network Coded Filesystem Shim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Chres Wiant; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Médard, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    Although network coding has shown the potential to revolutionize networking and storage, its deployment has faced a number of challenges. Usual proposals involve two approaches. First, deploying a new protocol (e.g., Multipath Coded TCP), or retrofitting another one (e.g., TCP/NC) to deliver bene...

  16. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YDessalegn

    recommended for buffer management. Keywords: TCP; delay ... importance, the standard TCP does not perform well in high bandwidth delay .... reduce the time for reading the bits, this buffering concept could be implemented. Fig. 3 shows the situation after the buffers are created. These buffers are named as b1 and b2.

  17. Effects of hypoxia-ischemia and MK-801 treatment on the binding of a phencyclidine analogue in the developing rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstein, F.S.; McDonald, J.W. III; Bommarito, M.; Johnston, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The phencyclidine analogue [ 3 H](1-[2-thienyl]cyclohexyl)piperidine ( 3 H-TCP) binds to the ion channel associated with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel complex. In vitro autoradiography indicates that the distribution of 3 H-TCP binding in brain closely parallels that of [ 3 H]glutamate binding to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. In nine 7-day-old rats, an acute focal hypoxic-ischemic insult produced by unilateral carotid artery ligation and subsequent exposure to 8% oxygen acutely reduced 3 H-TCP binding ipsilateral to the ligation by 30% in the CA1, by 27% in the CA3, by 26% in the dentate gyrus, and by 17% in the striatum compared with values from the contralateral hemisphere. In 10 littermates that received 1 mg/kg of the neuroprotective noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist MK-801 immediately before hypoxic exposure, the regional distribution of 3 H-TCP binding in hypoxic-ischemic brain was relatively preserved and there were no interhemispheric asymmetries in 3 H-TCP binding densities. In addition, in three unoperated rats decapitated 24 hours after MK-801 treatment, 3 H-TCP binding was reduced by 15-35%; similar bilateral suppression of 3 H-TCP binding was detected in MK-801-treated ligates. Our data indicate that 3 H-TCP autoradiography can be used to assay the efficacy of neuroprotective agents in this experimental model of perinatal stroke

  18. Occult Metabolic Bone Disease in Chronic Pancreatitis | Hari Kumar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) leads to malabsorption and metabolic bone disease (MBD). Alcoholic CP (ACP) and tropical CP (TCP) are the two common types of CP. Objective: We investigated the presence of occult MBD in patients with CP and compared the same between ACP and TCP. Materials and Methods: ...

  19. Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in tropical calcific pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Sumit; Bhaskar, Seema; Chandak, Giriraj R

    2014-12-14

    Tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP) is a form of chronic non-alcoholic pancreatitis initially reported in the developing parts of the tropical world. The clinical phenotype of TCP has undergone marked changes since its first description in 1968. The disease is now seen in relatively older people with less severe symptoms. In addition, there are varying reports on the proportion of cases presenting with imaging abnormalities like calcification, ductal dilation, and glandular atrophy. Significant progress has also been made in understanding the etiopathology of TCP. The role of malnutrition and cassava toxicity in its pathogenesis is disproven and few studies have focused on the role of micronutrient deficiency and oxidative stress in the etiopathogenesis of TCP. Emerging evidence support an important role for genetic risk factors in TCP. Several studies have shown that, rather than mutations in trypsinogens, variants in serine protease inhibitor kazal type 1, cathepsin B, chymotrypsin C, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, and carboxypeptidase A1, predict risk of TCP. These studies also provided evidence of mutational heterogeneity between TCP and chronic pancreatitis in Western populations. The current review summarizes recent advances that have implications in the understanding of the pathophysiology and thus, heterogeneity in genotype-phenotype correlations in TCP.

  20. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Joy Kuri. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 32 Issue 3 June 2007 pp 253-275. TCP with header checksum option for wireless links: An analytical approach towards performance evaluation · Pawan Kumar Gupta Joy Kuri · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. TCP performs poorly in wireless ...

  1. WE-AB-207B-11: Optimizing Tumor Control Probability in Radiation Therapy Treatment - Application to HDR Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (Georgia); Yuan, F [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GEORGIA (United States); Templeton, A [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Yao, R [Columbus Regional Healthcare, Columbus, GA (United States); Chu, J [Rush University Medical Center, Oak Brook, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The ultimate goal of radiotherapy treatment planning is to find a treatment that will yield a high tumor-control-probability(TCP) with an acceptable normal-tissue-complication probability(NTCP). Yet most treatment planning today is not based upon optimization of TCPs and NTCPs, but rather upon meeting physical dose and volume constraints defined by the planner. We design treatment plans that optimize TCP directly and contrast them with the clinical dose-based plans. PET image is incorporated to evaluate gain in TCP for dose escalation. Methods: We build a nonlinear mixed integer programming optimization model that maximizes TCP directly while satisfying the dose requirements on the targeted organ and healthy tissues. The solution strategy first fits the TCP function with a piecewise-linear approximation, then solves the problem that maximizes the piecewise linear approximation of TCP, and finally performs a local neighborhood search to improve the TCP value. To gauge the feasibility, characteristics, and potential benefit of PET-image guided dose escalation, initial validation consists of fifteen cervical cancer HDR patient cases. These patients have all received prior 45Gy of external radiation dose. For both escalated strategies, we consider 35Gy PTV-dose, and two variations (37Gy-boost to BTV vs 40Gy-boost) to PET-image-pockets. Results: TCP for standard clinical plans range from 59.4% - 63.6%. TCP for dose-based PET-guided escalated-dose-plan ranges from 63.8%–98.6% for all patients; whereas TCP-optimized plans achieves over 91% for all patients. There is marginal difference in TCP among those with 37Gy-boosted vs 40Gy-boosted. There is no increase in rectum and bladder dose among all plans. Conclusion: Optimizing TCP directly results in highly conformed treatment plans. The TCP-optimized plan is individualized based on the biological PET-image of the patients. The TCP-optimization framework is generalizable and has been applied successfully to other

  2. Alpha-tricalcium phosphate cement in the reconstruction of bone defects in rats Cimento de alfa-tricálcio-fosfato na reconstrução de defeitos ósseos em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Souza Pinto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of a mixture of α-TCP and autogenous bone (AB vs. α-TCP alone and AB alone to promote new bone formation and tissue repair in bone defects. METHODS: Bone defects surgically created in 15 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group I (AB, Group II (α-TCP, Group III (α-TCP+AB assessed by light microscopy, and Group IV (α-TCP+AB assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Bone repair findings were assessed at 30, 60, and 120 days postoperatively. RESULTS: The histological findings obtained in Groups I (p=0.459, II (p=0.368, and III (p=0.459 and at 30 days (p=0.717, 60 days (p=0.717, and 120 days (p=0.779 did not show statistically significant differences. Scanning electron microscopy revealed direct contact between the α-TCP+AB implant and the bone tissue at 120 days. CONCLUSION: The α-TCP implant is effective alternative bone substitutes for the treatment of critical size bone defects.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a capacidade da mistura de α-TCP e osso autógeno (OA Vs somente α-TCP e somente OA em promover a neoformação óssea e reparo tecidual em defeitos ósseos. MÉTODOS: Foram criados cirurgicamente defeitos ósseos em 15 ratos Wistar machos, distribuídos em quatro grupos: Grupo I (OA, Grupo II (α-TCP, Grupo III (α-TCP + OA avaliado por microscopia de luz e Grupo IV (α-TCP + OA avaliado por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados da reparação óssea foram avaliados em 30, 60 e 120 dias. RESULTADOS:os achados histológicos obtidos nos grupos I (p = 0,459, II (p = 0,368 e III (p = 0,459 e aos 30 dias (p = 0,717, 60 dias (p = 0,717, e 120 dias (p = 0,779 não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas. A análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura revelou contacto direto entre o implante de α-TCP + AO e o tecido ósseo aos 120 dias. CONCLUSÃO: O implante de α-TCP é alternativa eficaz como substitutos ósseos para o tratamento de defeitos ósseos de tamanho crítico.

  3. WE-AB-207B-11: Optimizing Tumor Control Probability in Radiation Therapy Treatment - Application to HDR Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E; Yuan, F; Templeton, A; Yao, R; Chu, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The ultimate goal of radiotherapy treatment planning is to find a treatment that will yield a high tumor-control-probability(TCP) with an acceptable normal-tissue-complication probability(NTCP). Yet most treatment planning today is not based upon optimization of TCPs and NTCPs, but rather upon meeting physical dose and volume constraints defined by the planner. We design treatment plans that optimize TCP directly and contrast them with the clinical dose-based plans. PET image is incorporated to evaluate gain in TCP for dose escalation. Methods: We build a nonlinear mixed integer programming optimization model that maximizes TCP directly while satisfying the dose requirements on the targeted organ and healthy tissues. The solution strategy first fits the TCP function with a piecewise-linear approximation, then solves the problem that maximizes the piecewise linear approximation of TCP, and finally performs a local neighborhood search to improve the TCP value. To gauge the feasibility, characteristics, and potential benefit of PET-image guided dose escalation, initial validation consists of fifteen cervical cancer HDR patient cases. These patients have all received prior 45Gy of external radiation dose. For both escalated strategies, we consider 35Gy PTV-dose, and two variations (37Gy-boost to BTV vs 40Gy-boost) to PET-image-pockets. Results: TCP for standard clinical plans range from 59.4% - 63.6%. TCP for dose-based PET-guided escalated-dose-plan ranges from 63.8%–98.6% for all patients; whereas TCP-optimized plans achieves over 91% for all patients. There is marginal difference in TCP among those with 37Gy-boosted vs 40Gy-boosted. There is no increase in rectum and bladder dose among all plans. Conclusion: Optimizing TCP directly results in highly conformed treatment plans. The TCP-optimized plan is individualized based on the biological PET-image of the patients. The TCP-optimization framework is generalizable and has been applied successfully to other

  4. Java parallel secure stream for grid computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Chen, Y.; Watson, W.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of high speed wide area networks makes grid computing a reality. However grid applications that need reliable data transfer still have difficulties to achieve optimal TCP performance due to network tuning of TCP window size to improve the bandwidth and to reduce latency on a high speed wide area network. The authors present a pure Java package called JPARSS (Java Parallel Secure Stream) that divides data into partitions that are sent over several parallel Java streams simultaneously and allows Java or Web applications to achieve optimal TCP performance in a gird environment without the necessity of tuning the TCP window size. Several experimental results are provided to show that using parallel stream is more effective than tuning TCP window size. In addition X.509 certificate based single sign-on mechanism and SSL based connection establishment are integrated into this package. Finally a few applications using this package will be discussed

  5. Tricritical point of a ferromagnetic transition in UGe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabeya, N; Iijima, R; Osaki, E; Ban, S; Imura, K; Deguchi, K; Sato, N K; Aso, N; Homma, Y; Shiokawa, Y

    2010-01-01

    Thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements of the superconducting ferromagnet UGe 2 under pressure were carried out. The temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient shows a peak at the Curie temperature. When pressure is varied, the peak exhibits a maximum in the vicinity of a tricritical point (TCP), which separates the second-order phase transition from the first-order transition. From results of these measurements, we first construct the magnetic phase diagram including the TCP (P TCP ∼ 12.5 kbar). We also show that two lines characterizing the metamagnetism and the magnetic susceptibility emerge from the TCP. We argue that these magnetic properties in the vicinity of the TCP can be understood within a phenomenological frame of spin fluctuations.

  6. Reactions between 52100 steel and tricresyl phosphate neat and mixed with hydrocarbon oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arezzo, F.; Moore, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the results from a previous study which showed reactions between iron surfaces (52100 steel) and tricresyl phosphate (TCP) dissolved in hydrocarbon oil are discussed in this paper. This study had shown that microscale oxidation of the hydrocarbon oil and preferential adsorption phenomena within the oil system components may result in a desirable phosphate type of coating. This phosphate is organic and it is converted into iron phosphate on argon ion sputtering. Also discussed in this paper are the results of a more recent work which shows the reactivity of neat TCP with an identical 52100 steel surface. The results of electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis indicate that neat TCP behaves quite differently from TCP diluted in hydrocarbon oil. The phosphate generated on the metal surface by neat TCP yields predominantly a phosphide when subjected to argon ion sputtering. (orig.)

  7. Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite, β-Tricalcium Phosphate and Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Particles to Act as Local Delivery Carriers of Curcumin: Loading, Release and In Vitro Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina Xidaki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The successful synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA, β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP and two biphasic mixtures (BCPs of the two was performed by means of wet precipitation. The resulting crystals were characterized and the BCP composition was analyzed and identified as 13% HA—87% TCP and 41% HA—59% TCP. All samples were treated with curcumin solutions, and the degree of curcumin loading and release was found to be proportional to the TCP content of the ceramic. No further cytotoxicity was observed upon MG-63 treatment with the curcumin-loaded ceramics. Finally, the alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells was found to increase with increasing content of TCP, which provides an encouraging proof of concept for the use of curcumin-loaded synthetic biomaterials in bone remodeling.

  8. Sintering and robocasting of beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffoldsfor orthopaedic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Pedro; Saiz, Eduardo; Gryn Karol; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2005-11-01

    {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) scaffolds with designed, three-dimensional (3-D) geometry and mesoscale porosity have been fabricated by direct-write assembly (robocasting) techniques. Concentrated {beta}-TCP inks with suitable viscoelastic properties were developed to enable the fabrication of the complex 3-D structures. A comprehensive study of the sintering behavior of TCP as a function of the calcium content in the starting powder was also carried out, and the optimal heat treatment for fabricating scaffolds with dense {beta}-TCP rods has been determined. Such analysis provides clues to controlling the microstructure of the fabricated structures and, therefore, enabling the fabrication by robocasting of TCP scaffolds with tailored performance for bone tissue engineering applications.

  9. Covalent interactions of 1,2,3-trichloropropane with hepatic macromolecules: studies in the male F-344 rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, G L; Sipes, I G

    1990-07-01

    Preliminary investigations into the role of biotransformation in 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP)-induced tumor formation have been undertaken. Male F-344 rats were administered 30 mg/kg [14C]TCP (100 microCi/kg) ip and killed 4 hr later. The extent of covalent binding to hepatic protein, DNA, and RNA was 418, 244, and 432 pmol [14C]TCP equivalents/mg, respectively. An in vivo covalent binding time course showed no significant change in [14C]TCP equivalents bound to hepatic DNA (1-48 hr), while binding to protein was maximal by 4 hr and decreased significantly by 48 hr. The binding of TCP-associated radioactivity to hepatic protein and DNA was shown to be cumulative for two and three doses when given 24 hr apart. Pretreatment of animals with phenobarbital caused a decrease while pretreatment with SKF 525-A caused an increase in covalent binding of [14C]TCP equivalents to protein and DNA. Pretreatment of rats with beta-naphthoflavone did not alter the covalent binding of [14C]TCP equivalents to protein or DNA. However, glutathione depletion with L-buthionine-(R,S)-sulfoximine increased binding to protein by 342% while it decreased binding to DNA by 56%. Intraperitoneal administration of TCP also depleted hepatic GSH by 41 and 61% 2 hr after doses of 30 and 100 mg/kg. The in vivo binding data suggest a dual role for GSH in the bioactivation of TCP. It may, in part, be that GSH is involved in the bioactivation and covalent binding of TCP to hepatic DNA. However, it also appears to detoxify a reactive intermediate(s) that binds to protein.

  10. The impact of microscopic disease on the tumor control probability in non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siedschlag, Christian; Boersma, Liesbeth; Loon, Judith van; Rossi, Maddalena; Baardwijk, Angela van; Gilhuijs, Kenneth; Stroom, Joep

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To indicate which clinical target volume (CTV) margin (if any) is needed for an adequate treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using either 3D conformal or stereotactic radiotherapy, taking the distribution of the microscopic disease extension (MDE) into account. Methods and materials: On the basis of the linear-quadratic biological model, a Monte-Carlo simulation was used to study the impact of MDE and setup deviations on the tumor control probability (TCP) after typical 3D conformal and stereotactic irradiation techniques. Setup deviations were properly accounted for in the planning target volume (PTV) margin. Previously measured distributions of MDE outside the macroscopic tumor in NSCLC patients were used. The dependence of the TCP on the CTV margins was quantified. Results: The presence of MDE had a demonstratable influence on the TCP in both the 3D conformal and the stereotactic technique when no CTV margins were employed. The impact of MDE on the TCP values was greater in the 3D conformal scenario (67% TCP with MDE; 84% TCP without MDE) than for stereotactic radiotherapy (91% TCP with MDE; 100% TCP without MDE). Accordingly, an increase of the CTV margin had the greatest impact for the 3D conformal technique. Larger setup errors, with appropriate PTV margins, lead to an increase in TCP for both techniques, showing the interdependence of CTV and PTV margins. Conclusions: MDE may not always be eradicated by the beam penumbra or existing PTV margins using either 3D conformal or stereotactic radiotherapy. Nonetheless, TCP modeling indicates an overall local control rate above 90% for the stereotactic technique, while a non-zero CTV margin is recommended for better local control of MDE when using the 3D conformal technique.

  11. Biomimetic composite coating on rapid prototyped scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat, M Tarik; Lam, Christopher X F; Ekaputra, Andrew K; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu; Gibson, Ian

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this present study was to improve the functional performance of rapid prototyped scaffolds for bone tissue engineering through biomimetic composite coating. Rapid prototyped poly(ε-caprolactone)/tri-calcium phosphate (PCL/TCP) scaffolds were fabricated using the screw extrusion system (SES). The fabricated PCL/TCP scaffolds were coated with a carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHA)-gelatin composite via biomimetic co-precipitation. The structure of the prepared CHA-gelatin composite coating was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Compressive mechanical testing revealed that the coating process did not have any detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. The cell-scaffold interaction was studied by culturing porcine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) on the scaffolds and assessing the proliferation and bone-related gene and protein expression capabilities of the cells. Confocal laser microscopy and SEM images of the cell-scaffold constructs showed a uniformly distributed cell sheet and accumulation of extracellular matrix in the interior of CHA-gelatin composite-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds. The proliferation rate of BMSCs on CHA-gelatin composite-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds was about 2.3 and 1.7 times higher than that on PCL/TCP scaffolds and CHA-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds, respectively, by day 10. Furthermore, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed that CHA-gelatin composite-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds stimulate osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs the most, compared with PCL/TCP scaffolds and CHA-coated PCL/TCP scaffolds. These results demonstrate that CHA-gelatin composite-coated rapid prototyped PCL/TCP scaffolds are promising for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The global quantum duality principle: theory, examples, and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gavarini, Fabio

    2003-01-01

    Let R be an integral domain, h non-zero in R such that R/hR is a field, and HA the category of torsionless (or flat) Hopf algebras over R. We call any H in HA "quantized function algebra" (=QFA), resp. "quantized (restricted) universal enveloping algebra" (=QrUEA), at h if H/hH is the function algebra of a connected Poisson group, resp. the (restricted, if R/hR has positive characteristic) universal enveloping algebra of a (restricted) Lie bialgebra. We establish an "inner" Galois' correspond...

  13. Quimera de ADN polimerasa del fago ϕ29

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, Margarita; Vega, Miguel de; Lázaro, José M.; Blanco, Luis; Mencía, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Quimera de ADN polimerasa del fago 29. La presente invención se encuadra dentro del campo de la biotecnología. Específicamente, se refiere a una quimera de ADN polimerasa que comprende una región aminoterminal (N-terminal), que codifica para una ADN polimerasa del tipo 29, y una región carboxilo-terminal (C-terminal), que comprende, al menos, un dominio HhH, que se encuentran unidas mediante una secuencia aminoacídica conectora y a su uso para la replicación, amplifi...

  14. The role of the chemical composition of monetite on the synthesis and properties of α-tricalcium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Jo, E-mail: jo.duncan@abdn.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); MacDonald, James F., E-mail: J.F.MacDonald@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Hanna, John V., E-mail: J.V.Hanna@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Shirosaki, Yuki, E-mail: yukis@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Hayakawa, Satoshi, E-mail: satoshi@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Osaka, Akiyoshi, E-mail: a-osaka@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Skakle, Janet M.S., E-mail: j.skakle@abdn.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Gibson, Iain R., E-mail: i.r.gibson@abdn.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest in alpha-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), with use in cements, polymer composites and in bi- and tri-phasic calcium phosphate bone grafts. The simplest and most established method for preparing α-TCP is the solid state reaction of monetite (CaHPO{sub 4}) and calcium carbonate at high temperatures, followed by quenching. In this study, the effect of the chemical composition of reagents used in the synthesis of α-TCP on the local structure of the final product is reported and findings previously reported pertaining to the phase composition and stability are also corroborated. Chemical impurities in the monetite reagents were identified and could be correlated to the calcium phosphate products formed; magnesium impurities favoured the formation of β-TCP, whereas single phase α-TCP was favoured when magnesium levels were low. Monetite synthesised in-house exhibited a high level of chemical purity; when this source was used to produce an α-TCP sample, the α-polymorph could be obtained by both quenching and by cooling to room temperature in the furnace at rates between 1 and 10 °C/min, thereby simplifying the synthesis process. It was only when impurities were minimised that the 12 phosphorus environments in the α-TCP structure could be resolved by {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance; samples containing chemical impurity showed differing degrees of line-broadening. Reagent purity should therefore be considered a priority when synthesising/characterising the α-polymorph of TCP. - Highlights: • Most commercial sources of monetite contain impurities that affect synthesis of phase pure α-TCP. • Ratio of α:β-TCP polymorphs formed by solid state reaction is dependent on reactant chemical purity. • If reagents in α-TCP synthesis are chemically pure, quenching is not required to obtain α-polymorph. • 12 unique P sites in α-TCP were only fully realised by {sup 31}P NMR when chemically pure reagents are used.

  15. Treatment of osteomyelitis defects by a vancomycin-loaded gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Zhou, X. G.; Wang, J. W.; Zhou, H.; Dong, J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective In the present study, we aimed to assess whether gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) composite porous scaffolds could be used as a local controlled release system for vancomycin. We also investigated the efficiency of the scaffolds in eliminating infections and repairing osteomyelitis defects in rabbits. Methods The gelatin scaffolds containing differing amounts of of β-TCP (0%, 10%, 30% and 50%) were prepared for controlled release of vancomycin and were labelled G-TCP0, G-TCP1, G-TCP3 and G-TCP5, respectively. The Kirby-Bauer method was used to examine the release profile. Chronic osteomyelitis models of rabbits were established. After thorough debridement, the osteomyelitis defects were implanted with the scaffolds. Radiographs and histological examinations were carried out to investigate the efficiency of eliminating infections and repairing bone defects. Results The prepared gelatin/β-TCP scaffolds exhibited a homogeneously interconnected 3D porous structure. The G-TCP0 scaffold exhibited the longest duration of vancomycin release with a release duration of eight weeks. With the increase of β-TCP contents, the release duration of the β-TCP-containing composite scaffolds was decreased. The complete release of vancomycin from the G-TCP5 scaffold was achieved within three weeks. In the treatment of osteomyelitis defects in rabbits, the G-TCP3 scaffold showed the most efficacious performance in eliminating infections and repairing bone defects. Conclusions The composite scaffolds could achieve local therapeutic drug levels over an extended duration. The G-TCP3 scaffold possessed the optimal porosity, interconnection and controlled release performance. Therefore, this scaffold could potentially be used in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis defects. Cite this article: J. Zhou, X. G. Zhou, J. W. Wang, H. Zhou, J. Dong. Treatment of osteomyelitis defects by a vancomycin-loaded gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold. Bone Joint Res

  16. Coding and transmission of subband coded images on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Benjamin W.; Su, Xiao

    2001-09-01

    Subband-coded images can be transmitted in the Internet using either the TCP or the UDP protocol. Delivery by TCP gives superior decoding quality but with very long delays when the network is unreliable, whereas delivery by UDP has negligible delays but with degraded quality when packets are lost. Although images are delivered currently over the Internet by TCP, we study in this paper the use of UDP to deliver multi-description reconstruction-based subband-coded images. First, in order to facilitate recovery from UDP packet losses, we propose a joint sender-receiver approach for designing optimized reconstruction-based subband transform (ORB-ST) in multi-description coding (MDC). Second, we carefully evaluate the delay-quality trade-offs between the TCP delivery of SDC images and the UDP and combined TCP/UDP delivery of MDC images. Experimental results show that our proposed ORB-ST performs well in real Internet tests, and UDP and combined TCP/UDP delivery of MDC images provide a range of attractive alternatives to TCP delivery.

  17. Entropic stabilisation of topologically close-packed phases in binary transition-metal alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerschmidt, Thomas; Fries, Suzana G.; Steinbach, Ingo; Drautz, Ralf [ICAMS, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Seiser, Bernhard; Pettifor, David G. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The formation of topologically close-packed (tcp) phases in Ni-based superalloys leads to the degradation of the mechanical properties of the alloys. The precipitation of the tcp phases is attributed to refractory elements that are added in low concentration to improve creep resistance. It is well known that the structural stability of the tcp phases A15, {sigma} and {chi} is driven by the average d-band filling. For a direct comparison to experimental phase diagrams, we carried out extensive density-functional theory (DFT) calculations of the tcp phases A15, C14, C15, C36, {mu}, {sigma}, and {chi} in tcp-forming binary transition-metal (TM) systems. We observe several systems such as W-Re with positive values of the heat of formation for all tcp phases although some of the phases are observed experimentally. By combining our DFT total energies with the CALPHAD methodology, we can demonstrate that configurational entropy can stabilise the tcp phases in these systems.

  18. Bioremediation of soils co-contaminated with heavy metals and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol by fruiting body of Clitocybe maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongying; Guo, Shanshan; Jiao, Kai; Hou, Junjun; Xie, Han; Xu, Heng

    2015-08-30

    Pot experiments were performed to investigate the single effect of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) or heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cu+Cd) and the combined effects of metals-TCP on the growth of Clitocybe maxima together with the accumulation of heavy metals as well as dissipation of TCP. Results showed a negative effect of contaminations on fruiting time and biomass of the mushroom. TCP decreased significantly in soils accounting for 70.66-96.24% of the initial extractable concentration in planted soil and 66.47-91.42% in unplanted soil, which showed that the dissipation of TCP was enhanced with mushroom planting. Higher biological activities (bacterial counts, soil respiration and laccase activity) were detected in planted soils relative to unplanted controls, and the enhanced dissipation of TCP in planted soils might be derived from the increased biological activities. The metals accumulation in mushroom increased with the augment of metal load, and the proportion of acetic acid (HOAc) extractable metal in soils with C. maxima was larger than that in unplanted soils, which may be an explanation of metal uptake by C. maxima. These results suggested that the presence of C. maxima was effective in promoting the bioremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals and TCP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Collagenous matrix supported by a 3D-printed scaffold for osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimipour, Farahnaz; Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Rasoulianboroujeni, Morteza; Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Khoshroo, Kimia; Tahriri, Mohammadreza; Yadegari, Amir; Gonzalez, Jose A; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Lobner, Douglas C; Jafarzadeh Kashi, Tahereh S; Tayebi, Lobat

    2018-02-01

    A systematic characterization of hybrid scaffolds, fabricated based on combinatorial additive manufacturing technique and freeze-drying method, is presented as a new platform for osteoblastic differentiation of dental pulp cells (DPCs). The scaffolds were consisted of a collagenous matrix embedded in a 3D-printed beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) as the mineral phase. The developed construct design was intended to achieve mechanical robustness owing to 3D-printed β-TCP scaffold, and biologically active 3D cell culture matrix pertaining to the Collagen extracellular matrix. The β-TCP precursor formulations were investigated for their flow-ability at various temperatures, which optimized for fabrication of 3D printed scaffolds with interconnected porosity. The hybrid constructs were characterized by 3D laser scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and compressive strength testing. The in vitro characterization of scaffolds revealed that the hybrid β-TCP/Collagen constructs offer superior DPCs proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity compared to the 3D-printed β-TCP scaffold over three weeks. Moreover, it was found that the incorporation of TCP into the Collagen matrix improves the ALP activity. The presented results converge to suggest the developed 3D-printed β-TCP/Collagen hybrid constructs as a new platform for osteoblastic differentiation of DPCs for craniomaxillofacial bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. AO–MW–PLS method applied to rapid quantification of teicoplanin with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiemei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Teicoplanin (TCP is an important lipoglycopeptide antibiotic produced by fermenting Actinoplanes teichomyceticus. The change in TCP concentration is important to measure in the fermentation process. In this study, a reagent-free and rapid quantification method for TCP in the TCP–Tris–HCl mixture samples was developed using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy by focusing our attention on the fermentation process for TCP. The absorbance optimization (AO partial least squares (PLS was proposed and integrated with the moving window (MW PLS, which is called AO–MW–PLS method, to select appropriate wavebands. A model set that includes various wavebands that were equivalent to the optimal AO–MW–PLS waveband was proposed based on statistical considerations. The public region of all equivalent wavebands was just one of the equivalent wavebands. The obtained public regions were 1540–1868nm for TCP and 1114–1310nm for Tris. The root-mean-square error and correlation coefficient for leave-one-out cross validation were 0.046mg mL−1 and 0.9998mg mL−1 for TCP, and 0.235mg mL−1 and 0.9986mg mL−1 for Tris, respectively. All the models achieved highly accurate prediction effects, and the selected wavebands provided valuable references for designing specialized spectrometers. This study provided a valuable reference for further application of the proposed methods to TCP fermentation broth and to other spectroscopic analysis fields.

  1. Implantation of tetrapod-shaped granular artificial bones or β-tricalcium phosphate granules in a canine large bone-defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungjin; Liu, I-Li; Yamamoto, Kenichi; Honnami, Muneki; Sakai, Takamasa; Ohba, Shinsuke; Echigo, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Shigeki; Nishimura, Ryouhei; Chung, Ung-Il; Sasaki, Nobuo; Mochizuki, Manabu

    2014-03-01

    We investigated biodegradability and new bone formation after implantation of tetrapod-shaped granular artificial bone (Tetrabone®) or β-tricalcium phosphate granules (β-TCP) in experimental critical-size defects in dogs, which were created through medial and lateral femoral condyles. The defect was packed with Tetrabone® (Tetrabone group) or β-TCP (β-TCP group) or received no implant (control group). Computed tomography (CT) was performed at 0, 4 and 8 weeks after implantation. Micro-CT and histological analysis were conducted to measure the non-osseous tissue rate and the area and distribution of new bone tissue in the defect at 8 weeks after implantation. On CT, β-TCP was gradually resorbed, while Tetrabone® showed minimal resorption at 8 weeks after implantation. On micro-CT, non-osseous tissue rate of the control group was significantly higher compared with the β-TCP and Tetrabone groups (Pbone tissue of the β-TCP group was significantly greater than those of the Tetrabone and control groups (Pbone distribution of the Tetrabone group was significantly greater than those of the β-TCP and control groups (Pbone defects in dogs.

  2. Tricalcium Phosphate Containing Sodium Hexametaphosphate as Polymer Suspension Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rahbar Shamskar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tricalcium phosphate as hydroxyapatite is used as a suspension stabilizer in styrene polymerization process. Particle size of TCP plays an essential role in the particles’ size distribution and geometrical form of polystyrene products. As the particle size of TCP is reduced, there will be much better chance to engulf the styrene particles. The higher the number of TCP particles surrounding each styrene particle, the lesser will be their tendency to form a large particle after collision. Therefore, there will be higher percentages of spherical polystyrene with small particle size and narrower size distribution in the product. Experimental results have indicated that the addition of sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP to the reaction mixture of lime and phosphoric acid, after drying the product by spray dryer, lead to decrease the size of TCP particles from ca. 5 μm (without SHMP to ca. 1.5 μm (with SHMP. In this study, the role of TCP containing SHMP as polymer suspension stabilizer and consequently the beads size of polystyrene is investigated in laboratory scale. The results show that despite addition of SHMP to the reaction mixture of lime and phosphoric acid decreases the TCP particles size and the mean bead size of the product of polystyrene become larger than the product prepared by TCP without SHMP.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of new crystalline mesoporous beta-tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, F.R.O.; Yoshito, W.K.; Cosentino, I.C.; Bressiani, A.H.A.; Lima, N.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Calcium phosphates, including hydroxyapatite [HA, Ca10 (PO4)6(OH)2] and beta-tricalcium phosphate [B-TCP, Ca3(PO4)2], are the main mineral component of bone tissue and teeth. The synthetic calcium phosphates are of special interest in medicine because of their biocompatibility, bioactivity and non-toxicity. B-TCP is advantageous to HA for drug delivery system due to their high solubility and controllable bioresorption rate. To obtain B-TCP, the literature reports the transformation of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) to ?-TCP since it couldnot be synthesized directly in aqueous solution, until now. For the first time, B-TCP have been successfully synthesized by wet precipitation method at room temperature with a Ca/P molar ratio equal to 1.5 and pH at 6. The present work is concerned with the preparation of B-TCP and it characterization through XRD, BET and TEM analysis. The results showed well-characterized peaks of crystalline pure B-TCP (JCPDS 09-0169) for the dried powder, with a high BET surface area of 574 ± 7 (m2/g). The TEM micrographs exhibits mesoporous structure, which is suitable as a drug carrier. (author)

  4. Effect of Zn and Mg in tricalcium phosphate and in culture medium on apoptosis and actin ring formation of mature osteoclasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xia; Ito, Atsuo; Sogo, Yu; Senda, Koji; Yamazaki, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the resorptive activity of osteoclasts on tricalcium phosphate (TCP), zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (ZnTCP) and magnesium-containing tricalcium phosphate (MgTCP) ceramics in different Zn- or Mg-containing culture media. On the TCP ceramic, an increase in Zn ions in the culture medium within the range between 0.3 and 6.8 ppm significantly induced an increase in osteoclast apoptosis and a decrease in actin ring formation. However, even a high level of Mg ions up to 100 ppm in the culture medium was unlikely to induce an increase in osteoclast apoptosis. Mg ions in the MgTCP ceramics have no effect on osteoclast apoptosis and actin ring formation. There was almost no significant difference in osteoclast apoptosis and actin ring formation between ZnTCP and MgTCP ceramics which have the same solubility and dissolution rates. It is indicated that only an increase in Zn level outside resorption lacuna has an inhibitory effect on osteoclast resorption and that an increase in Zn level inside resorption lacuna could not influence the osteoclast activity.

  5. Can macrocirculation changes predict nonhealing diabetic foot ulcers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ye-Na; Kim, Hyon-Surk; Kang, Jeong-A; Han, Seung-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Transcutaneous partial oxygen tension (TcpO2) is considered the gold standard for assessment of tissue oxygenation, which is an essential factor for wound healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between macrocirculation and TcpO2 in persons with diabetes mellitus. Ninety-eight patients with diabetic foot ulcers participated in the study (61 men and 37 women). The subjects had a mean age of 66.6 years (range, 30-83 years) and were treated at the Diabetic Wound Center of Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Macrocirculation was evaluated using 2 techniques: computed tomographic angiography and Doppler ultrasound. Macrocirculation scores were based on the patency of the two tibial arteries in 98 patients. Computed tomographic angiography and Doppler ultrasound scores (0-4 points) were given according to intraluminal filling defects and arterial pulse waveform of each vessel, respectively. Tissue oxygenation was measured by TcpO2. Macrocirculation scores were statistically analyzed as a function of the TcpO2. Statistical analysis revealed no significant linear trend between the macrocirculation status and TcpO2. Biavariate analysis using the Fisher exact test, Mantel-Haenszel tests, and McNemar-Bowker tests also found no significant relationship between macrocirculation and TcpO2. Computed tomographic angiography and Doppler ultrasound are not sufficiently reliable substitutes for TcpO2 measurements in regard to determining the optimal treatment for diabetic patients.

  6. Adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and desorption studies of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol on oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, I.A.W.; Ahmad, A.L.; Hameed, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) on activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were evaluated. The effects of TCP initial concentration, agitation time, solution pH and temperature on TCP adsorption were investigated. TCP adsorption uptake was found to increase with increase in initial concentration, agitation time and solution temperature whereas adsorption of TCP was more favourable at acidic pH. The adsorption equilibrium data were best represented by the Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined from the intraparticle diffusion model. Boyd plot revealed that the adsorption of TCP on the activated carbon was mainly governed by particle diffusion. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard enthalpy (ΔH o ), standard entropy (ΔS o ), standard free energy (ΔG o ) and activation energy were determined. The regeneration efficiency of the spent activated carbon was high, with TCP desorption of 99.6%.

  7. Effects of substitute coated with hyaluronic acid or poly-lactic acid on implant fixation. Experimental study in ovariectomized and glucocorticoid treated sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christina M; Ding, Ming; Andersen, Thomas L

    2018-01-01

    Investigated in healthy animal models, hyaluronic acid (HyA) and poly-D,L -lactic acid (PDLLA) demonstrate osteoconductive properties when coated onto hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP) scaffolds. In this study, we examined the efficacy of HA/βTCP granules coated with HyA or PD...... formation, HyA and PDDLA are indeed considered valuable as new coating materials for composite ceramics when tested in a sheep model - even in bones of a compromised quality.......Investigated in healthy animal models, hyaluronic acid (HyA) and poly-D,L -lactic acid (PDLLA) demonstrate osteoconductive properties when coated onto hydroxyapatite (HA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP) scaffolds. In this study, we examined the efficacy of HA/βTCP granules coated with Hy...... allograft obtained from a healthy donor sheep (control), pure HA/βTCP, HA/βTCP-HyA or HA/βTCP-PDLLA. After 12 weeks, the bone formation adjacent to the implant surface was evaluated by histology and histomorphometry, while the implant fixation was measured by a push-out test. The investigation showed a bone...

  8. Structural and mechanical characterization of boron doped biphasic calcium phosphate produced by wet chemical method and subsequent thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albayrak, Onder, E-mail: albayrakonder@mersin.edu.tr

    2016-03-15

    In the current study, boron doped biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics consisting of a mixture of boron doped hydroxyapatite (BHA) and beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) of varying BHA/β-TCP ratios were obtained after sintering stage. The effects of varying boron contents and different sintering temperatures on the BHA/β-TCP ratios and on the sinterability of the final products were investigated. Particle sizes and morphologies of the obtained precipitates were determined using SEM. XRD and FTIR investigation were conducted to detect the boron formation in the structure of HA and quantitative analysis was performed to determine the BHA/β-TCP ratio before and after sintering stage. In order to determine the sinterability of the obtained powders, pellets were prepared and sintered; the rates of densification were calculated and obtained results were correlated by SEM images. Also Vickers microhardness values of the sintered samples were determined. The experimental results verified that boron doped hydroxyapatite powders were obtained after sintering stage and the structure consists of a mixture of BHA and β-TCP. As the boron content used in the precipitation stage increases, β-TCP content of the BHA/β-TCP ratio increases but sinterability, density and microhardness deteriorate. As the sintering temperature increases, β-TCP content, density and microhardness of the samples increase and sinterability improves. - Highlights: • This is the first paper about boron doped biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics. • Boron doping affects the structural and mechanical properties. • BHA/β-TCP ratio can be adjustable with boron content and sintering temperature.

  9. SU-E-T-352: Why Is the Survival Rate Low in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Rasmussen, K; Rice, J; Stephenson, S; Ferreira, Maria C [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Liu, T [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Yuh, K [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Wang, R; Grecula, J [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lo, S [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Mayr, N; Yuh, W [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumors are composed of a large number of clonogens that have the capability of indefinite reproduction. Even when there is complete clinical or radiographic regression of the gross tumor mass after treatment, tumor recurrence can occur if the clonogens are not completely eradicated by radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the colonogen number and its association with the tumor control probability (TCP) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCA). Methods: A literature search was conducted to collect clinical information of patients with OSCCA, including the prescription dose, tumor volume and survival rate. The linear-quadratic (LQ) model was incorporated into TCP model for clinical data analysis. The total dose ranged from 60 to 70 Gy and tumor volume ranged from 10 to 50 cc. The TCP was calculated for each group according to tumor size and dose. The least χ{sup 2} method was used to fit the TCP calculation to clinical data while other LQ model parameters (α, β) were adopted from the literature, due to the limited patient data. Results: A total of 190 patients with T2–T4 OSCCA were included. The association with HPV was not available for all the patients. The 3-year survival rate was about 82% for T2 squamous cell carcinoma and 40% for advanced tumors. Fitting the TCP model to the survival data, the average clonogen number was 1.56×10{sup 12}. For the prescription dose of 70 Gy, the calculated TCP ranged from 40% to 90% when the tumor volume varied from 10 to 50 cc. Conclusion: Our data suggests variation between the clonogen number and TCP in OSCCA. Tumors with larger colonogen number tend to have lower TCP and therefore dose escalation above 70 Gy may be indicated in order to improve the TCP and survival rate. Our result will require future confirmation with a large number of patients.

  10. Osteogenesis and angiogenesis properties of dental pulp cell on novel injectable tricalcium phosphate cement by silica doped

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Ying-Fang [Institute of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chang, E-mail: chichang31@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Chou, Ming-Yung [Department of Stomatology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yang, Jaw-Ji, E-mail: jjyang@csmu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shie, Ming-You, E-mail: eviltacasi@gmail.com [Department of Anatomy, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive material in clinical. In this study, we have doped silica (Si) into β-TCP and enhanced its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of Si-doped with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Formation of the diametral tensile strength, ions released and weight loss of cements was considered after immersion. In addition, we also examined the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured on Si-doped β-TCP cements. The results showed that setting time and injectability of the Si-doped β-TCP cements were decreased as the Si content was increased. At the end of the immersion point, weight losses of 30.1%, 36.9%, 48.1%, and 55.3% were observed for the cement doping 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% Si into β-TCP cements, respectively. In vitro cell experiments show that the Si-rich cements promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the Si-doped in the cement is more than 20%, the amount of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs was stimulated by Si released from Si-doped β-TCP cements. The degradation of β-TCP and osteogenesis of Si gives a strong reason to believe that these Si-doped β-TCP cements may prove to be promising bone repair materials. - Highlights: • The higher the Si in the cement, the shorter the setting time and the higher the DTS. • Si20-doped in TCP improved cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. • The Si ion stimulated collagen secreted from cells. • The Si released from substrate can promote osteogenic and angiogenic.

  11. Comparative evaluation of clinical efficacy of β-tri calcium phosphate (Septodont-RTR TM alone and in combination with platelet rich plasma for treatment of intrabony defects in chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyostna Pinipe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the clinical outcome by comparing β-tri calcium phosphate (Septodont RTR TM along with platelet rich plasma (PRP and β-tri calcium phosphate (β-TCP alone in intrabony defects, by clinical evaluation in a 6-month analysis. Methodology: Ten patients participated in the study. Using a split-mouth design, interproximal bony defects were surgically treated with either platelet rich plasma (PRP combined with β-tri calcium phosphate (β-TCP or β-TCP alone. Plaque Index (PI, Gingival Index, Probing Pocket Depth (PPD, Clinical Attachment Level (CAL were recorded 6 months after surgery. Results: At 6 months after therapy, the PRP combined with β-TCP group showed mean PPD reduction of 2.50, CAL mean gain of 2.60 + 1.43. The β-TCP group showed mean PPD reduction of 2.80 mm, mean CAL gain of 2.60 mm. On intra-group comparison, there was greater PPD reduction and CAL gain at 6 months in both the groups. In intergroup comparison of PRP/β-TCP and β-TCP alone, there was no statistical significant difference observed. (P = 0.55, and 0.87 for PPD and CAL gain. Conclusion: Both therapies resulted in significant PPD reduction, CAL gain. The present study shows that treatment of intrabony periodontal defects with combination of PRP and β-TCP does not have additional improvements when compared with β-TCP alone within 6 months follow-up.

  12. The dynamics of R and D in evolution from imitation to innovation: lessons from technical cooperation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    2002-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Malaysia has implemented more than 80 R and D projects valued almost USD 20 millions, under the multilateral, bilateral and regional Technical Cooperation Program (TCP). Attempts were made to examine the dynamics of R and D of the TCP focusing on radiation processing projects using the analytical frameworks such as absorptive capacity, crisis construction, dynamic learning process and technology transfer. This paper describes the contribution of TCP towards the process of technological learning and discusses the process of building technological capability in the dynamic of R and D evolution from imitation to innovation. (Author)

  13. Synthesis and characterizations of alginate-α-tricalcium phosphate microparticle hybrid film with flexibility and high mechanical property as a biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipankar; Zhang, Shengmin; Noh, Insup

    2018-01-24

    A biocompatible hybrid film has been fabricated using alginate (Alg), α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) microparticle and calcium chloride through ionic crosslinking as a biomaterial. The 'screeding method' (like a concrete finishing process) has been employed to develop the Alg-α-TCP film. For this method, the Alg/α-TCP blend has been prepared using an ultra-sonicator and then put on a glass slide. After that, the excess volume of blend has been cut off by skidding another slide along with the surface of the blend to achieve proper grade and flatness. The mechanical strength and flexibility of the film (Alg-α-TCP) has been controlled by changing its compositions. The crosslinking phenomenon has been confirmed by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses. The ATR-FTIR and 13 C NMR analysis results suggest that carboxylate groups of the alginate are ionically cross-linked with Ca 2+ ions, while the α-TCP particles reside in the network by physical interaction. The micro-fatigue test results imply high tensile strength (up to 257 MPa) and flexibility (up to 13% elongation) of the Alg-α-TCP hybrid films. The SEM analysis suggests the α-TCP particles are homogeneously distributed on the surface of Alg-α-TCP films, whereas cross-sectional images confirmed the presence of α-TCP in the cross-linked network. TGA results demonstrated that thermal stability of the hybrid film was enhanced due to ionic crosslinking and interfacial interaction between alginate and α-TCP. The incorporation of α-TCP particles diminished the swelling ratio of the hybrid film. The in vitro bone cell (MC3T3) culture and cytotoxicity tests showed that the hybrid film is biocompatible. The hybrid film releases bovine serum albumin and dimethyloxaloylglycine in a controlled way at pH 7 and 7.4, and 37 °C. Overall, the biocompatible Alg-α-TCP hybrid film with

  14. Adaptive Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Does Not Underdose the Microscopic Disease and has the Potential to Increase Tumor Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Richter, Anne; Wilbert, Juergen; Flentje, Michael; Partridge, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate doses to the microscopic disease (MD) in adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for locally advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to model tumor control probability (TCP). Methods and Materials: In a retrospective planning study, three-dimensional conformal treatment plans for 13 patients with locally advanced NSCLC were adapted to shape and volume changes of the gross tumor volume (GTV) once or twice during conventionally fractionated radiotherapy with total doses of 66 Gy; doses in the ART plans were escalated using an iso-mean lung dose (MLD) approach compared to non-adapted treatment. Dose distributions to the volumes of suspect MD were simulated for a scenario with synchronous shrinkage of the MD and GTV and for a scenario of a stationary MD despite GTV shrinkage; simulations were performed using deformable image registration. TCP calculations considering doses to the GTV and MD were performed using three different models. Results: Coverage of the MD at 50 Gy was not compromised by ART. Coverage at 60 Gy in the scenario of a stationary MD was significantly reduced from 92% ± 10% to 73% ± 19% using ART; however, the coverage was restored by iso-MLD dose escalation. Dose distributions in the MD were sufficient to achieve a TCP >80% on average in all simulation experiments, with the clonogenic cell density the major factor influencing TCP. The combined TCP for the GTV and MD was 19.9% averaged over all patients and TCP models in non-adaptive treatment with 66 Gy. Iso-MLD dose escalation achieved by ART increased the overall TCP by absolute 6% (adapting plan once) and by 8.7% (adapting plan twice) on average. Absolute TCP values were significantly different between the TCP models; however, all TCP models suggested very similar TCP increase by using ART. Conclusions: Adaptation of radiotherapy to the shrinking GTV did not compromise dose coverage of volumes of suspect microscopic disease and has the potential to increase TCP by >40% compared

  15. Reference: 206 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available olism to soluble DCA-glucose or associated polar conjugates. Instead, the knockou...eeding studies were carried out with [14C]-TCP, rates and routes of metabolism were identical in the wild type and knock...sis, additional UGTs could compensate for the conjugation of TCP in the knockout. TCP was equally toxic to w...ild type and ugt72B1 plants, while surprisingly, the knockouts were less sensitiv...ized. Extracts from the knockout ugt72B1 plants showed radically reduced conjugating activity towards DCA an

  16. The effects of ruthenium on the phase stability of fourth generation Ni-base single crystal superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Atsushi; Harada, Hiroshi; Yokokawa, Tadaharu; Murakumo, Takao; Koizumi, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Toshiharu; Imai, Hachiro

    2006-01-01

    The formation of topologically close-packed (TCP) phases in nickel-base single crystal superalloys causes considerable degradation of the mechanical properties. It has recently been found that platinum-group metals can be effective in controlling the precipitation of such phases, and this extent of precipitation control requires further investigation. This study compares Ru-containing and non-Ru-containing single crystal superalloys. Scanning electron microscopy microstructural observations showed that the rate of TCP phase precipitations decreased through Ru addition. Transmission electron microscopy microstructural observations showed that the P phase, one of the TCP phases, was eliminated through the addition of Ru. The occurrence of this phenomenon will be discussed

  17. Effect of a Particulate and a Putty-Like Tricalcium Phosphate-Based Bone-grafting Material on Bone Formation, Volume Stability and Osteogenic Marker Expression after Bilateral Sinus Floor Augmentation in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Knabe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of a hyaluronic acid (HyAc containing tricalcium phosphate putty scaffold material (TCP-P and of a particulate tricalcium phosphate (TCP-G graft on bone formation, volume stability and osteogenic marker expression in biopsies sampled 6 months after bilateral sinus floor augmentation (SFA in 7 patients applying a split-mouth design. 10% autogenous bone chips were added to the grafting material during surgery. The grain size of the TCP granules was 700 to 1400 µm for TCP-G and 125 to 250 µm and 500 to 700 µm (ratio 1:1 for TCP-P. Biopsies were processed for immunohistochemical analysis of resin-embedded sections. Sections were stained for collagen type I (Col I, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, osteocalcin (OC and bone sialoprotein (BSP. Furthermore, the bone area and biomaterial area fraction were determined histomorphometrically. Cone-beam CT data recorded after SFA and 6 months later were used for calculating the graft volume at these two time points. TCP-P displayed more advantageous surgical handling properties and a significantly greater bone area fraction and smaller biomaterial area fraction. This was accompanied by significantly greater expression of Col I and BSP and in osteoblasts and osteoid and a less pronounced reduction in grafting volume with TCP-P. SFA using both types of materials resulted in formation of sufficient bone volume for facilitating stable dental implant placement with all dental implants having been in function without any complications for 6 years. Since TCP-P displayed superior surgical handling properties and greater bone formation than TCP-G, without the HyAc hydrogel matrix having any adverse effect on bone formation or graft volume stability, TCP-P can be regarded as excellent grafting material for SFA in a clinical setting. The greater bone formation observed with TCP-P may be related to the difference in grain size of the TCP granules and/or the addition of the HyAc.

  18. Design of SPring-8 control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, T.; Kumahara, T.; Yonehara, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Masuda, T.; Wang Zhen

    1992-01-01

    The control system of SPring-8 facility is designed. A distributed computer system is adopted with a three-hierarchy levels. All the computers are linked by computer networks. The network of upper level is a high-speed multi-media LAN such as FDDI which links sub-system control computers, and middle are Ethernet or MAP networks which link front end processors (FEP) such as VME system. The lowest is a field level bus which links VME and controlled devices. Workstations (WS) or X-terminals are useful for man-machine interfaces. For operating system (OS), UNIX is useful for upper level computers, and real-time OS's for FEP's. We will select hardwares and OS of which specifications are close to international standards. Since recently the cost of software has become higher than that of hardware, we introduce computer aided tools as many as possible for program developments. (author)

  19. Parallel computing and networking; Heiretsu keisanki to network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, E; Tsuru, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, T [Japan Petroleum Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the trend of parallel computers used in geophysical exploration. Around 1993 was the early days when the parallel computers began to be used for geophysical exploration. Classification of these computers those days was mainly MIMD (multiple instruction stream, multiple data stream), SIMD (single instruction stream, multiple data stream) and the like. Parallel computers were publicized in the 1994 meeting of the Geophysical Exploration Society as a `high precision imaging technology`. Concerning the library of parallel computers, there was a shift to PVM (parallel virtual machine) in 1993 and to MPI (message passing interface) in 1995. In addition, the compiler of FORTRAN90 was released with support implemented for data parallel and vector computers. In 1993, networks used were Ethernet, FDDI, CDDI and HIPPI. In 1995, the OC-3 products under ATM began to propagate. However, ATM remains to be an interoffice high speed network because the ATM service has not spread yet for the public network. 1 ref.

  20. Analysis of several digital network technologies for hard real-time communications in nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Sang; No, Hee Chun

    1999-01-01

    Applying digital network technology for advanced nuclear plant requires deterministic communication for tight safety requirements, timely and reliable data delivery for operation critical and mission-critical characteristics of nuclear plant. Communication protocols, such as IEEE 802/4 Tiken Bus, IEEE 802/5 Token Ring, FDDI, and ARCnet, which have deterministic communication capability are partially applied to several nuclear power plants. Although digital communication technologies have many advantages, it is necessary to consider the noise immunity form electromagnetic interference (EMI), electrical interference, impulse noise, and heat noise before selecting specific digital network technology for nuclear plant. In this paper, we consider the token frame loss and data frame loss rate due to the link error event, frame size, and link data rate in different protocols, and evaluate the possibility of failure to meet the hard real-time requirement in nuclear plant. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs