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Sample records for hf radio wave

  1. Features of HF Radio Wave Attenuation in the Midlatitude Ionosphere Near the Skip Zone Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisenko, P. F.; Skazik, A. I.

    2017-06-01

    We briefly describe the history of studying the decameter radio wave attenuation by different methods in the midlatitude ionosphere. A new method of estimating the attenuation of HF radio waves in the ionospheric F region near the skip zone boundary is presented. This method is based on an analysis of the time structure of the interference field generated by highly stable monochromatic X-mode radio waves at the observation point. The main parameter is the effective electron collision frequency νeff, which allows for all energy losses in the form of equivalent heat loss. The frequency νeff is estimated by matching the assumed (model) and the experimentally observed structures. Model calculations are performed using the geometrical-optics approximation. The spatial attenuation caused by the influence of the medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances is taken into account. Spherical shape of the ionosphere and the Earth's magnetic field are roughly allowed for. The results of recording of the level of signals from the RWM (Moscow) station at a frequency of 9.996 MHz at point Rostov are used.

  2. Phenomena in the ionosphere-magnetosphere system induced by injection of powerful HF radio waves into nightside auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Blagoveshchenskaya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results from three ionospheric HF pumping experiments in overdense E or F regions are summarized. The experiments were conducted by the use of the EISCAT HF Heating facility located near Tromsø, Norway, allowing HF pumping the ionosphere in a near geomagnetic field-aligned direction. Distinctive features related to auroral activations in the course of the experiments are identified. Typical features observed in all experiments are the following: generation of scattered components in dynamic HF radio scatter Doppler spectra; strong increase of ion temperatures Ti and local ionospheric electric field E0; modification of the auroral arc and local spiral-like formation. However, some effects were observed only when the HF pump wave was reflected from the F2 layer. Among them are the generation of intense field-aligned ion outflows, and a strong increase in the electron temperature Te with altitude. A possible scenario for the substorm triggering due to HF pumping into an auroral ionosphere is discussed. The authors present their interpretation of the data as follows. It is suggested that two populations of charged particles are at play. One of them is the runaway population of electrons and ions from the ionosphere caused by the effects of the powerful HF radio wave. The other is the population of electrons that precipitate from the magnetosphere. It is shown that the hydrodynamical equilibrium was disrupted due to the effects of the HF pumping. We estimate that the parallel electric field can reach values of the order of 30mV/m during substorm triggering.

  3. Global ionospheric effects of geomagnetic storm on May 2-3, 2010 and their influence on HF radio wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, Daria; Klimenko, Maxim; Klimenko, Vladimir; Zakharov, Veniamin

    2013-04-01

    In this work we have investigated the global ionospheric response to geomagnetic storm on May 2-3, 2010 using GSM TIP (Global Self-consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Protonosphere) simulation results. In the GSM TIP storm time model runs, several input parameters such as cross-polar cap potential difference and R2 FAC (Region 2 Field-Aligned Currents) varied as a function of the geomagnetic activity AE-index. Current simulation also uses the empirical model of high-energy particle precipitation by Zhang and Paxton. In this model, the energy and energy flux of precipitating electrons depend on a 3 hour Kp-index. We also have included the 30 min time delay of R2 FAC variations with respect to the variations of cross-polar cap potential difference. In addition, we use the ground-based ionosonde data for comparison our model results with observations. We present an analysis of the physical mechanisms responsible for the ionospheric effects of geomagnetic storms. The obtained simulation results are used by us as a medium for HF radio wave propagation at different latitudes in quiet conditions, and during main and recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm. To solve the problem of the radio wave propagation we used Zakharov's (I. Kant BFU) model based on geometric optics. In this model the solution of the eikonal equation for each of the two normal modes is reduced using the method of characteristics to the integration of the six ray equation system for the coordinates and momentum. All model equations of this system are solved in spherical geomagnetic coordinate system by the Runge-Kutta method. This model was tested for a plane wave in a parabolic layer. In this study, the complex refractive indices of the ordinary and extraordinary waves at ionospheric heights was calculated for the first time using the global first-principal model of the thermosphere-ionosphere system that describes the parameters of an inhomogeneous anisotropic medium during a

  4. On Spatial Structuring of the F2 Layer Studied by the Satellite Radio Sounding of the Ionosphere Disturbed by High-Power HF Radio Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, E. D.; Turyansky, V. A.; Khudukon, B. Z.; Yurik, R. Yu.; Frolov, V. L.

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of studying the characteristics of the artificial plasma structures excited in the ionospheric F2 region modified by high-power HF radio waves. The experiments were carried out at the Sura heating facility using satellite radio sounding of the ionosphere. The plasma density profile was reconstructed with the highest possible spatial resolution for today, about 4 km. In a direction close to the magnetic zenith of the pump wave, the following phenomena were observed: the formation of a cavity with a 15% lower plasma density at the altitudes of the F2 layer and below; the formation of an area with plasma density increased by 12% at altitudes greater than 400 km. With a long-term quasiperiodic impact of the pump wave on the ionosphere, wavy large-scale electron-density perturbations (the meridional scale λx ≈ 130 km and the vertical scale λz ≈ 440 km) are also formed above the Sura facility. These perturbations can be due to the plasma density modulation by an artificial acoustic-gravity wave with a period of 10.6 m, which was formed by the heat source inside a large-scale cavity with low plasma density; there is generation of the electron density irregularities for the electrons with ΔNe/Ne ≈ 3% in the form of layers having the sizes 10-12 km along and about 24 km across the geomagnetic field, which are found both below and above the F2-layer maximum. The mechanisms of the formation of these plasma structures are discussed.

  5. Radio tomography and scintillation studies of ionospheric electron density modification caused by a powerful HF-wave and magnetic zenith effect at mid-latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshchenko, E.D.; Khudukon, B.Z.; Gurevich, A.V.; Zybin, K.P.; Frolov, V.L.; Myasnikov, E.N.; Muravieva, N.V.; Carlson, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    Observations of the ionospheric electron density modified by a powerful wave of the Sura HF heating facility were carried out in Russia at middle latitudes in August 2002. Amplitude scintillations and variations of the phase of VHF signals from Russian orbiting satellites passing over the heated region along the chain of three satellite receivers have been recorded. The experimental data were converted to electron density maps using a stochastic inversion. Tomographic measurements conducted during a low magnetic activity revealed that HF powerful waves can produce significant electron density disturbances up to heights significantly exceeding altitudes of the F layer peak. Both large-scale plasma enhancements and small-scale density irregularities can be generated by the HF radiation. Wavy density structures were also observed within a sector which is much wider than the area covered by the main lobe of the heating antenna. Small-scale density irregularities are mostly field-aligned although large-scale structures can be detected within a much larger area. A distinctive peculiarity of electron density changes occurred during heating is producing a zone of low density inside the area illuminated by the antenna beam. The results indicate that satellite radio tomography and scintillation measurements are effective diagnostic techniques giving a valuable information to studies of effects induced by HF modification. The complete system of plasma density disturbances describing by the theory of 'the magnetic zenith effect' has been for the first time studied in this Letter. A good agreement between the theory and experimental data has been obtained

  6. Aspects of HF radio propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Saillant

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    radio systems. From the point of view Working Group 2 of the COST 296 Action, interest lies with effects associated

    with propagation via the ionosphere of signals within the HF band. Several aspects are covered in this paper:

    a The directions of arrival and times of flight of signals received over a path oriented along the trough have

    been examined and several types of propagation effects identified. Of particular note, combining the HF observations

    with satellite measurements has identified the presence of irregularities within the floor of the trough that

    result in propagation displaced from the great circle direction. An understanding of the propagation effects that

    result in deviations of the signal path from the great circle direction are of particular relevance to the operation

    of HF radiolocation systems.

    b Inclusion of the results from the above mentioned measurements into a propagation model of the northerly

    ionosphere (i.e. those regions of the ionosphere located poleward of, and including, the mid-latitude trough

    and the use of this model to predict the coverage expected from transmitters where the signals impinge on the

    northerly ionosphere

  7. HF-START: A Regional Radio Propagation Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozumi, K.; Maruyama, T.; Saito, S.; Nakata, H.; Rougerie, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Jin, H.; Tsugawa, T.; Ishii, M.

    2017-12-01

    HF-START (HF Simulator Targeting for All-users' Regional Telecommunications) is a user-friendly simulator developed to meet the needs of space weather users. Prediction of communications failure due to space weather disturbances is of high priority. Space weather users from various backgrounds with high economic impact, i.e. airlines, telecommunication companies, GPS-related companies, insurance companies, international amateur radio union, etc., recently increase. Space weather information provided by Space Weather Information Center of NICT is, however, too professional to be understood and effectively used by the users. To overcome this issue, I try to translate the research level data to the user level data based on users' needs and provide an immediate usable data. HF-START is positioned to be a space weather product out of laboratory based truly on users' needs. It is originally for radio waves in HF band (3-30 MHz) but higher frequencies up to L band are planned to be covered. Regional ionospheric data in Japan and southeast Asia are employed as a reflector of skywave mode propagation. GAIA (Ground-to-topside model of Atmosphere and Ionosphere for Aeronomy) model will be used as ionospheric input for global simulation. To evaluate HF-START, an evaluation campaign for Japan region will be launched in coming months. If the campaign successes, it will be expanded to southeast Asia region as well. The final goal of HF-START is to provide the near-realtime necessary radio parameters as well as the warning message of radio communications failure to the radio and space weather users.

  8. HF radio systems and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, William

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive reference for the design of high frequency communications systems and equipment. This revised edition is loaded with practical data, much of which cannot be found in other reference books. Its approach to the subject follows the needs of an engineer from system definition and performance requirements down to the individual circuit elements that make up radio transmitters and receivers. The accompanying disk contains updated software on filters, matching networks and receiver analysis. SciTech Publishing also provides many other products related to Communication Systems Design.

  9. HF Radio Astronomy from a Small Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    SSC16-XI-03 HF Radio Astronomy from a Small Satellite Frank C. Robey1, Mary Knapp2, Alan J. Fenn1, Mark Silver1, Kerry Johnson1 Frank J. Lind3...frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum (below 15 MHz) is one of the least explored windows in observational astronomy . Observations at these...pdf. [Accessed: 17-Oct-2015]. 3. G. Hallinan, “The Owens Valley LWA,” in Exascale Radio Astronomy , 2014, vol. 2. 4. C. J. Lonsdale, R. J. Cappallo

  10. Low-Frequency Waves in HF Heating of the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. S.; Eliasson, B.; Milikh, G. M.; Najmi, A.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shao, X.; Vartanyan, A.

    2016-02-01

    Ionospheric heating experiments have enabled an exploration of the ionosphere as a large-scale natural laboratory for the study of many plasma processes. These experiments inject high-frequency (HF) radio waves using high-power transmitters and an array of ground- and space-based diagnostics. This chapter discusses the excitation and propagation of low-frequency waves in HF heating of the ionosphere. The theoretical aspects and the associated models and simulations, and the results from experiments, mostly from the HAARP facility, are presented together to provide a comprehensive interpretation of the relevant plasma processes. The chapter presents the plasma model of the ionosphere for describing the physical processes during HF heating, the numerical code, and the simulations of the excitation of low-frequency waves by HF heating. It then gives the simulations of the high-latitude ionosphere and mid-latitude ionosphere. The chapter also briefly discusses the role of kinetic processes associated with wave generation.

  11. Ionosphere research with a HF/MF cubesat radio instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Esa; Aikio, Anita; Alho, Markku; Fontell, Mathias; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kauristie, Kirsti; Kestilä, Antti; Koskimaa, Petri; Mäkelä, Jakke; Mäkelä, Miika; Turunen, Esa; Vanhamäki, Heikki; Verronen, Pekka

    2017-04-01

    New technology provides new possibilities to study geospace and 3D ionosphere by using spacecraft and computer simulations. A type of nanosatellites, CubeSats, provide a cost effective possibility to provide in-situ measurements in the ionosphere. Moreover, combined CubeSat observations with ground-based observations gives a new view on auroras and associated electromagnetic phenomena. Especially joint and active CubeSat - ground based observation campaigns enable the possibility of studying the 3D structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore using several CubeSats to form satellite constellations enables much higher temporal resolution. At the same time, increasing computation capacity has made it possible to perform simulations where properties of the ionosphere, such as propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the medium frequency, MF (0.3-3 MHz) and high frequency, HF (3-30 MHz), ranges is based on a 3D ionospheric model and on first-principles modelling. Electromagnetic waves at those frequencies are strongly affected by ionospheric electrons and, consequently, those frequencies can be used for studying the plasma. On the other hand, even if the ionosphere originally enables long-range telecommunication at MF and HF frequencies, the frequent occurrence of spatiotemporal variations in the ionosphere disturbs communication channels, especially at high latitudes. Therefore, study of the MF and HF waves in the ionosphere has both a strong science and technology interests. We introduce recently developed simulation models as well as measuring principles and techniques to investigate the arctic ionosphere by a polar orbiting CubeSat whose novel AM radio instrument measures HF and MF waves. The cubesat, which contains also a white light aurora camera, is planned to be launched in late 2017 (http://www.suomi100satelliitti.fi/eng). The new models are (1) a 3D ray tracing model and (2) a 3D full kinetic electromagnetic simulation. We also introduce how combining of the

  12. The role of natural E-region plasma turbulence in the enhanced absorption of HF radio waves in the auroral ionosphere:Implications for RF heating of the auroral electrojet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Robinson

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical processes which affect the absorption of radio waves passing through the auroral E-region when Farley-Buneman irregularities are present are examined. In particular, the question of whether or not it is legitimate to include the anomalous wave-enhanced collision frequency, which has been used successfully to account for the heating effects of Farley-Buneman waves in the auroral E-region, in the usual expression for the radio-wave absorption coefficient is addressed. Effects also considered are those due to wave coupling between electromagnetic waves and high-frequency electrostatic waves in the presence of Farley-Buneman irregularities. The implications for radio-wave heating of the auroral electrojet of these processes are also discussed. In particular, a new theoretical model for calculating the effects of high-power radio-wave heating on the electron temperature in an electrojet containing Farley-Buneman turbulence is presented.

  13. The role of natural E-region plasma turbulence in the enhanced absorption of HF radio waves in the auroral ionosphere:Implications for RF heating of the auroral electrojet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Robinson

    Full Text Available Physical processes which affect the absorption of radio waves passing through the auroral E-region when Farley-Buneman irregularities are present are examined. In particular, the question of whether or not it is legitimate to include the anomalous wave-enhanced collision frequency, which has been used successfully to account for the heating effects of Farley-Buneman waves in the auroral E-region, in the usual expression for the radio-wave absorption coefficient is addressed. Effects also considered are those due to wave coupling between electromagnetic waves and high-frequency electrostatic waves in the presence of Farley-Buneman irregularities. The implications for radio-wave heating of the auroral electrojet of these processes are also discussed. In particular, a new theoretical model for calculating the effects of high-power radio-wave heating on the electron temperature in an electrojet containing Farley-Buneman turbulence is presented.

  14. Beating HF waves to generate VLF waves in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Spencer; Snyder, Arnold; Kossey, Paul; Chang, Chia-Lie; Labenski, John

    2012-03-01

    Beat-wave generation of very low frequency (VLF) waves by two HF heaters in the ionosphere is formulated theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. The heater-induced differential thermal pressure force and ponderomotive force, which dominate separately in the D and F regions of the ionosphere, drive an electron current for the VLF emission. A comparison, applying appropriate ionospheric parameters shows that the ponderomotive force dominates in beat-wave generation of VLF waves. Three experiments, one in the nighttime in the absence of D and E layers and two in the daytime in the presence of D and E layers, were performed. X mode HF heaters of slightly different frequencies were transmitted at CW full power. VLF waves at 10 frequencies ranging from 3.5 to 21.5 kHz were generated. The frequency dependencies of the daytime and nighttime radiation intensities are quite similar, but the nighttime radiation is much stronger than the daytime one at the same radiation frequency. The intensity ratio is as large as 9 dB at 11.5 kHz. An experiment directly comparing VLF waves generated by the beat-wave approach and by the amplitude modulation (AM) approach was also conducted. The results rule out the likely contribution of the AM mechanism acting on the electrojet and indicate that beat-wave in the VLF range prefers to be generated in the F region of the ionosphere through the ponderomotive nonlinearity, consistent with the theory. In the nighttime experiment, the ionosphere was underdense to the HF heaters, suggesting a likely setting for effective beat-wave generation of VLF waves by the HF heaters.

  15. Time variations of hf induced plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showen, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Intense plasma waves are generated by an HF pump wave in an ionospheric heating experiment at the Arecibo Observatory. These plasma waves can be observed as enhancements to the ion and plasma lines of the incoherent backscatter echo. The enhancements can be three or four orders of magnitude more intense than the unenhanced lines, and tend to fluctuate wildly. Both the purely growing and the decay mode parametric instabilities are present. When the pump wave is turned on abruptly the enhancements develop in time in a repeatable manner. A rather remarkable feature on time scales of seconds is an overshoot in instability power. These overshoots occur frequently but not universally and last for 1 to 6 seconds. They can have a magnitude from ten to hundreds of times the average instability level. Field aligned irregularities may be the cause of the overshoots. The overshoots appear definitely related to an unusually rapid rise in measured electron temperature that cannot be understood in terms of ohmic energy deposition. On time scales of milliseconds there is a ''mini-overshoot'' before the growth of the instability to a large value. The spectral details also change in a striking manner. The instabilities can first be detected 2 to 4 msec after the pump wave turn-on. The decay mode is present as well as a broad featureless ''noise bump'', which partially sharpens into a line as time progresses. These changes of the spectra in time seem to run counter to the currently accepted theories of plasma wave saturation

  16. Geospace ionosphere research with a MF/HF radio instrument on a cubesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, E. J.; Aikio, A. T.; Alho, M.; Fontell, M.; van Gijlswijk, R.; Kauristie, K.; Kestilä, A.; Koskimaa, P.; Makela, J. S.; Mäkelä, M.; Turunen, E.; Vanhamäki, H.

    2016-12-01

    Modern technology provides new possibilities to study geospace and its ionosphere, using spacecraft and and computer simulations. A type of nanosatellites, CubeSats, provide a cost effective possibility to provide in-situ measurements in the ionosphere. Moreover, combined CubeSat observations with ground-based observations gives a new view on auroras and associated electromagnetic phenomena. Especially joint and active CubeSat - ground based observation campaigns enable the possibility of studying the 3D structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore using several CubeSats to form satellite constellations enables much higher temporal resolution. At the same time, increasing computation capacity has made it possible to perform simulations where properties of the ionosphere, such as propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the medium frequency, MF (0.3-3 MHz) and high frequency, HF (3-30 MHz), ranges is based on a 3D ionospheric model and on first-principles modelling. Electromagnetic waves at those frequencies are strongly affected by ionospheric electrons and, consequently, those frequencies can be used for studying the plasma. On the other hand, even if the ionosphere originally enables long-range telecommunication at MF and HF frequencies, the frequent occurrence of spatiotemporal variations in the ionosphere disturbs communication channels, especially at high latitudes. Therefore, study of the MF and HF waves in the ionosphere has both a strong science and technology interests. We present computational simulation results and measuring principles and techniques to investigate the arctic ionosphere by a polar orbiting CubeSat whose novel AM radio instrument measures HF and MF waves. The cubesat, which contains also a white light aurora camera, is planned to be launched in 2017 (http://www.suomi100satelliitti.fi/eng). We have modelled the propagation of the radio waves, both ground generated man-made waves and space formed space weather related waves, through the 3D

  17. HF Radio Angle-of-Arrival Measurements and Ionosonde Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chih Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010 a 2nd generation NOAA MF/HF radar, also referred to as the VIPIR ionosonde, has been operated at Hualien, Taiwan (23.8973°N, 121.5503°E. The Hualien VIPIR ionosonde is a modern ionospheric radar, fully digitizing complex signal records and using multiple parallel receiver channels for simultaneous signal measurements from multiple spaced receiving antennas. This paper considers radio direction finding based on interferometric phase measurements from a horizontal antenna array in the Hualien VIPIR ionosonde system. We applied the Hermite normal form method to solve the phase-measurement aliasing and least squares problems and improve the radio angle-of-arrival (AOA measurements. Backward ray-tracing simulation has been proposed to determine radio transmitter position. This paper presents a numerical, step by step ray-tracing method based on the IGRF superimposed onto a phenomenological ionospheric electron density model, the TaiWan Ionospheric Model (TWIM. The proposed methodology is successfully applied to locate two experimental HF radio transmitters at Longquan and Chungli with distance errors within 5 km and less than 5% of the great circle distances.

  18. First Joint Observations of Radio Aurora by the VHF and HF Radars of the ISTP SB RAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngardt, O. I.; Lebedev, V. P.; Kutelev, K. A.; Kushnarev, D. S.; Grkovich, K. V.

    2018-01-01

    Two modern radars for diagnosis of the ionosphere by the radio-wave backscattering method, namely, the Irkutsk incoherent scatter radar at VHF (IISR, 154-162 MHz) and the Ekaterinburg coherent radar at HF (EKB, 8-20 MHz) are operated at the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISTP SB RAS). The paper analyzes the results of joint observations of strong scattering (radio aurora) on June 8, 2015. To determine the geographical position of the radio aurora, we developed original methods that take into account both the features of the radio-wave propagation and the features of the radar antenna systems. It is shown that there are areas where the spatial position of the HF and VHF radio aurora can coincide. This permits using the radars as a single complex for diagnosis of the characteristics of small-scale high-latitude irregularities in the ionospheric E and F layers. A comparative analysis of the characteristics and temporal dynamics of the radio-aurora region in the HF and VHF ranges is performed. Using the DMSP satellite data, it has been shown that the radio aurora dynamics during this experiment with the EKB radar can be related with the spatial dynamics of the localized area with high electric field, which moves from high to equatorial latitudes. It is found that due to the broader field of view, radio aurora at the HF radar was stably observed 6-12 min earlier than at the VHF radar. This permits using the EKB radar data for prediction of the radio-aurora detection by the IISR radar.

  19. Origin of solar radio waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmr, J.

    1977-01-01

    Solar radiowave radiation amounts to about 10 -7 of the total solar radiation. The solar atmosphere emits radiation of different wavelengths from a fraction of nanometer to kilometer waves. The solar radiowaves are of thermal origin and except for neutral hydrogen emission and solid body radio emission their emission always results from free electrons. The radiowave radiation active components were classified in several types, such as noise storms, flashes, flares, continuum, and flashes lasting for several minutes. The respective types are discussed and their origins shown. The mechanisms are described permitting the formation of radio waves of nonthermal origin, i.e., plasma oscillations, gyromagnetic emission, synchrotron and Cherenkov radiations. (J.P.)

  20. HF Surface Wave Radar Operation in Adverse Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ponsford, Anthony M; Dizaji, Reza M; McKerracher, Richard

    2005-01-01

    ...) system based on HF Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR). the primary objective behind the programme was to demonstrate the capability of HFSWR to continuously detect and track surface targets (ships and icebergs...

  1. Electron Acceleration by High Power Radio Waves in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Paul

    2012-10-01

    At the highest ERP of the High Altitude Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, high frequency (HF) electromagnetic (EM) waves in the ionosphere produce artificial aurora and electron-ion plasma layers. Using HAARP, electrons are accelerated by high power electrostatic (ES) waves to energies >100 times the thermal temperature of the ambient plasma. These ES waves are driven by decay of the pump EM wave tuned to plasma resonances. The most efficient acceleration process occurs near the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency in earth's magnetic field. Mode conversion plays a role in transforming the ES waves into EM signals that are recorded with ground receivers. These diagnostic waves, called stimulated EM emissions (SEE), show unique resonant signatures of the strongest electron acceleration. This SEE also provides clues about the ES waves responsible for electron acceleration. The electron gas is accelerated by high frequency modes including Langmuir (electron plasma), upper hybrid, and electron Bernstein waves. All of these waves have been identified in the scattered EM spectra as downshifted sidebands of the EM pump frequency. Parametric decay is responsible low frequency companion modes such as ion acoustic, lower hybrid, and ion Bernstein waves. The temporal evolution of the scattered EM spectrum indicates development of field aligned irregularities that aid the mode conversion process. The onset of certain spectral features is strongly correlated with glow plasma discharge structures that are both visible with the unaided eye and detectable using radio backscatter techniques at HF and UHF frequencies. The primary goals are to understand natural plasma layers, to study basic plasma physics in a unique ``laboratory with walls,'' and to create artificial plasma structures that can aid radio communications.

  2. Response of the convecting high-latitude F layer to a powerful HF wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Mingaleva

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model of the high-latitude ionosphere, which takes into account the convection of the ionospheric plasma, has been developed and utilized to simulate the F-layer response at auroral latitudes to high-power radio waves. The model produces the time variations of the electron density, positive ion velocity, and ion and electron temperature profiles within a magnetic field tube carried over an ionospheric heater by the convection electric field. The simulations have been performed for the point with the geographic coordinates of the ionospheric HF heating facility near Tromso, Norway, when it is located near the midnight magnetic meridian. The calculations have been made for equinox, at high-solar-activity, and low-geomagnetic-activity conditions. The results indicate that significant variations of the electron temperature, positive ion velocity, and electron density profiles can be produced by HF heating in the convecting high-latitude F layer.

  3. Response of the convecting high-latitude F layer to a powerful HF wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Mingaleva

    Full Text Available A numerical model of the high-latitude ionosphere, which takes into account the convection of the ionospheric plasma, has been developed and utilized to simulate the F-layer response at auroral latitudes to high-power radio waves. The model produces the time variations of the electron density, positive ion velocity, and ion and electron temperature profiles within a magnetic field tube carried over an ionospheric heater by the convection electric field. The simulations have been performed for the point with the geographic coordinates of the ionospheric HF heating facility near Tromso, Norway, when it is located near the midnight magnetic meridian. The calculations have been made for equinox, at high-solar-activity, and low-geomagnetic-activity conditions. The results indicate that significant variations of the electron temperature, positive ion velocity, and electron density profiles can be produced by HF heating in the convecting high-latitude F layer.

  4. Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the returned ground-scatter power from the SuperDARN HF radars have been linked to the passage of medium-scale gravity waves. We have applied a technique that extracts the first radar range returns from the F-region to study the spatial extent and characteristics of these waves in the CUTLASS field-of-view. Some ray tracing was carried out to test the applicability of this method. The EISCAT radar facility at Tromsø is well within the CUTLASS field-of-view for these waves and provides a unique opportunity to assess independently the ability of the HF radars to derive gravity wave information. Results from 1st March, 1995, where the EISCAT UHF radar was operating in its CP-1 mode, demonstrate that the radars were in good agreement, especially if one selects the electron density variations measured by EISCAT at around 235 km. CUTLASS and EISCAT gravity wave observations complement each other; the former extends the spatial field of view considerably, whilst the latter provides detailed vertical information about a range of ionospheric parameters.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics · Radio science (ionospheric propagations

  5. Validation of the CUTLASS HF radar gravity wave observing capability using EISCAT CP-1 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Arnold

    Full Text Available Quasi-periodic fluctuations in the returned ground-scatter power from the SuperDARN HF radars have been linked to the passage of medium-scale gravity waves. We have applied a technique that extracts the first radar range returns from the F-region to study the spatial extent and characteristics of these waves in the CUTLASS field-of-view. Some ray tracing was carried out to test the applicability of this method. The EISCAT radar facility at Tromsø is well within the CUTLASS field-of-view for these waves and provides a unique opportunity to assess independently the ability of the HF radars to derive gravity wave information. Results from 1st March, 1995, where the EISCAT UHF radar was operating in its CP-1 mode, demonstrate that the radars were in good agreement, especially if one selects the electron density variations measured by EISCAT at around 235 km. CUTLASS and EISCAT gravity wave observations complement each other; the former extends the spatial field of view considerably, whilst the latter provides detailed vertical information about a range of ionospheric parameters.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere – atmosphere interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (thermospheric dynamics · Radio science (ionospheric propagations

  6. Perfectly matched layers for radio wave propagation in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondarenko, Natalia A.; Guzdar, Parvez N.; Ossakow, Sidney L.; Bernhardt, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    We present 1D and 2D numerical models of the propagation of high-frequency (HF) radio waves in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas. The simulations allow one to describe the process of linear conversion of HF electromagnetic waves into electrostatic waves. The waves, launched from the lower boundary normally or at a specified angle on a layer of a magnetoactive plasma, can undergo linear conversion of the incident O-mode into a Z-mode at appropriate locations in an inhomogeneous prescribed plasma density. The numerical scheme for solving 2D HF wave propagation equations is described. The model employed the Maxwellian perfectly matched layers (PML) technique for approximating nonreflecting boundary conditions. Our numerical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the PML technique for transparent boundary conditions for an open-domain problem

  7. Information Content in Radio Waves: Student Investigations in Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, K.; Scaduto, T.

    2013-12-01

    We describe an inquiry-based instructional unit on information content in radio waves, created in the summer of 2013 as part of a MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA) NSF Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program. This topic is current and highly relevant, addressing science and technical aspects from radio astronomy, geodesy, and atmospheric research areas as well as Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Projects and activities range from simple classroom demonstrations and group investigations, to long term research projects incorporating data acquisition from both student-built instrumentation as well as online databases. Each of the core lessons is applied to one of the primary research centers at Haystack through an inquiry project that builds on previously developed units through the MIT Haystack RET program. In radio astronomy, students investigate the application of a simple and inexpensive software defined radio chip (RTL-SDR) for use in systems implementing a small and very small radio telescope (SRT and VSRT). Both of these systems allow students to explore fundamental principles of radio waves and interferometry as applied to radio astronomy. In ionospheric research, students track solar storms from the initial coronal mass ejection (using Solar Dynamics Observatory images) to the resulting variability in total electron density concentrations using data from the community standard Madrigal distributed database system maintained by MIT Haystack. Finally, students get to explore very long-baseline interferometry as it is used in geodetic studies by measuring crustal plate displacements over time. Alignment to NextGen standards is provided for each lesson and activity with emphasis on HS-PS4 'Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer'.

  8. Radio wave propagation and parabolic equation modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Apaydin, Gokhan

    2018-01-01

    A thorough understanding of electromagnetic wave propagation is fundamental to the development of sophisticated communication and detection technologies. The powerful numerical methods described in this book represent a major step forward in our ability to accurately model electromagnetic wave propagation in order to establish and maintain reliable communication links, to detect targets in radar systems, and to maintain robust mobile phone and broadcasting networks. The first new book on guided wave propagation modeling and simulation to appear in nearly two decades, Radio Wave Propagation and Parabolic Equation Modeling addresses the fundamentals of electromagnetic wave propagation generally, with a specific focus on radio wave propagation through various media. The authors explore an array of new applications, and detail various v rtual electromagnetic tools for solving several frequent electromagnetic propagation problems. All of the methods described are presented within the context of real-world scenari...

  9. Forecasts of geomagnetic activities and HF radio propagation conditions made at Hiraiso/Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubashi, K.; Miyamoto, Y.; Kidokoro, T.; Ishii, T.

    1979-01-01

    The Hiraiso Branch of RRL prediction techniques are summarized separately for the 27 day recurrent storm and the flare-associated storm. The storm predictions are compared with the actual geomagnetic activities in two ways. The first one is the comparison on a day to day basis. In the second comparison, the accuracy of the storm predictions during 1965-1976 are evaluated. In addition to the storm prediction, short-term predictions of HF radio propagation conditions are conducted at Hiraiso. The HF propagation predictions are briefly described as an example of the applications of the magnetic storm prediction.

  10. A novel method for the evaluation of polarization and hemisphere coverage of HF radio noise measurement antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, Ben A.; van Maanen, Erik; Bentum, Mark J.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Schiphorst, Roel

    2015-01-01

    In HF (3-30 MHz) communications the ambient electromagnetic background noise or 'radio noise' generally is the limiting factor in reception. Radio noise measurements are needed for spectrum pollution control and to provide reference levels for radio system design. This article discusses the

  11. VLF wave generation by beating of two HF waves in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Spencer; Snyder, Arnold; Kossey, Paul; Chang, Chia-Lie; Labenski, John

    2011-05-01

    Theory of a beat-wave mechanism for very low frequency (VLF) wave generation in the ionosphere is presented. The VLF current is produced by beating two high power HF waves of slightly different frequencies through the nonlinearity and inhomogeneity of the ionospheric plasma. Theory also shows that the density irregularities can enhance the beat-wave generation. An experiment was conducted by transmitting two high power HF waves of 3.2 MHz and 3.2 MHz + f, where f = 5, 8, 13, and 2.02 kHz, from the HAARP transmitter. In the experiment, the ionosphere was underdense to the O-mode heater, i.e., the heater frequency f0 > foF2, and overdense or slightly underdense to the X-mode heater, i.e., f0 < fxF2 or f0 ≥ fxF2. The radiation intensity increased with the VLF wave frequency, was much stronger with the X-mode heaters, and was not sensitive to the electrojet. The strongest VLF radiation of 13 kHz was generated when the reflection layer of the X-mode heater was just slightly below the foF2 layer and the spread of the O-mode sounding echoes had the largest enhancement, suggesting an optimal setting for beat-wave generation of VLF waves by the HF heaters.

  12. Analysis of the Effect of Electron Density Perturbations Generated by Gravity Waves on HF Communication Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, M.; Elias, A. G.; Chum, J.; Cabrera, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, ray tracing of high frequency (HF) signals in ionospheric disturbed conditions is analyzed, particularly in the presence of electron density perturbations generated by gravity waves (GWs). The three-dimensional numerical ray tracing code by Jones and Stephenson, based on Hamilton's equations, which is commonly used to study radio propagation through the ionosphere, is used. An electron density perturbation model is implemented to this code based upon the consideration of atmospheric GWs generated at a height of 150 km in the thermosphere and propagating up into the ionosphere. The motion of the neutral gas at these altitudes induces disturbances in the background plasma which affects HF signals propagation. To obtain a realistic model of GWs in order to analyze the propagation and dispersion characteristics, a GW ray tracing method with kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity was applied. The IRI-2012, HWM14 and NRLMSISE-00 models were incorporated to assess electron density, wind velocities, neutral temperature and total mass density needed for the ray tracing codes. Preliminary results of gravity wave effects on ground range and reflection height are presented for low-mid latitude ionosphere.

  13. Effects of the 2017 Solar Eclipse on HF Radio Propagation and the D-Region Ionosphere: Citizen Science Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C. D.; Adams, M.; Gallagher, D. L.; Habash Krause, L.; Rawlins, L.; Suggs, R. M.; Anderson, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    August 21, 2017 provided a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of the total solar eclipse on high frequency (HF) radio propagation and ionospheric variability. In Marshall Space Flight Center's partnership with the US Space and Rocket Center (USSRC) and Austin Peay State University (APSU), we engaged students and citizen scientists in an investigation of the eclipse effects on the mid-latitude ionosphere. The Amateur Radio community has developed several automated receiving and reporting networks that draw from widely-distributed, automated and manual radio stations to build a near-real time, global picture of changing radio propagation conditions. We used these networks and employed HF radio propagation modeling in our investigation. A Ham Radio Science Citizen Investigation (HamSCI) collaboration with the American Radio Relay League (ARRL) ensured that many thousands of amateur radio operators would be "on the air" communicating on eclipse day, promising an extremely large quantity of data would be collected. Activities included implementing and configuring software, monitoring the HF Amateur Radio frequency bands and collecting radio transmission data on days before, the day of, and days after the eclipse to build a continuous record of changing propagation conditions as the moon's shadow marched across the United States. Our expectations were the D-Region ionosphere would be most impacted by the eclipse, enabling over-the-horizon radio propagation on lower HF frequencies (3.5 and 7 MHz) that are typically closed during the middle of the day. Post-eclipse radio propagation analysis provided insights into ionospheric variability due to the eclipse. We report on results, interpretation, and conclusions of these investigations.

  14. Investigation of the dynamics of HF plasma turbulence by means of artificial ionospheric radio emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, E.N.; Boiko, G.N.; Frolov, V.L.

    1994-01-01

    The results of measurements of the growth and decay characteristics of artificial ionospheric radio emission and their dependence on the level of low-frequency artificial turbulence, time of day, and pump-wave frequency are presented. A time delay of the onset of the exponential nature of the decay process is detected, and its characteristics are studied. It is shown that the effect is determined by nonlinear pumping over the spectrum of high-frequency plasma turbulence. The experimental results demonstrate the possibilities of using artificial radio emission to study the properties of high-frequency plasma turbulence. Areas of future research are discussed

  15. Ionizing wave via high-power HF acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Mishin, Evgeny; Pedersen, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Recent ionospheric modification experiments with the 3.6 MW transmitter at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska led to discovery of artificial ionization descending from the nominal interaction altitude in the background F-region ionosphere by ~60 km. This paper presents a physical model of an ionizing wavefront created by suprathermal electrons accelerated by the HF-excited plasma turbulence.

  16. Irregular HF radio propagation on a subauroral path during magnetospheric substorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Blagoveshchensky

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the main ionospheric trough, sporadic structures, gradients and inhomogeneities of the subpolar ionosphere during substorms on the signal amplitude, azimuthal angles of arrival, and propagation modes for the radio path Ottawa (Canada-St. Petersburg (Russia was considered. This subauroral path with the length of about 6600 km has approximately an east-west orientation. The main goals are to carry out numerical modeling of radio propagation for the path and to compare the model calculations with experimental results. Wave absorption and effects of focusing and divergence of rays were taken into consideration in the radio wave modeling process. The following basic results were obtained: The signal amplitude increases by 20–30 dB 1–1.5 h before the substorm expansion phase onset. At the same time the signal azimuth deviates towards north of the great circle arc for the propagation path. Compared with quiet periods there are effects due to irregularities and gradients in the area of the polar edge of the main ionospheric trough on the passing signals. Propagation mechanisms also change during substorms. The growth of signal amplitude before the substorm can be physically explained by both a decrease of the F2-layer ionization and a growth of the F2-layer height that leads to a decrease of the signal field divergence and to a drop of the collision frequency. Ionospheric gradients are also important. This increase of signal level prior to a substorm could be used for forecasting of space weather disturbed conditions.

  17. Radio-frequency wave enhanced runaway production rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, V.S.; McClain, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Enhancement of runaway electron production (over that of an Ohmic discharge) can be achieved by the addition of radio-frequency waves. This effect is studied analytically and numerically using a two-dimensional Fokker--Planck quasilinear equation

  18. Experimental observations of the spatial structure of wave-like disturbances generated in midlatitude ionosphere by high power radio waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitsyn, V.; Andreeva, E.; Padokhin, A. M.; Nazarenko, M.; Frolov, V.; Komrakov, G.; Bolotin, I.

    2012-12-01

    We present the results of the experiments carried out in 2009-2012 on the Sura heating facility (Radio Physical Research Institute, N. Novgorod, Russia) on modification of the midlatitude ionosphere by powerful HF radiowaves. The experiments were conducted using O-mode radiowaves at frequencies lower than critical frequency of the ionospheric F2 layer both in daytime and nighttime ionosphere. Various schemes of the radiation of the heating wave were used including square wave modulation of the effective radiated power (ERP) at various frequencies and power stepping. Radio transmissions of the low- (Parus/Tsikada) and high-orbital (GPS/GLONASS) navigational satellites received at the mobile network of receiving sites were used for the remote sensing of the heated area of the ionosphere. The variations in the slant total electron content (TEC), which are proportional to the reduced phase of navigational signals, were studied for the satellite passes for which ionospheric penetration points crossed the disturbed area during HF heating. The variations in TEC caused by HF heating are identified in a number of examples. It is shown that the GNSS TEC spectra contain frequency components corresponding to the modulation periods of the ERP of the heating wave. The manifestations of the heating-induced variations in TEC are most prominent in the area of magnetic zenith of the pumping wave. Different behavior of TEC variations was observed during nighttime and daytime heating experiments. In daytime conditions the pump wave switched ON causes the increase of TEC while in the nighttime it causes a decrease in TEC. This can be explained by the different contribution of the processes responsible for the increase and decrease of TEC in daytime in nighttime conditions. In this work we also present the first time radiotomographic reconstructions of the spatial structure of the wave-like disturbances, generated in the ionosphere by high-power radio waves radiated by the Sura heater

  19. Observation of magntosphere and ionosphere through HF and VLF standard waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Toru

    1974-01-01

    The observation of magnetosphere and ionosphere through HF and VLF standard waves is a part of the IMS research subject I on the structure and dynamics of the earth's plasmasphere. By receiving the HF and VLF standard waves with high accuracy, and through the changes of the phase and frequency, continuous observation is made concerning the lower plasmasphere at equator and middle/low latitudes and the upper layers in polar regions. In this way, the dynamic state at the time of disturbance such as magnetic storm can be explored. The following matters are described: features of standard-wave observation, purpose and observation plans, the exhcange of data with overseas countries and satellites, and the results of observation expected. (Mori, K.)

  20. Simple simulation training system for short-wave radio station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xianglin; Shao, Zhichao; Tu, Jianhua; Qu, Fuqi

    2018-04-01

    The short-wave radio station is a most important transmission equipment of our signal corps, but in the actual teaching process, which exist the phenomenon of fewer equipment and more students, making the students' short-wave radio operation and practice time is very limited. In order to solve the above problems, to carry out shortwave radio simple simulation training system development is very necessary. This project is developed by combining hardware and software to simulate the voice communication operation and signal principle of shortwave radio station, and can test the signal flow of shortwave radio station. The test results indicate that this system is simple operation, human-machine interface friendly and can improve teaching more efficiency.

  1. Excitation of a magnetospheric maser through modification of the Earth’s ionosphere by high-power HF radio emission from a ground-based transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, G. A.; Belov, A. S.; Frolov, V. L.; Rapoport, V. O.; Parrot, M.

    2010-01-01

    A method for controlled excitation of a magnetospheric maser through the production of artificial density ducts by high-power HF radio emission from the Earth’s surface has been proposed and implemented in an in-situ experiment. Artificial density ducts allow one to affect the maser resonator system and the excitation and propagation of low-frequency electromagnetic waves in a disturbed magnetic flux tube. The experimental data presented here were obtained at the mid-latitude Sura heating facility. The characteristics of electromagnetic and plasma disturbances at outer-ionosphere altitudes were measured using the onboard equipment of the DEMETER satellite as it passed through the magnetic flux tube rested on the region of intense generation of artificial ionospheric turbulence.

  2. Moreton wave, "EIT wave", and type II radio burst as manifestations of a single wave front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, I. V.; Grechnev, V. V.; Uralov, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    We show that a Moreton wave, an "EIT wave," and a type II radio burst observed during a solar flare of July 13, 2004, might have been a manifestation of a single front of a decelerating shock wave, which appeared in an active region (AR) during a filament eruption. We propose describing a quasi-spheroidal wave propagating upward and along the solar surface by using relations known from a theory of a point-like explosion in a gas whose density changes along the radius according to a power law. By applying this law to fit the drop in density of the coronal plasma enveloping the solar active region, we first managed to bring the measured positions and velocities of surface Moreton wave and "EIT wave" into correspondence with the observed frequency drift rate of the meter type II radio burst. The exponent of the vertical coronal density falloff is selected by fitting the power law to the Newkirk and Saito empirical distributions in the height range of interest. Formal use of such a dependence in the horizontal direction with a different exponent appears to be reasonable up to distances of less than 200 Mm around the eruption center. It is possible to assume that the near-surface shock wave weakens when leaving this radius and finally the active region, entering the region of the quiet Sun where the coronal plasma density and the fast-mode speed are almost constant along the horizontal.

  3. Electrical properties of radio-frequency sputtered HfO{sub 2} thin films for advanced CMOS technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Pranab Kumar; Roy, Asim, E-mail: 28.asim@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Silchar, Silchar-788010, Assam, India Phone: +91-3842-224879 (India)

    2015-08-28

    The Hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) high-k thin films have been deposited by radio frequency (rf) sputtering technique on p-type Si (100) substrate. The thickness, composition and phases of films in relation to annealing temperatures have been investigated by using cross sectional FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope) and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GI-XRD), respectively. GI-XRD analysis revealed that at annealing temperatures of 350°C, films phases change to crystalline from amorphous. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the annealed HfO{sub 2} film have been studied employing Al/HfO{sub 2}/p-Si metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) structures. The electrical properties such as dielectric constant, interface trap density and leakage current density have been also extracted from C-V and I-V Measurements. The value of dielectric constant, interface trap density and leakage current density of annealed HfO{sub 2} film is obtained as 23,7.57×1011eV{sup −1} cm{sup −2} and 2.7×10{sup −5} Acm{sup −2}, respectively. In this work we also reported the influence of post deposition annealing onto the trapping properties of hafnium oxide and optimized conditions under which no charge trapping is observed into the dielectric stack.

  4. A Study of Solar Flare Effects on Mid and High Latitude Radio Wave Propagation using SuperDARN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Chakraborty, S.; Baker, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Over the Horizon (OTH) communication is strongly dependent on the state of the ionosphere, which is sensitive to solar X-ray flares. The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN), whose working principle is dependent on trans-ionospheric radio communication, uses HF radio waves to remotely sense the ionosphere. The backscatter returns from the terrestrial surface (also known as ground-scatter) transit the ionosphere four times and simulate the operation of an HF communications link. SuperDARN backscatter signal properties are altered (strongly attenuated and changes apparent phase) during a sudden ionospheric disturbance following a solar flare, commonly known as Short-Wave Fadeout or SWF. During an SWF the number of SuperDARN backscatter echoes drops suddenly (≈1 min) and sharply, often to near zero, and recovers within 30 minutes to an hour. In this study HF propagation data (SuperDARN backscatter) obtained during SWF events are analyzed for the purpose of validating and improving the performance of HF absorption models, such as, Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) D-region Absorption model (DRAP) and CCMC physics based AbbyNormal model. We will also present preliminary results from a physics based model for the mid and high latitude ionospheric response to flare-driven space weather anomalies, which can be used to estimate different physical parameters of the ionosphere such as electron density, collision frequency, absorption coefficients, response time of D-region etc.

  5. Particle acceleration by Alfven wave turbulence in radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilek, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radio galaxies show evidence for acceleration of relativistic electrons locally within the diffuse radio luminous plasma. One likely candidate for the reacceleration mechanism is acceleration by magnetohydrodynamic turbulence which exists within the plasma. If Alfven waves are generated by a fluid turbulent cascade described by a power law energy-wavenumber spectrum, the particle spectrum in the presence of synchrotron losses will evolve towards an asymptotic power law which agrees with the particle spectra observed in these sources

  6. Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagci, T.; Simonsen, A.; Schmid, Silvan

    2014-01-01

    Low-loss transmission and sensitive recovery of weak radio-frequency and microwave signals is a ubiquitous challenge, crucial in radio astronomy, medical imaging, navigation, and classical and quantum communication. Efficient up-conversion of radio-frequency signals to an optical carrier would...... strong coupling between the voltage fluctuations in a radio-frequency resonance circuit and the membrane's displacement, which is simultaneously coupled to light reflected off its surface. The radio-frequency signals are detected as an optical phase shift with quantum-limited sensitivity....... The corresponding half-wave voltage is in the microvolt range, orders of magnitude less than that of standard optical modulators. The noise of the transducer--beyond the measured 800 pV Hz-1/2 Johnson noise of the resonant circuit--consists of the quantum noise of light and thermal fluctuations of the membrane...

  7. Ionospheric wave and irregularity measurements using passive radio astronomy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, W.C.; Mahoney, M.J.; Jacobson, A.R.; Knowles, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    The observation of midlatitude structures using passive radio astronomy techniques is discussed, with particular attention being given to the low-frequency radio telescope at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory. The present telescope operates in the 10-125-MHz frequency range. Observations of the ionosphere at separations of a few kilometers to a few hundreds of kilometers by the lines of sight to sources are possible, allowing the determination of the amplitude, wavelength, direction of propagation, and propagation speed of ionospheric waves. Data are considered on large-scale ionospheric gradients and the two-dimensional shapes and sizes of ionospheric irregularities. 10 references

  8. ELF wave generation in the ionosphere using pulse modulated HF heating: initial tests of a technique for increasing ELF wave generation efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barr

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a preliminary study to determine the effective heating and cooling time constants of ionospheric currents in a simulated modulated HF heating, `beam painting' configuration. It has been found that even and odd harmonics of the fundamental ELF wave used to amplitude modulate the HF heater are sourced from different regions of the ionosphere which support significantly different heating and cooling time constants. The fundamental frequency and its odd harmonics are sourced in a region of the ionosphere where the heating and cooling time constants are about equal. The even harmonics on the other hand are sourced from regions of the ionosphere characterised by ratios of cooling to heating time constant greater than ten. It is thought that the even harmonics are sourced in the lower ionosphere (around 65 km where the currents are much smaller than at the higher altitudes around 78 km where the currents at the fundamental frequency and odd harmonics maximise.Key words. Electromagnetics (antennae · Ionosphere (active experiments · Radio science (non linear phenomena

  9. HF Radar Observations of Current, Wave and Wind Parameters in the South Australian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleditch, A.; Cosoli, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Australian Coastal Ocean Radar Network (ACORN) has been measuring metocean parameters from an array of HF radar systems since 2007. Current, wave and wind measurements from a WERA phased-array radar system in the South Australian Gulf are evaluated using current meter, wave buoy and weather station data over a 12-month period. The spatial and temporal scales of the radar deployment have been configured for the measurement of surface currents from the first order backscatter spectra. Quality control procedures are applied to the radar currents that relate to the geometric configurations, statistical properties, and diagnostic variables provided by the analysis software. Wave measurements are obtained through an iterative inversion algorithm that provides an estimate of the directional frequency spectrum. The standard static configurations and data sampling strategies are not optimised for waves and so additional signal processing steps need to be implemented in order to provide reliable estimates. These techniques are currently only applied in offline mode but a real-time approach is in development. Improvements in the quality of extracted wave data are found through increased averaging of the raw radar data but the impact of temporal non-stationarity and spatial inhomogeneities in the WERA measurement region needs to be taken into account. Validations of wind direction data from a weather station on Neptune Island show the potential of using HF radar to combat the spread of bushfires in South Australia.

  10. 24 GHz cmWave Radio Propagation Through Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Abreu, Renato Barbosa; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of cm-wave radio propagation through vegetation at 24 GHz. A set of dedicated directional measurements were performed with horn antennas located close to street level inside a densely-vegetated area illuminated from above. The full azimuth was exam......This paper presents a measurement-based analysis of cm-wave radio propagation through vegetation at 24 GHz. A set of dedicated directional measurements were performed with horn antennas located close to street level inside a densely-vegetated area illuminated from above. The full azimuth...

  11. S/WAVES: The Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation on the STEREO Mission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bougeret, J. L.; Goetz, K.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bale, S. D.; Kellogg, P. J.; Maksimovic, M.; Monge, N.; Monson, S. J.; Astier, P. L.; Davy, S.; Dekkali, M.; Hinze, J. J.; Manning, R. E.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Bonnin, X.; Briand, C.; Cairns, I. H.; Cattell, C. A.; Cecconi, B.; Eastwood, J.; Ergun, R. E.; Fainberg, J.; Hoang, S.; Huttunen, K. E. J.; Krucker, S.; Lecacheux, A.; MacDowall, R. J.; Macher, W.; Mangeney, A.; Meetre, C. A.; Moussas, X.; Nguyen, Q. N.; Oswald, T. H.; Pulupa, M.; Reiner, M. J.; Robinson, P. A.; Rucker, H.; Salem, c.; Santolík, Ondřej; Silvis, J. M.; Ullrich, R.; Zarka, P.; Zouganelis, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 136, 1-4 (2008), s. 487-528 ISSN 0038-6308 Grant - others: NASA (US) NAS5-03076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : S/WAVES * STEREO * plasma waves * radio waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.372, year: 2008

  12. On radio frequency wave induced radial transport and wave helicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.

    1992-09-01

    Expressions for wave induced radial transport are derived allowing simple estimates. The transport is enhanced due to the presence of poloidal magnetostatic field and in the vicinity of the ion cyclotron resonance. The direction of the wave induced transport depends also on the wave polarization. (author) 19 refs

  13. Radio Wave Propagation Scene Partitioning for High-Speed Rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio wave propagation scene partitioning is necessary for wireless channel modeling. As far as we know, there are no standards of scene partitioning for high-speed rail (HSR scenarios, and therefore we propose the radio wave propagation scene partitioning scheme for HSR scenarios in this paper. Based on our measurements along the Wuhan-Guangzhou HSR, Zhengzhou-Xian passenger-dedicated line, Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger-dedicated line, and Beijing-Tianjin intercity line in China, whose operation speeds are above 300 km/h, and based on the investigations on Beijing South Railway Station, Zhengzhou Railway Station, Wuhan Railway Station, Changsha Railway Station, Xian North Railway Station, Shijiazhuang North Railway Station, Taiyuan Railway Station, and Tianjin Railway Station, we obtain an overview of HSR propagation channels and record many valuable measurement data for HSR scenarios. On the basis of these measurements and investigations, we partitioned the HSR scene into twelve scenarios. Further work on theoretical analysis based on radio wave propagation mechanisms, such as reflection and diffraction, may lead us to develop the standard of radio wave propagation scene partitioning for HSR. Our work can also be used as a basis for the wireless channel modeling and the selection of some key techniques for HSR systems.

  14. Spatial Stationarity of Ultrawideband and Millimeter Wave Radio Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Tan; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    For radio channels with broad bandwidth resource, such as those often used for ultrawideband (UWB) and millimeter wave (mmwave) systems, the Wide-Sense Stationary Uncorrelated Scattering (WSSUS) and spatial stationary assumptions are more critical than typical cellular channels with very limited ...

  15. Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations in the jupiter environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R G; Pedersen, B M; Harvey, C C; Canu, P; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N; Desch, M D; de Villedary, C; Fainberg, J; Farrell, W M; Goetz, K; Hess, R A; Hoang, S; Kaiser, M L; Kellogg, P J; Lecacheux, A; Lin, N; Macdowall, R J; Manning, R; Meetre, C A; Meyer-Vernet, N; Moncuquet, M; Osherovich, V; Reiner, M J; Tekle, A; Thiessen, J; Zarka, P

    1992-09-11

    The Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment has produced new observations of the Jupiter environment, owing to the unique capabilities of the instrument and the traversal of high Jovian latitudes. Broad-band continuum radio emission from Jupiter and in situ plasma waves have proved valuable in delineating the magnetospheric boundaries. Simultaneous measurements of electric and magnetic wave fields have yielded new evidence of whistler-mode radiation within the magnetosphere. Observations of aurorallike hiss provided evidence of a Jovian cusp. The source direction and polarization capabilities of URAP have demonstrated that the outer region of the lo plasma torus supported at least five separate radio sources that reoccurred during successive rotations with a measurable corotation lag. Thermal noise measurements of the lo torus densities yielded values in the densest portion that are similar to models suggested on the basis of Voyager observations of 13 years ago. The URAP measurements also suggest complex beaming and polarization characteristics of Jovian radio components. In addition, a new class of kilometer-wavelength striated Jovian bursts has been observed.

  16. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Ano Nuevo, Normal Model, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements, with missing values filled in by a normal...

  17. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, Normal Model, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements, with missing values filled in by a normal model....

  18. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, 25 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 25 hour running average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  19. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Ano Nuevo, 25 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 25 hour running average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  20. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Monterey Bay, Normal Model, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements, with missing values filled in by a normal...

  1. Currents, HF Radio-derived, SF Bay, 33 hr, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 33 hour running average of the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  2. Currents, HF Radio-derived, SF Bay, 25 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 25 hour running average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN...

  3. Currents, HF Radio-derived, SF Bay Outlet, 1 hr, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 1 hour average of the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL...

  4. Currents, HF Radio-derived, SF Bay, 1 hr, Meridional, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 1 hour average of the meridional component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL...

  5. Currents, HF Radio-derived, SF Bay, 1 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 1 hour average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL...

  6. Currents, HF Radio-derived, Bodega Bay, 1 hr, Zonal, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data is the 1 hour average of the zonal component of ocean surface currents derived from High Frequency Radio-derived measurements. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL...

  7. Waves in Saturn's rings probed by radio occultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty wave features, observed in 3.6 and 13 cm-wavelength optical depth profiles of Saturn's rings obtained by Voyager 1 radio occultation, are analyzed individually and comparatively. Many are the signature of spiral density waves and bending waves excited by gravitational resonances with Saturn's satellites. A new technique for locating waveform extrema, which fits a sinusoid to each half cycle of wave data, quantifies the wavelength variation across a feature. Fitting dispersion models to the derived wavelengths provides new estimates of ambient surface mass density σ in each wave region. For fourteen weak density waves in Ring A, modelling of the waveform near resonance with linear density wave theory gives independent estimates of σ, as well as reliable estimates of resonance location. Measurements of wave amplitude damping give an upper bound for ring thickness 2H, where H is the ring scale height. In the wave regions studied, Rings A, B, and C have 30 approx-lt σ approx-lt 70, σ approx-gt 65, and σ ∼ 1 g/cm 2 , respectively. Mass loading estimates from waveform modelling are 20 to 40% larger than dispersion-derived values, suggesting accumulation of mass in the wave regions. The average offset of derived wave location from theoretical resonance is about 1 km. Model waveforms of overlapping waves excited by the satellites Janus and Epimethenus agree well with observed morphologies in the linear region near resonance. In Ring C, dispersion analysis indicates that the most prominent wave feature, previously unidentified, is a one-armed spiral wave

  8. Definition imaging of anomalous geologic structure with radio waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolarczyk, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    Diamond core drilling from the surface and access drifts are routinely used in acquiring subsurface geologic data. Examination of core from a constellation of drillholes enables the characterization of the prevailing geology in the deposit. Similar geologic members in adjacent drillholes suggest that layered rock continuity exists between drillholes. Mineralogical and physical examination of core along with computer generated stratigraphic cross sections graphically represents the correlation and classification of the rock in the deposit. CW radio waves propagating on ray paths between drillholes have been used to validate the stratigraphic cross section and image anomalous geologic structure between drillholes. This paper compares the crosshole radio wave tomography images of faults in a nuclear waste repository site and a coal seam with the in-mine mapping results

  9. Wave parameters comparisons between High Frequency (HF) radar system and an in situ buoy: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria; Alonso-Martirena, Andrés; Agostinho, Pedro; Sanchez, Jorge; Ferrer, Macu; Fernandes, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The coastal zone is an important area for the development of maritime countries, either in terms of recreation, energy exploitation, weather forecasting or national security. Field measurements are in the basis of understanding how coastal and oceanic processes occur. Most processes occur over long timescales and over large spatial ranges, like the variation of mean sea level. These processes also involve a variety of factors such as waves, winds, tides, storm surges, currents, etc., that cause huge interference on such phenomena. Measurement of waves have been carried out using different techniques. The instruments used to measure wave parameters can be very different, i.e. buoys, ship base equipment like sonar and satellites. Each equipment has its own advantage and disadvantage depending on the study subject. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the behaviour of a different technology available and presently adopted in wave measurement. In the past few years the measurement of waves using High Frequency (HF) Radars has had several developments. Such a method is already established as a powerful tool for measuring the pattern of surface current, but its use in wave measurements, especially in the dual arrangement is recent. Measurement of the backscatter of HF radar wave provides the raw dataset which is analyzed to give directional data of surface elevation at each range cell. Buoys and radars have advantages, disadvantages and its accuracy is discussed in this presentation. A major advantage with HF radar systems is that they are unaffected by weather, clouds or changing ocean conditions. The HF radar system is a very useful tool for the measurement of waves over a wide area with real-time observation, but it still lacks a method to check its accuracy. The primary goal of this study was to show how the HF radar system responds to high energetic variations when compared to wave buoy data. The bulk wave parameters used (significant wave height, period and

  10. High frequency ion sound waves associated with Langmuir waves in type III radio burst source regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thejappa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Short wavelength ion sound waves (2-4kHz are detected in association with the Langmuir waves (~15-30kHz in the source regions of several local type III radio bursts. They are most probably not due to any resonant wave-wave interactions such as the electrostatic decay instability because their wavelengths are much shorter than those of Langmuir waves. The Langmuir waves occur as coherent field structures with peak intensities exceeding the Langmuir collapse thresholds. Their scale sizes are of the order of the wavelength of an ion sound wave. These Langmuir wave field characteristics indicate that the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are most probably generated during the thermalization of the burnt-out cavitons left behind by the Langmuir collapse. Moreover, the peak intensities of the observed short wavelength ion sound waves are comparable to the expected intensities of those ion sound waves radiated by the burnt-out cavitons. However, the speeds of the electron beams derived from the frequency drift of type III radio bursts are too slow to satisfy the needed adiabatic ion approximation. Therefore, some non-linear process such as the induced scattering on thermal ions most probably pumps the beam excited Langmuir waves towards the lower wavenumbers, where the adiabatic ion approximation is justified.

  11. HF doppler sounder measurements of the ionospheric signatures of small scale ULF waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Baddeley

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available An HF Doppler sounder, DOPE (DOppler Pulsation Experiment with three azimuthally-separated propagation paths is used to provide the first statistical examination of small scale-sized, high m waves where a direct measurement of the azimuthal wavenumber m, is made in the ionosphere. The study presents 27 events, predominantly in the post-noon sector. The majority of events are Pc4 waves with azimuthal m numbers ranging from –100 to –200, representing some of the smallest scale waves ever observed in the ionosphere. 4 Pc5 waves are observed in the post-noon sector. The fact that measurements for the wave azimuthal m number and the wave angular frequency are available allows the drift-bounce resonance condition to be used to hypothesise potential particle populations which could drive the waves through either a drift or drift-bounce resonance interaction mechanism. These results are compared with the statistical study presented by Baddeley et al. (2004 which investigated the statistical likelihood of such driving particle populations occurring in the magnetospheric ring current. The combination of these two studies indicates that any wave which requires a possible drift resonance interaction with particles of energies >60 keV, is statistically unlikely to be generated by such a mechanism. The evidence presented in this paper therefore suggests that in the pre-noon sector the drift-bounce resonance mechanism is statistically more likely implying an anti-symmetric standing wave structure while in the post-noon sector both a drift or drift-bounce resonance interaction is statistically possible, indicating both symmetric and anti-symmetric standing mode structures. A case study is also presented investigating simultaneous observations of a ULF wave in ground magnetometer and DOPE data. The event is in the lower m range of the statistical study and displays giant pulsation (Pg characteristics.

    Keywords

  12. HF doppler sounder measurements of the ionospheric signatures of small scale ULF waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Baddeley

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available An HF Doppler sounder, DOPE (DOppler Pulsation Experiment with three azimuthally-separated propagation paths is used to provide the first statistical examination of small scale-sized, high m waves where a direct measurement of the azimuthal wavenumber m, is made in the ionosphere. The study presents 27 events, predominantly in the post-noon sector. The majority of events are Pc4 waves with azimuthal m numbers ranging from –100 to –200, representing some of the smallest scale waves ever observed in the ionosphere. 4 Pc5 waves are observed in the post-noon sector. The fact that measurements for the wave azimuthal m number and the wave angular frequency are available allows the drift-bounce resonance condition to be used to hypothesise potential particle populations which could drive the waves through either a drift or drift-bounce resonance interaction mechanism. These results are compared with the statistical study presented by Baddeley et al. (2004 which investigated the statistical likelihood of such driving particle populations occurring in the magnetospheric ring current. The combination of these two studies indicates that any wave which requires a possible drift resonance interaction with particles of energies >60 keV, is statistically unlikely to be generated by such a mechanism. The evidence presented in this paper therefore suggests that in the pre-noon sector the drift-bounce resonance mechanism is statistically more likely implying an anti-symmetric standing wave structure while in the post-noon sector both a drift or drift-bounce resonance interaction is statistically possible, indicating both symmetric and anti-symmetric standing mode structures. A case study is also presented investigating simultaneous observations of a ULF wave in ground magnetometer and DOPE data. The event is in the lower m range of the statistical study and displays giant pulsation (Pg characteristics. Keywords. Ionosphere (Ionosphere

  13. Scattering of radio frequency waves by blob-filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Radio frequency waves used for heating and current drive in magnetic confinement experiments must traverse the scrape-off-layer (SOL) and edge plasma before reaching the core. The edge and SOL plasmas are strongly turbulent and intermittent in both space and time. As a first approximation, the SOL can be treated as a tenuous background plasma upon which denser filamentary field-aligned blobs of plasma are superimposed. The blobs are approximately stationary on the rf time scale. The scattering of plane waves in the ion-cyclotron to lower-hybrid frequency range from a cylindrical blob is treated here in the cold plasma fluid model. Scattering widths are derived for incident fast and slow waves, and the scattered power fraction is estimated. Processes such as scattering-induced mode conversion, scattering resonances, and shadowing are investigated.

  14. Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagci, Tolga; Simonsen, A; Schmid, Silvan

    2013-01-01

    Low-loss transmission and sensitive recovery of weak radio-frequency (rf) and microwave signals is an ubiquitous technological challenge, crucial in fields as diverse as radio astronomy, medical imaging, navigation and communication, including those of quantum states. Efficient upconversion of rf-signals...... to an optical carrier would allow transmitting them via optical fibers instead of copper wires dramatically reducing losses, and give access to the mature toolbox of quantum optical techniques, routinely enabling quantum-limited signal detection. Research in the field of cavity optomechanics [1, 2] has shown...... reflected off its metallized surface. The circuit acts as an antenna; the voltage signals it induces are detected as an optical phase shift with quantum-limited sensitivity. The corresponding half-wave voltage is in the microvolt range, orders of magnitude below that of standard optical modulators...

  15. The Radio & Plasma Wave Investigation (RPWI) for JUICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlund, J.-E.

    2013-09-01

    We present the Radio & Plasma Waves Investigation (RPWI) selected for implementation on the JUICE mission. RPWI consists of a highly integrated instrument package that provides a whole set of plasma and fields measurements. The RPWI instrument has outstanding new capabilities not previously available to outer planet missions, and that would address many fundamental planetary science objectives. Specifically, RPWI would be able to study the electro-dynamic influence of the Jovian magnetosphere on the exospheres, surfaces and conducting oceans of Ganymede, Europa and Callisto. RPWI would also be able to monitor the sources of radio emissions from auroral regions of Ganymede and Jupiter, and possibly also from lightning activity in Jupiter's clouds. Moreover, RPWI will search for exhaust plumes from cracks on the icy moons, as well as μm-sized dust and related dust-plasmasurface interaction processes occurring near the icy moons of Jupiter.

  16. Physical Layer Definition for a Long-Haul HF Antarctica to Spain Radio Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ma Alsina-Pagès

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available La Salle and the Observatori de l’Ebre (OE have been involved in a remote sensing project in Antarctica for the last 11 years. The OE has been monitoring the geomagnetic activity for more than twenty years and also the ionospheric activity of the last ten years in the Spanish Antarctic Station Juan Carlos I (ASJI (62.7 ° S, 299.6 ° E. La Salle is finishing the design and testing of a low-power communication system between the ASJI and Cambrils (41.0 ° N, 1.0 ° E with a double goal: (i the transmission of data from the sensors located at the ASJI and (ii the performance of an oblique ionospheric sounding of a 12,760 km HF link. Previously, La Salle has already performed sounding and modulation tests to describe the channel performance in terms of availability, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR, Doppler spread and delay spread. This paper closes the design of the physical layer, by means of the channel error study and the synchronization performance, and concludes with a new physical layer proposal for the Oblique Ionosphere Sounder. Narrowband and wideband frames have been defined to be used when the oblique sounder performs as an ionospheric sensor. Finally, two transmission modes have been defined for the modem performance: the High Robustness Mode (HRM for low SNR hours and the High Throughput Mode (HTM for the high SNR hours.

  17. Magellan radio occultation measurements of atmospheric waves on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, David P.; Jenkins, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Radio occultation experiments were conducted at Venus on three consecutive orbits of the Magellan spacecraft in October 1991. Each occultation occurred over the same topography (67 deg N, 127 deg E) and at the same local time (22 hr 5 min), but the data are sensitive to zonal variations because the atmosphere rotates significantly during one orbit. Through comparisons between observations and predictions of standard wave theory, we have demonstrated that small-scale oscillations in retrieved temperature profiles as well as scintillations in received signal intensity are caused by a spectrum of vertically propagating internal gravity waves. There is a strong similarity between the intensity scintillations observed here and previous measurements, which pertain to a wide range of locations and experiment dates. This implies that the same basic phenomenon underlies all the observations and hence that gravity waves are a persistent, global feature of Venus' atmosphere. We obtained a fairly complete characterization of a gravity wave that appears above the middle cloud in temperature measurements on all three orbits. The amplitude and vertical wavelength are about 4 K and 2.5 km respectively, at 65 km. A model for radiative damping implies that the wave intrinsic frequency is approximately 2 x 10(exp 4) rad/sec, the corresponding ratio between horizontal and vertical wavelengths is approximately 100. The wave is nearly stationary relative to the surface or the Sun. Radiative attenuation limits the wave amplitude at altitudes above approximately 65 km, leading to wave drag on the mean zonal winds of about +0.4 m/sec per day (eastward). The sign, magnitude, and location of this forcing suggest a possible role in explaining the decrease with height in the zonal wind speed that is believed to occur above the cloud tops. Temperature oscillations with larger vertical wavelengths (5-10 km) were also observed on all three orbits, but we are able unable to interpret these

  18. Wave propagation simulation of radio occultations based on ECMWF refractivity profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Høeg, Per

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a complete radio occultation simulation environment, including realistic refractivity profiles, wave propagation modeling, instrument modeling, and bending angle retrieval. The wave propagator is used to simulate radio occultation measurements. The radio waves are propagated...... of radio occultations. The output from the wave propagator simulator is used as input to a Full Spectrum Inversion retrieval module which calculates geophysical parameters. These parameters can be compared to the ECMWF atmospheric profiles. The comparison can be used to reveal system errors and get...... a better understanding of the physics. The wave propagation simulations will in this paper also be compared to real measurements. These radio occultations have been exposed to the same atmospheric conditions as the radio occultations simulated by the wave propagator. This comparison reveals that precise...

  19. Disturbance phenomena in VLF standard radio wave observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Yoshikazu

    1977-01-01

    Storm aftereffect, i.e. the phase disturbance after initiation of a magnetic storm has been revealed in the observation of VLF standard radio waves. In VLF long distance propagation at middle latitudes (L - 3), the phase disturbance for several days after the initiation of a magnetic storm is due to electron fall from the radiation belt. This has been confirmed by the comparison with electron flux detected by an artificial satellite. The correlations between VLF phase disturbance and magnetism activity or ionosphere absorption are described. The relation between winter anomaly and phase disturbance is also discussed. (Mori, K.)

  20. Simulating satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    OpenAIRE

    M. Füllekrug; C. Hanuise; M. Parrot

    2010-01-01

    Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds emit 100 kHz radio waves which illuminate the Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. This contribution aims to clarify the physical processes which are relevant for the spatial spreading of the radio wave energy below and above the ionosphere and thereby enables simulating satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds. The simulation uses the DEMETER satellite which observes 100 kHz ...

  1. Probing the sky with radio waves from wireless technology to the development of atmospheric science

    CERN Document Server

    Yeang, Chen-Pang

    2013-01-01

    By the late nineteenth century, engineers and experimental scientists generally knew how radio waves behaved, and by 1901 scientists were able to manipulate them to transmit messages across long distances. What no one could understand, however, was why radio waves followed the curvature of the Earth. Theorists puzzled over this for nearly twenty years before physicists confirmed the zig-zag theory, a solution that led to the discovery of a layer in the Earth's upper atmosphere that bounces radio waves earthward-the ionosphere. In Probing the Sky with Radio Waves,

  2. Radio Wave Propagation Handbook for Communication on and Around Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Christian; Golshan, Nasser; Kliore, Arvydas

    2002-01-01

    This handbook examines the effects of the Martian environment on radio wave propagation on Mars and in the space near the planet. The environmental effects include these from the Martian atmosphere, ionosphere, global dust storms, aerosols, clouds, and geomorphologic features. Relevant Martian environmental parameters were extracted from the measurements of Mars missions during the past 30 years, especially from Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor. The results derived from measurements and analyses have been reviewed through an extensive literature search. The updated parameters have been theoretically analyzed to study their effects on radio propagation. This handbook also provides basic information about the entire telecommunications environment on and around Mars for propagation researchers, system engineers, and link analysts. Based on these original analyses, some important recommendations have been made, including the use of the Martian ionosphere as a reflector for Mars global or trans-horizon communication between future Martian colonies, reducing dust storm scattering effects, etc. These results have extended our wave propagation knowledge to a planet other than Earth; and the tables, models, and graphics included in this handbook will benefit telecommunication system engineers and scientific researchers.

  3. Numerical simulation of the temperature, electron density, and electric field distributions near the ionospheric reflection height after turn-on of a powerful HF wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muldrew, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    The time variation of the electron temperature profile in the ionosphere following turn-on of a powerful 1-s HF pulse is determined numerically from the energy balance equation. Using this and the equations of motion and continuity for a plasma, the effect of heating and the pondermotive force of a powerful HF wave on the electron density and electric field distributions are determined by numerical simulation. The temperature variation and ponderomotive force modify the density distribution, and this new density distribution, in turn, modifies the electric field distribution of the HF wave. The density deviations grow for a few hundred milliseconds after HF turn-on and then begin to fluctuate in time. At all heights the wave number of the density deviations is approximately twice the wave number of the HF wave. For electric fields near reflection of about 6.0 V/m, the electric field distribution becomes complicated, apparently depending on Bragg scattering of the HF wave from the density deviations. Density impulses propagate away (up and down) from electric field maxima, at the ion thermal velocity, at both turn-on and turn-off of the HF wave

  4. Simultaneous measurements of HF-enhanced plasma waves and artificial field-aligned irregularities at Arecibo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, S.T.; Djuth, F.T.

    1990-01-01

    Two radar systems with beams intersecting in the HF-modified F region were used to simultaneously measure HF-enhanced plasma lines (HFPLs) and artificial geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities (AFAIs). The Arecibo 430-MHz radar was used for the HFPL observations, and a portable 49.92-MHz backscatter radar was deployed on the island of Guadeloupe to monitor the AFAIs. The experiment was desgined to examine the degree to which HF-induced plasma turbulence influences the development of AFAIs. When the HF beam is stepped up in power, sustained HFPLs and AFAIs are first observed at the same HF power level, indicating that ponderomotively driven instabilities may be involved in the early time development of AFAIs. As the HF power is increased, the HFPL backscatter power begins to saturate at ∼70 MW effective radiated power (ERP). However, the backscatter from AFAIs is linearly dependent on HF power, even at the highest (120 MW ERP) HF power levels available at Arecibo. This suggests that additional processes may contribute to the development of AFAIs. For example, ponderomotively driven instabilities may give rise to weak geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities that are subsequently driven unstable by processes excited near the upper hybrid resonance. It is also likely that AFAIs greatly impact the development of HF-induced plasma turbulence at late times (>1 s) following HF turn-on. Once the ionosphere is preconditioned by high-power HF modifications, AFAIs and HFPLs can be simultaneously sustained at a much lower HF power level than that needed to originally excite them. The nature of the preconditioning process is currently not well understood. New theoretical initiatives are clearly needed to guide future experimental activity in this area

  5. Waves in the Martian Atmosphere: Results from MGS Radio Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. M.; Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.

    1999-01-01

    Temperatures retrieved from Mars Global Surveyor radio occultations have been searched for evidence of waves. Emphasis has been on the initial series of occultations between 29 deg N and 64 deg S, obtained during the early martian southern summer, L(sub s) = 264 deg - 308 deg. The profiles exhibit an undulatory behavior that is suggestive of vertically propagating waves. wavelengths approximately 10 km are often dominant, but structure on smaller scales is evident. The undulatory structure is most pronounced between latitudes 29 deg N and 10 deg S, usually in regions of "interesting" topography, e.g., in the Tharsis region and near the edge of Syrtis Major. Several temperature profiles, particularly within 30 deg of the equator, exhibit lapse rates that locally become superadiabatic near the 0.4-mbar level or at higher altitudes. This implies that the waves are "breaking" and depositing horizontal momentum into the atmosphere. Such a deposition may play an important role in modulating the atmospheric winds, and characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of these momentum transfers can provide important clues to understanding how the global circulation is maintained.

  6. Walkie-Talkie Measurements for the Speed of Radio Waves in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombi, Andra; Tunyagi, Arthur; Neda, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    A handheld emitter-receiver device suitable for the direct estimation of the velocity of radio waves in air is presented. The velocity of radio waves is measured using the direct time-of-flight method, without the need for any tedious and precise settings. The results for two measurement series are reported. Both sets of results give an estimate…

  7. Generation of Acoustic Gravity Waves by Periodic Radio Transmissions from a High-Power Ionospheric Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Vladimir; Chernogor, Leonid; Rozumenko, Victor

    The Radiophysical Research Institute (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) and Kharkiv V. N. Karazin National University (Kharkiv, Ukraine) have studied opportunities for the effective generation of acoustic gravity waves (AGWs) in 3 - 180-min period range. The excitation of such waves was conducted for the last several years using the SURA heating facility (Nizhny Novgorod). The detection of the HF-induced AGWs was carried out in the Radiophysical Observatory located near Kharkiv City at a distance of about 960 km from the SURA. A coherent radar for vertical sounding, an ionosonde, and magnetometer chains were used in our measurements. The main results are the following (see [1-5]): 1. Infrasound oscillation trains with a period of 6 min are detected during periodic SURA heater turn-on and -off. Similar oscillation trains are detected after long time pumping, during periodic transmissions with a period of 20 s, as well as after pumping turn-off. The train recordings begin 28 - 54 min after the heater turn-on or -off, and the train propagation speeds are about 300 - 570 m/s, the value of which is close to the sound speed at upper atmospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the Doppler shift frequency is of 10 - 40 mHz, which fits to the 0.1 - 0.3% electron density disturbances at ionospheric altitudes. The amplitude of the infrasound oscillations depends on the SURA mode of operation and the state of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. 2. High-power radio transmissions stimulate the generation (or enhancement) of waves at ionospheric altitudes in the range of internal gravity wave periods. The HF-induced waves propagate with speeds of 360 - 460 m/s and produce changes in electron density with amplitudes of 2 - 3%. The generation of such periodic perturbations is more preferable with periods of 10 - 60 minutes. Their features depend significantly on the heater mode of operation. It should be stressed that perturbation intensity increases when a pumping wave frequency approaches

  8. Morning sector drift-bounce resonance driven ULF waves observed in artificially-induced HF radar backscatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Baddeley

    Full Text Available HF radar backscatter, which has been artificially-induced by a high power RF facility such as the EISCAT heater at Tromsø, has provided coherent radar ionospheric electric field data of unprecedented temporal resolution and accuracy. Here such data are used to investigate ULF wave processes observed by both the CUTLASS HF radars and the EISCAT UHF radar. Data from the SP-UK-OUCH experiment have revealed small-scale (high azimuthal wave number, m -45 waves, predominantly in the morning sector, thought to be brought about by the drift-bounce resonance processes. Conjugate observations from the Polar CAM-MICE instrument indicate the presence of a non-Maxwellian ion distribution function. Further statistical analysis has been undertaken, using the Polar TIMAS instrument, to reveal the prevalence and magnitude of the non-Maxwellian energetic particle populations thought to be responsible for generating these wave types.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; wave-particle interactions Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities

  9. Morning sector drift-bounce resonance driven ULF waves observed in artificially-induced HF radar backscatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Baddeley

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available HF radar backscatter, which has been artificially-induced by a high power RF facility such as the EISCAT heater at Tromsø, has provided coherent radar ionospheric electric field data of unprecedented temporal resolution and accuracy. Here such data are used to investigate ULF wave processes observed by both the CUTLASS HF radars and the EISCAT UHF radar. Data from the SP-UK-OUCH experiment have revealed small-scale (high azimuthal wave number, m -45 waves, predominantly in the morning sector, thought to be brought about by the drift-bounce resonance processes. Conjugate observations from the Polar CAM-MICE instrument indicate the presence of a non-Maxwellian ion distribution function. Further statistical analysis has been undertaken, using the Polar TIMAS instrument, to reveal the prevalence and magnitude of the non-Maxwellian energetic particle populations thought to be responsible for generating these wave types.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; wave-particle interactions Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities

  10. Izviđanje radio-komunikacija u VF opsegu u funkciji savremenih operacija / Communication intelligence in HF range as support of modern operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljko Erić

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available U ovom radu je, polazeći od opštih principa izviđanja radio-komunikacija analiziran problem izviđanja radio-komunikacija u VF opsegu 1,6-30 MHz na operativno-strategijskom nivou koje se sprovodi u funkciji obaveštajnog obezbeđenja. Izložen je koncept širokopojasnog multifunkcionalnog radio-goniometra u kojem su integrisane funkcije automatskog presretanja i goniometrisanja signala, koji treba da omogući trenutni i potpuni nadzor (otkrivanje i goniometrisanje svih aktivnih emisija u kompletnom VF frekvencijskom opsegu koje nisu kraće od 10 ms. Ovaj goniometar predstavlja osnovicu budućeg automatizovanog radioizviđačkog sistema za VF opseg, koji sistemu komandovanja savremenim operacijama treba da omogući potpuni uvid u stanje, odnosno praćenje aktivnosti radio-komunikacija u kompletnom VF opsegu, što postojeći sistem za izviđanje VF frekvencijskog opsega ne obezbeđuje. Izložena problematika zasniva se na analizi iskustava i trendova u ovoj oblasti u svetu, na iskustvima stečenim u VTI kroz dosadašnje istraživačke i razvojne zadatke, posebno kroz razvoj i terenska ispitivanja radio-goniometra za VVF/UVF opseg. / Starting from the elaboration of the basic principles of communication intelligence, a problem of communication intelligence in HF range 1,6-30 MHz on the operational-strategic level is analyzed in detail. A concept of the wide-band multifunctional direction finder with integrated intercept and direction finding functions is presented. The direction finder should provide complete surveillance of the HF range and interception with direction finding of all active signals in given frequency range which are not shorter than 10 ms. The direction finder is the key element of the future automated radio reconnaissance system for the HF range, that should provide a complete insight of the signal activities in the HF range, which the existing communication intelligence system does not provide. The subject matter of this paper

  11. On creating transport barrier by radio-frequency waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Cairns, R.A.; Dasgupta, B.; Pantis, G.

    1998-01-01

    The use of radio frequency (RF) waves in the range of Alfven frequencies is shown to stabilize the drift-ballooning modes in the tokamak if the radial profile of the RF field energy is properly chosen. Stabilization is achieved by the ponder motive force arising due to the radial gradient in the RF field energy. The estimate of the RF power required for this stabilization is found to be rather modest and hence should be easily obtained in the actual experiments. This result therefore shows that the use of the RF waves can create a transport barrier to reduce the loss of particle and energy from the plasma. The new improved mode produced by the RF is expected to have all the advantageous features of the enhanced reverse shear (ERS) modes and at the same time will, unlike the ERS plasma, be sustainable for unlimited period of time and hence should be an attractive choice for the reactor-grade self-sustaining plasma. (author)

  12. Propagation of electromagnetic radiation in a random field of gravitational waves and space radio interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braginsky, V.B.; Kardashev, N.S.; Polnarev, A.G.; Novikov, I.D.

    1989-12-01

    Propagation of an electromagnetic wave in the field of gravitational waves is considered. Attention is given to the principal difference between the electromagnetic wave propagation in the field of random gravitational waves and the electromagnetic wave propagation in a medium with a randomly-inhomogeneous refraction index. It is shown that in the case of the gravitation wave field the phase shift of an electromagnetic wave does not increase with distance. The capability of space radio interferometry to detect relic gravitational waves as well as gravitational wave bursts of non cosmological origin are analyzed. (author). 64 refs, 2 figs

  13. Exposure to radio waves near mobile phone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, S.M.; Cooper, T.G.; Allen, S.G.; Blackwell, R.P.; Lowe, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of power density have been made at 17 sites where people were concerned about their exposure to radio waves from mobile phone base stations and where technical data, including the frequencies and radiated powers, have been obtained from the operators. Based on the technical data, the radiated power from antennas used with macrocellular base stations in the UK appears to range from a few watts to a few tens of watts, with typical maximum powers around 80 W. Calculations based on this power indicate that compliance distances would be expected to be no more than 3.1 m for the NRPB guidelines and no more than 8.4 m for the ICNIRP public guidelines. Microcellular base stations appear to use powers no more than a few watts and would not be expected to require compliance distances in excess of a few tens of centimetres. Power density from the base stations of interest was measured at 118 locations at the 17 sites and these data were compared with calculations assuming an inverse square law dependence of power density upon distance from the antennas. It was found that the calculations overestimated the measured power density by up to four orders of magnitude at locations that were either not exposed to the main beam from antennas, or shielded by building fabric. For all locations and for distances up to 250 m from the base stations, power density at the measurement positions did not show any trend to decrease with increasing distance. The signals from other sources were frequently found to be of similar strength to the signals from the base stations of interest. Spectral measurements were obtained over the 30 MHz to 2.9 GHz range at 73 of the locations so that total exposure to radio signals could be assessed. The geometric mean total exposure arising from all radio signals at the locations considered was 2 millionths of the NRPB investigation level, or 18 millionths of the lower ICNIRP public reference level; however, the data varied over several decades. The

  14. Characteristics of coronal shock waves and solar type 2 radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G.; Classen, H.-T.

    1995-01-01

    In the solar corona shock waves generated by flares and/or coronal mass ejections can be observed by radio astronomical methods in terms of solar type 2 radio bursts. In dynamic radio spectra they appear as emission stripes slowly drifting from high to low frequencies. A sample of 25 solar type 2 radio bursts observed in the range of 40 - 170 MHz with a time resolution of 0.1 s by the new radiospectrograph of the Astrophvsikalisches Institut Potsdam in Tremsdorf is statistically investigated concerning their spectral features, i.e, drift rate, instantaneous bandwidth, and fundamental harmonic ratio. In-situ plasma wave measurements at interplanetary shocks provide the assumption that type 2 radio radiation is emitted in the vicinity of the transition region of shock waves. Thus, the instantaneous bandwidth of a solar type 2 radio burst would reflect the density jump across the associated shock wave. Comparing the inspection of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations of shock waves under coronal circumstances with those obtained from the observational study, solar type 2 radio bursts should be regarded to be generated by weak supercritical, quasi-parallel, fast magnetosonic shock waves in the corona.

  15. Radio-wave propagation for space communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    The most recent information on the effects of Earth's atmosphere on space communications systems is reviewed. The design and reliable operation of satellite systems that provide the many applications in space which rely on the transmission of radio waves for communications and scientific purposes are dependent on the propagation characteristics of the transmission path. The presence of atmospheric gases, clouds, fog, precipitation, and turbulence causes uncontrolled variations in the signal characteristics. These variations can result in a reduction of the quality and reliability of the transmitted information. Models and other techniques are used in the prediction of atmospheric effects as influenced by frequency, geography, elevation angle, and type of transmission. Recent data on performance characteristics obtained from direct measurements on satellite links operating to above 30 GHz have been reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on the effects of precipitation on the Earth/space path, including rain attenuation, and ice particle depolarization. Other factors are sky noise, antenna gain degradation, scintillations, and bandwidth coherence. Each of the various propagation factors has an effect on design criteria for communications systems. These criteria include link reliability, power margins, noise contribution, modulation and polarization factors, channel cross talk, error rate, and bandwidth limitations.

  16. E-region decameter-scale plasma waves observed by the dual TIGER HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Carter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The dual Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER HF radars regularly observe E-region echoes at sub-auroral magnetic latitudes 58°–60° S including during geomagnetic storms. We present a statistical analysis of E-region backscatter observed in a period of ~2 years (late 2004–2006 by the TIGER Bruny Island and Unwin HF radars, with particular emphasis on storm-time backscatter. It is found that the HF echoes normally form a 300-km-wide band at ranges 225–540 km. In the evening sector during geomagnetic storms, however, the HF echoes form a curved band joining to the F-region band at ~700 km. The curved band lies close to the locations where the geometric aspect angle is zero, implying little to no refraction during geomagnetic storms, which is an opposite result to what has been reported in the past. The echo occurrence, Doppler velocity, and spectral width of the HF echoes are examined in order to determine whether new HF echo types are observed at sub-auroral latitudes, particularly during geomagnetic storms. The datasets of both TIGER radars are found to be dominated by low-velocity echoes. A separate population of storm-time echoes is also identified within the datasets of both radars with most of these echoes showing similar characteristics to the low-velocity echo population. The storm-time backscatter observed by the Bruny Island radar, on the other hand, includes near-range echoes (r<405 km that exhibit some characteristics of what has been previously termed the High Aspect angle Irregularity Region (HAIR echoes. We show that these echoes appear to be a storm-time phenomenon and further investigate this population by comparing their Doppler velocity with the simultaneously measured F- and E-region irregularity velocities. It is suggested that the HAIR-like echoes are observed only by HF radars with relatively poor geometric aspect angles when electron density is low and when the electric field is particularly

  17. Sensory illusions: Common mistakes in physics regarding sound, light and radio waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briles, T. M.; Tabor-Morris, A. E.

    2013-03-01

    Optical illusions are well known as effects that we see that are not representative of reality. Sensory illusions are similar but can involve other senses than sight, such as hearing or touch. One mistake commonly noted among instructors is that students often mis-identify radio signals as sound waves and not as part of the electromagnetic spectrum. A survey of physics students from multiple high schools highlights the frequency of this common misconception, as well as other nuances on this misunderstanding. Many students appear to conclude that, since they experience radio broadcasts as sound, then sound waves are the actual transmission of radio signals and not, as is actually true, a representation of those waves as produced by the translator box, the radio. Steps to help students identify and correct sensory illusion misconceptions are discussed. School of Education

  18. Observation of quasi-periodic solar radio bursts associated with propagating fast-mode waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, C. R.; Nisticò, G.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Zimovets, I. V.; White, S. M.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: Radio emission observations from the Learmonth and Bruny Island radio spectrographs are analysed to determine the nature of a train of discrete, periodic radio "sparks" (finite-bandwidth, short-duration isolated radio features) which precede a type II burst. We analyse extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging from SDO/AIA at multiple wavelengths and identify a series of quasi-periodic rapidly-propagating enhancements, which we interpret as a fast wave train, and link these to the detected radio features. Methods: The speeds and positions of the periodic rapidly propagating fast waves and the coronal mass ejection (CME) were recorded using running-difference images and time-distance analysis. From the frequency of the radio sparks the local electron density at the emission location was estimated for each. Using an empirical model for the scaling of density in the corona, the calculated electron density was used to obtain the height above the surface at which the emission occurs, and the propagation velocity of the emission location. Results: The period of the radio sparks, δtr = 1.78 ± 0.04 min, matches the period of the fast wave train observed at 171 Å, δtEUV = 1.7 ± 0.2 min. The inferred speed of the emission location of the radio sparks, 630 km s-1, is comparable to the measured speed of the CME leading edge, 500 km s-1, and the speeds derived from the drifting of the type II lanes. The calculated height of the radio emission (obtained from the density) matches the observed location of the CME leading edge. From the above evidence we propose that the radio sparks are caused by the quasi-periodic fast waves, and the emission is generated as they catch up and interact with the leading edge of the CME. The movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Searching for Fast Radio Bursts with the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ryan Patrick; Hughey, Brennan; Howell, Eric; LIGO Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Although Fast Radio Bursts (FRB) are being detected with increasing frequency, their progenitor systems are still mostly a mystery. We present the plan to conduct targeted searches for gravitational-wave counterparts to these FRB events in the data from the first and second observing runs of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO).

  20. Tracking the CME-driven shock wave on 2012 march 5 and radio triangulation of associated radio emission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Magdalenic, J.; Marqué, C.; Krupař, Vratislav; Mierla, M.; Zhukov, A. N.; Rodriguez, L.; Maksimovic, M.; Cecconi, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 791, č. 2 (2014), s. 1-14 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : coronal mass ejections (CMEs) * shock waves * Sun: corona * Sun: flares * Sun: radio radiation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 5.993, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/791/2/115

  1. Benchmark calculations with correlated molecular wave functions. VII. Binding energy and structure of the HF dimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.A.; Dunning, T.H. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The hydrogen bond energy and geometry of the HF dimer have been investigated using the series of correlation consistent basis sets from aug-cc-pVDZ to aug-cc-pVQZ and several theoretical methods including Moller--Plesset perturbation and coupled cluster theories. Estimates of the complete basis set (CBS) limit have been derived for the binding energy of (HF) 2 at each level of theory by utilizing the regular convergence characteristics of the correlation consistent basis sets. CBS limit hydrogen bond energies of 3.72, 4.53, 4.55, and 4.60 kcal/mol are estimated at the SCF, MP2, MP4, and CCSD(T) levels of theory, respectively. CBS limits for the intermolecular F--F distance are estimated to be 2.82, 2.74, 2.73, and 2.73 A, respectively, for the same correlation methods. The effects of basis set superposition error (BSSE) on both the binding energies and structures have also been investigated for each basis set using the standard function counterpoise (CP) method. While BSSE has a negligible effect on the intramolecular geometries, the CP-corrected F--F distance and binding energy differ significantly from the uncorrected values for the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set; these differences decrease regularly with increasing basis set size, yielding the same limits in the CBS limit. Best estimates for the equilibrium properties of the HF dimer from CCSD(T) calculations are D e =4.60 kcal/mol, R FF =2.73 A, r 1 =0.922 A, r 2 =0.920 A, Θ 1 =7 degree, and Θ 2 =111 degree

  2. Stratospheric gravity wave activities inferred through the GPS radio occultation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrasse, Cristiano Max; Takahashi, Hisao; Fechine, Joaquim; Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Wickert, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Stratospheric gravity wave activities were deduced from GPS radio occultation temperature profiles obtained by CHAMP satellite between 2001 and 2005. Potential energy profiles are used to analyze the gravity wave activity over South America. The results showed an inter-annual variation of the potential energy integrated between 24 and 34 km of altitude. The gravity wave activity is more concentrated around the equatorial region. In order to evaluate the seasonal variation of the gravity wave activity, a mean potential energy was determined over (10 deg N-10 deg S) and (100 deg W-20 deg W). The results showed a lower gravity wave activity during winter time, while during spring time the mean potential energy showed an increase in the wave activity. The results of the mean potential energy also showed that the gravity wave activity in the lower stratosphere exhibits a higher wave activity during 2002 and 2004 and a lower wave activity during 2003 and 2005. (author)

  3. Experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    OpenAIRE

    Fullekrug, Martin; Hanuise, C; Parrot, M

    2011-01-01

    Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds emit 100 kHz radio waves which illuminate the Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. This contribution aims to clarify the physical processes which are relevant for the spatial spreading of the radio wave energy below and above the ionosphere and thereby enables an experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds. The simulation uses the DEMETER satellite which...

  4. Ulysses radio and plasma wave observations at high southern heliographic latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R G; Macdowall, R J; Fainberg, J; Kaiser, M L; Desch, M D; Goldstein, M L; Hoang, S; Bougeret, J L; Harvey, C C; Manning, R; Steinberg, J L; Kellogg, P J; Lin, N; Goetz, K; Osherovich, V A; Reiner, M J; Canu, P; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N; Lengyel-Frey, D; Thejappa, G

    1995-05-19

    Ulysses spacecraft radio and plasma wave observations indicate that some variations in the intensity and occurrence rate of electric and magnetic wave events are functions of heliographic latitude, distance from the sun, and phase of the solar cycle. At high heliographic latitudes, solartype Ill radio emissions did not descend to the local plasma frequency, in contrast to the emission frequencies of some bursts observed in the ecliptic. Short-duration bursts of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves were often found in association with depressions in magnetic field amplitude, known as magnetic holes. Extensive wave activity observed in magnetic clouds may exist because of unusually large electron-ion temperature ratios. The lower number of intense in situ wave events at high latitudes was likely due to the decreased variability of the high- latitude solar wind.

  5. The Effects of High Frequency ULF Wave Activity on the Spectral Characteristics of Coherent HF Radar Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. M.; Yeoman, T. K.; Woodfield, E. E.

    2003-12-01

    It is now a common practice to employ ground-based radars in order to distinguish between those regions of the Earth's upper atmosphere which are magnetically conjugate to open and closed field lines. Radar returns from ionospheric irregularities inside the polar cap and cusp regions generally exhibit large spectral widths in contrast to those which exist on closed field lines at lower latitudes. It has been suggested that the so-called Spectral Width Boundary (SWB) might act as a proxy for the open-closed field line boundary (OCFLB), which would then be an invaluable tool for investigating reconnection rates in the magnetosphere. The exact cause of the increased spectral widths observed at very high latitudes is still subject to considerable debate. Several mechanisms have been proposed. This paper compares a dusk-sector interval of coherent HF radar data with measurements made by an induction coil magnetometer located at Tromso, Norway (66° N geomagnetic). On this occasion, a series of transient regions of radar backscatter exhibiting large spectral widths are accompanied by increases in spectral power of ULF waves in the Pc1-2 frequency band. These observations would then, seem to support the possibility that high frequency magnetospheric wave activity at least contribute to the observed spectral characteristics and that such wave activity might play a significant role in the cusp and polar cap ionospheres.

  6. The quasi-two-day wave studied using the Northern Hemisphere SuperDARN HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Malinga

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Super Dual Radar Network (SuperDARN radars for 2002 were used to study the behaviour of the quasi-two-day wave (QTDW in the Northern Hemisphere auroral zone. The period of the QTDW is observed to vary in the range of ~42–56 h, with the most dominant period being ~48 h and secondary peaks at ~42- and ~52-h. The spectral power shows a seasonal variation with a peak power (max~70 in summer. The power shows variations of several days and there is also evidence of changes in wave strength with longitude. The 42-h and the 48-h components tend to be strongly correlated in summer. The onset of enhanced wave activity tends to coincide with the westward acceleration of the zonal mean flow and occurs at a time of strong southward meridional flow. The most frequent instantaneous hourly period is in the 40 to 50 h period band, in line with the simultaneous dominance of the 42-h and the 48-h components. The wave numbers are less variable and are around −2 to −4 during times of strong wave activity. For a period of ~48 h, the zonal wave number is about −3 to −4, using a negative value to indicate westward propagating waves. The 42-h and the 52-h components cover a wider band in the −4 to 1 range. The wide zonal wave number spectrum in our results may account for the observed longitudinal variation in the spectral power of the wave.

  7. Radio wave dissipation in turbulent auroral plasma during the precipitation of energetic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishin, E.V.; Luk'ianova, L.N.; Makarenko, S.F.; Atamaniuk, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the theoretical analysis of anomalous (collisionless) radio wave absorption in the turbulent auroral ionosphere during the intrusion of energetic electrons (i.e., in aurorae) are presented. The implications of the plasma turbulent layer (PTL) theory are used. It is shown that the dissipation of radio waves with frequencies much higher than the plasma frequency is caused by the nonlinear (combined) scattering in turbulent plasma of the PTL. In the auroral electrojet layer the principal dissipative process for the radio waves with frequencies close to the plasma frequency is O-Z transformation on the field-aligned, small-scale density fluctuations. The typical dissipation decrements are estimated. 26 refs

  8. Resonators for magnetohydrodynamic waves in the solar corona: The effect of modulation of radio emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitsev, V.V.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the existence of a minimum of the Alfven speed in the corona at a height of approx.1R/sub sun/ follows from the characteristics of type II radio bursts. The region of a reduced Alfven speed is a resonator for a fast magnetosonic (FMS) waves. The eigenmodes of the resonator are determined. The period of the fundamental mode has the order of several minutes. In the resonator FMS waves can be excited at the Cherenkov resonance by streams of energetic ions. Modulations of metal solar radio emission with a period of several minutes is explained by the effect of the propagation of radio waves through an oscillating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) resonator

  9. Impact of the magnetic superstorm on March 17-19, 2015 on subpolar HF radio paths: Experiment and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoveshchensky, D. V.; Maltseva, O. A.; Anishin, M. M.; Sergeeva, M. A.; Rogov, D. D.

    2016-09-01

    The ionospheric phenomena which significantly influenced radio propagation during March 17-19, 2015 are considered in the study. The data of oblique ionospheric sounding (OIS) were analyzed at six radio paths. These paths are located in the zone of North Siberia in Russia and have different lengths: from 1000 to 5000 km. The results are the following. The magnetic storm drastically changed the character of radio propagation at all the considered paths: in most cases the reflections from the ionospheric F2-layer were changed by the reflections only from the sporadic Es-layer. The parameters of movement of the disturbance front were estimated on the basis of OIS data of the paths. The average velocity of the front movements from east to west was about V = 440 m/s. Even the moderate growth of riometer absorption within the region of radio paths' locations, resulted in loss of multihop modes in the signal reflections from sporadic layers. It also resulted in a sharp decrease of signal strength at the paths. Real distance-frequency characteristics (DFC) of the paths were compared to DFC calculated on the basis of International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. It was revealed that on a quiet day of March, 15th, the real and the calculated DFC are similar or coincide in the majority of cases. During the disturbed days of March, 17-19, most commonly observed are the significant differences between the calculated and the experimental data. The most pronounced difference is revealed while estimating the character of OIS signals' reflections from Es-layers.

  10. Generation of OAM Radio Waves Using Circular Vivaldi Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a feasible and simple solution of generating OAM-carrying radio beams. Eight Vivaldi antenna elements connect sequentially and fold into a hollow cylinder. The circular Vivaldi antenna array is fed with unit amplitude but with a successive phase difference from element to element. By changing the phase difference at the steps of 0, ±45°, ±90°, ±135°, and 180°, the OAM radio beam can be generated with mode numbers 0, ±1, ±2, ±3, and 4. Simulations show that the OAM states of ±2 and ±3 are the same as the traditional states, while the OAM states of 0, ±1, and 4 differ at the boresight. This phenomenon can be explained by the radiation pattern difference between Vivaldi antenna and tripole antenna. A solution of distinguishing OAM states is also proposed. The mode number of OAM can be distinguished with only 2 receivers.

  11. Theoretical parameters of powerful radio galaxies. II. Generation of MHD turbulence by collisionless shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshev, Yu.V.; Morozov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that MHD turbulence can be generated by collisionless shock waves due to anisotropy of the pressure behind the front of the reverse sock at the hot spot of a powerful radio galaxy. The energy density of the MHD turbulence generated behind the shock front is estimated. Analysis of the theoretical studies and experimental data on collisionless shock waves in the solar wind indicates that an important part is played by streams of ions reflected by the shock fronts, the streams generating plasma and MHD turbulence in the region ahead of the front. The extension of these ideas to shock waves in powerful radio galaxies must be made with care because of the great difference between the parameters of the shock waves in the two cases

  12. Determining characteristics of HF communications links using SuperDARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hughes

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Space weather effects can strongly influence high-frequency (HF communications by changing the ionospheric environment through which the radio waves propagate. Since many systems utilize HF communications, the ability to make real-time assessments of propagation conditions is an important part of space weather monitoring systems. In this paper, we present new techniques for measuring high-latitude HF communications link parameters using data from SuperDARN radars. These techniques use ground-scatter returns to define the variation in skip distance with frequency. From these data, the maximum usable frequency (MUF as a function of range is determined and ionospheric critical frequencies are estimated. These calculations are made in near-real-time and the results are made available on the World Wide Web. F-region critical frequencies calculated using this method show good agreement with ionosonde data.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; instruments and techniques – Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  13. Determining characteristics of HF communications links using SuperDARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hughes

    Full Text Available Space weather effects can strongly influence high-frequency (HF communications by changing the ionospheric environment through which the radio waves propagate. Since many systems utilize HF communications, the ability to make real-time assessments of propagation conditions is an important part of space weather monitoring systems. In this paper, we present new techniques for measuring high-latitude HF communications link parameters using data from SuperDARN radars. These techniques use ground-scatter returns to define the variation in skip distance with frequency. From these data, the maximum usable frequency (MUF as a function of range is determined and ionospheric critical frequencies are estimated. These calculations are made in near-real-time and the results are made available on the World Wide Web. F-region critical frequencies calculated using this method show good agreement with ionosonde data.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; instruments and techniques – Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  14. Radio wave propagation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field of the solar corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznyakov, V.V.; Zlotnik, E.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    Various types of linear coupling between ordinary and extra-ordinary waves in the coronal plasma with the inhomogeneous magnetic field and the effect of this phenomenon upon the polarization characteristics of solar radio emission are considered. A qualitative analysis of the wave equation indicates that in a rarefied plasma the coupling effects can be displayed in a sufficiently weak magnetic field or at the angles between the magnetic field and the direction of wave propagation close enough to zero or π/2. The wave coupling parameter are found for these three cases. The radio wave propagation through the region with a quasi-transverse magnetic field and through the neutral current sheet is discussed more in detail. A qualitative picture of coupling in such a layer is supported by a numerical solution of the ''quasi-isotropic approximation'' equations. The role of the coupling effects in formation of polarization characteristics of different components of solar radio emission has been investigated. For cm wave range, the polarization is essentially dependent on the conditions in the region of the transverse magnetic field

  15. International activities in HF sky-wave field-strength estimation (period 1956-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bradley

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods for the determination of the strengths of radio signals reflected from the ionosphere and propagated to distant locations are required for service planning and circuit operation. Efforts are described following World War II to arrive at agreed procedures and some of the features of the various empirical prediction methods that have been formulated over the years are discussed. The problems are highlighted of determining a "best" method from among those available. Measurement data collected for this purpose are reviewed and attention is drawn to their limitations of accuracy and coverage. Even comparison of predicted and measured values is not straightforward, and the techniques that have been developed to do this are considered.

  16. Propagation of interplanetary shock waves by observations of type II solar radio bursts on IMP-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertok, I.M.; Fomichev, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    A new interpretation of the low frequency type II solar radio bursts of 30 June 1971, and 7-8 August 1972 observed with IMP-6 satellite (Malitson, H.H., Fainberg, J. and Stone, R.G., 1973, Astrophys. Lett., vol. 14, 111; Astrophys. J., vol. 183, L35) is suggested. The analysis is carried out for two models of the electron density distribution in the interplanetary medium taking into account that N approximately 3.5 cm -3 at a distance of 1 a.u. It is assumed that the frequency of the radio emission corresponds to the average electron density behind the shock front which exceeds the undisturbed electron density by the factor of 3. The radio data indicate essential deceleration of the shock waves during propagation from the Sun up to 1 a.u. The characteristics of the shock waves obtained from the type II bursts agree with the results of the in situ observations. (author)

  17. Internal gravity waves in Titan's atmosphere observed by Voyager radio occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    The radio scintillations caused by scattering from small-scale irregularities in Titan's neutral atmosphere during a radio occultation of Voyager 1 by Titan are investigated. Intensity and frequency fluctuations occurred on time scales from about 0.1 to 1.0 sec at 3.6 and 13 cm wavelengths whenever the radio path passed within 90 km of the surface, indicating the presence of variations in refractivity on length scales from a few hundred meters to a few kilometers. Above 25 km, the altitude profile of intensity scintillations closely agrees with the predictions of a simple theory based on the characteristics of internal gravity waves propagating with little or no attenuation through the vertical stratification in Titan's atmosphere. These observations support a hypothesis of stratospheric gravity waves, possibly driven by a cloud-free convective region in the lowest few kilometers of the stratosphere.

  18. On the radio source scintillations caused by plasma inhomogeneities behind a shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenov, S.F.

    1984-01-01

    The turbulence in the interplanetary and interstellar medium is shown to become anisotropic and statistically inhomogeneous after a shock wave passing. Scintillation intensity spectra of radio sources are estimated. The possibilities to derive the inhomogeneity spectra and source brightness distribution from scintillation changes are discussed

  19. A Simple Demonstration for Exploring the Radio Waves Generated by a Mobile Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Described is a simple low cost home-made device that converts the radio wave energy from a mobile phone signal into electricity for lighting an LED. No battery or complex circuitry is required. The device can form the basis of a range of interesting experiments on the physics and technology of mobile phones. (Contains 5 figures.)

  20. Influence of standing-wave electric field pattern on the laser damage resistance of HfO sub 2 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Protopapa, M L; De Tomasi, F; Di Giulio, M; Perrone, M R; Scaglione, S

    2002-01-01

    The standing-wave electric field pattern that forms inside an optical coating as a consequence of laser irradiation is one of the factors influencing the coating laser-induced damage threshold. The influence of the standing-wave electric field profile on the damage resistance to ultraviolet radiation of hafnium dioxide (HfO sub 2) thin films was investigated in this work. To this end, HfO sub 2 thin films of different thicknesses deposited by the electron beam evaporation technique at the same deposition conditions were analyzed. Laser damage thresholds of the samples were measured at 308 nm (XeCl laser) by the photoacoustic beam deflection technique and microscopic inspections. The dependence of the laser damage threshold on the standing-wave electric field pattern was analyzed.

  1. VLF radio wave anomalies associated with the 2010 Ms 7.1 Yushu earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xuhui; Zhima, Zeren; Zhao, Shufan; Qian, Geng; Ye, Qing; Ruzhin, Yuri

    2017-05-01

    The VLF radio signals recorded both from the ground based VLF radio wave monitoring network and the DEMETER satellite are investigated during the 2010 Ms 7.1 Yushu earthquake. The ground-based observations show that the disturbance intensity of VLF wave's amplitude relative to the background gets an enhancement over 22% at 11.9 kHz, 27% at 12.6 kHz and 62% at 14.9 kHz VLF radio wave along the path from Novosibirsk - TH one day before the main shock, as compared to the maximum 20% observed during non-earthquake time. The space based observations indicate that there is a decrease of the signal to noise ratio (SNR) for the power spectral density data of 14.9 kHz VLF radio signal at electric field four days before the main shock, with disturbance intensity exceeding the background by over 5% as compared to the maximum 3% observed during non-earthquake time. The geoelectric field observations in the epicenter region also show that a sharp enhancement from ∼340 to 430 mV/km simultaneously appeared at two monitors 14 days before main shock. The comparative analysis from the ground and space based observations during the earthquake and non-earthquake time provides us convincible evidence that there exits seismic anomalies from the VLF radio wave propagation before the 2010 Ms 7.1 Yushu earthquake. The possible mechanism for VLF radio signal propagation anomaly during 2010 Yushu earthquake maybe related to the change of the geoelectric field nearby the earthquake zone.

  2. Radio Spectral Imaging of Reflective MHD Waves during the Impulsive Phase of a Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S.; Chen, B.; Reeves, K.

    2017-12-01

    We report a new type of coherent radio bursts observed by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in 1-2 GHz during the impulsive phase of a two-ribbon flare on 2014 November 1, which we interpret as MHD waves reflected near the footpoint of flaring loops. In the dynamic spectrum, this burst starts with a positive frequency drift toward higher frequencies until it slows down near its highest-frequency boundary. Then it turns over and drifts toward lower frequencies. The frequency drift rate in its descending and ascending branch is between 50-150 MHz/s, which is much slower than type III radio bursts associated with fast electron beams but close to the well-known intermediate drift bursts, or fiber bursts, which are usually attributed to propagating whistler or Alfvenic waves. Thanks to VLA's unique capability of imaging with spectrometer-like temporal and spectral resolution (50 ms and 2 MHz), we are able to obtain an image of the radio source at every time and frequency in the dynamic spectrum where the burst is present and trace its spatial evolution. From the imaging results, we find that the radio source firstly moves downward toward one of the flaring ribbons before it "bounces off" at the lowest height (corresponding to the turnover frequency in the dynamic spectrum) and moves upward again. The measured speed in projection is at the order of 1-2 Mm/s, which is characteristic of Alfvenic or fast-mode MHD waves in the low corona. We conclude that the radio burst is emitted by trapped nonthermal electrons in the flaring loop carried along by a large-scale MHD wave. The waves are probably launched during the eruption of a magnetic flux rope in the flare impulsive phase.

  3. Reflected ray retrieval from radio occultation data using radio holographic filtering of wave fields in ray space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Gorbunov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear and non-linear representations of wave fields constitute the basis of modern algorithms for analysis of radio occultation (RO data. Linear representations are implemented by Fourier Integral Operators, which allow for high-resolution retrieval of bending angles. Non-linear representations include Wigner Distribution Function (WDF, which equals the pseudo-density of energy in the ray space. Representations allow for filtering wave fields by suppressing some areas of the ray space and mapping the field back from the transformed space to the initial one. We apply this technique to the retrieval of reflected rays from RO observations. The use of reflected rays may increase the accuracy of the retrieval of the atmospheric refractivity. Reflected rays can be identified by the visual inspection of WDF or spectrogram plots. Numerous examples from COSMIC data indicate that reflections are mostly observed over oceans or snow, in particular over Antarctica. We introduce the reflection index that characterizes the relative intensity of the reflected ray with respect to the direct ray. The index allows for the automatic identification of events with reflections. We use the radio holographic estimate of the errors of the retrieved bending angle profiles of reflected rays. A comparison of indices evaluated for a large base of events including the visual identification of reflections indicated a good agreement with our definition of reflection index.

  4. Reflected ray retrieval from radio occultation data using radio holographic filtering of wave fields in ray space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, Michael E.; Cardellach, Estel; Lauritsen, Kent B.

    2018-03-01

    Linear and non-linear representations of wave fields constitute the basis of modern algorithms for analysis of radio occultation (RO) data. Linear representations are implemented by Fourier Integral Operators, which allow for high-resolution retrieval of bending angles. Non-linear representations include Wigner Distribution Function (WDF), which equals the pseudo-density of energy in the ray space. Representations allow for filtering wave fields by suppressing some areas of the ray space and mapping the field back from the transformed space to the initial one. We apply this technique to the retrieval of reflected rays from RO observations. The use of reflected rays may increase the accuracy of the retrieval of the atmospheric refractivity. Reflected rays can be identified by the visual inspection of WDF or spectrogram plots. Numerous examples from COSMIC data indicate that reflections are mostly observed over oceans or snow, in particular over Antarctica. We introduce the reflection index that characterizes the relative intensity of the reflected ray with respect to the direct ray. The index allows for the automatic identification of events with reflections. We use the radio holographic estimate of the errors of the retrieved bending angle profiles of reflected rays. A comparison of indices evaluated for a large base of events including the visual identification of reflections indicated a good agreement with our definition of reflection index.

  5. NONLINEAR WAVE INTERACTIONS AS EMISSION PROCESS OF TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganse, Urs; Kilian, Patrick; Spanier, Felix [Lehrstuhl fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Vainio, Rami, E-mail: uganse@astro.uni-wuerzburg.de [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-06-01

    The emission of fundamental and harmonic frequency radio waves of type II radio bursts are assumed to be products of three-wave interaction processes of beam-excited Langmuir waves. Using a particle-in-cell code, we have performed simulations of the assumed emission region, a coronal mass ejection foreshock with two counterstreaming electron beams. Analysis of wavemodes within the simulation shows self-consistent excitation of beam-driven modes, which yield interaction products at both fundamental and harmonic emission frequencies. Through variation of the beam strength, we have investigated the dependence of energy transfer into electrostatic and electromagnetic modes, confirming the quadratic dependence of electromagnetic emission on electron beam strength.

  6. NONLINEAR WAVE INTERACTIONS AS EMISSION PROCESS OF TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganse, Urs; Kilian, Patrick; Spanier, Felix; Vainio, Rami

    2012-01-01

    The emission of fundamental and harmonic frequency radio waves of type II radio bursts are assumed to be products of three-wave interaction processes of beam-excited Langmuir waves. Using a particle-in-cell code, we have performed simulations of the assumed emission region, a coronal mass ejection foreshock with two counterstreaming electron beams. Analysis of wavemodes within the simulation shows self-consistent excitation of beam-driven modes, which yield interaction products at both fundamental and harmonic emission frequencies. Through variation of the beam strength, we have investigated the dependence of energy transfer into electrostatic and electromagnetic modes, confirming the quadratic dependence of electromagnetic emission on electron beam strength.

  7. An Improved Split-Step Wavelet Transform Method for Anomalous Radio Wave Propagation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Iqbal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous tropospheric propagation caused by ducting phenomenon is a major problem in wireless communication. Thus, it is important to study the behavior of radio wave propagation in tropospheric ducts. The Parabolic Wave Equation (PWE method is considered most reliable to model anomalous radio wave propagation. In this work, an improved Split Step Wavelet transform Method (SSWM is presented to solve PWE for the modeling of tropospheric propagation over finite and infinite conductive surfaces. A large number of numerical experiments are carried out to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Developed algorithm is compared with previously published techniques; Wavelet Galerkin Method (WGM and Split-Step Fourier transform Method (SSFM. A very good agreement is found between SSWM and published techniques. It is also observed that the proposed algorithm is about 18 times faster than WGM and provide more details of propagation effects as compared to SSFM.

  8. Nonlinear nonresonant forces by radio-frequency waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhe; Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Qin, Hong; Myra, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Nonresonant forces by applied rf waves in plasmas are analyzed. Along the background dc magnetic field, the force arises from the gradient of the ponderomotive potential. Only when the dc magnetic field is straight, however, is this parallel force completely consistent with that from the single particle picture, where the ponderomotive force depends on the gradients of rf fields only. Across the dc magnetic field, besides the ponderomotive force from the particle picture, additional Reynolds stress and polarization stress contribute to the total force. For waves with frequency much lower than the cyclotron frequency, the perpendicular forces from the particle and fluid pictures can have opposite signs. In plasmas with a symmetry angle (e.g., toroidal systems), nonresonant forces cannot drive net flow or current in the flux surface, but the radial force may influence macroscopic behavior of plasma. Moreover, nonresonant forces may drive flow or current in linear plasmas or in a localized region of toroidal plasmas

  9. Radio frequency wave experiments on the MST reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, C.B.; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Nornberg, M.D.; Prager, S.C.; Thomas, M.A.; Harvey, R.W.; Ram, A.K.

    1999-04-01

    Experiments, simulations, and theory all indicate that the magnetic fluctuations responsible for the poor confinement in the reversed field pinch (RFP) can be controlled by altering the radial profile of the current density. The magnetic fluctuations in the RFP are due to resistive MHD instabilities caused by current profile peaking; thus confinement in the RFP is ultimately the result of a misalignment between inductively driven current profiles and the stable current profiles characteristic of the Taylor state. If a technique such as rf current drive can be developed to non-inductively sustain a Taylor state (a current profile linearly stable to all tearing modes), the confinement of the RFP and its potential as a reactor concept are likely to increase. Whether there is a self-consistent path from poor confinement to greatly improved confinement through current profile modification is an issue for future experiments to address if and only if near term experiments can demonstrate: (1) coupling to and the propagation of rf waves in RFP plasmas, (2) efficient current drive, and (3) control of the power deposition which will make it possible to control the current profile. In this paper, modeling results and experimental plans are presented for two rf experiments which have the potential of satisfying these three goals: high-n parallel lower hybrid (LH) waves and electron Bernstein waves (EBWs)

  10. Aging of the HF-H2SO4 electrolyte used for the electropolishing of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities: Origins and cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eozénou, F.; Berry, S.; Antoine, C.; Gasser, Y.; Charrier, J.-P.; Malki, B.

    2010-08-01

    Electropolishing (EP) in the HF-H2SO4 electrolyte is the most desirable surface treatment for niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities yet demonstrated, in terms of performance and surface finish. However, the efficiency of the electrolyte declines quickly with time (decrease in removal rate, deterioration of the niobium surface, increased sulfur generation). Previous studies at CEA Saclay have highlighted the impact of the water content in EP mixtures rather than the content of dissolved niobium. Knowledge of the electrochemical system was improved thanks to studies using a rotating disk electrode (RDE). Measurements with a RDE give precious information concerning mass transport of the different ionic groups present in the solution. The performed measurements prove that EP is controlled by the diffusion of fluorine ions and the value of the related diffusion coefficient DF- was estimated for different mixtures. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were also performed with different EP mixtures. Both volt ampere metric and EIS measurements prove the central role of fluorine during EP and show that EP mechanisms evolve with the aging of the bath. Another major problem related to electrolytes is the formation of impurities such as sulfur. We have proved that working at a reduced voltage of 5 V does not alter cavity performance and makes it possible to reduce the undesirable particulate contamination in electrolytes and to increase their lifetime.

  11. Aging of the HF-H_{2}SO_{4} electrolyte used for the electropolishing of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities: Origins and cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Eozénou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Electropolishing (EP in the HF-H_{2}SO_{4} electrolyte is the most desirable surface treatment for niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities yet demonstrated, in terms of performance and surface finish. However, the efficiency of the electrolyte declines quickly with time (decrease in removal rate, deterioration of the niobium surface, increased sulfur generation. Previous studies at CEA Saclay have highlighted the impact of the water content in EP mixtures rather than the content of dissolved niobium. Knowledge of the electrochemical system was improved thanks to studies using a rotating disk electrode (RDE. Measurements with a RDE give precious information concerning mass transport of the different ionic groups present in the solution. The performed measurements prove that EP is controlled by the diffusion of fluorine ions and the value of the related diffusion coefficient D_{F-} was estimated for different mixtures. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements were also performed with different EP mixtures. Both volt ampere metric and EIS measurements prove the central role of fluorine during EP and show that EP mechanisms evolve with the aging of the bath. Another major problem related to electrolytes is the formation of impurities such as sulfur. We have proved that working at a reduced voltage of 5 V does not alter cavity performance and makes it possible to reduce the undesirable particulate contamination in electrolytes and to increase their lifetime.

  12. Statistical Analysis of Langmuir Waves Associated with Type III Radio Bursts: I. Wind Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidojević S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Interplanetary electron beams are unstable in the solar wind and they generate Langmuir waves at the local plasma frequency or its harmonic. Radio observations of the waves in the range 4-256 kHz, observed in 1994-2010 with the WAVES experiment onboard the WIND spacecraft, are statistically analyzed. A subset of 36 events with Langmuir waves and type III bursts occurring at the same time was selected. After removal of the background, the remaining power spectral density is modeled by the Pearson system of probability distributions (types I, IV and VI. The Stochastic Growth Theory (SGT predicts log-normal distribution for the power spectrum density of the Langmuir waves. Our results indicate that SGT possibly requires further verification.

  13. Three-dimensional Langmuir wave instabilities in type III solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardwell, S.; Goldman, M.V.

    1976-01-01

    Assuming that type III solar radio bursts are associated with electron streams moving at about c/3, Langmuir waves should be strongly excited. We have studied all of the Langmuir-wave linear parametric instabilities excited in cylindrical symmetry by an electron-stream--driven Langmuir wave-pump propagating along the stream axis. Included in this unified homogeneous treatment are induced backscattering off ions, the oscillating two-stream instability, and a new ''stimulated modulational instability,'' previously unconsidered in this context. Near a few solar radii, the latter two deposit Langmuir wave energy into a forward-scattering cone about the stream axis. It is concluded that the linear stage of the forward-scattering instabilities involves transfer of energy to Langmuir waves which remain in resonance with the stream, and therefore probably do not prevent rapid depletion of the electron stream due to quasilinear plateau formation at these distances from the Sun

  14. Nonlinear interaction of an intense radio wave with ionospheric D/E layer plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodha, Mahendra Singh; Agarwal, Sujeet Kumar

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers the nonlinear interaction of an intense electromagnetic wave with the D/E layer plasma in the ionosphere. A simultaneous solution of the electromagnetic wave equation and the equations describing the kinetics of D/E layer plasma is obtained; the phenomenon of ohmic heating of electrons by the electric field of the wave causes enhanced collision frequency and ionization of neutral species. Electron temperature dependent recombination of electrons with ions, electron attachment to O 2 molecules, and detachment of electrons from O2 - ions has also been taken into account. The dependence of the plasma parameters on the square of the electric vector of the wave E0 2 has been evaluated for three ionospheric heights (viz., 90, 100, and 110 km) corresponding to the mid-latitude mid-day ionosphere and discussed; these results are used to investigate the horizontal propagation of an intense radio wave at these heights.

  15. Feasibility study of data transmission via HF link from a small UAV platform

    OpenAIRE

    Enander, Filip

    2017-01-01

    The High Frequency (HF) band, 3-30 MHz, is used when no infrastructure for long-range communications is available. New technology, such as digital signal processing enables higher data rate in the HF band, which in 2000s has resulted in increased commercial use. Reflection of radio waves in the ionosphere allows for beyond horizon communication, and are a unique property of the HF band. However, properties of the ionosphere are highly dependent of radiation from the sun, which varies with geo...

  16. Stratospheric gravity wave activities inferred through the GPS radio occultation technique; Ondas de gravidade na estratosfera terrestre inferida atraves da tecnica de radio ocultacao de GPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrasse, Cristiano Max [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (IPeD), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Takahashi, Hisao; Fechine, Joaquim; Denardini, Clezio Marcos [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Wickert, Jens, E-mail: cmw@univap.br, E-mail: hisaotak@laser.inpe.br, E-mail: joaquim@laser.inpe.br, E-mail: denardin@dae.inpe.br, E-mail: jens.wickert@gfz-potsdam.de [GeoForschungsZentrum, Potsdam (GFZ), Department of Geodesy and Remote Sensing (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Stratospheric gravity wave activities were deduced from GPS radio occultation temperature profiles obtained by CHAMP satellite between 2001 and 2005. Potential energy profiles are used to analyze the gravity wave activity over South America. The results showed an inter-annual variation of the potential energy integrated between 24 and 34 km of altitude. The gravity wave activity is more concentrated around the equatorial region. In order to evaluate the seasonal variation of the gravity wave activity, a mean potential energy was determined over (10 deg N-10 deg S) and (100 deg W-20 deg W). The results showed a lower gravity wave activity during winter time, while during spring time the mean potential energy showed an increase in the wave activity. The results of the mean potential energy also showed that the gravity wave activity in the lower stratosphere exhibits a higher wave activity during 2002 and 2004 and a lower wave activity during 2003 and 2005. (author)

  17. Parametric excitation of electron Bernstein waves by radio waves in the ionosphere and its possible consequence for airglow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashok; Tripathi, V K [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2007-06-07

    A high power radio wave, launched into the polar ionosphere at angle {theta} with the earth's magnetic field from a ground-based transmitter in the vicinity of twice the electron cyclotron frequency (2.75 MHz), is reported to create an airglow at an effective radiated power (ERP) = 10 MW. We interpret this result as a consequence of parametric decay of the radio wave into an electron Bernstein wave (EBW) and an ion acoustic wave (IAW). The oscillatory velocity of electrons due to the pump couples with the density perturbation due to the IAW to produce a current, driving the Bernstein mode. The latter, in connection with the pump, exerts a ponderomotive force on electrons, driving the IAW. The growth rate of the parametric instability is maximum for {theta} = 0. At the same time, for any given value of {theta}, the growth rate increases with b(=k{sub 1}{sup 2}v{sub th}{sup 2}/2{omega}{sub c}{sup 2}) and attains a maximum around b {approx} 2, then falls gradually. The EBW produces energetic electrons via cyclotron damping. These electrons collide with the neutral atoms of the plasma to excite them to higher energy states. As the excited atoms return to lower energy states, they radiate in the visible.

  18. Parametric excitation of electron Bernstein waves by radio waves in the ionosphere and its possible consequence for airglow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ashok; Tripathi, V K

    2007-01-01

    A high power radio wave, launched into the polar ionosphere at angle θ with the earth's magnetic field from a ground-based transmitter in the vicinity of twice the electron cyclotron frequency (2.75 MHz), is reported to create an airglow at an effective radiated power (ERP) = 10 MW. We interpret this result as a consequence of parametric decay of the radio wave into an electron Bernstein wave (EBW) and an ion acoustic wave (IAW). The oscillatory velocity of electrons due to the pump couples with the density perturbation due to the IAW to produce a current, driving the Bernstein mode. The latter, in connection with the pump, exerts a ponderomotive force on electrons, driving the IAW. The growth rate of the parametric instability is maximum for θ = 0. At the same time, for any given value of θ, the growth rate increases with b(=k 1 2 v th 2 /2ω c 2 ) and attains a maximum around b ∼ 2, then falls gradually. The EBW produces energetic electrons via cyclotron damping. These electrons collide with the neutral atoms of the plasma to excite them to higher energy states. As the excited atoms return to lower energy states, they radiate in the visible

  19. Wave Optics Based LEO-LEO Radio Occultation Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Høeg, Per

    2016-01-01

    of the atmospheric products such as the correct water vapor content in the atmosphere. These limitations can be overcome when a proper selected range of high frequency waves are used to probe the atmosphere. Probing frequencies close to the absorption line of water vapor have been included, thus allowing...... the retrieval of the water vapor content. Selecting the correct probing frequencies would make it possible to retrieve other information such as the content of ozone. The retrieval is performed through a number of processing steps which are based on the Full Spectrum Inversion (FSI) technique. The retrieval...... optics based retrieval chain is used on a number of examples and the retrieved atmospheric parameters are compared to the parameters from a global ECMWF analysis model. This model is used in a forward propagator that simulates the electromagnetic field amplitudes and phases at the receiver on board...

  20. Propagation-invariant waves in acoustic, optical, and radio-wave fields

    OpenAIRE

    Salo, Janne

    2003-01-01

    The physical phenomena considered in this thesis are associated with electromagnetic and acoustic waves that propagate in free space or in homogeneous media without diffraction. The concept of rotationally periodic wave propagation is introduced in the first journal article included in the thesis and it is subsequently used to analyse waves that avoid diffractive deterioration by repeatedly returning to their initial shape, possibly rotated around the optical axis. Such waves constitute an es...

  1. GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE CONSTRAINTS ON THE PROGENITORS OF FAST RADIO BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callister, Thomas; Kanner, Jonah; Weinstein, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The nature of fast radio bursts (FRBs) remains enigmatic. Highly energetic radio pulses of millisecond duration, FRBs are observed with dispersion measures consistent with an extragalactic source. A variety of models have been proposed to explain their origin. One popular class of theorized FRB progenitor is the coalescence of compact binaries composed of neutron stars and/or black holes. Such coalescence events are strong gravitational-wave emitters. We demonstrate that measurements made by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave observatories can be leveraged to severely constrain the validity of FRB binary coalescence models. Existing measurements constrain the binary black hole rate to approximately 5% of the FRB rate, and results from Advanced LIGO’s O1 and O2 observing runs may place similarly strong constraints on the fraction of FRBs due to binary neutron star and neutron star–black hole progenitors.

  2. Detectable radio flares following gravitational waves from mergers of binary neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi

    2011-09-28

    Mergers of neutron-star/neutron-star binaries are strong sources of gravitational waves. They can also launch subrelativistic and mildly relativistic outflows and are often assumed to be the sources of short γ-ray bursts. An electromagnetic signature that persisted for weeks to months after the event would strengthen any future claim of a detection of gravitational waves. Here we present results of calculations showing that the interaction of mildly relativistic outflows with the surrounding medium produces radio flares with peak emission at 1.4 gigahertz that persist at detectable (submillijansky) levels for weeks, out to a redshift of 0.1. Slower subrelativistic outflows produce flares detectable for years at 150 megahertz, as well as at 1.4 gigahertz, from slightly shorter distances. The radio transient RT 19870422 (ref. 11) has the properties predicted by our model, and its most probable origin is the merger of a compact neutron-star/neutron-star binary. The lack of radio detections usually associated with short γ-ray bursts does not constrain the radio transients that we discuss here (from mildly relativistic and subrelativistic outflows) because short γ-ray burst redshifts are typically >0.1 and the appropriate timescales (longer than weeks) have not been sampled.

  3. Evidence for four- and three-wave interactions in solar type III radio emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thejappa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The high time resolution observations obtained by the STEREO/WAVES experiment show that in the source regions of solar type III radio bursts, Langmuir waves often occur as intense localized wave packets with short durations of only few ms. One of these wave packets shows that it is a three-dimensional field structure with WLneTe ~ 10−3, where WL is the peak energy density, and ne and Te are the electron density and temperature, respectively. For this wave packet, the conditions of the oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI and supersonic collapse are satisfied within the error range of determination of main parameters. The density cavity, observed during this wave packet indicates that its depth, width and temporal coincidence are consistent with those of a caviton, generated by the ponderomotive force of the collapsing wave packet. The spectrum of each of the parallel and perpendicular components of the wave packet contains a primary peak at fpe, two secondary peaks at fpe ± fS and a low-frequency enhancement below fS, which, as indicated by the frequency and wave number resonance conditions, and the fast Fourier transform (FFT-based tricoherence spectral peak at (fpe, fpe, fpe + fS, fpe − fS, are coupled to each other by the OTSI type of four-wave interaction (fpe is the local electron plasma frequency and fS is the frequency of ion sound waves. In addition to the primary peak at fpe, each of these spectra also contains a peak at 2fpe, which as indicated by the frequency and wave number resonance conditions, and the wavelet-based bicoherence spectral peak at (fpe, fpe, appears to correspond to the second harmonic electromagnetic waves generated as a result of coalescence of oppositely propagating sidebands excited by the OTSI. Thus, these observations for the first time provide combined evidence that (1 the OTSI and related strong turbulence processes play a significant role in the stabilization of the electron beam, (2 the coalescence

  4. HF Interference, Procedures and Tools (Interferences HF, procedures et outils)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    the actual ambient noise floor situation. Besides these HF radio links, special units such as crisis reaction forces are using low power radios for...the origin point on the ground. For ease of arithmetic and typography , the latter option is preferable. The dipole-modelled PLT is located at x = H1

  5. High performance superconducting radio frequency ingot niobium technology for continuous wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Myneni, Ganapati R.

    2015-01-01

    Future continuous wave (CW) accelerators require the superconducting radio frequency cavities with high quality factor and medium accelerating gradients (≤20 MV/m). Ingot niobium cavities with medium purity fulfill the specifications of both accelerating gradient and high quality factor with simple processing techniques and potential reduction in cost. This contribution reviews the current superconducting radiofrequency research and development and outlines the potential benefits of using ingot niobium technology for CW applications

  6. Comparative study of acute lateral skin damage during radio wave and laser exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubensky V.V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to study the depth and nature of the zones of thermal damage to the skin under radio wave and laser skin dissection during experiment. Material and Methods. The model of acute thermal damage was full-liner skin wounds of 20 nonlinear rats that were divided into 2 groups and operated by different methods. In the 1st group, the incisions were made by the apparatus of radio wave surgery (Surgitron DF S5, in the 2nd group the animals were operated with a laser surgical apparatus. The magnitude and structure of the lateral thermal damage was evaluated when analyzing the biopsy material. Results. During the study of experimental wounds, the extent of carbonation in the first group (operated with Surgitron DF S5 was 11.56±3.056 urn, coagulation necrosis 116.5±26.78 urn, and the hyper-thermiazone 148.42±60.171 urn. In the group of animals operated with a laser apparatus, the carbonization zone was 22.58±6.62 urn, the coagulation necrosis zone was 331.1±79.08 urn, and the hyperthermia extent was 376.2±53.27 urn. Conclusion. A comparative study of lateral skin damage in radio wave and laser skin dissection revealed a deeper thermal change in the skin and an increase in the extent of thermally altered structures under laser action: the carbonization zone was larger than for radio waves by 11.02 urn, coagulation necrosis by 214.6 urn, and the hyperthermia zone by 227.78 urn.

  7. Radio-wave detection of ultra-high-energy neutrinos and cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huege, Tim; Besson, Dave

    2017-12-01

    Radio waves, perhaps because our terrestrial atmosphere and the cosmos beyond are uniquely transparent to them, or perhaps because they are macroscopic, so the basic instruments of detection (antennas) are easily constructible, arguably occupy a privileged position within the electromagnetic spectrum, and, correspondingly, receive disproportionate attention experimentally. Detection of radio-frequency radiation, at macroscopic wavelengths, has blossomed within the last decade as a competitive method for the measurement of cosmic particles, particularly charged cosmic rays and neutrinos. Cosmic-ray detection via radio emission from extensive air showers has been demonstrated to be a reliable technique that has reached a reconstruction quality of the cosmic-ray parameters competitive with more traditional approaches. Radio detection of neutrinos in dense media seems to be the most promising technique to achieve the gigantic detection volumes required to measure neutrinos at energies beyond the PeV-scale flux established by IceCube. In this article, we review radio detection both of cosmic rays in the atmosphere, as well as neutrinos in dense media.

  8. Fokker-Planck description of the scattering of radio frequency waves at the plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hizanidis, Kyriakos; Kominis, Yannis; Tsironis, Christos; Ram, Abhay K.

    2010-01-01

    In magnetic fusion devices, radio frequency (rf) waves in the electron cyclotron (EC) and lower hybrid (LH) range of frequencies are being commonly used to modify the plasma current profile. In ITER, EC waves are expected to stabilize the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) by providing current in the island region [R. Aymar et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1301 (2001)]. The appearance of NTMs severely limits the plasma pressure and leads to the degradation of plasma confinement. LH waves could be used in ITER to modify the current profile closer to the edge of the plasma. These rf waves propagate from the excitation structures to the core of the plasma through an edge region, which is characterized by turbulence--in particular, density fluctuations. These fluctuations, in the form of blobs, can modify the propagation properties of the waves by refraction. In this paper, the effect on rf due to randomly distributed blobs in the edge region is studied. The waves are represented as geometric optics rays and the refractive scattering from a distribution of blobs is formulated as a Fokker-Planck equation. The scattering can have two diffusive effects--one in real space and the other in wave vector space. The scattering can modify the trajectory of rays into the plasma and it can affect the wave vector spectrum. The refraction of EC waves, for example, could make them miss the intended target region where the NTMs occur. The broadening of the wave vector spectrum could broaden the wave generated current profile. The Fokker-Planck formalism for diffusion in real space and wave vector space is used to study the effect of density blobs on EC and LH waves in an ITER type of plasma environment. For EC waves the refractive effects become important since the distance of propagation from the edge to the core in ITER is of the order of a meter. The diffusion in wave vector space is small. For LH waves the refractive effects are insignificant but the diffusion in wave vector space is

  9. Millimeter wave technology IV and radio frequency power sources; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, May 21, 22, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltse, J.C.; Coleman, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    The present conference on mm-wave technology and radio-frequency power sources discusses topics in the fields of vacuum devices, mm-wave antennas and transmission lines, mm-wave systems and subsystems, and mm-wave techniques and components. Attention is given to recent experiments with planar orotrons, a high peak power X-band gyroklystron for linear supercolliders, cathode-driven crossed-field amplifiers, multi-MW quasi-optical gyrotrons, the radiation coupling of interinjection-locked oscillators, air-to-air mm-wave communications, mm-wave active and passive sensors for terrain mapping, and mm-wave components for electronically controllable antennas

  10. Influence of radio frequency waves on the interchange stability in HANBIT mirror plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogun Jhang; Kim, S.S.; Lee, S.G.; Park, B.H.; Bak, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies are made of the influence of high frequency radio frequency (rf) waves upon interchange stability in HANBIT mirror plasmas. An emphasis is put on the interchange stability near the resonance region, ω 0 ∼Ω i , where ω 0 is the angular frequency of the applied rf wave and Ω i is the ion cyclotron frequency. Recent HANBIT experiments have shown the existence of the interchange-stable operation window in favor of ω 0 /Ω i ≤1 with its sensitivity on the applied rf power. A strong nonlinear interaction between the rf wave and the interchange mode has been observed with the generation of sideband waves. A theoretical analysis including both the ponderomotive force and the nonlinear sideband wave coupling has been developed and applied to the interpretation of the experiments, resulting in a good agreement. From the study, it is concluded that the nonlinear wave-wave coupling process is responsible for the rf stabilization of the interchange modes in HANBIT mirror plasmas operating near the resonance condition. (author)

  11. Search for Transient Gravitational Waves in Coincidence with Short-Duration Radio Transients During 2007-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Hughey, Brennan; Zanolin, Michele; Szczepanczyk, Marek; Gill, Kiranjyot; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present an archival search for transient gravitational-wave bursts in coincidence with 27 single-pulse triggers from Green Bank Telescope pulsar surveys, using the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory), Virgo (Variability of Solar Irradiance and Gravity Oscillations) and GEO (German-UK Interferometric Detector) interferometer network. We also discuss a check for gravitational-wave signals in coincidence with Parkes fast radio bursts using similar methods. Data analyzed in these searches were collected between 2007 and 2013. Possible sources of emission of both short-duration radio signals and transient gravitational-wave emission include star quakes on neutron stars, binary coalescence of neutron stars, and cosmic string cusps. While no evidence for gravitational-wave emission in coincidence with these radio transients was found, the current analysis serves as a prototype for similar future searches using more sensitive second-generation interferometers.

  12. Ion Acoustic Wave Frequencies and Onset Times During Type 3 Solar Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Conflicting interpretations exist for the low-frequency ion acoustic (S) waves often observed by ISEE 3 in association with intense Langmuir (L) waves in the source regions of type III solar radio bursts near 1 AU. Two indirect lines of observational evidence, as well as plasma theory, suggest they are produced by the electrostatic (ES) decay L yields L(PRIME) + S. However, contrary to theoretical predictions, an existing analysis of the wave frequencies instead favors the electromagnetic (EM) decays L yields T + S, where T denotes an EM wave near the plasma frequency. This conflict is addressed here by comparing the observed wave frequencies and onset times with theoretical predictions for the ES and EM decays, calculated using the time-variable electron beam and magnetic field orientation data, rather than the nominal values used previously. Field orientation effects and beam speed variations are shown analytically to produce factor-of-three effects, greater than the difference in wave frequencies predicted for the ES and EM decays; effects of similar magnitude occur in the events analyzed here. The S-wave signals are extracted by hand from a sawtooth noise background, greatly improving the association between S waves and intense L waves. Very good agreement exists between the time-varying predictions for the ES decay and the frequencies of most (but not all) wave bursts. The waves occur only after the ES decay becomes kinematically allowed, which is consistent with the ES decay proceeding and producing most of the observed signals. Good agreement exists between the EM decay's predictions and a significant fraction of the S-wave observations while the EM decay is kinematically allowed. The wave data are not consistent, however, with the EM decay being the dominant nonlinear process. Often the observed waves are sufficiently broadband to overlap simultaneously the frequency ranges predicted for the ES and EM decays. Coupling the dominance of the ES decay with this

  13. Architectural Considerations of Fiber-Radio Millimeter-Wave Wireless Access Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Ken-Ichi

    The architecture of fiber-radio mm-wave wireless access systems critically depends upon the optical mm-wave generation and transport techniques. Four optical mm-wave generation and transport techniques: 1) optical self-heterodyning, 2) external modulation, 3) up- and downconversion, and 4) optical transceiver, will be assessed. From the technical viewpoints, their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The economical assessment, focusing on the cost of a base station BS ( ), will suggest that the optical transceiver looks the most promising in the long run, but in the near future, however, the external modulation will be cost-effective. The experimental results of 60 GHz testbeds using the external modulation will support the conclusion.

  14. Involuntary human hand movements due to FM radio waves in a moving van.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, P; Savinainen, A; Hänninen, Osmo; Myllylä, R

    2011-06-01

    Finland TRACT Involuntary movements of hands in a moving van on a public road were studied to clarify the possible role of frequency modulated radio waves on driving. The signals were measured in a direct 2 km test segment of an international road during repeated drives to both directions. Test subjects (n=4) had an ability to sense radio frequency field intensity variations of the environment. They were sitting in a minivan with arm movement detectors in their hands. A potentiometer was used to register the hand movements to a computer which simultaneously collected data on the amplitude of the RF signal of the local FM tower 30 km distance at a frequency of about 100 MHz. Involuntary hand movements of the test subjects correlated with electromagnetic field, i.e. FM radio wave intensity measured. They reacted also on the place of a geomagnetic anomaly crossing the road, which was found on the basis of these recordings and confirmed by the public geological maps of the area.In conclusion, RF irradiation seems to affect the human hand reflexes of sensitive persons in a moving van along a normal public road which may have significance in traffic safety.

  15. Wave disturbances in the solar corona: radio observations at 24.5-25.5 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobrin, M.M.; Snegriev, S.D.

    1984-01-01

    We present an analysis of observations of fluctuations in the integrated flux of radio emission from the ''quiet'' sun. The observations were made on the UTR-2 radiotelescope, simultaneously at 11 frequencies in the range 24.5-25.5 MHz. Control observations of Taurus were made in order to allow for the effects of the earth's ionosphere. We measured the phase dependences between oscillations in the radio emission intensity which looked like wave trains. From these measurements we found that for periods of about 10 min we always observed disturbances propagating from the lower levels of the corona to the upper levels. The frequency drift in the trains is observed to be about 10 -3 MHz/sec, corresponding to a disturbance velocity of about 100 km/sec. This may be associated with the propagation of magnetosonic waves. Our estimates show that the observed effects cannot be explained by a bremsstrahlung mechanism: We need to rely on plasma mechanisms in order to explain how the radio emission is generated

  16. Some characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed by radio-interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Mercier

    Full Text Available Observations of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs are considered through their effect on the horizontal gradient G of the slant total electron content (slant TEC, which can be directly obtained from two-dimensional radio-interferometric observations of cosmic radio-sources with the Nançay radioheligraph (2.2°E, 47.3°N. Azimuths of propagation can be deduced (modulo 180°. The total database amounts to about 800 h of observations at various elevations, local time and seasons. The main results are:

    a AGWs are partially directive, confirming our previous results.

    b The propagation azimuths considered globally are widely scattered with a preference towards the south.

    c They show a bimodal time distribution with preferential directions towards the SE during daytime and towards the SW during night-time (rather than a clockwise rotation as reported by previous authors.

    d The periods are scattered but are larger during night-time than during daytime by about 60%.

    e The effects observed with the solar radio-sources are significantly stronger than with other radio-sources (particularly at higher elevations, showing the role of the geometry in line of sight-integrated observations.

  17. Prospects of using medium-wave band for radio communication with rescue mobile teams of EMERCOM of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhukov, I. F.; Dulkejt, I. V.; Zavyalov, S. A.; Lvova, Yu V.; Lyashuk, A. N.; Puzyrev, P. I.; Rekunov, S. G.; Chaschin, E. A.; Sharapov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The results of tests in-situ of the prototype of medium-wave mobile radio station «Noema-SV» in Western Siberia, Omsk region and Vorkuta Arctic Integrated Emergency and Rescue Center of EMERCOM of Russia are presented. Radio paths tests in-situ in the Far North show the possibility of radio communication with rescue mobile teams of EMERCOM of Russia in the medium-wave band within distances of several tens of kilometers of rugged topography. The radio range on a flat terrain increases to several hundreds of kilometers. Shortened medium-wave band antennas developed at OmSTU and employed by rescue mobile teams of EMERCOM of Russia were used in.

  18. Generation of type III solar radio bursts: the role of induced scattering of plasma waves by ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, B.N.; Lerner, A.M.; Rapoport, V.O.

    1984-01-01

    The plasma waves in type III solar radio-burst sources might have a spectrum which can explain why, in the quasilinear burst generation model, nonlinear scattering of the waves by ions is so weak. The agent exciting a burst would travel through the corona at velocities limited to a definite range

  19. Quasi-periodic Radio Bursts Associated with Fast-mode Waves near a Magnetic Null Point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pankaj [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Nakariakov, Valery M. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Cho, Kyung-Suk, E-mail: pankaj.kumar@nasa.gov [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents an observation of quasi-periodic rapidly propagating waves observed in the Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA) 171/193 Å channels during the impulsive phase of an M1.9 flare that occurred on 2012 May 7. The instant period was found to decrease from 240 to 120 s, and the speed of the wavefronts was in the range of ∼664–1416 km s{sup −1}. Almost simultaneously, quasi-periodic bursts with similar instant periods, ∼70 and ∼140 s, occur in the microwave emission and in decimetric type IV and type III radio bursts, and in the soft X-ray emission. The magnetic field configuration of the flare site was consistent with a breakout topology, i.e., a quadrupolar field along with a magnetic null point. The quasi-periodic rapidly propagating wavefronts of the EUV emission are interpreted as a fast magnetoacoustic wave train. The observations suggest that the fast-mode waves are generated during the quasi-periodic magnetic reconnection in the cusp region above the flare arcade loops. For the first time, we provide evidence of a tadpole wavelet signature at about 70–140 s in decimetric (245/610 MHz) radio bursts, along with the direct observation of a coronal fast-mode wave train in EUV. In addition, at AIA 131/193 Å we observed quasi-periodic EUV disturbances with periods of 95 and 240 s propagating downward at apparent speeds of 172–273 km s{sup −1}. The nature of these downward propagating disturbances is not revealed, but they could be connected to magnetoacoustic waves or periodically shrinking loops.

  20. Quasi-periodic Radio Bursts Associated with Fast-mode Waves near a Magnetic Null Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Nakariakov, Valery M.; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an observation of quasi-periodic rapidly propagating waves observed in the Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA) 171/193 Å channels during the impulsive phase of an M1.9 flare that occurred on 2012 May 7. The instant period was found to decrease from 240 to 120 s, and the speed of the wavefronts was in the range of ∼664–1416 km s −1 . Almost simultaneously, quasi-periodic bursts with similar instant periods, ∼70 and ∼140 s, occur in the microwave emission and in decimetric type IV and type III radio bursts, and in the soft X-ray emission. The magnetic field configuration of the flare site was consistent with a breakout topology, i.e., a quadrupolar field along with a magnetic null point. The quasi-periodic rapidly propagating wavefronts of the EUV emission are interpreted as a fast magnetoacoustic wave train. The observations suggest that the fast-mode waves are generated during the quasi-periodic magnetic reconnection in the cusp region above the flare arcade loops. For the first time, we provide evidence of a tadpole wavelet signature at about 70–140 s in decimetric (245/610 MHz) radio bursts, along with the direct observation of a coronal fast-mode wave train in EUV. In addition, at AIA 131/193 Å we observed quasi-periodic EUV disturbances with periods of 95 and 240 s propagating downward at apparent speeds of 172–273 km s −1 . The nature of these downward propagating disturbances is not revealed, but they could be connected to magnetoacoustic waves or periodically shrinking loops.

  1. Development of HF-systems for electron storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.P.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Popkov, Yu.P.; Reva, S.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    1999-01-01

    Development of HF systems for electron storages is described. Its final task is construction of 100 kW HF station at 699,3 MHz frequency consisting from low-power HF system, klystron amplifier, wave line for HF power transmission and accelerating section. Functional parameters of HF station are given

  2. HF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuya; Iwasaki, Matae

    1977-01-01

    A review is made of the research and development of HF chemical laser and its related work. Many gaseous compounds are used as laser media successfully; reaction kinetics and technological problems are described. The hybrid chemical laser of HF-CO 2 system and the topics related to the isotope separation are also included. (auth.)

  3. Beam characterization of a new continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, A., E-mail: aperry4@hawk.iit.edu [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Dickerson, C.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Zinkann, G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    A new Continuous Wave (CW) Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) for the ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System) Intensity Upgrade was developed, built and tested at Argonne National Laboratory. We present here a characterization of the RFQ output beam in the longitudinal phase space, as well as a measurement of the transverse beam halo. Measurement results are compared to simulations performed using the beam dynamics code TRACK. -- Highlights: • Beam commissioning of a new CW RFQ has been performed at Argonne National Laboratory. • Energy spread and bunch shape measurements were conducted. • The formation of a beam halo in the transverse phase space was studied.

  4. Programme of Indian Centre for Space Physics using Very Low Frequency Radio Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Sasmal, Sudipta; Pal, Sujay; Kanta Maji, Surya; Ray, Suman

    Indian Centre for Space Physics conducted two major VLF campaigns all over Indian Sub-continent to study the propagation effects of VLF radio waves. It made multi-receiver observations during solar eclipse. ICSP not only recorded multitudes of solar flares, it also reproduced VLF observation from ab initio calculation. ICSP extended its study to the field of earthquake predictions using signal anomalies and using case by case studies as well as statistical analysis, showed that anomalies are real and more studies are required to understand them. Using earth as a gigantic detector, it detected ionospheric perturbations due to soft gamma-ray repeaters and gamma-ray bursts.

  5. Experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Füllekrug

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds emit 100 kHz radio waves which illuminate the Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. This contribution aims to clarify the physical processes which are relevant for the spatial spreading of the radio wave energy below and above the ionosphere and thereby enables an experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds. The simulation uses the DEMETER satellite which observes 100 kHz radio waves from fifty terrestrial Long Range Aid to Navigation (LORAN transmitters. Their mean luminosity patch in the plasmasphere is a circular area with a radius of 300 km and a power density of 22 μW/Hz as observed at 660 km height above the ground. The luminosity patches exhibit a southward displacement of 450 km with respect to the locations of the LORAN transmitters. The displacement is reduced to 150 km when an upward propagation of the radio waves along the geomagnetic field line is assumed. This residual displacement indicates that the radio waves undergo 150 km sub-ionospheric propagation prior to entering a magnetospheric duct and escaping into near-Earth space. The residual displacement at low (L < 2.14 and high (L > 2.14 geomagnetic latitudes ranges from 100 km to 200 km which suggests that the smaller inclination of the geomagnetic field lines at low latitudes helps to trap the radio waves and to keep them in the magnetospheric duct. Diffuse luminosity areas are observed northward of the magnetic conjugate locations of LORAN transmitters at extremely low geomagnetic latitudes (L < 1.36 in Southeast Asia. This result suggests that the propagation along the geomagnetic field lines results in a spatial spreading of the radio wave energy over distances of 1 Mm. The summative assessment of the electric field intensities measured in space show that nadir observations of terrestrial 100 kHz radio waves, e.g., from

  6. The lower ionosphere response to its disturbances by powerful radio waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmetieva, N. V.; Frolov, V. L.; Vyakhirev, V. D.; Kalinina, E. E.; Akchurin, A. D.; Zykov, E. Yu.

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents data from some campaigns at Sura heating facility in 2011-1016. The experiments on probing of the artificial disturbed region of the lower ionosphere were carried out at two observation sites. One of them was located near Vasil'sursk 1 km from Sura facility (56.1°N; 46.1°E) and the other site was located at the Observatory (55.85°N; 48.8°E) of Kazan State University, 170 km to the East. Investigation of the features of the disturbed region of the lower ionosphere based on its diagnostics by the methods of the vertical sounding and oblique backscattering is the main goal of this paper. Ionosphere disturbance was fulfilled by the effect of the powerful radio wave of the ordinary or extraordinary polarization emitted by transmitters of the Sura facility with effective radiated power ERP = 50-120 MW at the frequency of 4.3, 4.7 and 5.6 MHz. Pumping waves were emitted with period from 30 s to 15 min. The disturbed region of the ionosphere in Vasil'sursk was probed by the vertical sounding technique using the partial reflexion radar at the frequency of 2.95 and 4.7 MHz. For the oblique sounding of the disturbed region the modified ionosonde Cyclon-M, operating at ten frequencies from 2.01 to 6.51 MHz was used at the Observatory site. On many heating sessions simultaneous variations of the probing partial reflection signals in Vasil'sursk and backscattered signals in Observatory were observed at the height at 40-100 km below the reflection height of the pumping wave. These observations were correlated with the pumping periods of the Sura facility. Possible mechanisms of the appearance of the disturbance in the lower ionosphere and its effect on the probing radio waves are discussed.

  7. Relativistic jet with shock waves like model of superluminal radio source. Jet relativista con ondas de choque como modelo de radio fuentes superluminales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, A.; Gomez, J.L.; Marcaide, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The structure of the compact radio sources at milliarcsecond angular resolution can be explained in terms of shock waves propagating along bent jets. These jets consist of narrow-angle cones of plasma flowing at bulk relativistic velocities, within tangled magnetic fields, emitting synchrotron radiation. We have developed a numerical code which solves the synchrotron radiation transfer equations to compute the total and polarized emission of bent shocked relativistic jets, and we have applied it to reproduce the compact structure, kenimatic evolution and time flux density evolution of the superluminal radio source 4C 39.25 and to obtain its jet physical parameters. (Author) 23 ref.

  8. Letter to the Editor UHF electromagnetic emission stimulated by HF pumping of the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Grach

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available UHF electromagnetic emission (with a frequency near 600 MHz from the F-region of the ionosphere pumped by an HF powerful radio wave is revealed. Possible mechanisms of the emission excitation, such as plasma mode con-version, scattering or Earth thermal noise emission off the plasma density irregularities, bremsstrahlung and excitation of high Rydberg states of the neutral particles by the accelerated electrons are discussed.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; wave-particle interactions – Solar physics, astrophysics, and astronomy (radio emissions

  9. Letter to the Editor UHF electromagnetic emission stimulated by HF pumping of the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Sergeev

    Full Text Available UHF electromagnetic emission (with a frequency near 600 MHz from the F-region of the ionosphere pumped by an HF powerful radio wave is revealed. Possible mechanisms of the emission excitation, such as plasma mode con-version, scattering or Earth thermal noise emission off the plasma density irregularities, bremsstrahlung and excitation of high Rydberg states of the neutral particles by the accelerated electrons are discussed.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; wave-particle interactions – Solar physics, astrophysics, and astronomy (radio emissions

  10. Development of data communication system with ultra high frequency radio wave for implantable artificial hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Shinichi; Yamagishi, Hiroto; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    In order to minimize infection risks of patients with artificial hearts, wireless data transmission methods with electromagnetic induction or light have been developed. However, these methods tend to become difficult to transmit data if the external data transmission unit moves from its proper position. To resolve this serious problem, the purpose of this study is to develop a prototype wireless data communication system with ultra high frequency radio wave and confirm its performance. Due to its high-speed communication rate, low power consumption, high tolerance to electromagnetic disturbances, and secure wireless communication, we adopted Bluetooth radio wave technology for our system. The system consists of an internal data transmission unit and an external data transmission unit (53 by 64 by 16 mm, each), and each has a Bluetooth module (radio field intensity: 4 dBm, receiver sensitivity: -80 dBm). The internal unit also has a micro controller with an 8-channel 10-bit A/D converter, and the external unit also has a RS-232C converter. We experimented with the internal unit implanted into pig meat, and carried out data transmission tests to evaluate the performance of this system in tissue thickness of up to 3 mm. As a result, data transfer speeds of about 20 kbps were achieved within the communication distance of 10 m. In conclusion, we confirmed that the system can wirelessly transmit the data from the inside of the body to the outside, and it promises to resolve unstable data transmission due to accidental movements of an external data transmission unit.

  11. SDN based millimetre wave radio over fiber (RoF) network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amate, Ahmed; Milosavljevic, Milos; Kourtessis, Pandelis; Robinson, Matthew; Senior, John M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces software-defined, millimeter Wave (mm-Wave) networks with Radio over Fiber (RoF) for the delivery of gigabit connectivity required to develop fifth generation (5G) mobile. This network will enable an effective open access system allowing providers to manage and lease the infrastructure to service providers through unbundling new business models. Exploiting the inherited benefits of RoF, complete base station functionalities are centralized at the edges of the metro and aggregation network, leaving remote radio heads (RRHs) with only tunable filtering and amplification. A Software Defined Network (SDN) Central Controller (SCC) is responsible for managing the resource across several mm-Wave Radio Access Networks (RANs) providing a global view of the several network segments. This ensures flexible resource allocation for reduced overall latency and increased throughput. The SDN based mm-Wave RAN also allows for inter edge node communication. Therefore, certain packets can be routed between different RANs supported by the same edge node, reducing latency. System level simulations of the complete network have shown significant improvement of the overall throughput and SINR for wireless users by providing effective resource allocation and coordination among interfering cells. A new Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) algorithm exploiting the benefits of the SCC global network view for reduced delay in control message exchange is presented, accounting for a minimum packet delay and limited Channel State Information (CSI) in a Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A), Cloud RAN (CRAN) configuration. The algorithm does not require detailed CSI feedback from UEs but it rather considers UE location (determined by the eNB) as the required parameter. UE throughput in the target sector is represented using a Cumulative Distributive Function (CDF). The drawn characteristics suggest that there is a significant 60% improvement in UE cell edge throughput following the

  12. Ionospheric modification induced by high-power HF transmitters: a potential for extended range VHF--UHF communications and plasma physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utlaut, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    When the ionized upper atmosphere of the earth is illuminated by high-power HF radio waves at appropriate frequencies, the temperature of electrons in the ionosphere can be raised substantially. In addition, radio waves with sufficient energy cause parametric instabilities that generate a spectrum of intense plasma waves. Observations of these phenomena have produced new understanding of plasma processes. One consequence of heating and plasma wave generation is that irregularities are formed in the electron distribution which are aligned with the earth's magnetic field. Because of this, a scatterer of large radar cross section is produced, which scatters HF through UHF communication signals over long distance paths, that would not otherwise be normally possible by ionospheric means. Results of radio, radar, communication, and photometric experiments that explored the characteristics of the volume of ionosphere which has been intentionally modified, temporarily, above facilities near Boulder (Platteville), Colo., and at Arecibo, Puerto Rico are summarized

  13. 10 GHz Standing-Wave Coplanar Stripline on LiNbO3 Crystal for Radio to Optical-Wave Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwis, F.; Wijayanto, Y. N.; Setiawan, A.; Mahmudin, D.; Rahman, A. N.; Daud, P.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, X-band radar systems are used widely for surveillance and navigation applications. Especially in archipelago or maritime country, the surveillance/navigation radar systems are required to monitoring critical areas and managing marine traffic. Accurate detection and fast analysis should be improved furthermore to provide security and safety condition. Therefore, several radar systems should be installed in many places to coverage the critical areas within radar networks. The radar network can be connected using optical fibers since it has extremely low propagation loss with optical-wave to carry-out the radar-wave. One important component in the scenario is a radio to optical-wave conversion component. In this paper, we report a 10 GHz radio to optical-wave conversion component using standing-wave coplanar stripline (CPS) on LiNbO3 optical crystal as the substrate. The standing-wave CPS electrodes with narrow slot are arranged in an array structure. An optical waveguide is located close to the narrow slot. The CPS electrodes were analysed using electromagnetic analysis software for 10 GHz operational frequency. Responses for slot width and electrode length variation are reported. As results, return loss of -14.580 dB and -19.517 dB are obtained for single and array CPS electrodes respectively. Optimization of the designed radio to optical-wave conversion devices was also done.

  14. Latest Observations of Interstellar Plasma Waves, Radio Emissions, and Dust Impacts from the Voyager 1 Plasma Wave Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Voyager 1, which is now 140 AU (Astronomical Units) from the Sun, crossed the heliopause into interstellar space in 2012 at a heliospheric radial distance of 121 AU. Since crossing the heliopause the plasma wave instrument has on several occasions detected plasma oscillations and radio emissions at or near the electron plasma frequency. The most notable of these events occurred in Oct.-Nov. 2012, April-May 2013, Feb.-Nov. 2014, and Sept.-Nov. 2015. Most recently, a very weak emission has been observed at or near the electron plasma frequency through most of 2016. These emissions are all believed to be produced by shock waves propagating into the interstellar medium from energetic solar events. The oscillation frequency of the plasma indicates that the electron density in the interstellar plasma has gradually increased from about 0.06 cm-3 near the heliopause to about 0.12 cm-3 in the most recent data. The plasma wave instrument also continues to detect impacts of what are believed to be interstellar dust grains at an impact rate of a few per year. Comparisons with Ulysses observations of similar interstellar dust near 5 AU suggest that the dust grains have sizes in the range from about 0.1 to 1 micrometer. Although the statistics are poor due to the low count rate, the dust flux observed in the outer heliosphere appears to be as much as a factor of two greater than that observed in the interstellar medium. Since the dust particles are likely to be charged, this increase in the heliosphere suggests that there may be a significant electrodynamic interaction of the dust particles with the heliospheric magnetic field.

  15. Radio-frequency wave excitation and damping on a high β plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuth, H.

    1984-01-01

    Azimuthally symmetric (m = 0) radio-frequency (RF) waves for zero and for finite axial wave number k/sub z/ are investigated on the High BETA Q Machine, a two-meter, 20 cm-diameter, low-compression linear theta pinch (T greater than or equal to 200 eV, n approx. = 10 15 cm -3 ) fast rising (0.4 μs) compression field. The (k/sub z/ = 0) modes occur spontaneously following the implosion phase of the discharge. A novel 100-MW 1 to 1.3 MHz, short wavelength current drive excites the plasma column in the vicinity of the lowest fast magnetoacoustic mode at various filling pressures. This current drive is designed as an integral part of the compression coil, which is segmented with a 20-cm axial wavelength (k/sub z/ = 0.314 cm -1 ). The electron density oscillations along major and minor chords at various positions are measured by interferometry perpendicular to the pinch axis. The oscillatory radial magnetic field component between pinch wall and hot plasma edge is measured by probes. Phases, amplitudes and radial mode structure are studied for the free (k = 0) modes and the externally driven (k does not equal 0) modes for various filling pressures of deuterium. The energy deposition from the externally driven RF wave leads to a radial expansion of the plasma column, as observed by axial interferometry and by excluded flux measurements

  16. Non-contact radio frequency shielding and wave guiding by multi-folded transformation optics method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madni, Hamza Ahmad; Zheng, Bin; Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Zhang, Xianmin; Yin, Wenyan; Li, Erping; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-11-14

    Compared with conventional radio frequency (RF) shielding methods in which the conductive coating material encloses the circuits design and the leakage problem occurs due to the gap in such conductive material, non-contact RF shielding at a distance is very promising but still impossible to achieve so far. In this paper, a multi-folded transformation optics method is proposed to design a non-contact device for RF shielding. This "open-shielded" device can shield any object at a distance from the electromagnetic waves at the operating frequency, while the object is still physically open to the outer space. Based on this, an open-carpet cloak is proposed and the functionality of the open-carpet cloak is demonstrated. Furthermore, we investigate a scheme of non-contact wave guiding to remotely control the propagation of surface waves over any obstacles. The flexibilities of such multi-folded transformation optics method demonstrate the powerfulness of the method in the design of novel remote devices with impressive new functionalities.

  17. HF propagation results from the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Dev; Groves, Keith M.; McNeil, William; Carrano, Charles; Caton, Ronald G.; Parris, Richard T.; Pederson, Todd R.; Cannon, Paul S.; Angling, Matthew; Jackson-Booth, Natasha

    2017-06-01

    With support from the NASA sounding rocket program, the Air Force Research Laboratory launched two sounding rockets in the Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands in May 2013 known as the Metal Oxide Space Cloud experiment. The rockets released samarium metal vapor at preselected altitudes in the lower F region that ionized forming a plasma cloud. Data from Advanced Research Project Agency Long-range Tracking and Identification Radar incoherent scatter radar and high-frequency (HF) radio links have been analyzed to understand the impacts of the artificial ionization on radio wave propagation. The HF radio wave ray-tracing toolbox PHaRLAP along with ionospheric models constrained by electron density profiles measured with the ALTAIR radar have been used to successfully model the effects of the cloud on HF propagation. Up to three new propagation paths were created by the artificial plasma injections. Observations and modeling confirm that the small amounts of ionized material injected in the lower F region resulted in significant changes to the natural HF propagation environment.

  18. The Radio & Plasma Wave Investigation (RPWI) for JUICE - Instrument Concept and Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, J. E. S.

    2013-09-01

    We present the concept and capabilities of the Radio & Plasma Waves Investigation (RPWI) instrument for the JUICE mission. The RPWI instrument provides measurements of plasma, electric- and magnetic field fluctuations from near DC up to 45 MHz. The RPWI sensors are four Langmuir probes for low temperature plasma diagnostics and electric field measurements, a three-axis searchcoil magnetometer for low-frequency magnetic field measurements, and a three-axial radio antenna, which operates from 80 kHz up to 45 MHz and thus gives RPWI remote sensing capabilities.. In addition, active mutual impedance measurements are used to diagnose the in situ plasma. The RPWI instrument is unique as it provides vector field measurements in the whole frequency range. This makes it possible to employ advanced diagnostics techniques, which are unavailable for scalar measurements. The RPWI instrument has thus outstanding new capabilities not previously available to outer planet missions, which and enables RPWI to address many fundamental planetary science objectives, such as the electrodynamic influence of the Jovian magnetosphere on the exospheres, surfaces and conducting oceans of Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto. RPWI will also be able to investigate the sources of radio emissions from auroral regions of Ganymede and Jupiter, in detail and with unprecedented sensitivity, and possibly also lightning. Moreover, RPWI can search for exhaust plumes from cracks on the icy moons, as well as μm-sized dust and related dust-plasmasurface interaction processes occurring near the icy moons of Jupiter. The top-level blockdiagram of the RPWI instrument is shown here. A detailed technical description of the RPWI instrument will be given.

  19. Model of inductive plasma production assisted by radio-frequency wave in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Hanada, Kazuaki; Sato, Kohnosuke

    2007-01-01

    For initial plasma production, an induction electric field generated by applying voltage to a poloidal field (PF) coil system is used to produce a Townsend avalanche breakdown. When the avalanche margins are small, as for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in which the induction electric field is about 0.3 V/m, the assistance of radio-frequency waves (RF) is provided to reduce the induction electric field required for reliable breakdown. However, the conditions of RF-assisted breakdown are not clear. Here, the effects of both RF and induction electric field on the RF-assisted breakdown are evaluated considering the electron loss. When traveling loss is the dominant loss, a simple model of an extended Townsend avalanche is proposed. In this model, the induction electric field required for RF-assisted breakdown can be decreased to half that required for induction breakdown. (author)

  20. Blood-brain barrier disruption by continuous-wave radio frequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2009-01-01

    The increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of non ionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. This study was designed to investigate the effects of 900 and 1,800 MHz Continuous Wave Radio Frequency Radiation (CW RFR) on the permeability of Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) of rats. Results have shown that 20 min RFR exposure of 900 and 1,800 MHz induces an effect and increases the permeability of BBB of male rats. There was no change in female rats. The scientific evidence on RFR safety or harm remains inconclusive. More studies are needed to demonstrate the effects of RFR on the permeability of BBB and the mechanisms of that breakdown.

  1. Developments in photonic and mm-wave component technology for fiber radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezekiel, Stavros

    2013-01-01

    A review of photonic component technology for fiber radio applications at 60 GHz will be given. We will focus on two architectures: (i) baseband-over-fiber and (ii) RF-over-fiber. In the first approach, up-conversion to 60 GHz is performed at the picocell base stations, with data being transported over fiber, while in the second both the data and rum­ wave carrier are transported over fiber. For the baseband-over-fiber scheme, we examine techniques to improve the modulation efficiency of directly­ modulated fiber links. These are based on traveling-wave structures applied to series cascades of lasers. This approach combines the improvement in differential quantum efficiency with the ability to tailor impedance matching as required. In addition, we report on various base station transceiver architectures based on optically-controlled :tvfMIC self­ oscillating mixers, and their application to 60 GHz fiber radio. This approach allows low cost optoelectronic transceivers to be used for the baseband fiber link, whilst minimizing the impact of dispersion. For the RF-over-fiber scheme, we report on schemes for optical generation of 100 GHz. These use modulation of a Mach-Zehnder modulator at Vπ bias in cascade with a Mach-Zehnder driven by 1.25 Gb/s data. One of the issues in RF-over-fiber is dispersion, while reduced modulation efficiency due to the presence of the optical carrier is also problematic. We examine the use of silicon nitride micro-ring resonators for the production of optical single sideband modulation in order to combat dispersion, and for the reduction of optical carrier power in order to improve link modulation efficiency.

  2. EFFECTS OF ALFVEN WAVES ON ELECTRON CYCLOTRON MASER EMISSION IN CORONAL LOOPS AND SOLAR TYPE I RADIO STORMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Chen, L.; Wu, D. J. [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yan, Y. H., E-mail: djwu@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, CAS, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2013-06-10

    Solar type I radio storms are long-lived radio emissions from the solar atmosphere. It is believed that these type I storms are produced by energetic electrons trapped within a closed magnetic structure and are characterized by a high ordinary (O) mode polarization. However, the microphysical nature of these emissions is still an open problem. Recently, Wu et al. found that Alfven waves (AWs) can significantly influence the basic physics of wave-particle interactions by modifying the resonant condition. Taking the effects of AWs into account, this work investigates electron cyclotron maser emission driven by power-law energetic electrons with a low-energy cutoff distribution, which are trapped in coronal loops by closed solar magnetic fields. The results show that the emission is dominated by the O mode. It is proposed that this O mode emission may possibly be responsible for solar type I radio storms.

  3. Long-term integrated radiophysical studies of the ionosphere, near space, and the propagation of radio waves from space objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misyura, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The radiophysical studies reported consist of direct measurements of certain effects induced in the propagation of radio waves from space objects. From measured effects and from data on the motion and position of space objects, physical parameters of the medium and bodies are determined.

  4. Fungicidal Effects of Plasma and Radio-Wave Pre-treatments on Seeds of Grain Crops and Legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, Irina; Azharonok, Viktor; Shik, Alexander; Antoniuk, Alexandra; Terletskaya, Natalia

    An influence of RF plasma and RF electromagnetic field pre-treatments on level of fungal infection of some important agricultural plants has been studied. It is shown that pre-sowing plasma and radio-wave seeds treatments contribute to their germination enhancement and plant productivity improvement owing to stimulative and fungicidal effect of plasma and RF electromagnetic field irradiation.

  5. Crowd-Sourced Radio Science at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C. D.; McTernan, J. K.; Suggs, R. M.; Rawlins, L.; Krause, L. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adams, M. L.

    2018-01-01

    August 21, 2017 provided a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of the total solar eclipse on high frequency (HF) radio propagation and ionospheric variability. In Marshall Space Flight Center's partnership with the US Space and Rocket Center (USSRC) and Austin Peay State University (APSU), we engaged citizen scientists and students in an investigation of the effects of an eclipse on the mid-latitude ionosphere. Activities included fieldwork and station-based data collection of HF Amateur Radio frequency bands and VLF radio waves before, during, and after the eclipse to build a continuous record of changing propagation conditions as the moon's shadow marched across the United States. Post-eclipse radio propagation analysis provided insights into ionospheric variability due to the eclipse.

  6. Multi-Band (K- Q- and E-Band) Multi-Tone Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer for Radio Wave Propagation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-band multi-tone millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a space-borne transmitter for radio wave atmospheric studies at K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz), Q-band (37 to 42 GHz), and E-band (71 to 76 GHz). These studies would enable the design of robust multi-Gbps data rate space-to-ground satellite communication links. Lastly, the architecture for a compact multi-tone beacon transmitter, which includes a high frequency synthesizer, a polarizer, and a conical horn antenna, has been investigated for a notional CubeSat based space-to-ground radio wave propagation experiment.

  7. Coherent coupling between radio frequency, optical, and acoustic waves in piezo-optomechanical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balram, Krishna C.; Davanço, Marcelo I.; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    Optomechanical cavities have been studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for nanoscale cavity optomechanical circuits in which optomechanical cavities supporting co-localized 1550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radio frequency (RF) field through the piezo-electric effect, which produces acoustic waves that are routed and coupled to the optomechanical cavity by phononic crystal waveguides, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect. Along with mechanical state preparation and sensitive readout, we use this to demonstrate an acoustic wave interference effect, similar to atomic coherent population trapping, in which RF-driven coherent mechanical motion is cancelled by optically-driven motion. Manipulating cavity optomechanical systems with equal facility through both photonic and phononic channels enables new architectures for signal transduction between the optical, electrical, and mechanical domains. PMID:27446234

  8. Study of Temperature Wave Propagation in Superfluid Helium Focusing on Radio-Frequency Cavity Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Koettig, T; Avellino, S; Junginger, T; Bremer, J

    2015-01-01

    Oscillating Superleak Transducers (OSTs) can be used to localize quenches of superconducting radio-frequency cavities. Local hot spots at the cavity surface initiate temperature waves in the surrounding superfluid helium that acts as cooling fluid at typical temperatures in the range of 1.6 K to 2 K. The temperature wave is characterised by the properties of superfluid helium such as the second sound velocity. For high heat load densities second sound velocities greater than the standard literature values are observed. This fast propagation has been verified in dedicated small scale experiments. Resistors were used to simulate the quench spots under controlled conditions. The three dimensional propagation of second sound is linked to OST signals. The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of the OST signal especially the incident angle dependency. The characterised OSTs are used as a tool for quench localisation on a real size cavity. Their sensitivity as well as the time resolution was proven to b...

  9. MULTI-MESSENGER ASTRONOMY OF GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE SOURCES WITH FLEXIBLE WIDE-AREA RADIO TRANSIENT SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yancey, Cregg C.; Shawhan, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bear, Brandon E.; Akukwe, Bernadine; Simonetti, John H.; Tsai, Jr-Wei [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Chen, Kevin [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ 08628 (United States); Dowell, Jayce; Obenberger, Kenneth; Taylor, Gregory B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM, 87131 (United States); Gough, Jonathan D. [Department of Chemistry, Lehman College, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Kanner, Jonah [LIGO-California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California CA 91125 (United States); Kavic, Michael [Department of Physics, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    We explore opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy using gravitational waves (GWs) and prompt, transient low-frequency radio emission to study highly energetic astrophysical events. We review the literature on possible sources of correlated emission of GWs and radio transients, highlighting proposed mechanisms that lead to a short-duration, high-flux radio pulse originating from the merger of two neutron stars or from a superconducting cosmic string cusp. We discuss the detection prospects for each of these mechanisms by low-frequency dipole array instruments such as LWA1, the Low Frequency Array and the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that a broad range of models may be tested by searching for radio pulses that, when de-dispersed, are temporally and spatially coincident with a LIGO/Virgo GW trigger within a ∼30 s time window and ∼200–500 deg{sup 2} sky region. We consider various possible observing strategies and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Uniquely, for low-frequency radio arrays, dispersion can delay the radio pulse until after low-latency GW data analysis has identified and reported an event candidate, enabling a prompt radio signal to be captured by a deliberately targeted beam. If neutron star mergers do have detectable prompt radio emissions, a coincident search with the GW detector network and low-frequency radio arrays could increase the LIGO/Virgo effective search volume by up to a factor of ∼2. For some models, we also map the parameter space that may be constrained by non-detections.

  10. Refraction of Radio Waves on the Radio-Occultation Satellite-to-Satellite Paths as a Characteristic of the Atmospheric State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyugov, S. S.; Yakovlev, O. I.; Pavelyev, A. G.; Pavelyev, A. A.; Anufriev, V. A.

    2017-10-01

    We present the results of analyzing the radio-wave refractive characteristics measured on the radio-occultation paths between the GPS navigation satellites and the FORMOSAT-3 research satellites in the central region of the European territory of Russia in 2007-2013. The diurnal, seasonal, and annual variations in the refraction angle at altitudes of 2 to 25 km are discussed. It is shown that the refraction angle can be used as an independent characteristic of the atmospheric state and its long-term variation trends. Diurnal and nocturnal variations in the refraction angle in the winter and summer seasons are analyzed. Trends in the atmospheric refraction variations over seven years are discussed.

  11. The relationship between small-scale and large-scale ionospheric electron density irregularities generated by powerful HF electromagnetic waves at high latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Tereshchenko

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Satellite radio beacons were used in June 2001 to probe the ionosphere modified by a radio beam produced by the EISCAT high-power, high-frequency (HF transmitter located near Tromsø (Norway. Amplitude scintillations and variations of the phase of 150- and 400-MHz signals from Russian navigational satellites passing over the modified region were observed at three receiver sites. In several papers it has been stressed that in the polar ionosphere the thermal self-focusing on striations during ionospheric modification is the main mechanism resulting in the formation of large-scale (hundreds of meters to kilometers nonlinear structures aligned along the geomagnetic field (magnetic zenith effect. It has also been claimed that the maximum effects caused by small-scale (tens of meters irregularities detected in satellite signals are also observed in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. Contrary to those studies, the present paper shows that the maximum in amplitude scintillations does not correspond strictly to the magnetic zenith direction because high latitude drifts typically cause a considerable anisotropy of small-scale irregularities in a plane perpendicular to the geomagnetic field resulting in a deviation of the amplitude-scintillation peak relative to the minimum angle between the line-of-sight to the satellite and direction of the geomagnetic field lines. The variance of the logarithmic relative amplitude fluctuations is considered here, which is a useful quantity in such studies. The experimental values of the variance are compared with model calculations and good agreement has been found. It is also shown from the experimental data that in most of the satellite passes a variance maximum occurs at a minimum in the phase fluctuations indicating that the artificial excitation of large-scale irregularities is minimum when the excitation of small-scale irregularities is maximum.

  12. Solar Plasma Radio Emission in the Presence of Imbalanced Turbulence of Kinetic-Scale Alfvén Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubchyk, O.; Kontar, E. P.; Voitenko, Y. M.; Bian, N. H.; Melrose, D. B.

    2017-09-01

    We study the influence of kinetic-scale Alfvénic turbulence on the generation of plasma radio emission in the solar coronal regions where the ratio β of plasma to magnetic pressure is lower than the electron-to-ion mass ratio me/mi. The present study is motivated by the phenomenon of solar type I radio storms that are associated with the strong magnetic field of active regions. The measured brightness temperature of the type I storms can be up to 10^{10} K for continuum emission, and can exceed 10^{11} K for type I bursts. At present, there is no generally accepted theory explaining such high brightness temperatures and some other properties of the type I storms. We propose a model with an imbalanced turbulence of kinetic-scale Alfvén waves that produce an asymmetric quasi-linear plateau on the upper half of the electron velocity distribution. The Landau damping of resonant Langmuir waves is suppressed and their amplitudes grow spontaneously above the thermal level. The estimated saturation level of Langmuir waves is high enough to generate observed type I radio emission at the fundamental plasma frequency. Harmonic emission does not appear in our model because the backward-propagating Langmuir waves undergo strong Landau damping. Our model predicts 100% polarization in the sense of the ordinary (o-) mode of type I emission.

  13. A theory for narrow-banded radio bursts at Uranus - MHD surface waves as an energy driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Curtis, S. A.; Desch, M. D.; Lepping, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    A possible scenario for the generation of the narrow-banded radio bursts detected at Uranus by the Voyager 2 planetary radio astronomy experiment is described. In order to account for the emission burstiness which occurs on time scales of hundreds of milliseconds, it is proposed that ULF magnetic surface turbulence generated at the frontside magnetopause propagates down the open/closed field line boundary and mode-converts to kinetic Alfven waves (KAW) deep within the polar cusp. The oscillating KAW potentials then drive a transient electron stream that creates the bursty radio emission. To substantiate these ideas, Voyager 2 magnetometer measurements of enhanced ULF magnetic activity at the frontside magnetopause are shown. It is demonstrated analytically that such magnetic turbulence should mode-convert deep in the cusp at a radial distance of 3 RU.

  14. Public exposure to radio waves near GSM microcell and picocell base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T G; Mann, S M; Khalid, M; Blackwell, R P

    2006-01-01

    Exposures of the general public to radio waves at locations near 20 randomly selected GSM microcell and picocell base stations in the UK have been assessed in the context of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. Compliance distances were calculated for the antennas of the base stations from their reported radiated powers. Under pessimistic assumptions that would maximise exposures, the minimum height at which the general public reference level could potentially be exceeded near any of the base station antennas was calculated to be 2.4 m above ground level. The power densities of the broadcast carriers transmitted by the base stations have been measured and scaled to include all other possible carriers. Exposures were generally in the range 0.002-2% of the ICNIRP general public reference level, and the greatest exposure quotient near any of the base stations was 8.6%. Exposures close to microcell base stations were found to be generally greater than those close to macrocell base stations

  15. The radio universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worvill, R.

    1977-01-01

    Elementary description of the development of radioastronomy, radio waves from the sun and planets, the use of radio telescopes and the detection of nebulae, supernova, radio galaxies and quasars is presented. A brief glossary of terms is included. (UK)

  16. Stationary Planetary Waves in the Mars Winter Atmosphere as seen by the Radio Science Experiment MaRS on Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellmann, Silvia; Pätzold, Martin; Häusler, Bernd; Tyler, Leonard G.; Hinson, David P.

    2015-11-01

    Stationary (Rossby) Waves are excited by the interaction of the zonally varying topography with the strong eastward winter jets. They lead to distinctive longitudinal temperature variations which contribute significantly to the asymmetry of the seasonal polar CO2 ice caps and are also important for the dust redistribution in the planetary atmosphere.Radio Science profiles from the Mars Express Radio Science Experiment MaRS at northern and southern high latitudes are used to gain insight into winter stationary wave structures on both hemispheres.Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) radio occultation measurements from the same season and year with their exceptionally good longitudinal and temporal coverage can be used to estimate the influence of transient eddies. Transient waves are especially important in the northern winter hemisphere.Wave number 2 stationary waves, driven by topography, are dominant in the northern winter latitudes while the wave number 1 wave is the most significant wave number during southern winter. The wave amplitudes peak around winter solstice on both hemispheres.Radio occultation measurements provide the unique opportunity to determine simultaneous measurements of temperature and geopotential height structures. Assuming geostrophic balance, these measurements can be used to determine meridional winds and eddy heat fluxes which provide further insight into the contribution of stationary waves to the heat exchange between the poles and the lower latitudes.

  17. Solar Radio

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  18. 60-GHz Millimeter-Wave Radio: Principle, Technology, and New Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Guo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide opening of a massive amount of unlicensed spectra around 60 GHz has triggered great interest in developing affordable 60-GHz radios. This interest has been catalyzed by recent advance of 60-GHz front-end technologies. This paper briefly reports recent work in the 60-GHz radio. Aspects addressed in this paper include global regulatory and standardization, justification of using the 60-GHz bands, 60-GHz consumer electronics applications, radio system concept, 60-GHz propagation and antennas, and key issues in system design. Some new simulation results are also given. Potentials and problems are explained in detail.

  19. A Carbon Nanotube-based NEMS Parametric Amplifier for Enhanced Radio Wave Detection and Electronic Signal Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, B J; Sussman, A; Zettl, A [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mickelson, W, E-mail: azettl@berkeley.edu [Center of Integrated Nanomechanical Systems, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-07-20

    We propose a scheme for a parametric amplifier based on a single suspended carbon nanotube field-emitter. This novel electromechanical nanotube device acts as a phase-sensitive, variable-gain, band-pass-filtering amplifier for electronic signal processing and, at the same time, can operate as a variable-sensitivity, tuneable detector and transducer of radio frequency electromagnetic waves. The amplifier can exhibit infinite gain at pumping voltages much less than 10 Volts. Additionally, the amplifier's low overhead power consumption (10-1000 nW) make it exceptionally attractive for ultra-low-power applications.

  20. A Carbon Nanotube-based NEMS Parametric Amplifier for Enhanced Radio Wave Detection and Electronic Signal Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleman, B J; Sussman, A; Zettl, A; Mickelson, W

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme for a parametric amplifier based on a single suspended carbon nanotube field-emitter. This novel electromechanical nanotube device acts as a phase-sensitive, variable-gain, band-pass-filtering amplifier for electronic signal processing and, at the same time, can operate as a variable-sensitivity, tuneable detector and transducer of radio frequency electromagnetic waves. The amplifier can exhibit infinite gain at pumping voltages much less than 10 Volts. Additionally, the amplifier's low overhead power consumption (10-1000 nW) make it exceptionally attractive for ultra-low-power applications.

  1. Low frequency modulation of transionospheric radio wave amplitude at low-latitudes: possible role of field line oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Sinha

    Full Text Available Ionospheric scintillations of radio waves at low-latitudes are associated with electron density irregularities. These irregularities are field-aligned and can provide excitation energy all along the field line to non-local field-aligned oscillations, such as the local field line oscillations. Eigen-periods of toroidal field line oscillations at low-latitudes, computed by using the dipole magnetic field and ion distributions obtained from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI for typical nighttime conditions, fall in the range of 20–25 s. When subjected to spectral analysis, signal strength of the radio waves recorded on the 250 MHz beacon at Pondicherry (4.5° N dip, Mumbai (13.4° N dip and Ujjain (18.6° N dip exhibit periodicities in the same range. For the single event for which simultaneous ground magnetic data were available, the geomagnetic field also oscillated at the same periodicity. The systematic presence of a significant peak in the 20–25 s range during periods of strong radio wave scintillations, and its absence otherwise suggests the possibility that field line oscillations are endogenously excited by the irregularities, and the oscillations associated with the excited field line generate the modulation characteristics of the radio waves received on the ground. The frequency of modulation is found to be much lower than the characteristic frequencies that define the main body of scintillations, and they probably correspond to scales that are much larger than the typical Fresnel scale. It is possible that the refractive mechanism associated with larger scale long-lived irregularities could be responsible for the observed phenomenon. Results of a preliminary numerical experiment that uses a sinusoidal phase irregularity in the ionosphere as a refracting media are presented. The results show that phase variations which are large enough to produce a focal plane close to the ground can reproduce features that are not

  2. The apparent source size of type III radio bursts: Preliminary results by the STEREO/WAVES instruments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupař, Vratislav; Maksimovic, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Cecconi, B.; Nguyen, Q. N.; Hoang, S.; Goetz, K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1216, č. 1 (2010), s. 284-287 ISSN 0094-243X. [International Solar Wind Conference /12./. Saint-Milo, 21.06.2009-26.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA AV ČR IAA301120601; GA MŠk ME09107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : WAVES Instrument * Solar Radio Emissions * Singular Value Decomposition technique Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  3. SiOx Ink-Repellent Layer Deposited by Radio Frequency (RF) Plasmas in Continuous Wave and Pulse Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiang; Fu Yabo; Pang Hua; Zhang Yuefei; Zhang Guangqiu

    2007-01-01

    Low surface energy layers, proposed application for non-water printing in computer to plate (CTP) technology, are deposited in both continuous wave and pulse radio frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as precursor. It is found that the plasma mode dominates the polymer growth rate and the surface composition. Derived from the spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and combined with printable test it is concluded that concentration of Si in coatings plays an important role for the ink printability and the ink does not adhere on the surface with high silicon concentration

  4. Low frequency modulation of transionospheric radio wave amplitude at low-latitudes: possible role of field line oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Sinha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionospheric scintillations of radio waves at low-latitudes are associated with electron density irregularities. These irregularities are field-aligned and can provide excitation energy all along the field line to non-local field-aligned oscillations, such as the local field line oscillations. Eigen-periods of toroidal field line oscillations at low-latitudes, computed by using the dipole magnetic field and ion distributions obtained from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI for typical nighttime conditions, fall in the range of 20–25 s. When subjected to spectral analysis, signal strength of the radio waves recorded on the 250 MHz beacon at Pondicherry (4.5° N dip, Mumbai (13.4° N dip and Ujjain (18.6° N dip exhibit periodicities in the same range. For the single event for which simultaneous ground magnetic data were available, the geomagnetic field also oscillated at the same periodicity. The systematic presence of a significant peak in the 20–25 s range during periods of strong radio wave scintillations, and its absence otherwise suggests the possibility that field line oscillations are endogenously excited by the irregularities, and the oscillations associated with the excited field line generate the modulation characteristics of the radio waves received on the ground. The frequency of modulation is found to be much lower than the characteristic frequencies that define the main body of scintillations, and they probably correspond to scales that are much larger than the typical Fresnel scale. It is possible that the refractive mechanism associated with larger scale long-lived irregularities could be responsible for the observed phenomenon. Results of a preliminary numerical experiment that uses a sinusoidal phase irregularity in the ionosphere as a refracting media are presented. The results show that phase variations which are large enough to produce a focal plane close to the ground can reproduce features that are not

  5. Radio Capacity Estimation for Millimeter Wave 5G Cellular Networks Using Narrow Beamwidth Antennas at the Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlMuthanna Turki Nassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents radio frequency (RF capacity estimation for millimeter wave (mm-wave based fifth-generation (5G cellular networks using field-level simulations. It is shown that, by reducing antenna beamwidth from 65° to 30°, we can enhance the capacity of mm-wave cellular networks roughly by 3.0 times at a distance of 220 m from the base station (BS. This enhancement is far much higher than the corresponding enhancement of 1.2 times observed for 900 MHz and 2.6 GHz microwave networks at the same distance from the BS. Thus the use of narrow beamwidth transmitting antennas has more pronounced benefits in mm-wave networks. Deployment trials performed on an LTE TDD site operating on 2.6 GHz show that 6-sector site with 27° antenna beamwidth enhances the quality of service (QoS roughly by 40% and more than doubles the overall BS throughput (while enhancing the per sector throughput 1.1 times on average compared to a 3-sector site using 65° antenna beamwidth. This agrees well with our capacity simulations. Since mm-wave 5G networks will use arbitrary number of beams, with beamwidth much less than 30°, the capacity enhancement expected in 5G system when using narrow beamwidth antennas would be much more than three times observed in our simulations.

  6. Effects of gravity and planetary waves on the lower ionosphere as obtained from radio wave absorption measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 26, 6, Part C (2001), s. 381-386 ISSN 1464-1917 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS3012007; GA AV ČR IAA3042102; GA MŠk OC 271.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : planetary wave * gravity wave * lower ionosphere Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2001

  7. Coronal mass ejection kinematics deduced from white light (Solar Mass Ejection Imager) and radio (Wind/WAVES) observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, M. J.; Jackson, B. V.; Webb, D. F.; Mizuno, D. R.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2005-09-01

    White-light and radio observations are combined to deduce the coronal and interplanetary kinematics of a fast coronal mass ejection (CME) that was ejected from the Sun at about 1700 UT on 2 November 2003. The CME, which was associated with an X8.3 solar flare from W56°, was observed by the Mauna Loa and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large-Angle Spectrometric Coronograph (LASCO) coronagraphs to 14 R⊙. The measured plane-of-sky speed of the LASCO CME was 2600 km s-1. To deduce the kinematics of this CME, we use the plane-of-sky white light observations from both the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) all-sky camera on board the Coriolis spacecraft and the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph, as well as the frequency drift rate of the low-frequency radio data and the results of the radio direction-finding analysis from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft. In agreement with the in situ observations for this event, we find that both the white light and radio observations indicate that the CME must have decelerated significantly beginning near the Sun and continuing well into the interplanetary medium. More specifically, by requiring self-consistency of all the available remote and in situ data, together with a simple, but not unreasonable, assumption about the general characteristic of the CME deceleration, we were able to deduce the radial speed and distance time profiles for this CME as it propagated from the Sun to 1 AU. The technique presented here, which is applicable to mutual SMEI/WAVES CME events, is expected to provide a more complete description and better quantitative understanding of how CMEs propagate through interplanetary space, as well as how the radio emissions, generated by propagating CME/shocks, relate to the shock and CME. This understanding can potentially lead to more accurate predictions for the onset times of space weather events, such as those that were observed during this unique period of intense solar activity.

  8. HF Propagation Effects Caused by an Artificial Plasma Cloud in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, D. R.; Groves, K. M.; McNeil, W. J.; Caton, R. G.; Parris, R. T.; Pedersen, T. R.; Cannon, P. S.; Angling, M. J.; Jackson-Booth, N. K.

    2014-12-01

    In a campaign carried out by the NASA sounding rocket team, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) launched two sounding rockets in the Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands, in May 2013 known as the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) experiment to study the interactions of artificial ionization and the background plasma and measure the effects on high frequency (HF) radio wave propagation. The rockets released samarium metal vapor in the lower F-region of the ionosphere that ionized forming a plasma cloud that persisted for tens of minutes to hours in the post-sunset period. Data from the experiments has been analyzed to understand the impacts of the artificial ionization on HF radio wave propagation. Swept frequency HF links transiting the artificial ionization region were employed to produce oblique ionograms that clearly showed the effects of the samarium cloud. Ray tracing has been used to successfully model the effects of the ionized cloud. Comparisons between observations and modeled results will be presented, including model output using the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), the Parameterized Ionospheric Model (PIM) and PIM constrained by electron density profiles measured with the ALTAIR radar at Kwajalein. Observations and modeling confirm that the cloud acted as a divergent lens refracting energy away from direct propagation paths and scattering energy at large angles relative to the initial propagation direction. The results confirm that even small amounts of ionized material injected in the upper atmosphere can result in significant changes to the natural propagation environment.

  9. Radio-Wave Propagation in Salt Domes: Implications for a UHE Cosmic Neutrino Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badescu, Alina-Mihaela; Saftoiu, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Salt deposits can be used as a natural dielectric medium for a UHE cosmic neutrino radio detector. Such a detector relies on the capability of reconstructing the initial characteristics of the cosmic neutrino from the measured radio electrical field produced at neutrino’s interaction in salt by the subsequent particle shower. A rigorous characterization of the propagation medium becomes compulsory. It is shown here that the amplitude of the electric field vector is attenuated by almost 90% after 100 m of propagation in a typical salt rock volume. The heterogeneities in salt also determine the minimal uncertainty (estimated at 19%) and the resolution of the detector

  10. Millimeter-wave and Terahertz Reconfigurable Radio-over-Fiber Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    when deploying fiber is not an option. Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) technologies have evolved from a blue sky academic topic in the 90s to a main driver within the current quest for the 5th generation mobile systems (5G). A twist in RoF technologies is that it has found along the way niches in areas non......, the complexity of fabrication and to integrate this solutions have to compete with the off-the-shelf solutions provided by RoF technologies. Technologically though, reconfigurable Radio-over-Fiber networks require a co-design effort involving tunable lasers, digital signal processing, high speed modulators...

  11. Density fluctuations measured by ISEE 1-2 in the Earth's magnetosheath and the resultant scattering of radio waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lacombe

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Radio waves undergo angular scattering when they propagate through a plasma with fluctuating density. We show how the angular scattering coefficient can be calculated as a function of the frequency spectrum of the local density fluctuations. In the Earth's magnetosheath, the ISEE 1-2 propagation experiment measured the spectral power of the density fluctuations for periods in the range 300 to 1 s, which produce most of the scattering. The resultant local angular scattering coefficient can then be calculated for the first time with realistic density fluctuation spectra, which are neither Gaussian nor power laws. We present results on the variation of the local angular scattering coefficient during two crossings of the dayside magnetosheath, from the quasi-perpendicular bow shock to the magnetopause. For a radio wave at twice the local electron plasma frequency, the scattering coefficient in the major part of the magnetosheath is b(2fp ≃ 0.5 – 4 × 10–9 rad2/m. The scattering coefficient is about ten times stronger in a thin sheet (0.1 to1RE just downstream of the shock ramp, and close to the magnetopause.

  12. Relations between turbulent regions of interplanetary magnetic field and Jovian decametric radio wave emissions from the main source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, H.; Morioka, A.

    1981-01-01

    Jovian decametric radio wave emissions that were observed at Goddard Space Flight Center, U.S.A. for a period from 1 October to 31 December, 1974 and data obtained at Mt. Zao observatory, Tohoku University, Japan, for a period from 14 July to 6 December, 1975 have been used to investigate the relationship of the occurrence of the Jovian decametric radio waves (JDW), from the main source, to the geomagnetic disturbance index, ΣKAPPA sub(rho). The dynamic cross-correlation between JDW and ΣKAPPAsubrho indicates an enhanced correlation for certain values of delay time. The delay time is consistent with predicted values based on a model of rotating turbulent regions in interplanetary space associated with two sector boundaries of the interplanetary magnetic field, i.e. the rotating sector boundaries of the interplanetary magnetic field first encounter the Earth's magnetosphere producing the geomagnetic field disturbances, and after a certain period, they encounter the Jovian magnetosphere. There are also cases where the order of the encounter is opposite, i.e. the sector boundaries encounter first Jovian magnetosphere and encounter the Earth's magnetosphere after a certain period. (author)

  13. FLARE-GENERATED SHOCK WAVE PROPAGATION THROUGH SOLAR CORONAL ARCADE LOOPS AND AN ASSOCIATED TYPE II RADIO BURST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Innes, D. E., E-mail: pankaj@kasi.re.kr [Max-Planck Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents multiwavelength observations of a flare-generated type II radio burst. The kinematics of the shock derived from the type II burst closely match a fast extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wave seen propagating through coronal arcade loops. The EUV wave was closely associated with an impulsive M1.0 flare without a related coronal mass ejection, and was triggered at one of the footpoints of the arcade loops in active region NOAA 12035. It was initially observed in the 335 Å images from the Atmospheric Image Assembly with a speed of ∼800 km s{sup −1} and it accelerated to ∼1490 km s{sup −1} after passing through the arcade loops. A fan–spine magnetic topology was revealed at the flare site. A small, confined filament eruption (∼340 km s{sup −1}) was also observed moving in the opposite direction to the EUV wave. We suggest that breakout reconnection in the fan–spine topology triggered the flare and associated EUV wave that propagated as a fast shock through the arcade loops.

  14. FLARE-GENERATED SHOCK WAVE PROPAGATION THROUGH SOLAR CORONAL ARCADE LOOPS AND AN ASSOCIATED TYPE II RADIO BURST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Innes, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents multiwavelength observations of a flare-generated type II radio burst. The kinematics of the shock derived from the type II burst closely match a fast extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wave seen propagating through coronal arcade loops. The EUV wave was closely associated with an impulsive M1.0 flare without a related coronal mass ejection, and was triggered at one of the footpoints of the arcade loops in active region NOAA 12035. It was initially observed in the 335 Å images from the Atmospheric Image Assembly with a speed of ∼800 km s −1 and it accelerated to ∼1490 km s −1 after passing through the arcade loops. A fan–spine magnetic topology was revealed at the flare site. A small, confined filament eruption (∼340 km s −1 ) was also observed moving in the opposite direction to the EUV wave. We suggest that breakout reconnection in the fan–spine topology triggered the flare and associated EUV wave that propagated as a fast shock through the arcade loops.

  15. Characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar and GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2014-01-01

    The wind velocity and temperature profiles observed in the middle atmosphere (altitude: 10-100 km) show perturbations resulting from superposition of various atmospheric waves, including atmospheric gravity waves. Atmospheric gravity waves are known to play an important role in determining the general circulation in the middle atmosphere by dynamical stresses caused by gravity wave breaking. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar in Japan, as well as novel satellite data obtained from global positioning system radio occultation (GPS RO) measurements. In particular, we focus on the behavior of gravity waves in the mesosphere (50-90 km), where considerable gravity wave attenuation occurs. We also report on the global distribution of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere (10-50 km), highlighting various excitation mechanisms such as orographic effects, convection in the tropics, meteorological disturbances, the subtropical jet and the polar night jet.

  16. Radio-Wave Tomography of Inhomogeneities in Biological Media with Multi-Frequency Sounding in the Range 2-8 GHZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipilov Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for detecting and mapping inhomogeneities in biological tissues using the radio-wave tomosynthesis method is presented. The proposed method of radio-wave tomosynthesis allows us to calculate the three-dimensional distribution of the permittivity of the space under study and, thereby, to detect tissue inhomogeneities and to determine their location and size. Due to their harmlessness for humans, these methods are suitable for dynamic observation of changes in the size of formation, in contrast to x-ray methods, for which regular doses of ionizing radiation are contraindicated. Therefore, the development of non-invasive methods for the search for inhomogeneities in biological media based on radio-wave sounding, which makes it possible to identify pathological formations, is now very relevant.

  17. Gravity Waves in the Atmosphere of Mars as seen by the Radio Science Experiment MaRS on Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellmann, S.; Paetzold, M.; Häusler, B.; Bird, M. K.; Tyler, G. L.; Hinson, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    Gravity waves are atmospheric waves whose restoring force is the buoyancy. They are known to play an essential role in the redistribution of energy, momentum and atmospheric constituents in all stably stratified planetary atmospheres. Possible excitation mechanisms comprise convection in an adjacent atmospheric layer, other atmospheric instabilities like wind shear instabilities, or air flow over orographic obstacles especially in combination with the strong winter jets on Mars. Gravity waves on Mars were observed in the lower atmosphere [1,2] but are also expected to play a major role in the cooling of the thermosphere [3] and the polar warming [4]. A fundamental understanding of the possible source mechanisms is required to reveal the influence of small scale gravity waves on the global atmospheric circulation. Radio occultation profiles from the MaRS experiment on Mars Express [5] with their exceptionally high vertical resolution can be used to study small-scale vertical gravity waves and their global distribution in the lower atmosphere from the planetary boundary layer up to 40 km altitude. Atmospheric instabilities, which are clearly identified in the data, are used to gain further insight into possible atmospheric processes contributing to the excitation of gravity waves. [1] Creasey, J. E., et al.,(2006), Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L01803, doi:10.1029/2005GL024037. [2]Tellmann, S., et al.(2013), J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 306-320, doi:10.1002/jgre.20058. [3]Medvedev, A. S., et al.(2015), J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 120, 913-927. doi:10.1002/2015JE004802.[4] Barnes, J. R. (1990), J. Geophys. Res., 95, B2, 1401-1421. [5] Pätzold, M., et al. (2016), Planet. Space Sci., 127, 44 - 90.

  18. Integrated Coherent Radio-over-Fiber Units for Millimeter-Wave Wireless Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, A.; Babiel, S.; Chuenchom, M.

    2015-01-01

    For providing wireless access as a complementary access technology to direct optical access, supporting 1–10 Gb/s per client, we propose a novel scheme based upon the transparent integration of coherent Radio-over-Fiber (CRoF) units with next generation optical access (NGOA) networks using dense ...

  19. Making waves the story of Ruby Payne-Scott : Australian pioneer radio astronomer

    CERN Document Server

    Goss, M

    2013-01-01

    This book is an abbreviated, partly re-written version of "Under the Radar - The First Woman in Radio Astronomy: Ruby Payne-Scott." It addresses a general readership interested in historical and sociological aspects of astronomy and presents the biography of Ruby Payne-Scott (1912 – 1981). As the first female radio astronomer (and one of the first people in the world to consider radio astronomy), she made classic contributions to solar radio physics. She also played a major role in the design of the Australian government's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research radars, which were in turn of vital importance in the Southwest Pacific Theatre in World War II. These radars were used by military personnel from Australia, the United States and New Zealand. From a sociological perspective, her career offers many examples of the perils of being a female academic in the first half of the 20th century. Written in an engaging style and complemented by many historical photographs, this book offers fascinating...

  20. THE DECISION OF FORM FOR DIFFRACTIVE STRUCTURES IN THE PROBLEM OF SCATTERING OF RADIO WAVES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Preobrazhensky

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of scattering of electromagnetic waves in different diffraction structures. The solution of the scattering problem is based on the method of integral equations. On diagrams of backscattering at various frequencies of the incident wave, the decision about the form of the object is carried out.

  1. Temperature dependent growth rates of the upper-hybrid waves and solar radio zebra patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benáček, J.; Karlický, Marian; Yasnov, L. V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 598, February (2017), A106/1-A106/6 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0103 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015042 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun radio radiation * instabilities * methods analytical Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  2. Adiabatic radio-frequency potentials for the coherent manipulation of matter waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesanovsky, Igor; Schumm, Thorsten; Hofferberth, S.

    2006-01-01

    Adiabatic dressed state potentials are created when magnetic substates of trapped atoms are coupled by a radio-frequency field. We discuss their theoretical foundations and point out fundamental advantages over potentials purely based on static fields. The enhanced flexibility enables one...... to implement numerous configurations, including double wells, Mach-Zehnder, and Sagnac interferometers which even allows for internal state-dependent atom manipulation. These can be realized using simple and highly integrated wire geometries on atom chips....

  3. Enabling technologies for millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber systems in next generation heterogeneous mobile access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Wang, Jing; Xu, Mu; Cheng, Lin; Lu, Feng; Shen, Shuyi; Yan, Yan; Cho, Hyunwoo; Guidotti, Daniel; Chang, Gee-kung

    2017-01-01

    Fifth-generation (5G) wireless access network promises to support higher access data rate with more than 1,000 times capacity with respect to current long-term evolution (LTE) systems. New radio-access-technologies (RATs) based on higher carrier frequencies to millimeter-wave (MMW) radio-over-fiber, and carrier-aggregation (CA) using multi-band resources are intensively studied to support the high data rate access and effectively use of frequency resources in heterogeneous mobile network (Het-Net). In this paper, we investigate several enabling technologies for MMW RoF systems in 5G Het-Net. Efficient mobile fronthaul (MFH) solutions for 5G centralized radio access network (C-RAN) and beyond are proposed, analyzed and experimentally demonstrated based on the analog scheme. Digital predistortion based on memory polynomial for analog MFH linearization are presented with improved EVM performances and receiver sensitivity. We also propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel inter-/intra- RAT CA scheme for 5G Het- Net. The real-time standard 4G-LTE signal is carrier-aggregated with three broadband 60GHz MMW signals based on proposed optical-domain band-mapping method. RATs based on new waveforms have also been studied here to achieve higher spectral-efficiency (SE) in asynchronous environments. Full-duplex asynchronous quasi-gapless carrier aggregation scheme for MMW ROF inter-/intra-RAT based on the FBMC is also presented with 4G-LTE signals. Compared with OFDM-based signals with large guard-bands, FBMC achieves higher spectral-efficiency with better EVM performance at less received power and smaller guard-bands.

  4. Summary of daily observational results of solar phenomena, cosmic ray, geomagnetic variation, ionosphere, radio wave propagation and airglow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The diagrams in this section of the publication illustrate the summary of daily observational results of solar phenomena, cosmic ray, geomagnetic variation, ionosphere, radio wave propagation and airglow observed in Japan. For convenience, the observational results are arranged by the solar rotation number. The aim of this illustration is to disseminate an outline of daily events observed in Japan for the benefit of active research workers who plan to make detailed study of the specific solar and terrestrial events. Therefore, the illustrations do not show all observational results in Japan but only representative ones at some key stations in Japan. They will suffice for the present purpose. The method of illustration shown in the instruction on the next page is still a preliminary one, and it is subject to change resulting from the kind advice of the users of this part of the publication. We welcome any advice for making the data arrangement and expression better and more convenient. (auth.)

  5. HF i dag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Maria Duclos; Simonsen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    Notatet er lavet på baggrund af uddannelsesbiografiske dybdeinterviews med kursister på toårigt HF. Indenfor rammerne af en pilotundersøgelse identificerer notatet fire gennemgående profiler: De pragmatiske, de fagligt usikre, second chance-kursisterne, og de HF-kursister, som har HF som first...

  6. Brightness Temperature of Radio Zebras and Wave Energy Densities in Their Sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yasnov, L. V.; Benáček, J.; Karlický, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 292, č. 11 (2017), 163/1-163/12 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-13277S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-16447S Grant - others:GA MŠk,CERIT-SC(CZ) LM2015085; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015042 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun corona * Su flares * radio radiation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2016

  7. Determination of area averaged water vapour fluxes with large aperture and radio wave scintillometers over a heterogeneous surface - Flevoland field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijninger, W.M.L.; Green, A.E.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Kohsiek, W.; Hoedjes, J.C.B.; Zuurbier, R.M.; DeBruin, H.A.R.

    2002-01-01

    A large aperture scintillometer (LAS) and radio wave scintillometer (RWS) were installed over a heterogeneous area to test the applicability of the scintillation method. The heterogeneity in the area, which consisted of many plots, was mainly caused by differences in thermal properties of the crops;

  8. A study of electron density profiles in relation to ionization sources and ground-based radio wave absorption measurements, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanalingam, S.; Kane, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    An extensive set of ground-based measurements of the diurnal variation of medium frequency radio wave adsorption and virtual height is analyzed in terms of current understanding of the D- and lower E-region ion production and loss process. When this is done a gross discrepancy arises, the source of which is not known.

  9. Waves in the middle and upper atmosphere of Mars as seen by the Radio Science Experiment MaRS on Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellmann, S.; Paetzold, M.; Häusler, B.; Hinson, D. P.; Peter, K.; Tyler, G. L.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric waves play a crucial role in the Martian atmosphere. They are responsible for the redistribution of momentum, energy and dust and for the coupling of the different atmospheric regions on Mars. Almost all kinds of waves have been observed in the lower atmosphere (e.g. stationary and transient waves, baroclinic waves as well as migrating and non-migrating thermal tides, gravity waves, etc...). Atmospheric waves are also known to exist in the middle atmosphere of Mars ( 70-120 km, e.g. by the SPICAM instrument on Mars Express). In the thermosphere, thermal tides have been observed e.g. by radio occultation or accelerometer measurements on MGS. Recently, the NGIMS instrument on MAVEN reported gravity waves in the thermosphere of Mars. Radio Science profiles from the Mars Express Radio Science experiment MaRS on Mars Express can analyse the temperature, pressure and neutral number density profiles in the lower atmosphere (from a few hundred metres above the surface up to 40-50 km) and electron density profiles in the ionosphere of Mars. Wavelike structures have been detected below the main ionospheric layers (M1 & M2) and in the topside of the ionosphere. The two coherent frequencies of the MaRS experiment allow to discriminate between plasma density fluctuations in the ionosphere and Doppler related frequency shifts caused by spacecraft movement. A careful analysis of the observed electron density fluctuations in combination with sensitivity studies of the radio occultation technique will be used to classify the observed fluctuations. The MaRS experiment is funded by DLR under grant 50QM1401.

  10. Radiophysical methods of diagnostics the Earth's ionosphere and the underlying earth's surface by remote sensing in the short-wave range of radio waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, S. Yu.; Belova, I. N.

    2017-11-01

    Monitoring of the earth's surface by remote sensing in the short-wave band can provide quick identification of some characteristics of natural systems. This band range allows one to diagnose subsurface aspects of the earth, as the scattering parameter is affected by irregularities in the dielectric permittivity of subsurface structures. This method based on the organization of the monitoring probe may detect changes in these environments, for example, to assess seismic hazard, hazardous natural phenomena such as earthquakes, as well as some man-made hazards and etc. The problem of measuring and accounting for the scattering power of the earth's surface in the short-range of radio waves is important for a number of purposes, such as diagnosing properties of the medium, which is of interest for geological, environmental studies. In this paper, we propose a new method for estimating the parameters of incoherent signal/noise ratio. The paper presents the results of comparison of the measurement method from the point of view of their admissible relative analytical errors. The new method is suggested. Analysis of analytical error of estimation of this parameter allowed to recommend new method instead of standard method. A comparative analysis and shows that the analytical (relative) accuracy of the determination of this parameter new method on the order exceeds the widely-used standard method.

  11. Analysis and Comparison of 24 GHz cmWave Radio Propagation in Urban and Suburban Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Abreu, Renato

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement-based comparison of cm-wave propagation in urban and suburban scenarios at 24 GHz with transmitter antennas located above rooftop level. Different sets of directional measurements, exploring the full azimuth and the range from -30 to +30 degrees in elevation, were...

  12. Opto-Electromechanical Devices for Low-Noise Detection of Radio Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagci, Tolga

    factors. For example, a hybrid system like this, would enable the use of well-established shot-noise limited optical sensing technologies for detecting weak radio-frequency (rf) signals, rf-to-optical photon conversion and transmission of information in low-loss fiber-optic links over long distances......There is currently an increasing interest in developing hybrid devices that unite the desirable features of different systems. Opto-electromechanics has emerged as one of these promising hybrid fields, where the functionality of conventional electrical circuits can be combined with the salient...... features of optical systems for various technological and sensing applications. Nanomechanical resonators stand as promising candidates in terms of linking the two systems, primarily thanks to their versatility in coupling to various physical systems, together with their excellent mechanical quality...

  13. Effect of radio frequency waves of electromagnetic field on the tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghi, Mousavi; Gholamhosein, Riazi; Saeed, Rezayi-Zarchi

    2013-09-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are macromolecular structures consisting of tubulin heterodimers and present in almost every eukaryotic cell. MTs fulfill all conditions for generation of electromagnetic field and are electrically polar due to the electrical polarity of a tubulin heterodimer. The calculated static electric dipole moment of about 1000 Debye makes them capable of being aligned parallel to the applied electromagnetic field direction. In the present study, the tubulin heterodimers were extracted and purified from the rat brains. MTs were obtained by polymerization in vitro. Samples of microtubules were adsorbed in the absence and in the presence of electromagnetic fields with radio frequency of 900 Hz. Our results demonstrate the effect of electromagnetic field with 900 Hz frequency to change the structure of MTs. In this paper, a related patent was used that will help to better understand the studied subject.

  14. Radio wave heating of the corona and electron precipitation during flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, D. B.; Dulk, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Electron-cyclotron masers, excited while energy release is occurring in a flaring magnetic loop, are likely to generate extremely intense radiation at decimeter wavelengths. The energy in the radiation can be comparable with that in the electrons associated with hard X-ray bursts, i.e., a significant fraction of the total energy in the flare. Essentially all of the radio energy is likely to be reabsorbed by gyroresonance absorption, either near the emitting region or at some distance away in neighboring loops. Enhanced diffusion of fast electrons caused by the maser can lead to precipitation at the maximum possible rate, and hence account for hard X-ray emission from the footpoints of the magnetic loops.

  15. Submillimeter molecular spectroscopy with the Texas millimeter wave observatory radio telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loren, R.B.; Wootten, A.; National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA)

    1986-01-01

    A large number of previously unreported molecular transitions have been detected in the submillimeter wavelength band toward OMC-1 and M17 SW using the Texas 4.9 m radio antenna. The emission components in OMC-1 that come from the unresolved plateau and hot core regions are stronger in these higher energy transitions than in the lower-energy, lower-frequency lines. Intense, probably thermalized high J SiO lines require a very hot core if they arise in a region the same size as that mapped in J = 2-1 SiO by interferometer measurements. Despite the high energy levels of the submillimeter lines of CN and CCH, there is no broad emission component evident, consistent with their greatly reduced abundance due to removal by chemical reactions. 33 references

  16. From falling bodies to radio waves classical physicists and their discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Segrè, Emilio

    1984-01-01

    Meet a diverse group of highly original thinkers and learn about their lives and achievements: Galileo, a founding father of astronomy and physics; Christiaan Huygens, a seventeenth-century pioneer of wave-particle duality; and Isaac Newton, the English mathematician and physicist who laid the groundwork for a scientific revolution and promoted radical investigation as the means to reveal nature's hidden workings.This chronicle of physics and physicists traces the development of scientific thought from these originators to their successors, among them Faraday, Watts, Helmholtz, Maxwell, Boltzm

  17. Modeling of the Dynamics of Radio Wave Reflection and Absorption in a Smoothly Ionomogeneous Plasma with Electromagnetically Driven Strong Langmuir Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetov, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    This work was initiated by experiments on studying the self-action of radio waves incident on the ionosphere from a ground-based transmitter at the stage of electromagnetic excitation of Langmuir turbulence (Langmuir effect). The emphasis is on the impact of "self-consistent" collisionless absorption of radio waves by the Langmuir turbulence, which develops when the incident-wave field swells in the resonant region of a smoothly inhomogeneous plasma, on the dynamics of the radio wave reflection. Electrodynamic characteristics of the nonlinear-plasma layer, which has a linear unperturbed profile of the plasma density, with different features of the absorption development are obtained for a high intensity of the incident radiation. Calculations of "soft" and "hard" regimes of the absorption occurrence, as well as hysteresis modes in which the damping switch-on and off thresholds differ several times, are carried out. The algorithms we devised and the results of the study can serve as the basis for a more adequate and more detailed numerical simulation for interpretation of the experimental data obtained at the stage of the Langmuir effect in the ionosphere.

  18. Phenomena induced by powerful HF pumping towards magnetic zenith with a frequency near the F-region critical frequency and the third electron gyro harmonic frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Blagoveshchenskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-instrument observational data from an experiment on 13 October 2006 at the EISCAT/HEATING facility at Tromsø, Norway are analysed. The experiment was carried out in the evening hours when the electron density in the F-region dropped, and the HF pump frequency fH was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer. The distinctive feature of this experiment is that the pump frequency was just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency, while both the HF pump beam and UHF radar beam were directed towards the magnetic zenith (MZ. The HF pump-induced phenomena were diagnosed with several instruments: the bi-static HF radio scatter on the London-Tromsø-St. Petersburg path, the CUTLASS radar in Hankasalmi (Finland, the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT UHF radar at Tromsø and the Tromsø ionosonde (dynasonde. The results show thermal electron excitation of the HF-induced striations seen simultaneously from HF bi-static scatter and CUTLASS radar observations, accompanied by increases of electron temperature when the heater frequency was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer by up to 0.4 MHz. An increase of the electron density up to 25% accompanied by strong HF-induced electron heating was observed, only when the heater frequency was near the critical frequency and just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency. It is concluded that the combined effect of upper hybrid resonance and gyro resonance at the same altitude gives rise to strong electron heating, the excitation of striations, HF ray trapping and extension of HF waves to altitudes where they can excite Langmuir turbulence and fluxes of electrons accelerated to energies that produce ionization.

  19. Phenomena induced by powerful HF pumping towards magnetic zenith with a frequency near the F-region critical frequency and the third electron gyro harmonic frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Blagoveshchenskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-instrument observational data from an experiment on 13 October 2006 at the EISCAT/HEATING facility at Tromsø, Norway are analysed. The experiment was carried out in the evening hours when the electron density in the F-region dropped, and the HF pump frequency fH was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer. The distinctive feature of this experiment is that the pump frequency was just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency, while both the HF pump beam and UHF radar beam were directed towards the magnetic zenith (MZ. The HF pump-induced phenomena were diagnosed with several instruments: the bi-static HF radio scatter on the London-Tromsø-St. Petersburg path, the CUTLASS radar in Hankasalmi (Finland, the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT UHF radar at Tromsø and the Tromsø ionosonde (dynasonde. The results show thermal electron excitation of the HF-induced striations seen simultaneously from HF bi-static scatter and CUTLASS radar observations, accompanied by increases of electron temperature when the heater frequency was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer by up to 0.4 MHz. An increase of the electron density up to 25% accompanied by strong HF-induced electron heating was observed, only when the heater frequency was near the critical frequency and just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency. It is concluded that the combined effect of upper hybrid resonance and gyro resonance at the same altitude gives rise to strong electron heating, the excitation of striations, HF ray trapping and extension of HF waves to altitudes where they can excite Langmuir turbulence and fluxes of electrons accelerated to energies that produce ionization.

  20. Direct measurement of density oscillation induced by a radio-frequency wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Ejiri, A.; Shimada, Y.; Oosako, T.; Tsujimura, J.; Takase, Y.; Kasahara, H.

    2007-01-01

    An O-mode reflectometer at a frequency of 25.85 GHz was applied to plasmas heated by the high harmonic fast wave (21 MHz) in the TST-2 spherical tokamak. An oscillation in the phase of the reflected microwave in the rf range was observed directly for the first time. In TST-2, the rf (250 kW) induced density oscillation depends mainly on the poloidal rf electric field, which is estimated to be about 0.2 kV/m rms by the reflectometer measurement. Sideband peaks separated in frequency by ion cyclotron harmonics from 21 MHz, and peaks at ion cyclotron harmonics which are suggested to be quasimodes generated by parametric decay, were detected

  1. Riding the rural radio wave: The impact of a community-led drug and alcohol radio advertising campaign in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Alice; Allan, Julaine; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Snijder, Mieke

    2017-10-01

    Aboriginal people experience a higher burden of disease as a consequence of drug and alcohol (D&A) abuse. Although media campaigns can be a popular tool for disseminating health promotion messages, evidence of the extent to which they reduce the impact of substance abuse is limited, especially for rural Aboriginal communities. This paper is the first to examine the impact a locally designed D&A radio advertising campaign for Aboriginal people in a remote community in Western NSW. A post-intervention evaluation. The radio campaign was implemented in Bourke, (population 2465, 30% Aboriginal). Fifty-three community surveys were completed. The self-reported level of awareness of the campaign and the number of self-referrals to local D&A workers in the intervention period. Most respondents (79%) reported they listen to radio on a daily basis, with 75% reporting that they had heard one or more of the advertisements. The advertisement that was remembered best contained the voice of a respected, local person. There was one self-referral to local health services during the intervention timeframe. The community-led radio advertising campaign increased community awareness of substance abuse harms, but had limited impact on formal help-seeking. This paper highlights the value of radio as a commonly used, trusted and culturally relevant health promotion medium for rural communities, especially when engaging local respected Aboriginal presenters. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  2. Amplitude variations of ELF radio waves in the Earth-ionosphere cavity with the day-night non-uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuk, Yu P.; Nickolaenko, A. P.; Hayakawa, M.

    2018-04-01

    The real structure of lower ionosphere should be taken into account when modeling the sub-ionospheric radio propagation in the extremely low frequency (ELF) band and studying the global electromagnetic (Schumann) resonance of the Earth-ionosphere cavity. In the present work we use the 2D (two dimensional) telegraph equations (2DTE) for evaluating the effect of the ionosphere day-night non-uniformity on the electromagnetic field amplitude at the Schumann resonance and higher frequencies. Properties of the cavity upper boundary were taken into account by the full wave solution technique for realistic vertical profiles of atmosphere conductivity in the ambient day and ambient night conditions. We solved the electromagnetic problem in a cavity with the day-night non-uniformity by using the 2DTE technique. Initially, the testing of the 2DTE solution was performed in the model of the sharp day-night interface. The further computations were carried out in the model of the smooth day-night transition. The major attention was directed to the effects at propagation paths "perpendicular" or "parallel" to the solar terminator line. Data were computed for a series of frequencies, the comparison of the results was made and interpretation was given to the observed effects.

  3. A study of electron density profiles in relation to ionization sources and ground-based radio wave absorption measurements, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanalingam, S.; Kane, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    The D-region ion production functions are used to calculate the relationship between radio wave absorption and the flux level of X-rays in the 1-8A wavelength band. In order to bring this calculation into agreement with the empirically established relationship, it was found necessary to reduce by, a factor of about 5, the Meira nitric oxide densities below 90 km.

  4. Features of the non-collinear one-phonon anomalous light scattering controlled by elastic waves with elevated linear losses: potentials for multi-frequency parallel spectrum analysis of radio-wave signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S; Arellanes, Adan Omar

    2017-12-01

    During subsequent development of the recently proposed multi-frequency parallel spectrometer for precise spectrum analysis of wideband radio-wave signals, we study potentials of new acousto-optical cells exploiting selected crystalline materials at the limits of their capabilities. Characterizing these wide-aperture cells is non-trivial due to new features inherent in the chosen regime of an advanced non-collinear one-phonon anomalous light scattering by elastic waves with significantly elevated acoustic losses. These features can be observed simpler in uniaxial, tetragonal, and trigonal crystals possessing linear acoustic attenuation. We demonstrate that formerly studied additional degree of freedom, revealed initially for multi-phonon regimes of acousto-optical interaction, can be identified within the one-phonon geometry as well and exploited for designing new cells. We clarify the role of varying the central acoustic frequency and acoustic attenuation using the identified degree of freedom. Therewith, we are strongly restricted by a linear regime of acousto-optical interaction to avoid the origin of multi-phonon processes within carrying out a multi-frequency parallel spectrum analysis of radio-wave signals. Proof-of-principle experiments confirm the developed approaches and illustrate their applicability to innovative technique for an advanced spectrum analysis of wideband radio-wave signals with the improved resolution in an extended frequency range.

  5. Application of the nudged elastic band method to the point-to-point radio wave ray tracing in IRI modeled ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosikov, I. A.; Klimenko, M. V.; Bessarab, P. F.; Zhbankov, G. A.

    2017-07-01

    Point-to-point ray tracing is an important problem in many fields of science. While direct variational methods where some trajectory is transformed to an optimal one are routinely used in calculations of pathways of seismic waves, chemical reactions, diffusion processes, etc., this approach is not widely known in ionospheric point-to-point ray tracing. We apply the Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) method to a radio wave propagation problem. In the NEB method, a chain of points which gives a discrete representation of the radio wave ray is adjusted iteratively to an optimal configuration satisfying the Fermat's principle, while the endpoints of the trajectory are kept fixed according to the boundary conditions. Transverse displacements define the radio ray trajectory, while springs between the points control their distribution along the ray. The method is applied to a study of point-to-point ionospheric ray tracing, where the propagation medium is obtained with the International Reference Ionosphere model taking into account traveling ionospheric disturbances. A 2-dimensional representation of the optical path functional is developed and used to gain insight into the fundamental difference between high and low rays. We conclude that high and low rays are minima and saddle points of the optical path functional, respectively.

  6. Radio continua modulated by waves: Zebra patterns in solar and pulsar radio spectra?n in the 2001 June 15 flare

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karlický, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 552, April (2013), A90/1-A90/6 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0103 Grant - others:EU(XE) PIRSES-GA-2011-295272 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * radio radiation * pulsar s Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.479, year: 2013

  7. Wave-optics uncertainty propagation and regression-based bias model in GNSS radio occultation bending angle retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Gorbunov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new reference occultation processing system (rOPS will include a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS radio occultation (RO retrieval chain with integrated uncertainty propagation. In this paper, we focus on wave-optics bending angle (BA retrieval in the lower troposphere and introduce (1 an empirically estimated boundary layer bias (BLB model then employed to reduce the systematic uncertainty of excess phases and bending angles in about the lowest 2 km of the troposphere and (2 the estimation of (residual systematic uncertainties and their propagation together with random uncertainties from excess phase to bending angle profiles. Our BLB model describes the estimated bias of the excess phase transferred from the estimated bias of the bending angle, for which the model is built, informed by analyzing refractivity fluctuation statistics shown to induce such biases. The model is derived from regression analysis using a large ensemble of Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC RO observations and concurrent European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF analysis fields. It is formulated in terms of predictors and adaptive functions (powers and cross products of predictors, where we use six main predictors derived from observations: impact altitude, latitude, bending angle and its standard deviation, canonical transform (CT amplitude, and its fluctuation index. Based on an ensemble of test days, independent of the days of data used for the regression analysis to establish the BLB model, we find the model very effective for bias reduction and capable of reducing bending angle and corresponding refractivity biases by about a factor of 5. The estimated residual systematic uncertainty, after the BLB profile subtraction, is lower bounded by the uncertainty from the (indirect use of ECMWF analysis fields but is significantly lower than the systematic uncertainty without BLB correction. The

  8. Wave-optics uncertainty propagation and regression-based bias model in GNSS radio occultation bending angle retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, Michael E.; Kirchengast, Gottfried

    2018-01-01

    A new reference occultation processing system (rOPS) will include a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) retrieval chain with integrated uncertainty propagation. In this paper, we focus on wave-optics bending angle (BA) retrieval in the lower troposphere and introduce (1) an empirically estimated boundary layer bias (BLB) model then employed to reduce the systematic uncertainty of excess phases and bending angles in about the lowest 2 km of the troposphere and (2) the estimation of (residual) systematic uncertainties and their propagation together with random uncertainties from excess phase to bending angle profiles. Our BLB model describes the estimated bias of the excess phase transferred from the estimated bias of the bending angle, for which the model is built, informed by analyzing refractivity fluctuation statistics shown to induce such biases. The model is derived from regression analysis using a large ensemble of Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) RO observations and concurrent European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis fields. It is formulated in terms of predictors and adaptive functions (powers and cross products of predictors), where we use six main predictors derived from observations: impact altitude, latitude, bending angle and its standard deviation, canonical transform (CT) amplitude, and its fluctuation index. Based on an ensemble of test days, independent of the days of data used for the regression analysis to establish the BLB model, we find the model very effective for bias reduction and capable of reducing bending angle and corresponding refractivity biases by about a factor of 5. The estimated residual systematic uncertainty, after the BLB profile subtraction, is lower bounded by the uncertainty from the (indirect) use of ECMWF analysis fields but is significantly lower than the systematic uncertainty without BLB correction. The systematic and

  9. An alternative to the plasma emission model: Particle-in-cell, self-consistent electromagnetic wave emission simulations of solar type III radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiklauri, David

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution (sub-Debye length grid size and 10 000 particle species per cell), 1.5D particle-in-cell, relativistic, fully electromagnetic simulations are used to model electromagnetic wave emission generation in the context of solar type III radio bursts. The model studies generation of electromagnetic waves by a super-thermal, hot beam of electrons injected into a plasma thread that contains uniform longitudinal magnetic field and a parabolic density gradient. In effect, a single magnetic line connecting Sun to Earth is considered, for which five cases are studied. (i) We find that the physical system without a beam is stable and only low amplitude level electromagnetic drift waves (noise) are excited. (ii) The beam injection direction is controlled by setting either longitudinal or oblique electron initial drift speed, i.e., by setting the beam pitch angle (the angle between the beam velocity vector and the direction of background magnetic field). In the case of zero pitch angle, i.e., when v-vector b ·E-vector perpendicular =0, the beam excites only electrostatic, standing waves, oscillating at local plasma frequency, in the beam injection spatial location, and only low level electromagnetic drift wave noise is also generated. (iii) In the case of oblique beam pitch angles, i.e., when v-vector b ·E-vector perpendicular =0, again electrostatic waves with same properties are excited. However, now the beam also generates the electromagnetic waves with the properties commensurate to type III radio bursts. The latter is evidenced by the wavelet analysis of transverse electric field component, which shows that as the beam moves to the regions of lower density and hence lower plasma frequency, frequency of the electromagnetic waves drops accordingly. (iv) When the density gradient is removed, an electron beam with an oblique pitch angle still generates the electromagnetic radiation. However, in the latter case no frequency decrease is seen. (v) Since in most of

  10. Thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Chandra Kr.; Bhamu, K. C.; Sharma, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the structural stability, electronic structure, optical properties and thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO_3 by full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The electronic structure of BaHfO_3 doped with Sr shows enhances the indirect band gaps of 3.53 eV, 3.58 eV. The charge density plots show strong ionic bonding in Ba-Hf, and ionic and covalent bonding between Hf and O. Calculations of the optical spectra, viz., the dielectric function, refractive index and extinction coefficient are performed for the energy range are calculated and analyzed. Thermoelectric properties of semi conducting are also reported first time. The doped BaHfO_3 is approximately wide band gap semiconductor with the large p-type Seebeck coefficient. The power factor of BaHfO_3 is increased with Sr doping, decreases because of low electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity.

  11. Experimental demonstration of 24-Gb/s CAP-64QAM radio-over-fiber system over 40-GHz mm-wave fiber-wireless transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Li, Fan; Li, Xinying

    2013-11-04

    We propose and demonstrate a novel CAP-ROF system based on multi-level carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation (CAP) 64QAM with high spectrum efficiency for mm-wave fiber-wireless transmission. The performance of novel CAP modulation with high order QAM, for the first time, is investigated in the mm-wave fiber-wireless transmission system. One I/Q modulator is used for mm-wave generation and base-band signal modulation based on optical carrier suppression (OCS) and intensity modulation. Finally, we demonstrated a 24-Gb/s CAP-64QAM radio-over-fiber (ROF) system over 40-km stand single-mode-fiber (SMMF) and 1.5-m 38-GHz wireless transmission. The system operation factors are also experimentally investigated.

  12. Collision of two shock waves as a hypothetical mechanism of producing drifting radio bursts in the 400-500 MHz range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlicky, M.

    1978-01-01

    After the proton flare of July 3, 1974 a hitherto unclassified phenomenon with a diffusion ''banner'' and with a considerably decelerating drift within the type II and III burst drifts range was observed in the radio dynamic spectrum between 410 and 470 MHz. The hypothesis is presented that the phenomenon is due to the collision of two shock waves, propagating against one another, during which the flux of electromagnetic radiation is considerably enhanced relative to the sum of the fluxes of the electromagnetic radiation of the individual shock waves. The Newkirk 4-density model of the corona is used to describe the phenomenon, the mechanism of plasmon-plasmon conversion in electromagnetic radiation with a double plasma frequency is considered and, according to the parameters derived from the dynamic spectrum, the velocities, radii of curvature and direction of propagation of the anticipated shock waves are analysed in a simplifed symmetric case. (author)

  13. N V Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IZMIRAN) yesterday, today, tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V D

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the basic and applied research rationale for the organization of IZMIRAN and provides insight into the 75 years of the Institute's activities and development. Historically, early magnetic measurements in Russia were developed largely to meet the Navy's navigation needs and were, more generally, stimulated by the Peter the Great decrees and by the foundation of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1724. The paper examines the roles of the early Academicians in developing geomagnetism and making magnetic measurements a common practice in Russia. The need for stable radio communications prompted ionospheric and radio wave propagation research. The advent of the space era and the 1957–1958 International Geophysical Year Project greatly impacted the development of IZMIRAN and spurred the creation of a number of geophysical research institutes throughout the country. Currently, the research topics at IZMIRAN range widely from geomagnetism to solar-terrestrial physics to the ionosphere and radio wave propagation, and its primary application areas are the study and forecast of space weather, an increasingly important determining factor in ever-expanding ground- and space-based technologies (space navigation and communications, space activities, etc.). (conferences and symposia)

  14. A Challenging Solar Eruptive Event of 18 November 2003 and the Causes of the 20 November Geomagnetic Superstorm. II. CMEs, Shock Waves, and Drifting Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechnev, V. V.; Uralov, A. M.; Chertok, I. M.; Slemzin, V. A.; Filippov, B. P.; Egorov, Y. I.; Fainshtein, V. G.; Afanasyev, A. N.; Prestage, N. P.; Temmer, M.

    2014-04-01

    We continue our study (Grechnev et al., 2013, doi:10.1007/s11207-013-0316-6; Paper I) on the 18 November 2003 geoffective event. To understand possible impact on geospace of coronal transients observed on that day, we investigated their properties from solar near-surface manifestations in extreme ultraviolet, LASCO white-light images, and dynamic radio spectra. We reconcile near-surface activity with the expansion of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and determine their orientation relative to the earthward direction. The kinematic measurements, dynamic radio spectra, and microwave and X-ray light curves all contribute to the overall picture of the complex event and confirm an additional eruption at 08:07 - 08:20 UT close to the solar disk center presumed in Paper I. Unusual characteristics of the ejection appear to match those expected for a source of the 20 November superstorm but make its detection in LASCO images hopeless. On the other hand, none of the CMEs observed by LASCO seem to be a promising candidate for a source of the superstorm being able to produce, at most, a glancing blow on the Earth's magnetosphere. Our analysis confirms free propagation of shock waves revealed in the event and reconciles their kinematics with "EUV waves" and dynamic radio spectra up to decameters.

  15. An intercomparison of stratospheric gravity wave potential energy densities from METOP GPS radio occultation measurements and ECMWF model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Markus; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Kaifler, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    Temperature profiles based on radio occultation (RO) measurements with the operational European METOP satellites are used to derive monthly mean global distributions of stratospheric (20-40 km) gravity wave (GW) potential energy densities (EP) for the period July 2014-December 2016. In order to test whether the sampling and data quality of this data set is sufficient for scientific analysis, we investigate to what degree the METOP observations agree quantitatively with ECMWF operational analysis (IFS data) and reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data. A systematic comparison between corresponding monthly mean temperature fields determined for a latitude-longitude-altitude grid of 5° by 10° by 1 km is carried out. This yields very low systematic differences between RO and model data below 30 km (i.e., median temperature differences is between -0.2 and +0.3 K), which increases with height to yield median differences of +1.0 K at 34 km and +2.2 K at 40 km. Comparing EP values for three selected locations at which also ground-based lidar measurements are available yields excellent agreement between RO and IFS data below 35 km. ERA-Interim underestimates EP under conditions of strong local mountain wave forcing over northern Scandinavia which is apparently not resolved by the model. Above 35 km, RO values are consistently much larger than model values, which is likely caused by the model sponge layer, which damps small-scale fluctuations above ˜ 32 km altitude. Another reason is the well-known significant increase of noise in RO measurements above 35 km. The comparison between RO and lidar data reveals very good qualitative agreement in terms of the seasonal variation of EP, but RO values are consistently smaller than lidar values by about a factor of 2. This discrepancy is likely caused by the very different sampling characteristics of RO and lidar observations. Direct comparison of the global data set of RO and model EP fields shows large correlation coefficients (0

  16. Self-consistent non-linear description of radio-frequency wave propagation and of the edge of a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquot, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A correct understanding of the interactions between the edge plasma and the ion cyclotron (IC) waves (40-80 MHz) is needed to inject reliably large amount of power required for self-sustainable fusion plasmas. These thesis objectives were to model separately, with Comsol Multiphysics, but in compatible approaches the wave coupling and the radio-frequency (RF) sheath formation to anticipate development of a single code combining both. Modelling of fast wave coupling requires a detailed description of the antenna (2D or 3D) and of the plasma environment by a full wave approach for a cold plasma. Absorption of outgoing waves is emulated by perfectly matched layers, rendered compatible with a plasma dielectric tensor. Experimental trends for the coupling resistance of the antennas of Tore Supra are qualitatively reproduced but the coupling efficiency is overestimated. In parallel a novel self-consistent description, including RF sheaths, of the interplay between the cold wave propagation and DC biasing of the magnetized edge plasma of a tokamak was developed with the minimum set of physics ingredients. For Tore Supra antenna cases, the code coupled with TOPICA allowed to unveil qualitatively some unexpected observations on the latest design of Tore Supra Faraday screens whose electrical design was supposed to minimize RF sheaths. From simulations, a DC (Direct Current) current transport appears necessary to explain the radial structures of measurements. Cantilevered bars have been identified as the design element in the antenna structure enhancing the plasma potential. (author) [fr

  17. Statistical survey of type III radio bursts at long wavelengths observed by the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO)/Waves instruments: radio flux density variations with frequency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupař, Vratislav; Maksimovic, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Kontar, E. P.; Cecconi, B.; Hoang, S.; Krupařová, Oksana; Souček, Jan; Reid, H.; Zaslavsky, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 289, č. 8 (2014), s. 3121-3135 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2394; GA ČR GP13-37174P; GA ČR GAP205/10/2279 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar radio emissions * plasma radiation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.039, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11207-014-0522-x

  18. Statistical survey of type III radio bursts at long wavelengths observed by the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO)/Waves instruments: goniopolarimetric properties and radio source locations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupař, Vratislav; Maksimovic, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Cecconi, B.; Krupařová, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 289, č. 12 (2014), s. 4633-4652 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-37174P; GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2394 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : plasma radiation * solar radio emissions Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.039, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11207-014-0601-z

  19. SPEAKING IN LIGHT - Jupiter radio signals as deflections of light-emitting electron beams in a vacuum chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, K.

    2015-10-01

    Light emitting electron beam generated in a vacuum chamber is used as a medium for visualizing Jupiter's electromagnetic radiation. Dual dipole array antenna is receiving HF radio signals that are next amplified to radiate a strong electromagnetic field capable of influencing the propagation of electron beam in plasma. Installation aims to provide a platform for observing the characteristics of light emitting beam in 3D, as opposed to the experiments with cathode ray tubes in 2-dimensional television screens. Gas giant 'speaking' to us by radio waves bends the light in the tube, allowing us to see and hear the messages of Jupiter - God of light and sky.

  20. Research on the comparative value of radio-immunoanalyses of three embryonic antigens: alpha 1 foeto-protein ''α1FP'' alpha 2H-isoferritine ''α2HF'' and carcino-embryonnic antigen ''CEA'' for diagnonis and post-therapy observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimbaut, C.; Rudant, C.; Buffe, D.

    Alpha 1 foeto-protein, specific for 2 kinds of tumour (hepatoblastemo, teratoma), is useful in radio-immunoanalysis for the very early diagnosis of a tumour revival. Alpha 2 HF isoferritine and carcino-embryonic antigen, proteins non-specific to cancer, nevertheless possess in common the property of increasing in cases of tumours with liver metastases, though one is more specific to widespread secreting tumours while the other seems to be connected rather with an early reactivity of a tumour whatever its nature or origin. Finally a wide variation in these protein fractions is observed from one individual to another and it is therefore extremely important to make comparative determinations within a given series, the tendency of the evolution curve to rise or not being the important element in post-treatment supervision [fr

  1. A Case Study of On-the-fly Wide-field Radio Imaging Applied to the Gravitational Wave Event GW151226

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooley, K. P.; Frail, D. A.; Myers, S. T.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Hotokezaka, K.; Singer, L. P.; Horesh, A.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cenko, S. B.; Hallinan, G.

    2018-04-01

    We apply a newly developed on-the-fly mosaicing technique on the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 3 GHz in order to carry out a sensitive search for an afterglow from the Advanced LIGO binary black hole merger event GW151226. In three epochs between 1.5 and 6 months post-merger, we observed a 100 deg2 region, with more than 80% of the survey region having an rms sensitivity of better than 150 μJy/beam, in the northern hemisphere with a merger containment probability of 10%. The data were processed in near real time and analyzed to search for transients and variables. No transients were found but we have demonstrated the ability to conduct blind searches in a time-frequency phase space where the predicted afterglow signals are strongest. If the gravitational wave event is contained within our survey region, the upper limit on any late-time radio afterglow from the merger event at an assumed mean distance of 440 Mpc is about 1029 erg s‑1 Hz‑1. Approximately 1.5% of the radio sources in the field showed variability at a level of 30%, and can be attributed to normal activity from active galactic nuclei. The low rate of false positives in the radio sky suggests that wide-field imaging searches at a few Gigahertz can be an efficient and competitive search strategy. We discuss our search method in the context of the recent afterglow detection from GW170817 and radio follow-up in future gravitational wave observing runs.

  2. HF-laser program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Sandia's HF-laser program for FY 77 and FY 78 was revised in June 1977 in order to meet several new program milestones. Research progress is reported on: objective of HF oscillator-amplifier studies using H 2 -F 2 gas mixtures; characteristics of large-volume oscillator using H 2 -F 2 mixtures; characteristics of large-volume amplifier using H 2 -F 2 mixtures; experimental results of the oscillator-amplifier study; objective of high-quality discharge-initiated SF 6 -HI oscillator-preamplifier system; pin-discharge-initiated oscillator and first beam expander; fast-discharge-initiated preamplifiers; reflecting beam expanders for oscillator-preamplifier system; beam quality of discharge-initiated oscillator-preamplifier system; short pulse option for discharge initiated SF 6 -HI system; H 2 -F 2 electron-beam-initiated oscillator-preamplifier system; chamber for HF-laser focusing experiments; computer study of parasitic oscillations in HF amplifiers and oscillators; kinetics upgrade of HF-laser code; repetitivey ignited flowing H 2 -F 2 -O 2 mixtures; spontaneous detonations in multiatmosphere H 2 -F 2 -O 2 mixtures; high-pressure H 2 -F 2 laser studies; and time sequenced energy extraction on the high xenon laser

  3. Fast solar electrons, interplanetary plasma and km-wave type-III radio bursts observed from the IMP-6 spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, H.; Lin, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    IMP-6 spacecraft observations of low frequency radio emission, fast electrons, and solar wind plasma are used to examine the dynamics of the fast electron streams which generate solar type-III radio bursts. Of twenty solar electron events observed between April 1971 and August 1972, four were found to be amenable to detailed analysis. Observations of the direction of arrival of the radio emission at different frequencies were combined with the solar wind density and velocity measurements at 1 AU to define an Archimedean spiral trajectory for the radio burst exciter. The propagation characteristics of the exciter and of the fast electrons observed at 1 AU were then compared. It is found that: (1) the fast electrons excite the radio emission at the second harmonic; (2) the total distance travelled by the electrons was between 30 and 70% longer than the length of the smooth spiral defined by the radio observations; (3) this additional distance travelled is the result of scattering of the electrons in the interplanetary medium; (4) the observations are consistent with negligible true energy loss by the fast electrons.(Auth.)

  4. Full-duplex radio-over-fiber system with tunable millimeter-wave signal generation and wavelength reuse for upstream signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqun; Pei, Li; Li, Jing; Li, Yueqin

    2017-06-10

    A full-duplex radio-over-fiber system is proposed, which provides both the generation of a millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal with tunable frequency multiplication factors (FMFs) and wavelength reuse for uplink data. A dual-driving Mach-Zehnder modulator and a phase modulator are cascaded to form an optical frequency comb. An acousto-optic tunable filter based on a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG-AOTF) is employed to select three target optical sidebands. Two symmetrical sidebands are chosen to generate mm waves with tunable FMFs up to 16, which can be adjusted by changing the frequency of the applied acoustic wave. The optical carrier is reused at the base station for uplink connection. FBG-AOTFs driven by two acoustic wave signals are experimentally fabricated and further applied in the proposed scheme. Results of the research indicate that the 2-Gbit/s data can be successfully transmitted over a 25-km single-mode fiber for bidirectional full-duplex channels with power penalty of less than 2.6 dB. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is verified by detailed simulations and partial experiments.

  5. Ionosphere and Radio Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The upperionosphere is used for radio communication and navigationas it reflects long, medium, as well as short radio waves. Sincesolar radiation is the main cause of the existence of ionosphere,any variation in the radiations can affect the entireradio communication system. This article attempts to brieflyintroduce the ...

  6. Simulation of D and E region high-power microwave heating with HF ionospheric modification experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meltz, G.; Rush, C.M.; Violette, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The microwave power beam from a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) is sufficiently intense to cause large changes in the properties of the lower ionosphere by ohmic heating of the plasma. Power is absorbed from the beam at a rate that is proportional to the ratio of the flux s and the square of an effective frequency f/sub e/. Throughout most of the lower ionosphere f/sub e/ = f -+ f/sub L/, where f is the wave frequency and f/sub L is a reduced electron gyrofrequency. It follows that SPS equivalent heating can be simulated at much lower power fluxes with HF radio waves. A detailed examination of the frequency scaling, based on fluid and kinetic theory estimates of the change in electron temperature and density, shows that the high-power HF facility at Platteville, CO, can simulate or exceed the ohmic effects of the SPS beam up to 90 km. This paper describes the results of a series of 5.2 and 9.9 MHz underdense heating experiments undertaken to study the effect of high-power microwaves on the lower ionosphere. A pulsed ionosonde probe, located nearly below the most intense portion of the high-power beam, was used to observe the changes in the D and lower E region. Both phase and amplitude measurements were recorded during CW and intermittent heating

  7. Geophysical Remote Sensing Using the HF Pumped Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (SBS) Emission Lines Produced by HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Selcher, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    resonance altitude where the pump wave electric fields reach their maximum values. All of these measurements of the HF modified ionosphere are made possible at HAARP because of (1) the recently increased transmitter power to 3.6 MW into the large antenna array and (2) the new digital receiver diagnostics that allow up to 100 dB dynamic range in the stimulated electromagnetic emission measurements. Paul A. Bernhardt, Craig A. Selcher, Robert H. Lehmberg, Serafin Rodriguez, Joe Thomason, Mike McCarrick, Gordon Frazer, Determination of the Electron Temperature in the Modified Ionosphere over HAARP Using the HF Pumped Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (SBS) Emission Lines, Annales Geophysicae, in press, 2009. Norin, L., Leyser, T. B., Nordblad, E., Thidé, B., and McCarrick, M., Unprecedentedly strong and narrow electromagnetic emissions stimulated by high-frequency radio waves in the ionosphere, Phys. Rev. Lett., 102, 065003, 2009.

  8. Whistlers, helicons, and lower hybrid waves: The physics of radio frequency wave propagation and absorption for current drive via Landau damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsker, R. I.

    2015-01-01

    This introductory-level tutorial article describes the application of plasma waves in the lower hybrid range of frequencies (LHRF) for current drive in tokamaks. Wave damping mechanisms in a nearly collisionless hot magnetized plasma are briefly described, and the connections between the properties of the damping mechanisms and the optimal choices of wave properties (mode, frequency, wavelength) are explored. The two wave modes available for current drive in the LHRF are described and compared. The terms applied to these waves in different applications of plasma physics are elucidated. The character of the ray paths of these waves in the LHRF is illustrated in slab and toroidal geometries. Applications of these ideas to experiments in the DIII-D tokamak are discussed

  9. Surface current dynamics under sea breeze conditions observed by simultaneous HF radar, ADCP and drifter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentchev, Alexei; Forget, Philippe; Fraunié, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Ocean surface boundary layer dynamics off the southern coast of France in the NW Mediterranean is investigated by using velocity observations by high-frequency (HF) radars, surface drifting buoys and a downward-looking drifting acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The analysis confirms that velocities measured by HF radars correspond to those observed by an ADCP at the effective depth z f = k -1, where k is wavenumber of the radio wave emitted by the radar. The radials provided by the radars were in a very good agreement with in situ measurements, with the relative errors of 1 and 9 % and root mean square (RMS) differences of 0.02 and 0.04 m/s for monostatic and bistatic radar, respectively. The total radar-based velocities appeared to be slightly underestimated in magnitude and somewhat biased in direction. At the end of the survey period, the difference in the surface current direction, based on HF radar and ADCP data, attained 10°. It was demonstrated that the surface boundary layer dynamics cannot be reconstructed successfully without taking into the account velocity variation with depth. A significant misalignment of ˜30° caused by the sea breeze was documented between the HF radar (HFR-derived) surface current and the background current. It was also found that the ocean response to a moderate wind forcing was confined to the 4-m-thick upper layer. The respective Ekman current attained the maximum value of 0.15 m/s, and the current rotation was found to be lagging the wind by approximately 40 min, with the current vector direction being 15-20° to the left of the wind. The range of velocity variability due to wind forcing was found comparable with the magnitude of the background current variability.

  10. Subionospheric VLF/LF radio waves propagation characteristics before, during and after the Sofia, Bulgaria Mw=5.6 earthquake occurred on 22 May 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Iren Adelina; Emilian Toader, Victorin; Nenovski, Petko; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Septimiu Moldovan, Adrian; Ionescu, Constantin

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, INFREP, a network of VLF (20-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) radio receivers, was put into operation in Europe having as principal goal, the study of disturbances produced by the earthquakes on the propagation properties of these signals. On May 22nd, 2012 an earthquake with Mw=567 occurred in Bulgaria, near Sofia, inside the "sensitive" area of the INFREP VLF/LF electromagnetic network. The data collected on different frequencies, during April-May 2012 were studied using different methods of analysis: daily correlation methods, spectral approaches and terminator time techniques, in order to find out possible connections between the seismic activity and the subionospheric propagation properties of radio waves. The studies were performed with the help of a specially designed LabVIEW application, which accesses the VLF/LF receiver through internet. This program opens the receiver's web-page and automatically retrieves the list of data files to synchronize the user-side data with the receiver's data. Missing zipped files are also automatically downloaded. The application performs primary, statistical correlation and spectral analysis, appends daily files into monthly and annual files and performs 3D colour-coded maps with graphic representations of VLF and LF signals' intensities versus the minute-of-the-day and the day-of-the-month, facilitating a near real-time observation of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves' propagation. Another feature of the software is the correlation of the daily recorded files for the studied frequencies by overlaying the 24 hours radio activity and taking into account the sunrise and sunset. Data are individually processed (spectral power, correlations, differentiation, filtered using bandpass, lowpass, highpass). JTFA spectrograms (Cone-Shaped Distribution CSD, Gabor, Wavelet, short-time Fourier transform STFT, Wigner-Ville Distribution WVD, Choi-Williams Distribution CWD) are used, too.

  11. Case study of inclined sporadic E layers in the Earth's ionosphere observed by CHAMP/GPS radio occultations: Coupling between the tilted plasma layers and internal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubenko, Vladimir N.; Pavelyev, A. G.; Kirillovich, I. A.; Liou, Y.-A.

    2018-04-01

    We have used the radio occultation (RO) satellite data CHAMP/GPS (Challenging Minisatellite Payload/Global Positioning System) for studying the ionosphere of the Earth. A method for deriving the parameters of ionospheric structures is based upon an analysis of the RO signal variations in the phase path and intensity. This method allows one to estimate the spatial displacement of a plasma layer with respect to the ray perigee, and to determine the layer inclination and height correction values. In this paper, we focus on the case study of inclined sporadic E (Es) layers in the high-latitude ionosphere based on available CHAMP RO data. Assuming that the internal gravity waves (IGWs) with the phase-fronts parallel to the ionization layer surfaces are responsible for the tilt angles of sporadic plasma layers, we have developed a new technique for determining the parameters of IGWs linked with the inclined Es structures. A small-scale internal wave may be modulating initially horizontal Es layer in height and causing a direction of the plasma density gradient to be rotated and aligned with that of the wave propagation vector k. The results of determination of the intrinsic wave frequency and period, vertical and horizontal wavelengths, intrinsic vertical and horizontal phase speeds, and other characteristics of IGWs under study are presented and discussed.

  12. Influence of rotation on multiphoton processes in HF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeckhove, J.; Feyen, B.; Van Leuven, P.

    1994-01-01

    In this contribution, the authors are concerned with the role of rotational motion in multiphoton processes induced by a laser field of high intensity. The authors use the pseudospectral split operator method for the propagation of the quantum wave-function. The rotation is treated by decomposition of the HF wave-function in its angular momentum components

  13. HF/DF chemical labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinzer, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides the essential details to understand and design HF/DF and related types of chemical lasers. The basic operation of the HF/DF chemical laser is described. The details of the excitation chemistry are presented and the pertinent laser physics is described. A description of the various laser components is given and the analytical models for the HF/DF chemical laser are discussed. A brief description of the chain reaction HF/DF chemical laser is offered

  14. Cost-Efficient DWDM-PON / Mm-Wave Wireless Integration using Coherent Radio-over-Fiber (CRoF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Manoj P.; Mikroulis, S.; Renaud, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the performance of millimetre wave (mm-wave) broadband wireless access for seamless integration with the (ultra-dense) WDM infrastructure. By using two uncorrelated lasers, this system concept allows simple implementation that can additionally be improved, if thermally...... for transmission. In this work, we analyze the performance of heterodyne based optical receivers, using OOK and multilevel modulation formats....

  15. Search for transient gravitational waves in coincidence with short-duration radio transients during 2007-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderon Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, K. N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Pereira, R.R.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Purrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stiles, C.D.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Archibald, A. M.; Banaszak, S.; Berndsen, A.; Boyles, J.; Cardoso, R. F.; Chawla, P.; Cherry, A.; Dartez, L. P.; Day-Lewis, F.D.; Epstein, C. R.; Ford, A. J.; Flanigan, J.; Garcia, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hinojosa, J; Jenet, F. A.; Karako-Argaman, C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Keane, E. F.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Leake, S.; Lorimer, D.; Lunsford, G.; Lynch, R. S.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; McLaughlin, M. A.; McPhee, C. A.; Penucci, T.; Ransom, S.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Rohr, M. D. W.; Stairs, I. H.; Stovall, K.; van Leeuwen, J.; Walker, A. N.; Wells, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    We present an archival search for transient gravitational-wave bursts in coincidence with 27 single-pulse triggers from Green Bank Telescope pulsar surveys, using the LIGO, Virgo, and GEO interferometer network. We also discuss a check for gravitational-wave signals in coincidence with Parkes fast

  16. Electric Field Gradients at Hf and Fe Sites in Hf2Fe Recalculated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belosevic-Cavor, J.; Cekic, B.; Novakovic, N.; Koteski, V.; Milosevic, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The electric field gradients (EFG) of the Hf 2 Fe intermetallic compound were calculated using the full-potential linearized augmented plain-wave (FP-LAPW) method as embodied in the WIEN 97 code. The obtained values are compared with other ab-initio calculations and on a qualitative basis with the previously reported experimental data obtained from TDPAC. The calculated results, -23.1.10 21 V/m 2 and 2.7.10 21 V/m 2 for Hf 48f and Fe 32e position, respectively, are in excellent agreement with experimental data (23.4.10 21 V/m 2 and 2.7.10 21 V/m 2 ), better than those reported in earlier calculations. The calculated EFG for Hf 16c position (4.2.10 21 V/m 2 ) is stronger than the experimental one (1.1.10 21 V/m 2 ).

  17. Radio Astronomy Explorer /RAE/. I - Observations of terrestrial radio noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.; Stone, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) I data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial radio noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 dB and more above cosmic noise background, on frequencies above the F-layer critical frequency.

  18. Radio propagation measurement and channel modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Salous, Sana

    2013-01-01

    While there are numerous books describing modern wireless communication systems that contain overviews of radio propagation and radio channel modelling, there are none that contain detailed information on the design, implementation and calibration of radio channel measurement equipment, the planning of experiments and the in depth analysis of measured data. The book would begin with an explanation of the fundamentals of radio wave propagation and progress through a series of topics, including the measurement of radio channel characteristics, radio channel sounders, measurement strategies

  19. COMPARATIVE RESEARCH OF VARIOUS METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE REFLECTED FROM A SCATTERING DIFFRACTION SCREEN IN THE PROPAGATION OF A RADIO SIGNAL IN THE EARTH-IONOSPHERE CHANNEL IN THE SHORT-WAVE RANGE OF RADIO WAVES WITH USE OF THE EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENT OF COHERENT RECEPTION OF A GROUND-BASED MEASURING COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Belov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the earth’s surface by remote sensing in the short-wave band can provide quick identification of some characteristics of natural systems. This band range allows one to diagnose subsurface aspects of the earth, as the scattering parameter is affected by irregularities in the dielectric permittivity of subsurface structures. The new method is suggested. This method based on the organization of the monitoring probe may detect changes in these environments, for example, to assess seismic hazard, hazardous natural phenomena, changes ecosystems, as well as some man-made hazards and etc. The problem of measuring and accounting for the scattering power of the earth’s surface in the short-range of radio waves is important for a number of purposes, such as diagnosing properties of the medium, which is of interest for geological, environmental studies. In this paper, we propose a new method for estimating the parameters of incoherent signal/noise ratio. The paper presents the results of comparison of the measurement method from the point of view of their admissible relative analytical errors. A comparative analysis and shows that the analytical (relative accuracy of the determination of this parameter new method on the order exceeds the widely-used standard method. Analysis of admissible relative analytical error of estimation of this parameter allowed to recommend new method instead of standard method

  20. Modeling of N2 and O optical emissions for ionosphere HF powerful heating experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, T.; Gustavsson, B.

    Analyses of experiments of F region ionosphere modification by HF powerful radio waves show that optical observations are very useful tools for diagnosing of the interaction of the probing radio wave with the ionospheric plasma Hitherto the emissions usually measured in the heating experiment have been the 630 0 nm and the 557 7 nm lines of atomic oxygen Other emissions for instance O 844 8 nm and N2 427 8 nm have been measured episodically in only a few experiments although the very rich optical spectrum of molecular nitrogen potentially involves important information about ionospheric plasma in the heated region This study addresses the modeling of optical emissions from the O and the N2 triplet states first positive second positive Vegard-Kaplan infrared afterglow and Wu-Benesch band systems excited under a condition of the ionosphere heating experiment The auroral triplet state population distribution model was modified for the ionosphere heating conditions by using the different electron distribution functions suggested by Mishin et al 2000 2003 and Gustavsson at al 2004 2005 Modeling results are discussed from the point of view of efficiency of measurements of the N2 emissions in future experiments

  1. Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic waves alters acetylcholinesterase gene expression, exploratory and motor coordination-linked behaviour in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obajuluwa, Adejoke Olukayode; Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Afolabi, Olakunle Bamikole; Adekoya, Khalid; Sanya, Joseph Olurotimi; Ishola, Azeez Olakunle

    2017-01-01

    Humans in modern society are exposed to an ever-increasing number of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and some studies have demonstrated that these waves can alter brain function but the mechanism still remains unclear. Hence, this study sought to investigate the effect of 2.5 Ghz band radio-frequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMF) exposure on cerebral cortex acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and their mRNA expression level as well as locomotor function and anxiety-linked behaviour in male rats. Animals were divided into four groups namely; group 1 was control (without exposure), group 2-4 were exposed to 2.5 Ghz radiofrequency waves from an installed WI-FI device for a period of 4, 6 and 8 weeks respectively. The results revealed that WiFi exposure caused a significant increase in anxiety level and affect locomotor function. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in AChE activity with a concomitant increase in AChE mRNA expression level in WiFi exposed rats when compared with control. In conclusions, these data showed that long term exposure to WiFi may lead to adverse effects such as neurodegenerative diseases as observed by a significant alteration on AChE gene expression and some neurobehavioral parameters associated with brain damage.

  2. Detection of Propagating Fast Sausage Waves through Detailed Analysis of a Zebra-pattern Fine Structure in a Solar Radio Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, K.; Misawa, H.; Iwai, K.; Masuda, S.; Tsuchiya, F.; Katoh, Y.; Obara, T.

    2018-03-01

    Various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves have recently been detected in the solar corona and investigated intensively in the context of coronal heating and coronal seismology. In this Letter, we report the first detection of short-period propagating fast sausage mode waves in a metric radio spectral fine structure observed with the Assembly of Metric-band Aperture Telescope and Real-time Analysis System. Analysis of Zebra patterns (ZPs) in a type-IV burst revealed a quasi-periodic modulation in the frequency separation between the adjacent stripes of the ZPs (Δf ). The observed quasi-periodic modulation had a period of 1–2 s and exhibited a characteristic negative frequency drift with a rate of 3–8 MHz s‑1. Based on the double plasma resonance model, the most accepted generation model of ZPs, the observed quasi-periodic modulation of the ZP can be interpreted in terms of fast sausage mode waves propagating upward at phase speeds of 3000–8000 km s‑1. These results provide us with new insights for probing the fine structure of coronal loops.

  3. Radio wave scattering observations of the solar corona: First-order measurements of expansion velocity and turbulence spectrum using Viking and Mariner 10 spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, G.L.; Vesecky, J.F.; Plume, M.A.; Howard, H.T.; Barnes, A.

    1981-01-01

    Solar conjunction of Mars on 1976 November 25 occurred very near the beginning of solar cycle 21, about 4 months after the first Viking spacecraft arrived at the planet. Radio wave scattering data were collected at 3.6 and 13 cm wavelengths, using the radio link between the Viking orbiters and the Earth. These data allow measurements of solar wind properties over a range of heliocentric radial distance from approx.6 to 44 R/sub sun/ with solar latitudes ranging from -17 0 to +7 0 . Observations with Mariner 10 during a period of moderate solar activity in 1974 cover from 6 to 24 R/sub sun/ and from approx.20 0 to near 90 0 . We have found that the temporal frequency variance spectrum of amplitude fluctuations is useful for characterizing the bulk motion of the plasma. This spectrum has an approximately constant low frequency plateau and a power-law high frequency asymptote; the plateau-asymptote intersection frequency provides a measure of the solar wind velocity V. We also obtain the spectral index p of electron density turbulence, Phi/sub N/approx.kappa/sup -p/, where kappa is spatial wavenumber. These results apply to a cylindrical region oriented with its axis along the radio ray path and its center at the point of closest approach to the Sun. The measurements of V and p cover some 78/sup d/ for Viking and 49 2 for Mariner 10 and show the combined effects of changing heliocentric distance rho, solar latitude theta, and solar longitude Psi, as well as solar activity. The Viking results can be regarded as a function primary of rho and Psi since the observations are concentrated in the equatorial regions when solar activity was near minimum. For Mariner 10, rho, theta, and Psi variations were important. The Viking results show an abrupt change in V(rho) and the turbulence spectral index at approx.15 R/sub sun/

  4. Summary of daily observational results of solar phenomena, cosmic ray, geomagnetic variation, ionosphere, radio wave propagation and airglow. During October 1973 through September 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    The diagrams in this section of the publication illustrate the summary of daily observational results of solar phenomena, cosmic ray, geomagnetic variation, ionosphere, radio wave propagation and airglow observed in Japan. For convenience, the observational results are arranged by the solar rotation number. The aim of this illustration is to disseminate an outline of daily events observed in Japan for the benefit of active research workers who plan to make detailed study of the specific solar and terrestrial events. Therefore, the illustrations do not show all observational results in Japan but only representative ones at some key stations in Japan. They will suffice for the present purpose. The method of illustration shown in the instruction on the next page is still a preliminary one, and it is subject to change resulting from the kind advice of the users of this part of the publication.

  5. Dual-tone optical vector millimeter wave signal generated by frequency-nonupling the radio frequency 16-star quadrature-amplitude-modulation signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tonggen; Ma, Jianxin

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes an original scheme to generate the photonic dual-tone optical millimeter wave (MMW) carrying the 16-star quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) signal via an optical phase modulator (PM) and an interleaver with adaptive photonic frequency-nonupling without phase precoding. To enable the generated optical vector MMW signal to resist the power fading effect caused by the fiber chromatic dispersion, the modulated -5th- and +4th-order sidebands are selected from the output of the PM, which is driven by the precoding 16-star QAM signal. The modulation index of the PM is optimized to gain the maximum opto-electrical conversion efficiency. A radio over fiber link is built by simulation, and the simulated constellations and the bit error rate graph demonstrate that the frequency-nonupling 16-star QAM MMW signal has good transmission performance. The simulation results agree well with our theoretical results.

  6. Utilization of antenna arrays in HF systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Bertel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Different applications of radio systems are based on the implementation of antenna arrays. Classically, radio direction

    finding operates with a multi channel receiving system connected to an array of receiving antennas. More

    recently, MIMO architectures have been proposed to increase the capacity of radio links by the use of antenna

    arrays at both the transmitter and receiver.

    The first part of this paper describes some novel experimental work carried out to examine the feasibility of applying

    MIMO techniques for communications within the HF radio band. A detailed correlation analysis of a variety

    of different antenna array configurations is presented. The second section of the paper also deals with HF

    MIMO communications, focusing on the problem from a modelling point of view. The third part presents a sensitivity

    analysis of different antenna array structures for HF direction finding applications. The results demonstrate

    that when modelling errors, heterogeneous antenna arrays are more robust in comparison to homogeneous structures


  7. Analysis of radio wave propagation for ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks in inhomogeneous vegetation environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpilicueta, Leire; López-Iturri, Peio; Aguirre, Erik; Mateo, Ignacio; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Falcone, Francisco

    2014-12-10

    The use of wireless networks has experienced exponential growth due to the improvements in terms of battery life and low consumption of the devices. However, it is compulsory to conduct previous radio propagation analysis when deploying a wireless sensor network. These studies are necessary to perform an estimation of the range coverage, in order to optimize the distance between devices in an actual network deployment. In this work, the radio channel characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in an inhomogeneous vegetation environment has been analyzed. This analysis allows designing environment monitoring tools based on ZigBee and WiFi where WSN and smartphones cooperate, providing rich and customized monitoring information to users in a friendly manner. The impact of topology as well as morphology of the environment is assessed by means of an in-house developed 3D Ray Launching code, to emulate the realistic operation in the framework of the scenario. Experimental results gathered from a measurement campaign conducted by deploying a ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network, are analyzed and compared with simulations in this paper. The scenario where this network is intended to operate is a combination of buildings and diverse vegetation species. To gain insight in the effects of radio propagation, a simplified vegetation model has been developed, considering the material parameters and simplified geometry embedded in the simulation scenario. An initial location-based application has been implemented in a real scenario, to test the functionality within a context aware scenario. The use of deterministic tools can aid to know the impact of the topological influence in the deployment of the optimal Wireless Sensor Network in terms of capacity, coverage and energy consumption, making the use of these systems attractive for multiple applications in inhomogeneous vegetation environments.

  8. Analysis of Radio Wave Propagation for ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks in Inhomogeneous Vegetation Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leire Azpilicueta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of wireless networks has experienced exponential growth due to the improvements in terms of battery life and low consumption of the devices. However, it is compulsory to conduct previous radio propagation analysis when deploying a wireless sensor network. These studies are necessary to perform an estimation of the range coverage, in order to optimize the distance between devices in an actual network deployment. In this work, the radio channel characterization for ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs in an inhomogeneous vegetation environment has been analyzed. This analysis allows designing environment monitoring tools based on ZigBee and WiFi where WSN and smartphones cooperate, providing rich and customized monitoring information to users in a friendly manner. The impact of topology as well as morphology of the environment is assessed by means of an in-house developed 3D Ray Launching code, to emulate the realistic operation in the framework of the scenario. Experimental results gathered from a measurement campaign conducted by deploying a ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network, are analyzed and compared with simulations in this paper. The scenario where this network is intended to operate is a combination of buildings and diverse vegetation species. To gain insight in the effects of radio propagation, a simplified vegetation model has been developed, considering the material parameters and simplified geometry embedded in the simulation scenario. An initial location-based application has been implemented in a real scenario, to test the functionality within a context aware scenario. The use of deterministic tools can aid to know the impact of the topological influence in the deployment of the optimal Wireless Sensor Network in terms of capacity, coverage and energy consumption, making the use of these systems attractive for multiple applications in inhomogeneous vegetation environments.

  9. Radio astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagnibeda, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    The history of radio astronomical observations at the Astronomical Observatory of Leningrad State University is reviewed. Various facilities are described, and methods and instruments used are discussed. Some results are summarized for radio observations of the sun, including observations of local sources of solar radio emission, the absolute solar radio flux, and radio emission from filaments and prominences.

  10. Planetary and gravity wave signatures in the F region ionosphere with impact on radio propagation predictions and variability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Altadill, D.; Apostolov, E. M.; Boška, Josef; Laštovička, Jan; Šauli, Petra

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 47, 2/3 (2004), s. 1109-1119 ISSN 1593-5213. [Final Meeting COST271 Action. Effects of the upper atmosphere on terrestrial and Earth-space communications (EACOS). Abingdon, 26.08.2004-27.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 271.10; GA ČR GA205/01/1071; GA ČR GP205/02/P077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : ionosphere * planetary waves * gravity waves Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.413, year: 2004

  11. First demonstration of HF-driven ionospheric currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Chang, C.-L.; Labenski, J.; Wallace, T.

    2011-10-01

    The first experimental demonstration of HF driven currents in the ionosphere at low ELF/ULF frequencies without relying in the presence of electrojets is presented. The effect was predicted by theoretical/computational means in a recent letter and given the name Ionospheric Current Drive (ICD). The effect relies on modulated F-region HF heating to generate Magneto-Sonic (MS) waves that drive Hall currents when they reach the E-region. The Hall currents inject ELF waves into the Earth-Ionosphere waveguide and helicon and Shear Alfven (SA) waves in the magnetosphere. The proof-of-concept experiments were conducted using the HAARP heater in Alaska under the BRIOCHE program. Waves between 0.1-70 Hz were measured at both near and far sites. The letter discusses the differences between ICD generated waves and those relying on modulation of electrojets.

  12. HF-laser program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The HF laser is an attractive candidate driver for a large-system ICF scientific demonstration facility, for an ICF experimental power reactor and for a commercial laser--fusion power reactor. Previous accomplishments of the program have included demonstrations of high efficiency and high energy capability, efficient energy extraction from HF amplifiers, good beam quality and focusability, and short-pulse generation and amplification. In the reporting period, beam quality has been determined to be near-diffraction limited for a short pulsewidth (6 ns to 25 ns) oscillator-amplifier chain, suppression of amplified spontaneous emission has been demonstrated on an individual spectral line, high-pressure characteristics have been determined for the Phoenix I amplifier, and detailed comparisions between the kinetic code and experiments have been made. Details of two major upcoming experiments are also included. The first is energy extraction and beam quality measurements on the Phoenix I amplifier operating under saturated output power conditions. The second experiment, using a newly designed amplifier (Phoenix II), is designed to demonstrate the concept of angular-multiplexing: a pulse width-compression scheme

  13. Pulsed inductive HF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razhev, A M; Kargapol' tsev, E S [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, D S; Demchuk, S V [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    We report the results of experimentally investigated dependences of temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of an inductive HF-laser generation on the pump conditions. Gas mixtures H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF6{sub 6}) and He(Ne) – H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF{sub 6}) were used as active media. The FWHM pulse duration reached 0.42 μs. This value corresponded to a pulsed power of 45 kW. For the first time, the emission spectrum of an inductive HF laser was investigated, which consisted of seven groups of bands with centres around the wavelengths of 2732, 2736, 2739, 2835, 2837, 2893 and 2913 nm. The cross section profile of the laser beam was a ring with a diameter of about 20 mm and width of about 5 mm. Parameters of laser operation in the repetitively pulsed regime were sufficiently stable. The amplitude instability of light pulses was no greater than 5% – 6%. (lasers)

  14. Gravity Waves in the Martian Atmosphere detected by the Radio Science Experiment MaRS on Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellmann, S.; Pätzold, M.; Häusler, B.; Tyler, G. L.; Hinson, D. P.

    2013-09-01

    Gravity waves are an ubiquitous feature in all stably stratified planetary atmospheres. They are known to play a significant role in the energy and momentum budget of the Earth, and they are assumed to be of importance for the redistribution of energy and momentum throughout the Martian atmosphere.

  15. The Prophylactic Effect of Vitamin C on Oxidative Stress Indexes Following Exposure to Radio Frequency Wave Generated by a BTS Antenna Model in Rat Liver and Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Jelodar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radio frequency wave (RFW generated by base transceiver station (BTS has been reported to make deleterious effects on liver and kidney, possibly through oxidative stress. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of radiofrequency wave (RFW-induced oxidative stress in the liver and kidney and the prophylactic effect of vitamin C on this organs by measuring the antioxidant enzymes activity including: glutathione peroxidase (GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, and malondialdehyde (MDA. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups and treated daily for 45 days as follows: control, vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid 200 mg/kg of body weight/day by gavage, test (exposed to 900MHz RFW and the treated group (received vitamin C in addition to exposure to RFW. At the end of the experiment all animals were sacrificed and their liver and kidney were removed and were used for measurement of antioxidant enzymes and MDA activity. Results: The results indicate that exposure to RFW in the test group decreased antioxidant enzymes activity and increased MDA compared with the control groups (p<0.05. In the treated group vitamin C improved antioxidant enzymes activity and reduced MDA compared to the test group (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that RFW causes oxidative stress in liver and kidney, and vitamin C improves the antioxidant enzymes activity and decreases MDA.

  16. Radio scintillations observed during atmospheric occultations of Voyager: Internal gravity waves at Titan and magnetic field orientations at Jupiter and Saturn. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    The refractive index of planetary atmospheres at microwave frequencies is discussed. Physical models proposed for the refractive irregularities in the ionosphere and neutral atmosphere serve to characterize the atmospheric scattering structures, and are used subsequently to compute theoretical scintillation spectra for comparison with the Voyager occultation measurements. A technique for systematically analyzing and interpreting the signal fluctuations observed during planetary occultations is presented and applied to process the dual-wavelength data from the Voyager radio occultations by Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan. Results concerning the plasma irregularities in the upper ionospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are reported. The measured orientation of the irregularities is used to infer the magnetic field direction at several locations in the ionospheres of these two planets; the occultation measurements conflict with the predictions of Jovian magnetic field models, but generally confirm current models of Saturn's field. Wave parameters, including the vertical fluxes of energy and momentum, are estimated, and the source of the internal gravity waves discovered in Titan's upper atmosphere is considered.

  17. On the collocation between dayside auroral activity and coherent HF radar backscatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moen

    Full Text Available The 2D morphology of coherent HF radar and optical cusp aurora has been studied for conditions of predominantly southward IMF conditions, which favours low-latitude boundary layer reconnection. Despite the variability in shape of radar cusp Doppler spectra, the spectral width criterion of > 220 m s–1 proves to be a robust cusp discriminator. For extended periods of well-developed radar backscatter echoes, the equatorward boundary of the > 220 m s–1 spectral width enhancement lines up remarkably well with the equatorward boundary of the optical cusp aurora. The spectral width boundary is however poorly determined during development and fading of radar cusp backscatter. Closer inspection of radar Doppler profile characteristics suggests that a combination of spectral width and shape may advance boundary layer identification by HF radar. For the two December days studied the onset of radar cusp backscatter occurred within pre-existing 630.0 nm cusp auroral activity and appear to be initiated by sunrise, i.e. favourable radio wave propagation conditions had to develop. Better methods are put forward for analysing optical data, and for physical interpretation of HF radar data, and for combining these data, as applied to detection, tracking, and better understanding of dayside aurora. The broader motivation of this work is to develop wider use by the scientific community, of results of these techniques, to accelerate understanding of dynamic high-latitude boundary-processes. The contributions in this work are: (1 improved techniques of analysis of observational data, yielding meaningfully enhanced accuracy for deduced cusp locations; (2 a correspondingly more pronounced validation of correlation of boundary locations derived from the observational data set; and (3 a firmer physical rationale as to why the good correlation observed should theoretically be expected.

    Key words: Ionosphere (ionospheric

  18. On the generation of steady currents in a plasma cylinder using m=0 radio-frequency waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugrass, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    The generation of a steady current in a resistive plasma cylinder by means of a travelling-wave magnetic field has been studied by using the resistive MHD equations. The non-linear initial-boundary value problem has been solved numerically. Hollow DC current profiles, similar to the experimental data obtained by other workers, have been found. A simple analytical argument, of a more general nature, shows that classical resistive diffusion cannot lead to a more uniform current distribution. (author)

  19. Detection of Propagating Fast Sausage Waves through a Detailed Analysis of a Zebra Pattern Fine Structure in a Solar Radio Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, K.; Misawa, H.; Iwai, K.; Masuda, S.; Tsuchiya, F.; Katoh, Y.; Obara, T.

    2017-12-01

    Recent observations have revealed that various modes of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitous in the corona. In imaging observations in EUV, propagating fast magnetoacoustic waves are difficult to observe due to the lack of time resolution. Quasi-periodic modulation of radio fine structures is an important source of information on these MHD waves. Zebra patterns (ZPs) are one of such fine structures in type IV bursts, which consist of several parallel stripes superimposed on the background continuum. Although the generation mechanism of ZPs has been discussed still, the most favorable model of ZPs is so-called double plasma resonance (DPR) model. In the DPR model, the frequency separation between the adjacent stripes (Δf) is determined by the plasma density and magnetic field in their source. Hence, the variation of Δf in time and frequency represents the disturbance in their source region in the corona. We report the detection of propagating fast sausage waves through the analysis of a ZP event on 2011 June 21. The variation of Δf in time and frequency was obtained using highly resolved spectral data from the Assembly of Metric-band Aperture Telescope and Real-time Analysis System (AMATERAS). We found that Δf increases with the increase of emission frequency as a whole, which is consistent with the DPR model. Furthermore, we also found that irregularities in Δf are repetitively drifting from the high frequency side to the low frequency side. Their frequency drift rate was 3 - 8 MHz/s and the repetitive frequency was several seconds. Assuming the ZP generation by the DPR model, the drifting irregularities in Δf correspond to propagating disturbances in plasma density and magnetic field with speeds of 3000 - 8000 km/s. Taking account of these facts, the observed modulations in Δf can be explained by fast sausage waves propagating through the corona. We will also discuss the plasma conditions in the corona estimated from the observational results.

  20. Analysis of the Metal Oxide Space Clouds (MOSC) HF Propagation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Booth, N.; Selzer, L.

    2015-12-01

    Artificial Ionospheric Modification (AIM) attempts to modify the ionosphere in order to alter the high frequency (HF) propagation environment. It can be achieved through injections of aerosols, chemicals or radio (RF) signals into the ionosphere. The Metal Oxide Space Clouds (MOSC) experiment was undertaken in April/May 2013 to investigate chemical AIM. Two sounding rockets were launched from the Kwajalein Atoll (part of the Marshall Islands) and each released a cloud of vaporized samarium (Sm). The samarium created a localized plasma cloud, with increased electron density, which formed an additional ionospheric layer. The ionospheric effects were measured by a wide range of ground based instrumentation which included a network of high frequency (HF) sounders. Chirp transmissions were made from three atolls and received at five sites within the Marshall Islands. One of the receive sites consisted of an 18 antenna phased array, which was used for direction finding. The ionograms have shown that as well as generating a new layer the clouds created anomalous RF propagation paths, which interact with both the cloud and the F-layer, resulting in 'ghost traces'. To fully understand the propagation environment a 3D numerical ray trace has been undertaken, using a variety of background ionospheric and cloud models, to find the paths through the electron density grid for a given fan of elevation and azimuth firing angles. Synthetic ionograms were then produced using the ratio of ray path length to speed of light as an estimation of the delay between transmission and observation for a given frequency of radio wave. This paper reports on the latest analysis of the MOSC propagation environment, comparing theory with observations, to further understanding of AIM.

  1. HF-DLLME

    OpenAIRE

    Simão, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Físicas e Matemáticas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, Florianópolis, 2015. Neste trabalho foi proposto, pela primeira vez, a combinação simultânea das técnicas de microextração em fase líquida suportada em fibra oca (HF-LPME) e microextração líquido-líquido dispersiva (DLLME) para aplicação em amostras líquidas. Dois estudos foram desenvolvidos utilizando a metodologia proposta, a qua...

  2. High energy HF pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, E.L.; Gerber, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Recent experiments show that pulsed HF lasers are capable of producing high energy with good efficiency. Preliminary experiments show that the laser radiation from the high-gain medium can be controlled with a low-power probe laser beam or with low-level feedback. These results indicate that the HF laser may have potential for second-generation laser fusion experiments

  3. Unseen cosmos the universe in radio

    CERN Document Server

    Graham-Smith, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Radio telescopes have transformed our understanding of the Universe. Pulsars, quasars, Big Bang cosmology: all are discoveries of the new science of radio astronomy. Here, Francis Graham-Smith describes the birth, development, and maturity of radio astronomy, from the first discovery of cosmic radio waves to its present role as a major part of modern astronomy. Radio is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, covering infra-red, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma-rays, and Graham-Smith explains why it is that radio waves give us a unique view of the Universe. Tracing the development o

  4. Mergers of Charged Black Holes: Gravitational-wave Events, Short Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing

    2016-08-01

    The discoveries of GW150914, GW151226, and LVT151012 suggest that double black hole (BH-BH) mergers are common in the universe. If at least one of the two merging black holes (BHs) carries a certain amount of charge, possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere, the inspiral of a BH-BH system would drive a global magnetic dipole normal to the orbital plane. The rapidly evolving magnetic moment during the merging process would drive a Poynting flux with an increasing wind power. The magnetospheric activities during the final phase of the merger would make a fast radio burst (FRB) if the BH charge can be as large as a factor of \\hat{q}˜ ({10}-9{--}{10}-8) of the critical charge Q c of the BH. At large radii, dissipation of the Poynting flux energy in the outflow would power a short-duration high-energy transient, which would appear as a detectable short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) if the charge can be as large as \\hat{q}˜ ({10}-5{--}{10}-4). The putative short GRB coincident with GW150914 recorded by Fermi GBM may be interpreted with this model. Future joint GW/GRB/FRB searches would lead to a measurement or place a constraint on the charges carried by isolate BHs.

  5. Research of HF and HV circuit with Pspice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jianjiang; Li Quanfeng; Zheng Shuxin; Li Wenjun; Tang Chuanxiang

    2005-01-01

    Transferring HF and HV pulse with 3 kinds of components is discussed. Terminal volt waves was got using the soft of Pspice when transmission line is matching of load in 3 kinds of condition. It is proved by experiments that the results got from Pspice have important values to improve experiment circuit. (authors)

  6. First observations of large-scale wave structure and equatorial spread F using CERTO radio beacon on the C/NOFS satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Tsunoda, R. T.; Otsuka, Y.; Tsugawa, T.; Uemoto, J.; Ishii, M.

    2009-12-01

    Equatorial spread F (ESF) is a generic name, which refers to the presence of a wide spectrum of field-aligned irregularities in the equatorial nighttime F-region that can extend over nearly seven orders of magnitude. Recently, a large-scale wave structure (LSWS) in the F-layer electron density is identified as a reliable precursor to ESF. The LSWS can be identified as a quasi-periodic modulation in the altitude of isoelectron density contours in the bottomside F-region, superimposed on a mean slope that increases in altitude from west to east. First observations of large-scale wave structure (LSWS) and the subsequent development of equatorial spread F (ESF), using total electron content (TEC) derived from the ground based reception of Coherent Electromagnetic Radio Tomography (CETRO) radio beacon signals on board the C/NOFS (Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System) satellite will be presented. For this study the TEC observations from Bac Lieu, Vietnam (9.2°N, 105.6°E geographic, 1.7°N magnetic dip latitude), Phukhet (7.8°N, 98.38°E, 0.4°S dip lat) and Kototabang, Indonesia (0.20°S, 100.32°E, 10.36°S dip lat) are analyzed along with ionosonde observations from Bac Lieu, Chumphon (10.7°N, 99.4°E, 3.3° dip lat) and 30.8 MHz VHF radar observations from Kototabang. It should also be mentioned here that LSWS is not easily detectable with overhead measurements using a sensor at a fixed location, at least not during its early growth phase, mainly because initially it grows in amplitude without significant zonal drift. The results indicate (1) LSWS appears to play a more important role in the development of ESF than the post-sunset rise (PSSR) of the F-layer, and (2) LSWS can appear well before E-region sunset. Other findings, that LSWS does not have significant zonal drift in the initial stages of growth, and can have zonal wavelengths of several hundred kilometers, corroborate earlier reports.

  7. Thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Chandra Kr., E-mail: ckparadise@gmail.com, E-mail: sharmarameshfgiet@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, Dr. Shakuntala Misra National Rehabilitation University, Lucknow-229001, U.P India (India); Bhamu, K. C. [Department of Physics, Goa University, Goa-403 206 (India); Sharma, Ramesh, E-mail: ckparadise@gmail.com, E-mail: sharmarameshfgiet@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, Feroze Gandhi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Raebareli-229001, U.P India (India)

    2016-05-06

    We have studied the structural stability, electronic structure, optical properties and thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO{sub 3} by full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The electronic structure of BaHfO{sub 3} doped with Sr shows enhances the indirect band gaps of 3.53 eV, 3.58 eV. The charge density plots show strong ionic bonding in Ba-Hf, and ionic and covalent bonding between Hf and O. Calculations of the optical spectra, viz., the dielectric function, refractive index and extinction coefficient are performed for the energy range are calculated and analyzed. Thermoelectric properties of semi conducting are also reported first time. The doped BaHfO{sub 3} is approximately wide band gap semiconductor with the large p-type Seebeck coefficient. The power factor of BaHfO{sub 3} is increased with Sr doping, decreases because of low electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity.

  8. Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of HfErO films deposited by simultaneous RF and VHF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Y. [Soochow University, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, School of Tongda, Nanjing (China); Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); He, H.J.; Zhang, Z.; Jin, C.G.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y.Y.; Ye, C. [Soochow University, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); Zhuge, L.J. [Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); Soochow University, Analysis and Testing Center, Suzhou (China); Wu, X.M. [Soochow University, College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou (China); Soochow University, Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Suzhou (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2015-01-23

    HfErO films are deposited on Si substrates by simultaneous radio frequency (RF) and very high frequency (VHF) magnetron sputtering technique. The content of the doped ingredient of Er and the body composition of HfO{sub x} are, respectively, controlled through the VHF and RF powers. Low content of Er doping in the HfErO films can be achieved, because the VHF source of 27.12 MHz has higher ion energy and lower ion flux than the RF source resulting in low sputtering rate in the magnetron sputtering system. The structure, optical properties and thermal stability of the HfErO films are investigated in this work. Results show that the doped content of Er is independently controlled by the VHF power. The oxygen vacancies are created by the Er incorporation. The hafnium in the HfErO films forms mixed valence of Hf{sup 2+} and Hf{sup 4+}. The HfErO films are composed with the structures of HfO{sub 2}, HfO and ErO{sub x}, which can be optimized through the VHF power. At high VHF power, the Hf-Er-O bonds are formed, which demonstrates that the Er atoms are doped into the lattice of HfO{sub 2} in the HfErO films. The HfErO films have bad thermal stability as the crystallization temperature decreases from 900 to 800 C. After thermal annealing, cubic phase of HfO{sub 2} are stabilized, which is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies creation by the Er incorporation. The optical properties such as the refractive index and the optical band gap of the HfErO films are optimized by the VHF power. (orig.)

  9. Structure, optical properties and thermal stability of HfErO films deposited by simultaneous RF and VHF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.Y.; He, H.J.; Zhang, Z.; Jin, C.G.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y.Y.; Ye, C.; Zhuge, L.J.; Wu, X.M.

    2015-01-01

    HfErO films are deposited on Si substrates by simultaneous radio frequency (RF) and very high frequency (VHF) magnetron sputtering technique. The content of the doped ingredient of Er and the body composition of HfO x are, respectively, controlled through the VHF and RF powers. Low content of Er doping in the HfErO films can be achieved, because the VHF source of 27.12 MHz has higher ion energy and lower ion flux than the RF source resulting in low sputtering rate in the magnetron sputtering system. The structure, optical properties and thermal stability of the HfErO films are investigated in this work. Results show that the doped content of Er is independently controlled by the VHF power. The oxygen vacancies are created by the Er incorporation. The hafnium in the HfErO films forms mixed valence of Hf 2+ and Hf 4+ . The HfErO films are composed with the structures of HfO 2 , HfO and ErO x , which can be optimized through the VHF power. At high VHF power, the Hf-Er-O bonds are formed, which demonstrates that the Er atoms are doped into the lattice of HfO 2 in the HfErO films. The HfErO films have bad thermal stability as the crystallization temperature decreases from 900 to 800 C. After thermal annealing, cubic phase of HfO 2 are stabilized, which is ascribed to the oxygen vacancies creation by the Er incorporation. The optical properties such as the refractive index and the optical band gap of the HfErO films are optimized by the VHF power. (orig.)

  10. Investigation on possible risks to human health by exposure to the radiation of electromagnetic waves produced by the radio communications; Investigacion sobre posibles riesgos a la salud humana por exposicion a la radiacion de ondas electromagneticas producidas por las radiocomunicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Hernandez, Carlos Felipe; Ibarguengoytia Gonzalez, Pablo Hector; Flores Garcia, Andres; Franco Campos, Laura Elena [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-06-13

    This verification procedure is based on a research work on the possible risks to human health by exposure to the radiation of electromagnetic waves produced by the radio communications, cases of study: cellular telephony, radio digital troncalized and wireless telephony IP of Voice on IP (wireless local area network). The revision of all the international standards and the applicable national standardization was included, as well as the verification of fulfillment. [Spanish] Este procedimiento de verificacion esta basado en un trabajo de investigacion sobre posibles riesgos a la salud humana por exposicion a la radiacion de ondas electromagneticas producidas por la radiocomunicaciones, casos de estudio: telefonia celular, radio troncalizado digital y telefonia IP inalambrica de Voz sobre IP (red de area local inalambrica). Se incluyo la revision de todos los estandares internacionales y de la normatividad nacional aplicable, asi como la verificacion de cumplimiento.

  11. An analytical theory of a scattering of radio waves on meteoric ionization - II. Solution of the integro-differential equation in case of backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecina, P.

    2016-12-01

    The integro-differential equation for the polarization vector P inside the meteor trail, representing the analytical solution of the set of Maxwell equations, is solved for the case of backscattering of radio waves on meteoric ionization. The transversal and longitudinal dimensions of a typical meteor trail are small in comparison to the distances to both transmitter and receiver and so the phase factor appearing in the kernel of the integral equation is large and rapidly changing. This allows us to use the method of stationary phase to obtain an approximate solution of the integral equation for the scattered field and for the corresponding generalized radar equation. The final solution is obtained by expanding it into the complete set of Bessel functions, which results in solving a system of linear algebraic equations for the coefficients of the expansion. The time behaviour of the meteor echoes is then obtained using the generalized radar equation. Examples are given for values of the electron density spanning a range from underdense meteor echoes to overdense meteor echoes. We show that the time behaviour of overdense meteor echoes using this method is very different from the one obtained using purely numerical solutions of the Maxwell equations. Our results are in much better agreement with the observations performed e.g. by the Ondřejov radar.

  12. High Efficiency Traveling-Wave Tube Power Amplifier for Ka-Band Software Defined Radio on International Space Station-A Platform for Communications Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Force, Dale A.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The design, fabrication and RF performance of the output traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA) for a space based Ka-band software defined radio (SDR) is presented. The TWTA, the SDR and the supporting avionics are integrated to forms a testbed, which is currently located on an exterior truss of the International Space Station (ISS). The SDR in the testbed communicates at Ka-band frequencies through a high-gain antenna directed to NASA s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which communicates to the ground station located at White Sands Complex. The application of the testbed is for demonstrating new waveforms and software designed to enhance data delivery from scientific spacecraft and, the waveforms and software can be upgraded and reconfigured from the ground. The construction and the salient features of the Ka-band SDR are discussed. The testbed is currently undergoing on-orbit checkout and commissioning and is expected to operate for 3 to 5 years in space.

  13. Modeling of very low frequency (VLF radio wave signal profile due to solar flares using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation coupled with ionospheric chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Palit

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available X-ray photons emitted during solar flares cause ionization in the lower ionosphere (~60 to 100 km in excess of what is expected to occur due to a quiet sun. Very low frequency (VLF radio wave signals reflected from the D-region of the ionosphere are affected by this excess ionization. In this paper, we reproduce the deviation in VLF signal strength during solar flares by numerical modeling. We use GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code to compute the rate of ionization due to a M-class flare and a X-class flare. The output of the simulation is then used in a simplified ionospheric chemistry model to calculate the time variation of electron density at different altitudes in the D-region of the ionosphere. The resulting electron density variation profile is then self-consistently used in the LWPC code to obtain the time variation of the change in VLF signal. We did the modeling of the VLF signal along the NWC (Australia to IERC/ICSP (India propagation path and compared the results with observations. The agreement is found to be very satisfactory.

  14. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  15. HF-induced airglow at magnetic zenith: theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Mishin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of airglow at 630nm (red line and 557.7nm (green line during HF modification experiments at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP heating facility are analyzed. We propose a theoretical framework for understanding the generation of Langmuir and ion acoustic waves during magnetic zenith injections. We show that observations of HF-induced airglow in an underdense ionosphere as well as a decrease in the height of the emitting volume are consistent with this scenario.

  16. Hf på VUC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette; Hansen, Niels-Henrik Møller

    . Konkret har forskningsprojektet 3 mål: At afdække hf-kursisternes tidligere uddannelsesforløb og -erfaringer, før de starter på hf på VUC.At afdække, hvordan mødet med uddannelsens studiemiljø opleves af kursisterne, og ikke mindst kursisternes oplevelse af undervisningsformer, lærere mm.At afdække, hvad...

  17. Comparison of HF radar measurements with Eulerian and Lagrangian surface currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrs, Johannes; Sperrevik, Ann Kristin; Christensen, Kai Håkon; Broström, Göran; Breivik, Øyvind

    2015-05-01

    High-frequency (HF) radar-derived ocean currents are compared with in situ measurements to conclude if the radar observations include effects of surface waves that are of second order in the wave amplitude. Eulerian current measurements from a high-resolution acoustic Doppler current profiler and Lagrangian measurements from surface drifters are used as references. Directional wave spectra are obtained from a combination of pressure sensor data and a wave model. Our analysis shows that the wave-induced Stokes drift is not included in the HF radar-derived currents, that is, HF radars measure the Eulerian current. A disputed nonlinear correction to the phase velocity of surface gravity waves, which may affect HF radar signals, has a magnitude of about half the Stokes drift at the surface. In our case, this contribution by nonlinear dispersion would be smaller than the accuracy of the HF radar currents, hence no conclusion can be made. Finally, the analysis confirms that the HF radar data represent an exponentially weighted vertical average where the decay scale is proportional to the wavelength of the transmitted signal.

  18. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  19. Ionospheric propagation effects on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Vallières

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available SuperDARN HF radars provide a global survey of the large-scale convection transversely to the Earth's magnetic field in the high-latitude ionosphere. In addition to the mean plasma velocity, this network also provides measurements of spectral widths which are related to the level of turbulence of the sounded plasma. There is an increasing interest in using spectral widths in geophysical studies, since they are used to monitor the footprints of several magnetospheric regions. In the present paper, we show the effect of radio wave propagation through a typical turbulent ionosphere on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN radars. This effect has already been evidenced experimentally in a previous paper. Here, we model the effects of meso-scale structures on a radar wave front and study their impact on a typical measurement. Numerical simulations reproduce the effect evidenced experimentally and show the role of meso-scale structures (1-10km in the systematic bias that affects spectral width values. As in experimental data, this effect is shown to be increasing with decreasing radar frequency.

  20. Ionospheric propagation effects on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN HF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Vallières

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available SuperDARN HF radars provide a global survey of the large-scale convection transversely to the Earth's magnetic field in the high-latitude ionosphere. In addition to the mean plasma velocity, this network also provides measurements of spectral widths which are related to the level of turbulence of the sounded plasma. There is an increasing interest in using spectral widths in geophysical studies, since they are used to monitor the footprints of several magnetospheric regions. In the present paper, we show the effect of radio wave propagation through a typical turbulent ionosphere on spectral widths measured by SuperDARN radars. This effect has already been evidenced experimentally in a previous paper. Here, we model the effects of meso-scale structures on a radar wave front and study their impact on a typical measurement. Numerical simulations reproduce the effect evidenced experimentally and show the role of meso-scale structures (1-10km in the systematic bias that affects spectral width values. As in experimental data, this effect is shown to be increasing with decreasing radar frequency.

  1. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Any discussion of the radio emission from stars should begin by emphasizing certain unique problems. First of all, one must clarify a semantic confusion introduced into radio astronomy in the late 1950's when most new radio sources were described as radio stars. All of these early 'radio stars' were eventually identified with other galactic and extra-galactic objects. The study of true radio stars, where the radio emission is produced in the atmosphere of a star, began only in the 1960's. Most of the work on the subject has, in fact, been carried out in only the last few years. Because the real information about radio stars is quite new, it is not surprising that major aspects of the subject are not at all understood. For this reason this paper is organized mainly around three questions: what is the available observational information; what physical processes seem to be involved; and what working hypotheses look potentially fruitful. (Auth.)

  2. Radio frequency system for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozeki, Shoichiro; Sagawa, Norimoto; Takizawa, Teruhiro

    1987-01-01

    The importance of radio frequency waves has been increasing in the area of nuclear fusion since they are indispensable for heating of plasma, etc. This report outlines radio frequency techniques used for nuclear fusion and describes the development of radio frequency systems (radio frequency plasma heating system and current drive system). Presently, in-depth studies are underway at various research institutes to achieve plasma heating by injection of radio frequency electric power. Three ranges of frequencies, ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequency), LHRF (lower hybrid range of frequency) and ECRF (electron cyclotron range of frequency), are considered promissing for radio frequency heating. Candidate waves for plasma current driving include ECW (electron cyclotron wave), LHW (lower hybrid wave), MSW (magnetic sound wave), ICW (ion cyclotron wave) with minority component, and FW (fast wave). FW is the greatest in terms of current drive efficiency. In general, a radio frequency system for nuclear fusion consists of a radio frequency power source, transmission/matching circuit component and plasma connection component. (Nogami, K.)

  3. Crystal Growth of High-Quality Protein Crystals under the Presence of an Alternant Electric Field in Pulse-Wave Mode, and a Strong Magnetic Field with Radio Frequency Pulses Characterized by X-ray Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Rodríguez-Romero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this research was devoted to investigating the effect of alternate current (AC using four different types of wave modes (pulse-wave at 2 Hz on the crystal growth of lysozyme in solution. The best results, in terms of size and crystal quality, were obtained when protein crystals were grown under the influence of electric fields in a very specific wave mode (“breathing” wave, giving the highest resolution up to 1.34 Å in X-ray diffraction analysis compared with controls and with those crystals grown in gel. In the second part, we evaluated the effect of a strong magnetic field of 16.5 Tesla combined with radiofrequency pulses of 0.43 μs on the crystal growth in gels of tetragonal hen egg white (HEW lysozyme. The lysozyme crystals grown, both in solution applying breathing-wave and in gel under the influence of this strong magnetic field with pulses of radio frequencies, produced the larger-in-size crystals and the highest resolution structures. Data processing and refinement statistics are very good in terms of the resolution, mosaicity and Wilson B factor obtained for each crystal. Besides, electron density maps show well-defined and distinctly separated atoms at several selected tryptophan residues for the crystal grown using the “breathing wave pulses”.

  4. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.; Gibson, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of stellar radio emission became an important field of research in the 1970's and have now expanded to become a major area of radio astronomy with the advent of new instruments such as the Very Large Array in New Mexico and transcontinental telescope arrays. This volume contains papers from the workshop on stellar continuum radio astronomy held in Boulder, Colorado, and is the first book on the rapidly expanding field of radio emission from stars and stellar systems. Subjects covered include the observational and theoretical aspects of stellar winds from both hot and cool stars, radio flares from active double star systems and red dwarf stars, bipolar flows from star-forming regions, and the radio emission from X-ray binaries. (orig.)

  5. Zirconium Zr and hafnium Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busev, A.I.; Tiptsova, V.G.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The basic methods for extracting and determining Zr(4) and Hf(4) are described. Diantipyrinemethane and its alkyl homologs selectively extract Zr and Hf from HNO 3 solutions in the presence of nitrates. Zr is selectively extracted with tetraethyldiamide of heptyl phosphoric acid (in benzene) as well as with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (in an acid). The latter reagents is suitable for rapid determination of 95 Zr in a mixture with 95 Nb and other fragments. The complexometric determination of Zr is based on formation of a stable complex of Zr with EDTA. The titration is carried out in the presence of n-sulfobenzene-azo-pyrocatechol, eriochrome black T. The determination is hindered by Hf, fluoride-, phosphate-, oxalate- and tartrate-ions. The method is used for determining Zr in zircon and eudialyte ore. Zr is determined photometrically with the aid of xylenol orange, arsenazo 3 and pyrocatechol violet (in phosphorites). Hf is determined in the presence of Zr photometrically with the aid of xylenol orange or methyl-thymol blue. The method is based on Zr being masked with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfate-ions

  6. HF Parameters of Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Benallal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of experimental studies of HF input and primary parameters. A simulation model in Matlab SimulinkTM of multiphase windings as ladder circuit of coils is developed. A method for determining the primary parameters of ladder equivalent circuits is presented.

  7. Galactic radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    This book is a concise primer on galactic radio astronomy for undergraduate and graduate students, and provides wide coverage of galactic astronomy and astrophysics such as the physics of interstellar matter and the dynamics and structure of the Milky Way Galaxy and galaxies. Radio astronomy and its technological development have led to significant progress in galactic astronomy and contributed to understanding interstellar matter and galactic structures. The book begins with the fundamental physics of radio-wave radiation, i.e., black body radiation, thermal emission, synchrotron radiation, and HI and molecular line emissions. The author then gives overviews of ingredients of galactic physics, including interstellar matter such as the neutral (HI), molecular hydrogen, and ionized gases, as well as magnetic fields in galaxies. In addition, more advanced topics relevant to the Galaxy and galaxies are also contained here: star formation, supernova remnants, the Galactic Center and black holes, galactic dynamics...

  8. Well-defined EUV wave associated with a CME-driven shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Silva, R. D.; Selhorst, C. L.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Oliveira e Silva, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Aims: We report on a well-defined EUV wave observed by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The event was accompanied by a shock wave driven by a halo CME observed by the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO-C2/C3) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), as evidenced by the occurrence of type II bursts in the metric and dekameter-hectometric wavelength ranges. We investigated the kinematics of the EUV wave front and the radio source with the purpose of verifying the association between the EUV wave and the shock wave. Methods: The EUV wave fronts were determined from the SDO/AIA images by means of two appropriate directions (slices). The heights (radial propagation) of the EUV wave observed by STEREO/EUVI and of the radio source associated with the shock wave were compared considering the whole bandwidth of the harmonic lane of the radio emission, whereas the speed of the shock was estimated using the lowest frequencies of the harmonic lane associated with the undisturbed corona, using an appropriate multiple of the Newkirk (1961, ApJ, 133, 983) density model and taking into account the H/F frequency ratio fH/fF = 2. The speed of the radio source associated with the interplanetary shock was determined using the Mann et al. (1999, A&A, 348, 614) density model. Results: The EUV wave fronts determined from the SDO/AIA images revealed the coexistence of two types of EUV waves, a fast one with a speed of 560 km s-1, and a slower one with a speed of 250 km s-1, which corresponds approximately to one-third of the average speed of the radio source ( 680 km s-1). The radio signature of the interplanetary shock revealed an almost constant speed of 930 km s-1, consistent with the linear speed of the halo CME (950 km s-1) and with the values found for the accelerating coronal shock ( 535-823 km s-1

  9. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This 6th edition of “Tools of Radio Astronomy”, the most used introductory text in radio astronomy, has been revised to reflect the current state of this important branch of astronomy. This includes the use of satellites, low radio frequencies, the millimeter/sub-mm universe, the Cosmic Microwave Background and the increased importance of mm/sub-mm dust emission. Several derivations and presentations of technical aspects of radio astronomy and receivers, such as receiver noise, the Hertz dipole and  beam forming have been updated, expanded, re-worked or complemented by alternative derivations. These reflect advances in technology. The wider bandwidths of the Jansky-VLA and long wave arrays such as LOFAR and mm/sub-mm arrays such as ALMA required an expansion of the discussion of interferometers and aperture synthesis. Developments in data reduction algorithms have been included. As a result of the large amount of data collected in the past 20 years, the discussion of solar system radio astronomy, dust em...

  10. Radio and line transmission 2

    CERN Document Server

    Roddy, Dermot

    2013-01-01

    Radio and Line Transmission, Volume 2 gives a detailed treatment of the subject as well as an introduction to additional advanced subject matter. Organized into 14 chapters, this book begins by explaining the radio wave propagation, signal frequencies, and bandwidth. Subsequent chapters describe the transmission lines and cables; the aerials; tuned and coupled circuits; bipolar transistor amplifiers; field-effect transistors and circuits; thermionic valve amplifiers; LC oscillators; the diode detectors and modulators; and the superheterodyne receiver. Other chapters explore noise and interfere

  11. Temporal evolution of the HF-enhanced plasma line in sporadic E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuth, F.T.; Gonzales, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The high-power, high-frequency (HF) facility at Arecibo, Puerto Rico, has been used to study the excitation of Langmuir waves in mid-latitude sporadic E. Measurements of the temporal evolution of so-called HF-enhanced plasma line (HFPL) were made using the Arecibo 430-MHz radar. After HF turn-on in the plasma the HFPL exhibits a rapid growth phase followed by a quick overshoot. During periods of strong HFPL excitation the e-folding growth time of the HFPL power is typically approx-lt 20 μs, and the total overshoot period is ∼1 ms. On the basis of the current observations, mode conversion of the HF wave into Langmuir waves near HF reflection appears to be a promising mechanism for the production of Langmuir waves in sporadic E. Caviton formation at the critical layer is expected to accompany this process, and there is some evidence that the 430-MHz radar is probing the plasma in a region where density cavities of this nature form. While no specific explanation is offered for the HFPL overshoot, it appears that this phenomenon is fundamental to the Langmuir wave excitation process

  12. HF Radar Sea-echo from Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Kohut

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available HF radar systems are widely and routinely used for the measurement of ocean surface currents and waves. Analysis methods presently in use are based on the assumption of infinite water depth, and may therefore be inadequate close to shore where the radar echo is strongest. In this paper, we treat the situation when the radar echo is returned from ocean waves that interact with the ocean floor. Simulations are described which demonstrate the effect of shallow water on radar sea-echo. These are used to investigate limits on the existing theory and to define water depths at which shallow-water effects become significant. The second-order spectral energy increases relative to the first-order as the water depth decreases, resulting in spectral saturation when the waveheight exceeds a limit defined by the radar transmit frequency. This effect is particularly marked for lower radar transmit frequencies. The saturation limit on waveheight is less for shallow water. Shallow water affects second-order spectra (which gives wave information far more than first-order (which gives information on current velocities, the latter being significantly affected only for the lowest radar transmit frequencies for extremely shallow water. We describe analysis of radar echo from shallow water measured by a Rutgers University HF radar system to give ocean wave spectral estimates. Radar-derived wave height, period and direction are compared with simultaneous shallow-water in-situ measurements.

  13. HF turbulence as a source of novel diagnostics tool for space plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothkaehl, H.; Klos, Z.; Thide, B.; Bergman, J.

    2005-01-01

    The T type of turbulence and instabilities can be produced by a source of free energy in the form of natural and anthropogenic perturbation. Space turbulence acts as a tracer of the various physical processes acting in these regions and gives access to them, but on the other side it disturbs the propagation of radio waves and the ability of detecting targets of interests. To understand the property of solar terrestrial environment and to develop a quantitative model of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere subsystem, which is strongly coupled via the electric field, particle precipitation, heat flows and small scale interaction, it is necessary to design and build new generation multipoint and different type sensor diagnostics, as proposed by LOFAR/LOIS facility in complementary of space borne satellite experiments. Ground based multi frequency and multi polarization LOIS clusters antennas and clusters observations in the in the space should be helpful in achieving to solve problems of space physics and described long term environmental changes. The real-time access to gathered based data, relevant to the impact of environment physical condition on communications and global positioning system, will create the possibility to improve quality of different type space related services. Simultaneously investigation and monitoring of Earth environment will be coordinated with space borne experiment COMPAS 2 experiment. The new design radio spectrometer will be designed to investigate the still largely unknown mechanisms which govern these turbulent interactions natural and man-made origin. The main aim of this presentation is to show the general architecture of LOIS and COMPAS 2 experiment and its scientific challenges. It will be emphasize the description of electromagnetic Earth environments in HF range as well. (author)

  14. A Study on the Radio Propagation in the Korean Ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hee Bae

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the ionosphere on the radio wave propagation are scattering of radio waves, attenuation, angle error, ranging error, and time delay. If ionospheric conditions are suitable, the charged particles can remove energy from radio waves and thus attenuate the signal. Also, a radio wave traveling a path along which the electron density is not constant undergoes changes in direction, position and time of propagation. The present study is based on Korean ionospheric data obtained at the AnYong Radio Research Institute from Jan. 1985 through Oct. 1989. The data are used to simulate the Korean ionosphere following the Chapman law. The effects of the model ionosphere on the radio wave propagation, such as the angle, position error, time delay, and the attenuation, are studies for the various cases of the wave frequency and the altitude.

  15. Plasma Diagnostics of the Interstellar Medium with Radio Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Haverkorn, Marijke; Spangler, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the degree to which radio propagation measurements diagnose conditions in the ionized gas of the interstellar medium (ISM). The "signal generators" of the radio waves of interest are extragalactic radio sources (quasars and radio galaxies), as well as Galactic sources, primarily pulsars. The polarized synchrotron radiation of the Galactic non-thermal radiation also serves to probe the ISM, including space between the emitting regions and the solar system. Radio propagation measurem...

  16. Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) 1 observations of terrestrial radio noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Radio Astonomy Explorer (RAE) 1 data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 or more db higher than cosmic noise background. Maximum terrestrial noise is observed when RAE is over the dark side of the Earth in the neighborhood of equatorial continental land masses where thunderstorms occur most frequently. The observed noise level is 30-40 db lower with RAE over oceans.

  17. The 2010 Polar Aeronomy and Radio Science (PARS) Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    Ionospheric Plasma ........................................................................26 3.7. Measurements of HF Wave-Induced Micropulsations Using GMOS ...facility‟s most distant diagnostic pad. This instrument, called the Geomagnetic Observatory System ( GMOS ) is capable of measuring very small...angles 3.7. Measurements of HF Wave-Induced Micropulsations Using GMOS 3.7.1. Investigators J. Gancarz, R. Pradipta, and Min-Chang Lee (Mentor

  18. Radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parijskij, Y.N.; Gossachinskij, I.V.; Zuckerman, B.; Khersonsky, V.K.; Pustilnik, S.; Robinson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of major developments and discoveries in the field of radioastronomy during the period 1973-1975 is presented. The report is presented under the following headings:(1) Continuum radiation from the Galaxy; (2) Neutral hydrogen, 21 cm (galactic and extragalactic) and recombination lines; (3) Radioastronomy investigations of interstellar molecules; (4) Extragalactic radio astronomy and (6) Development in radio astronomy instruments. (B.R.H.)

  19. Modelling of radio frequency sheath and fast wave coupling on the realistic ion cyclotron resonant antenna surroundings and the outer wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L.; Colas, L.; Jacquot, J.; Després, B.; Heuraux, S.; Faudot, E.; Van Eester, D.; Crombé, K.; Křivská, A.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Helou, W.; Hillairet, J.

    2018-03-01

    In order to model the sheath rectification in a realistic geometry over the size of ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH) antennas, the self-consistent sheaths and waves for ICH (SSWICH) code couples self-consistently the RF wave propagation and the DC SOL biasing via nonlinear RF and DC sheath boundary conditions applied at plasma/wall interfaces. A first version of SSWICH had 2D (toroidal and radial) geometry, rectangular walls either normal or parallel to the confinement magnetic field B 0 and only included the evanescent slow wave (SW) excited parasitically by the ICRH antenna. The main wave for plasma heating, the fast wave (FW) plays no role on the sheath excitation in this version. A new version of the code, 2D SSWICH-full wave, was developed based on the COMSOL software, to accommodate full RF field polarization and shaped walls tilted with respect to B 0 . SSWICH-full wave simulations have shown the mode conversion of FW into SW occurring at the sharp corners where the boundary shape varies rapidly. It has also evidenced ‘far-field’ sheath oscillations appearing at the shaped walls with a relatively long magnetic connection length to the antenna, that are only accessible to the propagating FW. Joint simulation, conducted by SSWICH-full wave within a multi-2D approach excited using the 3D wave coupling code (RAPLICASOL), has recovered the double-hump poloidal structure measured in the experimental temperature and potential maps when only the SW is modelled. The FW contribution on the potential poloidal structure seems to be affected by the 3D effects, which was ignored in the current stage. Finally, SSWICH-full wave simulation revealed the left-right asymmetry that has been observed extensively in the unbalanced strap feeding experiments, suggesting that the spatial proximity effects in RF sheath excitation, studied for SW only previously, is still important in the vicinity of the wave launcher under full wave polarizations.

  20. Wide Field Radio Transient Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey

    2011-04-01

    The time domain of the radio wavelength sky has been only sparsely explored. Nevertheless, serendipitous discovery and results from limited surveys indicate that there is much to be found on timescales from nanoseconds to years and at wavelengths from meters to millimeters. These observations have revealed unexpected phenomena such as rotating radio transients and coherent pulses from brown dwarfs. Additionally, archival studies have revealed an unknown class of radio transients without radio, optical, or high-energy hosts. The new generation of centimeter-wave radio telescopes such as the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) will exploit wide fields of view and flexible digital signal processing to systematically explore radio transient parameter space, as well as lay the scientific and technical foundation for the Square Kilometer Array. Known unknowns that will be the target of future transient surveys include orphan gamma-ray burst afterglows, radio supernovae, tidally-disrupted stars, flare stars, and magnetars. While probing the variable sky, these surveys will also provide unprecedented information on the static radio sky. I will present results from three large ATA surveys (the Fly's Eye survey, the ATA Twenty CM Survey (ATATS), and the Pi GHz Survey (PiGSS)) and several small ATA transient searches. Finally, I will discuss the landscape and opportunities for future instruments at centimeter wavelengths.

  1. Doppler shift simulation of scattered HF signals during the Tromsø HF pumping experiment on 16 February 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Borisova

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons between bistatic scatter measurements and simulation results during the Tromsø HF pumping experiment on 16 February 1996 are made. Doppler measurements of an HF diagnostic signal scattered from the field-aligned irregularities (FAIs in the auroral E-region were carried out on the London – Tromsø – St. Petersburg path at 9410 kHz from 21:00 to 22:00 UT. The scattered signals were observed both from natural and artificial ionospheric irregularities located in the vicinity of Tromsø. To simulate the Doppler frequency shifts, fd , of scattered signals, a radio channel model, named CONE, was developed. The model allows for ray tracing, group and phase paths, and Doppler frequency shift calculations. The calculated Doppler shifts were analyzed for dependence on the magnitude and direction of plasma velocities in the scattering volume. It was found that the velocity components in the north-south direction are crucial for explaining the Doppler frequency shifts of the scattered diagnostic signals. To simulate fd , real velocities obtained from the EISCAT UHF radar at an altitude of 278 km and from the digital all-sky imager during the experiment were employed. The simulation results of Doppler frequency shift variations with time are in reasonable agreement with the experimental Doppler shifts of scattered signals on the London – Tromsø – St. Petersburg path.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionospheric irregularities Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  2. Radio Frequency Interference: The Study of Rain Effect on Radio Signal Attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar; Shahirah Syafa Sulan; Atiq Wahidah Azlan; Zainol Abidin Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The intensity of radio waves received by radio telescopes is always not subject to human control. In the millimetre band, the propagation of the electromagnetic waves is severely affected by rain rate, dust particle size and drop size in the terms of attenuation, noise and depolarization. At the frequency above 10 GHz, the absorption and scattering by rain cause a reduction in the transmitted signal amplitude which will lead to the reducing of the availability, reliability and performance on the communications link. In this study, the rain effect on radio signal has been investigated. Spectrum analyzer and weather stations were used to obtain the RFI level and rain rate data respectively. The radio frequency interference (RFI) pattern due to rain factor was determined. This will benefit radio astronomer in managing sites for radio observation for radio astronomy purposes. (author)

  3. The rotational excitation of HF by H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrousseaux, Benjamin; Lique, François

    2018-06-01

    The HF molecule is a key tracer of molecular hydrogen in diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). Accurate modelling of the HF abundance in such media requires one to model its excitation by both radiation and collisions. In diffuse ISM, the dominant collisional partners are atomic and molecular hydrogen. We report quantum time-independent calculations of collisional cross-sections and rate coefficients for the rotational excitation of HF by H. The reactive hydrogen exchange channels are taken into account in the scattering calculations. For the first time, HF-H rate coefficients are provided for temperature ranging from 10 to 500 K. The strongest collision-induced rotational HF transitions are those with Δj = 1, and the order of magnitude of the new HF-H rate coefficients is similar to that of the HF-H2 ones previously computed. As a first application, we simulate the excitation of HF by both H and H2 in typical diffuse ISM. We show that, depending on the rotational transition, hydrogen atoms increase or decrease the simulated excitation temperatures compared to collisional excitation only due to H2 molecules. Such results suggest that the new HF-H collisional data have to be used for properly modelling the abundance of HF in diffuse ISM.

  4. Special Topics in HF Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    Capitaine de Frigate P.Italley Dr T.SJones Ing6nieur en Chef au CNET Physics Department 38 -40 rue du Gdn~ral Leclerc University of Leicester 9213 i1...fre’qiancý. A t’ctailcd discussion of HF reliability is giver in A companion paiper (MASLIN, N.M . 197(j)) the result tic ligs 4 atad % i-. sumniart-aed...conttoutt to determine if treie :s an additional zonal gqt.ient but wa shall ceo tto.., tnC companion Layttacings that it it, negliit.-tle. F:gur:!i 7A

  5. A comparative study of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors with HfOxNy and HfO2 gate dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Xiao; Tong, Xingsheng; Fang, Guojia; Yuan, Longyan; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2010-01-01

    High-κ HfO x N y and HfO 2 films are applied to amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) devices as gate dielectric using radio-frequency reactive sputtering. The electrical characteristics and reliability of a-IGZO metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) capacitors and thin-film transistors (TFTs) are then investigated. Experimental results indicate that the nitrogen incorporation into HfO 2 can effectively improve the interface quality and enhance the reliability of the devices. Electrical properties with an interface-state density of 5.2 × 10 11 eV −1 cm −2 , capacitance equivalent thickness of 1.65 nm, gate leakage current density of 3.4 × 10 −5 A cm −2 at V fb +1 V, equivalent permittivity of 23.6 and hysteresis voltage of 110 mV are obtained for an Al/HfO x N y /a-IGZO MIS capacitor. Superior performance of HfO x N y /a-IGZO TFTs has also been achieved with a low threshold voltage of 0.33 V, a high saturation mobility of 12.1 cm 2 V −1 s −1 and a large on–off current ratio up to 7 × 10 7 (W/L = 500/20 µm) at 3 V

  6. Ionospheric heating with oblique high-frequency waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, E.C. Jr.; Bloom, R.M.; Kossey, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents calculations of ionospheric electron temperature and density perturbations and ground-level signal changes produced by intense oblique high-frequency (HF) radio waves. The analysis takes into account focusing at caustics, the consequent Joule heating of the surrounding plasma, heat conduction, diffusion, and recombination processes, these being the effects of a powerful oblique modifying wave. It neglects whatever plasma instabilities might occur. The authors then seek effects on a secondary test wave that is propagated along the same path as the first. The calculations predict ground-level field strength reductions of several decibels in the test wave for modifying waves having effective radiated power (ERP) in the 85- to 90-dBW range. These field strength changes are similar in sign, magnitude, and location to ones measured in Soviet experiments. The location of the signal change is sensitive to the frequency and the model ionosphere assumed; so future experiments should employ the widest possible range of frequencies and propagation conditions. An ERP of 90 dBW seems to be a sort of threshold that, if exceeded, might result in substantial rather than small signal changes. The conclusions are based solely on Joule heating and subsequent refraction of waves passing through caustic regions

  7. Change of the high-latitude ionosphere during heating by a powerful short radio wave of the EISCAT/Heating complex according to signals of the GLONASS satellite and the incoherent scattering radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchenko E. D.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of observations of variations of temperature, electron concentration and total electron content of the high-latitude region of the ionosphere during its modification by powerful short radio waves of the heating complex EISCAT/Heating (Tromsø, Norway according to signals of the GLONASS satellites and the incoherent scattering UHF EISCAT radar (Tromsø, Norway have been provided. The geometry of passes of the GLONASS and GPS satellites for operating conditions of the heating complex in Tromsø has been considered. It has been shown that during the experiments on the EISCAT/Heating complex for the study of the modified structure of the high-latitude ionosphere it is more convenient to use the GLONASS satellites. Parameters of orbits of these satellites allow researching changes of total electron content in the direction along the geomagnetic field line at the place of observation. It has been shown that during heating of the ionosphere by powerful short radio waves its structure is becoming an irregular one. Operation of the heating complex in the mode "switched on – switched off" has caused appearance of wavy variations of total electron content with the periods close to the heating period. The main features of behavior of the total electron content in the case of the continuous heating of the ionosphere in the direction of the magnetic zenith according to the GLONASS satellite are: reduction of total electron content in the central zone of the antenna diagram, i. e. in the direction of the magnetic zenith, and presence of the increased values of total electron content at the edges of the heating zone. According to the incoherent scattering radar the heating of the ionosphere by the powerful short radio wave has created the region of the increased electron temperature and electron concentration along the direction of the magnetic zenith. The behavior of total electron content according to the GLONASS satellite and the radar of

  8. MO-HF-C alloy composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, E.P.; Kalns, E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes, as an article of manufacture, a cast ingot of a molybdenum-hafnium-carbon alloy consisting essentially by weight of about 0.6% to about 1% Hf, about 0.045% to about 0.08% C, and the balance essentially molybdenum. The amount of Hf and C present are substantially stoichiometric with respect to HfC and within about +-15% of stoichiometry. The ingot is characterized in that it has a substantially less tendency to crack compared to alloys containing Hf in excess of about 1% by weight and carbon in excess of 0.08% by weight, without substantial diminution in strength properties of the alloy

  9. Radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Alder, Berni

    1975-01-01

    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 14: Radio Astronomy is devoted to the role of the digital computer both as a control device and as a calculator in addressing problems related to galactic radio noise. This volume contains four chapters and begins with a technical description of the hardware and the special data-handling problems of using radioheliography, with an emphasis on a selection of observational results obtained with the Culgoora radioheliograph and their significance to solar physics and to astrophysics in general. The subsequent chapter examines interstellar dispersion, i

  10. Zero-Power Radio Device.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    This report describes an unpowered radio receiver capable of detecting and responding to weak signals transmit ted from comparatively long distances . This radio receiver offers key advantages over a short range zero - power radio receiver previously described in SAND2004 - 4610, A Zero - Power Radio Receiver . The device described here can be fabricated as an integrated circuit for use in portable wireless devices, as a wake - up circuit, or a s a stand - alone receiver operating in conjunction with identification decoders or other electroni cs. It builds on key sub - components developed at Sandia National Laboratories over many years. It uses surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter technology. It uses custom component design to enable the efficient use of small aperture antennas. This device uses a key component, the pyroelectric demodulator , covered by Sandia owned U.S. Patent 7397301, Pyroelectric Demodulating Detector [1] . This device is also described in Sandia owned U.S. Patent 97266446, Zero Power Receiver [2].

  11. Modelling of plasma-antenna coupling and non-linear radio frequency wave-plasma-wall interactions in the magnetized plasma device under ion cyclotron range of frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, LingFeng

    2016-01-01

    Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) by waves in 30-80 MHz range is currently used in magnetic fusion plasmas. Excited by phased arrays of current straps at the plasma periphery, these waves exist under two polarizations. The Fast Wave tunnels through the tenuous plasma edge and propagates to its center where it is absorbed. The parasitically emitted Slow Wave only exists close to the launchers. How much power can be coupled to the center with 1 A current on the straps? How do the emitted radiofrequency (RF) near and far fields interact parasitically with the edge plasma via RF sheath rectification at plasma-wall interfaces? To address these two issues simultaneously, in realistic geometry over the size of ICRH antennas, this thesis upgraded and tested the Self-consistent Sheaths and Waves for ICH (SSWICH) code. SSWICH couples self-consistently RF wave propagation and Direct Current (DC) plasma biasing via non-linear RF and DC sheath boundary conditions (SBCs) at plasma/wall interfaces. Its upgrade is full wave and was implemented in two dimensions (toroidal/radial). New SBCs coupling the two polarizations were derived and implemented along shaped walls tilted with respect to the confinement magnetic field. Using this new tool in the absence of SBCs, we studied the impact of a density decaying continuously inside the antenna box and across the Lower Hybrid (LH) resonance. Up to the memory limits of our workstation, the RF fields below the LH resonance changed with the grid size. However the coupled power spectrum hardly evolved and was only weakly affected by the density inside the box. In presence of SBCs, SSWICH-FW simulations have identified the role of the fast wave on RF sheath excitation and reproduced some key experimental observations. SSWICH-FW was finally adapted to conduct the first electromagnetic and RF-sheath 2D simulations of the cylindrical magnetized plasma device ALINE. (author) [fr

  12. Charge storage and tunneling mechanism of Ni nanocrystals embedded HfOx film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. X.; Zhang, T.; Wang, R. X.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Li, L. T.; Qiu, X. Y.

    2016-05-01

    A nano-floating gate memory structure based on Ni nanocrystals (NCs) embedded HfOx film is deposited by means of radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Microstructure investigations reveal that self-organized Ni-NCs with diameters of 4-8 nm are well dispersed in amorphous HfOx matrix. Pt/Ni-NCs embedded HfOx/Si/Ag capacitor structures exhibit voltage-dependent capacitance-voltage hysteresis, and a maximum flat-band voltage shift of 1.5 V, corresponding to a charge storage density of 6.0 × 1012 electrons/cm2, is achieved. These capacitor memory cells exhibit good endurance characteristic up to 4 × 104 cycles and excellent retention performance of 105 s, fulfilling the requirements of next generation non-volatile memory devices. Schottky tunneling is proven to be responsible for electrons tunneling in these capacitors.

  13. Charge storage and tunneling mechanism of Ni nanocrystals embedded HfO{sub x} film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, H. X.; Zhang, T.; Wang, R. X.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Li, L. T.; Qiu, X. Y., E-mail: qxy2001@swu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2016-05-15

    A nano-floating gate memory structure based on Ni nanocrystals (NCs) embedded HfO{sub x} film is deposited by means of radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Microstructure investigations reveal that self-organized Ni-NCs with diameters of 4-8 nm are well dispersed in amorphous HfO{sub x} matrix. Pt/Ni-NCs embedded HfO{sub x}/Si/Ag capacitor structures exhibit voltage-dependent capacitance-voltage hysteresis, and a maximum flat-band voltage shift of 1.5 V, corresponding to a charge storage density of 6.0 × 10{sup 12} electrons/cm{sup 2}, is achieved. These capacitor memory cells exhibit good endurance characteristic up to 4 × 10{sup 4} cycles and excellent retention performance of 10{sup 5} s, fulfilling the requirements of next generation non-volatile memory devices. Schottky tunneling is proven to be responsible for electrons tunneling in these capacitors.

  14. Evidence of L-mode electromagnetic wave pumping of ionospheric plasma near geomagnetic zenith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Leyser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The response of ionospheric plasma to pumping by powerful HF (high frequency electromagnetic waves transmitted from the ground into the ionosphere is the strongest in the direction of geomagnetic zenith. We present experimental results from transmitting a left-handed circularly polarized HF beam from the EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter association Heating facility in magnetic zenith. The CASSIOPE (CAScade, Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer spacecraft in the topside ionosphere above the F-region density peak detected transionospheric pump radiation, although the pump frequency was below the maximum ionospheric plasma frequency. The pump wave is deduced to arrive at CASSIOPE through L-mode propagation and associated double (O to Z, Z to O conversion in pump-induced radio windows. L-mode propagation allows the pump wave to reach higher plasma densities and higher ionospheric altitudes than O-mode propagation so that a pump wave in the L-mode can facilitate excitation of upper hybrid phenomena localized in density depletions in a larger altitude range. L-mode propagation is therefore suggested to be important in explaining the magnetic zenith effect.

  15. TID measurement using oblique transmissions of HF pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Ivan; Reinisch, Bodo; Huang, Xueqin; Paznukhov, Vadym; Hamel, Ryan; Kozlov, Alexander; Belehaki, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (TID), a wave-like signature of moving plasma density modulation in the ionosphere, is widely acknowledged for its utility in backtracking the anomalous events responsible for the TID generation, and as a major inconvenience to high-frequency (HF) operational systems because of its deleterious impact on the accuracy of navigation and geolocation. The pilot project "Net-TIDE" for the real-time detection and evaluation of TIDs began its operation in 2016 based on the remote-sensing data from synchronized, network-coordinated HF sounding between pairs of DPS4D ionosondes at five participating observatories in Europe. Measurement of all signal properties (Doppler frequency, angle of arrival, and time-of-flight from transmitter to receiver) proved to be instrumental in detecting the TID and deducing the TID parameters: amplitude, wavelength, phase velocity, and direction of propagation. Processing of the measured HF signal data required a specialized signal processing technique that is capable of consistently extracting different signals that have propagated along different ionospheric paths. The multi-path signal environment proved to be the greatest challenge for the reliable TID specification by Net-TIDE, demanding the development of an intelligent system for "signal tracking". The intelligent system is based on a neural network model of a pre-attentive vision capable of extracting continuous signal tracks from the multi-path signal ensemble. Specific examples of the Net-TIDE algorithm suite operation and its suitability for a fully automated TID warning service are discussed.

  16. Mechanical alloying of Hf and Fe powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Zelis, L.; Crespo, E.; Creus, M.; Damonte, L.C.; Sanchez, F.H.; Punte, G.

    1994-01-01

    Pure crystalline Hf and Fe powders were mixed and milled under an argon atmosphere. The evolution of the system with milling time was followed with Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that in the first stages an amorphous Fe-rich alloy was gradually formed together with a solid solution of Hf in Fe beyond the solubility limit. (orig.)

  17. Ionospheric Caustics in Solar Radio Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, A.; Chen, Y.; Stanislavsky, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth ionosphere possesses by natural focusing and defocusing effects on radio waves due to presence of variable ionospheric irregularities which could act like convergent and divergent lenses on incident radiation. In particular, the focusing of emission from the Sun was firstly detected on the Nançay Decameter Array dynamic spectra in the 1980s. On time-frequency spectrograms the intensity variations form specific structures different from well-known solar radio bursts and clearly distinguishing on a background of solar radiation. Such structures have been identified as ionospheric caustics (ICs) and considered to be the result of radio waves refraction on medium scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs). Although nowadays the ICs are registered by different radio observatories due to augmentation of low-frequency radio telescopes, the most recent papers devoted to ICs in solar radio records date back to the 1980s. In this study, we revisit the ICs issue with some new results by conducting a statistical analysis of occurrence rate of ICs in solar dynamic spectra in meter-decameter wavelength range for long continuous period (15 years). The seasonal variations in ICs appearance have been found for the first time. Besides, we report the possible solar cycle dependence of ICs emergence. The radio waves propagation in the ionosphere comprising MSTIDs will be considered. The present research renews the subject of ICs in the low-frequency solar radio astronomy after about 35-year letup.

  18. Positron annihilation studies in Hf doped YBCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, P.; Priya, E.R.; Premila, M.; Sundar, C.S.; Gopinathan, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    The variation of positron lifetime and oxygen stoichiometry as a function of quench temperature has been measured in undoped and 0.5at%, 0.75at%, and 1.0 at% Hf doped YBCO. In both the undoped and Hf doped samples, the lifetime decreases and the oxygen content increases as the quench temperature is lowered from 900degC to 300degC. The lifetime in the tetragonal phase (900degC) decreases with the increase in Hf content, whereas in the orthorhombic phase (450degC) it increases. The difference in lifetime between the tetragonal and orthorhombic phases decreases with the increase in the Hf content. These trends are discussed in terms of the influence of Hf doping on the oxygen content and the positron density distribution in YBCO

  19. An inter-hemispheric, statistical study of nightside spectral width distributions from coherent HF scatter radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the Doppler spectral width parameter routinely observed by HF coherent radars has been conducted between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for the nightside ionosphere. Data from the SuperDARN radars at Thykkvibær, Iceland and Syowa East, Antarctica have been employed for this purpose. Both radars frequently observe regions of high (>200 ms-1 spectral width polewards of low (<200 ms-1 spectral width. Three years of data from both radars have been analysed both for the spectral width and line of sight velocity. The pointing direction of these two radars is such that the flow reversal boundary may be estimated from the velocity data, and therefore, we have an estimate of the open/closed field line boundary location for comparison with the high spectral widths. Five key observations regarding the behaviour of the spectral width on the nightside have been made. These are (i the two radars observe similar characteristics on a statistical basis; (ii a latitudinal dependence related to magnetic local time is found in both hemispheres; (iii a seasonal dependence of the spectral width is observed by both radars, which shows a marked absence of latitudinal dependence during the summer months; (iv in general, the Syowa East spectral width tends to be larger than that from Iceland East, and (v the highest spectral widths seem to appear on both open and closed field lines. Points (i and (ii indicate that the cause of high spectral width is magnetospheric in origin. Point (iii suggests that either the propagation of the HF radio waves to regions of high spectral width or the generating mechanism(s for high spectral width is affected by solar illumination or other seasonal effects. Point (iv suggests that the radar beams from each of the radars are subject either to different instrumental or propagation effects, or different geophysical conditions due to their locations, although we suggest that this result is more likely to

  20. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

  1. New discoveries with radio telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.

    1985-01-01

    The author describes in a simple fashion the results obtained by astronomers from ETH Zurich using the broadband 7-m radio telescope in Switzerland to observe the sun over a period of six years. He explains the results in terms of our present understanding of the sun's workings. The astronomers found that a solar eruption is not a single event but consists of tens of thousands of small eruptions or spikes each only 200 km high and producing a burst of radio waves 10-100 times as intense as the background. (T.J.R.A.)

  2. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  3. Doppler shift simulation of scattered HF signals during the Tromsø HF pumping experiment on 16 February 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Borisova

    Full Text Available Comparisons between bistatic scatter measurements and simulation results during the Tromsø HF pumping experiment on 16 February 1996 are made. Doppler measurements of an HF diagnostic signal scattered from the field-aligned irregularities (FAIs in the auroral E-region were carried out on the London – Tromsø – St. Petersburg path at 9410 kHz from 21:00 to 22:00 UT. The scattered signals were observed both from natural and artificial ionospheric irregularities located in the vicinity of Tromsø. To simulate the Doppler frequency shifts, fd , of scattered signals, a radio channel model, named CONE, was developed. The model allows for ray tracing, group and phase paths, and Doppler frequency shift calculations. The calculated Doppler shifts were analyzed for dependence on the magnitude and direction of plasma velocities in the scattering volume. It was found that the velocity components in the north-south direction are crucial for explaining the Doppler frequency shifts of the scattered diagnostic signals. To simulate fd , real velocities obtained from the EISCAT UHF radar at an altitude of 278 km and from the digital all-sky imager during the experiment were employed. The simulation results of Doppler frequency shift variations with time are in reasonable agreement with the experimental Doppler shifts of scattered signals on the London – Tromsø – St. Petersburg path.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionospheric irregularities Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  4. Wave scattering from statistically rough surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, F G; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces discusses the complications in radio physics and hydro-acoustics in relation to wave transmission under settings seen in nature. Some of the topics that are covered include radar and sonar, the effect of variations in topographic relief or ocean waves on the transmission of radio and sound waves, the reproduction of radio waves from the lower layers of the ionosphere, and the oscillations of signals within the earth-ionosphere waveguide. The book begins with some fundamental idea of wave transmission theory and the theory of random processes a

  5. Microhardness evaluation alloys Hf-Si-B; Avaliacao de microdureza de ligas Hf-Si-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigolotti, Joao Carlos Janio; Costa, Eliane Fernandes Brasil [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, Carlos Angelo; Rocha, Elisa Gombio; Coelho, Gilberto Carvalho, E-mail: carlosjanio@uol.com.br, E-mail: eliane-costabrasi@hotmail.com, E-mail: cnunes@demar.eel.usp.br, E-mail: elisarocha@alunos.eel.usp.br, E-mail: coelho@demar.eel.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The technological advance has generated increasing demand for materials that can be used under high temperature, what includes intermetallic MR-Si-B (MR = refractory metal) alloys with multiphase structures, that can also be applied in oxide environments. Thus, this work had for objective the micro hardness study of the Hf-Si-B system alloys, heat treated at 1600 deg C, in the Hf rich region. Hf-Si-B alloys had been produced with blades of Hf (min. 99.8%), Si (min. 99.998%) and B (min. 99.5%), in the voltaic arc furnace and heat treated at 1600 deg C under argon atmosphere. The relationship of the phases had been previously identified by X-ray diffraction and contrast in backscattered electron imaging mode. The alloys had their hardness analyzed by method Vickers (micro hardness) with load of 0.05 kgf and 0.2 kgf and application time of 20 s. The results, obtained from the arithmetic mean of measurements for each alloy on the heterogeneous region, showed a mean hardness of 11.08 GPA, with small coefficient of variation of 3.8%. The borides HfB2 (19.34 GPa) e HfB - 11.76 GPa, showed the hardness higher than the silicides Hf2Si (8.57 GPa), Hf5Si3 (9.63 GPa), Hf3Si2 (11.66 GPa), Hf5Si4 (10.00 GPa), HfSi (10.02 GPa) e HfSi2 (8.61 GPa). (author)

  6. Heavy ion studies with CMS HF calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damgov, I.; Genchev, V.; Kolosov, V.A.; Lokhtin, I.P.; Petrushanko, S.V.; Sarycheva, L.I.; Teplov, S.Yu.; Shmatov, S.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    2001-01-01

    The capability of the very forward (HF) calorimeter of the CMS detector at LHC to be applied to specific studies with heavy ion beams is discussed. The simulated responses of the HF calorimeter to nucleus-nucleus collisions are used for the analysis of different problems: reconstruction of the total energy flow in the forward rapidity region, accuracy of determination of the impact parameter of collision, study of fluctuations of the hadronic-to-electromagnetic energy ratio, fast inelastic event selection

  7. Peculiar transient phenomena observed by HF Doppler sounding on infrasound time scales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chum, Jaroslav; Laštovička, Jan; Šindelářová, Tereza; Burešová, Dalia; Hruška, František

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 6 (2008), s. 866-878 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/2110; GA ČR GA205/07/1367 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Acoustic-gravity waves * Ionospheric effects on radio waves * Ionospheric dynamics * Ionospheric disturbances * Wave propagation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2008

  8. The prophylactic effect of vitamin C on induced oxidative stress in rat testis following exposure to 900 MHz radio frequency wave generated by a BTS antenna model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelodar, Gholamali; Nazifi, Saeed; Akbari, Abolfazl

    2013-09-01

    Radio frequency wave (RFW) generated by base transceiver station (BTS) has been reported to make deleterious effects on reproduction, possibly through oxidative stress. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of RFW generated by BTS on oxidative stress in testis and the prophylactic effect of vitamin C by measuring the antioxidant enzymes activity, including glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and malondialdehyde (MDA). Thirty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups and treated daily for 45 days as follows: sham, sham+vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid 200 mg/kg of body weight/day by gavage), RFW (exposed to 900 MHz RFW) 'sham' and 'RFW' animals were given the vehicle, i.e., distilled water and the RFW+vitamin C group (received vitamin C in addition to exposure to RFW). At the end of the experiment, all the rats were sacrificed and their testes were removed and used for measurement of antioxidant enzymes and MDA activity. The results indicate that exposure to RFW in the test group decreased antioxidant enzymes activity and increased MDA compared with the control groups (p < 0.05). In the treated group, vitamin C improved antioxidant enzymes activity and reduced MDA compared with the test group (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that RFW causes oxidative stress in testis and vitamin C improves the antioxidant enzymes activity and decreases MDA.

  9. Determination of the rate of HF hydration and the effects of HF on moisture condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulla, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    There were four basic questions addressed in this report that relate to the HF interaction in the environment. As to whether HF hydrates in the vapor phase and what the rate of that hydration is, there seems ample evidence that HF hydrates readily in the vapor phase and the rate of that hydration is very fast, i.e., dHF/dt greater than or equal to 25 torr sec -1 . Concerning under what conditions condensation of the hydrate will occur and whether a third body is required for condensation, it was found that HF does effect the dew point or condensation of water and data was presented indicating the extent of that effect. It was also determined that condensation will occur without a third body present. Thus, in attempting to model an HF release for the Safety Analysis Report the hydration of HF and the subsequent heat released may be treated as occurring instantaneously; but the ultimate disposition of the HF will be strongly dependent upon the environmental conditions at the time of the release

  10. Determination of the rate of HF hydration and the effects of HF on moisture condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulla, W H

    1982-04-30

    There were four basic questions addressed in this report that relate to the HF interaction in the environment. As to whether HF hydrates in the vapor phase and what the rate of that hydration is, there seems ample evidence that HF hydrates readily in the vapor phase and the rate of that hydration is very fast, i.e., dHF/dt greater than or equal to 25 torr sec/sup -1/. Concerning under what conditions condensation of the hydrate will occur and whether a third body is required for condensation, it was found that HF does effect the dew point or condensation of water and data was presented indicating the extent of that effect. It was also determined that condensation will occur without a third body present. Thus, in attempting to model an HF release for the Safety Analysis Report the hydration of HF and the subsequent heat released may be treated as occurring instantaneously; but the ultimate disposition of the HF will be strongly dependent upon the environmental conditions at the time of the release.

  11. Very high latitude F-region irregularities observed by HF-radar backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, K.B.; Greenwald, R.A.; Tsunoda, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    In February and March, 1982, a coherent scatter HF radar was operated from Cleary, Alaska to observe 7- to 15-m wavelength F-region plasma irregularities near the poleward edge of the auroral zone and in the polar cap. The radar operated for five days from February 25 to March 1 and produced approximately 700,000 Doppler spectra during that time. Of those nearly 700,000 spectra, approximately 10% showed backscattered power 3 dB or more above the noise level. A ray tracing technique using electron densities determined by the Chatanika incoherent scatter radar was used to predict locations where the HF waves were approximately normal to the magnetic field. If those locations were also to contain small scale electron density structure, then one would expect them to backscatter the HF waves. Several comparisons were made between predicted and observed locations of radiowave backscatter and excellent agreement was obtained. In addition, comparisons of the Doppler velocities observed by the coherent scatter HF radar and those observed by the Chatanika radar showed good agreement, suggesting that the plasma irregularities observed by the HF radar drift with the ambient plasma. In addition, average vector velocities calculated for the entire 5-day period show a flow pattern consistent with polar cap convection models. This again indicates that the irregularities drift with the plasma, as is predicted by a number of theories of F-region plasma irregularities. In the summer of 1983, the research program begun with those measurements will be continued with a steerable phased-array HF radar located at Goose Bay, Labrador, that will view the same ionospheric region as does the Sondre Stromfjord incoherent scatter radar

  12. Particle reacceleration and apparent radio source structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilek, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The radio galaxy model which uses magnetohydrodynamic turbulence generated by surface instabilities to reaccelerate the radiating electrons has striking consequences for apparent source structure. Strong wave damping in the plasma results in a narrow turbulent edge. Particles accelerated in this edge must diffuse across field lines into the radio source; this predicts strong limb brightening in some cases. The structure of this edge and diffusion into the source are described. The relevance of this model to jets, radio tails, and standard double sources is discussed

  13. FeltRadio: Sensing and Making Sense of Wireless Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronvall, Erik; Fritsch, Jonas; Vallgårda, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Radio waves surround us but still they remain largely undetected by our senses. Unless we use specifically tuned hardware, such as FM radios, cell phones or WiFi modems, human beings cannot perceive wirelessly transmitted data. This paper presents FeltRadio, a portable and wireless technology...... that makes it possible to turn radio signals into visual and tactile stimuli as a form of sensorial augmentation. FeltRadio explores and makes us reflect upon what it would be like if we could sense, and feel, wireless traffic such as WiFi or Bluetooth. We present the technological design behind Felt...

  14. High-K rotational bands in {sup 174}Hf and {sup 175}Hf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjoerup, N L; Sletten, G [The Niels Bohr Institute, Roskilbe (Denmark); Walker, P M [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Bentley, M A [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom); Cullen, D M; Sharpey-Schafer, J F; Fallon, P; Smith, G [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.

    1992-08-01

    High sensitivity experiments with {sup 48}Ca, {sup 18}O and {sup 9}Be induced reactions using the ESSA-30, TESSA-3 and NORDBALL arrays have provided extensive new information on the high spin level structures of {sup 174}Hf and {sup 175}Hf. During the series of experiments, several new bands have been found and most known bands have been extended considerably. Spin and excitation energy ranges for {sup 174}Hf are now {approx} 35 {Dirac_h} and {approx} 13 MeV, respectively, and for {sup 175}Hf ranges are {approx} 30 {Dirac_h} and {approx} 7 MeV. respectively. Several new high-K structures have been found in {sup 174}Hf and the structure of these and the already known high-K bands in both nuclei together with the new Tilted Axis Cranking approach might explain the small K-hindrances observed for K-isomers in this region. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Magnetospheric radio sounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondoh, Tadanori; Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Koseki, Teruo; Watanabe, Sigeaki; Murakami, Toshimitsu

    1977-01-01

    Radio sounding of the plasmapause from a geostationary satellite has been investigated to observe time variations of the plasmapause structure and effects of the plasma convection. In the equatorial plane, the plasmapause is located, on the average, at 4 R sub(E) (R sub(E); Earth radius), and the plasma density drops outwards from 10 2 -10 3 /cm 3 to 1-10/cm 3 in the plasmapause width of about 600 km. Plasmagrams showing a relation between the virtual range and sounding frequencies are computed by ray tracing of LF-VLF waves transmitted from a geostationary satellite, using model distributions of the electron density in the vicinity of the plasmapause. The general features of the plasmagrams are similar to the topside ionograms. The plasmagram has no penetration frequency such as f 0 F 2 , but the virtual range of the plasmagram increases rapidly with frequency above 100 kHz, since the distance between a satellite and wave reflection point increases rapidly with increasing the electron density inside the plasmapause. The plasmapause sounder on a geostationary satellite has been designed by taking account of an average propagation distance of 2 x 2.6 R sub(E) between a satellite (6.6 R sub(E)) and the plasmapause (4.0 R sub(E)), background noise, range resolution, power consumption, and receiver S/N of 10 dB. The 13-bit Barker coded pulses of baud length of 0.5 msec should be transmitted in direction parallel to the orbital plane at frequencies for 10 kHz-2MHz in a pulse interval of 0.5 sec. The transmitter peak power of 70 watts and 700 watts are required respectively in geomagnetically quiet and disturbed (strong nonthermal continuum emissions) conditions for a 400 meter cylindrical dipole of 1.2 cm diameter on the geostationary satellite. This technique will open new area of radio sounding in the magnetosphere. (auth.)

  16. Information and Announcements Institute of Radio Physics and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ics and optical communication, computer organization and architecture, microproces- sors, advanced digital circuits, antennas and radio wave propagation, guided wave trans- mission, microwave and mm wave engg., in- dustrial economics and management, com- munication links and networking, computer aided analysis ...

  17. Thermoluminescence in films of HfO2:Dy+3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceron, P.; Rivera, T.; Guzman, J.; Montes, E.; Pelaez, A.; Rojas, B.; Guzman, D.; Azorin, J.; Paredes, L.

    2014-08-01

    In this work the thermoluminescence (TL) response of films of hafnium oxide polluted with dysprosium (HfO 2 :Dy +3 ) that were irradiated in the near UV (200 nm - 400 nm). The films were deposited by means of the ultrasonics spray pyrolysis technique on a glass substrate, using different deposit temperatures (300 grades C - 600 grades C). The best TL emission corresponded to the prepared film to 450 grades C that was exposed to a spectral irradiation of 80 μJ/(cm 2 -s) with a wave longitude of 240 nm. The TL response in function of the spectral irradiation was lineal in the studied interval (24 to 288 mJ/cm 2 ), several kinetic parameters were also calculated of the shine curve as depth of the trap (E), frequency factor (s) and order to the kinetics (b). The obtained results show that the films of HfO 2 :Dy +3 could be used as radiation monitor in the region of the near UV. (Author)

  18. Radio Astronomy and the Giant Metre-Wave Radio Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    begs the question – why (on earth) would anyone want to do so? .... For example, the Sun's spectrum has a characteristic sharp colour ..... miliar to readers is that blu-ray DVDs which work with shorter wavelength blue light can pack more.

  19. Comparison of HfCl4, HfI4, TEMA-Hf, and TDMA-Hf as precursors in early growing stages of HfO2 films deposited by ALD: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez-Valadez, M.; Fierro, C.; Farias-Mancilla, J. R.; Vargas-Ortiz, A.; Flores-Acosta, M.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Enriquez-Carrejo, J. L.; Soubervielle-Montalvo, C.; Mani-Gonzalez, P. G.

    2016-06-01

    The final structure of HfO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) after reaction with OH- ions has been analyzed by DFT (density functional theory). The interaction of the precursors: HfCl4 (hafnium tetrachloride), HfI4 (hafnium tetraiodide), TEMA-Hf (tetrakis-ethylmethylamino hafnium), and TDMA-Hf (tetrakis-dimethylamino hafnium) with HO-H was studied employing the B3LYP (Becke 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr) hybrid functional and the PBE (Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof) generalized gradient functional. The structural evolution at the Si(100) surface has been analyzed by LDA (local density approximation). The structural parameters: bond length and bond angle, and the vibrational parameters for the optimized structures are also reported. The presence of hafnium silicate at the interface was detected. The infrared spectra and structural parameters obtained in this work agree with previously reported experimental results.

  20. The detectability of radio emission from exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C. R.; Murphy, Tara; Lenc, E.; Kaplan, D. L.

    2018-05-01

    Like the magnetised planets in our Solar System, magnetised exoplanets should emit strongly at radio wavelengths. Radio emission directly traces the planetary magnetic fields and radio detections can place constraints on the physical parameters of these features. Large comparative studies of predicted radio emission characteristics for the known population of exoplanets help to identify what physical parameters could be key for producing bright, observable radio emission. Since the last comparative study, many thousands of exoplanets have been discovered. We report new estimates for the radio flux densities and maximum emission frequencies for the current population of known exoplanets orbiting pre-main sequence and main-sequence stars with spectral types F-M. The set of exoplanets predicted to produce observable radio emission are Hot Jupiters orbiting young stars. The youth of these system predicts strong stellar magnetic fields and/or dense winds, which are key for producing bright, observable radio emission. We use a new all-sky circular polarisation Murchison Widefield Array survey to place sensitive limits on 200 MHz emission from exoplanets, with 3σ values ranging from 4.0 - 45.0 mJy. Using a targeted Giant Metre Wave Radio Telescope observing campaign, we also report a 3σ upper limit of 4.5 mJy on the radio emission from V830 Tau b, the first Hot Jupiter to be discovered orbiting a pre-main sequence star. Our limit is the first to be reported for the low-frequency radio emission from this source.

  1. Amateur Planetary Radio Data Archived for Science and Education: Radio Jove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Cecconi, B.; Sky, J.; Garcia, L. N.; King, T. A.; Higgins, C. A.; Fung, S. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Radio Jove Project is a hands-on educational activity in which students, teachers, and the general public build simple radio telescopes, usually from a kit, to observe single frequency decameter wavelength radio emissions from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and the Earth usually with simple dipole antennas. Some of the amateur observers have upgraded their receivers to spectrographs and their antennas have become more sophisticated as well. The data records compare favorably to more sophisticated professional radio telescopes such as the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) and the Nancay Decametric Array. Since these data are often carefully calibrated and recorded around the clock in widely scattered locations they represent a valuable database useful not only to amateur radio astronomers but to the professional science community as well. Some interesting phenomena have been noted in the data that are of interest to the professionals familiar with such records. The continuous monitoring of radio emissions from Jupiter could serve as useful "ground truth" data during the coming Juno mission's radio observations of Jupiter. Radio Jove has long maintained an archive for thousands of Radio Jove observations, but the database was intended for use by the Radio Jove participants only. Now, increased scientific interest in the use of these data has resulted in several proposals to translate the data into a science community data format standard and store the data in professional archives. Progress is being made in translating Radio Jove data to the Common Data Format (CDF) and also in generating new observations in that format as well. Metadata describing the Radio Jove data would follow the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) standard. The proposed archive to be used for long term preservation would be the Planetary Data System (PDS). Data sharing would be achieved through the PDS and the Paris Astronomical Data Centre (PADC) and the Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO

  2. Radio antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, S. W.

    This book is concerned with providing an explanation of the function of an antenna without delving too deeply into the mathematics or theory. The characteristics of an antenna are examined, taking into account aspects of antenna radiation, wave motion on the antenna, resistance in the antenna, impedance, the resonant antenna, the effect of the ground, polarization, radiation patterns, coupling effects between antenna elements, and receiving vs. transmitting. Aspects of propagation are considered along with the types of antennas, transmission lines, matching devices, questions of antenna design, antennas for the lower frequency bands, antennas for more than one band, limited space antennas, VHF antennas, and antennas for 20, 15, and 10 meters. Attention is given to devices for measuring antenna parameters, approaches for evaluating the antenna, questions of safety, and legal aspects.

  3. Ulysses Observations of Nonlinear Wave-wave Interactions in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    The Ulysses Unified Radio and Plasma Wave Experiment. (URAP) has observed Langmuir, ... gesting that strong turbulence processes, such as modulational instability and soliton formation, often coexist ... Solar and interplanetary type III radio bursts, which occur at the fundamental and the second harmonic of the electron ...

  4. INSPIRE - Premission. [Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William W. L.; Mideke, Michael; Pine, William E.; Ericson, James D.

    1992-01-01

    The Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment (INSPIRE) designed to assist in a Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) project is discussed. INSPIRE is aimed at recording data from a large number of receivers on the ground to determine the exact propagation paths and absorption of radio waves at frequencies between 50 Hz and 7 kHz. It is indicated how to participate in the experiment that will involve high school classes, colleges, and amateur radio operators.

  5. Searching triaxial superdeformation in 175Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaowei; Zhejiang Normal Univ., Jinhua; Yu Shaoying; Zhejiang Normal Univ., Jinhua; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Shen Caiwan; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou; Chen Yongshou; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional Total Routhian Surface (TRS) calculation is carried out in order to ascertain if there is triaxial superdeformation in 175 Hf. A five quasi-particle configuration is chosen in the calculation. Unfortunately, the TRS minimum does not show up in the total potential energy surface. (authors)

  6. Ferromagnetic characteristics of HfFe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, N.; Belosevic-Cavor, J.; Cekic, B.; Manasijevic, M.; Milosevic, Z. . E-mail address of correspoding author: novnik@rt270.vin.bg.ac.yu; Novakovic, N.)

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic hyperfine fields at 181 Ta ion-probe sites in the HfFe 2 polycrystalline binary compound were measured using the time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) method. Measurements were performed in the absence of polarizing external magnetic field, at room temperature. The existence of two different structures, dominant cubic MgCu 2 -type and hexagonal MgZn 2 -type in our HfFe 2 sample was refined. Both structures are ferromagnetic with Curie temperatures, which differ significantly (588 K for MgCu 2 and 427 K for MgZn 2 ). The corresponding values of hyperfine fields are H hf 13.8±0.1 T for MgCu 2 -type structure and H hf = 8.0±0.2 T for MgZn 2 -type structure. Calculations using LAPW-Wien 97 program package are in progress and preliminary results are in good agreement with experiment. The analysis includes qualitative explanation of the exchange interactions mechanism between magnetic dipole moment of the observed 181 Ta ion-probe and magnetic dipole moments of the nearest neighbours on the corresponding coordination polyhedra. All these results will be published recently. (author)

  7. Statistical gamma transitions in {sup 174}Hf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farris, L P; Cizewski, J A; Brinkman, M J; Henry, R G; Lee, C S [Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Khoo, T L; Janssens, R V.F.; Moore, E F; Carpenter, M P; Ahmad, I; Lauritsen, T [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kolata, J J; Beard, K B; Ye, B; Garg, U [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States); Kaplan, M S; Saladin, J X; Winchell, D [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The statistical spectrum extracted from the {sup 172}Yb({alpha},2n){sup 174}Hf reaction was fit with Monte Carlo simulations using a modified GDR E1 strength function and several formulations of the level density. (author). 15 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  8. Longitudinal Plasmoid in High-Speed Vortex Gas Flow Created by Capacity HF Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    interferometer with high space resolution, PIV method, FTIR spectrometer, optical spectrometer, pressure sensors with high time resolution, IR pyrometer and...of strong LP-vortex interaction. Intensive acoustic waves are created by CHFD in swirl flow in this regime. 38. Study of control of a longitudinal...quartz tube, 4- HF ball electrode, 5- Tesla’s transformer, 6- microwave interferometer, 7- video camera, 8-optical pyrometer , 9-pressure sensor, 10

  9. Magnetospheric plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawhan, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief history of plasma wave observations in the Earth's magnetosphere is recounted and a classification of the identified plasma wave phenomena is presented. The existence of plasma waves is discussed in terms of the characteristic frequencies of the plasma, the energetic particle populations and the proposed generation mechanisms. Examples are given for which plasmas waves have provided information about the plasma parameters and particle characteristics once a reasonable theory has been developed. Observational evidence and arguments by analogy to the observed Earth plasma wave processes are used to identify plasma waves that may be significant in other planetary magnetospheres. The similarities between the observed characteristics of the terrestrial kilometric radiation and radio bursts from Jupiter, Saturn and possibly Uranus are stressed. Important scientific problems concerning plasma wave processes in the solar system and beyond are identified and discussed. Models for solar flares, flare star radio outbursts and pulsars include elements which are also common to the models for magnetospheric radio bursts. Finally, a listing of the research and development in terms of instruments, missions, laboratory experiments, theory and computer simulations needed to make meaningful progress on the outstanding scientific problems of plasma wave research is given. (Auth.)

  10. Past and future of radio occultation studies of planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, Von R.; Hinson, David P.; Tyler, G. Leonard; Lindal, Gunnar F.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of radio waves that have propagated through planetary atmospheres have provided exploratory results on atmospheric constituents, structure, dynamics, and ionization for Venus, Mars, Titan, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Highlights of past results are reviewed in order to define and illustrate the potential of occultation and related radio studies in future planetary missions.

  11. Coronal Waves and Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakariakov Valery M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.

  12. The velocities of type II solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlamicha, A.; Karlicky, M.

    1976-01-01

    A list is presented of type II radio bursts identified at Ondrejov between January 1973 and December 1974 in the frequency range of the dynamic spectrum 70 to 810 MHz. The velocities of shock waves in the individual cases of type II bursts are given using the fourfold Newkirk model. Some problems associated with type II radio bursts and with the propagation of the shock wave into the interplanetary space and into the region of the Earth are also discussed. (author)

  13. QAPP for Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) Surface Spills Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This QAPP provides information concerning the analysis of spills associated with hydraulic fracturing. This project is relevant to both the chemical mixing and flowback and produced water stages of the HF water cycle as found in the HF Study Plan.

  14. Newnes short wave listening handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pritchard, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Short Wave Listening Handbook is a guide for starting up in short wave listening (SWL). The book is comprised of 15 chapters that discuss the basics and fundamental concepts of short wave radio listening. The coverage of the text includes electrical principles; types of signals that can be heard in the radio spectrum; and using computers in SWL. The book also covers SWL equipment, such as receivers, converters, and circuits. The text will be of great use to individuals who want to get into short wave listening.

  15. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: Wet etching characteristics of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongliang, Li; Qiuxia, Xu

    2010-03-01

    The wet etching properties of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions are investigated. HF-based solutions are the most promising wet chemistries for the removal of HfSiON, and etch selectivity of HF-based solutions can be improved by the addition of an acid and/or an alcohol to the HF solution. Due to densification during annealing, the etch rate of HfSiON annealed at 900 °C for 30 s is significantly reduced compared with as-deposited HfSiON in HF-based solutions. After the HfSiON film has been completely removed by HF-based solutions, it is not possible to etch the interfacial layer and the etched surface does not have a hydrophobic nature, since N diffuses to the interface layer or Si substrate formation of Si-N bonds that dissolves very slowly in HF-based solutions. Existing Si-N bonds at the interface between the new high-k dielectric deposit and the Si substrate may degrade the carrier mobility due to Coulomb scattering. In addition, we show that N2 plasma treatment before wet etching is not very effective in increasing the wet etch rate for a thin HfSiON film in our case.

  16. Wet etching characteristics of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongliang; Xu Qiuxia

    2010-01-01

    The wet etching properties of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions are investigated. HF-based solutions are the most promising wet chemistries for the removal of HfSiON, and etch selectivity of HF-based solutions can be improved by the addition of an acid and/or an alcohol to the HF solution. Due to densification during annealing, the etch rate of HfSiON annealed at 900 0 C for 30 s is significantly reduced compared with as-deposited HfSiON in HF-based solutions. After the HfSiON film has been completely removed by HF-based solutions, it is not possible to etch the interfacial layer and the etched surface does not have a hydrophobic nature, since N diffuses to the interface layer or Si substrate formation of Si-N bonds that dissolves very slowly in HF-based solutions. Existing Si-N bonds at the interface between the new high-k dielectric deposit and the Si substrate may degrade the carrier mobility due to Coulomb scattering. In addition, we show that N 2 plasma treatment before wet etching is not very effective in increasing the wet etch rate for a thin HfSiON film in our case. (semiconductor technology)

  17. Mn-coatings on the micro-pore formed Ti-29Nb-xHf alloys by RF-magnetron sputtering for dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Yeong; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2018-02-01

    In this study, Mn-coatings on the micro-pore formed Ti-29Nb-xHf alloys by RF-magnetrons sputtering for dental applications were studied using different experimental techniques. Mn coating films were formed on Ti-29Nb-xHf alloys by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique for 0, 1, 3, and 5 min at 45 W. The microstructure, composition, and phase structure of the coated alloys were examined by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The microstructure of Ti-29Nb alloy showed α" phase in the needle-like structure and Ti-29Nb-15Hf alloy showed β phase in the equiaxed structure. As the sputtering time increased, the circular particles of Mn coatings on the Ti-29Nb alloy increased at inside and outside surfaces. As the sputtering time increased, [Mn + Ca/P] ratio of the plasma electrolytic oxidized films in Ti- 29Nb-xHf alloys increased. The corrosion potential (Ecorr) of Mn coatings on the Ti-29Nb alloy showed higher than that of Mn coatings on the Ti-29Nb-15Hf alloy. The passive current density (Ipass) of the Mn coating on the Ti-29Nb alloy and Mn coatings on the Ti-29Nb-15Hf alloy was less noble than the non-Mn coated Ti-29Nb and Ti-29Nb-15Hf alloys surface.

  18. Reflectivity level of radio anechoic chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1973-01-01

    A comparison between the antenna-pattern comparison technique and the free-space voltage standing-wave ratio technique for evaluating the reflectivity level of radio anechoic chambers is presented. Based on an analysis of the two techniques, it is pointed out which parameters influence the measured...

  19. Radio requestable passive SAW water content sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reindl, L.; Ruppel, C.C.W.; Kirmayr, A.; Stockhausen, N.; Hilhorst, M.A.; Balendonk, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new passive sensor for remote measurement of water content in sandy soil was designed, using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) reflective delay line. Information from this sensor can be obtained by an interrogation device via a radio link operating in the European 434-MHz industrial-scientific-medical

  20. Radio transmission system for industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliescu, M.; Culcer, M.; Curuia, M.; Anghel, N.M.; Stefanescu, I.

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with a data transmission system operating in a large, noisy industrial area. The radio transmission system permits data and commands communication between the local units of collecting data and a central monitoring and/or command station ( dispatch). The communication support are radio waves in the range 450 MHz. The transducers are of transmitter type, with 4-20 mA output signal, providing information about environmental and/or work parameters. Data are primarily acquisitioned in a data logger with microcontroller, then transmitted via a FSK radio modem and a radio station to the dispatch. Data logger can also be connected in a network. The dispatch personal computer receives and processes data and transmits commands. The system functioning is supervised by a communication software in MCS - 51 assembler and an application software in Visual C ++ . (author)

  1. Phenomena Associated With EIT Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss phenomena associated with "EIT Wave" transients. These phenomena include coronal mass ejections, flares, EUV/SXR dimmings, chromospheric waves, Moreton waves, solar energetic particle events, energetic electron events, and radio signatures. Although the occurrence of many phenomena correlate with the appearance of EIT waves, it is difficult to mfer which associations are causal. The presentation will include a discussion of correlation surveys of these phenomena.

  2. Hf layer thickness dependence of resistive switching characteristics of Ti/Hf/HfO2/Au resistive random access memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryo; Azuma, Atsushi; Yoshida, Hayato; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Ito, Takeshi; Shingubara, Shoso

    2018-06-01

    Resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices with a HfO2 dielectric layer have been studied extensively owing to the good reproducibility of their SET/RESET switching properties. Furthermore, it was reported that a thin Hf layer next to a HfO2 layer stabilized switching properties because of the oxygen scavenging effect. In this work, we studied the Hf thickness dependence of the resistance switching characteristics of a Ti/Hf/HfO2/Au ReRAM device. It is found that the optimum Hf thickness is approximately 10 nm to obtain good reproducibility of SET/RESET voltages with a small RESET current. However, when the Hf thickness was very small (∼2 nm), the device failed after the first RESET process owing to the very large RESET current. In the case of a very thick Hf layer (∼20 nm), RESET did not occur owing to the formation of a leaky dielectric layer. We observed the occurrence of multiple resistance states in the RESET process of the device with a Hf thickness of 10 nm by increasing the RESET voltage stepwise.

  3. Impact of cognitive radio on radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, A.J.; Baan, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of new communication techniques requires an increase in the efficiency of spectrum usage. Cognitive radio is one of the new techniques that fosters spectrum efficiency by using unoccupied frequency spectrum for communications. However, cognitive radio will increase the transmission

  4. Spread-F occurrences and relationships with foF2 and h'F at low- and mid-latitudes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Guo, Lixin; Zhao, Zhenwei; Ding, Zonghua; Lin, Leke

    2018-04-01

    Ionospheric irregularities are an important phenomenon in scientific studies and applications of radio-wave propagation. Spread-F echoes in ionograms are a type of high-frequency band irregularities that include frequency spread-F (FSF), range spread-F (RSF), and mixed spread-F (MSF) events. In this study, we obtained spread-F data from four ionosondes at low- and mid-latitudes near the 120°E chain in China during the 23rd solar cycle. We used these data to investigate spread-F occurrence percentages and variations with local time, season, latitude, and solar activity. The four ionosondes were located at Haikou (HK) (20°N, 110.34°E), Guangzhou (GZ) (23.14°N, 113.36°E), Beijing (BJ) (40.11°N, 116.28°E), and Changchun (CC) (43.84°N, 125.28°E). We also present possible correlations between spread-Fs and other ionospheric parameters, such as the critical frequency of the F2-layer (foF2) and the virtual height of the bottom-side F-layer (h'F). In particular, we investigated the possible threshold of the foF2 affecting the FSF and the relationship between the h'F and the RSF. The main conclusions are as follows: (a) the FSF occurrence percentages were anti-correlated with solar activity at all four sites; meanwhile, RSF occurrence rates increased with the increase in solar activity at HK, but not at the other three sites; (b) FSF occurrence rates were larger at the mid-latitudes than expected, while FSFs occurred more often after midnight; (c) the highest FSF occurrence rates mostly appeared during the summer months, while RSFs occurred mostly in the equinoctial months of 2000-2002 at HK and GZ; (d) a lower foF2 was suitable for FSF events; nevertheless, h'F and RSF occurrences satisfied the parabolic relationship; (e) the foF2 thresholds for FSFs were 15, 14, 7.6, and 7.8 MHz at HK, GZ, BJ, and CC, respectively. The h'Fs occurring between 240 and 290 km were more favorable for RSF occurrences. These results are important for understanding ionospheric

  5. Fast Radio Bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akshaya Rane

    2017-09-12

    ) which were first discovered a decade ago. Following an introduction to radio transients in general, including pulsars and rotating radio transients, we discuss the discovery of FRBs. We then discuss FRB follow-up ...

  6. Comparison of HfCl4, HfI4, TEMA-Hf, and TDMA-Hf as precursors in early growing stages of HfO2 films deposited by ALD: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez-Valadez, M.; Fierro, C.; Farias-Mancilla, J.R.; Vargas-Ortiz, A.; Flores-Acosta, M.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Enriquez-Carrejo, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hafnium oxide growth on Si(100) by atomic layer deposition was simulated. • The interface structure was considered as silicate and silicide. • The interface was studied employing DFT. • TDMA-Hf precursor show better interface stability. - Abstract: The final structure of HfO 2 films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) after reaction with OH − ions has been analyzed by DFT (density functional theory). The interaction of the precursors: HfCl 4 (hafnium tetrachloride), HfI 4 (hafnium tetraiodide), TEMA-Hf (tetrakis-ethylmethylamino hafnium), and TDMA-Hf (tetrakis-dimethylamino hafnium) with HO–H was studied employing the B3LYP (Becke 3-parameter, Lee–Yang–Parr) hybrid functional and the PBE (Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof) generalized gradient functional. The structural evolution at the Si(100) surface has been analyzed by LDA (local density approximation). The structural parameters: bond length and bond angle, and the vibrational parameters for the optimized structures are also reported. The presence of hafnium silicate at the interface was detected. The infrared spectra and structural parameters obtained in this work agree with previously reported experimental results.

  7. Comparison of HfCl{sub 4}, HfI{sub 4}, TEMA-Hf, and TDMA-Hf as precursors in early growing stages of HfO{sub 2} films deposited by ALD: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez-Valadez, M. [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Son. (Mexico); Fierro, C.; Farias-Mancilla, J.R. [Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. del Charro 450, Cd. Juárez C.P. 32310, Chihuahua (Mexico); Vargas-Ortiz, A. [Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Facultad de Ingeniería Mochis, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 81223 Los Mochis, Sinaloa (Mexico); Flores-Acosta, M. [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Son. (Mexico); Ramírez-Bon, R. [Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, 76001 Querétaro, Qro. (Mexico); Enriquez-Carrejo, J.L. [Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. del Charro 450, Cd. Juárez C.P. 32310, Chihuahua (Mexico); and others

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Hafnium oxide growth on Si(100) by atomic layer deposition was simulated. • The interface structure was considered as silicate and silicide. • The interface was studied employing DFT. • TDMA-Hf precursor show better interface stability. - Abstract: The final structure of HfO{sub 2} films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) after reaction with OH{sup −} ions has been analyzed by DFT (density functional theory). The interaction of the precursors: HfCl{sub 4} (hafnium tetrachloride), HfI{sub 4} (hafnium tetraiodide), TEMA-Hf (tetrakis-ethylmethylamino hafnium), and TDMA-Hf (tetrakis-dimethylamino hafnium) with HO–H was studied employing the B3LYP (Becke 3-parameter, Lee–Yang–Parr) hybrid functional and the PBE (Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof) generalized gradient functional. The structural evolution at the Si(100) surface has been analyzed by LDA (local density approximation). The structural parameters: bond length and bond angle, and the vibrational parameters for the optimized structures are also reported. The presence of hafnium silicate at the interface was detected. The infrared spectra and structural parameters obtained in this work agree with previously reported experimental results.

  8. La radio digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Cortés S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La radio digital es un producto de la llamada convergencia digital. Las nuevas tecnologías interconectadas permiten la aparición de nuevos modos de audiencia y la implementación de herramientas versátiles. Habla del problema de los estándares, de la radio satelital, la radio digital terrestre, las radios internacionales, la interactividad.

  9. Self-diffusion of Er and Hf inpure and HfO2-doped polycrystalline Er2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidecker, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Using a tracer technique, self-diffusion of Er and Hf was measured over the approximate temperature interval of 1600 to 1970 0 C in pure and HfO 2 -doped polycryatalline Er 2 O 3 . Up to about 10 m/o HfO 2 dopant level, the Er self-diffusion coefficients followed a relationship based on cation vacancies. Above 10 m/o HfO 2 , deviation from this relationship occurred, apparently due to clustering of cation vacancies and oxygen interstitials around the dopant hafnia ion. The activation energy for the self-diffusion of Er in pure Er 2 O 3 was 82.2 Kcal/mole and increased with the HfO 2 dopant level present. Self-diffusion of Hf was measured in pure Er 2 O 3 having two impurity levels, and a separation of the grain boundary. The volume diffusion of Hf showed both extrinsic and intrinsic behavior with the transition temperature increasing with the impurity level present in Er 2 O 3 . The activation energy for Hf volume diffusion in the intrinsic region was high, i.e. 235 -+ 9.5 Kcal/mole. The grain boundary diffusion was apparently extrinsic over the entire temperature interval Very low Hf self diffusion rates were found in both pure and HfO 2 doped Er 2 O 3 compositions. Despite a clustering effect, the HfO 2 dopant increased the Hf volume diffusion coefficients

  10. MASER: Measuring, Analysing, Simulating low frequency Radio Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Savalle, R.; Bonnin, X.; Zarka, P. M.; Louis, C.; Coffre, A.; Lamy, L.; Denis, L.; Griessmeier, J. M.; Faden, J.; Piker, C.; André, N.; Genot, V. N.; Erard, S.; King, T. A.; Mafi, J. N.; Sharlow, M.; Sky, J.; Demleitner, M.

    2017-12-01

    The MASER (Measuring, Analysing and Simulating Radio Emissions) project provides a comprehensive infrastructure dedicated to low frequency radio emissions (typically Radioastronomie de Nançay and the CDPP deep archive. These datasets include Cassini/RPWS, STEREO/Waves, WIND/Waves, Ulysses/URAP, ISEE3/SBH, Voyager/PRA, Nançay Decameter Array (Routine, NewRoutine, JunoN), RadioJove archive, swedish Viking mission, Interball/POLRAD... MASER also includes a Python software library for reading raw data.

  11. Millimeter Wave Radio Frequency Propagation Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-28

    be not be exceeded due to rain could be 95%. However, if the location were in a tropical rain forest , then then threshold might not be exceeded for...molecules grows. Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited. 14 Figure 3. Specific Attenuation Due to Water Vapor and Dry Air 3.1.1.2 Rain ... rain being the most detrimental and uncertain. Predictive models of rain attenuation claim some degree of accuracy up to 55 GHz, although they are

  12. Morphology of auroral zone radio wave scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rino, C.L.; Matthews, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the morphology of midnight sector and morning sector auroral zone scintillation observations made over a two-year period using the Wideband satelite, which is in a sun-synchronous, low-altitude orbit. No definitive seasonal variation was found. The nighttime data showed the highest scintillation ocurrence levels, but significant amounts of morning scintillation were observed. For the most part the scintillation activity followed the general pattern of local magnetic activity. The most prominent feature in the nightime data is a localized amplitude and phase scintillation enhancement at the point where the propagation vector lies within an L shell. A geometrical effect due to a dynamic slab of sheetlike structures in the F region is hypothesized as the source of his enhancement. The data have been sorted by magnetic activity, proximity to local midnight, and season. The general features of the data are in agreement with the accepted morphology of auroral zone scintillation

  13. SuperDARN HF Scattering and Propagation in the Presence of Polar Patches Imaged Using RISR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, R. G.; Perry, G. W.; Varney, R. H.; Gillies, D. M.; Donovan, E.

    2017-12-01

    The global array of High Frequency (HF) Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radars continuously monitors ionospheric convection in the middle-to-high latitude region. The radars measure coherent backscatter from decameter scale field-aligned irregularities. One of the main generation mechanisms for these field-aligned irregularities is the gradient drift instability (GDI). The edges of ionospheric density structures, such as polar cap patches, provide ideal locations for GDI growth. The geometry required for GDI growth results in irregularities forming on the trailing edge of polar patches. However, irregularities generated by the non-linear evolution of the GDI can become prevalent throughout the patch within minutes. Modelling the irregularity growth and measurements of backscatter within patches have both confirmed this. One aspect that has often been overlooked in studies of coherent backscatter within patches is the effect of HF propagation on echo location. This study examines HF echo locations in the vicinity of patches that were imaged using the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radars (RISR). The effect of both vertical and lateral refraction of the HF wave on echo location is examined.

  14. Interaction Between Hf Waves and Plasma in Delta-2; Interaction dans 'Delta-2' d'une Onde Progressive Electromagnetique de Haute Frequence et d'un Plasma; Vzaimodejstvie vysokochastotnoj ehlektromagnitnoj begushchej volny s plazmoj na ustanovke ''Del'ta-2'; Interaccion de una Onda Progresiva Electromagnetica de Alta Frecuencia con el Plasma en la Instalacion 'Delta-2'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breus, S. N.; Kurdjumov, V. N.; Levin, M. L.; Osovec, S. M.; Popova, N. Ja.; Popov, I. A.; Hodataev, K. V.; Shimchuk, V. P. [Radiotehnicheskij Institut AN SSSR, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-04-15

    The paper describes the results of research on the interaction of a dense plasma with the high-frequency field of a magnetic wave travelling along a toroidal discharge chamber (large diameter - 700 mm, small diameter - 85 mm). The travelling wave is excited at a frequency 2.4 Mc/s by a three-phase automatic generator with a power about 50 MW and a pulse length about 250 to 350 {mu}s. The range of initial pressures was 0.1 to 0.001 Tore and the amplitude of the hf magnetic field on the surface of the plasma attained 500 to 600 Oe. In these circumstances, the main factors determining the interaction are connected with the non-linear effects and, above all, with the appearance of a steady longitudinal component of current that reached values of a few thousand amperes. In the centre of the chamber, in the small-field region, the conductivity of the plasma was of the order of 3 to 4 x 10{sup 14} esu, which, for close to 100% ionization, corresponds to an electron temperature of 8 to 12 eV. In the strong-field (skin-layer) region, conductivity falls off by more than an order of magnitude, which leads to a sharp increase in the required HF power. In addition to a longitudinal current, the plasma was found to contain a longitudinal quasi-stationary field formed by transverse currents in the plasma. This field has a composite structure and, as shown by theoretical approximations, is possibly due to a toroidal effect. The existence of quasi-stationary magnetic fields apparently has a connection with the plasma oscillations which have been observed at 200 to 500 kc/s, corresponding approximately to the natural Alfven oscillations in such fields. The quasi-stationary currents and fields hamper the detachment of the plasma from the walls of the discharge chamber and subsequent compression. By themselves, however, the longitudinal steady waves cannot lead to the development of kinetic instabilities, since the electron velocities corresponding to such instabilities are smaller

  15. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  16. High resolution TDPAC measurements on 181Ta in Hf2Fe, Hf2Co and Hf2Rh at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cekic, B.; Koicki, S.; Ivanovic, N.; Manasijevic, M.; Koteski, V.; Marjanovic, D.

    1998-01-01

    The time differential perturbed angular correlation measurements (TDPAC-method ) on 181 Ta ion probe in Hf 2 Co, Hf 2 Fe and Hf 2 Rh intermetallic compounds have been performed at 1170 K, using a fast - slow time spectrometer consisting of two BaF 2 detectors. The results of the measurements show the presence of two independent electric quadrupole interactions, compatible with the crystalline structure of these polycrystalline compounds. (authors)

  17. Tsunami Arrival Detection with High Frequency (HF Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Barrick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time observations of a tsunami have been limited to deep-water, pressure-sensor observations of changes in the sea surface elevation and observations of sea level fluctuations at the coast, which are essentially point measurements. Constrained by these data, models have been used for predictions and warning of the arrival of a tsunami, but to date no system exists for local detection of an actual incoming wave with a significant warning capability. Networks of coastal high frequency (HF-radars are now routinely observing surface currents in many countries. We report here on an empirical method for the detection of the initial arrival of a tsunami, and demonstrate its use with results from data measured by fourteen HF radar sites in Japan and USA following the magnitude 9.0 earthquake off Sendai, Japan, on 11 March 2011. The distance offshore at which the tsunami can be detected, and hence the warning time provided, depends on the bathymetry: the wider the shallow continental shelf, the greater this time. We compare arrival times at the radars with those measured by neighboring tide gauges. Arrival times measured by the radars preceded those at neighboring tide gauges by an average of 19 min (Japan and 15 min (USA The initial water-height increase due to the tsunami as measured by the tide gauges was moderate, ranging from 0.3 to 2 m. Thus it appears possible to detect even moderate tsunamis using this method. Larger tsunamis could obviously be detected further from the coast. We find that tsunami arrival within the radar coverage area can be announced 8 min (i.e., twice the radar spectral time resolution after its first appearance. This can provide advance warning of the tsunami approach to the coastline locations.

  18. 47 CFR 80.1073 - Radio operator requirements for ship stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 80.1073 Section 80.1073 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS... selecting HF DSC guard channels and receiving scheduled maritime safety information broadcasts; (4...

  19. Ham radio for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, H Ward

    2013-01-01

    An ideal first step for learning about ham radio Beyond operating wirelessly, today's ham radio operators can transmit data and pictures; use the Internet, laser, and microwave transmitters; and travel to places high and low to make contact. This hands-on beginner guide reflects the operational and technical changes to amateur radio over the past decade and provides you with updated licensing requirements and information, changes in digital communication (such as the Internet, social media, and GPS), and how to use e-mail via radio. Addresses the critical use of ham radio for replacing downe

  20. Radiography of Spanish Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Emma Rodero Antón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In its eighty years of existence, radio has been always characterized to adapt to the social, cultural and technological transformations. Thus it has been until this moment. Nevertheless, some years ago, the authors and professionals of this medium have been detecting a stagnation that affects to its structure. At a time in continuous technological evolution, radio demands a deep transformation. For that reason, from the conviction of which the future radio, public and commercial, will necessarily have to renew itself, in this paper we establish ten problems and their possible solutions to the radio crisis in order to draw an x-ray of radio in Spain. Radio has future, but it is necessary to work actively by it. That the radio continues being part of sound of our life, it will depend on the work of all: companies, advertisers, professionals, students, investigators and listeners.

  1. On the relationship between optical and radio emission from active galaxy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zentsova, A.S.; Fedorenko, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    Model in which the radio emission of nuclei of Seyfert galaxies emerges in the regions of formation of their narrow emission lines, R∼100 pc is developed. Gaseous clouds, producing this emission, are moving in the surrounding hot gas and induce shock waves. The shock waves accelerate electrons, which produce radio emission via synchrotron mechanism. The model explains an observational correlation between the radio and optical properties of Seyfert galaxies and makes some predictions on the parameters of the region R∼100 pc

  2. Prediction study of structural, elastic and electronic properties of FeMP (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanto, A.; Chihi, T.; Ghebouli, M. A.; Reffas, M.; Fatmi, M.; Ghebouli, B.

    2018-06-01

    First principles calculations are applied in the study of FeMP (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) compounds. We investigate the structural, elastic, mechanical and electronic properties by combining first-principles calculations with the CASTEP approach. For ideal polycrystalline FeMP (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) the shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, elastic anisotropy indexes, Pugh's criterion, elastic wave velocities and Debye temperature are also calculated from the single crystal elastic constants. The shear anisotropic factors and anisotropy are obtained from the single crystal elastic constants. The Debye temperature is calculated from the average elastic wave velocity obtained from shear and bulk modulus as well as the integration of elastic wave velocities in different directions of the single crystal.

  3. Advances in solar radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the observations and interpretations of the sun's radio emission covering the entire radio spectrum from millimeter wavelengths to hectometer and kilometer wavelengths is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the progress made in solar radio physics as a result of recent advances in plasma and radiation theory. It is noted that the capability now exists of observing the sun with a spatial resolution of approximately a second of arc and a temporal resolution of about a millisecond at centimeter wavelengths and of obtaining fast multifrequency two-dimensional pictures of the sun at meter and decameter wavelengths. A summary is given of the properties of nonflaring active regions at millimeter, centimeter, and meter-decameter wavelengths. The properties of centimeter wave bursts are discussed in connection with the high spatial resolution observations. The observations of the preflare build-up of an active region are reviewed. High spatial resolution observations (a few seconds of arc to approximately 1 arcsec) are discussed, with particular attention given to the one- and two-dimensional maps of centimeter-wavelength burst sources.

  4. Magnetic properties of Hf177 and Hf180 in the strong-coupling deformed model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, S.; Stone, N. J.; Bingham, C. R.; Stone, J. R.; Walker, P. M.; Audi, G.; Gaulard, C.; Köster, U.; Nikolov, J.; Nishimura, K.; Ohtsubo, T.; Podolyak, Z.; Risegari, L.; Simpson, G. S.; Veskovic, M.; Walters, W. B.

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports NMR measurements of the magnetic dipole moments of two high-K isomers, the 37/2-, 51.4 m, 2740 keV state in Hf177 and the 8-, 5.5 h, 1142 keV state in Hf180 by the method of on-line nuclear orientation. Also included are results on the angular distributions of γ transitions in the decay of the Hf177 isotope. These yield high precision E2/M1 multipole mixing ratios for transitions in bands built on the 23/2+, 1.1 s, isomer at 1315 keV and on the 9/2+, 0.663 ns, isomer at 321 keV. The new results are discussed in the light of the recently reported finding of systematic dependence of the behavior of the gR parameter upon the quasiproton and quasineutron make up of high-K isomeric states in this region.

  5. Where does particle acceleration occur in extended extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that particle acceleration does not occur in the extended lobes of extragalactic radio sources, but only in the compact heads. Away from these, waves capable of accelerating particles may not propagate. Although wave generation within the lobes would allow acceleration there, it is not obvious that the plasma is sufficiently disturbed for this to occur. (author)

  6. GRB 030329: 3 years of radio afterglow monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, A.J.; Kamble, A.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Resmi, L.; Bhattacharya, D.; Rol, E.; Strom, R.; Kouveliotou, C.; Oosterloo, T.; Ishwara-Chandra, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Radio observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows are essential for our understanding of the physics of relativistic blast waves, as they enable us to follow the evolution of GRB explosions much longer than the afterglows in any other wave band. We have performed a three-year monitoring

  7. Lifetime of the first excited 2{sup +} state in {sup 172}Hf and {sup 174}Hf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerst, Rosa-Belle; Stegemann, Simon; Jolie, Jan; Regis, Jean-Marc; Rudigier, Matthias; Saed-Samii, Nima; Zell, Karl Oskar [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Using the {sup 170}Yb(α,2n) and {sup 172}Yb(α,2n) reactions the lifetimes of the first excited 2{sup +} state in {sup 172}Hf and {sup 174}Hf have been measured in fast-timing experiments using the Cologne Orange-Spectrometer and 6 LaBr{sub 3}(Ce)-Detectors. The lifetimes were obtained analyzing e{sup -}-γ-coincidence time-spectra with the slope method. The new and more precise lifetimes correct existing, outdated lifetimes in nuclear databases. Additionally, the systematics of the B(E2,2{sub 1}{sup +}→0{sub 1}{sup +}) is studied.

  8. Search for chemical separations of the element 106 homologues in HF and HF-HCl media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubert, D.; Monroy-Guzman, F.; Hussonnois, M.; Brillard, L.; Le Naour, C.; Constantinescu, O.

    1996-01-01

    In order to study the chemical properties of element 263 106 in aqueous media, fast, efficient and reproducible chromatographic separations were tested on its assumed homologous: Mo, W and U. Corroborative static and dynamic off-line experiments have shown that after fixation of these three elements on anion-exchange resin in HF medium, selective elution could be achieved by using suitable concentration of HCl - HF and HCl solutions. Separations of short-lived W isotopes, produced through heavy ion irradiation were also performed on-line. (author). 27 refs., 14 figs

  9. Radio propagation through the turbulent interstellar plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickett, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    The current understanding of interstellar scattering is reviewed, and its impact on radio astronomy is examined. The features of interstellar plasma turbulence are also discussed. It is concluded that methods involving the investigation of the flux variability of pulsars and extragalactic sources and the VLBI visibility curves constitute new techniques for probing the ISM. However, scattering causes a seeing limitation in radio observations. It is now clear that variation due to RISS (refractive interstellar scintillations) is likely to be important for several classes of variable sources, especially low-frequency variables and centimeter-wave flickering. 168 refs

  10. Typical disturbances of the daytime equatorial F region observed with a high-resolution HF radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Blanc

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available HF radar measurements were performed near the magnetic equator in Africa (Korhogo 9°24'63''N–5°37'38''W during the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (1993–1994. The HF radar is a high-resolution zenithal radar. It gives ionograms, Doppler spectra and echo parameters at several frequencies simultaneously. This paper presents a comparative study of the daytime ionospheric structures observed during 3 days selected as representative of different magnetic conditions, given by magnetometer measurements. Broad Doppler spectra, large echo width, and amplitude fluctuations revealed small-scale instability processes up to the F-region peak. The height variations measured at different altitudes showed gravity waves and larger-scale disturbances related to solar daytime influence and equatorial electric fields. The possibility of retrieving the ionospheric electric fields from these Doppler or height variation measurements in the presence of the other possible equatorial ionospheric disturbances is discussed.

  11. High-aspect-ratio HfC nanobelts accompanied by HfC nanowires: Synthesis, characterization and field emission properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Song, E-mail: tiansong22@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074 (China); Zhang, Yulei; Ren, Jincui; Qiang, Xinfa; Zhang, Shouyang [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Li, Hejun, E-mail: lihejun@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • HfC naobelts accompanied by HfC nanowires were synthesized by a catalytic CVD method. • HfC nanobelts as a novel structure of HfC ceramic are reported for the first time. • HfC nanobelts have 100–200 μm in lengths and reach up to 10 μm in widths. • The synthesized product is promising field nanoemitters. - Abstract: As a key refractory carbide, hafnium carbide (HfC) is commonly used as structural materials while the field emission (FE) application of HfC in the field of vacuum microelectronics is almost the only one for functional material purposes. Based on its outstanding physical and chemical characteristics, HfC is identified as a potential candidate with satisfactory mechanical properties and long-term and/or high-temperature FE stability for future applications in high-performance field emitters. However, the development of HfC in various FE applications is hindered because it is not facile to fabricate large-scale low-dimensional HfC field nanoemitters. Herein, High-aspect-ratio HfC nanobelts accompanied by HfC nanowires were synthesized on a large scale by a traditional and simple catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Classical vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) theory was employed to explain the growth of the HfC nanowires and nanobelts along axial direction. The thin HfO{sub 2} shell and thin C layer surrounding the nanostructures might give rise to the diameter fluctuation of HfC nanowires and the width increase of HfC nanobelts in lateral direction. Field emission results show that the high-aspect-ratio HfC nanobelts accompanied by the nanowires are promising field nanoemitters, which exhibit excellent field emission properties with a fairly low turn-on field of ∼1.5 V μm{sup −1} and a low current fluctuation less than ∼10%. This suggests that HfC ceramics with high-aspect-ratio nanostructures are ideal cathode material for various field emission applications.

  12. Ab initio theoretical study of dipole-bound anions of molecular complexes: (HF)3- and (HF)4- anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, Riet; Smith, Dayle M. A.; Smets, Johan; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    1997-12-01

    Ab initio calculations have been performed to determine structures and vertical electron detachment energy (VDE) of the hydrogen fluoride trimer and tetramer anions, (HF)3- and (HF)4-. In these systems the excess electron is bound by the dipole field of the complex. It was determined that, unlike the neutral complexes which prefer the cyclic structures, the equilibrium geometries of the anions have "zig-zag" shapes. For both complexes the predicted VDEs are positive [210 meV and 363 meV for (HF)3- and (HF)4-, respectively], indicating that the anions are stable systems with respect to the vertical electron detachment. These results were obtained at the coupled-cluster level of theory with single, double and triple excitations [CCSD(T) method; the triple-excitation contribution in this method is calculated approximately using the perturbation approach] with the anion geometries obtained using the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) method. The same approach was also used to determine the adiabatic electron affinities (AEA) of (HF)3 and (HF)4. In addition to the electronic contribution, we also calculated the contributions (using the harmonic approximation) resulting from different zero-point vibration energies of the neutral and anionic clusters. The calculations predicted that while the AEA of (HF)3 is positive (44 meV), the AEA for (HF)4 is marginally negative (-16 meV). This suggests that the (HF)3- anion should be a stable system, while the (HF)4- is probably metastable.

  13. Full PIC simulations of solar radio emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgattoni, A.; Henri, P.; Briand, C.; Amiranoff, F.; Riconda, C.

    2017-12-01

    Solar radio emissions are electromagnetic (EM) waves emitted in the solar wind plasma as a consequence of electron beams accelerated during solar flares or interplanetary shocks such as ICMEs. To describe their origin, a multi-stage model has been proposed in the 60s which considers a succession of non-linear three-wave interaction processes. A good understanding of the process would allow to infer the kinetic energy transfered from the electron beam to EM waves, so that the radio waves recorded by spacecraft can be used as a diagnostic for the electron beam.Even if the electrostatic problem has been extensively studied, full electromagnetic simulations were attempted only recently. Our large scale 2D-3V electromagnetic PIC simulations allow to identify the generation of both electrostatic and EM waves originated by the succession of plasma instabilities. We tested several configurations varying the electron beam density and velocity considering a background plasma of uniform density. For all the tested configurations approximately 105 of the electron-beam kinetic energy is transfered into EM waves emitted in all direction nearly isotropically. With this work we aim to design experiments of laboratory astrophysics to reproduce the electromagnetic emission process and test its efficiency.

  14. Senior radio listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora

    Radiobroadcasting and the hardware materialization of radio have during the 20th century changed significantly, which means that senior radio listeners have travelled along with this evolution from large, impressive radio furnitures to DAB and small, wireless, mobile devices, and from grave...... and solemn radio voices to lightharted, laughing and chatting speakers. Senior radio listerners have experienced the development and refinements of technique, content and genres. It is now expected of all media users that they are capable of crossing media, combining, juggling and jumping between various...... media platforms, not the least when listening to radio. The elder generation is no exception from this. Recently, for instance, the Danish public broadcast DR has carried out an exodus of programmes targeted for the senior segment. These programmes are removed from regular FM and sent to DAB receivers...

  15. BioRadioTransmitter: a self-powered wireless glucose-sensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanashi, Takuya; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Tsugawa, Wakako; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Sode, Koji

    2011-09-01

    Although an enzyme fuel cell can be utilized as a glucose sensor, the output power generated is too low to power a device such as a currently available transmitter and operating system, and an external power source is required for operating an enzyme-fuel-cell-based biosensing system. We proposed a novel biosensor that we named BioCapacitor, in which a capacitor serves as a transducer. In this study, we constructed a new BioCapacitor-based system with an added radio-transmitter circuit and a miniaturized enzyme fuel cell. A miniaturized direct-electron-transfer-type compartmentless enzyme fuel cell was constructed with flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase complex-based anode and a bilirubin-oxidase-based cathode. For construction of a BioRadioTransmitter wireless sensing system, a capacitor, an ultra-low-voltage charge-pump-integrated circuit, and Hartley oscillator circuit were connected to the miniaturized enzyme fuel cell. A radio-receiver circuit, comprising two field-effect transistors and a coil as an antenna, was used to amplify the signal generated from the biofuel cells. Radio wave signals generated by the BioRadioTransmitter were received, amplified, and converted from alternate to direct current by the radio receiver. When the capacitor discharges in the presence of glucose, the BioRadioTransmitter generates a radio wave, which is monitored by a radio receiver connected wirelessly to the sensing device. Magnitude of the radio wave transmission frequency change observed at the radio receiver was correlated to glucose concentration in the fuel cells. We constructed a stand-alone, self-powered, wireless glucose-sensing system called a BioRadioTransmitter by using a radio transmitter in which the radio wave transmission frequency changes with the glucose concentration in the fuel cell. The BioRadioTransmitter is a significant advance toward construction of an implantable continuous glucose monitor. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  16. Nuclear quadrupole interactions in ferroelectric compounds of HF181

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunzler, J.V.

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of nuclear quadrupole interaction constants in perovkite-type compounds of PbHfO 3 , SnhfO 3 , CaHfO 3 e SrHfO 3 have been performed using the perturbed angular correlation technique. A range of fundamental frequencies from 150 to 550 Megaradians persecond was determined. The variation of quadrupole constants has been discussed through the molecular orbital theory

  17. Application of HF Radar in Hazard Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mal Heron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A review is given of the impact that HF radars are having on the management of coastal hazards. Maps of surface currents can be produced every 10–20 minutes which, in real time, improve navigation safety in restricted areas commonly found near ports and harbours. The time sequence of surface current maps enables Lagrangian tracking of small parcels of surface water, which enables hazard mitigation in managing suspended sediments in dredging, in emergency situations where flotsam and other drifting items need to be found, and in pollution control. The surface current measurement capability is used to assist tsunami warnings as shown by the phased-array data from Chile following the Great Tohoku Earthquake in 2011. The newly launched Tsunami Warning Center in Oman includes a network of phased-array HF radars to provide real-time tsunami monitoring. Wind direction maps can be used to locate the position of cold fronts in the open ocean and to monitor the timing and strength of sea-breeze fronts in key locations.

  18. Beta decomposition processes in Hf-rich Hf--Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.B.; Taggart, R.; Polonis, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    The decomposition of the bcc β-phase by both athermal and isothermal processes has been investigated in Hf-rich Hf--Nb alloys. An all β-phase structure is retained in chill-cast alloys containing 30 to 50 at.% Nb (Cb), although electron diffraction streaking effects and the behavior of the temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity indicate the presence of a bcc lattice instability similar to that reported in solute lean Ti and Zr alloys. Aging a Hf 0 . 65 Nb 0 . 35 alloy at 400 and 600 0 C resulted in the direct precipitation of a fine dispersion of α-phase needles; this morphology differs from the discs of transition α (α/sub t/) which Carpenter et al observed in Nb-rich Nb 0 . 68 Hf 0 . 32 . During continued aging, the needles grow selectively to form colonies or groups of needles in which both the individual needles and the groups of needles have major axes aligned along (110)/sub β/ type directions. The initial α-phase particles exhibit the Burgers orientation relationship with the parent matrix; continued aging changes the electron diffraction patterns in a way that is similar to that observed in aged Ti--Mo and Ti--Mo--Al alloys where they were attributed to the α-phase having a different crystallographic relationship to the β-phase (Type 2 α-phase). The observed changes in the electron diffraction patterns of aged Hf 0 . 65 Nb 0 . 35 cannot be described as resulting from strained Burgers α-phase

  19. Nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic waves with the auroral ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alfred Y.

    1999-09-01

    The ionosphere provides us with an opportunity to perform plasma experiments in an environment with long confinement times, very large-scale lengths, and no confining walls. The auroral ionosphere with its nearly vertical magnetic field geometry is uniquely endowed with large amount of free energy from electron and ion precipitation along the magnetic field and mega-ampere current across the magnetic field. To take advantage of this giant outdoor laboratory, two facilities HAARP and HIPAS, with frequencies ranging from the radio to optical bands, are now available for active probing of and interaction with this interesting region. The ponderomotive pressures from the self-consistent wave fields have produced significant local perturbations of density and particle distributions at heights where the incident EM frequency matches a plasma resonance. This paper will review theory and experiments covering the nonlinear phenomena of parametric decay instability to wave collapse processes. At HF frequencies plasma lenses can be created by preconditioning pulses to focus what is a normally divergent beam into a high-intensity spot to further enhance nonlinear phenomena. At optical wavelengths a large rotating liquid metal mirror is used to focus laser pulses up to a given height. Such laser pulses are tuned to the same wavelengths of selected atomic and molecular resonances, with resulting large scattering cross sections. Ongoing experiments on dual-site experiments and excitation of ELF waves will be presented. The connection of such basic studies to environmental applications will be discussed. Such applications include the global communication using ELF waves, the ozone depletion and remediation and the control of atmospheric CO2 through the use of ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  20. Strain Imaging Using Terahertz Waves and Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    predictions. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Birefringence, Terahertz Waves, Metamaterials 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 16 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...opaque objects by using the principles of strain-induced birefringence. 4 III. CONCEPT To overcome the inability of visual light to penetrate ...opaque objects, terahertz radiation was investigated. Longer wavelength EM waves, such as radio waves, have excellent penetration ability but low image

  1. Hf isotope evidence for a hidden mantle reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Simonetti, A.; Stevenson, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    High-precision Hf isotopic analyses and U-Pb ages of carbonatites and kimberlites from Greenland and eastern North America, including Earth's oldest known carbonatite (3 Ga), indicate derivation from an enriched mantle source. This previously unidentified mantle reservoir-marked by an unradiogenic...... Hf isotopic composition and preserved in the deep mantle for at least 3 b.y.-may account for the mass imbalance in Earth's Hf-Nd budget. The Hf isotopic data presented here support a common mantle source region and genetic link between carbonatite and some oceanic-island basalt volcanoes....

  2. Microstructural characterization of as-cast hf-b alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Jânio Gigolotti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An accurate knowledge of several metal-boron phase diagrams is important to evaluation of higher order systems such as metal-silicon-boron ternaries. The refinement and reassessment of phase diagram data is a continuous work, thus the reevaluation of metal-boron systems provides the possibility to confirm previous data from an investigation using higher purity materials and better analytical techniques. This work presents results of rigorous microstructural characterization of as-cast hafnium-boron alloys which are significant to assess the liquid composition associated to most of the invariant reactions of this system. Alloys were prepared by arc melting high purity hafnium (minimum 99.8% and boron (minimum 99.5% slices under argon atmosphere in water-cooled copper crucible with non consumable tungsten electrode and titanium getter. The phases were identified by scanning electron microscopy, using back-scattered electron image mode and X-ray diffraction. In general, a good agreement was found between our data and those from the currently accepted Hafnium-Boron phase diagram. The phases identified are αHfSS and B-RhomSS, the intermediate compounds HfB and HfB2 and the liquide L. The reactions are the eutectic L ⇔ αHfSS + HfB and L ⇔ HfB2 + B-Rhom, the peritectic L + HfB2 ⇔ HfB and the congruent formation of HfB2.

  3. PEMISAHAN Zr – Hf SECARA SINAMBUNG MENGGUNAKAN MIXER SETTLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Biyantoro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK PEMISAHAN Zr – Hf SECARA SINAMBUNG MENGGUNAKANMIXER SETTLER. Telah dilakukan pemisahanZr – Hf secara sinambung menggunakan pengaduk pengenap (mixer settler 16 stage. Larutan umpan adalah zirkon nitrat dengan kadar Zr = 30786 ppm dan Hf = 499 ppm. Ekstraktan dipakai adalah solven 60 % TBP dalam kerosen dan larutan scrubbingyang dipakai adalah asam nitrat 1 M. Umpan masuk pada stageke 5 dikontakkan secara berlawanan arah dengan solven masuk pada stage ke 16 dan larutan scrubbing masuk pada stage ke 1. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah memisahkan unsur Zr dan Hf dari hasil olah pasir zirkon menggunakan solven TBP dengan alat mixer settler16 stage. Analisis umpan dan hasil proses pemisahan untuk zirkonium (Zr dilakukan dengan menggunakan alat pendar sinar-X, sedangkananalisis unsur hafnium (Hf menggunakan Analisis Pengaktifan Neutron (APN. Parameter penelitian dilakukan dengan variasi keasaman asam nitrat dalam umpan dan variasi waktu pada berbagai laju pengadukan. Hasil penelitian pemisahan unsur Zr dengan Hf diperolehkondisi optimum pada keasaman umpan 4 N HNO3, keseimbangan dicapai setelah 3jam dan laju pengadukan 3300 rpm. Hasil ekstrak  unsur zirkon (Zr diperoleh kadar sebesar 28577 ppm dengan efisiensi 92,76 % serta kadar pengotor hafnium (Hf sebesar 95 ppm. Kata Kunci: pemisahan Zr, Hf, ekstraksi, mixer settler, alat pendar sinar-X, APN. ABSTRACT SEPARATION of Zr - Hf CONTINUOUSLY USE THE MIXER SETTLER. Separation of Zr - Hf continuously using mixer settler 16 stage has been done. The feed solution is zircon nitrate concentration of Zr = 30786 ppm  and Hf = 499 ppm. As the solvent used extractant 60 % TBP in 40 % kerosene. Nitric acid solution used srubbing 1 M. The feed entered into stage to 5 is contacted with solvents direction on the stage to 16 and the scrubbing solution enter the stage to 1. The purpose of this study is to separate Zr and Hf of the results from the process of zircon sand using solvent TBP using 16 stage

  4. High-temperature x-ray diffraction study of HfTiO4-HfO2 solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    High-temperature x-ray diffraction techniques were used to determine the axial thermal expansion curves of HfTiO 4 -HfO 2 solid solutions as a function of composition. Data show increasing anisotropy with increasing HfO 2 content. An orthorhombic-to-monoclinic phase transformation was detected near room temperature for compositions near the high HfO 2 end of the orthorhombic phase field and for compositions within the two-phase region (HfTiO 4 solid solution plus HfO 2 solid solution). An orthorhombic-to-cubic phase transformation is indicated by data from oxygen-deficient materials at greater than 1873 0 K. (U.S.)

  5. Propagation of Energetic Electrons from the Corona into Interplanetary Space and Type III Radio Emission. Planetary Radio Emissions| PLANETARY RADIO EMISSIONS VII 7|

    OpenAIRE

    Vocks, C.; Breitling, F.; Mann, G.

    2011-01-01

    During solar flares a large amount of electrons with energies greater than 20 keV is generated with a production rate of typically 1036 s-1. A part of them is able to propagate along open magnetic field lines through the corona into interplanetary space. During their travel they emit radio radiation which is observed as type III radio bursts in the frequency range from 100 MHz down to 10 kHz by the WAVES radio spectrometer aboard the spacecraft WIND, for instance. From the drift rates of thes...

  6. Waves in Space Plasmas Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, R. W.; Taylor, W. W. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program is a joint international effort involving instrumentation to be designed and fabricated by funding from NASA and the National Research Council of Canada. The instrumentation, with a tentatively planned payload for 1986, can be used to perturb the plasma with radio waves to solve problems in ionospheric, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and plasma physics. Among the ionospheric and plasma phenomena to be investigated using WISP instrumentation are VLF wave-particle interactions; ELF/VLF propagation; traveling ionospheric disturbances and gravity wave coupling; equatorial plasma bubble phenomena; plasma wave physics such as mode-coupling, dispersion, and instabilities; and plasma physics of the antenna-plasma interactions.

  7. Waves in Space Plasmas Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredricks, R.W.; Taylor, W.W.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program is a joint international effort involving instrumentation to be designed and fabricated by funding from NASA and the National Research Council of Canada. The instrumentation, with a tentatively planned payload for 1986, can be used to perturb the plasma with radio waves to solve problems in ionospheric, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and plasma physics. Among the ionospheric and plasma phenomena to be investigated using WISP instrumentation are VLF wave-particle interactions, ELF/VLF propagation, traveling ionospheric disturbances and gravity wave coupling, equatorial plasma bubble phenomena, plasma wave physics such as mode-coupling, dispersion, and instabilities, and plasma physics of the antenna-plasma interactions

  8. On the Secrecy Capacity of 5G New Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The new radio technology for the fifth-generation wireless system has been extensively studied all over the world. Specifically, the air interface protocols for 5G radio access network will be standardized by the 3GPP in the coming years. In the next-generation 5G new radio (NR networks, millimeter wave (mmWave communications will definitely play a critical role, as new NR air interface (AI is up to 100 GHz just like mmWave. The rapid growth of mmWave systems poses a variety of challenges in physical layer (PHY security. This paper investigates those challenges in the context of several 5G new radio communication technologies, including multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO and nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA. In particular, we introduce a ray-tracing (RT based 5G NR network channel model and reveal that the secrecy capacity in mmWave band widely depends on the richness of radio frequency (RF environment through numerical experiments.

  9. A 60-GHz energy harvesting module with on-chip antenna and switch for co-integration with ULP radios in 65-nm CMOS with fully wireless mm-wave power transfer measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Matters - Kammerer, M.; Harpe, P.J.A.; Milosevic, D.; Roermund, van A.H.M.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the architecture and performance of a co-integrated 60 GHz on-chip wireless energy harvester and ultra-low power (ULP) radio in 65-nm CMOS are discussed. Integration of an on-chip antenna with wireless power receiver and wireless data transfer module is the crucial next step to achieve

  10. High Capacity Radio over Fiber Transmission Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    . This achievement has satisfied the requirements on transmission robustness and high capacity of next generation hybrid optical fibre-wireless networks. One important contribution of this thesis is the novel concept of photonic downconversion with free-running pulsed laser source for phase modulated Radio-over-Fiber......This thesis expands the state-of-the-art on the detection of high speed wireless signals using optics. Signal detection at speeds over 1 Gbps at carrier Radio Frequency (RF) ranging from 5 GHz to 100 GHz have been achieved by applying novel concepts on optical digital coherent receivers......-wave frequencies at carrier frequencies exceeding 60 GHz, using photonic baseband technologies. For signal generation, high spectral-efficient optical modulation technologies are used together with optical heterodyning. In the detection side, the mm-wave signal is modulated in the optical domain and received using...

  11. Simultaneous analysis of rotational and vibrational-rotational spectra of DF and HF to obtain irreducible molecular constants for HF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiai, Koui; Uehara, Hiromichi

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Available rotational and vibrational-rotational spectral lines of DF and HF are analyzed simultaneously using a non-Born-Oppenheimer effective Hamiltonian. Research highlights: → Simultaneous analysis of DF and HF spectral data. → Application of a non-Born-Oppenheimer effective Hamiltonian. → Twenty irreducible molecular constants for HF have been determined. - Abstract: Analytic expressions of corrections for the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation to Dunham's Y ij with optimal parameters, i.e., determinable clusters of expansion coefficients, are applied to a data analysis of the rotational and vibrational-rotational transitions of HF reported in the literature. All the available spectral lines of the two isotopologues, DF and HF, are simultaneously fitted to a single set of molecular parameters of HF within experimental errors. Fitting of a data set of 595 spectral transitions for DF and HF has generated only 20 minimal independent parameter values, i.e., 'irreducible' molecular constants of HF, that are sufficient to precisely generate 82 Y ij coefficients and 144 band constants in total: 41 Y ij and 72 band constants each for DF and HF.

  12. Writing for Radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Marianna S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a 24-hour commercial radio station simulation class project for eighth-grade language arts. Students wrote their own scripts, chose music and were disc jockeys on their own music and talk shows, and prepared news and traffic reports. Guest speakers from actual commercial radio came in to discuss issues such as advertising, censorship,…

  13. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2015-01-01

    Within the EU regulatory framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. While radio licence renewal occurs in many EU countries, an objective, model-based approach for setting licence

  14. The Radio Jove Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    The Radio love Project is a hands-on education and outreach project in which students, or any other interested individuals or groups build a radio telescope from a kit, operate the radio telescope, transmit the resulting signals through the internet if desired, analyze the results, and share the results with others through archives or general discussions among the observers. Radio love is intended to provide an introduction to radio astronomy for the observer. The equipment allows the user to observe radio signals from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and Earth-based radiation both natural and man-made. The project was started through a NASA Director's Discretionary Fund grant more than ten years ago. it has continued to be carried out through the dedicated efforts of a group of mainly volunteers. Dearly 1500 kits have been distributed throughout the world. Participation can also be done without building a kit. Pre-built kits are available. Users can also monitor remote radio telescopes through the internet using free downloadable software available through the radiosky.com website. There have been many stories of prize-winning projects, inspirational results, collaborative efforts, etc. We continue to build the community of observers and are always open to new thoughts about how to inspire the observers to still greater involvement in the science and technology associated with Radio Jove.

  15. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  16. Review of radio-frequency, nonlinear effects on the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, W.E.; Duncan, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Modification of the ionosphere by high power radio waves in the megahertz band has been intensively investigated over the past two decades. This research has yielded advances in aeronomy, geophysics, and plasma physics with applications to radio communication and has provided a fruitful interaction of radio theorists and experimentalists. There being almost no linear effects of powerful radio waves on the ionosphere, we concentrate on the nonlinear effects. To put the subject in perspective we trace its history beginning in the early 1930s and highlight the important events up to the late 1960s. We then shift to a phenomenological approach and deal in order with ohmic heating, parametric instabilities, self-focusing and kilometer-scale irregularities, meter-scale irregularities, and a collection of recently discovered effects. We conclude with the observation that stronger international cooperation would benefit this research, and describe a list of promising, difficult challenges

  17. Synchrotron brightness distribution of turbulent radio jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, R.N.; Bridle, A.H.; Chan, K.L.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of radio jets as turbulent mixing regions. We further propose that the essential small-scale viscous dissipation in these jets is by Lighthill emission of MHD waves and by their subsequent strong damping due, at least partly, to gyroresonant acceleration of suprathermal particles. The equilibrium eddy, wave, and particle spectra are not found exactly in this paper but the problem is defined and rough estimates of the spectra are given to aid in the observational interpretation

  18. FAST RADIO BURSTS AND RADIO TRANSIENTS FROM BLACK HOLE BATTERIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingarelli, Chiara M. F. [TAPIR, MC 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levin, Janna [Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (ISCAP), Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lazio, T. Joseph W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Most black holes (BHs) will absorb a neutron star (NS) companion fully intact without tidal disruption, suggesting the pair will remain dark to telescopes. Even without tidal disruption, electromagnetic (EM) luminosity is generated from the battery phase of the binary when the BH interacts with the NS magnetic field. Originally, the luminosity was expected to be in high-energy X-rays or gamma-rays, however, we conjecture that some of the battery power is emitted in the radio bandwidth. While the luminosity and timescale are suggestive of fast radio bursts (FRBs; millisecond-scale radio transients) NS–BH coalescence rates are too low to make these a primary FRB source. Instead, we propose that the transients form a FRB sub-population, distinguishable by a double peak with a precursor. The rapid ramp-up in luminosity manifests as a precursor to the burst which is 20%–80% as luminous given 0.5 ms timing resolution. The main burst arises from the peak luminosity before the merger. The post-merger burst follows from the NS magnetic field migration to the BH, causing a shock. NS–BH pairs are especially desirable for ground-based gravitational wave (GW) observatories since the pair might not otherwise be detected, with EM counterparts greatly augmenting the scientific leverage beyond the GW signal. The EM signal’s ability to break degeneracies in the parameters encoded in the GW and probe the NS magnetic field strength is quite valuable, yielding insights into open problems in NS magnetic field decay.

  19. FAST RADIO BURSTS AND RADIO TRANSIENTS FROM BLACK HOLE BATTERIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingarelli, Chiara M. F.; Levin, Janna; Lazio, T. Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Most black holes (BHs) will absorb a neutron star (NS) companion fully intact without tidal disruption, suggesting the pair will remain dark to telescopes. Even without tidal disruption, electromagnetic (EM) luminosity is generated from the battery phase of the binary when the BH interacts with the NS magnetic field. Originally, the luminosity was expected to be in high-energy X-rays or gamma-rays, however, we conjecture that some of the battery power is emitted in the radio bandwidth. While the luminosity and timescale are suggestive of fast radio bursts (FRBs; millisecond-scale radio transients) NS–BH coalescence rates are too low to make these a primary FRB source. Instead, we propose that the transients form a FRB sub-population, distinguishable by a double peak with a precursor. The rapid ramp-up in luminosity manifests as a precursor to the burst which is 20%–80% as luminous given 0.5 ms timing resolution. The main burst arises from the peak luminosity before the merger. The post-merger burst follows from the NS magnetic field migration to the BH, causing a shock. NS–BH pairs are especially desirable for ground-based gravitational wave (GW) observatories since the pair might not otherwise be detected, with EM counterparts greatly augmenting the scientific leverage beyond the GW signal. The EM signal’s ability to break degeneracies in the parameters encoded in the GW and probe the NS magnetic field strength is quite valuable, yielding insights into open problems in NS magnetic field decay

  20. Cold plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    The book aims to present current knowledge concerning the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous magnetoplasma for which temperature effects are unimportant. It places roughly equal emphasis on the radio and the hydromagnetic parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. The dispersion properties of a magnetoplasma are treated as a function both of wave frequency (assumed real) and of ionization density. The effect of collisions is included only in so far as this can be done with simplicity. The book describes how pulses are radiated from both small and large antennas embedded in a homogeneous magnetoplasma. The power density radiated from a type of dipole antenna is studied as a function of direction of radiation in all bands of wave frequency. Input reactance is not treated, but the dependence of radiation resistance on wave frequency is described for the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Also described is the relation between beaming and guidance for Alfven waves. (Auth.)

  1. The Production and Modification of Ionospheric Irregularities by Powerful HF Radio Transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-11

    BASE, MASSACHUSETS 01731,-5000 ’_hi techn-ical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication" S A WIT B ASI X._____ ~ f Contract Manager ...energy ’lec- 0. 12 trons decelerated. The maximum power in the 5.25- to 5.35-MHz Doppler range is reached without a measurable dehly according to o...vacuum. In principle the nonlinear effects of heating and of the pondcromotive force (the nonlinearity results from the depen- dence of both effects

  2. Japan Tsunami Current Flows Observed by HF Radars on Two Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Awaji

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time observations of a tsunami have been limited to deep-water, pressure-sensor observations of changes in the sea surface elevation and observations of sea level fluctuations at the coast, which are essentially point measurements. Constrained by these data, models have been used for predictions and warning of the arrival of a tsunami, but to date no detailed verification of flow patterns nor area measurements have been possible. Here we present unique HF-radar area observations of the tsunami signal seen in current velocities as the wave train approaches the coast. Networks of coastal HF-radars are now routinely observing surface currents in many countries and we report clear results from five HF radar sites spanning a distance of 8,200 km on two continents following the magnitude 9.0 earthquake off Sendai, Japan, on 11 March 2011. We confirm the tsunami signal with three different methodologies and compare the currents observed with coastal sea level fluctuations at tide gauges. The distance offshore at which the tsunami can be detected, and hence the warning time provided, depends on the bathymetry: the wider the shallow continental shelf, the greater this time. Data from these and other radars around the Pacific rim can be used to further develop radar as an important tool to aid in tsunami observation and warning as well as post-processing comparisons between observation and model predictions.

  3. Direct currents produced by hf heating of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klima, R.

    1974-01-01

    In addition to the well-known diffusion currents, toroidal direct currents arise in h.f. heated plasmas as a result of a momentum transfer from the h.f. field to plasma particles. The estimates of steady-state conditions are given for these currents. Particularly, the possibility of stationary operation of a Tokamak device is analyzed. (author)

  4. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd garnet geochronology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Scherer, Erik E.; Mezger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the systematics of the 176Lu–176Hf and 147Sm–143Nd garnet chronometers, we performed REE and isotope analyses on garnet crystals of different size (0.55–3.1 mm radius) from a single granulite specimen (Archean Pikwitonei Granulite Domain, Manitoba, Canada). The Lu–Hf dates are simi...

  5. The use of radio-release methods for the determination of air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klehr, E.H.; Toelgyessy, J.; Pruzinec, J.; Naoum, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations on the applicability of radio-release methods to the determination of air pollutants are summarized. In any case kryptonated substances were used (SiO 2 for HF, H 2 O vapor, C 6 H 6 and CCl 4 ; SeS 2 for Hg; hydrochinon for O 3 and SO 2 ; and hopcalite, PdCl 2 , S 2 O 5 and HgO for CO). Positive results were obtained for HF, Hg, O 3 , CO (with kryptonated PdCl 2 and HgO), H 2 O vapor and SO 2

  6. Radio emissions from pulsar companions: a refutable explanation for galactic transients and fast radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottez, F.; Zarka, P.

    2014-09-01

    Context. The six known highly dispersed fast radio bursts are attributed to extragalactic radio sources that are of unknown origin but extremely energetic. We propose here a new explanation that does not require an extreme release of energy and involves a body (planet, asteroid, white dwarf) orbiting an extragalactic pulsar. Aims: We investigate a theory of radio waves associated with such pulsar-orbiting bodies. We focus our analysis on the waves emitted from the magnetic wake of the body in the pulsar wind. After deriving their properties, we compare them with the observations of various transient radio signals to determine whether they could originate from pulsar-orbiting bodies. Methods: The analysis is based on the theory of Alfvén wings: for a body immersed in a pulsar wind, a system of two stationary Alfvén waves is attached to the body, provided that the wind is highly magnetised. When they are destabilised through plasma instabilities, Alfvén wings can be the locus of strong radio sources that are convected with the pulsar wind. By assuming a cyclotron maser instability operating in the Alfvén wings, we make predictions about the shape, frequencies, and brightness of the resulting radio emissions. Results: Because of the beaming by relativistic aberration, the signal is seen only when the companion is perfectly aligned between its parent pulsar and the observer, as is the case for occultations. For pulsar winds with a high Lorentz factor (≥104), the whole duration of the radio event does not exceed a few seconds, and it is composed of one to four peaks that last a few milliseconds each and are detectable up to distances of several Mpc. The Lorimer burst, the three isolated pulses of PSR J1928+15, and the recently detected fast radio bursts are all compatible with our model. According to it, these transient signals should repeat periodically with the companion's orbital period. Conclusions: The search of pulsar-orbiting bodies could be an exploration

  7. Global spiral structure of M81 - radio continuum maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bash, F.N.; Kaufman, M.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus)

    1986-01-01

    VLA observations of the radio continuum emission from M81 at 6 and 20 cm are presented and used to check the predictions of density-wave theories. Both thermal and nonthermal radiation from the spiral arms are detected. Most of the bright knots along the radio arms are giant radio H II regions. The nonthermal emission defines spiral arms that are patchy and well-resolved, with a width of 1-2 kpc. The observed nonthermal arms are too broad to agree with the continuum gasdynamical calculations of Roberts (1969), Shu et al. (1972), and Visser (1978, 1980) for a classical density wave model. The observed arm widths appear consistent with the predictions of density-wave models that emphasize the clumpy nature of the ISM. The 20 cm arms appear to spiral outward from a faint inner H I ring, suggesting that the ring is produced by the inner Lindblad resonance. 36 references

  8. Numerical study of the generation and propagation of ultralow-frequency waves by artificial ionospheric F region modulation at different latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Powerful high-frequency (HF radio waves can be used to efficiently modify the upper-ionospheric plasmas of the F region. The pressure gradient induced by modulated electron heating at ultralow-frequency (ULF drives a local oscillating diamagnetic ring current source perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, which can act as an antenna radiating ULF waves. In this paper, utilizing the HF heating model and the model of ULF wave generation and propagation, we investigate the effects of both the background ionospheric profiles at different latitudes in the daytime and nighttime ionosphere and the modulation frequency on the process of the HF modulated heating and the subsequent generation and propagation of artificial ULF waves. Firstly, based on a relation among the radiation efficiency of the ring current source, the size of the spatial distribution of the modulated electron temperature and the wavelength of ULF waves, we discuss the possibility of the effects of the background ionospheric parameters and the modulation frequency. Then the numerical simulations with both models are performed to demonstrate the prediction. Six different background parameters are used in the simulation, and they are from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012 model and the neutral atmosphere model (NRLMSISE-00, including the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP; 62.39° N, 145.15° W, Wuhan (30.52° N, 114.32° E and Jicamarca (11.95° S, 76.87° W at 02:00 and 14:00 LT. A modulation frequency sweep is also used in the simulation. Finally, by analyzing the numerical results, we come to the following conclusions: in the nighttime ionosphere, the size of the spatial distribution of the modulated electron temperature and the ground magnitude of the magnetic field of ULF wave are larger, while the propagation loss due to Joule heating is smaller compared to the daytime ionosphere; the amplitude of the electron temperature

  9. Method and apparatus for radio frequency ceramic sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Daniel J.; Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.

    1993-01-01

    Radio frequency energy is used to sinter ceramic materials. A coaxial waveguide resonator produces a TEM mode wave which generates a high field capacitive region in which a sample of the ceramic material is located. Frequency of the power source is kept in the range of radio frequency, and preferably between 60-80 MHz. An alternative embodiment provides a tunable radio frequency circuit which includes a series input capacitor and a parallel capacitor, with the sintered ceramic connected by an inductive lead. This arrangement permits matching of impedance over a wide range of dielectric constants, ceramic volumes, and loss tangents.

  10. Direction of Radio Finding via MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) Algorithm for Hardware Design System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Concept of radio direction finding systems, which use radio direction finding is based on digital signal processing algorithms. Thus, the radio direction finding system becomes capable to locate and track signals by the both. Performance of radio direction finding significantly depends on effectiveness of digital signal processing algorithms. The algorithm uses the Direction of Arrival (DOA) algorithms to estimate the number of incidents plane waves on the antenna array and their angle of incidence. This manuscript investigates implementation of the DOA algorithms (MUSIC) on the uniform linear array in the presence of white noise. The experiment results exhibit that MUSIC algorithm changed well with the radio direction.

  11. RADIO REFRACTIVITY RADIO REFRACTIVITY STUDY IN AKURE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Propagation of waves in a microwave link is through the troposphere which is the non-ionized lowest portion of the atmosphere [5]. The refractive index is defined as [5]. (1). Where εr is the dielectric constant of the troposphere. C is the speed of light and V is the phase velocity of the wave in the medium. The refractive index ...

  12. Stabilization effect of a strong HF electrical field on beam-plasma interaction in a relativistic plasma waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shorbagy, K.H.

    2000-07-01

    The influence effect of a strong HF electrical field on the excitation of surface waves by an electron beam under the development of instability of low-density electron beam passing through plane relativistic plasma is investigated. Starting from the two fluid plasma model we separate the problem into two parts. The 'temporal' (dynamical) part enables us to find the frequencies and growth rates of unstable waves. This part within the redefinition of natural (eigen) frequencies coincide with the system describing HF suppression of the Buneman instability in a uniform unbounded plasma. Natural frequencies of oscillations and spatial distribution of the amplitude of the self-consistent electrical field are obtained by solving a boundary value problem ('spatial' part) considering a specific spatial distribution of plasma density. Plasma electrons are considered to have a relativistic velocity. It is shown that a HF electric field has no essential influence on dispersion characteristics of unstable surface waves excited in a relativistic plasma waveguide by a low-density electron beam. The region of instability only slightly narrowing and the growth rate decreases by a small parameter and this result has been reduced compared to nonrelativistic plasma. Also, it is found that the plasma electrons have not affected the solution of the space part of the problem. (author)

  13. Unlocking radio broadcasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette; Lykke, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    This poster reports the preliminary results of a user study uncovering the information seeking behaviour of humanities scholars dedicated to radio research. The study is part of an interdisciplinary research project on radio culture and auditory resources. The purpose of the study is to inform...... the design of information architecture and interaction design of a research infrastructure that will enable future radio and audio based research. Results from a questionnaire survey on humanities scholars‟ research interest and information needs, preferred access points, and indexing levels are reported....... Finally, a flexible metadata schema is suggested, that includes both general metadata and highly media and research project specific metadata....

  14. Radio y elecciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Rosa Alva de la Selva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza el comportamiento de la radio en México ante la contienda electoral de julio de 2000. Se examina el papel de la radio como espacio para la discusión política, así como el tratamiento informativo que hizo del tema. Asimismo, se analiza la posible repercusión de factores de reciente surgimiento en el panorama radiofónico para un manejo más autónomo de la información política en la radio

  15. Preliminary results from the Arecibo Heating Experiment (HEX): HF to GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Booth, N.; Penney, R.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Martin, P. L.; Buckland, R.; Morton-Orr, T.; Nossa, E.; Buckland, R.

    2017-12-01

    The ionosphere is subject to many solar and terrestrial influences that can generate disturbances, causing degradation to modern communication and navigational systems. Whilst the disturbances are normally caused by natural phenomena such as hurricanes, earthquakes and solar storms; they can also be generated by artificially modifying the ionosphere. Artificial Ionospheric Modification (AIM) attempts to alter a small region of the ionosphere in order to perturb the RF propagation environment. This can be achieved through injecting the ionosphere with aerosols, chemicals or radio signals. The effects of any such modification can be detected through the deployment of sensors, including ground based high-frequency (HF) sounders and dual-band Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. HF sounders allow measurements of the bottom-side of the ionosphere. GNSS receivers offer a convenient means of obtaining information about the ionosphere, including ionospheric disturbances through changes in the derived total electron content information. The Heating EXperiment (HEX), which took place in March and May 2017, was designed to further our understanding of the phenomena caused by artificially heating a small region of the ionosphere, using the Arecibo facility in Puerto Rico. This was achieved by utilizing a HF measurement experiment spread between Texas and Trinidad and the deployment of a small scale travelling ionospheric disturbance (TID) network near the heater. The TID network comprised three GNSS receivers along baselines of approximately 4 km, located 20 km north of the heater. This paper presents preliminary results from the HEX campaign, including evidence of heating-induced disturbances enhancing propagation between Virginia and Trinidad. The implications of generated irregularities on GNSS will also be discussed.

  16. Bending of electromagnetic beams and head-tail radio sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodo, G; Ferrari, A; Massaglia, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica)

    1981-08-01

    An interpretation is presented of bridge bending in head-tail radio sources in the framework of an electromagnetic beam model. The physical effect responsible for the structural distortion is proposed to be the refraction of a large-amplitude wave in a medium with a density gradient perpendicular to the wave propagation vector; this gradient is consistently produced by the relative motion of the beam source in the surrounding medium with a velocity higher than the speed of sound. These effects are calculated in some detail and a quantitative fit of model parameters to the typical radio source associated with NGC 1265 is discussed.

  17. Bending of electromagnetic beams and head-tail radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodo, G.; Ferrari, A.; Massaglia, S.; Turin Univ.

    1981-01-01

    An interpretation is presented of bridge bending in head-tail radio sources in the framework of an electromagnetic beam model. The physical effect responsible for the structural distortion is proposed to be the refraction of a large-amplitude wave in a medium with a density gradient perpendicular to the wave propagation vector; this gradient is consistently produced by the relative motion of the beam source in the surrounding medium with a velocity higher than the speed of sound. These effects are calculated in some detail and a quantitative fit of model parameters to the typical radio source associated with NGC 1265 is discussed. (author)

  18. Direct quantum mechanical calculation of the F + H{sub 2} {yields} HF + H thermal rate constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moix, Marc [Computer Simulation and Modeling (COSMO) Lab, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, Josep Samitier 5, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional de la UB (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Huarte-Larranaga, Fermin [Computer Simulation and Modeling (COSMO) Lab, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, Josep Samitier 5, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional de la UB (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: fhuarte@pcb.ub.es

    2008-07-03

    Accurate full-dimensional quantum mechanical thermal rate constant values have been calculated for the F+H{sub 2}{yields}HF+H reaction on the Stark-Werner ab initio potential energy surface. These calculations are based on a flux correlation functions and employ a rigorous statistical sampling scheme to account for the overall rotation and the MCTDH scheme for the wave packet propagation. Our results shed some light on discrepancies on the thermal rate found for previous flux correlation based calculations with respect to accurate reactive scattering results. The resonance pattern of the all-J cumulative reaction probability is analyzed in terms of the partial wave contributions.

  19. Social cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents research results on social cognitive radio networks, a transformational and innovative networking paradigm that promotes the nexus between social interactions and cognitive radio networks. Along with a review of the research literature, the text examines the key motivation and challenges of social cognitive radio network design. Three socially inspired distributed spectrum sharing mechanisms are introduced: adaptive channel recommendation mechanism, imitation-based social spectrum sharing mechanism, and evolutionarily stable spectrum access mechanism. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions which ascertains that exploiting social interactions for distributed spectrum sharing will advance the state-of-the-art of cognitive radio network design, spur a new line of thinking for future wireless networks, and enable novel wireless service and applications.

  20. NOAA Weather Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    del tiempo incluido. Si eres quieres ser avisado de las advertencias y relojes de día o de noche, un Weather Radio relojes son independientes o basadas en el Condado (parroquia basados en Luisiana), aunque

  1. The digital sport radio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilario José ROMERO BEJARANO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Radio has been immersed in recent years in a phase of technological integration and business of multimedia, as well as diversification of systems and channels for broadcasting. In addition, Internet has been consolidated as the platform of digital radio that more has evolved as a result of its continued expansion. However, the merger radio-Internet must be understood as a new form of communication, and not solely as a new complementary medium. In this context, it is of great interest to analyze that transformations in the way of reception, contents, languages, programs and schedules, has brought with it for the radio that integration. To this end is taken as main reference the sports areas, a key aspect and broadly representative of the current broadcasting landscape.

  2. Music, radio and mediatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Morten; Krogh, Mads

    2016-01-01

    of mediatization where media as such seem to be ascribed agency. Instead, we consider historical accounts of music–radio in order to address the complex nonlinearity of concrete processes of mediatization as they take place in the multiple meetings between a decentred notion of radio and musical life.......Mediatization has become a key concept for understanding the relations between media and other cultural and social fields. Contributing to the discussions related to the concept of mediatization, this article discusses how practices of radio and music(al life) influence each other. We follow Deacon......’s and Stanyer’s advice to supplement the concept of mediatization with ‘a series of additional concepts at lower levels of abstraction’ and suggest, in this respect, the notion of heterogeneous milieus of music–radio. Hereby, we turn away from the all-encompassing perspectives related to the concept...

  3. ITSY Handheld Software Radio

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bose, Vanu

    2001-01-01

    .... A handheld software radio platform would enable the construction of devices that could inter-operate with multiple legacy systems, download new waveforms and be used to construct adhoc networks...

  4. Structure in radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breugel, W. van.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that radio jets are a rather common phenomenon in radio galaxies. Jets can be disguised as trails in head-tail sources, bridges in double sources or simply remain undetected because of lack of resolution and sensitivity. It is natural to associate these jets with the channels which had previously been suggested to supply energy to the extended radio lobes. The observations of optical emission suggest that a continuous non-thermal spectrum extending from 10 9 to 10 15 Hz is a common property of jets. Because significant amounts of interstellar matter are also observed in each of the galaxies surveyed it seems that models for jets which involve an interaction with this medium may be most appropriate. New information about the overall structure of extended radio sources has been obtained from the detailed multifrequency study with the WSRT. (Auth.)

  5. Wireless radio a history

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    ""Informative...recommended""--Choice; ""interesting...a good read...well worth reading""--Contact Magazine. This history first looks at Marconi's wireless communications system and then explores its many applications, including marine radio, cellular telephones, police and military uses, television and radar. Radio collecting is also discussed, and brief biographies are provided for the major figures in the development and use of the wireless.

  6. ¿Radios ciudadanas?

    OpenAIRE

    López Vigil, José Ignacio

    1998-01-01

    Educativas, sindicales, populares, comunitarias, libres, rebeldes, participativas, alternativas, alterativas, han sido las denominaciones de la radio cuando su proyecto está al servicio de la gente. Palabras apropiadas y nobles -dice elautor-pero devaluadas, a las que ahora se agrega la radio ciudadana, para relievarla como ejercicio depoder y espacio de verdadera participación de la genteenla vida de su nación.

  7. Process Simulation Analysis of HF Stripping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaer A. Abdulla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available    HYSYS process simulator is used for the analysis of existing HF stripping column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company, Baiji-Iraq. Simulated column performance and profiles curves are constructed. The variables considered are the thermodynamic model option, bottom temperature, feed temperature, and column profiles for the temperature, vapor flow rate, liquid flow rate and composition. The five thermodynamic models options used (Margules, UNIQUAC, van laar, Antoine, and Zudkevitch-Joffee, affecting the results within (0.1-58% variation for the most cases.        The simulated results show that about 4% of paraffin (C10 & C11 presents at the top stream, which may cause a problem in the LAB production plant. The major variations were noticed for the total top vapor flow rate with bottom temperature and with feed composition. The column profiles maintain fairly constants from tray 5 to tray 18. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with HYSYS because the results correspond with the real plant operation data.

  8. Grindability of cast Ti-Hf alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Sato, Hideki; Okuno, Osamu; Nunn, Martha E; Okabe, Toru

    2006-04-01

    As part of our systematic studies characterizing the properties of titanium alloys, we investigated the grindability of a series of cast Ti-Hf alloys. Alloy buttons with hafnium concentrations up to 40 mass% were made using an argon-arc melting furnace. Each button was cast into a magnesia-based mold using a dental titanium casting machine; three specimens were made for each metal. Prior to testing, the hardened surface layer was removed. The specimens were ground at five different speeds for 1 min at 0.98 N using a carborundum wheel on an electric dental handpiece. Grindability was evaluated as the volume of metal removed per minute (grinding rate) and the volume ratio of metal removed compared to the wheel material lost (grinding ratio). The data were analyzed using ANOVA. A trend of increasing grindability was found with increasing amounts of hafnium, although there was no statistical difference in the grindability with increasing hafnium contents. We also found that hafnium may be used to harden or strengthen titanium without deteriorating the grindability.

  9. The 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference: Technology and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, new radio technologies and services are poised to change the ways we communicate. Radio waves already make possible a wide range of services considered commonplace--AM and FM radio broadcasting, television, cellular telephones, remote garage-door openers, and baby monitors. Advances in radio technology are giving birth to even more new products and services, including pocket-sized telephones that may allow people to make and receive calls anywhere in the world, high-definition televisions (HDTV) with superior quality pictures and sound, and static-free digital radios. The 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC-92) authorized frequencies for many of these new radio communication services, and granted additional frequencies for many existing services, including international broadcasting, satellite-based mobile communications, and communications in space. The effects of these changes will be felt well into the 21st century as countries around the world develop and deploy new communications systems to serve the needs of consumers, businesses, and governments. For the United States, the decisions made at the conference will critically affect how we develop new radio technologies and applications, how competitive this country will be in radio communications equipment and services, and how effectively the United States can exercise its role as a leader in world radio communication policymaking. This study of the outcomes and implications of WARC-92 was requested by the House Committee on Energy and Commerce and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. OTA was asked to evaluate the success of U.S. proposals at the conference, discuss the implications of the decisions made for U.S. technology and policy development, and identify options for improving U.S. participation in future world radio communication conferences.

  10. Three-Wave Resonance Modulation and Fine Structures in the Solar Short Centimeter Wave Bursts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德焴; 吴洪敖; 秦至海

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical model is presented. We propose that when the radiation of solar radio bursts propagates outward as a pump wave through the conora, the three-wave resonance interaction would occur if the radio emission interacts with the MHD wave and scattering wave in the conora. This process induces a nonlinear modulation in the emission flux S. The statistical relations between the repetition rates R and S and between the modulation amplitude △S and S, observed from 1.36cm, 2cm and 3.2cm solar radio bursts could be well interpreted by this model under the conditions of imperfect matching and k2≠0. The appreciable difference in the modulation periods among the 2cm, 3.2cm and 1.36cm waves might be caused by the differences in the MHD waves joining in the modulation. Several theoretical expectations have been made from this model, which may be inspected in further observation.

  11. Thermoluminescence in films of HfO{sub 2}:Dy{sup +3}; Termoluminiscencia en peliculas de HfO{sub 2}:Dy{sup +3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceron, P.; Rivera, T.; Guzman, J.; Montes, E.; Pelaez, A.; Rojas, B.; Guzman, D. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Legaria No. 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Azorin, J. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Paredes, L., E-mail: victceronr@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    In this work the thermoluminescence (TL) response of films of hafnium oxide polluted with dysprosium (HfO{sub 2}:Dy{sup +3}) that were irradiated in the near UV (200 nm - 400 nm). The films were deposited by means of the ultrasonics spray pyrolysis technique on a glass substrate, using different deposit temperatures (300 grades C - 600 grades C). The best TL emission corresponded to the prepared film to 450 grades C that was exposed to a spectral irradiation of 80 μJ/(cm{sup 2}-s) with a wave longitude of 240 nm. The TL response in function of the spectral irradiation was lineal in the studied interval (24 to 288 mJ/cm{sup 2}), several kinetic parameters were also calculated of the shine curve as depth of the trap (E), frequency factor (s) and order to the kinetics (b). The obtained results show that the films of HfO{sub 2}:Dy{sup +3} could be used as radiation monitor in the region of the near UV. (Author)

  12. Solar radio observations and interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, H.

    1976-01-01

    The recent solar radio observations related to flares are reviewed for the frequency range of a few kilohertz to several gigahertz. The analysis of the radio data leads to boundary conditions on the acceleration processes which are responsible for the fast particles which cause radio emission. The role and cause of plasma turbulence at the plasma-frequency and at much lower frequencies is discussed in relation to the acceleration processes and the radio emission mechanisms for the various radio bursts. (author)

  13. The effect of solar radio bursts on the GNSS radio occultation signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xinan; Schreiner, William S.; Kuo, Ying-Hwa; Zhao, Biqiang; Wan, Weixing; Ren, Zhipeng; Liu, Libo; Wei, Yong; Lei, Jiuhou; Solomon, Stan; Rocken, Christian

    2013-09-01

    radio burst (SRB) is the radio wave emission after a solar flare, covering a broad frequency range, originated from the Sun's atmosphere. During the SRB occurrence, some specific frequency radio wave could interfere with the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and therefore disturb the received signals. In this study, the low Earth orbit- (LEO-) based high-resolution GNSS radio occultation (RO) signals from multiple satellites (COSMIC, CHAMP, GRACE, SAC-C, Metop-A, and TerraSAR-X) processed in University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) were first used to evaluate the effect of SRB on the RO technique. The radio solar telescope network (RSTN) observed radio flux was used to represent SRB occurrence. An extreme case during 6 December 2006 and statistical analysis during April 2006 to September 2012 were studied. The LEO RO signals show frequent loss of lock (LOL), simultaneous decrease on L1 and L2 signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) globally during daytime, small-scale perturbations of SNR, and decreased successful retrieval percentage (SRP) for both ionospheric and atmospheric occultations during SRB occurrence. A potential harmonic band interference was identified. Either decreased data volume or data quality will influence weather prediction, climate study, and space weather monitoring by using RO data during SRB time. Statistically, the SRP of ionospheric and atmospheric occultation retrieval shows ~4% and ~13% decrease, respectively, while the SNR of L1 and L2 show ~5.7% and ~11.7% decrease, respectively. A threshold value of ~1807 SFU of 1415 MHz frequency, which can result in observable GNSS SNR decrease, was derived based on our statistical analysis.

  14. Developing hydrological monitoring system based on HF radar for islands and reefs in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Shi, P.; Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Li, B.

    2016-12-01

    There are many islands (or reefs) in the South China Sea. The hydrological properties (currents and waves) around the islands are highly spatially variable compared to those of coastal region of mainland, because the shorelines are more complex with much smaller scale, and the topographies are step-shape with a much sharper slope. The currents and waves with high spatial variations may destroy the buildings or engineering on shorelines, or even influence the structural stability of reefs. Therefore, it is necessary to establish monitoring systems to obtain the high-resolution hydrological information. This study propose a plan for developing a hydrological monitoring system based on HF radar on the shoreline of a typical island in the southern South China Sea: firstly, the HF radar are integrated with auxiliary equipment (such as dynamo, fuel tank, air conditioner, communication facilities) in a container to build a whole monitoring platform; synchronously, several buoys are set within the radar visibility for data calibration and validation; and finally, the current and wave observations collected by the HF radar are assimilated with numerical models to obtain long-term and high-precision reanalysis products. To test the feasibility of this plan, our research group has built two HF radar sites at the western coastal region of Guangdong Province. The collected data were used to extract surface current information and assimilated with an ocean model. The results show that the data assimilation can highly improve the surface current simulation, especially for typhoon periods. Continuous data with intervals between 6 and 12 hour are the most suitable for ideal assimilations. On the other hand, the test also reveal that developing similar monitoring system on island environments need advanced radars that have higher resolutions and a better performance for persistent work.

  15. Optical generation of radio-frequency power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Meyer, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    An optical technique for high-power radio-frequency (RF) signal generation is described. The technique uses a unique photodetector based on a traveling-wave design driven by an appropriately modulated light source. The traveling-wave photodetector (TWPD) exhibits simultaneously a theoretical quantum efficiency approaching 100 % and a very large electrical bandwidth. Additionally, it is capable of dissipating the high-power levels required for the RF generation technique. The modulated light source is formed by either the beating together of two lasers or by the direct modulation of a light source. A system example is given which predicts RF power levels of 100's of mW's at millimeter wave frequencies with a theoretical ''wall-plug'' efficiency approaching 34%

  16. The magnetic properties of $^{\\rm 177}$Hf and $^{\\rm 180}$Hf in the strong coupling deformed model

    OpenAIRE

    Muto, S.; Stone, N. J.; Bingham, C. R.; Stone, J. R.; Walker, P. M.; Audi, G.; Gaulard, C.; Köster, U.; Nikolov, J.; Nishimura, K.; Ohtsubo, T.; Podolyak, Z.; Risegari, L.; Simpson, G. S.; Veskovic, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports NMR measurements of the magnetic dipole moments of two high-K isomers, the 37/2$^-$, 51.4 m, 2740 keV state in $^{\\rm 177}$Hf and the 8$^-$, 5.5 h, 1142 keV state in $^{\\rm 180}$Hf by the method of on-line nuclear orientation. Also included are results on the angular distributions of gamma transitions in the decay of the $^{\\rm 177}$Hf isotope. These yield high precision E2/M1 multipole mixing ratios for transitions in bands built on the 23/2$^+$, 1.1 s, isomer at 1315 keV ...

  17. Submillimetre-wave astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, J.E.; Phillips, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Observations in the 100-1000-micron band and the instruments used to obtain them are discussed in contributions to the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Conference held at Queen Mary College, London, in September 1981. The major subject areas covered are large-scale structure and radiative transfer within interstellar clouds, spectroscopic observations of molecular sources, interstellar chemistry, and submillimeter (SM) instrumentation. Reports are included on the formation of giant cloud complexes, cool molecular clouds, models for hot-centered and externally heated clouds, dust in Bok globules, airborne FIR and SM spectroscopy, rotational transitions of CH3OH and NH2 near 1.2 mm, high-velocity flows and molecular jets, FIR emissions from late-type galaxies, ion-grain collisions as a source of interstellar molecules, bandpass filters for SM astronomy, the SM receiver of the future, HF techniques in heterodyne astronomy, and the mm-wave cosmic background

  18. Theoretical Assessment of 178m2Hf De-Excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartouni, E P; Chen, M; Descalle, M A; Escher, J E; Loshak, A; Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Pruet, J; Thompson, I J; Wang, T F

    2008-10-06

    This document contains a comprehensive literature review in support of the theoretical assessment of the {sup 178m2}Hf de-excitation, as well as a rigorous description of controlled energy release from an isomeric nuclear state.

  19. HF band filter bank multi-carrier spread spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laraway, Stephen Andrew; Moradi, Hussein; Farhang-Boroujeny, Behrouz

    2015-10-01

    Abstract—This paper describes modifications to the filter bank multicarrier spread spectrum (FB-MC-SS) system, that was presented in [1] and [2], to enable transmission of this waveform in the HF skywave channel. FB-MC-SS is well suited for the HF channel because it performs well in channels with frequency selective fading and interference. This paper describes new algorithms for packet detection, timing recovery and equalization that are suitable for the HF channel. Also, an algorithm for optimizing the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of the FBMC- SS waveform is presented. Application of this algorithm results in a waveform with low PAPR. Simulation results using a wide band HF channel model demonstrate the robustness of this system over a wide range of delay and Doppler spreads.

  20. HF-voltage testing of accelerating system functional model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkov, A.V.; Stepanov, V.B.

    1989-01-01

    Owing to ambiguity in interpreting the notion of the electron strength of the operating HF device in an acceleator a technique of measurements and result processing, based on statistical analysis of the data is suggested. Experimental testing on electric strength of structures with HF focusing was carried out using a bench in the form of a cylindrical vacuum container inside which a double H-resonator with HF quadrupole electrodes without surface modulation was installed. The dependences obtained permit to evaluate the bahaviour of the HF device from the viewpoint of electric strength and radiation hazard for the whole range of possible values of voltage on the basis of data on the frequency of breakdowns and radiation situation only in one experimental point. 12 refs.; 8 figs