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Sample records for hf calorimeter pmts

  1. Comparison of the Multi-anode PMTs with the old HF PMTs by Studying the Collision Data

    CERN Document Server

    Oz, Yavuz

    2013-01-01

    The Hadron Forward (HF) calorimeter of the CMS detector improves jet detection and missing transverse energy resolution in the high pseudorapidity range. HF employs photomultiplier tubes (PMT) that measure the Cerenkov light emitted by shower products in quartz fibers. Stray muons that hit a PMT window create high energy events that are difficult to reject. To alleviate this problem, the PMTs installed in the CMS will be replaced with those of better performance. From among various candidate PMTs, quad-anode Hamamatsu R7600U-200-M4 were chosen to replace the single-anode Hamamatsu R7525HA PMTs. The quad-anode PMTs offer the possibility to reject window events at the hardware level; muons hitting the window are localized to a single anode, while real events illuminate all four anodes. In 2011, eight such PMTs were installed in the readout boxes corresponding to the coordinates $i\\phi=67$, $i\\eta=29,30,31,32$, which get very few hits on account of their location. The purpose of this thesis is to compare the res...

  2. Phase1 upgrade of the CMS-HF Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gulmez, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, results of the Phase I upgrade of the CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter (HF) are discussed. The CMS-HF Calorimeter was using regular PMTs. Cherenkov light produced in the quartz fibers embedded in the iron absorber was read out with the PMTs. However, occasionally, stray muons hitting the PMT windows cause Cherenkov radiation in the PMT itself and produce large signals. These large signals mimic a very high-energy particle and are tagged as important by the trigger. To reduce this problem, PMTs had to be replaced. The four-anode PMTs that were chosen have thinner windows; thereby reducing the Cherenkov radiation in the PMT window. As part of the upgrade, the read-out electronics is to be replaced so that the PMTs are read out in two channels by connecting each pair of anodes to a single channel. Information provided by these two channels will help us reject the false signals due to the stray muons since the Cherenkov radiation in the PMT window is more likely to produce a signal only in one...

  3. Complete tests of 2000 Hamamatsu R7525HA phototubes for the CMS-HF Forward Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akgun, U.; Ayan, A.S.; Bruecken, P.; Duru, F.; Guelmez, E.; Mestvirishvilli, A.; Miller, M.; Olson, J.; Onel, Y.; Schmidt, I.

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 2000 PMTs will be used to detect the Cherenkov light generated in quartz fibers embedded in the CMS-HF Forward Calorimeter. The Hamamatsu R7525HA PMT was chosen for this purpose. We measured the transit time, transit time spread, pulse width, rise time, anode dark current, and relative gain for each tube in the test station at University of Iowa. Life-time, gain versus high voltage, and single photoelectron spectrum measurements were also done on a small sample of PMTs. All the tubes were tested to verify that they conform to the HF requirements

  4. Heavy ion studies with CMS HF calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damgov, I.; Genchev, V.; Kolosov, V.A.; Lokhtin, I.P.; Petrushanko, S.V.; Sarycheva, L.I.; Teplov, S.Yu.; Shmatov, S.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    2001-01-01

    The capability of the very forward (HF) calorimeter of the CMS detector at LHC to be applied to specific studies with heavy ion beams is discussed. The simulated responses of the HF calorimeter to nucleus-nucleus collisions are used for the analysis of different problems: reconstruction of the total energy flow in the forward rapidity region, accuracy of determination of the impact parameter of collision, study of fluctuations of the hadronic-to-electromagnetic energy ratio, fast inelastic event selection

  5. Commissioning of CMS Forward Hadron Calorimeters with Upgraded Multi-anode PMTs and uTCA Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Tiras, Emrah; Onel, Yasar

    2016-01-01

    The high flux of charged particles interacting with the CMS Forward Hadron Calorimeter PMT windows introduced a significant background for the trigger and offline data analysis. During Long Shutdown 1, all of the original PMTs were replaced with multi-anode, thin window photomultiplier tubes. At the same time, the back-end electronic readout system was upgraded to uTCA readout. The experience with commissioning and calibration of the Forward Hadron Calorimeter is described as well as the uTCA system. The upgrade was successful and provided quality data for Run 2 data-analysis at 13 TeV.

  6. Noise Filter Studies for CMS Forward Hadron Calorimeter (HF) Between Old and New PMT's Using Data in 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Dumanoglu, Isa; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lezki, Samet; Tali, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    During the data taking before 2012 some abnormal events which have higher signals than expected were observed. Most of these were due to muons. When a muon hits the PMT glass window it creates a huge signal. To eliminate this kind of events 24 old HF PMTs (Hamamatsu R7525) in HF Minus at iphi 43 (corresponds to one sector) were replaced with new multi anode PMTs (Hamamatsu multi anode R7600) which have thin glass windows. These new PMTs were installed and tested in H2 test beam area in 2009 [1]. To check whether these new PMTs perform better than the old ones data taken in 2012 were analyzed using various predefined noise filters. Noisy rechits percentage was found to be around 6-7 \\% for the new PMTs while it varies between 29-66 \\% for the old PMTs for various trigger selections and for HFLongShortFilter after an energy cut of 500GeV [2].

  7. Assembly of the CMS HF (hadron forward) calorimeter, April 2003 to June 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2005-01-01

    The forward calorimeters (HF) of the CMS hadron calorimeter system are located 11.2 m from the interaction point. Each HF module is composed by 18 wedges, made of steel absorbers and radiation-hard quartz fibers. The photogallery shows the wedges (Figs. 1-3, April 2003), the assembly of one HF module (Figs. 4-9, May and June 2004) and the assembly of the other (Figs. 10-11, June 2005)

  8. Detector Upgrade R\\&D of the CMS Hadronic Endcap and Forward Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Akgun, Ugur

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Hadronic Endcap (HE) and Hadronic Forward (HF) calorimeters cover the pseudorapidity range of from 1.4 to 5 on both sides of the CMS detector, contributing to superior jet and missing transverse energy resolutions. Here we discuss possible upgrade scenarios for both calorimeters. Recent studies revealed abnormally high amplitude signals due to punch through charged particles, mostly muons, producing Cherenkov photons at the HF calorimeter PMT window. Our studies show that these events can be eliminated either by using the timing properties, or replacing the HF PMTs with new generation four anode PMTs. As the integrated luminosity of the LHC increases, the scintillator tiles used in the CMS Hadronic Endcap calorimeter will lose their efficiency. This report outlines two possible radiation hard upgrade scenarios based on replacing the HE scintillators with quartz plates.

  9. Characterization of 900 four-anode photomultiplier tubes for use in 2013 hadronic forward calorimeter upgrade.

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081071

    The first 900 four-anode Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) have been evaluated for use in the 2013 Hadronic Forward (HF) calorimeter upgrade. HF is a part of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), which is one of the two large general-purpose particle detectors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. HF requires 1728 PMTs. These small tubes are the sensitive light detectors that provide the output signals of HF. Before installing PMTs in HF, their quality control demands need to be satisfied. These tests, done at the University of Iowa, are designed in three categories to test seventeen different parameters for each PMT. The three most basic and most important groups of parameters are: dark current, gain (anode and cathode), and timing. There are secondary tests which are performed on a smaller percentage of the PMTs such as surface uniformity, double pulse and single photo-electron resolution. The PMTs that meet the specifications of HF will be sent to CERN where they are expected to be in us...

  10. Commissioning of Upgrade Forward Hadron Calorimeters of CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, Burak

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is upgrading the photo-detection and readout system of the forward hadron calorimeter (HF). During Long Shutdown 1, all of the original PMTs were replaced with multi-anode, thin window photomultipliers. At the same time, the back-end readout system was upgraded to micro-TCA readout. Here we report on the experience with commissioning and calibrating the HF front-end as well as the online operational challenges of the micro-TCA system.

  11. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Henriques Correia, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    TileCal is the Hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitised every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution will review in a first part the performances of the calorimeter during run 1, obtained from calibration data, and from studies of the response of particles from collisions. In a second part it will present the solutions being investigated for the ongoing and future upgrades of the calorimeter electronics.

  12. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, A.

    2015-01-01

    TileCal is the Hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitised every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. This contribution will review in a first part the performances of the calorimeter during run 1, obtained from calibration data, and from studies of the response of particles from collisions. In a second part it will present the solutions being investigated for the ongoing and future upgrades of the calorimeter electronics. (authors)

  13. Transport of the first half of the CMS hadronic forward calorimeter (HF) from building 186 (CERN Meyrin site) to the CMS construction hall at point 5, Cessy, France.

    CERN Multimedia

    Florelle Antoine

    2006-01-01

    The two halves of the Forward Hadronic Calorimeter (HF) were transported from the CERN Meyrin site to the surface assembly hall at LHC Point 5 in Cessy, France, during the first part of July. Transporting these 300 tonne objects involved the construction around them of a 65-metre long trailer, simultaneously pushed and pulled by two trucks at either end. The main road between St. Genis and Cessy was closed during these operations and a police escort was provided for the ~5 hour journeys. The two HF halves will be the first major elements to be lowered by the gantry crane into the underground experimental cavern around the end of July or beginning of August.

  14. Transport of the Hadronic Forward (HF) calorimeter from building 186 (CERN Meyrin site) to the CMS construction hall at point 5, Cessy, France.

    CERN Multimedia

    Florelle Antoine

    2006-01-01

    The two halves of the Forward Hadronic Calorimeter (HF) were transported from the CERN Meyrin site to the surface assembly hall at LHC Point 5 in Cessy, France, during the first part of July. Transporting these 300 tonne objects involved the construction around them of a 65-metre long trailer, simultaneously pushed and pulled by two trucks at either end. The main road between St. Genis and Cessy was closed during these operations and a police escort was provided for the ~5 hour journeys. The two HF halves will be the first major elements to be lowered by the gantry crane into the underground experimental cavern around the end of July or beginning of August.

  15. Improved lifetime of microchannel-plate PMTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, A., E-mail: lehmann@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Physikalisches Institut IV, Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Uhlig, F. [Physikalisches Institut IV, Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Höhler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The charged particle identification at the PANDA experiment will be mainly performed with DIRC detectors. Because of their advantageous properties the preferred photon sensors are MCP-PMTs. However, until recently these devices showed serious aging problems which resulted in a diminishing quantum efficiency (QE) of the photo cathode. By applying innovative countermeasures against the aging causes, the manufacturers recently succeeded in drastically improving the lifetime of MCP-PMTs. Especially the application of an ALD coating technique to seal the material of the micro-channels proves very powerful and results in a lifetime of ≈6C/cm{sup 2} integrated anode charge without a substantial QE degradation for the latest PHOTONIS XP85112. This paper will present a comparative measurement of the lifetime of several older and recent MCP-PMTs demonstrating this progress.

  16. Corrosion of Glass Windows in DIRC PMTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' vra, Jaroslav

    2001-07-27

    The DIRC photon detector contains {approx}11,000 photomultipliers (PMTs), which are submerged in ultra-pure water. This note reports on glass corrosion R and D conducted with PMTs in pure water. We conclude that only limited number ({approx}50) of the PMTs in water are affected by rapid corrosion, while a majority of the 11,000 PMTs should last, according to our measurements, for another ten years. The observation of PMT glass corrosion is based on visual observations, X-ray surface analysis, ESCA surface analysis, weight analysis, transmission measurement, as well as detailed water trace element analysis. We also correlate these observations with DIRC measurements of water pH factor, resistivity, temperature, transmission, and BaBar analysis of Bhabha and di-muon events. We also compare DIRC water purity with that of the Super Kamiokande and K2K experiments, which also use ultra-pure water. We provide empirical proof that corrosion, in our particular Borosilicate type of PMT glass window, occurs at high rate when the glass has no Zn content.

  17. Recent developments with microchannel-plate PMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, A.; Böhm, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Wasem, T.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2017-12-01

    Microchannel-plate (MCP) PMTs are the favored photon sensors for the DIRC detectors of the PANDA experiment at FAIR. Until recently the main drawback of MCP-PMTs were serious aging effects which led to a limited lifetime due to a rapidly decreasing quantum efficiency (QE) of the photo cathode (PC) as the integrated anode charge (IAC) increased. In the latest models of PHOTONIS and Hamamatsu an innovative atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique is applied to overcome these limitations. During the last five years comprehensive aging tests with ALD coated MCP-PMTs were performed and the results were compared to tubes treated with other techniques. The QE in dependence of the IAC was measured as a function of the wavelength and the position across the PC. For the best performing tubes the lifetime improvement in comparison to the older MCP-PMTs is a factor of > 50 based on an IAC of meanwhile > 10 C /cm2 . In addition, the performance results of a new 2-in. ALD coated MCP-PMT prototype from Hamamatsu with a very high position resolution (128×6 anode pixels) is presented and the first conclusions from investigations concerning the PC aging mechanism will be discussed.

  18. Forward physics in CMS: Simulation of PMT hits in HF and Higgs mass reconstruction methods with a focus on forward jet tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Moeller, Anthony Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abnormally high energy events were seen in the Hadronic Forward (HF) calorimeter for pion and muon data during testbeam in 2004. Analysis of testbeam data suggested that such events were caused by particles traveling the entire length of HF and striking the photomultiplier (PMT) windows in the readout box behind HF. Charged particles traversing the window of the PMT emit cerenkov radiation, which creates abnormally high energy events in the data. To further study these events, a modification of the existing official CMS HF simulation was created that added the PMT windows to the simulation as sensitive detectors. In agreement with testbeam data, abnormally high energy events in the PMTs were seen in the simulation for muons and pions. The simulation was then extended to jets simulated with Pythia, and then for collision like events as well. PMT hits were seen in both of these cases. Energy sharing between PMTs for long and short fibers in HF as well as timing differences between normal HF events and PMT event...

  19. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marjanovic, Marija; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs), located in the outer part of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells, each one being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of the full readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration sub-systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements, and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and to equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal evolution, from scintillation light to digitization. Calibration runs are monitored from a data quality perspective and u...

  20. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00445232; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser and charge injection elements and it allows to monitor and equalize the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scin...

  1. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00445232; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises cesium radioactive sources, Laser and charge injection elements, and allows for monitoring and equalization of the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, ...

  2. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00304670; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  3. LASER monitoring system for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viret, S.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN uses a scintillator-iron technique for its hadronic Tile Calorimeter (TileCal). Scintillating light is readout via 9852 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Calibration and monitoring of these PMTs are made using a LASER based system. Short light pulses are sent simultaneously into all the TileCal photomultiplier's tubes (PMTs) during ATLAS physics runs, thus providing essential information for ATLAS data quality and monitoring analyses. The experimental setup developed for this purpose is described as well as preliminary results obtained during ATLAS commissioning phase in 2008.

  4. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). PMT signals are then digitized at 40 MHz and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first level trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator b...

  5. Systematic studies of micro-channel plate PMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, A.; Britting, A.; Cowie, E.; Dodokhof, V.Kh.; Dueren, M.; Dutta, D.; Eyrich, W.; Foehl, K.; Glazier, D.I.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Hoek, M.; Hohler, R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Koch, P.; Kroeck, B.; Lehmann, D.; Marton, J.; Merle, O.; Montgomery, R.

    2011-01-01

    DIRC Cherenkov detectors will be the main devices for π/K separation at the PANDA experiment at FAIR. Due to their advantageous properties in terms of time resolution and especially inside magnetic fields micro-channel plate photo multipliers (MCP-PMTs) are very attractive sensor candidates. In this paper we present the investigation of several types of multi-anode MCP-PMTs. The darkcount rate, the behavior inside a magnetic field of up to 2 T, the time resolution, the gain homogeneity and crosstalk of multi-pixel MCP-PMTs were found to be well suitable for the PANDA requirements. Even the rate capability of the latest models from Burle-Photonis and Hamamatsu is satisfactory. Although a big step forward was accomplished with these recently available MCP-PMTs, the lifetime is still not sufficient for the photon densities expected for the PANDA DIRCs.

  6. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Van Daalen, Tal Roelof; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for the reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized every 25 ns by sampling the signal. About 10000 channels of the front-end electronics measure the signals of the calorimeter with energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each step of the signal reconstruction from scintillation light to the digital pulse reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations...

  7. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynevich, A.

    2017-06-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC . Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV . Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadrons are used as a probe of the hadronic response and its modelling by the Monte Carlo simulations. The calorimeter time resolution is studied with multijet events. Results on the calorimeter operation and performance are presented, including the calibration, stability, absolute energy scale, uniformity and time resolution. These results show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  8. Gas discharge processes in the standard and metal channel PMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, V.A.; Morozova, N.V.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the potential difference at the focusing chamber electrodes of the XP2020, FEU-85, FEU-87, and FEU-93 photomultipliers on the intensity of afterpulses resulting from gas discharge processes is investigated. The time distribution of the afterpulses in the metal channel PMTs - H6780 and R7600U-200 - is studied as well

  9. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, Pavol; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter have been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations o...

  10. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomont, Arthur; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises cesium radioactive sources, Laser and charge injection elements, and allows for monitoring and equalization of the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitization. Based on LHC Run 1 experience, several calibration systems were improved for Run 2. The lessons learned, the modifications, and the current LHC Run 2 performance are discussed.

  11. Upgrading the Atlas Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Popeneciu, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Tile Calorimeter is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Around 2024, after the upgrade of the LHC the peak luminosity will increase by a factor of 5 compared to the design value, thus requiring an upgrade of the Tile Calorimeter readout electronics. Except the photomultipliers tubes (PMTs), most of the on- and off-detector electronics will be replaced, with the aim of digitizing all PMT pulses at the front-end level and sending them with 10 Gb/s optical links to the back-end electronics. One demonstrator prototype module is planned to be inserted in Tile Calorimeter in 2015 that will include hybrid electronic components able to probe the new design.

  12. Calibration and monitoring of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). PMT signals are then digitized at 40~MHz and stored on detector and are only transferred off detector once the first level trigger acceptance has been confirmed. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain, a set of calibration systems is used. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator b...

  13. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. De Barbaro and J. Mans.

    2013-01-01

      After the successful operation of the HCAL sub-detector during the proton-proton run in 2012 and heavy-ion run at the beginning of 2013, the group is now focusing on the following four LS1 tasks: ·       Replacement of present, thick-window, single-anode photomultipliers on HF with new, thin-window, multi-anode PMTs. The replacement of photomultipliers will reduce rate of punch-through window hits. All needed PMTs and baseboards have been delivered to CERN. A quality control station has been set up in B904. ·       Replacement of boards responsible for clock distribution in all HBHE and HO Clock and Control Modules (CCMs).  CCMs reside in each Readout Box and are only accessible when the CMS detector is open.  The installation of new CCMs will allow us to eliminate data loss caused by single-event upsets (SEUs) experienced during the 2011&ndash...

  14. Lifetime of MCP-PMTs and other performance features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, A.; Böhm, M.; Eyrich, W.; Miehling, D.; Pfaffinger, M.; Stelter, S.; Uhlig, F.; Ali, A.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kreutzfeld, K.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Wasem, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2018-02-01

    The bar PANDA experiment at FAIR will use DIRC detectors for the separation of hadrons. The compactness of the bar PANDA detector requires the image planes of these detectors to be placed inside the magnetic field of the solenoid. Due to this and other boundary conditions MCP-PMTs were identified as the only suitable photon sensors. Until recently the major obstacle for an application of MCP-PMTs in high rate experiments like bar PANDA were serious aging problems which led to damage at the photo-cathode and a fast declining quantum efficiency as the integrated anode charge (IAC) increased. With new countermeasures against the aging, in particular due to the application of an atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique to coat the MCP pores, the lifetime of MCP-PMTs has meanwhile increased by a factor >50 which is fully sufficient for bar PANDA. The recent results of our long-term lifetime measurements are discussed. New 2-inch MCP-PMT prototypes from Hamamatsu show an encouraging behavior. However, the currently best performing MCP-PMT is a 2-inch PHOTONIS tube with two ALD-layers which reaches an IAC of >16 C/cm2 without any visible sign of aging. In the second part of these proceedings a new data acquisition system of the PADIWA/TRB type is presented which allows a quasi-parallel measurement of many MCP-PMT performance parameters. Especially unwanted effects like dark-count rate, crosstalk, ion after-pulsing, and recoil electrons can be studied in more detail than ever before. Exemplary results for these parameters are shown. The discussed DAQ system will be used for the comprehensive data quality checks of the MCP-PMTs being built into the DIRCs.

  15. A system for the characterization of the HAWC PMTs sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langarica, R.; Lara, G.; Martinez, L. A.; Tinoco, S.; Alfaro, R.; Iriarte, A.; Sandoval, A.; Vanegas, P.

    2012-07-01

    The HAWC Project is a very high-energy gamma-ray observatory under construction at the Sierra Negra volcano (4100 meters above sea level) in the Pico de Orizaba National Park located in central Mexico. HAWC will reuse the 900 Hamamatsu R5912 photomultipliers (PMTs) from Milagro Observatory for the 300 Water Cherenkov Detectors. In order to characterize their present performance it is necessary to scan the active area of the photocathode by measuring its efficiency and gain. A characterization system was designed and manufactured to achieve an automated measurement of over 100 points distributed on the PMT active spherical surface. Preliminary results show the variation of QE of PMTs with respect of the position of incoming photons, as well as the changes in the PMTs response due to the Earth's magnetic field and gain vs. high voltage. The system allows automated PMT characterization improving its performance, reliability, precision and repeatability. In this work we present the characterization system and preliminary results on the PMT efficiency.

  16. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum fro...

  17. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hrynevich, Aliaksei; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central scintillator-steel sampling hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Jointly with other calorimeters it is designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions. The response of high momentum isolated muons is used to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, isolated hadr...

  18. Performance of the ATLAS hadronic Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mlynarikova, Michaela; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high momentum from elec...

  19. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. De Barbaro and J. Mans

    2012-01-01

      During last three months of LHC operation in 2012 (October–December) the HCAL performed well. Out of a total of 6.5 fb–1 recorded by CMS, 170 pb–1 had to be declared ‘bad’ during the certification process due to HCAL-related problems. Monitoring of HCAL readout using LED detected a continuous loss in the gain of photomultipliers in the HF. The gain loss is found to be related to the current drawn by the PMTs. The LED data are used to correct the calibration of the channels and L1 look-up tables are routinely updated when the maximum deviation in any of the channels reaches the level of 2%. Laser data are used to monitor radiation damage in the HF quartz fibers and HE scintillators. The 2012 data (20 fb–1 delivered) showed radiation-related loss of transparency in the quartz fibers, leading to 8% signal loss at high η (η =5) in HF. In the front sampling layers of HE towers, the scintillators also show radiation damage. ...

  20. Laser calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High performance stability of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter is achieved with a set of calibration procedures. One step of the calibrtion procedure is based on measurements of the response stability to laser excitation of the photomultipliers (PMTs) that are used to readout the calorimeter cells. A facility to study in lab the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the test in lab are to study the time evolution of the PMT response to reproduce and to understand the origin of the resonse drifts seen with the PMT mounted on the Tile calorimeter in its normal operation during LHC run I and run II. A new statistical approach was developed to measure the drift of the absolute gain. This approach was applied to both the ATLAS laser calibration data and to the data collected in the Pisa local laboratory. The preliminary results from these two studies are shown.

  1. Laser Calibration of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High performance stability of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is achieved with a set of calibration procedures. One step of the calibration procedure is based on measurements of the response stability to laser excitation of the PMTs that are used to readout the calorimeter cells. A facility to study in lab the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the tests in lab are to study the time evolution of the PMT response to reproduce and to understand the origin of the response drifts seen with the PMT mounted on the Tile calorimeter in its normal operating during LHC run I and run II. A new statistical approach was developed to measure drift of the absolute gain. This approach was applied to both the ATLAS laser calibration data and to data collected in the Pisa local laboratory. The preliminary results from these two studies are shown.

  2. The CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter Upgrade during Phase I

    CERN Document Server

    Gulmez, Erhan

    2014-01-01

    The CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter will be upgraded during phase 1. The upgrade will include the replacement of the current PMTs with the 4-anode ones and the readout electronics. Currently, stray muons hitting the PMT windows produce Cherenkov light causing erroneous signals. These signals are detrimental to the triggering and physic results, since such signals mimic very high energy events. The new 4-anode PMTs are selected because of their thin windows to reduce the Cherenkov light production. Additional anodes also provide information to eliminate such signals. These new PMTs have been tested extensively to understand their characteristics and to develop the algorithms to eliminate the unwanted signals. Eventually, the current read out will be replaced with two-channel readout electronics for each PMT. The overall expected improvement on the physics results will also be discussed.

  3. Performance of the ATLAS Tile calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoli, Gabriele; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau­particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator­steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal front­end electronics read out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. The read­out system is responsible for reconstructing the data in real­time. The digitized signals are reconstructed with the Optimal Filtering algorithm, which computes for each channel the signal amplitude, time and quality factor at the required high rate. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruc...

  4. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Green

    The organization of CMS HCAL contains four “geographic” efforts, HB, HO, HE and HF. In addition there are presently five “common” HCAL activities. These ef¬forts are concentrated on electronics, on controls (DCS), on physics objects (JetMet), on Installation and Commissioning (I&C), and on Test Beam (TB) and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) data taking. HCAL has begun planning to re-organize to be synchronized with the overall CMS management structure. HF The full production of the wedges is completed for some time. The 2004 test beam work has established the radioactive source calibration system for HF works at the 5 % level or better and a note is completed. The calibration of the complete HF is complete. HF is now in the UX cavern and will be hooked up and read out as soon as the services are available. HE The two HE calorimeters are installed and an initial calibration has been established. In the MTCC the HE was read out and muon data was observed. Event b...

  5. The Upgraded Calibration System for the Scintillator-PMT Tile Hadronic Calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at CERN/LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Dhiman; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy in highest energy proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each read out by two PMTs in parallel. A multi-component calibration system is employed to calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during data taking. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser and charge injection elements and it allows to monitor and ...

  6. The upgraded calibration system for the scintillator-PMT Tile Hadronic Calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at CERN/LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Dhiman; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy in highest energy proton-proton and heavy-ion collisions at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) located on the outside of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each read out by two PMTs in parallel. A multi-component calibration system is employed to calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during data taking. The TileCal calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser and charge injection elements and it allows to monitor and ...

  7. Calibration and Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter During the LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Klimek, Pawel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It also assists in muon identification. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two PMTs in parallel. TileCal exploits several calibration systems: a Cs radioactive source that illuminates the scintillating tiles directly, a laser light system to directly test the PMT response, and a charge injection system (CIS) for the front-end electronics. These systems together with data collected during proton-proton collisions provide extensive monitoring of the instrument and a means...

  8. Evaluation of candidate photomultiplier tubes for the upgrade of the CDF end plug calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koska, W.; Delchamps, S.W.; Freeman, J.; Kinney, W.; Lewis, D.; Limon, P.; Strait, J.; Fiori, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Shen, Q.

    1994-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab is upgrading its end plug calorimeter from a gas detector system to one using scintillating tiles and wavelength shifting fibers. This tile-fiber calorimeter will be read out through 1,824 photomultiplier tubes. The performance requirements of the calorimeter require that the PMTs have good response to light in the 500 nm region, provide adequate amplification for signals from minimum ionizing particles yet provide linear response for peak anode currents up to 25 mA at a gain of 50,000, and fit into the restricted space at the rear of the plugs. This paper will describe the evaluation process used to determine the adequacy of the commercially available PMTs which appeared to meet these performance requirements

  9. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding

    2011-01-01

    All the HCAL calorimeters are ready for data-taking in 2011 and participated fully in the cosmic running and initial beam operations in the last few weeks. Several improvements were made during the winter technical stop, including replacement of the light-guide sleeves in HF, improvements to the low voltage power connections, and separation of HF from HB and HE in the DAQ partitions. During the 2010 running a form of anomalous noise in the HF was identified as being caused by scintillation when charged particles pass through a portion of the air light-guide sleeve. This portion was constructed from a non-conductive mirror-like material called “HEM”. To suppress these anomalous signals, during the recent winter technical stop all sleeves in the detector were replaced with sleeves made of Tyvek. The detector has been recommissioned with all channels fully operational. Recalibration of the detector will be required due to the differing reflectivity of the new sleeves compared with the HEM sl...

  10. Calibration and Monitoring systems of the ATLAS Tile Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    BOUMEDIENE, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The TileCal is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. It is a sampling calorimeter with iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. The scintillation light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to about 10000 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Integrated on the calorimeter there is a composite device that allows to monitor and/or equalize the signals at various stages of its formation. This device is based on signal generation from different sources: radioactive, LASER and charge injection and minimum bias events produces in proton-proton collisions. In this contribution is given a brief description of the different systems hardware and presented the latest results on their performance, like the determination of the conversion factors, linearity and stability.

  11. Calibration and performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter during the Run 2 of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is a hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. It is a non-compensating sampling calorimeter comprised of steel and scintillating plastic tiles which are read-out by photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The TileCal is regularly monitored and calibrated by several different calibration systems: a Cs radioactive source that illuminates the scintillating tiles directly, a laser light system to directly test the PMT response and a charge injection system (CIS) for the front-end electronics. These calibrations systems, in conjunction with data collected during proton-proton collisions, provide extensive monitoring of the instrument and a means for equalising the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal propagation. The performance of the calorimeter and its calibration has been established with cosmic ray muons and the large sample of the proton-proton collisions to study the energy response at the electromagnetic scale, probe of the hadron...

  12. Vacuum-jacketed hydrofluoric acid solution calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, R.A.

    1965-01-01

    A vacuum-jacketed metal calorimeter for determining heats of solution in aqueous HF was constructed. The reaction vessel was made of copper and was heavily gold plated. The calorimeter has a cooling constant of 0.6 cal-deg -1-min-1, approximately 1/4 that of the air-jacketed calorimeters most commonly used with HF. It reaches equilibrium within 10 min after turning off the heater current. Measurements of the heat of solution of reagent grade KCl(-100 mesh dried 2 h at 200??C) at a mole ratio of 1 KCl to 200 H2O gave ??H = 4198??11 cal at 25??C. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  13. Design, Performance and Calibration of the CMS Forward Calorimeter Wedges

    CERN Document Server

    Baiatian, G; Emeliantchik, Igor; Massolov, V; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Stefanovich, R; Damgov, Jordan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Vankov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Bencze, Gyorgy; Laszlo, Andras; Pal, Andras; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zálán, Peter; Fenyvesi, Andras; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnager, V; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Arun; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Singh, Jas Bir; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Dugad, Shashikant; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Katta, S; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Verma, Piyush; Hashemi, Majid; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Paktinat, S; Babich, Kanstantsin; Golutvin, Igor; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kosarev, Ivan; Ladygin, Vladimir; Meshcheryakov, Gleb; Moissenz, P; Petrosian, A; Rogalev, Evgueni; Sergeyev, S; Smirnov, Vitaly; Vishnevski, A V; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Gershtein, Yuri; Ilyina, N P; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kisselevich, I; Kolossov, V; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kuleshov, Sergey; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Oulyanov, A; Safronov, S; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Gribushin, Andrey; Demianov, A; Kodolova, Olga; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Teplov, Konstantin; Vardanyan, Irina; Yershov, A A; Abramov, Victor; Goncharov, Petr; Kalinin, Alexey; Korablev, Andrey; Khmelnikov, V A; Korneev, Yury; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Kryshkin, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Pikalov, Vladimir; Ryazanov, Anton; Talov, Vladimir; Turchanovich, L K; Volkov, Alexey; Camporesi, Tiziano; De Visser, Theo; Vlassov, E; Aydin, Sezgin; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Koylu, S; Kurt, Pelin; Kuzucu, A; Onengüt, G; Ozdes-Koca, N; Ozkurt, Halil; Sogut, Kenan; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Gamsizkan, Halil; Ozkan, Cigdem; Sekmen, Sezen; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Sever, Ramazan; Yazgan, Efe; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Dindar, Kamile; Gülmez, Erhan; Isiksal, Engin; Kaya, Mithat; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Grinev, B; Lubinsky, V; Senchyshyn, Vitaliy; Anderson, E Walter; Hauptman, John M; Elias, John E; Freeman, Jim; Green, Dan; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Lazic, Dragoslav; Los, Serguei; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Suzuki, Ichiro; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Antchev, Georgy; Arcidy, M; Hazen, Eric; Lawlor, C; Machado, Emanuel; Posch, C; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Varela, F; Wu, Shouxiang; Adams, Mark Raymond; Burchesky, Kyle; Qiang, W; Abdullin, Salavat; Baden, Drew; Bard, Robert; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Grassi, Tullio; Jarvis, Chad; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunori, Shuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Skuja, Andris; Wang, Lei; Wetstein, Matthew; Ayan, S; Akgun, Ugur; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Schmidt, Ianos; Akchurin, Nural; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Gumus, Kazim; Kim, Heejong; Spezziga, Mario; Thomas, Ray; Wigmans, Richard; Baarmand, Marc M; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Vodopyanov, I; Kramer, Laird; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martínez, German; Cushman, Priscilla; Ma, Yousi; Sherwood, Brian; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Reidy, Jim; Sanders, David A; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Tully, Christopher; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Barnes, Virgil E; Laasanen, Alvin T; Pompos, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    We report on the test beam results and calibration methods using charged particles of the CMS Forward Calorimeter (HF). The HF calorimeter covers a large pseudorapidity region (3\\l |\\eta| \\le 5), and is essential for large number of physics channels with missing transverse energy. It is also expected to play a prominent role in the measurement of forward tagging jets in weak boson fusion channels. The HF calorimeter is based on steel absorber with embedded fused-silica-core optical fibers where Cherenkov radiation forms the basis of signal generation. Thus, the detector is essentially sensitive only to the electromagnetic shower core and is highly non-compensating (e/h \\approx 5). This feature is also manifest in narrow and relatively short showers compared to similar calorimeters based on ionization. The choice of fused-silica optical fibers as active material is dictated by its exceptional radiation hardness. The electromagnetic energy resolution is dominated by photoelectron statistics and can be expressed...

  14. Calibrating and preserving the energy scale of the Tile Calorimeter cells during four years of LHC data-taking

    CERN Document Server

    Dubreuil, E; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    TileCal is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of ATLAS experiment at the LHC. This sampling calorimeter uses iron plates as absorber and plastic scintillating tiles as the active material. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultipliers tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from the approximatively 10000 PMTs are measured and digitized every 25 ns before being transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. A set of calibration systems allow to monitor and equalize the calorimeter at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitization. This calibration suite is based on signal generation from different sources: A Cs radioactive source, laser light, charge injection and charge integration over thousands of bunch crossings of minimum bias events produced in proton-proton collisions. This contribution presents a brief description of the different TileCal calibration systems and their perform...

  15. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding and A. Skuja

    2010-01-01

    Splash and Collision Data HCAL recorded the beam-on-collimator (splash) and the first collision data in November and December 2009, and provided triggers to CMS with the forward calorimeter, HF. Splash events were used to improve the energy inter-calibration of the HB and HE channels, with the basic assumption that the energy deposited in the detector by the large flux of muons that passed through in splash events was a smooth function in eta and phi. The new HB and HE calibration coefficients were applied prior to the collision data taking. For HO, a similar analysis is being finalized. Splash events were also used to determine the relative timing between channels in HB and HE, and new delay settings were calculated based on splashes from one beam, applied and verified with the splash events from the other beam. During Fall 2009, the HF technical trigger was improved in order to be effectively used as one of the main CMS triggers during the collision data taking. Collisions were successfully recorded by all...

  16. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    During the last 3 months commissioning of HCAL has continued for HO and HE+. We have also started the commissioning of the first wedge of HB+. Progress continues to be made by our Trigger/DAQ, DCS and DPG colleagues. HF will be used to obtain a Luminosity measurement for CMS. A first test of the modifications to the HF electronics was made in the August CMS global run. In addition to installation and commissioning of various parts of HCAL, we also completed a very successful summer Test Beam period which saw measurements of the combined HE/EE/ES calorimeter system in the H2 test beam. Installation and Commissioning a. HB commissioning This week, part of the final water-cooling system for HB was commissioned. Eighteen HB- wedges and two pilot wedges on HB+ have been connected to the water circuit on YB0. On Sept 6, 2007 cabling and commissioning was started for the first HB readout box (RBX) using temporary set of cables. We have connected RBX-17 to the Low Voltage PS and the HCAL Detector Control Sy...

  17. HF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuya; Iwasaki, Matae

    1977-01-01

    A review is made of the research and development of HF chemical laser and its related work. Many gaseous compounds are used as laser media successfully; reaction kinetics and technological problems are described. The hybrid chemical laser of HF-CO 2 system and the topics related to the isotope separation are also included. (auth.)

  18. Robustness studies of the photomultipliers reading out TileCal, the central hadron calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    TileCal, the hadron calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment in LHC, is a 10000 channel detector readout by photomultipliers (PMTs). A challenging goal is to understand whether the full sample of PMTs installed at the beginning of the ATLAS detector operation can be used until completion of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) program or not. For this reason, a reliable study of the PMT robustness against ageing is required. Detailed studies modelling the PMT response variation as a function of the integrated anode charge were done.

  19. Plutonium assay calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Three calorimeters were developed for the IAEA: a small-sample portable calorimeter, a bulk calorimeter for up to 2 kg Pu in cans and capable of measuring up to 25 watts, and a calorimeter for 4-m long LWR Pu-recycle fuel roads. Design parameters and performance capability are given, and the instruments are compared with those developed for NRC

  20. Laboratory tests of the response stability of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00216540; The ATLAS collaboration; Leone, Sandra; Scuri, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    High performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter response is achieved with a multi- stage calibration. One step of the calibration is based on measurements of the response to laser pulse excitation of the PMTs used to read out the calorimeter cells. A facility to study the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the tests are to study the time evolution of the PMT response as a function of the integrated anode charge and to compare test bench results with the observed response drifts of the Tile Calorimeter PMTs during LHC Run I and Run II. A new statistical approach was used to measure the drift of the absolute PMT gain. A new procedure which combines studies of the time evolution of the global PMT responses and of the individual PMT gains was adopted to derive the evolution of the cathode quantum efficiency. The experimental setup of the Pisa facility is described and the first results obtained by testing about 30 PMTs Hamamatsu model R7877 (a special evolution f...

  1. Laboratory tests of the response stability of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter photomultipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Kazanin, Vassili; The ATLAS collaboration; Scuri, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    High performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter response is achieved with a multi-stage calibration. One step of the calibration is based on measurements of the response to laser pulse excitation of the PMTs used to read out the calorimeter cells. A facility to study the PMT stability response is operating in the PISA-INFN laboratories since 2015. Goals of the tests are to study the time evolution of the PMT response as a function of the integrated anode charge and to compare test bench results with the observed response drifts of the Tile Calorimeter PMTs during LHC Run I and Run II. A new statistical approach was used to measure the drift of the absolute PMT gain. A new procedure which combines studies of the time evolution of the global PMT responses and of the individual PMT gains was adopted to derive the evolution of the cathode quantum efficiency. The experimental setup of the Pisa facility is described and the first results obtained by testing about 30 PMTs Hamamatsu model R7877 (a special evolution fo...

  2. Robustness studies of the photomultipliers reading out TileCal, the central hadron calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs), located in the outer part of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells, each one being read out by two PMTs in parallel. The detector readout geometry will not be changed for the Phase II of the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) operation. A challenging goal is to understand whether the full sample of PMTs installed at the beginning of the ATLAS detector operation can be used until completion of the HL-LHC program or not. For this reason, a reliable study of the PMT robustness against ageing is required. Detailed studies modelling the PMT response variation as a function of the integrated anode charge were done. The PMT response evoluti...

  3. First results from quality assurance testing of MaPMTs for the LHCb RICH upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetta, S.; LHCb RICH Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    In 2019 the LHCb RICH detector will be upgraded to increase the read out rate from 1 MHz to 40 MHz. As a consequence, the current Hybrid Photon Detectors will have to be replaced. Multi-anode Photomultiplier Tubes (MaPMTs) from Hamamatsu with 64-channels will be used: the 1-in. R13742 and the 2-in. R13743 MaPMTs (custom modifications of the MaPMTs R11625 and R12699). Quality assurance testing of these MaPMTs using custom-developed readout electronics has started. We present the design and realisation of the test facilities to ensure consistency in testing and validation. A total of 3100 units of the R13742 and 450 units of the R13743 will be tested requiring high efficiency and reliability from the test stations. We report on the test programme and protocols, characterising the units and assuring compliance with specifications. First results of testing and detector characterisation will be presented, based on the pre-series production, comprising 54 units of R13742 and 20 units of R13743.

  4. The R&D of the 20 in. MCP–PMTs for JUNO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yaping [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Guorui [North Night Vision Tech. Ltd., Nanjing 211106 (China); Heng, Yuekun [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Dong [North Night Vision Tech. Ltd., Nanjing 211106 (China); Liu, Huilin [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710068 (China); Liu, Shulin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Weihua [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710068 (China); Ning, Zhe [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Qi, Ming [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Qian, Sen, E-mail: qians@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun, Jianning; Si, Shuguang [North Night Vision Tech. Ltd., Nanjing 211106 (China); Tian, Jinshou [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710068 (China); Wang, Xingchao [North Night Vision Tech. Ltd., Nanjing 211106 (China); and others

    2016-07-11

    A new concept of large area photomultiplier based on MCPs was conceived for JUNO by the scientists in IHEP, and with the collaborative work of the MCP–PMT collaboration in China, 8 in. and 20 in. prototypes were produced. Test results show that this type of MCP–PMT can have good SPE performance as the traditional dynode type PMTs.

  5. Commissioning of the CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeters Phase I Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, Burak

    2017-01-01

    The final phase of the CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeters Phase I upgrade was performed during the Extended Year End Technical Stop of 2016 and 2017. In the framework of the upgrade, the PMT boxes were reworked to implement two channel readout in order to exploit the benefits of the multi-anode PMTs in background tagging and signal recovery. The front-end electronics were also upgraded to QIE10-based electronics which implement larger dynamic range and a 6-bit TDC. Following this major upgrade, the Hadron Forward Calorimeters were commissioned for operation readiness in 2017. Here we describe the details and the components of the upgrade, and discuss the operational experience and results obtained during the upgrade and commissioning.

  6. Commissioning of the CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeters Phase I Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, Burak

    2017-01-01

    The final phase of the CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeters Phase I upgrade is being performed during the Extended Year End Technical Stop of 2016 â?? 2017. In the framework of the upgrade, the PMT boxes are being reworked to implement two channel readout in order to exploit the benefits of the multi-anode PMTs in background tagging and signal recovery. The front-end electronics is also being upgraded to QIE10-based electronics which will implement larger dynamic range and a 6-bit TDC to eliminate the background to have an effect on the trigger. Following this major upgrade, the Hadron Forward Calorimeters will be commissioned for operation readiness in 2017. Here we describe the details and the components of the upgrade, and discuss the operational experience and results obtained during the upgrade and commissioning.

  7. Commissioning of the CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeters Phase I Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilki, B.; Onel, Y.

    2018-03-01

    The final phase of the CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeters Phase I Upgrade was performed during the Extended Year End Technical Stop of 2016-2017. In the framework of the upgrade, the PMT boxes were reworked to implement two channel readout in order to exploit the benefits of the multi-anode PMTs in background tagging and signal recovery. The front-end electronics were also upgraded to QIE10-based electronics which implement larger dynamic range and a 6-bit TDC. Following this major upgrade, the Hadron Forward Calorimeters were commissioned for operation readiness in 2017. Here we describe the details and the components of the upgrade, and discuss the operational experience and results obtained during the upgrade and commissioning.

  8. Multi-Anode Photomultplier (MAPMT) readout for High Granularity Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Mkrtchyan, Tigran; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadron calorimeter high performance in jet sub-structure measurements can be achieved for objects with $p_{T}$ greater than 1 TeV if the readout geometry is finely segmented in $\\Delta\\eta \\times \\Delta\\phi$. A feasibility study to increase the readout granularity of TileCal, the central hadron calorimeter of the ATLAS detector, is presented. We show a preliminary study exploring the possibility to increase by a factor 4 the present readout granularity of the inner layer cells of TileCal (0.1->0.025 in $\\Delta\\eta$) and to split into two layers the intermediate section of TileCal. The proposed solution is designed to cope with mechanical and readout bandwidth and power constraints. Assuming that the mechanics of the Tile modules cannot be changed, Multi-Anode PMTs with same boundary geometry of the present single-anode PMTs are considered to readout WLS bers, ideally one per pixel, carrying the signals from the individual scintillating tiles of each detector cells. The discussed challenges of the design are: ...

  9. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    by J. Spalding and A. Skuja

    2010-01-01

    Operations and Maintenance All HCAL sub-detectors participated throughout the recent data taking with 7 TeV collisions. A timing scan of HF was performed to optimize the timing across the detectors and to set the overall time position of the ~10-ns wide signals within the 25-ns integration time slice. This position was chosen to ensure that the trigger primitives in physics events are generated synchronously at the desired bunch crossing, while also providing discrimination between the calorimeter signals and anomalous signals due to interactions within the photomultiplier tubes. This timing discrimination is now used in the standard filter algorithms for anomalous signals. For HB and HE, once the statistics needed to assess the timing of a sufficient number of channels was accumulated, it was verified that the time settings determined with cosmic, splash events and initial collision data were appropriate for the 7 TeV collision data taking. A further fine-tuning of the HB and HE time settings will be perfo...

  10. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    Since the beginning of 2007, HCAL has made significant progress in the installation and commissioning of both hardware and software. A large fraction of the physical Hadron Calorimeter modules have been installed in UX5. In fact, the only missing pieces are HE- and part of HO. The HB+/- were installed in the cryostat in March. HB scintillator layer-17 was installed above ground before the HB were lowered. The HB- scintillator layer-0 was installed immediately after completion of EB- installation. HF/HCAL Commissioning The commissioning and checkout of the HCAL readout electronics is also proceeding at a rapid pace in Bldg. 904 and USC55. All sixteen crates of HCAL VME readout electronics have been commissioned and certified for service. Fifteen are currently operating in the S2 level of USC55. The last crate is being used for firmware development in the Electronics Integration Facility in 904. All installed crates are interfaced to their VME computers and receive synchronous control from the fully-equipp...

  11. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    HCAL installation and commissioning is approaching completion. Work continues on commissioning of HE-, HF- and the minus wheels of HO. We expect that all commissioning will be completed by mid-March. HCAL commissioning is interleaved with integration of HCAL and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT). HCAL is attempting to take data using the HPD self-trigger as part of the GCT trigger path. Initial attempts in mid-February have not succeeded. Work continues on HCAL and the GCT. HPD lifetimes at 4 Tesla are being measured in Princeton. After more than a month of testing in a 4 Tesla field there are no sur¬prises. As the lifetime measurements proceed, the HPD response at intermediate fields of 1 Tesla will be verified and analyzed. Work also continues on HCAL calibration and DCS/DSS at Point 5. More details for some of the subsystems are presented in what follows. HE HE plus The cooling system of HE+ is functional now. The HE+ final connections to the LV system are complete. LV and HV tests to ev...

  12. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Popeneciu, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Around 2023, after the upgrade of the LHC (High Luminosity LHC, phase 2) the peak luminosity will increase by a factor of 5 compared to the design value (1034 cm-2 s-1), thus requiring an upgrade of the TileCal readout electronics. Except the 9852 photomultipliers (PMTs), most of the on- and off-detector electronics will be replaced, with the aim of digitizing all PMT pulses at 40 MHz at the front-end level and sending them with 10 Gbps optical links to the back-end electronics. Moreover, to increase reliability, redundancy will be introduced at different levels. Three different options are currently being investigated for the front-end electronics and extensive test beam studies are planned to select the best option. One demonstrator prototype module is also planned to be inserted in TileCal in 2014 that will include hybrid electronic components able to probe the new design, but still compatible with the presen...

  13. Installing the ATLAS calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The eight toroid magnets can be seen surrounding the calorimeter that is later moved into the middle of the detector. This calorimeter will measure the energies of particles produced when protons collide in the centre of the detector.

  14. OPAL detector electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    Half of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OPAL detector is seen in this photo. This calorimeter consists of 4720 blocks of lead glass. It was used to detect and measure the energy of photons, electrons and positrons by absorbing them.

  15. Peltier ac calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, D. H.; Moon, I. K.; Jeong, Y. H.

    2001-01-01

    A new ac calorimeter, utilizing the Peltier effect of a thermocouple junction as an ac power source, is described. This Peltier ac calorimeter allows to measure the absolute value of heat capacity of small solid samples with sub-milligrams of mass. The calorimeter can also be used as a dynamic one with a dynamic range of several decades at low frequencies.

  16. Quartz fiber calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, N.; Doulas, S.; Ganel, O.; Gershtein, Y.; Gavrilov, V.; Kolosov, V.; Kuleshov, S.; Litvinsev, D.; Merlo, J.-P.; Onel, Y.; Osborne, D.; Rosowsky, A.; Stolin, V.; Sulak, L.; Sullivan, J.; Ulyanov, A.; Wigmans, R.; Winn, D.

    1996-01-01

    A calorimeter with optical quartz fibers embedded into an absorber matrix was proposed for the small angle region of the CMS detector at LHC (CERN). This type of calorimeter is expected to be radiation hard and to produce extremely fast signal. Some results from beam tests of the quartz fiber calorimeter prototype are presented. (orig.)

  17. On timing response improvement of an NE213 scintillator attached to two PMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, S.; Ghal-Eh, N.; Bayat, E.

    2013-01-01

    A 5 cm diameter by 6 cm height NE213 scintillator attached to two XP2282 PHOTONIS photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) exposed to 241 Americium–Berylium (Am–Be) neutron–gamma source has been used for timing response studies. The neutron–gamma discrimination (NGD) measurements based on a modified zero-crossing (ZC) method show that the discrimination quality, usually expressed in figure-of-merit (FoM) and peak-to-valley (P/V) values, has been improved. The timing response evaluated with Monte Carlo light transport code, PHOTRACK, also verifies this improvement. - Highlights: • An NE213 scintillator attached to two photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) has been proposed. • The neutron–gamma discrimination (NGD) quality factors have been obtained. • The results confirm that the NGD quality of the proposed assembly has been improved

  18. Study of Various Photomultiplier Tubes for Window Events: Upgrade R\\&D for CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Bilki, Burak

    2010-01-01

    The PMTs of the CMS Hadron Forward calorimeter were found to generate a large amount of signal when their windows were traversed by energetic charged particles. This signal, which is due to \\u{C}erenkov light production at the PMT window, could interfere with the calorimeter signal and mislead the measurements. In order to find a viable solution to this problem, the response of different types of PMTs to muons traversing their windows at different orientations is measured at the H2 beam-line at CERN. Certain kinds of PMTs with thinner windows show significantly lower response to direct muon incidence. For one specific type -the four anode PMT- a simple and powerful algorithm to identify such events and recover the PMT signal using the signals of the quadrants without window hits is also presented. For the measurement of PMT responses to \\u{C}erenkov light, the Hadron Forward calorimeter signal was mimicked by two different setups in electron beams and the PMT performances were compared with each other. Superi...

  19. Micro Calorimeter for Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As battery technology forges ahead and consumer demand for safer, more affordable, high-performance batteries grows, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has added a patented Micro Calorimeter to its existing family of R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs). The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

  20. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter experience with 10,000 readout photomultipliers operating since the start of the p-p collisions at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, Hadar; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The channels of TileCal, the hadron calorimeter of the Atlas experiment at the LHC, is readout with 8-stage fine-mesh PhotoMulTipliers (PMTs), a special version of the Hamamatsu model R5900. About 10000 PMTs are operating in TileCal. The PMT response stability allows to calibrate accurately the calorimeter and to achieve high performance of the energy reconstruction of the cells. Currently, no PMT replacement is foreseen before completion of the High Luminosity program of the LHC collider in the next decade. In this perspective, a number of measurements and tests are in progress to qualify the PMT robustness in terms of lifetime and response stability. Data from the Tile calibration procedure for the detector PMTs and from laboratory tests of spare PMTs are being analysed. Results on PMT failures, gain loss and quantum efficiency loss are presented. Analysis is focused on the study of the observed down-drift with time of the PMT response as a function of the integrated anode charge, and depending on the indiv...

  1. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter experience with 10,000 readout photomultipliers operating since the start of the $p-p$ collisions at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)802259; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The channels of TileCal, the hadron calorimeter of the Atlas experiment at the LHC, is readout with 8-stage fine-mesh PhotoMulTipliers (PMTs), a special version of the Hamamatsu model R5900. About 10000 PMTs are operating in TileCal. The PMT response stability allows to calibrate accurately the calorimeter and to achieve high performance of the energy reconstruction of the cells. Currently, no PMT replacement is foreseen before completion of the High Luminosity program of the LHC collider in the next decade. In this perspective, a number of measurements and tests are in progress to qualify the PMT robustness in terms of lifetime and response stability. Data from the Tile calibration procedure for the detector PMTs and from laboratory tests of spare PMTs are being analysed. Results on PMT failures, gain loss and quantum efficiency loss are presented. Analysis is focused on the study of the observed down-drift with time of the PMT response as a function of the integrated anode charge, and depending on the indiv...

  2. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Scuri, Fabrizio; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped, digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns and stored on detector until a trigger decision is received. The High-Luminosity phase of LHC (HL-LHC) expected to begin in year 2026 requires new electronics to meet the requirements of a 1 MHz trigger, higher ambient radiation, and for better performance under high pileup. Both the on- and off-detector TileCal electronics will be replaced during the shutdown of 2024-2025. PMT signals from every TileCal cell will be digitized and sent directly to the back-end electronics, where the signals are reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precis...

  3. LHCb calorimeter electronics. Photon identification. Calorimeter calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machefert, F.

    2011-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four large experiments installed on the LHC accelerator ring. The aim of the detector is to precisely measure CP violation observables and rare decays in the B meson sector. The calorimeter system of LHCb is made of four sub-systems: the scintillating pad detector, the pre-shower, the electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) calorimeters. It is essential to reconstruct B decays, to efficiently trigger on interesting events and to identify electrons and photons. After a review of the LHCb detector sub-systems, the first part of this document describes the calorimeter electronics. First, the front-end electronics in charge of measuring the ECAL and HCAL signals from the photomultipliers is presented, then the following section is an overview of the control card of the four calorimeters. The chapters three and four concern the test software of this electronics and the technological choices making it tolerant to radiations in the LHCb cavern environment. The measurements performed to ensure this tolerance are also given. The second part of this document concerns both the identification of the photons with LHCb and the calibration of the calorimeters. The photon identification method is presented and the performances given. Finally, the absolute energy calibration of the PRS and ECAL, based on the data stored in 2010 is explained. (author)

  4. Wavelength shifting films on multianode PMTs with UV-extended window for the CBM RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Becker, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Belogurov, S. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Boldyreva, N. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chernogorov, A. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Deveaux, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Dobyrn, V. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Dürr, M., E-mail: Michael.Duerr@ap.physik.uni-giessen.de [University Gießen (Germany); Eom, J. [Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Eschke, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Höhne, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kleipa, V. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kochenda, L. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Kolb, B. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kopfer, J., E-mail: Jan.Kopfer@uni-wuppertal.de [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kravtsov, P. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E. [University Gießen (Germany); Leonova, E. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); and others

    2014-12-01

    Electron identification in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will be performed using a gaseous RICH detector. Due to the UV transparency of the CO{sub 2} radiator, a high photon detection efficiency of the PMTs in use at small wavelengths is favourable. The use of wavelength shifting (WLS) films aims at increasing the integral quantum efficiency of the photon sensors. WLS films absorb UV photons and re-emit photons at longer wavelengths where the quantum efficiency of common photocathodes is higher. As photon sensors, multianode PMTs (MAPMTs) with bialkali or superbialkali photocathodes and UV-extended windows are envisaged. We present quantum efficiency measurements with and without WLS coating for different types of MAPMTs as well as results from a beam test at the CERN PS. An increased photon yield was observed when using WLS films. In addition, we discuss the effect of WLS films on the spatial resolution of MAPMTs. - Highlights: • Wavelength shifting (WLS) films were applied on MAPMTs with UV-window. • WLS films considerably enhance MAPMT quantum efficiency in the UV range. • In-beam tests with a RICH detector show an enhanced total photon yield by approx. 20%. • Yield enhancement depends on the MAPMT window and photocathode materials. • No significant effect of WLS films on ring sharpness was detected.

  5. Bon voyage to the hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    It was a grand entourage for the first half of the CMS hadronic forward calorimeter (HF) that was escorted to Cessy, France by the police on 11 July. The impressive trailer carrying the 7-m-long and 4-m-wide element was pushed and pulled by two specially designed trucks. It took the 64-m-long convoy around 5 hours to travel the 15 km to its final destination. The days leading up to this operation involved intensive checks to the balance and pressure of the hydraulic system of the trailer's wheels. As one side of the HF is slightly heavier than the other, it is crucial to take this into account when transporting such a massive object (each half of the HF weighs 260 tonnes). However, once these checks were complete, the transport was safely underway. The second half of the HF also received a police escort on 18 July as it made its way to the assembly hall at Point 5. The HF will be the first major detector to be lowered into the CMS cavern via the gantry crane in the coming months.

  6. Performance of the ATLAS Hadronic Tile Calorimeter in Run-2 and its Upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is the central hadronic calorimeter designed for energy reconstruction of hadrons, jets, tau-particles and missing transverse energy. TileCal is a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter and it covers the region of pseudorapidity < 1.7. The scintillation light produced in the scintillator tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The analog signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal frontend electronics reads out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. Each stage of the signal production from scintillation light to the signal reconstruction is monitored and calibrated. The performance of the Tile calorimeter has been studied in-situ employing cosmic ray muons and a large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the operations of the LHC. Prompt isolated muons of high moment...

  7. PANDA electromagnetic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, P.A.; Kharlov, Yu.V.; Uzunian, A.V.; Chernichenko, S.K.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Davidenko, A.M.; Goncharenko, Y.M.; Kachanov, V.A.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kormilitsin, V.A.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; Meschanin, A.P.; Melnick, Y.M.; Minaev, N.G.; Mochalov, V.V.; Morozov, D.A.; Novotny, R.W.; Ryazantsev, A.A.; Soldatov, A.P.; Soloviev, L.F.

    2009-01-01

    PANDA is a challenging experimental setup to be implemented at the high-energy storage ring (HESR) at the international facility FAIR, GSI (Germany). PANDA physics program relies heavily on the capability to measure photons with excellent energy, position and timing resolution. For this purpose PANDA proposed to employ electromagnetic calorimeters using two different technologies: compact crystal calorimeter cooled to -25 deg. C around target and lead-scintillator sandwich calorimeter with optical fibers light collection (so-called shashlyk calorimeter) in the forward region. Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) PANDA group reports on two types of measurements performed at IHEP, Protvino: radiation hardness of the PWO crystals at -25 deg. C and testbeam studies of the energy and position resolution of the shashlyk calorimeter prototype in the energy range up to 19 GeV.

  8. AIDA: concerted calorimeter development

    CERN Multimedia

    Felix Sefkow

    2013-01-01

    AIDA – the EU-funded project bringing together more than 80 institutes worldwide – aims at developing new detector solutions for future accelerators. Among the highlights reported at AIDA’s recent annual meeting in Frascati was the completion of an impressive calorimeter test beam programme, conducted by the CALICE collaboration over the past two years at CERN’s PS and SPS beam lines.   The CALICE tungsten calorimeter prototype under test at CERN. This cubic-metre hadron calorimeter prototype has almost 500,000 individually read-out electronics channels – more than all the calorimeters of ATLAS and CMS put together. Calorimeter development in AIDA is mainly motivated by experiments at possible future electron-positron colliders, namely ILC or CLIC. The physics requirements of such future machines demand extremely high-performance calorimetry. This is best achieved using a finely segmented system that reconstructs events using the so-called pa...

  9. Channel control ASIC for the CMS hadron calorimeter front end readout module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray Yarema et al.

    2002-01-01

    The Channel Control ASIC (CCA) is used along with a custom Charge Integrator and Encoder (QIE) ASIC to digitize signals from the hybrid photo diodes (HPDs) and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in the CMS hadron calorimeter. The CCA sits between the QIE and the data acquisition system. All digital signals to and from the QIE pass through the CCA chip. One CCA chip interfaces with two QIE channels. The CCA provides individually delayed clocks to each of the QIE chips in addition to various control signals. The QIE sends digitized PMT or HPD signals and time slice information to the CCA, which sends the data to the data acquisition system through an optical link

  10. Design, performance, and calibration of CMS forward calorimeter wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullin, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Abramov, V.; Goncharov, P.; Kalinin, A.; Khmelnikov, A.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Y.; Krinitsyn, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Lukanin, V.; Pikalov, V.; Ryazanov, A.; Talov, V.; Turchanovich, L.; Volkov, A. [IHEP, Protvino (Russian Federation); Acharya, B.; Banerjee, Sud.; Banerjee, Sun.; Chendvankar, S.; Dugad, S.; Kalmani, S.; Katta, S.; Mazumdar, K.; Mondal, N.; Nagaraj, P.; Patil, M.; Reddy, L.; Satyanarayana, B.; Sharma, S.; Verma, P. [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Adams, M.; Burchesky, K.; Qiang, W. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Akchurin, N.; Carrell, K.; Guemues, K.; Kim, H.; Spezziga, M.; Thomas, R.; Wigmans, R. [Texas Tech Univ., Dept. of Physics, Lubbock, TX (United States); Akgun, U.; Ayan, S.; Duru, F.; Merlo, J.P.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Miller, M.; Norbeck, E.; Olson, J.; Onel, Y.; Schmidt, I. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Anderson, E.W.; Hauptman, J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Antchev, G.; Arcidy, M.; Hazen, E.; Lawlor, C.; Machado, E.; Posch, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Varela, F.; Wu, S.X. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Aydin, S.; Bakirci, M.N.; Cerci, S.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Koylu, S.; Kurt, P.; Kuzucu-Polatoz, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdes-Koca, N.; Ozkurt, H.; Sogut, K.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Yetkin, T. [Cukurova Univ., Adana (Turkey); Baarmand, M.; Mermerkaya, H.; Vodopiyanov, I. [Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne, FL (United States); Babich, K.; Golutvin, I.; Kalagin, V.; Kosarev, I.; Ladygin, V.; Mescheryakov, G.; Moissenz, P.; Petrosyan, A.; Rogalev, E.; Smirnov, V.; Vishnevskiy, A.; Volodko, A.; Zarubin, A. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Baden, D.; Bard, R.; Eno, S.; Grassi, T.; Jarvis, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A.; Wang, L.; Wetstein, M. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    2008-01-15

    We report on the test beam results and calibration methods using high energy electrons, pions and muons with the CMS forward calorimeter (HF). The HF calorimeter covers a large pseudorapidity region (3{<=} vertical stroke {eta} vertical stroke {<=}5), and is essential for a large number of physics channels with missing transverse energy. It is also expected to play a prominent role in the measurement of forward tagging jets in weak boson fusion channels in Higgs production. The HF calorimeter is based on steel absorber with embedded fused-silica-core optical fibers where Cherenkov radiation forms the basis of signal generation. Thus, the detector is essentially sensitive only to the electromagnetic shower core and is highly non-compensating (e/h{approx}5). This feature is also manifest in narrow and relatively short showers compared to similar calorimeters based on ionization. The choice of fused-silica optical fibers as active material is dictated by its exceptional radiation hardness. The electromagnetic energy resolution is dominated by photoelectron statistics and can be expressed in the customary form as (a)/({radical}(E))+b. The stochastic term a is 198% and the constant term b is 9%. The hadronic energy resolution is largely determined by the fluctuations in the neutral pion production in showers, and when it is expressed as in the electromagnetic case, a=280% and b=11%. (orig.)

  11. International workshop on calorimeter simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filges, D.; Cloth, P.

    1988-10-01

    The aim of the Juelich workshop was to provide an overview of the state of calorimeter simulation and the methods used. This resulted in 29 contributions to the following topics: Code systems relevant to calorimeter simulation, vectorization and code speed-up, simulation of calorimeter experiments, special applications of calorimeter simulation. This report presents the viewgraphs of the given talks. (orig./HSI)

  12. Evaluation of light Collection in Radiation Portal Monitor with Multi PMTs using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chang Hwy; Park, Jong Won; Lee, Junghee; Moon, Myung Kook; Kim, Jongyul; Lee, Suhyun

    2015-01-01

    A plastic scintillator in the RPM is suited for the γ-ray detection of various-range energy and is the cost effective radiation detection material. In order to well inspect emitted radiation from the container cargo, the radiation detection area of a plastic scintillator should be larger than other general purpose radiation detector. However, the large size plastic scintillator affects the light collection efficiency at the photo-sensitive sensor due to the long light transport distance and light collisions in a plastic scintillator. Therefore, the improvement of light collection efficiency in a RPM is one of the major issues for the high performance RPM development. We calculated the change of the number of collected light according to changing of the attachment position and number of PMT. To calculate the number of collected light, the DETECT2000 and MCNP6 Monte Carlo simulation software tool was used. Response signal performance of RPM system is affected by the position of the incident radiation. If the distance between the radiation source and a PMT is long, the number of loss signal is larger. Generally, PMTs for signal detection in RPM system has been attached on one side of plastic scintillator. In contrast, RPM model in the study have 2 PMTs, which attached at the two side of plastic scintillator. We estimated difference between results using the old method and our method. According to results, uniformity of response signal was better than method using one side. If additive simulation and experiment is performed, it will be possible to develop the improved RPM system. In the future, we will perform additive simulation about many difference RPM model

  13. Evaluation of light Collection in Radiation Portal Monitor with Multi PMTs using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chang Hwy; Park, Jong Won; Lee, Junghee [Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Myung Kook; Kim, Jongyul; Lee, Suhyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A plastic scintillator in the RPM is suited for the γ-ray detection of various-range energy and is the cost effective radiation detection material. In order to well inspect emitted radiation from the container cargo, the radiation detection area of a plastic scintillator should be larger than other general purpose radiation detector. However, the large size plastic scintillator affects the light collection efficiency at the photo-sensitive sensor due to the long light transport distance and light collisions in a plastic scintillator. Therefore, the improvement of light collection efficiency in a RPM is one of the major issues for the high performance RPM development. We calculated the change of the number of collected light according to changing of the attachment position and number of PMT. To calculate the number of collected light, the DETECT2000 and MCNP6 Monte Carlo simulation software tool was used. Response signal performance of RPM system is affected by the position of the incident radiation. If the distance between the radiation source and a PMT is long, the number of loss signal is larger. Generally, PMTs for signal detection in RPM system has been attached on one side of plastic scintillator. In contrast, RPM model in the study have 2 PMTs, which attached at the two side of plastic scintillator. We estimated difference between results using the old method and our method. According to results, uniformity of response signal was better than method using one side. If additive simulation and experiment is performed, it will be possible to develop the improved RPM system. In the future, we will perform additive simulation about many difference RPM model.

  14. A NEW ELECTRONIC BOARD TO DRIVE THE LASER CALIBRATION SYSTEM OF THE ATLAS HADRON CALORIMETER

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00086824; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LASER calibration system of the ATLAS hadron calorimeter aims at monitoring the ~10000 PMTs of the TileCal. The LASER light injected in the PMTs is measured by sets of photodiodes at several stages of the optical path. The monitoring of the photodiodes is performed by a redundant internal calibration system using an LED, a radioactive source, and a charge injection system. The LASer Calibration Rod (LASCAR) electronics card is a major component of the LASER calibration scheme. Housed in a VME crate, its main components include a charge ADC, a TTCRx, a HOLA part, an interface to control the LASER, and a charge injection system. The 13 bits ADC is a 2000pc full-scale converter that processes up to 16 signals stemming from 11 photodiodes, 2 PMTs, and 3 charge injection channels. Two gains are used (x1 and x4) to increase the dynamic range and avoid a saturation of the LASER signal for high intensities. The TTCRx chip (designed by CERN) retrieves LHC signals to synchronize the LASCAR card with the collider. T...

  15. Calorimeters for biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Donald J.; Hansen, Lee D.

    2006-01-01

    The isothermal and temperature scanning calorimeters manufactured by Calorimetry Sciences Corporation are briefly described. Applications of calorimetry to determine thermodynamics and kinetics of reactions of interest in biotechnology are described with illustrative examples

  16. GSPEL - Calorimeter Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Testing performance claims on heat transfer componentsThe Calorimeter Lab, located in the Ground Systems Power and Energy Lab (GSPEL), is one of the largest in the...

  17. The ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Michel Mathieu, a technician for the ATLAS collaboration, is cabling the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter's first end-cap, before insertion into its cryostat. Millions of wires are connected to the electromagnetic calorimeter on this end-cap that must be carefully fed out from the detector so that data can be read out. Every element on the detector will be attached to one of these wires so that a full digital map of the end-cap can be recreated.

  18. Installation and Commissioning of the CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeters Phase I Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Onel, Yasar

    2017-01-01

    The final phase of the CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeters Phase I upgrade was performed during the Extended Year End Technical Stop of 2016-2017. In the framework of the upgrade, the PMT boxes were reworked to implement two channel readout in order to exploit the benefits of the multi-anode PMTs in background tagging and signal recovery. The front-end electronics was also being upgraded to QIE10-based electronics which will implement larger dynamic range and a 6-bit TDC to provide additional handles to eliminate the background. Following this major upgrade, the Hadron Forward Calorimeters are being commissioned for operation readiness in 2017. Here we describe the details and the components of the upgrade, and discuss the operational experience and results obtained during the upgrade and commissioning.

  19. Proportional wire calorimeters at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Gas calorimeters have recently increased in popularity because they provide a simple method of achieving a high degree of calorimeter segmentation with only a modest loss in energy resolution compared with liquid argon or scintillator calorimeters. High radiation levels at ISABELLE will result in gas calorimeter lifetimes similar to those of MWPCs, although the intermediate speed of these devices may cause some resolution degradation due to signal pileup. Schemes for calibration and monitoring gas calorimeters in situ must be evolved and will presumably utilize a combination of pulsers, imbedded 55 Fe sources, etc. Most of the recent development work on gas calorimeters has been centered on electromagnetic (em) calorimetry for large detectors at CESR and PEP. Data on the performance of gas calorimeters are given and compared with the liquid argon results of Hitlin et al. The hadronic gas calorimeter results of Anderson et al. are shown along with typical energy resolution results from various scintillator and liquid argon steel calorimeters

  20. Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Calorimeters that utilize the temperature sensitivity of magnetism have been under development for over 20 years. They have targeted a variety of different applications that require very high resolution spectroscopy. I will describe the properties of this sensor technology that distinguish it from other low temperature detectors and emphasize the types of application to which they appear best suited. I will review what has been learned so far about the best materials, geometries, and read-out amplifiers and our understanding of the measured performance and theoretical limits. I will introduce some of the applications where magnetic calorimeters are being used and also where they are in development for future experiments. So far, most magnetic calorimeter research has concentrated on the use of paramagnets to provide temperature sensitivity; recent studies have also focused on magnetically coupled calorimeters that utilize the diamagnetic response of superconductors. I will present some of the highlights of this research, and contrast the properties of the two magnetically coupled calorimeter types.

  1. SIGNAL RECONSTRUCTION PERFORMANCE OF THE ATLAS HADRONIC TILE CALORIMETER

    CERN Document Server

    Do Amaral Coutinho, Y; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    "The Tile Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are readout by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The TileCal front-end electronics allows to read out the signals produced by about 10000 channels measuring energies ranging from ~30 MeV to ~2 TeV. The read-out system is responsible for reconstructing the data in real-time fulfilling the tight time constraint imposed by the ATLAS first level trigger rate (100 kHz). The main component of the read-out system is the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) which, using an Optimal Filtering reconstruction algorithm, allows to compute for each channel the signal amplitude, time and quality factor at the required high rate. Currently the ATLAS detector and the LHC are undergoing an upgrade program tha...

  2. HF i dag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Maria Duclos; Simonsen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    Notatet er lavet på baggrund af uddannelsesbiografiske dybdeinterviews med kursister på toårigt HF. Indenfor rammerne af en pilotundersøgelse identificerer notatet fire gennemgående profiler: De pragmatiske, de fagligt usikre, second chance-kursisterne, og de HF-kursister, som har HF som first...

  3. SPE analysis of high efficiency PMTs for the DEAP-3600 dark matter detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Kevin; Hallin, Aksel

    2011-01-01

    The Dark matter Experiment using Argon Pulse-shape discrimination is a collaborative effort to develop a next-generation, tonne-scale dark matter detector at SNOLAB. The detector will feature a single-phase liquid argon (LAr) target surrounded by an array of 266 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). A new high-efficiency Hamamatsu R877-100 PMT has been delivered to the University of Alberta for evaluation by the DEAP collaboration. The increase in efficiency could lead to a much greater light yield, but other experiments have reported a slower rise time. We have placed the PMT in a small dark box and had a base and preamplifier designed to be used with either an oscilloscope or a multi-channel analyzer. With this setup we have demonstrated the PMT's ability to distinguish single photo-electrons (SPE) and characterized the PMT by measuring the SPE pulse height spectrum, the peak-to-valley ratio, the dark pulse rate, the baseline, time resolution and SPE efficiency for varying the high voltage supplied to the PMT.

  4. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    De Marco, N

    2013-01-01

    Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.

  5. SLD liquid argon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vella, E.

    1992-10-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter (LAC) of the SLD detector is a parallel plate -- liquid argon sampling calorimeter, used to measure particle energies in Z 0 decays at the Stanford Linear Collider. The LAC module design is based on a unique projective tower structure, in which lead plates and segmented lead tiles serve both as absorbers and electrodes. The LAC front end electronics incorporates several novel features, including extensive multiplexing and optical fiber readout, which take advantage of the low SLC beam crossing frequency. The operational performance of the LAC during the recently completed SLD physics run (which recorded over 10,000 Z 0 events) is discussed

  6. Modeling of Reaction Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Farzad, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to model the reaction calorimeter in order to calculate the heat of absorption which is the most important parameter in this work. Reaction calorimeter is an apparatus which is used in measuring the heat of absorption of CO2 as well as the total pressure in vapor phase based on vapor-liquid equilibrium state. Mixture of monoethanolamine (MEA) and water was used as a solvent to absorb the CO2.Project was divided in to three parts in order to make the programming...

  7. A digital calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes a calorimeter which is used to determine the particle flux of an accelerator. It incorporates as its principal feature a Peltier module which is operated in a constant current pulse mode. Via a feedback arrangement, the Peltier module thermally compensates the heat generated by the particle beam by supplying discrete 'cooling quanta'. The number of 'quanta' generated per unit time is measured with a frequency counter and is proportional to the beam power. The calorimeter can be calibrated via internal resistors which dissipate a precisely known amount of power in the target. (orig.)

  8. The SDC central calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proudfoot, J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the calorimeter being designed and constructed by Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) for use at the Superconducting SuperCollider is presented. The collaboration have chosen to build a sampling calorimeter using scintillating tile with wavelength-shifter fiber readout as the detector medium, and absorber media of lead and iron for the electromagnetic and hadronic compartments. This choice was based on a substantial amount of R D and Monte Carlo simulation calculations, which showed that it both met the necessary experimental specifications in addition to being a cost effect design.

  9. The SDC central calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proudfoot, J.; The SDC Collaboration

    1992-11-01

    An overview of the calorimeter being designed and constructed by Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) for use at the Superconducting SuperCollider is presented. The collaboration have chosen to build a sampling calorimeter using scintillating tile with wavelength-shifter fiber readout as the detector medium, and absorber media of lead and iron for the electromagnetic and hadronic compartments. This choice was based on a substantial amount of R&D and Monte Carlo simulation calculations, which showed that it both met the necessary experimental specifications in addition to being a cost effect design.

  10. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00127668; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of 5 1034cm2s1, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC starting in 2026. All signals will be digitized and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will allow ...

  11. Upgrade of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter for the High luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Solodkov, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter of ATLAS covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment. TileCal is a sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillators as active medium. The scintillators are read-out by wavelength shifting fibers coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The analogue signals from the PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized by sampling the signal every 25 ns. The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) will have a peak luminosity of 5x10ˆ34 cm-2s-1, five times higher than the design luminosity of the LHC. TileCal will undergo a major replacement of its on- and off-detector electronics for the high luminosity programme of the LHC starting in 2026. All signals will be digitized and then transferred directly to the off-detector electronics, where the signals will be reconstructed, stored, and sent to the first level of trigger at a rate of 40 MHz. This will provide better precision of the calorimeter signals used by the trigger system and will a...

  12. An optimized prototype of electromagnetic calorimeter for the SoLID project at Jefferson Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C.; Wang, Y.; Xiao, D.; Han, D.; Zou, Z.; Li, Y.; Zheng, X.; Chen, J.

    2018-02-01

    A shashlik-type electromagnetic calorimeter will be produced in Hall A of Jefferson Laboratory for the Solenoidal Large Intensity Device (SoLID). Wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers and clear fibers will be used as the light guide part of the calorimeter. The blue light from scintillators is converted into green light by WLS fibers and is carried out to the back of the calorimeters for readout. Since the magnetic field of SoLID reaches about 1.5 T behind the calorimeters, the design is to use clear fibers to further guide the light out of the solenoid for readout by PMTs. Therefore, it is important to study the perfomance of WLS and clear fibers. This paper describes a comparative test of two different WLS fibers and a light attenuation test for a clear fiber. The results show that the performance of the two WLS fibers is the same under large curvature bending, and that the bending has no effect on the light transmission through the clear fiber. In addition, a comparison test for two fiber end-face reflective materials is also reported. It reveals that the use of silver ink as a reflective material can increase the light yield by 30%. Thereby, an optimized prototype based on the above experimental results was built and the basic performance was tested.

  13. MAC calorimeters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAC Collaboration.

    1982-03-01

    The MAC detector at PEP features a large solid-angle electromagnetic/hadronic calorimeter system, augmented by magnetic charged-particle tracking, muon analysis and scintillator triggering. Its implementation in the context of electron-positron annihilation physics is described, with emphasis on the utilization of calorimetry

  14. CMS Central Hadron Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Howard S.

    2001-01-01

    We present a description of the CMS central hadron calorimeter. We describe the production of the 1996 CMS hadron testbeam module. We show the results of the quality control tests of the testbeam module. We present some results of the 1995 CMS hadron testbeam.

  15. Gas calorimeter workshop: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Gas calorimeters combining functions of energy measurement and fine tracking have become more and more popular in the past few years. They help identify muons, gammas, electrons, and hadrons within dense tracks from transverse and longitudinal shower development. Fine segmentation capability using pads and strips on the cathodes have made gas-sampling calorimeters very attractive for colliding-beam detectors where a large multiplicity of particles are detected in a projected geometry. Linearity, energy resolution, shower position resolution, multishower resolution, and calibration questions were discussed in detail at the workshop. Ease of energy calibration by monitoring radioactive sources, good gain uniformity, and gain stability obtained were among the topics of the speakers. There was a discussion session on the operation mode of wire chambers. Gas calorimeters have been used successfully at CERN, Cornell, Fermilab, and SLAC for experiments. Some of the results from those large-scale devices were reported. Future usage of gas-sampling calorimeters for colliding-beam experiments at Fermilab and CERN were discussed. Wire chambers using extruded conductive plastic tubes have made construction easy of pads and strips which can conveniently read out induced signals from the cathode. The results of extensive studies on such devices were discussed. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the 17 papers presented

  16. An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter

    2008-01-01

    We describe the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element. This has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute, which led to minimal heat losses. Small temperature changes of 1 K associated with enthalpies of…

  17. Calorimeter for thermal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shai, I.; Shaham, Ch.; Barnea, I.

    1978-12-01

    A calorimeter was built, enabling the thermal power of radioactive sources to be measured in the range of 50 to 120 mW. The system was calibrated with an electrical heater. The calibration curves serve to determine the power of radioactive sources with a reasonable accuracy

  18. Automatic low-temperature calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, V.M.; Mil'ner, G.A.; Shibakin, V.F.; Sorkin, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a low-temperature adiabatic calorimeter with a range of 1.5-500K. The system for maintaining adiabatic conditions is implemented by two resitance thermometers, whose sensitivity at low temperatures is several orders higher than that of thermocouples. The calorimeter cryostat is installed in an STG-40 portable Dewar flask. The calorimeter is controlled by an Elektronika-60 microcomputer. Standard platinum and germanium thermometers were placed inside of the calorimeter to calibrate the thermometers of the calorimeter and the shield, and the specific heats of specimens of OSCh 11-4 copper and KTP-8 paste were measured to demonstrate the possibilities of the described calorimeter. Experience with the calorimeter has shown that a thorough study of the dependence of heat capacity on temperature (over 100 points for one specimen) can be performed in one or two dats

  19. The monitoring and calibration Web system of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maidantchik, Carmen; Gomes, Andressa Andrea Sivollela; Marroquim, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The scintillator tiles hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS detector measures the energy of resultant particles in a collision. The calorimetry system was designed to absorb the energy of the particles that crosses the detector and is composed by three barrels, each one equally divided into 64 modules. The ionizing particles that cross the tiles induce the production of light, which intensity is proportional to the energy deposited by the fragment. The produced light propagates through the tiles towards the edges, where it is absorbed and displaced until reaching the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), also known as electronic reading channels. Each module combines till 45 PMTs. For each run, the reconstruction process starts with a data analysis that can comprises different levels of information granularity till arriving to the PMTs level. Following this phase, the Data Quality Monitoring Framework (DQMF) system automatically generates quality indicators associated to the channels. Depending on the configuration that is registered in the DQMF, the channel status can be automatically defined as good, affected or bad. The status of each module is defined by the percentage of existing good, affected or bad channels. At this point, the analysis of modules allows the identification of the ones that are problematic by the examination of graphics that are automatically generated during the data reconstruction stage. Then, an analysis of a module performance by a time period that encompasses different types of runs is performed. In this last step, the list of problematic channels can be modified through the insertion or exclusion of PTMs, as in the case when a channel is substituted. Additionally, during the whole calorimeter operation, it is fundamental to identify the electronic channels that are active, dead (nor working), noisy and the ones that presents saturation in the signal digitalisation process. The Monitoring and Calibration Web System (MCWS) was

  20. The monitoring and calibration Web system of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidantchik, Carmen; Gomes, Andressa Andrea Sivollela; Marroquim, Fernando [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The scintillator tiles hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS detector measures the energy of resultant particles in a collision. The calorimetry system was designed to absorb the energy of the particles that crosses the detector and is composed by three barrels, each one equally divided into 64 modules. The ionizing particles that cross the tiles induce the production of light, which intensity is proportional to the energy deposited by the fragment. The produced light propagates through the tiles towards the edges, where it is absorbed and displaced until reaching the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), also known as electronic reading channels. Each module combines till 45 PMTs. For each run, the reconstruction process starts with a data analysis that can comprises different levels of information granularity till arriving to the PMTs level. Following this phase, the Data Quality Monitoring Framework (DQMF) system automatically generates quality indicators associated to the channels. Depending on the configuration that is registered in the DQMF, the channel status can be automatically defined as good, affected or bad. The status of each module is defined by the percentage of existing good, affected or bad channels. At this point, the analysis of modules allows the identification of the ones that are problematic by the examination of graphics that are automatically generated during the data reconstruction stage. Then, an analysis of a module performance by a time period that encompasses different types of runs is performed. In this last step, the list of problematic channels can be modified through the insertion or exclusion of PTMs, as in the case when a channel is substituted. Additionally, during the whole calorimeter operation, it is fundamental to identify the electronic channels that are active, dead (nor working), noisy and the ones that presents saturation in the signal digitalisation process. The Monitoring and Calibration Web System (MCWS) was

  1. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    Roger Rusack

    Occupancy of the trigger primitives during a global run: the observed pattern is consistent with the polar angle dependence of the transverse energy equivalent of the electronic noise in the endcaps.   Progress on ECAL since the last CMS week has been mostly on three major fronts: we have continued with the installation and commissioning of the preshower detectors; the endcap calorimeter trigger has been installed and tested; and there have been many changes to the calorimeter detector control and safety systems. Both Preshower (ES) endcaps were installed in CMS on schedule, just before Easter. There followed a campaign of "first commissioning" to ensure that all services were correctly connected (electrical, optical, cooling, etc.). Apart from some optical ribbons that had to be replaced the process went rather smoothly, finishing on 23rd April. All power supplies are installed and operational. The cooling system (two branches of the joint Tracker-Preshower system) is fully fun...

  2. NA48 prototype calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    This is a calorimeter, a detector which measures the energy of particles. When in use, it is filled with liquid krypton at -152°C. Electrons and photons passing through interact with the krypton, creating a shower of charged particles which are collected on the copper ribbons. The ribbons are aligned to an accuracy of a tenth of a millimetre. The folding at each end allows them to be kept absolutely flat. Each shower of particles also creates a signal in scintillating material embedded in the support disks. These flashes of light are transmitted to electronics by the optical fibres along the side of the detector. They give the time at which the interaction occurred. The photo shows the calorimeter at NA48, a CERN experiment which is trying to understand the lack of anti-matter in the Universe today.

  3. UA2 central calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA2 central calorimeter measured the energy of individual particles created in proton-antiproton collisions. Accurate calibration allowed the W and Z masses to be measured with a precision of about 1%. The calorimeter had 24 slices like this one, each weighing 4 tons. The slices were arranged like orange segments around the collision point. Incoming particles produced showers of secondary particles in the layers of heavy material. These showers passed through the layers of plastic scintillator, generating light which was taken by light guides (green) to the data collection electronics. The amount of light was proportional to the energy of the original particle. The inner 23 cm of lead and plastic sandwiches measured electrons and photons; the outer 80 cm of iron and plastic sandwiches measured strongly interacting hadrons. The detector was calibrated by injecting light through optical fibres or by placing a radioactive source in the tube on the bottom edge.

  4. Harwell Graphite Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linacre, J.K.

    1970-01-01

    The calorimeter is of the steady state temperature difference type. It contains a graphite sample supported axially in a graphite outer jacket, the assembly being contained in a thin stainless steel outer can. The temperature of the jacket and the temperature difference between sample and jacket are measured by chromel-alumel thermocouples. The instrument is calibrated by means of an electric heater of low mass positioned on the axis of the sample. The resistance of the heater is known and both current through the heater and the potential across it may be measured. The instrument is filled with nitrogen at a pressure of one half atmosphere at room temperature. The calorimeter has been designed for prolonged operation at temperatures up to 600°C, and dose rates up to 1 Wg -1 , and instruments have been in use for periods in excess of one year

  5. The CMS Outer Hadron Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhandari, Virender; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguli, Som N; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Kumar, Arun; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Reddy, L V; Satyanarayana, B; Sharma, Seema; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sudhakar, Katta; Tonwar, Suresh C; Verma, Piyush

    2006-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with a outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in CMS and thus working as a tail catcher. Fabrication, testing and calibrations of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter has a very good signal to background ratio even for a minimum ionising particle and can hence be used in coincidence with the Resistive Plate Chambers of the CMS detector for the muon trigger.

  6. The CMS crystal calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lustermann, W

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the energy of electrons and photons with very high accuracy is of primary importance far the study of many physics processes at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in particular for the search of the Higgs Boson. The CMS experiment will use a crystal calorimeter with pointing geometry, almost covering 4p, as it offers a very good energy resolution. It is divided into a barrel composed of 61200 lead tungstate crystals, two end-caps with 14648 crystals and a pre-shower detector in front of the end-cap. The challenges of the calorimeter design arise from the high radiation environment, the 4 Tesla magnetic eld, the high bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz and the large dynamic range, requiring the development of fast, radiation hard crystals, photo-detectors and readout electronics. An overview of the construction and design of the calorimeter will be presented, with emphasis on some of the details required to meet the demanding performance goals. 19 Refs.

  7. Precision titration mini-calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensor, D.; Kullberg, L.; Choppin, G.

    1977-01-01

    The design and test of a small volume calorimeter of high precision and simple design is described. The calorimeter operates with solution sample volumes in the range of 3 to 5 ml. The results of experiments on the entropy changes for two standard reactions: (1) reaction of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane with hydrochloric acid and (2) reaction between mercury(II) and bromide ions are reported to confirm the accuracy and overall performance of the calorimeter

  8. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefel, John P.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report for NASA grant NAGW-4577, "Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)". This grant covered a joint project between LSU and the University of Maryland for a Concept Study of a new type of fully active calorimeter to be used to measure the energy spectra of very high energy cosmic rays, particularly Hydrogen and Helium, to beyond 1014 eV. This very high energy region has been studied with emulsion chamber techniques, but never investigated with electronic calorimeters. Technology had advanced to the point that a fully active calorimeter based upon Bismuth Germanate (BGO) scintillating crystals appeared feasible for balloon flight (and eventually space) experiments.

  9. Spectrometric performances of high quantum efficiency multi and single anode PMTs coupled to LaBr3(Ce) crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinti, Maria Nerina, E-mail: marianerina.cinti@uniroma1.it [Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00161 (Italy); INFN Rome 1 Section, Rome (Italy); Pani, Roberto; Pellegrini, Rosanna [Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00161 (Italy); INFN Rome 1 Section, Rome (Italy); Bennati, Paolo [Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00161 (Italy); Orlandi, Chiara [Medical Physics Post Graduate School, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00161 (Italy); Fabbri, Andrea [Department of Physics, Roma Tre University, Rome (Italy); INFN Rome 3 Section, Rome (Italy); Ridolfi, Stefano; Scafè, Raffaele [Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00161 (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    High quantum efficiency semiconductor photodetectors have recently drawn the attention of the scientific community for their potential in the realization of a new class of scintillation imagers with very high energy and spatial resolution performance. However, this goal does not seem within easy reach, due to various technological issues such as, for example, the difficulty to scale the characteristics of a single detector to an imager with suitable dimensions. Lately a definite technical improvement in increasing quantum efficiency up to 42% for position sensitive photomultipliers was achieved. The aim of this work is thus to test this new technological progress and to study the possible implications in imaging applications. Four Hamamatsu PMTs were tested: two multi anode photomultipliers, one with a bialkali (27% quantum efficiency) and the other one with a super-bialkali photocathode (38% quantum efficiency), and two 1×1 in. PMTs, both equipped with an ultra bialkali photocathode (42% quantum efficiency). In particular one of the ultra bialkali PMT has also an increased efficiency of first dynode charge collection. The results were compared with the ones obtained with a reference PMT (Hamamatsu R6231), mainly used in spectroscopy. The PMTs were coupled to LaBr3(Ce), NaI(Tl) and LSO(Ce) continuous scintillation crystals. The tests were done using two independent electronic chains: one dedicated for spectroscopic application and a second one, using a multi wire 64 channel readout, for imaging applications. The super-bialkali MA-PMTs have shown high energy resolution, both with spectroscopic and imaging setup, highlighting the appropriateness of these devices for the development of imaging devices with high spectroscopic performance. -- Highlights: • A study of energy resolution results coming from position sensitive photomultipliers are proposed. • The study is also extended on mono- anode photomultiplier. • The selected scintillation crystal is LeBr3(Ce

  10. Last fibre for the CMS's forward hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In February an important milestone was passed by the CMS's forward hadronic calorimeter project: the last of 450000 quartz fibres was inserted and the wedge preparation phase has now been completed. Ten thousand working hours were spent on inserting 450 000 quartz fibres into the CMS's forward hadronic calorimeter! Patience and meticulous attention to detail were the two qualities required by the five people who undertook this special job at CERN. On 6 February their task was completed. "The CMS's forward hadronic calorimeter (HF) covers the region immediately close to the LHC beam, 0.6 degrees to 6 degrees from the beam line," explains project coordinator Tiziano Camporesi. The detection of high energy jets in this angular region will be very important in helping to identify the signature of the Higgs boson or possibly any new boson produced in proton-proton collision in the LHC. Rita Fodor, 19, is working on one wedge of the CMS's forward hadronic calorimeter in building 186. She and her...

  11. The Monitoring and Calibration Web Systems for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Data Quality Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sivolella, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Ferreira, F

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), one of the ATLAS detectors, has four partitions, where each one contains 64 modules and each module has up to 48 PhotoMulTipliers (PMTs), totalizing more than 10,000 electronic channels. The Monitoring and Calibration Web System (MCWS) supports data quality analyses at channels level. This application was developed to assess the detector status and verify its performance, presenting the problematic known channels list from the official database that stores the detector conditions data (COOL). The bad channels list guides the data quality validator during analyses in order to identify new problematic channels. Through the system, it is also possible to update the channels list directly in the COOL database. MCWS generates results, as eta-phi plots and comparative tables with masked channels percentage, which concerns TileCal status, and it is accessible by all ATLAS collaboration. Annually, there is an intervention on LHC (Large Hadronic Collider) when the detector equipments (P...

  12. ELECTROMAGNET CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Rusack

    Installation is under way of the last piece of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This is the preshower (ES) that sits in front of the two endcap calorimeters. The construction of the ES was completed in December and went through a detailed set of tests in December and January. The two preshower detectors have a total of 4300 silicon sensors with 137,000 strips. After final assembly and system testing in January, only two of the strips were found to be defective. Once CMS was fully opened a new support structure (‘Gazprom’) was put into place underneath the beam pipe, to support the Surkov platform, on which the preshower installation takes place. In the early hours of 26th February the first two Dees, which form the ‘ES+’ endcap,  were transported to P5 , a journey that took two and a half hours. The Dees, still inside environmental protection boxes, were then lowered  underground and moved to the ‘+’ end of CMS. Installation start...

  13. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    ECAL crystal calorimeter (EB + EE) The Barrel and Endcaps ECAL calorimeters have been used routinely in global runs. The CRAFT data have confirmed that ECAL performance is the same with or without magnetic field. The CRUZET and CRAFT runs have allowed experience to be gained with ECAL operation in many areas, in particular for the trigger and the calibration sequence using gap events (laser events and LED pulsing). More details can be found in the Commissioning/DPG report in this bulletin.   The last components remaining to be installed and commissioned are the specific Endcap Trigger modules (TCC-48). Most of the modules have been delivered to LLR and half of them are already at CERN. In parallel, large progress has been made on the validation of the TCC-48 firmware. Preshower (ES) The Preshower project has also made impressive progress during Autumn. All the elements required to complete the detector assembly are at hand. Ladder assembly, test and calibration with cosmic rays at the operating ...

  14. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    Central Calorimeter (HB/HE/HO) Photodetectors The main activity of the HCAL group during the present shutdown is the replacement of a small fraction of the Central Calorimeter (HB/HE/HO) photodetectors -- the Hybrid Photo-Detectors (HPDs). During the MTCC of 2006 it was established that all HPDs exhibit a low rate of discharge generating large random pulses. This behaviour persists at the full CMS field. However, at relatively low fields (0.5 Tesla) this discharge rate increases dramatically and becomes very large for a fraction of the HPDs. The HO HPDs which sit in the gap of the return yoke are thus adversly affected. These discharge pulses have been labelled "HPD noise" (which must be distinguished from low level electronic noise which manifests itself as pedestal noise for all HPD readout channels). Additional intermediate level noise can be generated by ion-feedback arising from thermal and field emission electrons. Ion feedback noise never exceeds the equivalent of few 10s of GeV, the...

  15. The LHCb hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhelyadin, R.I.

    2002-01-01

    The Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) is designed for the LHCb experiment. The main purpose of the detector is to provide data for the L0 hadron trigger. The HCAL is designed as consisting of two symmetric movable parts of about 500 ton in total getting in touch in operation position without non-instrumented zones. The lateral dimensions of an active area are X=8.4 m width, Y=6.8 m height, and is distanced from the interaction point at Z=13.33 m. Both halves are assembled from stacked up modules. An internal structure consisting of thin iron plates interspaced with scintillating tiles has been chosen. Attention is paid to optimize the detector according to the requirements of the experiment, reducing the spending needed for its construction. Different construction technologies are being discussed. The calorimeter properties have been extensively studied with a variety of prototype on the accelerator beam. The calibration with a radioactive source and module-0 construction experience is discussed

  16. Front end readout electronics for the CMS hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Terri M

    2002-01-01

    The front-end electronics for the CMS Hadron Calorimeter provides digitized data at the beam interaction rate of 40 MHz. Analog signals provided by hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) or photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are digitized and the data is sent off board through serialized fiber optic links running at 1600 Mbps. In order to maximize the input signal, the front-end electronics are housed on the detector in close proximity to the scintillating fibers or phototubes. To fit the electronics into available space, custom crates, backplanes and cooling methods have had to be developed. During the expected ten-year lifetime, the front-end readout electronics will exist in an environment where radiation levels approach 330 rads and the neutron fluence will be 1.3E11 n/cm sup 2. For this reason, the design approach relies heavily upon custom radiation tolerant ASICs. This paper will present the system architecture of the front-end readout crates and describe their results with early prototypes.

  17. Front end readout electronics for the CMS hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terri M. Shaw et al.

    2002-01-01

    The front-end electronics for the CMS Hadron Calorimeter provides digitized data at the beam interaction rate of 40 MHz. Analog signals provided by hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) or photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are digitized and the data is sent off board through serialized fiber optic links running at 1600 Mbps. In order to maximize the input signal, the front-end electronics are housed on the detector in close proximity to the scintillating fibers or phototubes. To fit the electronics into available space, custom crates, backplanes and cooling methods have had to be developed. During the expected ten-year lifetime, the front-end readout electronics will exist in an environment where radiation levels approach 330 rads and the neutron fluence will be 1.3E11 n/cm 2 . For this reason, the design approach relies heavily upon custom radiation tolerant ASICs. This paper will present the system architecture of the front-end readout crates and describe their results with early prototypes

  18. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Mans and P. De Barbaro

    2012-01-01

      During the year-end technical stop, HCAL has successfully undertaken a number of efforts in the detector and calibration areas. The full online software suite has been modernised to the next generation of Scientific Linux and 64-bit computing. In HF, a full set of 24 thin-window phototubes from the production set has been installed to allow further study of background rates as well as to evaluate the behaviour of the tubes under irradiation. The optical data fibres from two wedges of HB and an equivalent portion of HE and HF have been split, allowing the parallel operation of upgrade backend electronics without affecting the ongoing operations of the VME electronics. The HCAL DPG group has prepared the software and calibration for the restart at 8 TeV. The reconstruction and noise rejection have been tuned for higher pile-up conditions, while the final calibrations for HF will be used for a final re-reconstruction of the 2011 data as well as for the 2012 start-up. The DPG group is prepared for ...

  19. Readout Electronics for BGO Calorimeter of DAMPE: Status during the First Half-year after Launching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Siyuan; Feng, Changqing; Zhang, Deliang; Wang, Qi

    2016-07-01

    The DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is a scientic satellite which was successfully launched into a 500 Km sun-synchronous orbit, on December 17th, 2015, from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center of China. The major scientific objective of DAMPE mission is indirect searching for dark matter by observing high energy primary cosmic rays, especially positrons/electrons and gamma rays with an energy range from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. The BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) calorimeter, which is a critical sub-detector of DAMPE payload, was developed for measuring the energy of cosmic particles, distinguishing positrons/electrons and gamma rays from hadron background, and providing trigger information. It is composed of 308 BGO crystal logs, with the size of 2.5cm*2.5cm*60cm for each log to form a total absorption electromagnetic calorimeter. All the BGO logs are stacked in 14 layers, with each layer consisting of 22 BGO crystal logs and each log is viewed by two Hamamatsu R5610A PMTs (photomultiplier tubes), from both sides respectively. Each PMT incorporates a three dynode pick off to achieve a large dynamic range, which results in 616 PMTs and 1848 signal channels. The main function of readout electronics system, which consists of 16 FEE(Front End Electronics) modules, is to precisely measure the charge of PMT signals and providing "hit" signals. The hit signals are sent to the trigger module of PDPU (Payload Data Process Unit) to generate triggers for the payload. The calibration of the BGO calorimeter is composed of pedestal testing and electronic linear scale, which are executed frequently in the space after launching. The data of the testing is transmitted to ground station in the form of scientific data. The monitor status consists of temperature, current and status words of the FEE, which are measured and recorded every 16 seconds and packed in the engineering data, then transmitted to ground station. The status of the BGO calorimeter can be evaluated by the calibration

  20. CMS hadronic forward calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlo, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Tests of quartz fiber prototypes, based on the detection of Cherenkov light from showering particles, demonstrate a detector possessing all of the desirable characteristics for a forward calorimeter. A prototype for the CMS experiment consists of 0.3 mm diameter fibers embedded in a copper matrix. The response to high energy (10-375 GeV) electrons, pions, protons and muons, the light yield, energy and position resolutions, and signal uniformity and linearity, are discussed. The signal generation mechanism gives this type of detector unique properties, especially for the detection of hadronic showers: Narrow, shallow shower profiles, hermeticity and extremely fast signals. The implications for measurements in the high-rate, high-radiation LHC environment are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Nemo-3 calorimeter electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaudin, P.; Cheikali, C.; Lavigne, B.; Richard, A.; Lebris, J.

    2000-11-01

    The calorimeter electronics of the NEMO-3 double beta decay experiment fulfills three functions: -energy measurement of the electrons by measuring the charge of the pulses, - time measurement, - fast first level triggering. The electronics of the 1940 Scintillator-PM modules is implemented as 40 '9U x 400 mm VME' boards of up to 51 channels. For each channel the analog signals conditioning is implemented as one SMD daughter board. Each board performs 12 bit charge measurements with 0.35 pC charge resolution, 12 bit time measurements with 50 ps time resolution and a fast analog multiplicity level for triggering. The total handling and conversion time for all the channels is less than 100 μs. The electronics will be presented as well as the test system. (authors)

  2. D0 calorimeter electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schamberger, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed description of the electronics used to readout the signals from the D0 Uranium-Liquid Argon Calorimeter is presented. The three major components of the readout system are the charge sensitive preamps, the shaping and sample and hold circuits, and the Analog to Digital converters. The very low noise preamps achieve an input noise equivalent to 2000e's + 3000e's per nanofarad of input capacitance. The coherent noise in the system is very low, less than 1/20 of an ADC count which is equivalent to about 200 KeV of energy incident on the detector. The ADC system contains a 12 bit, 5 μsecond successive approximation digitizer. We maintain a 15 bit dynamic range by automatically amplifying small signals after they are held, but before digitization. The ADC also contains pedestal and limit memory, to allow (on a channel by channel basis) offset subtraction, and suppression of small signals, symmetrically around zero signal. (orig.)

  3. Cerenkov fiber sampling calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrington, K.; Kefford, D.; Kennedy, J.; Pisani, R.; Sanzeni, C.; Segall, K.; Wall, D.; Winn, D.R.; Carey, R.; Dye, S.; Miller, J.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Savin, A.; Shmakov, K.; Tarkovsky, E.

    1994-01-01

    Clear optical fibers were used as a Cerenkov sampling media in Pb (electromagnetic) and Cu (hadron) absorbers in spaghetti calorimeters, for high rate and high radiation dose experiments, such as the forward region of high energy colliders. The fiber axes were aligned close to the direction of the incident particles (1 degree--7 degree). The 7 λ deep hadron tower contained 2.8% by volume 1.5 mm diameter core clear plastic fibers. The 27 radiation length deep electromagnetic towers had packing fractions of 6.8% and 7.2% of 1 mm diameter core quartz fibers as the active Cerenkov sampling medium. The energy resolution on electrons and pions, energy response, pulse shapes and angular studies are presented

  4. HF-laser program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Sandia's HF-laser program for FY 77 and FY 78 was revised in June 1977 in order to meet several new program milestones. Research progress is reported on: objective of HF oscillator-amplifier studies using H 2 -F 2 gas mixtures; characteristics of large-volume oscillator using H 2 -F 2 mixtures; characteristics of large-volume amplifier using H 2 -F 2 mixtures; experimental results of the oscillator-amplifier study; objective of high-quality discharge-initiated SF 6 -HI oscillator-preamplifier system; pin-discharge-initiated oscillator and first beam expander; fast-discharge-initiated preamplifiers; reflecting beam expanders for oscillator-preamplifier system; beam quality of discharge-initiated oscillator-preamplifier system; short pulse option for discharge initiated SF 6 -HI system; H 2 -F 2 electron-beam-initiated oscillator-preamplifier system; chamber for HF-laser focusing experiments; computer study of parasitic oscillations in HF amplifiers and oscillators; kinetics upgrade of HF-laser code; repetitivey ignited flowing H 2 -F 2 -O 2 mixtures; spontaneous detonations in multiatmosphere H 2 -F 2 -O 2 mixtures; high-pressure H 2 -F 2 laser studies; and time sequenced energy extraction on the high xenon laser

  5. Electromagnetic shower detector-calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review of the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic calorimeters is presented. The choice of detector based on the experimental requirements in cost, spatial resolution, energy resolution, and hadron rejection is discussed

  6. Scintillating plate calorimeter optical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, R.; Fazely, A.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R.; Lim, J.

    1990-01-01

    A major technical challenge facing the builder of a general purpose detector for the SSC is to achieve an optimum design for the calorimeter. Because of its fast response and good energy resolution, scintillating plate sampling calorimeters should be considered as a possible technology option. The work of the Scintillating Plate Calorimeter Collaboration is focused on compensating plate calorimeters. Based on experimental and simulation studies, it is expected that a sampling calorimeter with alternating layers of high-Z absorber (Pb, W, DU, etc.) and plastic scintillator can be made compensating (e/h = 1.00) by suitable choice of the ratio of absorber/scintillator thickness. Two conceptual designs have been pursued by this subsystem collaboration. One is based on lead as the absorber, with read/out of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter fibers. The other design is based on depleted uranium as the absorber with wavelength shifter (WLS) plate readout. Progress on designs for the optical readout of a compensating scintillator plate calorimeter are presented. These designs include readout of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter plates or fiber readout. Results from radiation damage studies of the optical components are presented

  7. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    Andris Skuja

    HCAL finished commissioning the central and forward detectors during the summer of 2008. HCAL was able to participate in all global runs. In particular, we were anxious to determine the performance of all of the HCAL HPDs at 3.8T. At this point in time this study still has not been completed because of various difficulties CMS has encountered to reach 3.8T. HF Commissioning The HF produces the raw data for the CMS Luminosity determination. It is also an important part of the min-bias trigger and forward jet triggers and physics. In June 2008 the HFs were out of their garages and being worked upon for Castor/Collar platform installation. The HFs were back in the garage position in July and were subject to a series of checks (mainly LED and laser) before starting the CRUZET3 global runs. As part of this sequence, calibration constants were checked via single photo-electrons, the HV choice was finalized and the relative timing was fixed. During CRUZET3 tests of LUMI were performed, and muon signals were measure...

  8. Effect of refraction index and thickness of the light guide in the position-sensitive gamma-ray detector using compact PS-PMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Saito, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Hyodo, T.; Nagai, Y.; Muramatsu, S.; Nagai, S.

    2000-01-01

    We constructed a position-sensitive gamma-ray detector consisting of an array of BGO scintillators, a light guide and compact PS-PMTs. The effects of refractive index and thickness of the light guide of a glass plate on the detector performance were investigated. A light guide with higher refractive index and smaller thickness is found better for a good spatial resolution.

  9. Calorimeter Process Variable Archiving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, David

    2002-01-01

    These steps were taken to maintain weekly archives: (1) Friday morning you stop the archiver and wait for it to finish writing data (the lock file will be removed from the directory); (2) move the current archive information to a PC via FTP; (3) remove all previous archive information in the previous directory; (4) move the current archive into the previous directory; (5) start a new archive; (6) burn a CDROM of the archive; and (7) copy the current archive to a specific directory. There are 2 ways to check if the Calorimeter Archiver is running, either through the WEB based front end or directly from a command line. Once the archiver is running it can be monitored from a WEB page. This only works with a browser launched from the online machine running the archiver. Each time the browser is reloaded there should be an update reported in the last write check field. You might have to wait a few minutes to see the update. Calorimetry currently takes readings every (300 sec.) 5 minutes. The second method to verify the archiver is running is to issue a command from a Linux cluster machine.

  10. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the entire proton-proton run of 2011, all HCAL calorimeters operated very efficiently. Over 99% of HCAL readout and trigger channels were alive. However, during the year we did face two hardware problems. One major operation problem was the occasional loss of data from a single RBX caused by single event upsets (SEUs). The rate of RBX data loss was on average one incident per 10 pb–1 of integrated luminosity. This led to approximately 1% of CMS data loss. In order to mitigate this problem, HCAL has introduced an automatic reset of the RBX. With this reset, full operation was restored within about one minute. The final hardware correction of the problem will be possible only during a long shutdown (LS1) in 2013-’14. Another hardware problem that developed in 2011 was the failure of QPLL (quartz phase lock loops) chips. This led to the loss of phase of the readout clock with respect to the LHC clock. As a consequence, in two sections in HCAL (10 degree in φ on HB and 1...

  11. ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER (ECAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Bloch

    ECAL Barrel (EB) The cabling of the ECAL Barrel services on YB0 was completed early December 2007. The team has now commissioned the complete Barrel. To run all the supermodules in parallel, it is necessary to remove the heat from the service cables on YB0. The corresponding thermal screens are being installed and, for the time being, a max¬imum of 25 supermodules has been run concurrently. EB is read out regularly with a local DAQ as well as with the central DAQ and trigger. The calorimeter trigger has also been commissioned, allowing us to trigger on cosmic muons. ECAL Endcaps (EE) The Endcaps crystal production will be completed before the end of March 2008, as planned. The gluing of the VPTs (Vacuum Photo Triodes) on the crystals and the assembly of Supercrystals (sets of 25 crystals) are proceeding at the pace of 16 Supercrystals (400 channels) per week. Two thirds of the Supercrystals needed for the complete EE have been produced. Their mounting on the Dee backplates (including the connectio...

  12. The CPLEAR Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, R; Bal, F; Behnke, O; Bloch, P; Damianoglou, D; Dechelette, Paul; Dröge, M; Eckart, B; Felder, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Garreta, D; Gerber, H J; Gumplinger, P; Guyon, D; Johner, H U; Löfstedt, B; Kern, J; Kokkas, P; Krause, H; Mall, U; Marin, C P; Nanni, F; Pagels, B; Pavlopoulos, P; Petit, P; Polivka, G; Rheme, C; Ruf, T; Santoni, C; Schaller, L A; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Tschopp, H; Weber, P; Wendler, H; Witzig, C; Wolter, M

    1997-01-01

    A large-acceptance lead/gas sampling electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) was constructed for the CPLEAR experiment to detect photons from decays of $\\pi^0$s with momentum $p_{\\pi^0} \\le 800$ MeV$/c$. The main purpose of the ECAL is to determine the decay vertex of neutral-kaon decays $\\ko \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\pi^0 \\rightarrow 4 \\gamma$ and $\\ko \\rightarrow \\pi^0\\pi^0\\pi^0 \\rightarrow 6 \\gamma$. This requires a position-sensitive photon detector with high spatial granularity in $r$-, $\\varphi$-, and $z$-coordinates. The ECAL --- a barrel without end-caps located inside a magnetic field of 0.44 T --- consists of 18 identical concentric layers. Each layer of $1/3$ radiation length (X${_0}$) contains a converter plate followed by small cross-section high-gain tubes of 2640 mm active length which are sandwiched by passive pick-up strip plates. The ECAL, with a total of $6$ X${_0}$, has an energy resolution of $\\sigma (E)/E \\approx 13\\% / \\sqrt{E(\\mathrm{GeV})}$ and a position resolution of 4.5 mm for the shower foot. ...

  13. HF/DF chemical labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinzer, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides the essential details to understand and design HF/DF and related types of chemical lasers. The basic operation of the HF/DF chemical laser is described. The details of the excitation chemistry are presented and the pertinent laser physics is described. A description of the various laser components is given and the analytical models for the HF/DF chemical laser are discussed. A brief description of the chain reaction HF/DF chemical laser is offered

  14. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter.

  15. Clock Distribution and Readout Architecture for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio Argos, Fernando; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is one detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). TileCal is a sampling calorimeter made of steel plates and plastic scintillators which are readout using approximately 10,000 PhotoMultipliers Tubes (PMTs). In 2024, the LHC will undergo a series of upgrades towards a High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) to deliver up to 7.5 times the current nominal instantaneous luminosity. The ATLAS Tile Phase II Upgrade will accommodate detector and data acquisition system to the HL-LHC requirements. The detector electronics will be redesigned using a new clock distribution and readout architecture with a full-digital trigger system. After the Long Shutdown 3 (2024-2026), the on-detector electronics will transfer digitized data for every bunch crossing (~25 ns) to the Tile PreProcessors (TilePPr) in the counting rooms with a total data bandwidth of 40 Tbps. The TilePPrs will store the detector data in pipeline memories to cope with the new ATLAS DAQ architecture requirements...

  16. The upgrade of the laser calibration system for the ATLAS hadron calorimeter TileCal

    CERN Document Server

    Spalla, Margherita; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers and read‐out by photomultipliers (PMT). The performance of TileCal relies on a continuous, high resolution calibration of the individual response of the 10,000 channels forming the detector. The calibration is based on a three level architecture: a charge injection system used to monitor the full electronics chain including front-end amplifiers, digitizers and event builder blocks for each individual channel; a distributed optical system using laser pulses to excite all PMTs; and a mobile Cesium radiative source which is driven through the detector cell floating inside a pipe system. This architecture allows for a cascade calibration of the electronics, of the PMT and electronics, and of full chain including the active detec...

  17. A COME and KISS QDC read-out scheme for the HADES Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rost, Adrian [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: HADES-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    At the future FAIR Facility in Darmstadt the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer will continue its physics program. For beam energies between 2 and 40 GeV/u the database for pion and eta production is not complete. Therefore, interpretation of future di-electron data would have to depend on interpolations or on theoretical models. The addition of an electromagnetic calorimeter to HADES would allow such measurements and would additionally improve the electron-to-pion separation at large momentum p>0.4 GeV/c. Furthermore, photon measurement would be of a large interest for the HADES strangeness program. An 8 channel QDC Front-End-Electronics (FEE) was developed for the signals of photomultipliers (PMTs) from lead-glass calorimeter modules. The measurement principle is to convert the charge of the PMT signals into a pulse, where the charge is encoded in the width of the pulse. The width of the pulses is afterwards measured by the already well-established TRBv3 platform. For that simple electronics, hiding complex operations inside a commercial FPGA is used. In this contribution the current status and future perspectives of this read-out concept are shown.

  18. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achenbach, R; Andrei, V; Adragna, P; Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J P; Asman, B; Bohm, C; Ay, C; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Dahlhoff, A; Eckweiler, S; Booth, J R A; Thomas, P Bright; Charlton, D G; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger uses reduced-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters to search for high transverse-energy electrons, photons, τ leptons and jets, as well as high missing and total transverse energy. The calorimeter trigger electronics has a fixed latency of about 1 μs, using programmable custom-built digital electronics. This paper describes the Calorimeter Trigger hardware, as installed in the ATLAS electronics cavern

  19. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achenbach, R; Andrei, V [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Adragna, P [Physics Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J P [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Asman, B; Bohm, C [Fysikum, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ay, C; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Dahlhoff, A; Eckweiler, S [Institut fuer Physik, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Booth, J R A; Thomas, P Bright; Charlton, D G; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: e.eisenhandler@qmul.ac.uk (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger uses reduced-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters to search for high transverse-energy electrons, photons, {tau} leptons and jets, as well as high missing and total transverse energy. The calorimeter trigger electronics has a fixed latency of about 1 {mu}s, using programmable custom-built digital electronics. This paper describes the Calorimeter Trigger hardware, as installed in the ATLAS electronics cavern.

  20. The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  1. The CHORUS calorimeter: test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buontempo, S.; Capone, A.; Cocco, A.G.; De Pedis, D.; Di Capua, E.; Dore, U.; Ereditato, A.; Ferroni, M.; Fiorillo, G.; Loverre, P.F.; Luppi, C.; Macina, D.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Migliozzi, P.; Palladino, V.; Piredda, G.; Riccardi, F.; Righini, P.P.; Saitta, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Strolin, P.; Zucchelli, P.

    1995-01-01

    In the framework of the CHORUS experiment for the search of ν μ ν τ oscillations at CERN, we have built the high resolution calorimeter, intended for the measurement of the energy of hadronic showers produced in neutrino interactions. The calorimeter consists of three parts. The first two are made of lead and plastic scintillating fibers in the volume ratio 4 : 1, such as to achieve compensation. The third is a sandwich of lead plates and scintillator strips in the same volume ratio. The techniques used for the construction of the calorimeter are described, as well as its performance in shower and muon detection. We used electron, pion and muon beams in the energy range 2-100 GeV for this purpose. (orig.)

  2. Overview of the Calorimeter Readout Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Straessner, Arno; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS and CMS calorimeter electronics will be upgraded for the HL-LHC data taking phase to cope with higher event pile-up and to allow improved trigger strategies. This presentations gives an overview of the ongoing developments for the CMS barrel calorimeters and the ATLAS LAr and Tile calorimeters.

  3. Polystyrene calorimeter for electron beam dose measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Calorimeters from polystrene have been constructed for dose measurement at 4-10 MeV electron accelerators. These calorimeters have been used successfully for a few years, and polystyrene calorimeters for use at energies down to 1 MeV and being tested. Advantage of polystyrene as the absorbing...

  4. Some possible improvements in scintillation calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, E.

    1985-03-01

    Two ideas for improvements of scintillation calorimeters will be presented: a) improved readout of scintillating, totally active electromagnetic calorimeters with combinations of silicon photodiodes and fluorescent panel collectors, b) use of time structure analysis on calorimetry, both for higher rate applications and improved resolution for hadron calorimeters. (orig.)

  5. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Spalding.

    Following the shutdown activities (see previous Bulletin), the HCAL detectors were commissioned with extensive global and cosmic running. All of the 2592, 2592, and 1728 channels of HB, HE and HF, respectively, are operational. The campaign for replacing those HPDs that showed increased noise level or other anomalies in CRAFT08 was completed during last spring. So far none of the HPDs in HB and HE have shown any sign of deterioration of noise level. Only one HO HPD in one of the outer wheels (YB-1), where problems with noise discharge in magnetic field were expected, started discharging a few months ago, and its high voltage was turned off. Two other HPDs in HO YB-1 had the HV turned off due to over-current. The total number of non-functional HO channels is 83, seven of which located in YB0. Similarly ZDC is fully functional. CASTOR was installed in June, and initial commissioning carried out with the magnetic field and with first circulating beam. On the jet trigger side, we observe perfec...

  6. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Mans and P. De Barbaro

    2012-01-01

      During first three months of LHC operation in 2012 (April-June 2012), HCAL performed well.  Out of a total of 6.15 fb–1 recorded by CMS, 230 pb–1 had to be declared as ‘bad’ during certification process due to HCAL-related problems. There were two major sources of ‘bad’ data coming from HCAL. Firstly, RBX data losses resulted in approximately 90 pb–1 declared as ‘bad’. The RBX data loss problems are caused by Single Event Upsets (SEU) in Clock and Control Modules (CCMs). As CCMs are not accessible with the CMS detector closed, this problem can be only fixed during LS1. The second major source of  ‘bad’ data was a failure of TTCrx chip (installed on HF detector), which resulted in a loss of almost 80 pb–1. The intervention required access to the cavern, and so the unit could only be replaced during the inter-fill period. In 2011 and early 2012, we have...

  7. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    Andris Skuja

    HE HE+ was connected to its LV system after delivery delays and then repairs of the power supplies. Commissioning of HE+ has been completed (pedestals, LED, gain changing for different HV values). Still to be done are laser measurement runs for both response and timing as well as pedestal measurements in histogram mode. In addition HV tests to evaluate a possible light leak were done. No light leak was discovered. HE- has been connected to HTRs, TTC sources, DCS and LVTMM services. No channels are missing and good agreement is found between the new pedestals values and old measurements. However, commissioning of HE- is not complete. Still missing is the measurement of HPD gain as a function of HV values. Laser runs and pedestal measurements in histogram mode are also not finished. All 6 permanent source drivers have been installed on HE (3 on each HE), connected to control lines and to high pressure air lines. All of them have passed a primary functionality test. HF The HFs are essentially complete as demo...

  8. HADRON CALORIMETER (HCAL)

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Skuja

    HB installation and commissioning has been completed. The commissioning of HO and HF- is in progress. HE-will be lowered in early 2008 and will be comissioned at that time. HCAL DAQ With the completion of HCAL Barrel commissioning, the HCAL Online Software group has deployed a large number of significant updates to the software. These updates bring the HCAL software closer to final operations. At the core level, the HCAL software has been ported to the latest complete XDAQ release (3.11/Release 4). In parallel, significant effort has been made on zero suppression, front-end configuration, online databases, and monitoring. A major effort since the last CMS Week has been made to enable zero-suppression in HCAL - an effort which involves the DPG, the online SW group, and the firmware/ electronics team. The zero-suppression algorithm was specified by the DPG group based on simulation work, implemented and tested by the firmware team, and supported by the software team. Zero-suppression will be deployed for t...

  9. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00223142; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Current and future need for large scale simulated samples motivate the development of reliable fast simulation techniques. The new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is an improved parameterized response of single particles in the ATLAS calorimeter that aims to accurately emulate the key features of the detailed calorimeter response as simulated with Geant4, yet approximately ten times faster. Principal component analysis and machine learning techniques are used to improve the performance and decrease the memory need compared to the current version of the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation. A prototype of this new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is in development and its integration into the ATLAS simulation infrastructure is ongoing.

  10. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaarschmidt, J.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Current and future need for large scale simulated samples motivate the development of reliable fast simulation techniques. The new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is an improved parameterized response of single particles in the ATLAS calorimeter that aims to accurately emulate the key features of the detailed calorimeter response as simulated with Geant4, yet approximately ten times faster. Principal component analysis and machine learning techniques are used to improve the performance and decrease the memory need compared to the current version of the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation. A prototype of this new Fast Calorimeter Simulation is in development and its integration into the ATLAS simulation infrastructure is ongoing.

  11. Software studies of GLD calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a reconstruction code in a GEANT4-based simulator, and evaluate the performance with single π0's. In the GLD, an option for the hadron calorimeter, the so-called digital calorime- ter, is still under consideration. It has a huge number of small active cells, signals from which are read out as 1-bit digital value (or at most few ...

  12. COE1 Calorimeter Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santi, Peter Angelo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the operations of the COE1 calorimeter which is used to measure the thermal power generated by the radioactive decay of plutonium-bearing materials for the purposes of assaying the amount of plutonium within the material.

  13. Concerning background from calorimeter ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digiacomo, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    Any detector system viewing a port or slit in a calorimeter wall will see, in addition to the primary particles of interest, a background of charged and neutral particles and photons generated by scattering from the port walls and by leakage from incompletely contained primary particle showers in the calorimeter near the port. The signal to noise ratio attainable outside the port is a complex function of the primary source spectrum, the calorimeter and port design and, of course, the nature and acceptance of the detector system that views the port. Rather than making general statements about the overall suitability (or lack thereof) of calorimeter ports, we offer here a specific example based on the external spectrometer and slit of the NA34 experiment. This combination of slit and spectrometer is designed for fixed-target work, so that the primary particle momentum spectrum contains higher momentum particles than expected in a heavy ion colliding beam environment. The results are, nevertheless, quite relevant for the collider case

  14. Fast Calorimeter Simulation in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaarschmidt, Jana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the very large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During the LHC Run-1, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than GEANT4. It is 500 times faster than full simulation in the calorimeter system. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim makes use of mach...

  15. ELECTRONICS FOR CALORIMETERS AT LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.

    2001-01-01

    Some principal design features of front-end electronics for calorimeters in experiments at the LHC will be highlighted. Some concerns arising in the transition from the research and development and design phase to the construction will be discussed. Future challenges will be indicated

  16. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shebalin, V. E., E-mail: V.E.Shebalin@inp.nsk.su; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Epifanov, D. A. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ∼6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV.

  17. An instant dose obtainable in situ calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, H.; Mento, D.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a computer-linked water calorimeter is described. The advantages of this system are twofold: (i) instant dose determination is possible; and (ii) the calorimeter operation is much simpler than conventional null balance techniques. The entire calorimeter measurement procedure from the set-up to the dose determination for 10 runs was finished in approximately 2 1/2 h. A smaller calorimeter which could be kept in the treatment room for equilibrium, should permit further reduction of the time. The use of a smaller, portable computer would allow local data taking and analysis, eliminating the need for modems, phone lines and long cables. This would lead to a completely self-contained set-up at the treatment room. Although the technique is described for a polystyrene-water calorimeter, it should be equally applicable for a water calorimeter as well as a conventional isolated calorimeter. (author)

  18. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebalin, V. E.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ∼6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV

  19. HF-laser program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The HF laser is an attractive candidate driver for a large-system ICF scientific demonstration facility, for an ICF experimental power reactor and for a commercial laser--fusion power reactor. Previous accomplishments of the program have included demonstrations of high efficiency and high energy capability, efficient energy extraction from HF amplifiers, good beam quality and focusability, and short-pulse generation and amplification. In the reporting period, beam quality has been determined to be near-diffraction limited for a short pulsewidth (6 ns to 25 ns) oscillator-amplifier chain, suppression of amplified spontaneous emission has been demonstrated on an individual spectral line, high-pressure characteristics have been determined for the Phoenix I amplifier, and detailed comparisions between the kinetic code and experiments have been made. Details of two major upcoming experiments are also included. The first is energy extraction and beam quality measurements on the Phoenix I amplifier operating under saturated output power conditions. The second experiment, using a newly designed amplifier (Phoenix II), is designed to demonstrate the concept of angular-multiplexing: a pulse width-compression scheme

  20. Pulsed inductive HF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razhev, A M; Kargapol' tsev, E S [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, D S; Demchuk, S V [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    We report the results of experimentally investigated dependences of temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of an inductive HF-laser generation on the pump conditions. Gas mixtures H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF6{sub 6}) and He(Ne) – H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF{sub 6}) were used as active media. The FWHM pulse duration reached 0.42 μs. This value corresponded to a pulsed power of 45 kW. For the first time, the emission spectrum of an inductive HF laser was investigated, which consisted of seven groups of bands with centres around the wavelengths of 2732, 2736, 2739, 2835, 2837, 2893 and 2913 nm. The cross section profile of the laser beam was a ring with a diameter of about 20 mm and width of about 5 mm. Parameters of laser operation in the repetitively pulsed regime were sufficiently stable. The amplitude instability of light pulses was no greater than 5% – 6%. (lasers)

  1. HF-DLLME

    OpenAIRE

    Simão, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Físicas e Matemáticas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, Florianópolis, 2015. Neste trabalho foi proposto, pela primeira vez, a combinação simultânea das técnicas de microextração em fase líquida suportada em fibra oca (HF-LPME) e microextração líquido-líquido dispersiva (DLLME) para aplicação em amostras líquidas. Dois estudos foram desenvolvidos utilizando a metodologia proposta, a qua...

  2. ''Massless gaps'' for solenoid + calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marraffino, J.; Wu, W.; Beretvas, A.; Green, D.; Denisenko, K.; Para, A.

    1991-11-01

    The necessary existence of material in front of the first active element in a calorimeter will degrade the performance of that device. The question is by what factor. The follow up question is what can be done to minimize the damage. These questions are usually of primary importance for liquid argon calorimetry because of the necessity of containment dewars. However, the problem is universal. For example, the Solenoid Detector Collaboration, SDC, has proposed a superconducting coil which would be placed in front of the EM calorimeter. Although much effort has been made to minimize the depth of material in the coil, still the resolution and linearity must be optimized if the SDC goal of precision electromagnetic (EM) calorimetry is to be realized

  3. Electromagnetic calorimeter on liquid krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzotti, M.; Bianco, G.L.; Lanni, F.; Maggi, B.; Palombo, F.; Sala, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on use of noble condensed gases as calorimeter media that is attractive due to the possibility to get not only good energy resolution (like in NaI and CsI calorimeters) but better space resolution for photons. Longitudinal segmentation can provide information for particle identification by dE/dx and also e/π-separation based on longitudinal structure of the shower. The best material for this aim is of course liquid Zenon, but it is impossible to get the necessary amount of it in reasonable time. Therefore, the authors have stopped their choice on the next candidate-liquid Krypton (LKr). Its sufficient amount can be obtained before to the beginning of the experiment

  4. Next Generation CALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Grondin, Denis; Jeans, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents mechanical R&D for the CALICE Silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter. After the physics ECAL prototype, tested in 2006 (DESY-CERN), 2007 (CERN), 2008 (FNAL) and before the design of different 'modules 0' (barrel and endcap) for a final detector, a technological ECAL prototype, called the EUDET module, is under design in order to have a close to full scale technological solution which could be used for the final detector, taking into account future industrialisation o...

  5. Next Generation CALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Grondin, Denis; Jeans, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents mechanical R&D for the CALICE Silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter. After the physics ECAL prototype, tested in 2006 (DESY-CERN), 2007 (CERN), 2008 (FNAL) and before the design of different "modules 0" (barrel and endcap) for a final detector, a technological ECAL prototype, called the EUDET module, is under design in order to have a close to full scale technological solution which could be used for the final detector, taking into account future industrialisation o...

  6. The KLOE fiber electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incagli, Marco

    1998-01-01

    The construction and equipment of the KLOE electromagnetic calorimeter has ended in March 1997. In parallel to the construction, all modules have been tested at the Cosmic Ray Test Stand (CRTS) facility, in Frascati National Laboratories (Rome). The construction technique, based on scintillating fibers alternated to very thin (0.5 mm) grooved lead planes, is described and the main results both from the CRTS and from a preliminary Test Beam with low energy electrons and muons are reported in this note

  7. The T.M. Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas, P.; Goer, J. de

    1970-01-01

    The T.M. calorimeter is the isothermal type. It consists only of a sample of graphite and a jacket of stainless steel filled with nitrogen. The chromel-alumel thermocouples which measure the temperature difference between the sample and the jacket also serve to suspend the sample. The jacket is kept at a constant temperature: i.e. that of the water in the swimming pool

  8. Electromagnetic Calorimeter for HADES Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Ramos P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL is being developed to complement dilepton spectrometer HADES. ECAL will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 AGeV on the beam of future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. We will report results of the last beam test with quasi-monoenergetic photons carried out in MAMI facility at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz.

  9. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Heelan, Louise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design ...

  10. High energy HF pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, E.L.; Gerber, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Recent experiments show that pulsed HF lasers are capable of producing high energy with good efficiency. Preliminary experiments show that the laser radiation from the high-gain medium can be controlled with a low-power probe laser beam or with low-level feedback. These results indicate that the HF laser may have potential for second-generation laser fusion experiments

  11. Upgrading ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Matthew Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the very large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During the LHC Run-1, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than Geant4. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim aims to overcome some limitations of the first version by improving the description of s...

  12. Central hadron calorimeter of UA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corden, M.J.; Dowell, J.D.; Edwards, M.J.

    1983-12-01

    An iron-scintillator sampling calorimeter is described, which measures hadronic energy in proton-antiproton interactions at the CERN 540 GeV SPS collider. Construction details are given of the instrumentation of the magnet pieces of the UA1 experiment and of the methods used to measure the calorimeter response and resolution. The system of lasers and quartz fibres, which allows long term monitoring of the calorimeter response, is also described. (author)

  13. Rugged calorimeter with a fast rise time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtry, W.M.; Dolce, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    An intrinsic 1-mil-thick gold foil calorimeter has been developed which rises to 95% of the energy deposited in less than 2 microseconds. This calorimeter is very rugged, and can withstand rough handling without damage. The time constant is long, in the millisecond range, because of its unique construction. Use of this calorimeter has produced 100% data recovery, and agreement with true deposition to less than 10%

  14. Central hadron calorimeter of UA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corden, M.J.; Dowell, J.D.; Edwards, M.J.; Ellis, N.N.; Garvey, J.; Grant, D.; Homer, R.J.; Kenyon, I.R.; McMahon, T.J.; Schanz, G.; Sumorok, K.C.T.O.; Watkins, P.M.; Wilson, J.A.; Barnes, G.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Eisenhandler, E.; Gibson, W.R.; Honma, A.K.; Kalmus, P.I.P.; Keeler, R.K.; Pritchard, T.W.; Salvi, G.A.P.; Thompson, G.; Arnison, G.T.J.; Astbury, A.; Cash, A.R.; Grayer, G.H.; Haynes, W.J.; Hill, D.L.; Moore, D.R.; Nandi, A.K.; Percival, M.D.; Roberts, J.H.C.; Scott, W.G.; Shah, T.P.; Stanhope, R.J.; White, D.E.A.

    1985-01-01

    An iron-scintillator sampling calorimeter is described, which measures hadronic energy in proton-antiproton interactions at the CERN 540 GeV SPS collider. Construction details are given of the instrumentation of the magnet pieces of the UA1 experiment and of the methods used to measure the calorimeter response and resolution. The system of lasers and quartz fibres, which allows long term monitoring of the calorimeter response, is also described. (orig.)

  15. Signal processing for liquid ionization calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, W.E.; Stern, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the effects of thermal and pileup noise in liquid ionization calorimeters operating in a high luminosity calorimeters operating in a high luminosity environment. The method of optimal filtering of multiply-sampled signals which may be used to improve the timing and amplitude resolution of calorimeter signals is described, and its implications for signal shaping functions are examined. The dependence of the time and amplitude resolution on the relative strength of the pileup and thermal noise, which varies with such parameters as luminosity, rapidity and calorimeter cell size, is examined

  16. Family reunion for the UA2 calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Abha Eli Phoboo

    2015-01-01

    After many years in CERN’s Microcosm exhibition, the last surviving UA2 central calorimeter module has been moved to Hall 175, the technical development laboratory of the ATLAS Tile Hadronic Calorimeter (Tilecal). The UA2 and ATLAS calorimeters are cousins, as both were designed by Otto Gildemeister. Now side by side, the calorimeters illustrate the progress made in sampling organic scintillator calorimeters over the past 35 years.   The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter prototypes (left) and the UA2 central calorimeter (right) in Hall 175. (Image: Mario Campanelli/ATLAS.) From 1981 to 1990, the UA2 experiment was one of the two detectors on CERN’s flagship accelerator, the SPS. At the heart of the UA2 detector was the central calorimeter. It was made up of 24 slices – each weighing four tonnes – arranged like orange segments around the collision point. These calorimeter slices played a central role in the research carried out by UA2 for the discovery of W bosons...

  17. Secondary Emission Calorimeter Sensor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, David R.; Onel, Yasar

    2012-12-01

    In a Secondary Emission electron(SEe) detector module, Secondary Emission electrons (SEe) are generated from an SE surface/cathode, when charged hadronic or electromagnetic particles, particularly shower particles, penetrate an SE sampling module placed between absorber materials (Fe, Cu, Pb, W etc) in calorimeters. The SE cathode is a thin (10-50 nm thick) film (simple metal-oxides, or other higher yield materials) on the surface of a metal plate, which serves as the entrance “window” to a compact vacuum vessel (metal or metal-ceramic); this SE film cathode is analogous to a photocathode, and the SEe are similar to p.e., which are then amplified by dynodes, also is in a PMT. SE sensor modules can make use of electrochemically etched/machined or laser-cut metal mesh dynode sheets, as large as ~30 cm square, to amplify the Secondary Emission Electrons (SEe), much like those that compact metal mesh or mesh dynode PMT's use to amplify p.e.'s. The construction requirements easier than a PMT, since the entire final assembly can be done in air; there are no critical controlled thin film depositions, cesiation or other oxygen-excluded processes or other required vacuum activation, and consequently bake-out can be a refractory temperatures; the module is sealed by normal vacuum techniques (welding or brazing or other high temperature joinings), with a simple final heated vacuum pump-out and tip-off. The modules envisioned are compact, high gain, high speed, exceptionally radiation damage resistant, rugged, and cost effective, and can be fabricated in arbitrary tileable shapes. The SE sensor module anodes can be segmented transversely to sizes appropriate to reconstruct electromagnetic cores with high precision. The GEANT4 and existing calorimeter data estimated calorimeter response performance is between 35-50 Secondary Emission electrons per GeV, in a 1 cm thick Cu absorber calorimeter, with a gain per SEe > 105 per SEe, and an e/pi<1.2. The calorimeter pulse width is

  18. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters: integration, installation and commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end-caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters positioned in three cryostats. Since May 2006 the LAr barrel calorimeter records regular calibration runs and takes cosmic muon data together with tile hadronic calorimeter in the ATLAS cavern. The cosmic runs with end-cap calorimeters started in April 2007. First results of these combined runs are presented

  19. Status of the ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitner, R.

    2005-01-01

    Short status of the Tile Calorimeter project is given. Major achievements in the mechanical construction of the detector modules, their instrumentation, cylinders assembly, as well as the principles of the detector front-end electronics, are described. The ideas of Tile Calorimeter module calibration are presented

  20. An overview of CMS central hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Katta, S

    2002-01-01

    The central hadron calorimeter for CMS detector is a sampling calorimeter with active medium as scintillator plates interleaved with brass absorber plates. It covers the central pseudorapidity region (¿ eta ¿<3.0). The design and construction aspects are reported. The status of construction and assembly of various subdetectors of HCAL are presented. (5 refs).

  1. Cone calorimeter tests of wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Kuma Sumathipala

    2013-01-01

    The cone calorimeter is widely used for the determination of the heat release rate (HRR) of building products and other materials. As part of an effort to increase the availability of cone calorimeter data on wood products, the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory and the American Wood Council conducted this study on composite wood products in cooperation with the Composite...

  2. Mounting LHCb hadron calorimeter scintillating tiles

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Scintillating tiles are carefully mounted in the hadronic calorimeter for the LHCb detector. These calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  3. Assembly of the CMS hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The hadronic calorimeter is assembled on the end-cap of the CMS detector in the assembly hall. Hadronic calorimeters measure the energy of particles that interact via the strong force, called hadrons. The detectors are made in a sandwich-like structure where these scintillator tiles are placed between metal sheets.

  4. The Scintillator Tile Hadronic Calorimeter Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinov, V.

    2006-01-01

    A high granularity scintillator hadronic calorimeter prototype is described. The calorimeter is based on a novel photodetector - Silicon Photo-Multiplier (SiPM). The main parameters of SiPM are discussed as well as readout cell construction and optimization. The experience with a small prototype production and testing is described. A new 8 k channel prototype is being manufactured now

  5. Several versions of forward gas ionization calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babintsev, V.V.; Kholodenko, A.G.; Rodnov, Yu.V.

    1994-01-01

    The properties of several versions of a gas ionization calorimeter are analyzed by means of the simulation with the GEANT code. The jet energy and coordinate resolutions are evaluated. Some versions of the forward calorimeter meet the ATLAS requirements. 13 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs

  6. LHCb: Physics with the LHCb calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Barsuk, S

    2007-01-01

    The LHCb calorimeter comprises the scintillator pad detector (SPD), preshower (PS), electromagnetic Shashlyk type (ECAL) and hadronichadronic Tile (HCAL) calorimeters, arranged in pseudo-projective geometry. All the four detectors follow the general principle of reading the light from scintillator tiles with wave length shifting fibers, and transporting the light towards photomultipliers (25 ns R/O).

  7. Calorimeter triggers for hard collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.; Polkinghorne, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    We discuss the use of a forward calorimeter to trigger on hard hadron-hadron collisions. We give a derivation in the covariant parton model of the Ochs-Stodolsky scaling law for single-hard-scattering processes, and investigate the conditions when instead a multiple- scattering mechanism might dominate. With a proton beam, this mechanism results in six transverse jets, with a total average multiplicity about twice that seen in ordinary events. We estimate that its cross section is likely to be experimentally accessible at avalues of the beam energy in the region of 100 GeV/c

  8. The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allgower, C.E.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Balewski, J.; Belt-Tonjes, M.; Bland, L.C.; Brown, R.L.; Cadman, R.V.; Christie, W.; Cyliax, I.; Dunin, V.; Efimov, L.; Eppley, G.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Hallman, T.; Hunt, W.; Jacobs, W.W.; Klyachko, A.; Krueger, K.; Kulikov, A.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Y.; Planinic, M.; Puskar-Pasewicz, J.; Rakness, G.; Razin, S.; Rogachevski, O.; Shimansky, S.; Solberg, K.A.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.; Stephenson, E.J.; Tikhomirov, V.; Tokarev, M.; Tribble, R.E.; Underwood, D.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vigdor, S.E.; Watson, J.W.; Westfall, G.; Wissink, S.W.; Yokosawa, A.; Yurevich, V.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zubarev, A.

    2003-01-01

    The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter will provide full azimuthal coverage for high-p T photons, electrons and electromagnetically decaying mesons over the pseudorapidity range 1.086≤η≤2.00. It includes a scintillating-strip shower-maximum detector to provide π 0 /γ discrimination and preshower and postshower layers to aid in distinguishing between electrons and charged hadrons. The triggering capabilities and coverage it offers are crucial for much of the spin physics program to be carried out in polarized proton-proton collisions

  9. The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgower, C.E.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Balewski, J.; Belt-Tonjes, M.; Bland, L.C.; Brown, R.L.; Cadman, R.V.; Christie, W.; Cyliax, I.; Dunin, V.; Efimov, L.; Eppley, G.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Hallman, T.; Hunt, W.; Jacobs, W.W.; Klyachko, A.; Krueger, K.; Kulikov, A.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Y.; Planinic, M.; Puskar-Pasewicz, J.; Rakness, G.; Razin, S.; Rogachevski, O.; Shimansky, S.; Solberg, K.A.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.; Stephenson, E.J.; Tikhomirov, V.; Tokarev, M.; Tribble, R.E.; Underwood, D.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vigdor, S.E. E-mail: vigdor@iucf.indiana.edu; Watson, J.W.; Westfall, G.; Wissink, S.W.; Yokosawa, A.; Yurevich, V.; Zhang, W.-M.; Zubarev, A

    2003-03-01

    The STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter will provide full azimuthal coverage for high-p{sub T} photons, electrons and electromagnetically decaying mesons over the pseudorapidity range 1.086{<=}{eta}{<=}2.00. It includes a scintillating-strip shower-maximum detector to provide {pi}{sup 0}/{gamma} discrimination and preshower and postshower layers to aid in distinguishing between electrons and charged hadrons. The triggering capabilities and coverage it offers are crucial for much of the spin physics program to be carried out in polarized proton-proton collisions.

  10. ATLAS Tile calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes, located in the outer part of the calorimeter. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read out by two photomultiplier in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. The calibration system comprises Cesium radioactive sources, laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Combined information from all systems allows to monitor and equalise the calorimeter r...

  11. Upgrading the Fast Calorimeter Simulation in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaarschmidt, Jana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The tremendous need for simulated samples now and even more so in the future, encourage the development of fast simulation techniques. The Fast Calorimeter Simulation is a faster though less accurate alternative to the full calorimeter simulation with Geant4. It is based on parametrizing the longitudunal and lateral energy deposits of single particles in the ATLAS calorimeter. Principal component analysis and machine learning techniques are used to improve the performance and decrease the memory need compared to the current version of the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation. The parametrizations are expanded to cover very high energies and very forward detector regions, to increase the applicability of the tool. A prototype of this upgraded Fast Calorimeter Simulation has been developed and first validations with single particles show substantial improvements over the previous version.

  12. The large hadron collider beauty experiment calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, A.; LHCb Collaboration; Martens, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment (LHCb), one of the four largest experiments at the LHC at CERN, is dedicated to precision studies of CP violation and other rare effects, in particular in the b and c quark sectors. It aims at precisely measuring the Standard Model parameters and searching for effects inconsistent with this picture. The LHCb calorimeter system comprises a scintillating pad detector, a pre-shower (PS), electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic calorimeters, all of these employing the principle of transporting the light from scintillating layers with wavelength shifting fibers to photomultipliers. The fast response of the calorimeters ensures their key role in the LHCb trigger, which has to cope with the LHC collision rate of 40MHz. After discussing the design and expected performance of the LHCb calorimeter system, one addresses the time and energy calibration issues. The results obtained with the calorimeter system from the first LHC data will be shown.

  13. Hf på VUC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette; Hansen, Niels-Henrik Møller

    . Konkret har forskningsprojektet 3 mål: At afdække hf-kursisternes tidligere uddannelsesforløb og -erfaringer, før de starter på hf på VUC.At afdække, hvordan mødet med uddannelsens studiemiljø opleves af kursisterne, og ikke mindst kursisternes oplevelse af undervisningsformer, lærere mm.At afdække, hvad...

  14. Fast calorimeter simulation in LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Fast calorimeter simulation in LHCb In HEP experiments CPU resources required by MC simulations are constantly growing and become a very large fraction of the total computing power (greater than 75%). At the same time the pace of performance improvements from technology is slowing down, so the only solution is a more efficient use of resources. Efforts are ongoing in the LHC experiments to provide multiple options for simulating events in a faster way when higher statistics is needed. A key of the success for this strategy is the possibility of enabling fast simulation options in a common framework with minimal action by the final user. In this talk we will describe the solution adopted in Gauss, the LHCb simulation software framework, to selectively exclude particles from being simulated by the Geant4 toolkit and to insert the corresponding hits generated in a faster way. The approach, integrated within the Geant4 toolkit, has been applied to the LHCb calorimeter but it could also be used for other subdetec...

  15. Timing distribution and Data Flow for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Phase II Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)713745; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Hadronic Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) detector is one of the several subsystems composing the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC upgrade program plans an increase of order five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity culminating in the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In order to accommodate the detector to the new HL-LHC parameters, the TileCal read out electronics is being redesigned introducing a new read out strategy with a full-digital trigger system. In the new read out architecture, the front-end electronics allocates the MainBoards and the DaughterBoards. The MainBoard digitizes the analog signals coming from the PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMTs), provides integrated data for minimum bias monitoring and includes electronics for PMT calibration. The DaughterBoard receives and distributes Detector Control System (DCS) commands, clock and timing commands to the rest of the elements of the front-end electronics, as well as, collects and transmits the digitized data to the back-e...

  16. The Monitoring and Calibration Web Systems for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Data Quality Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivolella, A; Maidantchik, C; Ferreira, F

    2012-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is one of the ATLAS sub-detectors. The read-out is performed by about 10,000 PhotoMultiplier Tubes (PMTs). The signal of each PMT is digitized by an electronic channel. The Monitoring and Calibration Web System (MCWS) supports the data quality analysis of the electronic channels. This application was developed to assess the detector status and verify its performance. It can provide to the user the list of TileCal known problematic channels, that is stored in the ATLAS condition database (COOL DB). The bad channels list guides the data quality validator in identifying new problematic channels and is used in data reconstruction and the system allows to update the channels list directly in the COOL database. MCWS can generate summary results, such as eta-phi plots and comparative tables of the masked channels percentage. Regularly, during the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) shutdown a maintenance of the detector equipments is performed. When a channel is repaired, its calibration constants stored in the COOL database have to be updated. Additionally MCWS system manages the update of these calibration constants values in the COOL database. The MCWS has been used by the Tile community since 2008, during the commissioning phase, and was upgraded to comply with ATLAS operation specifications. Among its future developments, it is foreseen an integration of MCWS with the TileCal control Web system (DCS) in order to identify high voltage problems automatically.

  17. Intercalibration of the ZEUS high resolution and backing calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Czyrkowski, H.; Derlicki, A.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Kudla, I.; Kusmierz, W.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Rajca, A.; Stopczynski, A.; Walczak, R.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Kowalski, T.Z.

    1991-07-01

    We have studied the combined performance of two calorimeters, the high resolution uranium-scintillator prototype of the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL), followed by a prototype of the coarser ZEUS backing calorimeter (BAC), made out of thick iron plates interleaved with planes of aluminium proportional chambers. The test results, obtained in an exposure of the calorimeter system to a hadron test beam at the CERN-SPS, show that the backing calorimeter does fulfil its role of recognizing the energy leaking out of the FCAL calorimeter. The measurement of this energy is feasible, if an appropriate calibration of the BAC calorimeter is performed. (orig.)

  18. Intercalibration of the ZEUS high resolution and backing calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Czyrkowski, H.; Derlicki, A.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Kudla, I.; Kusmierz, W.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Rajca, A.; Stopczynski, A.; Walczak, R.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Kowalski, T.Z.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the combined performance of two calorimeters, the high resolution uranium-scintillator prototype of the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL), followed by a prototype of the coarser ZEUS backing calorimeter (BAC), made out of thick iron plates interleaved with planes of aluminium proportional chambers. The test results, obtained in an exposure of the calorimeter system to a hadron test beam at the CERN SPS, show that the backing calorimeter does fulfil its role of recognizing the energy leaking out of the FCAL calorimeter. The measurement of this energy is feasible, if an appropriate calibration of the BAC calorimeter is performed. (orig.)

  19. Large capacity water and air bath calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, S.J.; Kasperski, P.W.; Renz, D.P.; Wetzel, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    EG and G Mound Applied Technologies has developed an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size water bath and an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size air bath calorimeter which both function under servo control mode of operation. The water bath calorimeter has four air bath preconditioners to increase sample throughput and the air bath calorimeter has two air bath preconditioners. The large capacity calorimeters and preconditioners were unique to Mound design which brought about unique design challenges. Both large capacity systems calculate the optimum set temperature for each preconditioner which is available to the operator. Each system is controlled by a personal computer under DOS which allows the operator to download data to commercial software packages when the calorimeter is idle. Qualification testing yielded a one standard deviation of 0.6% for 0.2W to 3.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the water bath calorimeter and a one standard deviation of 0.3% for the 6.0W to 20.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the air bath calorimeter

  20. Non-compensation of the ATLAS barrel combined calorimeter prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kul'chitskij, Yu.A.; Kuz'min, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The e / π ratio for the ATLAS Barrel Combined Calorimeter Prototype, composed from electromagnetic LArg calorimeter and hadronic Tile calorimeter was investigated. Response of Combined Calorimeter on pions and electrons in the energy region of 20-300 GeV was studied. Found e / h = 1.37 ± 0.01 ± 0.02 is in good agreement with the results from previous Combined Calorimeter tests but has more precisions

  1. First results from the SLD silicon calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berridge, S.C.; Bugg, W.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Weidemann, A.W.; White, S.L.

    1992-07-01

    The small-angle calorimeters of the SLD were successfully operated during the recent SLC engineering run. The Luminosity Monitor and Small-Angle Tagger (LMSAT) covers the angular region between 28 and 68 milliradians from the beam axis, while the Medium-Angle Silicon Calorimeter (MASC) covers the 68--190 milliradian region. Both are silicon-tungsten sampling calorimeters; the LMSAT employs 23 layers of 0.86 X 0 sampling, while the MASC has 10 layers of 1.74 X 0 sampling. We present results from the first run of the SLC with the SLD on beamline

  2. Data acquisition system for LHCb calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Gang; Gong Guanghua; Shao Beibei

    2007-01-01

    LHCb Calorimeter system is mainly used to identify and measure the energy of the photon, electron, hadron produced by the collision of proton. TELL1 is a common data acquisition platform based on FPGA for LHCb experiment. It is used to adopt custom data acquisition and process method for every detector and provide the data standard for the CPU matrix. This paper provides a novel DAQ and data process model in VHDL for Calorimeter. According to this model. We have built an effective Calorimeter DAQ system, which would be used in LHCb Experiment. (authors)

  3. Calorimeter prediction based on multiple exponentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.K.; Bracken, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    Calorimetry allows very precise measurements of nuclear material to be carried out, but it also requires relatively long measurement times to do so. The ability to accurately predict the equilibrium response of a calorimeter would significantly reduce the amount of time required for calorimetric assays. An algorithm has been developed that is effective at predicting the equilibrium response. This multi-exponential prediction algorithm is based on an iterative technique using commercial fitting routines that fit a constant plus a variable number of exponential terms to calorimeter data. Details of the implementation and the results of trials on a large number of calorimeter data sets will be presented

  4. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), General Pictures.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The ZDC Calorimeter for spectator neutrons is made by 44 slabs of W-alloy; each slab has 44 grooves where quartz fibres are placed. The charged particles of the hadronic shower generated by the neutrons make Cerenkov light in the fibres and the light is collected by photomultipliers. Photos from 1 to 9 show the front-face of the calorimeter. Photo n. 10 shows the rear of the calorimeter where the fibres are divided in several groups to go to the different PMs.

  5. Calibration and performance of the CHORUS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buontempo, S.; Capone, A.; Cocco, A.G.; De Pedis, D.; Di Capua, E.; Dore, U.; Ereditato, A.; Ferroni, M.; Fiorillo, G.; Loverre, P.F.; Luppi, C.; Macina, D.; Marchetti-Stasi, F.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Migliozzi, P.; Palladino, V.; Piredda, G.; Ricciardi, S.; Righini, P.P.; Saitta, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Strolin, P.; Zucchelli, P.

    1995-01-01

    A high resolution calorimeter has been built for CHORUS, an experiment which searches for ν μ →ν τ oscillation in the CERN neutrino beam. Aim of the calorimeter is to measure the energy and direction of hadronic showers produced in interactions of the neutrinos in a nuclear emulsion target and to track through-going muons. It is a longitudinally segmented sampling device made of lead and scintillating fibers or strips. This detector has been exposed to beams of pions and electrons of defined momentum for calibration. The method used for energy calibration and results on the calorimeter performance are reported. (orig.)

  6. CMS Calorimeter Trigger Phase I upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klabbers, P; Gorski, T; Bachtis, M; Dasu, S; Fobes, R; Grothe, M; Ross, I; Smith, W H; Compton, K; Farmahini-Farahani, A; Gregerson, A; Seemuth, D; Schulte, M

    2012-01-01

    We present a design for the Phase-1 upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) calorimeter trigger system composed of FPGAs and Multi-GBit/sec links that adhere to the μTCA crate Telecom standard. The upgrade calorimeter trigger will implement algorithms that create collections of isolated and non-isolated electromagnetic objects, isolated and non-isolated tau objects and jet objects. The algorithms are organized in several steps with progressive data reduction. These include a particle cluster finder that reconstructs overlapping clusters of 2x2 calorimeter towers and applies electron identification, a cluster overlap filter, particle isolation determination, jet reconstruction, particle separation and sorting.

  7. MARK II end cap calorimeter electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jared, R.C.; Haggerty, J.S.; Herrup, D.A.; Kirsten, F.A.; Lee, K.L.; Olson, S.R.; Wood, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    An end cap calorimeter system has been added to the MARK II detector in preparation for its use at the SLAC Linear Collider. The calorimeter uses 8744 rectangular proportional counter tubes. This paper describes the design features of the data acquisition electronics that has been installed on the calorimeter. The design and use of computer-based test stands for the amplification and signal-shaping components is also covered. A portion of the complete system has been tested in a beam at SLAC. In these initial tests, using only the calibration provided by the test stands, a resolution of 18%/√E was achieved

  8. The D0 calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, J.

    1992-12-01

    The D0 calorimeter trigger system consists of many levels to make physics motivated trigger decisions. The Level-1 trigger uses hardware techniques to reduce the trigger rate from ∼ 100kHz to 200Hz. It forms sums of electromagnetic and hadronic energy, globally and in towers, along with finding the missing transverse energy. A minimum energy is set on these energy sums to pass the event. The Level-2 trigger is a set of software filters, operating in a parallel-processing microvax farm which further reduces the trigger rate to a few Hertz. These filters will reject events which lack electron candidates, jet candidates, or missing transverse energy in the event. The performance of these triggers during the early running of the D0 detector will also be discussed

  9. Tritium calorimeter setup and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Rodgers, D E

    2002-01-01

    The LBNL tritium calorimeter is a stable instrument capable of measuring tritium with a sensitivity of 25 Ci. Measurement times range from 8-hr to 7-days depending on the thermal conductivity and mass of the material being measured. The instrument allows accurate tritium measurements without requiring that the sample be opened and subsampled, thus reducing personnel exposure and radioactive waste generation. The sensitivity limit is primarily due to response shifts caused by temperature fluctuation in the water bath. The fluctuations are most likely a combination of insufficient insulation from ambient air and precision limitations in the temperature controller. The sensitivity could probably be reduced to below 5 Ci if the following improvements were made: (1) Extend the external insulation to cover the entire bath and increase the top insulation. (2) Improve the seal between the air space above the bath and the outside air to reduce evaporation. This will limit the response drift as the water level drops. (...

  10. Liquid Krypton Calorimeter Calibration Software

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Christina Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Calibration of the liquid krypton calorimeter (LKr) of the NA62 experiment is managed by a set of standalone programs, or an online calibration driver. These programs are similar to those used by NA48, but have been updated to utilize classes and translated to C++ while maintaining a common functionality. A set of classes developed to handle communication with hardware was used to develop the three standalone programs as well as the main driver program for online calibration between bursts. The main calibration driver has been designed to respond to run control commands and receive burst data, both transmitted via DIM. In order to facilitate the process of reading in calibration parameters, a serializable class has been introduced, allowing the replacement of standard text files with XML configuration files.

  11. Are starburst galaxies proton calorimeters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilu; Fields, Brian D.

    2018-03-01

    Several starburst galaxies have been observed in the GeV and TeV bands. In these dense environments, gamma-ray emission should be dominated by cosmic ray (CR) interactions with the interstellar medium (pcrpism → π0 → γγ). Indeed, starbursts may act as proton `calorimeters' where a substantial fraction of CR energy input is emitted in gamma-rays. Here, we build a one-zone, `thick-target' model implementing calorimetry and placing a firm upper bound on gamma-ray emission from CR interactions. The model assumes that CRs are accelerated by supernovae (SNe), and all suffer nuclear interactions rather than escape. Our model has only two free parameters: the CR proton acceleration energy per SN ɛcr, and the proton injection spectral index s. We calculate the pionic gamma-ray emission from 10 MeV to 10 TeV, and derive thick-target parameters for six galaxies with Fermi, H.E.S.S., and/or VERITAS data. Our model provides good fits for the M82 and NGC 253, and yields ɛcr and s values suggesting that SN CR acceleration is similar in starbursts and in our Galaxy. We find that these starbursts are indeed nearly if not fully proton calorimeters. For NGC 4945 and NGC 1068, the models are consistent with calorimetry but are less well-constrained due to the lack of TeV data. However, the Circinus galaxy and the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 exceed our pionic upper-limit; possible explanations are discussed.

  12. A highly segmented and compact liquid argon calorimeter for the LHC the TGT calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, C; Geulig, H; Pierschel, G; Siedling, R; Tutas, J; Wlochal, M; Wotschack, J; Cheplakov, A P; Eremeev, R V; Feshchenko, A; Gavrishchuk, O P; Kazarinov, Yu M; Khrenov, Yu V; Kukhtin, V V; Ladygin, E; Obudovskij, V; Shalyugin, A N; Tolmachev, V T; Volodko, A G; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Kluge, E E; Krause, J; Putzer, A; Tittel, K; Wunsch, M; Bán, J; Bruncko, Dusan; Kriván, F; Kurca, T; Murín, P; Sándor, L; Spalek, J; Aderholz, Michael; Brettel, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Fent, J; Huber, J; Hajduk, L; Jakobs, K; Kiesling, C; Oberlack, H; Schacht, P; Stiegler, U; Bogolyubsky, M Yu; Chekulaev, S V; Kiryunin, A E; Kurchaninov, L L; Levitsky, M S; Maximov, V V; Minaenko, A A; Moiseev, A M; Semenov, P A; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1992-01-01

    The development of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter is proposed as an R&D project for an LHC calorimeter with full rapidity coverage. The proposed ``Thin Gap Turbine'' (TGT) calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of the impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An important aspect of the project is the development of electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time in the TGT read-out cell. The system aspects of the integration of a high degree of signal processing into the liquid argon would be investigated.

  13. HF Interference, Procedures and Tools (Interferences HF, procedures et outils)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    the actual ambient noise floor situation. Besides these HF radio links, special units such as crisis reaction forces are using low power radios for...the origin point on the ground. For ease of arithmetic and typography , the latter option is preferable. The dipole-modelled PLT is located at x = H1

  14. What's new with the CMS hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Hagopian, V

    2002-01-01

    The CMS Hadron Calorimeter is designed to measure hadron jets, single hadrons and single mu 's. The central barrel and the two end caps, made of brass and scintillators cover the ¿ eta ¿ range of 0.0 to 3.0. The two forward calorimeters made of iron and quartz fibers extend the ¿ eta ¿ range to 5.0. Scintillators are also placed outside of the magnet coil, within the muon system to measure the energy leakage from the central barrel. The construction of the calorimeter is about 50% complete. Several design changes were made to simplify the calorimeter and reduce the cost. The longitudinal segmentation of the central barrel and end caps was reduced by one unit. The quartz fiber diameter was doubled from 300 to 600 microns. Improvements were made to the hybrid photodetectors (HPD) and various other components. The special purpose ADC (QIE) and other electronics are in prototype stage. (3 refs).

  15. Modeling response variation for radiometric calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.L. II.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric calorimeters are widely used in the DOE complex for accountability measurements of plutonium and tritium. Proper characterization of response variation for these instruments is, therefore, vital for accurate assessment of measurement control as well as for propagation of error calculations. This is not difficult for instruments used to measure items within a narrow range of power values; however, when a single instrument is used to measure items over a wide range of power values, improper estimates of uncertainty can result since traditional error models for radiometric calorimeters assume that uncertainty is not a function of sample power. This paper describes methods which can be used to accurately estimate random response variation for calorimeters used to measure items over a wide range of sample powers. The model is applicable to the two most common modes of calorimeter operation: heater replacement and servo control. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagopian, Vasken

    1999-01-01

    The Hadron Calorimeter of the CMS detector for the CERN LHC accelerator is designed to measure hadron jets as well as single hadrons. It has six segments. The central barrel made of brass and scintillators covers the vertical bar η vertical bar range of about 0 to 1.3. Two End Caps, also made of brass and scintillators extends the vertical bar η vertical bar range to 3.0. Two Forward calorimeters made of iron and quartz fibers cover the range 3.0 to 5.0. Since the barrel portion of the calorimeter is only 6.5 interaction lengths, the outer barrel will sample, by scintillators, outside the magnet coil and cryostat. Progress has been made on all subsystems and prototypes have been built. We now have a better understanding of magnetic field effects on calorimeters

  17. CDF End Plug calorimeter Upgrade Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apollinari, G.; de Barbaro, P.; Mishina, M.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the status of the CDF End Plug Upgrade Project. In this project, the CDF calorimeters in the end plug and the forward regions will be replaced by a single scintillator based calorimeter. After an extensive R ampersand D effort on the tile/fiber calorimetry, we have now advanced to a construction phase. We review the results of the R ampersand D leading to the final design of the calorimeters and the development of tooling devised for this project. The quality control program of the production of the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters is described. A shower maximum detector for the measurement of the shower centroid and the shower profile of electrons, γ and π 0 has been designed. Its performance requirements, R ampersand D results and mechanical design are discussed

  18. Performance of the ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a set of two sampling calorimeters modules symmetrically located at 140m from the ATLAS interaction point. The ZDC covers a pseudorapidity range of |eta| > 8.3 and it is both longitudinally and transversely segmented, thus providing energy and position information of the incident particles. The ZDC is installed between the two LHC beam pipes, in a configuration such that only the neutral particles produced at the interaction region can reach this calorimeter. The ZDC uses Tungsten plates as absorber material and rods made of quartz interspersed in the absorber as active media. The energetic charged particles crossing the quartz rods produces Cherenkov light which is then detected by photomultipliers and sent to the front end electronics for processing, in a total of 120 individual electronic channels. The Tungsten plates and quartz rods are arranged in a way to segment the calorimeters in 4 longitudinal sections. The first section (...

  19. Sampling calorimeters in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.A.; Smith, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    Attention is given to sampling calorimeters - those instruments in which part of the shower is sampled in an active medium sandwiched between absorbing layers. A very cursory overview is presented of some fundamental aspects of sampling calorimeters. First the properties of shower development are described for both the electromagnetic and hadronic cases. Then examples of various readout schemes are discussed. Finally, some currently promising new ideas in calorimetry are described

  20. The new RD52 (DREAM) fiber calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous detection of the Cerenkov light and scintillation light produced in hadron showers makes it possible to measure the electromagnetic shower fraction event by event and thus eliminate the detrimental effects of fluctuations in this fraction on the performance of calorimeters. In the RD52 (DREAM) project, the possibilities of this dual-readout calorimetry are investigated and optimized. In this talk, the first test results of prototype modules for the new full-scale fiber calorimeter are presented.

  1. The performance of the ZEUS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crittenden, J.A.

    1994-12-01

    The ZEUS experiment has now completed its third year of operation at the electron-proton collider HERA. The uranium/scintillator sampling calorimeter surrounding the inner tracking detectors has proven an essential component for the online triggering algorithms, for offline event-type identification, for kinematic variable reconstruction, and for a ariety of physics analyses. This paper summarizes the experimental context, the operating characteristics, the calibration techniques, and the performance of the calorimeter during its first three years of operation. (orig.)

  2. The electromagnetic calorimeter of the NOMAD experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autiero, D; Baldo-Ceolin, M; Barichello, G; Bianchi-Bonaiti, V; Bobisut, F; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, P W; Cavasinni, V; Conta, C; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Di Lella, L; Ferrari, R; Flaminio, V; Fraternali, M; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S N; Guglielmi, A; Iacopini, E; Kovzelev, A V; La Rotonda, L; Lanza, A; Laveder, M; Lazzeroni, C; Livan, M; Mezzetto, M; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Pennacchio, E; Petti, R; Polesello, G; Renzoni, G; Rimoldi, A; Roda, C; Sconza, A; Sobczynski, C; Valdata-Nappi, M; Vascon, M; Vercesi, V; Visentin, L; Volkov, S A [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita di Pavia and INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze and INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); [Institute of Nuclear Research, INR, Moscow (Russian Federation); [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Cosenza, Cosenza (Italy)

    1996-05-01

    A description is given of the NOMAD electromagnetic calorimeter, consisting of 875 lead-glass counters read out by two-stage photomultipliers and a low noise electronic chain. The detector operates in a 0.4 T magnetic field transverse to the counter axis. The paper discusses the design criteria, the lead-glass characteristics, the properties of the read out chain and provides a summary of the calorimeter performance. (orig.).

  3. Radiation-Hard Quartz Cerenkov Calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akgun, U.; Onel, Y.

    2006-01-01

    New generation hadron colliders are going to reach unprecedented energies and radiation levels. Quartz has been identified as a radiation-hard material that can be used for Cerenkov calorimeters of the future experiments. We report from the radiation hardness tests performed on quartz fibers, as well as the characteristics of the quartz fiber and plate Cerenkov calorimeters that have been built, designed, and proposed for the CMS experiment

  4. The high resolution spaghetti hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenni, P.; Sonderegger, P.; Paar, H.P.; Wigmans, R.

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed to build a prototype for a hadron calorimeter with scintillating plastic fibres as active material. The absorber material is lead. Provided that these components are used in the appropriate volume ratio, excellent performance may be expected, e.g. an energy resolution of 30%/√E for jet detection. The proposed design offers additional advantages compared to the classical sandwich calorimeter structures in terms of granularity, hermiticity, uniformity, compactness, readout, radiation resistivity, stability and calibration. 22 refs.; 7 figs

  5. A neutron calorimeter as a fusion diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, A.E.; Harker, Y.D.; Neischmidt, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    A calorimeter is described which is applicable as a fusion neutron diagnostic. The advantages of the device are discussed, including: low sensitivity to thermal neutrons, no heat loss to surroundings, large dynamic range, small mass resulting in fair time resolution, and small physical size. The heat generation is provided by neutron induced fissions in a foil of 238 U and a calorimeter is isothermal. The effects, advantages and disadvantages of other target materials are discussed. Also discussed are time resolution and calibration

  6. The NA48 liquid krypton calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, B

    1997-01-01

    The NA48 collaboration goal is to measure the CP violation parameter Re(ɛl/ɛ) at the level of 2 × 10−4. The neutral Kaon decays will be reconstructed by an electromagnetic liquid Krypton calorimeter with fine granularity and a volume almost totally sensible, to obtain excellent position and energy resolution, as well as time resolution. A description of the detector, results from tests of a prototype and the status of the final calorimeter are reported.

  7. The electromagnetic calorimeter of the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autiero, D.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Barichello, G.; Bianchi-Bonaiti, V.; Bobisut, F.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Cavasinni, V.; Conta, C.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Di Lella, L.; Ferrari, R.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.N.; Guglielmi, A.; Iacopini, E.; Kovzelev, A.V.; La Rotonda, L.; Lanza, A.; Laveder, M.; Lazzeroni, C.; Livan, M.; Mezzetto, M.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Pennacchio, E.; Petti, R.; Polesello, G.; Renzoni, G.; Rimoldi, A.; Roda, C.; Sconza, A.; Sobczynski, C.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Vascon, M.; Vercesi, V.; Visentin, L.; Volkov, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    A description is given of the NOMAD electromagnetic calorimeter, consisting of 875 lead-glass counters read out by two-stage photomultipliers and a low noise electronic chain. The detector operates in a 0.4 T magnetic field transverse to the counter axis. The paper discusses the design criteria, the lead-glass characteristics, the properties of the read out chain and provides a summary of the calorimeter performance. (orig.)

  8. Studies of the performance of different front-end systems for flat-panel multi-anode PMTs with CsI(Tl) scintillator arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiya, H.; Hattori, K.; Kubo, H.; Miuchi, K.; Nagayoshi, T.; Nishimura, H.; Okada, Y.; Orito, R.; Takada, A.; Takeda, A.; Tanimori, T.; Ueno, K.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the performance of two different types of front-end systems for our gamma camera based on Hamamatsu H8500 (flat-panel 64 channels multi-anode PSPMT) with a CsI(Tl) scintillator array. The array consists of 64 pixels of 6x6x20mm 3 which corresponds to the anode pixels of H8500. One of the system is based on commercial ASIC chips in order to read out every anode. The others are based on resistive charge divider network between anodes to reduce readout channels. In both systems, each pixel (6mm) was clearly resolved by flood field irradiation of 137 Cs. We also investigated the energy resolution of these systems and showed the performance of the cascade connection of resistive network between some PMTs for large area detectors

  9. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter calibration and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-González, Arely

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment and provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses steel plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibres to photomultiplier tubes, located in the outer part of the calorimeter. Neutral particles may also produce a signal after interacting with the material and producing charged particles. The readout is segmented into about 5000 cells, each of them being read out by two photomultipliers in parallel. To calibrate and monitor the stability and performance of each part of the readout chain during the data taking, a set of calibration systems is used. This comprises Cesium radioactive sources, Laser, charge injection elements and an integrator based readout system. Information from all systems allows to monitor and equalise the calorimeter response at each stage of the signal production, from scintillation light to digitisation. Calibration runs are monitored from a data quality perspective and used as a cross-check for physics runs. The data quality efficiency achieved during 2016 was 98.9%. These calibration and stability of the calorimeter reported here show that the TileCal performance is within the design requirements and has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results.

  10. Transportable high sensitivity small sample radiometric calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, J.R.; Biddle, R.S.; Cordova, B.S.; Sampson, T.E.; Dye, H.R.; McDow, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    A new small-sample, high-sensitivity transportable radiometric calorimeter, which can be operated in different modes, contains an electrical calibration method, and can be used to develop secondary standards, will be described in this presentation. The data taken from preliminary tests will be presented to indicate the precision and accuracy of the instrument. The calorimeter and temperature-controlled bath, at present, require only a 30-in. by 20-in. tabletop area. The calorimeter is operated from a laptop computer system using unique measurement module capable of monitoring all necessary calorimeter signals. The calorimeter can be operated in the normal calorimeter equilibration mode, as a comparison instrument, using twin chambers and an external electrical calibration method. The sample chamber is 0.75 in (1.9 cm) in diameter by 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) long. This size will accommodate most 238 Pu heat standards manufactured in the past. The power range runs from 0.001 W to <20 W. The high end is only limited by sample size

  11. ATLAS: last few metresfor the Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On Friday 4th November, the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter was moved from its assembly point at the side of the ATLAS cavern to the centre of the toroidal magnet system. The detector was finally aligned, to the precision of within a millimetre, on Wednesday 9th November. The ATLAS installation team, led by Tommi Nyman, after having positioned the Barrel Calorimeter in its final location in the ATLAS experimental cavern UX15. The Barrel Calorimeter which will absorb and measure the energy of photons, electrons and hadrons at the core of the ATLAS detector is 8.6 meters in diameter, 6.8 meters long, and weighs over 1600 Tonnes. It consists of two concentric cylindrical detector elements. The innermost comprises aluminium pressure vessels containing the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter and the solenoid magnet. The outermost is an assembly of 64 hadron tile calorimeter sectors. Assembled 18 meters away from its final position, the Barrel Calorimeter was relocated with the help of a railway, which allows the ...

  12. Last Few Metres for the Barrel Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Nyman, T.

    On Friday 4th November, the ATLAS Barrel Calorimeter was moved from its assembly point at the side of the ATLAS cavern to the centre of the toroidal magnet system. The detector was finally aligned, to the precision of within a millimetre, on Wednesday 9th November. The ATLAS installation team, led by Tommi Nyman, after having positioned the Barrel Calorimeter in its final location in the ATLAS experimental cavern UX15. The Barrel Calorimeter which will absorb and measure the energy of photons, electrons and hadrons at the core of the ATLAS detector is 8.6 meters in diameter, 6.8 meters long, and weighs over 1600 Tonnes. It consists of two concentric cylindrical detector elements. The innermost comprises aluminium pressure vessels containing the liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter and the solenoid magnet. The outermost is an assembly of 64 hadron tile calorimeter sectors. Assembled 18 meters away from its final position, the Barrel Calorimeter was relocated with the help of a railway, which allows ...

  13. Sampling calorimeters in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.A.; Smith, S.D.

    1981-01-01

    At our current understanding of elementary particle physics, the fundamental constituents are the photon, quarks, gluons and leptons with a few highly forecasted heavy bosons. Calorimeters are essential for detecting all of these particles. Quarks and gluons fragment into many particles - at high energies, so many particles that one may not want to measure each one separately. This group of both charged and neutral particles can only be measured by calorimeters. The energy of an electron needs to be measured by a calorimeter and muon identification is enhanced by the recognition of a minimum ionizing particle passing through the calorimeter. Sampling calorimeters - those instruments in which part of the shower is sampled in an active medium sandwiched between absorbing layers - are reviewed. What follows is a very cursory overview of some fundamental aspects of sampling calorimeters. First, the properties of shower development are described for both the electromagnetic and hadronic cases. Then, examples of various readout schemes are discussed. Finally, some currently promising new ideas in calorimetry are described. 21 references

  14. Zirconium Zr and hafnium Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busev, A.I.; Tiptsova, V.G.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The basic methods for extracting and determining Zr(4) and Hf(4) are described. Diantipyrinemethane and its alkyl homologs selectively extract Zr and Hf from HNO 3 solutions in the presence of nitrates. Zr is selectively extracted with tetraethyldiamide of heptyl phosphoric acid (in benzene) as well as with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (in an acid). The latter reagents is suitable for rapid determination of 95 Zr in a mixture with 95 Nb and other fragments. The complexometric determination of Zr is based on formation of a stable complex of Zr with EDTA. The titration is carried out in the presence of n-sulfobenzene-azo-pyrocatechol, eriochrome black T. The determination is hindered by Hf, fluoride-, phosphate-, oxalate- and tartrate-ions. The method is used for determining Zr in zircon and eudialyte ore. Zr is determined photometrically with the aid of xylenol orange, arsenazo 3 and pyrocatechol violet (in phosphorites). Hf is determined in the presence of Zr photometrically with the aid of xylenol orange or methyl-thymol blue. The method is based on Zr being masked with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfate-ions

  15. HF Parameters of Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Benallal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of experimental studies of HF input and primary parameters. A simulation model in Matlab SimulinkTM of multiphase windings as ladder circuit of coils is developed. A method for determining the primary parameters of ladder equivalent circuits is presented.

  16. Manufacturing of a graphite calorimeter at Yazd Radiation Processing Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaie, F.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a few quasi-adiabatic graphite calorimeters of different dimensions are described. The calorimeters have been manufactured by ourselves and studied for accurate absorbed dose measurements in 10 MeV electron beam. In order to prove the accuracy and reliability of dose measurements with the use of self designed graphite calorimeters (SCD), an inter comparison study was performed on these calorimeters and Risoe graphite calorimeters (SC,standard calorimeter) at different doses by using Rhodothron accelerator. The comparison shows conclusively of the optimal size, the results agreeing with those obtained with the Sc within 1%. (author)

  17. HF wedge #1" detail of the wedge tip taken at VNIITF in the construction workshop. The jig mounted on top is used to measure the conformity to the drawings.

    CERN Multimedia

    Official photographer of VNIITF (photo scanned by T. Camporesi)

    2001-01-01

    The photo has been taken as documetation of the acceptance procedure of the first wedge for the very forward calorimeter of CMS (HF). The detail shows the holes where the quartz fibers are going to be stuffed and the jig used to measure that the geometry was within the specified tolerances and that the geometry alignement track was conforming to the specifications.

  18. The spaghetti calorimeter. Research, development, application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheel, C V

    1994-12-22

    The Spaghetti Calorimeter (SPACAL) is a detector intended primarily for the energy measurement of high-energy particles, but also provides spatial information and particle identification. It is a sampling calorimeter composed of plastic scintillating fibers, oriented in the direction of the particle, embedded in lead. The scintillation light is read out by photomultipliers, which are coupled to bunches of fibers through light guides, each forming a tower. It was developed as an electromagnetic (e.m.) and compensating hadronic calorimeter for use in future multi-TeV collider experiments. The largest prototype was installed for an alternative application as an hadronic calorimeter in the WA89 experiment, where it is used for the detection of neutrons resulting from {Sigma} decays. The basic concepts behind calorimetry are discussed in detail. Several prototypes were tested in beams of electrons and pions with energies up to 150 GeV. Resonable e.m. energy resolution, at {sigma}/E=12.9%/{radical}E[GeV]+1.23%, was measured. Excellent hadronic energy resolution was found, at 30.6%/{radical}E[GeV]+1.0%, but the calorimeter was found to be slightly undercompensating with e/h=1.15. The position of the shower barycenter for both electrons and pions was easily found according to the relative energy deposits in the calorimeter towers. The calorimeter was also found to be able to provide effective discrimination between electrons and hadrons. The performance of SPACAL in the WA89 experiment at the Omega spectrometer at CERN was studied with the reconstruction of beam {Sigma}{sup -}particles via its decay {Sigma}{sup -}{yields}n{pi}{sup -}. Details of the calibration of SPACAL with electrons and protons are presented. (orig.).

  19. The spaghetti calorimeter. Research, development, application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheel, C.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Spaghetti Calorimeter (SPACAL) is a detector intended primarily for the energy measurement of high-energy particles, but also provides spatial information and particle identification. It is a sampling calorimeter composed of plastic scintillating fibers, oriented in the direction of the particle, embedded in lead. The scintillation light is read out by photomultipliers, which are coupled to bunches of fibers through light guides, each forming a tower. It was developed as an electromagnetic (e.m.) and compensating hadronic calorimeter for use in future multi-TeV collider experiments. The largest prototype was installed for an alternative application as an hadronic calorimeter in the WA89 experiment, where it is used for the detection of neutrons resulting from Σ decays. The basic concepts behind calorimetry are discussed in detail. Several prototypes were tested in beams of electrons and pions with energies up to 150 GeV. Resonable e.m. energy resolution, at σ/E=12.9%/√E[GeV]+1.23%, was measured. Excellent hadronic energy resolution was found, at 30.6%/√E[GeV]+1.0%, but the calorimeter was found to be slightly undercompensating with e/h=1.15. The position of the shower barycenter for both electrons and pions was easily found according to the relative energy deposits in the calorimeter towers. The calorimeter was also found to be able to provide effective discrimination between electrons and hadrons. The performance of SPACAL in the WA89 experiment at the Omega spectrometer at CERN was studied with the reconstruction of beam Σ - particles via its decay Σ - →nπ - . Details of the calibration of SPACAL with electrons and protons are presented. (orig.)

  20. A new ultrasensitive scanning calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, V V; Brandts, J M; Lin, L N; Brandts, J F

    1997-08-01

    A new ultrasensitive differential scanning calorimeter is described, having a number of novel features arising from integration between hardware and software. It is capable of high performance in either a scanning or isothermal mode of operation. Upscanning is carried out adiabatically while downscanning is nonadiabatic. By using software-controlled signals sent continuously to appropriate hardware devices, it is possible to improve adiabaticity and constancy of scan rate through use of empirical prerun information stored in memory rather than by using feedback systems which respond in real time and generate thermal noise. Also, instrument response time is software-selectable, maximizing performance for both slow- and fast-transient systems. While these and other sophisticated functionalities have been introduced into the instrument to improve performance and data analysis, they are virtually invisible and add no additional complexities into operation of the instrument. Noise and baseline repeatability are an order of magnitude better than published raw data from other instruments so that high-quality results can be obtained on protein solutions, for example, using as little as 50 microg of protein in the sample cell.

  1. Tritium calorimeter setup and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, David E.

    2002-01-01

    The LBNL tritium calorimeter is a stable instrument capable of measuring tritium with a sensitivity of 25 Ci. Measurement times range from 8-hr to 7-days depending on the thermal conductivity and mass of the material being measured. The instrument allows accurate tritium measurements without requiring that the sample be opened and subsampled, thus reducing personnel exposure and radioactive waste generation. The sensitivity limit is primarily due to response shifts caused by temperature fluctuation in the water bath. The fluctuations are most likely a combination of insufficient insulation from ambient air and precision limitations in the temperature controller. The sensitivity could probably be reduced to below 5 Ci if the following improvements were made: (1) Extend the external insulation to cover the entire bath and increase the top insulation. (2) Improve the seal between the air space above the bath and the outside air to reduce evaporation. This will limit the response drift as the water level drops. (3) Install an improved temperature controller, preferably with a built in chiller, capable of temperature control to ±0.001 C

  2. Hadron showers in a highly granular calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, Benjamin

    2010-11-15

    A future electron-positron collider like the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) needs excellent detectors to exploit the full physics potential. Different detector concepts have been evaluated for the ILC and two concepts on the particle-flow approach were validated. To make particle-flow work, a new type of imaging calorimeters is necessary in combination with a high performance tracking system, to be able to track the single particles through the full detector system. These calorimeters require an unprecedented level of both longitudinal and lateral granularity. Several calorimeter technologies promise to reach the required readout segmentation and are currently studied. This thesis addresses one of these: The analogue hadron calorimeter technology. It combines work on the technological aspects of a highly granular calorimeter with the study of hadron shower physics. The analogue hadron calorimeter technology joins a classical scintillator-steel sandwich design with a modern photo-sensor technology, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). The SiPM is a millimetre sized, magnetic field insensitive, and low cost photo-sensor, that opens new possibilities in calorimeter design. This thesis outlines the working principle and characteristics of these devices. The requirements for an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to read the SiPM are discussed; the performance of a prototype chip for SiPM readout, the SPIROC, is quantified. Also the SiPM specific reconstruction of a multi-thousand channel prototype calorimeter, the CALICE AHCAL, is explained; the systematic uncertainty of the calibration method is derived. The AHCAL does not only offer a test of the calorimeter technology, it also allows to record hadron showers with an unprecedented level of details. Test-beam measurements have been performed with the AHCAL and provide a unique sample for the development of novel analysis techniques and the validation of hadron shower simulations. A method to

  3. Hadron showers in a highly granular calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Benjamin

    2010-11-01

    A future electron-positron collider like the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) needs excellent detectors to exploit the full physics potential. Different detector concepts have been evaluated for the ILC and two concepts on the particle-flow approach were validated. To make particle-flow work, a new type of imaging calorimeters is necessary in combination with a high performance tracking system, to be able to track the single particles through the full detector system. These calorimeters require an unprecedented level of both longitudinal and lateral granularity. Several calorimeter technologies promise to reach the required readout segmentation and are currently studied. This thesis addresses one of these: The analogue hadron calorimeter technology. It combines work on the technological aspects of a highly granular calorimeter with the study of hadron shower physics. The analogue hadron calorimeter technology joins a classical scintillator-steel sandwich design with a modern photo-sensor technology, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). The SiPM is a millimetre sized, magnetic field insensitive, and low cost photo-sensor, that opens new possibilities in calorimeter design. This thesis outlines the working principle and characteristics of these devices. The requirements for an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to read the SiPM are discussed; the performance of a prototype chip for SiPM readout, the SPIROC, is quantified. Also the SiPM specific reconstruction of a multi-thousand channel prototype calorimeter, the CALICE AHCAL, is explained; the systematic uncertainty of the calibration method is derived. The AHCAL does not only offer a test of the calorimeter technology, it also allows to record hadron showers with an unprecedented level of details. Test-beam measurements have been performed with the AHCAL and provide a unique sample for the development of novel analysis techniques and the validation of hadron shower simulations. A method to

  4. The H1 liquid argon calorimeter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieu, B.; Babayev, A.; Ban, J.

    1993-06-01

    The liquid argon calorimeter of the H1 detector presently taking data at the HERA ep - collider at DESY, Hamburg, is described here. The main physics requirements and the most salient design features relevant to this calorimeter are given. The aim to have smooth and hermetic calorimetric coverage over the polar angular range 4 ≤ θ ≤ 154 is achieved by a single liquid argon cryostat containing calorimeter stacks structured in wheels and octants for easy handling. The absorber materials used are lead in the electromagnetic part and stainless steel in the hadronic part. The read-out system is pipelined to reduce the dead time induced by the high trigger rate expected at the HERA collider where consecutive bunches are separated in time by 96 ns. The main elements of the calorimeter, such as the cryostat, with its associated cryogenics, the stack modules, the read-out, calibration and trigger electronics as well as the data acquisition system are described. Performance results from data taken in calibration runs with full size H1 calorimeter stacks at a CERN test beam, as well as results from data collected with the complete H1 detector using cosmic rays during the initial phase of ep operations are presented. The observed energy resolutions and linearities are well in agreement with the requirements. (orig.)

  5. A water flow calorimeter calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Neutral beam systems are instrumented by several water flow calorimeter systems, and some means is needed to verify the accuracy of such systems and diagnose their failures. This report describes a calibration system for these calorimeters. The calibrator consists of two 24 kilowatt circulation water heaters, with associated controls and instrumentation. The unit can supply power from 0 to 48 kW in five coarse steps and one fine range. Energy is controlled by varying the power and the time of operation of the heaters. The power is measured by means of precision power transducers, and the energy is measured by integrating the power with respect to time. The accuracy of the energy measurement is better than 0.5% when the power supplied is near full scale, and the energy resolution is better than 1 kilojoule. The maximum energy delivered is approximately 50 megajoules. The calorimetry loop to be calibrated is opened, and the calibrator is put in series with the calorimeter heat source. The calorimeter is then operated in its normal fashion, with the calibrator used as the heat source. The calibrator can also be used in a stand alone mode to calibrate calorimeter sensors removed from systems

  6. LHCb Calorimeter modules arrive at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Two of the three components of the LHCb Calorimeter system have started to arrive from Russia. Members of the LHCb Calorimeter group with the ECAL and HCAL modules that have just arrived at CERN. The first two of the 56 Hadron Calorimeter (HCAL) modules and 1200 of the 3300 modules of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) have reached CERN from Russia. The third part of the system, the Preshower detector, is still being prepared in Russia. The calorimeter system identifies and triggers on high-energy particles, namely electrons, hadrons and photons by measuring their positions and energies. The HCAL is going to be a pure trigger device. The ECAL will also be used in the triggering, but in addition it will reconstruct neutral pions and photons from B meson decays. One of the major aims of the LHCb experiment is to study CP violation through B meson decays including Bs mesons with high statistics in different decay modes. CP violation (violation of charge and parity) is necessary to explain why the Universe...

  7. The Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of Mini Gamma Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiyanto

    2004-01-01

    The gamma calorimeter is a facility to measure the gamma heating in the nuclear reactor. The dimensions of the conventional calorimeters are in general too large, that is an inconvenience if those calorimeters will be applied in the high temperature reactor as a nuclear power plant. To avoid that inconvenience, it is necessary to propose the innovation on the feature of the existing calorimeter. The basic idea of the innovation is to create the small type of calorimeter without the absorbed material. The last analysis was realized to determine of the static calorimeter characteristic or sensitivities as a function of the dimension and the material of gas isolations. Based on those results, the analyses is reasonably to be continued to determine the dynamic characteristic or period of calorimeter. The analysis was performed using the finite difference method, two dimension simplified. It can be concluded that the mini gamma calorimeter proposed is reasonable to be made. (author)

  8. To the calculation of energy resolution of ionization calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchajkin, V.V.; Lagutin, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The question of energy resolution of the ionization calorimeter is considered analytically. A method is discussed for calculating the probability characteristics (mean value and dispersion) of energy losses of an electron-photon shower by ionization in the calorimeter volume

  9. Performance of a shashlik calorimeter at LEP II

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, P; Klovning, A; Maeland, O A; Stugu, B; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Giordano, V; Guerzoni, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Verardi, M G; Camporesi, T; Bozzo, M; Cereseto, R; Barreira, G; Espirito-Santo, M C; Maio, A; Onofre, A; Peralta, L; Pimenta, M; Tomé, B; Carling, H; Falk, E; Hedberg, V; Jarlskog, G; Kronkvist, I J; Bonesini, M; Chignoli, F; Gumenyuk, S A; Leoni, R; Mazza, R; Negri, P; Paganoni, M; Petrovykh, L P; Terranova, F; Dharmasiri, D R; Nossum, B; Read, A L; Skaali, T B; Castellani, L; Pegoraro, M; Fenyuk, A; Guz, Yu; Karyukhin, A N; Konoplyannikov, A K; Obraztsov, V F; Shalanda, N A; Vlasov, E; Zaitsev, A; Bigi, M; Cassio, V; Gamba, D; Migliore, E; Romero, A; Simonetti, L; Torassa, E; Trapani, P P; Bari, M D; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Prest, M; Vallazza, E

    1999-01-01

    The small angle tile calorimeter (STIC) is a sampling lead- scintillator calorimeter, built with "shashlik" technique. Results are presented from extensive studies of the detector performance at LEP. (5 refs).

  10. Detailed GEANT description of the SDC central calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glagolev, V.V.; Li, W.

    1994-01-01

    This article represents the very detailed simulation model of the SDC central calorimeters and some results which were obtained using that model. The central calorimeters structure was coded on the GEANT 3.15 base in the frame of the SDCSIM environment. The SDCSIM is the general shell for simulation of the SDC set-up. The calorimeters geometry has been coded according to the FNAL and ANL engineering drawings and engineering data file. SDC central calorimeters detailed description is extremely useful for different simulation tasks, for fast simulation program parameters tuning, for different geometry especially studying (local response nonuniformity from bulkheads in the e.m. calorimeter and from coil supports and many others) and for the interpretation of the experimental data from the calorimeters. This simulation model is very useful for tasks of the test beam modules calorimeter calibration and for calorimeter in situ calibration. 3 refs., 8 figs

  11. Calorimeter based detectors for high energy hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, M.D.; Rijssenbeek, M.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: the central calorimeter; and installation; commissioning; and calorimeter beam tests; the central drift chamber; cosmic ray and beam tests; chamber installation and commissioning; and software development; and SSC activities: the EMPACT project

  12. Enthalpy of mixing of liquid Cu-Fe-Hf alloys at 1873 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agraval, Pavel; Turchanin, Mikhail [Donbass State Engineering Academy, Kramatorsk (Ukraine). Metallurgical Dept.; Dreval, Liya [Donbass State Engineering Academy, Kramatorsk (Ukraine). Metallurgical Dept.; Materials Science International Services GmbH (MSI), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    In the ternary Cu-Fe-Hf system, the mixing enthalpies of liquid alloys were investigated at 1873 K using a high-temperature isoperibolic calorimeter. The experiments were performed along the sections x{sub Cu}/x{sub Fe} = 3/1, 1/1 at x{sub Hf} = 0-0.47 and along the section x{sub Cu}/x{sub Fe} = 1/3 at x{sub Hf} = 0-0.13. The limiting partial enthalpies of mixing of undercooled liquid hafnium in liquid Cu-Fe alloys, Δ{sub mix} anti H{sub Hf}{sup ∞}, are (-122 ± 9) kJ mol{sup -1} (section x{sub Cu}/x{sub Fe} = 3/1), (-106 ± 9) kJ mol{sup -1} (section x{sub Cu}/x{sub Fe} = 1/1), and (-105 ± 2) kJ mol{sup -1} (section x{sub Cu}/x{sub Fe} = 1/3). In the investigated composition range, the integral mixing enthalpies are sign-changing. For the integral mixing enthalpy, an analytical expression was obtained by the least squares fit of the experimental results using the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu polynomial.

  13. STATUS OF THE ATLAS LIQUID ARGON CALORIMETER AND ITS PERFORMANCE

    CERN Document Server

    Berillari, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The liquid argon (LAr) calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic and for hadron calorimetry. The LAr calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The latest status of the detector as well as problems and solutions addressed during the last years will be presented. Aspects of operation of a large detector over a long time period will be summarized and selected topics showing the performance of the detector will be shown.

  14. Feasibility of a Mound-designed transportable calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M.F.; Fellers, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of operating a Mound twin resistance bridge calorimeter outside a temperature-controlled water bath was demonstrated. An existing calorimeter was retrofit with two additional jackets through which water was transferred from an external reservoir. Comparison of test results collected before and after the retrofit indicated that the calorimeter performance was not degraded by this modification. Similarly designed calorimeters have potential applications in laboratories where equipment space is limited for inspectors who are required to transport their assay instrumentation

  15. Optics robustness of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Batalha Pedro, Rute; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    TileCal, the central hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is composed of plastic scintillators interleaved by iron plates, and wavelength shifting optical fibres. The optical properties of these components are known to suffer from natural ageing and degrade due to exposure to radiation. The calorimeter was designed for 10 years of LHC operating at the design luminosity of $10^{34}$ cm$^{-1}$s$^{-1}$. Irradiation tests of scintillators and fibres shown that their light yield decrease about 10 for the maximum dose expected after the 10 years of LHC operation. The robustness of the TileCal optics components is evaluated using the calibration systems of the calorimeter: Cs-137 gamma source, laser light, and integrated photomultiplier signals of particles from collisions. It is observed that the loss of light yield increases with exposure to radiation as expected. The decrease in the light yield during the years 2015-2017 corresponding to the LHC Run 2 will be reported.

  16. Sensors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Andreas Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment is currently developing high granularity calorimeter endcapsfor its HL-LHC upgrade. The design foresees silicon sensors as the active material for the high radiation region close to the beampipe. Regions of lower radiation are additionally equipped with plastic scintillator tiles. This technology is similar to the calorimeter prototypes developed in the framework of the Linear Collider by the CALICE collaboration. The current status of the silicon sensor development is presented. Results of single diode measurements are shown as well as tests of full 6-inch hexagonal sensor wafers. A short summary of test beam results concludes the article.

  17. Nonuniformities in organic liquid ionization calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    Hermeticity and uniformity in SSC calorimeter designs are compromised by structure and modularity. Some of the consequences of the cryogenic needs of liquid argon calorimetry are relatively well known. If the active medium is an organic liquid (TMP, TMS, etc.), a large number of independent liquid volumes is needed for safety and for rapid liquid exchange to eliminate local contamination. Modular construction ordinarily simplifies fabrication, assembly, handling and preliminary testing at the price of additional walls, other dead regions and many nonuniformities. Here we examine ways of minimizing the impact of some generic nonuniformities on the quality of calorimeter performance. 6 refs., 7 figs

  18. Rad Hard Active Media For Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Norbeck, E; Möller, A; Onel, Y

    2006-01-01

    Zero-degree calorimeters have limited space and extreme levels of radiation. A simple, low cost, radiation hard design uses tungstenmetal as the absorber and a suitable liquid as the ˇCerenkov radiator. In other applications a PPAC (Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter) operatingwith a suitable atmosphericpressure gas is an attractive active material for a calorimeter. It can be made radiation hard and has sufficient gain in the gas that no electronic components are needed near the detector. It works well even with the highest concentration of shower particles. For this pressure range, R134A (used in auto air conditioners) has many desirable features.

  19. Fast shower simulation in the ATLAS calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Barberio, E; Butler, B; Cheung, S L; Dell'Acqua, A; Di Simone, A; Ehrenfeld, W; Gallas, M V; Glazov, A; Marshall, Z; Müller, J; Placakyte, R; Rimoldi, A; Savard, P; Tsulaia, V; Waugh, A; Young, C C

    2008-01-01

    The time to simulate pp collisions in the ATLAS detector is largely dominated by the showering of electromagnetic particles in the heavy parts of the detector, especially the electromagnetic barrel and endcap calorimeters. Two procedures have been developed to accelerate the processing time of electromagnetic particles in these regions: (1) a fast shower parameterisation and (2) a frozen shower library. Both work by generating the response of the calorimeter to electrons and positrons with Geant 4, and then reintroduce the response into the simulation at runtime.

  20. Commissioning of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Since the first modules of the ATLAS LAr calorimeters were read out in situ in 2006, commissioning studies have been performed. These studies include the testing of the electronics calibration system, surveys for dead or problematic channels, investigations of the quality of the physics pulse shape prediction , and tests of energy and time reconstruction with cosmic or single beam induced signals. The results of these commissioning studies indicate the LAr calorimeters are prepared for LHC collisions and positioned to meet the physics objectives of the ATLAS experiment.

  1. Radiation damage effects on calorimeter compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Handler, T.

    1990-01-01

    An important consideration in the design of a detector that is to be used at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is the response of the calorimeter to electromagnetic and hadronic particles and the equality of those responses for different types of particles at equal incident energies, i.e. compensation. However, as the simulations that are reported show, the compensation characteristics of a calorimeter can be seriously compromised over a relatively short period of time due to the large radiation levels that are expected in the SSC environment. 6 refs., 3 figs

  2. Comparison between calorimeter and HLNC errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.S.; De Ridder, P.; Laszlo, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes an error analysis that compares systematic and random errors of total plutonium mass estimated for high-level neutron coincidence counter (HLNC) and calorimeter measurements. This task was part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study on the comparison of the two instruments to determine if HLNC measurement errors met IAEA standards and if the calorimeter gave ''significantly'' better precision. Our analysis was based on propagation of error models that contained all known sources of errors including uncertainties associated with plutonium isotopic measurements. 5 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Study on Radiation Condition in DAMPE Orbit by Analyzing the Engineering Data of BGO Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Changqing; Liu, Shubin; Zhang, Yunlong; Ma, Siyuan

    2016-07-01

    The DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is a scientific satellite which was successfully launched into a 500 Km sun-synchronous orbit, on December 17th, 2015, from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center of China. The major scientific objectives of the DAMPE mission are primary cosmic ray, gamma ray astronomy and dark matter particles, by observing high energy primary cosmic rays, especially positrons/electrons and gamma rays with an energy range from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. The BGO calorimeter is a critical sub-detector of DAMPE payload, for measuring the energy of cosmic particles, distinguishing positrons/electrons and gamma rays from hadron background, and providing trigger information. It utilizes 308 BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) crystal logs with the size of 2.5cm*2.5cm*60cm for each log, to form a total absorption electromagnetic calorimeter. All the BGO logs are stacked in 14 layers, with each layer consisting of 22 BGO crystal logs and each log is viewed by two Hamamatsu R5610A PMTs (photomultiplier tubes), from both sides respectively. In order to achieve a large dynamic range, each PMT base incorporates a three dynode (2, 5, 8) pick off, which results in 616 PMTs and 1848 signal channels. The readout electronics system, which consists of 16 FEE (Front End Electronics) modules, was developed. Its main functions are based on the Flash-based FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chip and low power, 32-channel VA160 and VATA160 ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) for precisely measuring the charge of PMT signals and providing "hit" signals as well. The hit signals are sent to the trigger module of PDPU (Payload Data Process Unit) and the hit rates of each layer is real-timely recorded by counters and packed into the engineering data, which directly reflect the flux of particles which fly into or pass through the detectors. In order to mitigate the SEU (Single Event Upset) effect in radioactive space environment, certain protecting methods, such as TMR

  4. Comparison of the Heat Release Rate from the Mass Loss Calorimeter to the Cone Calorimeter for Wood-based Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura E. Hasburgh; Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger; Charles R. Boardman

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for material properties to be used as inputs in fi re behavior models designed to address building fire safety. This comparative study evaluates using the mass loss calorimeter as an alternative to the cone calorimeter for obtaining heat release rates of wood-based materials. For this study, a modified mass loss calorimeter utilized an...

  5. The rotational excitation of HF by H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrousseaux, Benjamin; Lique, François

    2018-06-01

    The HF molecule is a key tracer of molecular hydrogen in diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). Accurate modelling of the HF abundance in such media requires one to model its excitation by both radiation and collisions. In diffuse ISM, the dominant collisional partners are atomic and molecular hydrogen. We report quantum time-independent calculations of collisional cross-sections and rate coefficients for the rotational excitation of HF by H. The reactive hydrogen exchange channels are taken into account in the scattering calculations. For the first time, HF-H rate coefficients are provided for temperature ranging from 10 to 500 K. The strongest collision-induced rotational HF transitions are those with Δj = 1, and the order of magnitude of the new HF-H rate coefficients is similar to that of the HF-H2 ones previously computed. As a first application, we simulate the excitation of HF by both H and H2 in typical diffuse ISM. We show that, depending on the rotational transition, hydrogen atoms increase or decrease the simulated excitation temperatures compared to collisional excitation only due to H2 molecules. Such results suggest that the new HF-H collisional data have to be used for properly modelling the abundance of HF in diffuse ISM.

  6. Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter - the TGT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Braunschweig, W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Geulig, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Schoentag, M. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Siedling, R. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Wlochal, M. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.; Putzer, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Wotschack, J. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Cheplakov, A. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Feshchenko, A. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kazarinov, M. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kukhtin, V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ladygin, E. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Obudovskij, V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Geweniger, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Hanke, P. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Kluge, E.E. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Krause, J. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Schmidt, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Stenzel, H. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Tittel, K. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Wunsch, M. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Zerwas, D. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hochenergiephysik; Bruncko, D. [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Kosice (Slovakia). Ustav Experimentalnej Fyziky; Jusko, A. [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Kosice (Slovakia). Ustav Experimentalnej Fyziky; Kocper, B.; RD33 Collaboration

    1994-11-01

    The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a testbeam exposure. (orig.)

  7. Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter TGT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E.

    1994-01-01

    The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a test beam exposure. 15 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter - the TGT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C.; Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 1. Physikalisches Inst.] [and others

    1995-04-21

    The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a testbeam exposure. ((orig.)).

  9. Study of a novel electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter - the TGT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Braunschweig, W.; Geulig, E.

    1995-01-01

    The concept and the basic design of a fast, highly granular and compact electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter are described. This novel calorimeter offers uniform energy response and constant energy resolution independent of the production angle of an impinging particle and of its impact position at the calorimeter. An example of a calorimeter with full rapidity coverage in an application in a collider detector is given. An important aspect of the concept is the electronics for fast signal processing matched to the short charge collection time. We report on the experience with the realization of a prototype calorimeter module and on its performance in a testbeam exposure. ((orig.))

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of a gas-sampled hadron calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C Y; Kunori, S; Rapp, P; Talaga, R; Steinberg, P; Tylka, A J; Wang, Z M

    1988-02-15

    A prototype of the OPAL barrel hadron calorimeter, which is a gas-sampled calorimeter using plastic streamer tubes, was exposed to pions at energies between 1 and 7 GeV. The response of the detector was simulated using the CERN GEANT3 Monte Carlo program. By using the observed high energy muon signals to deduce details of the streamer formation, the Monte Carlo program was able to reproduce the observed calorimeter response. The behavior of the hadron calorimeter when placed behind a lead glass electromagnetic calorimeter was also investigated.

  11. CsI calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulchenko, V.M.; Bondar, A.E.; Erofeev, A.L.; Kovalenko, O.A.; Kozyrev, A.N.; Kuzmin, A.S.; Logashenko, I.B.; Razuvaev, G.P.; Ruban, A.A.; Shebalin, V.E.; Shwartz, B.A.; Talyshev, A.A.; Titov, V.M.; Yudin, Yu.V.; Epifanov, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    The VEPP-2000 e + e − collider has been operated at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics since 2010. The experiments are performed with two detectors CMD-3 and SND. The calorimetry at the CMD-3 detector is based on three subsystems, two coaxial barrel calorimeters—Liquid Xenon Calorimeter and crystal CsI calorimeter, and endcap calorimeter with BGO crystals. This paper describes the CsI calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector. The calorimeter design, its electronics and calibration procedures are discussed

  12. Special Topics in HF Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    Capitaine de Frigate P.Italley Dr T.SJones Ing6nieur en Chef au CNET Physics Department 38 -40 rue du Gdn~ral Leclerc University of Leicester 9213 i1...fre’qiancý. A t’ctailcd discussion of HF reliability is giver in A companion paiper (MASLIN, N.M . 197(j)) the result tic ligs 4 atad % i-. sumniart-aed...conttoutt to determine if treie :s an additional zonal gqt.ient but wa shall ceo tto.., tnC companion Layttacings that it it, negliit.-tle. F:gur:!i 7A

  13. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter gets into shape!

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The last of the 64 modules for one of the ATLAS Hadron tile calorimeter barrels has just arrived at CERN. This arrival puts an end to two and a half years work assembling and testing all the modules in the Institut de Física d'Altes Energies (IFAE), in Barcelona.

  14. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Oreglia, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS detector hadron calorimeter electronics are being redesigned to address issues associated with the High Luminosity mode of LHC running in Phase-2. We describe the issues and solutions and also discuss a demonstrator unit to be installed on the detector in 2014.

  15. ATLAS: First rehearsal for the tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The dry run assembly of the first barrel of the ATLAS tile hadron calorimeter has been successfully completed. It is now being dismantled again so that it can be lowered into the ATLAS cavern where it will be reassembled in October 2004.

  16. Pion showers in highly granular calorimeters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New results on properties of hadron showers created by pion beam at 8–80 GeV in high granular electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters are presented. Data were used for the first time to investigate the separation of the neutral and charged hadron showers. The result is important to verify the prediction of the PFA ...

  17. Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... a calorimeter system of a relatively simple construction and moderate costs, however with excellent properties, built upon experience gained with the extensively beam-tested DREAM (Dual REAdout. Module) prototype. The main idea of multiple readout calorimetry is to indepen- dently measure for each hadronic shower ...

  18. Performance of a uranium liquid argon calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuts, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The author presents results on the performance of a uranium and liquid argon colorimeter in the NW test beam at Fermilab. This study describes the calorimeter, and discusses its performance with electrons, pions and muons from 10 GeV to 150 GeV. The performance parameters measure response, linearity, resolution, compensation, and e/π separation

  19. SLD liquid argon calorimeter prototype test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, R.; Eigen, G.; Au, Y.

    1985-10-01

    The results of the SLD test beam program for the selection of a calorimeter radiator composition within a liquid argon system are described, with emphasis on the study of the use of uranium to obtain equalization of pion and electron responses

  20. Homogeneous scintillating LKr/Xe calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.; Mullins, M.; Pelly, D.; Shotkin, S.; Sumorok, K.; Akyuz, D.; Chen, E.; Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Bolozdynya, A.; Tchernyshev, V.; Goritchev, P.; Khovansky, V.; Koutchenkov, A.; Kovalenko, A.; Lebedenko, V.; Vinogradov, V.; Gusev, L.; Sheinkman, V.; Krasnokutsky, R.N.; Shuvalov, R.S.; Fedyakin, N.N.; Sushkov, V.; Akopyan, M.; Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Hitachi, A.; Kashiwagi, T.; Masuda, K.; Shibamura, E.; Ishida, N.; Sugimoto, S.

    1993-01-01

    Recent R and D work on full length scintillating homogeneous liquid xenon/krypton (LXe/Kr) cells has established the essential properties for precision EM calorimeters: In-situ calibration using α's, radiation hardness as well as the uniformity required for δE/E≅0.5% for e/γ's above 50 GeV. (orig.)

  1. Commissioning of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Mark S

    2009-01-01

    A selection of ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter commissioning studies are presented. These include a coherent noise study, a measurement of the quality of the physics pulse shape prediction, and energy and time reconstruction analyses with cosmic and single beam signals.

  2. PEP-4 geiger-mode hexagonal calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The design and performance of the calorimeter are briefly described. Design aspects include illustrations of the active volume of the detector, edge connections, module assembly and analog electronics. Performance data for cosmic rays and radiation sources, including efficiency and channel sensitivity are discussed

  3. Calibration of the ZEUS forward calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, M.

    1990-10-01

    The physics at the ep-collider HERA requires high resolution calorimetry calibrated with an accuracy of better than 2%. The ZEUS detector meets these conditions by means of a compensating uranium scintillator sandwich calorimeter with an energy resolution of σ/E = 35%/√E + σ cal , where σ cal is the calibration error. One of the tools to minimize σ cal is the calibration with the signals of the radioactivity of the Uranium plates (UNO). Taking UNO data every 8 hours keeps the calibration stable within ≅ 1%. The muon calibration is done employing an algorithm, that determines the most probable energy loss with a precision of ≅ 1%. The channel-to-channel fluctuations of the ratio μ/UNO for a forward calorimeter (FCAL) prototype show a spread of 5.2% for the electromagnetic calorimeter and ≅ 2.5% for the hadronic sections. Improvements in the construction of the FCAL modules decreased these fluctuations to 2.0% and ≅ 1.8% respectively. The influence of the cracks between the calorimeter modules amounts to ≅ 1.7% on average for the ZEUS geometry, if a 2 mm thick Pb-sheet is introduced between the modules. We conclude that we are able to keep σ cal below 2%. (orig.)

  4. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00223142; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider require very large samples of simulated events, and producing these using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Often, a very detailed detector simulation is not needed, and in these cases fast simulation tools can be used to reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim) is an improved parametrisation compared to the one used in the LHC Run-1. It provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and can be tuned to data more easily than with GEANT4. The new FastCaloSim incorporates developments in geometry and physics lists of the last five years and benefit...

  5. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00176100; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The physics and performance studies of the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider re- quire a large number of simulated events. A GEANT4 based detailed simulation of the ATLAS calorimeter systems is highly CPU intensive and such resolution is often unnecessary. To reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude, fast simulation tools have been developed. The Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim) provides a parameterised simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. In Run 1, about 13 billion events were simulated in ATLAS, out of which 50% were produced using fast simulation. For Run 2, a new parameterisation is being developed to improve the original version: it incorporates developments in geometry and physics lists during the last five years and benefits from the knowledge acquired from the Run 1 data. The algorithm uses machine learning techniques to improve the parameterisations and to optimise the amount of information to be stored in the...

  6. CALICE silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A highly granular electromagnetic calorimeter prototype based on tungsten absorber and sampling units equipped with silicon pads as sensitive devices for signal collection is under construction. The full prototype will have in total 30 layers and be read out by about 10000 Si cells of 1 × 1 cm2. A first module consisting of 14 ...

  7. The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lewandowski, B

    2002-01-01

    The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter is a hermetic, total-absorption array of CsI(Tl)-crystals, operated at the asymmetric e sup - e sup + -collider PEP-II at SLAC. The design and the status of the performance as of February 2002 is presented.

  8. The electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diemoza, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the CMS experiment is made of about 80000 Lead Tungstate scintillating crystals. This project aims to achieve an extreme precision in photons and electrons energy measurement. General motivations, main technical challenges and key points in energy resolution will be discussed in the following

  9. Upgrading the ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hubacek, Zdenek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider require very large samples of simulated events, and producing these using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Often, a very detailed detector simulation is not needed, and in these cases fast simulation tools can be used to reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude. In ATLAS, a fast simulation of the calorimeter systems was developed, called Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim). It provides a parametrized simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and can be tuned to data more easily than with GEANT4. The original version of FastCaloSim has been very important in the LHC Run-1, with several billion events simulated. An improved parametrisation is being developed, to eventually address shortcomings of the original version. It incorporates developme...

  10. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Flavia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A very large number of simulated events is required for physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Producing these with the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. As a very detailed detector simulation is not always required, fast simulation tools have been developed to reduce the calorimeter simulation time by a few orders of magnitude. The fast simulation of ATLAS for the calorimeter systems used in Run 1, called Fast Calorimeter Simulation (FastCaloSim), provides a parameterized simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level. It is then interfaced to the ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software. In Run 1, about 13 billion events were simulated in ATLAS, out of which 50% were produced using fast simulation. For Run 2, a new parameterisation is being developed to improve the original version: It incorporates developments in geometry and physics lists of the last five years and benefits from knowledge acquire...

  11. The pipelined readout for the ZEUS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervas, L.

    1991-01-01

    The electron-proton storage ring complex HERA under construction at DESY in Hamburg is the first machine of a new generation of colliders. Since physics to be studied at HERA (covered in chapter 2) base on the precise measurement of kinematic variables over a very large range of energies, a foremost emphasis is set in calorimetry. After long studies and an ambitious test program, the ZEUS collaboration has built a high resolution depleted uranium-scintillator calorimeter with photomultiplier readout, the state of the art in detectors of this type. In chapter 3 the principles of calorimetry are reviewed and the construction of the ZEUS calorimeter is described. Mainly due to the large dynamic range and the short bunch crossing times a novel concept for the readout in an analog pipelined fashion had to be designed. This concept is explained in chapter 4. The solid state implementation of the pipeline required two integrated circuits which were developed specially for the ZEUS calorimeter in collaboration with an electronics research institute and produced by industry. The design and construction of these devices and the detailed testing which has been performed for properties critical in the readout is covered in chapters 5 and 6. The whole pipelined readout is a complicated setup with many steps and collaborating systems. Its implementation and the information to operate it are covered in chapter 7. Finally the concepts presented and the applications discussed have been installed and tested on a test beam calibration experiment. There, the modules of the calorimeter have been calibrated. Chapter 8 presents results from these measurements which show excellent performance of the electronics as well as optimal properties of the calorimeter modules. (orig./HSI)

  12. MO-HF-C alloy composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, E.P.; Kalns, E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes, as an article of manufacture, a cast ingot of a molybdenum-hafnium-carbon alloy consisting essentially by weight of about 0.6% to about 1% Hf, about 0.045% to about 0.08% C, and the balance essentially molybdenum. The amount of Hf and C present are substantially stoichiometric with respect to HfC and within about +-15% of stoichiometry. The ingot is characterized in that it has a substantially less tendency to crack compared to alloys containing Hf in excess of about 1% by weight and carbon in excess of 0.08% by weight, without substantial diminution in strength properties of the alloy

  13. X-Ray Calorimeter Arrays for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites started a new era in x-ray astronomy, but there remains a need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band (around 6 keV) and can enable imaging spectroscopy of extended sources, such as supernova remnants and galaxy clusters. The instrumentation needed is a broad-band imaging spectrometer - basically an x-ray camera that can distinguish tens of thousands of x-ray colors. The potential benefits to astrophysics of using a low-temperature calorimeter to determine the energy of an incident x-ray photon via measurement of a small change in temperature was first articulated by S. H. Moseley over two decades ago. In the time since, technological progress has been steady, though full realization in an orbiting x-ray telescope is still awaited. A low-temperature calorimeter can be characterized by the type of thermometer it uses, and three types presently dominate the field. The first two types are temperature-sensitive resistors - semiconductors in the metal-insulator transition and superconductors operated in the superconducting-normal transition. The third type uses a paramagnetic thermometer. These types can be considered the three generations of x-ray calorimeters; by now each has demonstrated a resolving power of 2000 at 6 keV, but only a semiconductor calorimeter system has been developed to spaceflight readiness. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer on Astro-H, expected to launch in 2013, will use an array of silicon thermistors with I-IgTe x-ray absorbers that will operate at 50 mK. Both the semiconductor and superconductor calorimeters have been implemented in small arrays, kilo-pixel arrays of the superconducting calorimeters are just now being produced, and it is anticipated that much larger arrays will require the non-dissipative advantage of magnetic thermometers.

  14. Development of HF-systems for electron storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.P.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Popkov, Yu.P.; Reva, S.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    1999-01-01

    Development of HF systems for electron storages is described. Its final task is construction of 100 kW HF station at 699,3 MHz frequency consisting from low-power HF system, klystron amplifier, wave line for HF power transmission and accelerating section. Functional parameters of HF station are given

  15. The Development of the CMS Zero Degree Calorimeters to Derive the Centrality of AA Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Jeffrey Scott [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)

    2012-12-07

    The centrality of РЬРЬ collisions is derived using correlations from the zero degree calorimeter (ZDC) signal and pixel multiplicity at the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment using data from the heavy ion run in 2010. The method to derive the centrality takes the two-dimensional correlation between the ZDC and pixels and linearizes it for sorting events. The initial method for deriving the centrality at CMS uses the energy deposit in the HF detector, and it is compared to the centrality derived Ьу the correlations in ZDC and pixel multiplicity. This comparison highlights the similarities between the results of both methods in central collisions, as expected, and deviations in the results in peripheral collisions. The ZDC signals in peripheral collisions are selected Ьу low pixel multiplicity to oЬtain а ZDC neutron spectrum, which is used to effectively gain match both sides of the ZDC

  16. Mechanical alloying of Hf and Fe powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Zelis, L.; Crespo, E.; Creus, M.; Damonte, L.C.; Sanchez, F.H.; Punte, G.

    1994-01-01

    Pure crystalline Hf and Fe powders were mixed and milled under an argon atmosphere. The evolution of the system with milling time was followed with Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that in the first stages an amorphous Fe-rich alloy was gradually formed together with a solid solution of Hf in Fe beyond the solubility limit. (orig.)

  17. A search for a heavy Majorana neutrino and a radiation damage simulation for the HF detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, James William

    A search for heavy Majorana neutrinos is performed using an event signature defined by two same-sign muons accompanied by two jets. This search is an extension of previous searches, (L3, DELPHI, CMS, ATLAS), using 19.7 fb -1 of data from the 2012 Large Hadron Collider experimental run collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment. A mass window of 40-500 GeV/ c2 is explored. No excess events above Standard Model backgrounds is observed, and limits are set on the mixing element squared, |VmuN|2, as a function of Majorana neutFnrino mass. The Hadronic Forward (HF) Detector's performance will degrade as a function of the number of particles delivered to the detector over time, a quantity referred to as integrated luminosity and measured in inverse femtobarns (fb-1). In order to better plan detector upgrades, the CMS Forward Calorimetry Task Force (FCAL) group and the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter (HCAL) group have requested that radiation damage be simulated and the subsequent performance of the HF subdetector be studied. The simulation was implemented into both the CMS FastSim and CMS FullSim simulation packages. Standard calorimetry performance metrics were computed and are reported. The HF detector can expect to perform well through the planned delivery of 3000 fb-1.

  18. Recent developments in crystal calorimeters (featuring the CMS PbWO4 electromagnetic calorimeter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascon-Shotkin, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the mass range of 110-150 GeV the favored process for Higgs boson detection via p-p collisions is via its decay into two photons, which demands a very high-resolution electromagnetic calorimeter. This physics goal plus the Large Hadron Calorimeter (LHC)-imposed design constraints of 25ns bunch spacing and a hostile radiation environment have led the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) collaboration to the choice of lead tungstate (PbWO 4 ) crystals. These factors plus the presence of a 4T magnetic field and the relatively low room-temperature scintillation photon yield of PbWO 4 make photo detection a real challenge, which CMS has met via the choice of devices providing gain amplification: Avalanche photodiodes (APD) in the central barrel region and vacuum phototriodes (VPT) in the forward and backward endcap regions. In the past year the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has entered the construction phase. We review progress in the areas of crystals, barrel and endcap photo detection devices, plans for detector calibration as well as the status of assembly and quality control. We also invoke relevant developments in other crystal calorimeters currently in operation or under development. Crystal calorimeters remain the medium of choice for precision energy and position measurements in high energy physics

  19. Positron annihilation studies in Hf doped YBCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, P.; Priya, E.R.; Premila, M.; Sundar, C.S.; Gopinathan, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    The variation of positron lifetime and oxygen stoichiometry as a function of quench temperature has been measured in undoped and 0.5at%, 0.75at%, and 1.0 at% Hf doped YBCO. In both the undoped and Hf doped samples, the lifetime decreases and the oxygen content increases as the quench temperature is lowered from 900degC to 300degC. The lifetime in the tetragonal phase (900degC) decreases with the increase in Hf content, whereas in the orthorhombic phase (450degC) it increases. The difference in lifetime between the tetragonal and orthorhombic phases decreases with the increase in the Hf content. These trends are discussed in terms of the influence of Hf doping on the oxygen content and the positron density distribution in YBCO

  20. Sources of compensation in hadronic calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.S.; Gabriel, T.A.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Wilson, R.

    1988-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are presented using the CALOR code system to study the design of a large hybrid hadron calorimeter system employing a warm liquid active medium (tetramethylsilane, Si(CH 3 ) 4 ) and uranium plates in addition to a conventional Fe/plastic system. In the system described here, the uranium provides partial compensation by suppressing the electromagnetic cascade produced by incident electrons due to sampling inefficiencies. The results of the simulations also indicate that significant compensation is achieved (given small enough saturation) due to low energy recoil protons produced in collisions with low energy (1--20 MeV) cascade and fission neutrons in the active medium. Both compensation mechanisms are important to help balance the response of a calorimeter to incident electrons and hadrons, that is, to achieve a ratio of pulse heights (e/h ∼ 1) which will lead to the best energy resolution. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Precision timing with liquid ionization calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benary, O.; Cannon, S.; Cleland, W.; Ferguson, I.; Finley, C.; Gordeev, A.; Gordon, H.; Kistenev, E.; Kroon, P.; Letchouk, M.; Lissauer, D.; Ma, H.; Makowiecki, D.; Maslennikov, A.; McCorkle, S.; Onoprienko, D.; Onuchin, A.; Oren, Y.; Panin, V.; Parsons, J.; Rabel, J.; Radeka, V.; Rogers, L.; Rahm, D.; Rescia, S.; Rutherfoord, J.; Seman, M.; Smith, M.; Sondericker, J. III; Steiner, R.; Stephani, D.; Stern, E.; Stumer, I.; Takai, H.; Themann, H.; Tikhonov, Y.

    1993-01-01

    We present timing measurements performed with a liquid krypton electromagnetic accordion calorimeter, measured in an electron beam over an energy range of 5-20 GeV. A novel discriminator with an amplitude-independent timing response was used to extract the inherently accurate timing information from the calorimeter. As expected, the timing resolution σ τ is observed to vary inversely with the signal amplitude, which is proportional to the deposited energy E. We measure a resolution of σ τ =4.15±0.06 GeV ns/E for a sum of 5x5 towers with dimensions 2.7x2.5 cm 2 each. From this we deduce that the timing resolution for an individual tower is approximately 0.8 GeV ns/E. (orig.)

  2. Work on a ATLAS tile calorimeter Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is designed as one barrel and two extended barrel hadron parts. The calorimeter consists of a cylindrical structure with inner and outer radius of 2280 and 4230 mm respectively. The barrel part is 5640 mm in length along the beam axis, while each of the extended barrel cylinders is 2910 mm long. Each detector cylinder is built of 64 independent wedges along the azimuthal direction. Between the barrel and the extended barrels there is a gap of about 600 mm, which is needed for the Inner Detector and the Liquid Argon cables, electronics and services. The barrel covers the region -1.0

  3. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Performance at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Molander, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal pays a major role in detecting hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and measuring the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good signal to noise ratio it assists the muon spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons, which are also a tool for the in situ energy scale validation. The results presented here stem from the data collection in dedicated calibration runs, in cosmic rays data-taking and in LHC collisions along 3 years of operation. The uniformity, stability and precision of the energy scale, the time measurement capabilities and the robustness of the performance against pile-up are exposed through the usage of hadronic and muon final states and confirm the design expectations.

  4. LHCb: Upgrade of the LHCb calorimeter electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauricio Ferre, J

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration foresees a major upgrade of the detector for the high luminosity run that should take place after 2018. Apart from the increase of the instantaneous luminosity at the interaction point of the experiment, one of the major ingredients of this upgrade is a full readout at 40MHz of the sub-detectors and the acquisition of the data by a large farm of PC. The trigger will be done by this farm and should increase the overall trigger efficiency with respect to the current detector, especially in hadronic B meson decays. A general overview of the modifications foreseen to the calorimeter system and the integration of the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters in this new scheme will be described.

  5. Hermeticity of three cryogenic calorimeter geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strovink, M.; Wormersley, W.J.; Forden, G.E.

    1989-04-01

    We calculate the effect of cracks and dead material on resolution in three simplified cryogenic calorimeter geometries, using a crude approximation that neglects transverse shower spreading and considers only a small set of incident angles. For each dead region, we estimate the average unseen energy using a shower parametrization, and relate it to resolution broadening using a simple approximation that agrees with experimental data. Making reasonable and consistent assumptions on cryostat wall thicknesses, we find that the effects of cracks and dead material dominate the expected resolution in the region where separate ''barrel'' and ''end'' cryostats meet. This is particularly true for one geometry in which the end calorimeter caps the barrel and also protrudes into the hole within it. We also find that carefully designed auxiliary ''crack filler'' detectors can substantially reduce the loss of resolution in these areas. 6 figs

  6. The ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Calibration Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    Hong Ma; Isabelle Wingerter

    The ATLAS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Calibration Workshop took place at LAPP-Annecy from the 1st to the 3rd of October; 45 people attended the workshop. A detailed program was setup before the workshop. The agenda was organised around very focused presentations where questions were raised to allow arguments to be exchanged and answers to be proposed. The main topics were: Electronics calibration Handling of problematic channels Cluster level corrections for electrons and photons Absolute energy scale Streams for calibration samples Calibration constants processing Learning from commissioning Forty-five people attended the workshop. The workshop was on the whole lively and fruitful. Based on years of experience with test beam analysis and Monte Carlo simulation, and the recent operation of the detector in the commissioning, the methods to calibrate the electromagnetic calorimeter are well known. Some of the procedures are being exercised in the commisssioning, which have demonstrated the c...

  7. Instrumented module of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1998-01-01

    The ATLAS tile calorimeter consists of steel absorber plates interspersed with plastic scintillator tiles. Interactions of high-energy hadrons in the plates transform the incident energy into a 'hadronic shower'. When shower particles traverse the scintillating tiles, the latter emit an amount of light proportional to the incident energy. This light is transmitted along readout fibres to a photomultiplier, where a detectable electrical signal is produced. These pictures show one of 64 modules or 'wedges' of the barrel part of the tile calorimeter, which are arranged to form a cylinder around the beam axis. The wedge has been instrumented with scintillators and readout fibres. Photos 03, 06: Checking the routing of the readout fibres into the girder that houses the photomultipliers. Photo 04: A view of the fibre bundles inside the girder.

  8. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jacka, Petr; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    With the huge amount of data collected with ATLAS, there is a need to produce a large number of simulated events. These productions are very CPU and time consuming when using the full GEANT4 simulation. FastCaloSim is a program to quickly simulate the ATLAS calorimeter response, based on a parameterization of the GEANT4 energy deposits of several kinds of particles in a grid of energy and eta. A new version of FastCaloSim is under development and its integration into the ATLAS simulation infrastructure is ongoing. The use of machine learning techniques improves the performance and decreases the memory usage. Dedicated parameterizations for the forward calorimeters are being studied. First results of the new FastCaloSim show substantial improvements of the description of energy and shower shape variables, including the variables for jet substructure.

  9. The dry heat exchanger calorimeter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renz, D.P.; Wetzel, J.R.; James, S.J.; Kasperski, P.W.; Duff, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    A radiometric isothermal heat flow calorimeter and preconditioner system that uses air instead of water as the heat exchange medium has been developed at Mound. The dry heat exchanger calorimeter is 42 inches high by 18 inches in diameter and the preconditioner is a 22 inch cube, making it extremely compact compared to existing units. The new system is ideally suited for transportable, stand-alone, or glovebox applications. Preliminary tests of the system have produced sample measurements with standard deviations less than 0.25% and sample errors less than 0.50%. These tests have shown that the dry heat exchanger system will yield acceptance data with an accuracy comparable to those of Mound water bath systems now in use. 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Muon Detection Based on a Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ciodaro, T; Abreu, R; Achenbach, R; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Aielli, G; Al-Shabibi, A; Aleksandrov, I; Alexandrov, E; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Amorim, A; Amram, N; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Angelaszek, D; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, S; Anulli, F; Apolle, R; Aracena, I; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Avolio, G; Baak, M; Backes, M; Backlund, S; Badescu, E; Baines, J; Ballestrero, S; Banerjee, S; Bansil, H S; Barnett, B M; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, V; Batraneanu, S; Battaglia, A; Bauss, B; Beauchemin, P; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Begel, M; Behera, P K; Bell, P; Bell, W H; Bellagamba, L; Bellomo, M; Ben Ami, S; Bendel, M; Benhammou, Y; Benslama, K; Berge, D; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bianco, M; Biglietti, M; Blair, R E; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Bondioli, M; Borer, C; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bossini, E; Boveia, A; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A G; Brawn, I P; Brelier, B; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Brock, R; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bucci, F; Buda, S; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Buscher, V; Buttinger, W; Calvet, S; Camarri, P; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Capasso, L; Caprini, M; Caracinha, D; Caramarcu, C; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cattani, G; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chapleau, B; Childers, J T; Chiodini, G; Christidi, I; Ciapetti, G; Cimino, D; Ciobotaru, M; Coccaro, A; Cogan, J; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Conidi, C; Conventi, F; Corradi, M; Corso-Radu, A; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Crescioli, F; Crone, G; Crupi, R; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cummings, J T; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Dao, V; Darlea, G L; Davis, A O; De Asmundis, R; De Pedis, D; De Santo, A; de Seixas, J M; Degenhardt, J; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Diaz, M A; Dietzsch, T A; Dionisi, C; Dobson, E; Dobson, M; dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Dova, M T; Drake, G; Dufour, M-A; Dumitru, I; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, K V; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Ermoline, Y; Ernst, J; Etzion, E; Falciano, S; Farrington, S; Farthouat, P; Faulkner , P J W; Fedorko, W; Fellmann, D; Feng, E; Ferrag, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Fiorini, L; Fischer, G; Flowerdew, M J; Fonseca Martin, T; Francis, D; Fratina, S; French, S T; Front, D; Fukunaga, C; Gadomski, S; Garelli, N; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gaudio, G; Gee, C N P; George, S; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gillman, A R; Giorgi, M; Giunta, M; Giusti, P; Goebel, M; Gonçalo, R; Gonzalez Silva, L; Göringer, C; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Grabowska-Bold, I; Green, B; Groll, M; Guida, A; Guler, H; Haas, S; Hadavand, H; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hansen, J R; Hasegawa, S; Hasegawa, Y; Hauser, R; Hayakawa, T; Hayden, D; Head, S; Heim, S; Hellman, S; Henke, M; Hershenhorn, A; Hidvégi, A; Hillert, S; Hillier, S J; Hirayama, S; Hod, N; Hoffmann, D; Hong, T M; Hryn'ova, T; Huston, J; Iacobucci, G; Igonkina, O; Ikeno, M; Ilchenko, Y; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Jez, P; Jimenez Otero, S; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Jones, G; Joos, M; Kadlecik, P; Kajomovitz, E; Kanaya, N; Kanega, F; Kanno, T; Kapliy, A; Kaushik, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kazarov, A; Kehoe, R; Kessoku, K; Khomich, A; Khoriauli, G; Kieft, G; Kirk, J; Klemetti, M; Klofver, P; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Kobayashi, T; Koeneke, K; Koletsou, I; Koll, J D; Kolos, S; Kono, T; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Kowalewski, R V; Krasznahorkay, A; Kraus, J; Kreisel, A; Kubota, T; Kugel, A; Kunkle, J; Kurashige, H; Kuze, M; Kwee, R; Laforge, B; Landon, M; Lane, J; Lankford, A J; Laranjeira Lima, S M; Larner, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann Miotto, G; Lei, X; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Li, S; Liberti, B; Lilley, J N; Linnemann, J T; Lipeles, E; Lohse, T; Losada, M; Lowe, A; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lundberg, J; Lupu, N; Machado Miguéns, J; Mackeprang, R; Maettig, S; Magnoni, L; Maiani, C; Maltrana, D; Mangeard, P-S; Männer, R; Mapelli, L; Marchese, F; Marino, C; Martin, B; Martin, B T; Martin, T; Martyniuk, A; Marzano, F; Masik, J; Mastrandrea, P; Matsushita, T; McCarn, A; Mechnich, J; Medinnis, M; Meier, K; Melachrinos, C; Mendoza Nava, L M; Merola, L; Messina, A; Meyer, C P; Middleton, R P; Mikenberg, G; Mills, C M; Mincer, A; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Moa, T; Moenig, K; Monk, J; Monticelli, F; Mora Herrera, C; Morettini, P; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Munwes, Y; Murillo Garcia, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nelson, S; Nemethy, P; Neubauer, M S; Neusiedl, A; Newman, P; Nisati, A; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Nozicka, M; Nurse, E; Ochando, C; Ochi, A; Oda, S; Oh, A; Ohm, C; Okumura, Y; Olivito, D; Omachi, C; Osculati, B; Oshita, H; Ospanov, R; Owen, M A; Özcan, V E; Ozone, K; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Panikashvili, N; Paramonov, A; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Petcu, M; Petersen, B A; Petersen, J; Petrolo, E; Phan, A; Piegaia, R; Pilkington, A; Pinder, A; Poddar, S; Polini, A; Pope, B G; Potter, C T; Primavera, M; Prokoshin, F; Ptacek, E; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Ramos Dos Santos Neves, R; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Reinsch, A; Renkel, P; Rescigno, M; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S H; Robinson, M; Rodriguez, D; Roich, A; Romeo, G; Romero, R; Roos, L; Ruiz Martinez, A; Ryabov, Y; Ryan, P; Saavedra, A; Safai Tehrani, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Saland, J; Salnikov, A; Salvatore, F; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santonico, R; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sasaki, O; Savu, D; Scannicchio, D A; Schäfer, U; Scharf, V L; Scheirich, D; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J; Schmitt, K; Schroder, C; Schroer, N; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekhniaidze, G; Sfyrla, A; Shamim, M; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shooltz, D; Sidoti, A; Silbert, O; Silverstein, S; Sinev, N; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S; Sjoen, R; Sjölin, J; Slagle, K; Sloper, J E; Smith, B C; Soffer, A; Soloviev, I; Spagnolo, S; Spiwoks, R; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strauss, E A; Strom, D; Su, D; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Taffard, A; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Taylor, C; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Thomson, M A; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomoto, M; Topfel, C; Torrence, E; Touchard, F; Traynor, D; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Tripiana, M; Triplett, N; True, P; Tsiakiris, M; Tsuno, S; Tuggle, J; Ünel, G; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Vachon, B; Vallecorsa, S; Valsan, L; Vandelli, W; Vari, R; Vaz Gil Lopes, L; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Vermeulen, J C; Volpi, G; Vorwerk, V; Wagner, P; Wang, M; Warburton, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, M; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; White, M; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Winklmeier, F; Woods, K S; Wu, S-L; Wu, X; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Xella, S; Yakovlev, A; Yamazaki, Y; Yang, U; Yasu, Y; Yuan, L; Zaitsev, A; Zanello, L; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; zur Nedden, M

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. The information from TileCal's last segmentation layer can assist in muon tagging and it is being considered for a near future upgrade of the level-one trigger, mainly for rejecting triggers due to cavern background at the barrel region. A muon receiver for the TileCal muon signals is being designed in order to interface with the ATLAS level-one trigger. This paper addresses the preliminary studies concerning the muon discrimination capability for the muon receiver. Monte Carlo simulations for single muons from the interaction point were used to study the effectiveness of hadronic calorimeter information on muon detection.

  11. LYSO crystal calorimeter readout with silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berra, A., E-mail: alessandro.berra@gmail.com [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Bonvicini, V. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy); Cecchi, C.; Germani, S. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Guffanti, D. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); Lietti, D. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Lubrano, P.; Manoni, E. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Prest, M. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Rossi, A. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Large area Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) are the new frontier of the development of readout systems for scintillating detectors. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected silicon micropixels operating in limited Geiger–Muller avalanche mode, and thus working as independent photon counters with a very high gain (∼10{sup 6}). This contribution presents the performance in terms of linearity and energy resolution of an electromagnetic homogeneous calorimeter composed of 9∼18X{sub 0} LYSO crystals. The crystals were readout by 36 4×4 mm{sup 2} SiPMs (4 for each crystal) produced by FBK-irst. This calorimeter was tested at the Beam Test Facility at the INFN laboratories in Frascati with a single- and multi-particle electron beam in the 100–500 MeV energy range.

  12. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrió Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase 2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in the middle of 2014 during the first Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The Main Board will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the Daughter Board will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the super Read-Out Driver (sROD will perform processing tasks on them and will be the interface to the trigger levels 0, 1 and 2.

  13. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2024. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in middle 2014 during the Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB) alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The MainBoard will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them.

  14. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F

    2013-01-01

    This work summarizes the status of the on-detector and off-detector electronics developments for the Phase II Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at the LHC scheduled around 2022. A demonstrator prototype for a slice of the calorimeter including most of the new electronics is planned to be installed in ATLAS in middle 2014 during the Long Shutdown. For the on-detector readout, three different front-end boards (FEB) alternatives are being studied: a new version of the 3-in-1 card, the QIE chip and a dedicated ASIC called FATALIC. The MainBoard will provide communication and control to the FEBs and the DaughterBoard will transmit the digitized data to the off-detector electronics in the counting room, where the sROD will perform processing tasks on them.

  15. Measurements with the Chalk River Calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, A.W.

    1970-01-01

    The Chalk River calorimeters were designed to measure the absorbed dose rate in reactors in materials such as graphite, polyethylene and beryllium in the range 0.01-1 Wg -1 . To eliminate heaters in the sample they were made to operate adiabatically, or more accurately quasi-adiabatically since there is no heater on the jacket. Both the sample and jacket temperatures are recorded from the time of insertion in the reactor flux and the absorbed dose rate is calculated from these data. The advantages of this type of calorimeter are the ease of construction and the absence of a sample heater. The disadvantage is that dose rates below ~ 10 mWg -1 cannot be determined accurately

  16. The new UA1 calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhandler, E.

    1988-01-01

    The new UA1 first-level calorimeter trigger processor is described, with emphasis on the fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding that is its most novel feature. This processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. (author)

  17. The ZEUS second level calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, S.J. de.

    1990-01-01

    ZEUS is a detector for the HERA ep collider, consisting of several large components. The most important being the inner tracking detectors, which are positioned nearest to the interaction point, the calorimeter surrounding the inner tracking detectors and the muon detectors on the outside of the experimental setup. Each component will deliver a vast amount of information. In order to keep this information manageable, data is preprocessed and condensed per component and then combined to obtain the final global trigger result. The main subject of this thesis is the second level calorimeter trigger processor of the ZEUS detector. In order to be able to reject the unwanted events passing the first level, the topological event signature will have to be used at the second level. The most demanding task of the second level is the recognition of local energy depositions corresponding to isolated electrons and hadron jets. Also part of the work performed by the first level will be repeated with a higher level of accuracy. Additional information not available to the first level trigger will be processed and will be made available to the global second level trigger decision module. For the second level calorimeter trigger processor a special VME module, containing two transputers, has been developed. The second level calorimeter trigger algorithm described in this thesis was tested with simulated events, that were tracked through a computer simulation of the ZEUS detector. A part of this thesis is therefore devoted to the description of the various Monte Carlo models and the justification of the way in which they were used. (author). 132 refs.; 76 figs.; 18 tabs

  18. Isothermal calorimeter for reactor radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radak, B; Markovic, V [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Odeljenje za radijacionu hemiju, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    An isothermal calorimeter with thermistors for measuring absorbed dose rates from 10{sup 4}-5-6.10{sup 5} rad/h in reactor experimental holes has been designed. A kinetics method for determining the equilibrium temperature difference has been developed, and its application in isothermal calorimetry proved. The expected accuracy in measurements within {+-} 2-5% has been proved by measurements carried out in the reactor. Some data obtained by measurements in the reactor RA are presented (author)

  19. Homogeneous scintillating LKr/Xe calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.; Mullins, M.; Pelly, D.; Shotkin, S.; Sumorok, K. (Lab. for Nuclear Science, MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States)); Akyuz, D.; Chen, E.; Gaudreau, M.P.J. (Plasma Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States)); Bolozdynya, A.; Tchernyshev, V.; Goritchev, P.; Khovansky, V.; Koutchenkov, A.; Kovalenko, A.; Lebedenko, V.; Vinogradov, V.; Gusev, L.; Sheinkman, V. (ITEP, Moscow (Russia)); Krasnokutsky, R.N.; Shuvalov, R.S.; Fedyakin, N.N.; Sushkov, V. (IHEP, Serpukhov (Russia)); Akopyan, M. (Inst. for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russia)); Doke, T.; Kikuchi, J.; Hitachi, A.; Kashiwagi, T. (Science and Eng. Res. Lab., Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)); Masuda, K.; Shibamura, E. (Saitama Coll. of Health (Japan)); Ishida, N. (Seikei Univ. (Japan)); Sugimoto, S. (INS, Univ. Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-03-20

    Recent R and D work on full length scintillating homogeneous liquid xenon/krypton (LXe/Kr) cells has established the essential properties for precision EM calorimeters: In-situ calibration using [alpha]'s, radiation hardness as well as the uniformity required for [delta]E/E[approx equal]0.5% for e/[gamma]'s above 50 GeV. (orig.).

  20. The CDF central and endwall hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolucci, S.; Cordelli, M.; Eposito, B.; Curatolo, M.; Giromini, P.; Miscetti, S.; Sansoni, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Di Virgilio, A.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Kuhlmann, S.E.; Laasanen, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    The CDF central and endwall hadron calorimeter covers the polar region between 30 0 and 150 0 and a full 2π in azimuth. It consists of 48 steel-scintillator central modules with 2.5 cm sampling and 48 steel-scintillator endwall modules with 5.0 cm sampling. A general description of the detector is given. Calibration techniques and performance are discussed. Some results of the test beam studies are shown. (orig.)

  1. Measurement of ultrasound power using a calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, G.; Miqueleti, S.; Costa-Felix, R. P. B.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison between the ultrasound power of a 1 MHz therapy equipment on the water using a calorimeter and a radiation force balance. For a range of 5 to 10 W, the results presented a normalized error less than 1, disclosing compatibility of the results from the developed system and the radiation force balance. The calorimetric method might be used as a faster and cheaper means for the verification of the ultrasonic power emitted by an equipment for physiotherapeutic treatment.

  2. Prototype calorimeters for the NA3 experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The NA3 Experiment was set-up on the North Area of the SPS by the CERN/ Ecole Polytechnique/College de France/ Orsay/Saclay Collaboration, to study high transverse momentum leptons and hadrons from hadron collisions. The calorimeters measured the energy of hadrons (prototype on the right) and leptons (prototype on the left). They used a new type of plastic scintillator (plexipop). (see CERN Courier of November 1975) energy (prototype on the right)

  3. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrió, F

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (Phase-II) where the peak luminosity will increase 5 times compared to the design luminosity (10 34 cm −2 s −1 ) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity levelling. This upgrade is expected to happen around 2024. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room while 5 Gbps down-links are used for synchronization, configuration and detector control. For the off-detector electronics a pre-processor (sROD) is being developed, which takes care of the initial trigger processing while temporarily storing the main data flow in pipeline and derandomizer memories. One demonstrator prototype module with the new calorimeter module electronics, but still compatible with the present system, is planned to be inserted in ATLAS this year

  4. Performance test of a TMS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, B.

    1986-10-01

    Performance tests of a first calorimeter module using the room temperature liquid tetramethylsilane (TMS) as active element are described in detail. As absorber planed carbon steel slabs had been used. The charge yield is 70% of that in a very pure sample of the liquid. A long term stability of the signal with a lifetime of half a year has been realized. Experiences are described and the results explained in detail. (orig.) [de

  5. Pion showers in highly granular calorimeters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvach, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 4 (2012), s. 859-862 ISSN 0304-4289. [International Symposium on Lepton-Photon Interactions at High Energies /25./. Mumbai, 22.08.2011-27.08.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA09042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : International Linear Collider * particle flow algorithm * calorimeter resolution Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2012

  6. Electron Reconstruction in the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Meschi, Emilio; Seez, Christopher; Vikas, Pratibha

    2001-01-01

    This note describes the reconstruction of electrons using the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) alone. This represents the first step in the High Level Trigger reconstruction and selection chain. By making "super-clusters" (i.e. clusters of clusters) much of the energy radiated by bremsstrahlung in the tracker material can be recovered. Representative performance figures for energy and position resolution in the barrel are given.

  7. A no-load RF calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoff, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The described device can be used to measure the output of any dc powered RF source. No dummy load is required for the measurements. The device is, therefore, called the 'no-load calorimeter' (NLC). The NLC measures the power actually fed to the antenna or another useful load. It is believed that the NLC can compete successfully with directional coupler type systems in measuring the output of high-power RF sources.

  8. Analytical heat transfer modeling of a new radiation calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obame Ndong, Elysée [Department of Industrial Engineering and Maintenance, University of Sciences and Technology of Masuku (USTM), BP 941 Franceville (Gabon); Grenoble Electrical Engineering Laboratory (G2Elab), University Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, G2Elab, F38000 Grenoble (France); Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier [Grenoble Electrical Engineering Laboratory (G2Elab), University Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, G2Elab, F38000 Grenoble (France); Aitken, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.aitken@g2elab.grenoble-inp.fr [Grenoble Electrical Engineering Laboratory (G2Elab), University Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, G2Elab, F38000 Grenoble (France)

    2016-06-10

    Highlights: • Design of a new calorimeter for measuring heat power loss in electrical components. • The calorimeter can operate in a temperature range from −50 °C to 150 °C. • An analytical model of heat transfers for this new calorimeter is presented. • The theoretical sensibility of the new apparatus is estimated at ±1 mW. - Abstract: This paper deals with an analytical modeling of heat transfers simulating a new radiation calorimeter operating in a temperature range from −50 °C to 150 °C. The aim of this modeling is the evaluation of the feasibility and performance of the calorimeter by assessing the measurement of power losses of some electrical devices by radiation, the influence of the geometry and materials. Finally a theoretical sensibility of the new apparatus is estimated at ±1 mW. From these results the calorimeter has been successfully implemented and patented.

  9. Design, Construction and Commissioning of the Digital Hadron Calorimeter - DHCAL

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C; Bilki, B.; Butler, J.; Corriveau, F.; Cundiff, T.; Drake, G.; Francis, K.; Furst, B.; Guarino, V.; Haberichter, B.; Hazen, E.; Hoff, J.; Holm, S.; Kreps, A.; DeLurgio, P.; Matijas, Z.; Monte, L.Dal; Mucia, N.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Pollack, B.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Skrzecz, F.; Smith, J.R.; Trojand, D.; Underwood, D.; Velasco, M.; Walendziak, J.; Wood, K.; Wu, S.; Xia, L.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel hadron calorimeter is being developed for future lepton colliding beam detectors. The calorimeter is optimized for the application of Particle Flow Algorithms (PFAs) to the measurement of hadronic jets and features a very finely segmented readout with 1 x 1 cm2 cells. The active media of the calorimeter are Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) with a digital, i.e. one-bit, readout. To first order the energy of incident particles in this calorimeter is reconstructed as being proportional to the number of pads with a signal over a given threshold. A large-scale prototype calorimeter with approximately 500,000 readout channels has been built and underwent extensive testing in the Fermilab and CERN test beams. This paper reports on the design, construction, and commissioning of this prototype calorimeter.

  10. Some hadron calorimeter properties relevant to storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corden, M.J.; Dowell, J.D.; Edwards, M.; Ellis, N.; Garvey, J.; Grant, D.; Homer, R.J.; Kenyon, I.R.; McMahon, T.; Schanz, G.; Sumorok, K.C.T.O.; Watkins, P.M.; Wilson, J.A.; Eisenhandler, E.; Gibson, W.R.; Kalmus, P.I.P.; Thompson, G.; Arnison, G.; Astbury, A.; Grayer, G.; Haynes, W.J.; Hill, D.; Nandi, A.K.; Roberts, C.; Shah, T.P.

    1982-01-01

    At wide angles in a storage ring environment, a substantial part of the energy seen by a hadron calorimeter can be in the form of very low momentum particles such as jet fragments or resonance cascade decay products. Data are presented on the deviations from Gaussian resolution and linear response for such low momentum particles. The differing responses to incident e - , μ - , π +- , K +- , p and anti p at momenta below 10 GeV/c are also compared. In addition, the authors discuss the significance of angle effects for a 4π calorimeter, and the problems of combining data from calorimeters with different physical characteristics. Experimental data are presented on the difference in hadron response between a fine grain (electromagnetic) lead calorimeter and a coarser (hadron) iron calorimeter, and on the dependence of the response on the energy sharing between the two calorimeters. (Auth.)

  11. Analytical heat transfer modeling of a new radiation calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obame Ndong, Elysée; Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier; Aitken, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Design of a new calorimeter for measuring heat power loss in electrical components. • The calorimeter can operate in a temperature range from −50 °C to 150 °C. • An analytical model of heat transfers for this new calorimeter is presented. • The theoretical sensibility of the new apparatus is estimated at ±1 mW. - Abstract: This paper deals with an analytical modeling of heat transfers simulating a new radiation calorimeter operating in a temperature range from −50 °C to 150 °C. The aim of this modeling is the evaluation of the feasibility and performance of the calorimeter by assessing the measurement of power losses of some electrical devices by radiation, the influence of the geometry and materials. Finally a theoretical sensibility of the new apparatus is estimated at ±1 mW. From these results the calorimeter has been successfully implemented and patented.

  12. Run 1 Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Heelan, Louise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design ...

  13. The new ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hasib, Ahmed; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the very large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During the LHC Run-1, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitization and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than GEANT4. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim makes use of statistical techniques such as principal component analysis, and a neural n...

  14. Beam tests of the ZEUS barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, A; Bienz, T; Caldwell, A; Chen, L; Derrick, M; Gialas, I; Hamri, A; Imlay, R; Kartik, S; Kim, H J; Kinnel, T; Kreutzmann, H; Li, C G; Lim, J N; Loveless, R; Lu, B; Mallik, U; McLean, K W; McNeil, R; Metcalf, W; Musgrave, B; Oh, B Y; Park, S; Parsons, J A; Reeder, D; Repond, J; Ritz, S; Roco, M T.P.; Sandler, P H; Sciulli, F; Smith, W H; Talaga, R L; Tzanakos, G; Wai, L; Wang, M Z; Whitmore, J; Wu, J; Yang, S [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States) Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States) Nevis Labs., Irvington-on-Hudson, NY (United States) Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States) Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States) Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States) Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States) Virginia Polytechnic Inst., and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States) Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-11-15

    A fully compensating uranium-scintillator calorimeter was constructed for the ZEUS detector at HERA. Several of the barrel calorimeter modules were subjected to beam tests at Fermilab before shipping them to DESY for installation. The calibrations of the modules used beams of electrons and hadrons, measuring the uniformity of the response, and checking the resolution. The runs also provided opportunity to test a large fraction of the actual ZEUS calorimeter readout system in an integrated beam environment more than one year before HERA turn on. The experiment utilized two computer controlled mechanical structures, one of which was capable of holding up to four modules in order to study shower containment, and a magnetic spectrometer with a high resolution beam tracking system. During two running periods, beams of 6 to 110 GeV containing e, [mu], [pi], and anti p were used. The results show energy resolutions of 35%/[radical]E for hadrons and 19%/[radical]E for electrons, uniformities at the 1% level, energy nonlinearity less than 1%, and equal response for electrons and hadrons. (orig.)

  15. An absorbed dose calorimeter for IMRT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duane, S.; Aldehaybes, M.; Bailey, M.; Lee, N.D.; Thomas, C.G.; Palmans, H.

    2012-01-01

    A new calorimeter for dosimetry in small and complex fields has been built. The device is intended for the direct determination of absorbed dose to water in moderately small fields and in composite fields such as IMRT treatments, and as a transfer instrument calibrated against existing absorbed dose standards in conventional reference conditions. The geometry, materials and mode of operation have been chosen to minimize detector perturbations when used in a water phantom, to give a reasonably isotropic response and to minimize the effects of heat transfer when the calorimeter is used in non-reference conditions in a water phantom. The size of the core is meant to meet the needs of measurement in IMRT treatments and is comparable to the size of the air cavity in a type NE2611 ionization chamber. The calorimeter may also be used for small field dosimetry. Initial measurements in reference conditions and in an IMRT head and neck plan, collapsed to gantry angle zero, have been made to estimate the thermal characteristics of the device, and to assess its performance in use. The standard deviation (estimated repeatability) of the reference absorbed dose measurements was 0.02 Gy (0.6%). (authors)

  16. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. Its main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5-fold compared to the design luminosity (10exp34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade will probably happen around 2023. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. The smallest independent on-detector electronics module has been reduced from 45 channels to 6, greatly reducing the consequences of a failure in the on-detector electronics. The size of t...

  17. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the main hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC operation (Phase 2 around 2023) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims to replace the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals can be digitized and directly sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. This will reduce pile-up problems and allow more complex trigger algorithms. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to t...

  18. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Oreglia, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) which is scheduled around 2022. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. An ambitious upgrade development program is pursued studying different electronics options. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Which one to use will be decided after extensive test beam studies. High speed optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room. For the off-detector electronics a new back-end architecture is being developed, including the initial trigger processing and pipeline memories. A demonstrator prototype read-out for a slice of the ...

  19. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5x compared to the design luminosity (10^34 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade is expected to happen around 2023. The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 ...

  20. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (Phase 2) where the peak luminosity will increase 5$\\times$ compared to the design luminosity ($10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off-detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Extensive test beam studies will determine which option will be selected. 10 Gbps optical links are used to read out all digitized data to the counting room while 5 Gbps down-links are used for synchronization, c...

  1. Upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F

    2015-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. The bulk of its upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (P hase - II ) where the pea k luminosity will increase 5 times compared to the design luminosity (10 34 cm −2 s −1 ) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional increase of the average luminosity with a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity levelling. This upgrade is expe cted to happen around 202 4 . The TileCal upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on - and off - detector electronics to the extent that all calorimeter signals will be digitized and sent to the off - detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve th e required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. Three different options are presently being investiga...

  2. Upgrading the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the hadronic calorimeter covering the most central region of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. The TileCal readout consists of about 10000 channels. Its main upgrade will occur for the High Luminosity LHC phase (phase 2) where the luminosity will have increased 5-fold compared to the design luminosity (1034 cm−2s−1) but with maintained energy (i.e. 7+7 TeV). An additional luminosity increase by a factor of 2 can be achieved by luminosity leveling. This upgrade will probably happen around 2022. The upgrade aims at replacing the majority of the on- and off- detector electronics so that all calorimeter signals are directly digitized and sent to the off-detector electronics in the counting room. To achieve the required reliability, redundancy has been introduced at different levels. An ambitious upgrade development program is pursued studying different electronics options. Three different options are presently being investigated for the front-end electronic upgrade. Which one to u...

  3. The New ATLAS Fast Calorimeter Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Matthew Peter; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Producing the large samples of simulated events required by many physics and performance studies with the ATLAS detector using the full GEANT4 detector simulation is highly CPU intensive. Fast simulation tools are a useful way of reducing the CPU requirements when detailed detector simulations are not needed. During Run-1 of the LHC, a fast calorimeter simulation (FastCaloSim) was successfully used in ATLAS. FastCaloSim provides a simulation of the particle energy response at the calorimeter read-out cell level, taking into account the detailed particle shower shapes and the correlations between the energy depositions in the various calorimeter layers. It is interfaced to the standard ATLAS digitisation and reconstruction software, and it can be tuned to data more easily than Geant4. Now an improved version of FastCaloSim is in development, incorporating the experience with the version used during Run-1. The new FastCaloSim aims to overcome some limitations of the first version by improving the description of...

  4. Fast shower simulation in the ATLAS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberio, E; Boudreau, J; Mueller, J; Tsulaia, V; Butler, B; Young, C C; Cheung, S L; Savard, P; Dell'Acqua, A; Simone, A D; Gallas, M V; Ehrenfeld, W; Glazov, A; Placakyte, R; Marshall, Z; Rimoldi, A; Waugh, A

    2008-01-01

    The time to simulate pp collisions in the ATLAS detector is largely dominated by the showering of electromagnetic particles in the heavy parts of the detector, especially the electromagnetic barrel and endcap calorimeters. Two procedures have been developed to accelerate the processing time of electromagnetic particles in these regions: (1) a fast shower parameterisation and (2) a frozen shower library. Both work by generating the response of the calorimeter to electrons and positrons with Geant 4, and then reintroduce the response into the simulation at runtime. In the fast shower parameterisation technique, a parameterisation is tuned to single electrons and used later by simulation. In the frozen shower technique, actual showers from low-energy particles are used in the simulation. Full Geant 4 simulation is used to develop showers down to ∼ 1GeV, at which point the shower is terminated by substituting a frozen shower. Judicious use of both techniques over the entire electromagnetic portion of the ATLAS calorimeter produces an important improvement of CPU time. We discuss the algorithms and their performance in this paper

  5. First Half Of CMS Hadron Calorimeter Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    CMS HCAL electronics coordinator John Elias from Fermilab inspecting the assembled first half of the calorimeter. The first half barrel of the CMS hadron calorimeter was completed last month and assembly work on the elements of the second half commenced just last week. This is not a simple task considering the fact that the constructed half-barrel consists of eighteen 30 tonne segments each made with 0.15 mm tolerance. But through the work of everyone on the CMS hadron calorimeter team it is all moving forward. In the LHC, detection of particles produced in collisions of two proton beams requires measurement of their energy. To do this, the particle energy has to be changed into a form that can be easily measured. This is achieved by stopping the initial particles in a dense medium, where they create a shower of secondary particles. While particles that interact through electromagnetic forces (electrons and positrons) create relatively small showers, the size of showers created by hadrons, particles that i...

  6. Aspects of HF radio propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Saillant

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    radio systems. From the point of view Working Group 2 of the COST 296 Action, interest lies with effects associated

    with propagation via the ionosphere of signals within the HF band. Several aspects are covered in this paper:

    a The directions of arrival and times of flight of signals received over a path oriented along the trough have

    been examined and several types of propagation effects identified. Of particular note, combining the HF observations

    with satellite measurements has identified the presence of irregularities within the floor of the trough that

    result in propagation displaced from the great circle direction. An understanding of the propagation effects that

    result in deviations of the signal path from the great circle direction are of particular relevance to the operation

    of HF radiolocation systems.

    b Inclusion of the results from the above mentioned measurements into a propagation model of the northerly

    ionosphere (i.e. those regions of the ionosphere located poleward of, and including, the mid-latitude trough

    and the use of this model to predict the coverage expected from transmitters where the signals impinge on the

    northerly ionosphere

  7. Performance of the upgraded small angle tile calorimeter at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Alvsvaag, S J; Barreira, G; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bigi, M; Bonesini, M; Bozzo, M; Camporesi, T; Carling, H; Cassio, V; Castellani, L; Cereseto, R; Chignoli, F; Della Ricca, G; Dharmasiri, D R; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Gamba, D; Giordano, V; Guz, Yu; Guerzoni, M; Gumenyuk, S A; Hedberg, V; Jarlskog, G; Karyukhin, A N; Klovning, A; Konoplyannikov, A K; Kronkvist, I J; Lanceri, L; Leoni, R; Maeland, O A; Maio, A; Mazza, R; Migliore, E; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nossum, B; Obraztsov, V F; Onofre, A; Paganoni, M; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Petrovykh, L P; Pimenta, M; Poropat, P; Prest, M; Read, A L; Romero, A; Shalanda, N A; Simonetti, L; Skaali, T B; Stugu, B; Terranova, F; Tomé, B; Torassa, E; Trapani, P P; Verardi, M G; Vallazza, E; Vlasov, E; Zaitsev, A

    1998-01-01

    The small angle tile calorimeter (STIC) provides calorimetric coverage in the very forward region of the DELPHI experiment at the CERN LEP collider. The structure of the calorimeters, built with so- called "shashlik" technique, $9 allows the insertion of tracking detectors within the sampling structure, in order to make it possible to determine the direction of the showering particle. Presented here are some results demonstrating the performance of the $9 calorimeter and of these tracking detectors at LEP. (5 refs).

  8. Design and construction of the ZEUS barrel calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repond, J.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanical design and construction techniques of the barrel calorimeter for the ZEUS detector are presented. The calorimeter uses alternate layers of depleted uranium and scintillator with one radiation length sampling. The unit cell has e/h = 1 which yields an optimal energy resolution for hadronic jets. We discuss the placing of the structural components and cracks between modules. Details of the construction and assembly effort needed to realize the total calorimeter are reported. 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Performance of the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callegari, G.; Piemontese, L.; De Sangro, R.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Busza, W.; Friedman, J.; Johnson, A.; Kendall, H.; Kistiakowsky, V.

    1986-03-01

    A prototype hadron calorimeter, of similar design to the Warm Iron Calorimeter (WIC) planned for the SLD experiment, has been built and its performance has been studied in a test beam. The WIC is an iron sampling calorimeter whose active elements are plastic streamer tubes similar to those used for the Mont-Blanc proton decay experiment. The construction and operation of the tubes will be briefly described together with their use in an iron calorimeter - muon tracker. Efficiency, resolution and linearity have been measured in a hadron/muon beam up to 11 GeV. The measured values correspond to the SLD design goals

  10. Calorimeters for diagnosis of laser-fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of calorimeters have been developed for measuring ions, x-rays, and scattered radiation emanating from laser-pulse-imploded fusion targets. The ion and x-ray calorimeters use metal or glass absorbers to reflect or transmit most of the scattered laser radiation; the versions using metal absorbers also incorporate a differential construction to compensate for the fraction of the scattered laser radiation that is absorbed. The scattered-radiation calorimeters use colored glass to absorb the radiation and a transparent glass shield to remove ions and x rays. Most of the calorimeters use commercial semiconductor thermoelectric modules as the temperature sensors

  11. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter--status and expected performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schacht, Peter

    2004-01-01

    For the ATLAS detector at the LHC, the liquid argon technique is exploited for the electromagnetic calorimetry in the central part and for the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry in the forward and backward regions. The construction of the calorimeter is well advanced with full cold tests of the barrel calorimeter and first endcap calorimeter only months away. The status of the project is discussed as well as the related results from beam test studies of the various calorimeter subdetectors. The results show that the expected performance meets the ATLAS requirements as specified in the ATLAS Technical Design Report

  12. The uranium liquid argon calorimeter of the D0 experiment: Experience in realizing a large system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guryn, W.

    1991-01-01

    The major aspects in realizing the calorimeter system of the D OE experiment are discussed. They include: technologies developed for calorimeter production, schedule, and experience with module production

  13. Calibration of Tilecal hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batkova, L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of a precise calibration of a calorimeter is to get the best response relationship between the calorimeter and the energy of incident particles. Different types of particles interact through various types of interactions with the environment. Therefore, calorimeters are optimized to detect one type of particle (electromagnetic particles and hadrons). Within current high energy physics experiments, where the detectors reached gigantic proportions, calorimeters hold two important features: - serve to measure power showers by complete absorption method; - reconstruct a direction of showers of particles after their interaction with the environment of calorimeter. To deterioration of the resolving power of the hadronic calorimeter contributes incompensation of its response to hadrons and electromagnetic particles (e, μ). They record more energy from electrons as from pions of the same nominal power. During building of experiment of the ATLAS the prototypes of Tile calorimeter were calibrated using Cs and then were tested by means of calibration particle beams (e, μ, π). The work is aimed to evaluation of the response of the muon beam calibration experiment ATLAS. The scope of the work is to determine correction factors for the calibration constants obtained from the primary calibration of the calorimeter by cesium for end Tilecal calorimeter modules. Tile calorimeter modules consist of three layers A, BC and D. A correction factor for calibration constant for A layer was determined by electron beam firing angle less than 20 grad. Muons are used to determine correction factors for the remaining two layers of the end calorimeter module, where the electrons of given energy do not penetrate. (author)

  14. Microhardness evaluation alloys Hf-Si-B; Avaliacao de microdureza de ligas Hf-Si-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigolotti, Joao Carlos Janio; Costa, Eliane Fernandes Brasil [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, Carlos Angelo; Rocha, Elisa Gombio; Coelho, Gilberto Carvalho, E-mail: carlosjanio@uol.com.br, E-mail: eliane-costabrasi@hotmail.com, E-mail: cnunes@demar.eel.usp.br, E-mail: elisarocha@alunos.eel.usp.br, E-mail: coelho@demar.eel.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The technological advance has generated increasing demand for materials that can be used under high temperature, what includes intermetallic MR-Si-B (MR = refractory metal) alloys with multiphase structures, that can also be applied in oxide environments. Thus, this work had for objective the micro hardness study of the Hf-Si-B system alloys, heat treated at 1600 deg C, in the Hf rich region. Hf-Si-B alloys had been produced with blades of Hf (min. 99.8%), Si (min. 99.998%) and B (min. 99.5%), in the voltaic arc furnace and heat treated at 1600 deg C under argon atmosphere. The relationship of the phases had been previously identified by X-ray diffraction and contrast in backscattered electron imaging mode. The alloys had their hardness analyzed by method Vickers (micro hardness) with load of 0.05 kgf and 0.2 kgf and application time of 20 s. The results, obtained from the arithmetic mean of measurements for each alloy on the heterogeneous region, showed a mean hardness of 11.08 GPA, with small coefficient of variation of 3.8%. The borides HfB2 (19.34 GPa) e HfB - 11.76 GPa, showed the hardness higher than the silicides Hf2Si (8.57 GPa), Hf5Si3 (9.63 GPa), Hf3Si2 (11.66 GPa), Hf5Si4 (10.00 GPa), HfSi (10.02 GPa) e HfSi2 (8.61 GPa). (author)

  15. A hidden bias in a common calorimeter calibration scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lincoln, Don; Morrow, Greg; Kasper, Peter

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a common calorimeter calibration scheme is explored and a hidden bias found. Since this bias mimics a non-linearity in response in the calorimeter, it must be understood and removed from the calibration before true non-linearities are investigated. The effect and its removal are explored and understood through straightforward calculus and algebra. ((orig.))

  16. Study of characteristics of gamma-irradiated materials for calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britvich, G.I.; Vasil'chenko, V.G.; Peresypkin, A.I.

    1992-01-01

    The radiation resistance of some structural materials proposed for use in electromagnetic calorimeters is studied. Particular attention is given to the spectral, dose, and other postradiation characteristics of pure heavy fluorides and their solid solutions: The promise of the use of CdF 2 and CdI 2 crystals in calorimeters is noted. 19 refs., 5 figs

  17. Moving one of the ATLAS end-cap calorimeters

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    One of the end-cap calorimeters for the ATLAS experiment is moved using a set of rails. This calorimeter will measure the energy of particles that are produced close to the axis of the beam when two protons collide. It is kept cool inside a cryostat to allow the detector to work at maximum efficiency.

  18. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter central barrel assembly and installation.

    CERN Multimedia

    nikolai topilin

    2009-01-01

    These photos belong to the self-published book by Nikolai Topilin "ATLAS Hadron Calorimeter Assembly". The book is a collection of souvenirs from the years of assembly and installation of the Tile Hadron Calorimeter, which extended from November 2002 until May 2006.

  19. First experimental tests of a lead glass drift calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, A.D.; Bellazzini, R.; Conti, M.; Massai, M.M.; Schwartz, G.; Habel, R.; Mulera, T.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1985-10-01

    We are building a drift collection calorimeter, which has a combined radiator and electric field shaping structure made of fused lead glass tubing, treated in a H 2 reducing atmosphere. We describe the construction detail of the calorimeter and the experimental measurements on several prototypes with radioative sources and minimum ionizing particles. 9 refs., 11 figs

  20. Calibration of film dosimeters by means of absorbed dose calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, S.M.; Vanyushkin, B.M.; Kon'kov, N.G.

    1980-01-01

    Methods of graduating film dosimeters by means of calorimeters of absorbed doses, are considered. Graduating of film dosimeters at the energies of accelerated electrons from 4 to 10 MeV can be carried out by means of quasiadiabatic calorimeter of local absorption, the absorber thickness of which should not exceed 5-10% of Rsub(e) value, where Rsub(e) - free electron path of the given energy. In this case film is located inside the calorimeter. For graduating films with thickness not less than (0.1-0.2)Rsub(e) it is suggested to use calorimeter of full absorption; then the graduated dosimeters are located in front of the calorimeter. Graduation of films at small energies of electrons is exercised by means of a package of films, approximately Rsub(e) thick. A design of quasiadiabatic calorimeter, intended for graduating dosimeters within the energy range of electron beam from 4 to 10 MeV, is considered. The quasiadiabatic calorimeter is a thin graphite tablet with heater and thermocouple, surrounded by foam plastic thermostating case. Electricity quantity, accumulated during the radiation field pass, is measured in the case of using the quasiadiabatic calorimeter for film graduating. The results of graduating film dosimeters, obtained using film package with Rsub(e) thickness, are presented. The obtained results coincide within 5% limits with the data known beforehand [ru

  1. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps.The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read-out channels after cool down will be reported. End 2004 the ATLAS barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter was installed in the ATLAS cavern and since summer 2005 the front-end electronics are being connected and tested. Results of this first commissioning phase will be shown to demonstrate the high standards of quality control for our detectors

  2. The optical instrumentation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abdallah, J.; Adragna, P.; Alexa, C.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Němeček, Stanislav; Přibyl, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, Jan (2013), P01005 ISSN 1748-0221 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : calorimeters * calorimeter methods * scintillators * scintillation and light emission processes * solid, gas and liquid scintillators Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.526, year: 2013

  3. A Customizable GeantV Calorimeter Application

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitz, Ryan; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Novak, Mihaly; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2017-01-01

    A customizable calorimeter application was written in GeantV. This application includes a GeantV-native detector construction file as well as GeantV-native physics models and new data collection structures. Including these features makes this one of the first examples of a completely standalone GeantV application. A comparison to Geant4 was made which showed the consistency of the GeantV-native physics models included in this example. Finally, the workflow improvements made by the creation of this application are described.

  4. ATLAS detector performance in Run1: Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Burghgrave, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS operated with an excellent efficiency during the Run 1 data taking period, recording respectively in 2011 and 2012 an integrated luminosity of 5.3 fb-1 at √s = 7 TeV and 21.6 fb-1 at √s = 8TeV. The Liquid Argon and Tile Calorimeter contributed to this effort by operating with a good data quality efficiency, improving over the whole Run 1. This poster presents the Run 1 overall status and performance, LS1 works and Preparations for Run 2.

  5. Neutron calorimeter as a fusion diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, A.E.; Nieschmidt, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    A calorimeter is described which is applicable as a fusion neutron diagnostic. The device has the following distinct advantages: low sensitivity to thermal neutrons, large dynamic range, small mass resulting in fair time resolution, small physical size, independent calibration, little shielding required, no heat loss to surroundings, and low cost. The heat generation is provided by neutron induced fissions in a foil of 235 U or 238 U. The effects, advantages, and disadvantages of these target materials are discussed. The expected time resolution and dynamic range are estimated for both target materials

  6. Readiness of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter for LHC Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Adorisio, C.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Aktas, A.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antunovic, B.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, T.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, M.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asner, D.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Baranov, S.P.; Baranov, S.; Barashkou, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baron, S.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Barros, N.; Bartoldus, R.; Bartsch, D.; Bastos, J.; Bates, R.L.; Bathe, S.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Bazalova, M.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Becerici, N.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, G.A.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Bedajanek, I.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednár, P.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benincasa, G.P.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocci, A.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Böser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Bohm, J.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A.; Bondarenko, V.G.; Bondioli, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bosteels, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N.D.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A.G.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Büscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Byatt, T.; Caballero, J.; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Campabadal-Segura, F.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans-Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caracinha, D.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carrillo Montoya, G D; Carron Montero, S; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernadez, A M; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N.; Cataldi, G.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cauz, D.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Tcherniatine, V.; Chesneanu, D.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Chren, D.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Citterio, M.; Clark, A.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clements, D.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coelli, S.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C.D.; Colas, J.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Coluccia, R.; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Côté, D.; Coura Torres, R; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Silva, P V M; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Daly, C.H.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davison, A.R.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.W.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Castro Faria Salgado, P E; De Cecco, S; de Graat, J; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De La Cruz Burelo, E; De La Taille, C; De Mora, L; De Oliveira Branco, M; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; De Zorzi, G; Dean, S.; Deberg, H.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D.V.; Defay, P.O.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Del Papa, C; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M; della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Deng, W.; Denisov, S.P.; Dennis, C.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Domenico, A; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Luise, S; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K; Dingfelder, D.J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M A B; Do Valle Wemans, A; Dobbs, M.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Dogan, O.B.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Doxiadis, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Dührssen ,.M.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A; Dunford, M.; Duperrin, A.; Duran-Yildiz, H.; Dushkin, A.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Düren, M.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; Eerola, P.; Egorov, K.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Epshteyn, V.S.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ermoline, I.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Faccioli, P.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R.M.; Falciano, S.; Falou, A.C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S.M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Fayard, L.; Fayette, F.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O.L.; Fedorko, I.; Fedorko, W.; Feligioni, L.; Felzmann, C.U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E.J.; Fenyuk, A.B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferland, J.; Fernandes, B.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipcic, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M.C.N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fisher, M.J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores-Castillo, L.R.; Flowerdew, M.J.; Föhlisch, F.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T; Forbush, D.A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J.M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A.J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; Freestone, J.; French, S.T.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J.A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E; Fuster, J.; 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Petersen, B.A.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T.C.; Petit, E.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D.; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Pfeifer, B.; Phan, A.; Phillips, A.W.; Piacquadio, G.; Piccinini, M.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pilkington, A.D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J.L.; Ping, J.; Pinto, B.; Pirotte, O.; Pizio, C.; Placakyte, R.; Plamondon, M.; Plano, W.G.; Pleier, M-A; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poffenberger, P.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, M.; Polci, F.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomarede, D.M.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B.G.; Popovic, D.S.; Poppleton, A.; Popule, J.; Portell Bueso, X; Porter, R.; Pospelov, G.E.; Pospichal, P.; Pospisil, S.; Potekhin, M.; Potrap, I.N.; Potter, C.J.; Potter, C.T.; Potter, K.P.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Preda, T.; Pretzl, K.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L.E.; Prichard, P.M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Puigdengoles, C.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qi, M.; Qian, J.; Qian, W.; Qian, Z.; Qin, Z.; Qing, D.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D.R.; Quayle, W.B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A.M.; Rahm, D.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammes, M.; Ratoff, P.N.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A.L.; Rebuzzi, D.M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z.L.; Renkel, P.; Rescia, S.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richards, R.A.; Richter, D.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R.R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.R.; Roa-Romero, D.A.; Robertson, S.H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J G; Roda, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V.M.; Romeo, G.; Romero-Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosenbaum, G.A.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosselet, L.; Rossi, L.P.; Rotaru, M.; Rothberg, J.; Rottländer, I.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C.R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V.I.; Rudolph, G.; Rühr, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rumyantsev, L.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y.F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybkin, G.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A.F.; Sadrozinski, H.F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua-Ferrando, B.M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sanchis Lozano, M A; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sanny, B.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C; Santi, L.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, D.; Santos, J.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Savard, P.; Savine, A.Y.; Savinov, V.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schäfer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J.L.; Schmid, P.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schroers, M.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schumacher, J.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjoelin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloper, J.; Sluka, T.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solfaroli-Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Soluk, R.; Sondericker, J.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sosebee, M.; Sosnovtsev, V.V.; Sospedra-Suay, L.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Speckmayer, P.; Spencer, E.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St Denis, R D; Stahl, T.; Stamen, R.; Stancu, S.N.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Stastny, J.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Strong, J.A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Suchkov, S.I.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu M; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szymocha, T.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tappern, G.P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, R.P.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P.K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Tevlin, C.M.; Thadome, J.; Thananuwong, R.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thomas, T.L.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, R.J.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tipton, P.; Tique-Aires-Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Tomasz, F.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, D.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torrence, E.; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Tovey, S.N.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiafis, I.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J-W; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Twomey, M.S.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Berg, R; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; van der Poel, E; Van Der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vasilyeva, L.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Villa, M.; Villani, E.G.; Villaplana Perez, M; Villate, J.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.V.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaques, F; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogt, H.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T; Vudragovic, D.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Walbersloh, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, S.M.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Wastie, R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Webel, M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.D.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Werthenbach, U.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wright, D.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wulf, E.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, N.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, K.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W-M; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.P.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, M.; Yu, X.; Yuan, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zambrano, V.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V.

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter has been operating continuously since August 2006. At this time, only part of the calorimeter was readout, but since the beginning of 2008, all calorimeter cells have been connected to the ATLAS readout system in preparation for LHC collisions. This paper gives an overview of the liquid argon calorimeter performance measured in situ with random triggers, calibration data, cosmic muons, and LHC beam splash events. Results on the detector operation, timing performance, electronics noise, and gain stability are presented. High energy deposits from radiative cosmic muons and beam splash events allow to check the intrinsic constant term of the energy resolution. The uniformity of the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter response along eta (averaged over phi) is measured at the percent level using minimum ionizing cosmic muons. Finally, studies of electromagnetic showers from radiative muons have been used to cross-check the Monte Carlo simulation. The performance results obtained u...

  7. Reactor Gamma Heat Measurements with Calorimeters and Thermoluminescence Dosimeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Karsten; Majborn, Benny

    1973-01-01

    Intercomparison measurements of reactor γ-ray heating were carried out with calorimeters and thermoluminescence dosimeters. Within the measurement uncertainties the two methods yield coincident results. In the actual measurement range thermoluminescence dosimeters are less accurate than calorimet......Intercomparison measurements of reactor γ-ray heating were carried out with calorimeters and thermoluminescence dosimeters. Within the measurement uncertainties the two methods yield coincident results. In the actual measurement range thermoluminescence dosimeters are less accurate than...... calorimeters, but possess advantages such as a small probe size and the possibility of making simultaneous measurements at many different positions. Hence, thermoluminescence dosimeters may constitute a valuable supplement to calorimeters for reactor γ-ray heating measurements....

  8. Continued studies of calorimeter performance at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, S.A.; Tsugawa, R.T.

    1975-01-01

    Calibrations of two calorimeters used for tritium and plutonium assays were made. Data from three new standards of about 0.5, 1, and 5 W were added to the results of a previous report and analyzed together. The accuracies of both calorimeters appear to fall within the specified 0.5 percent, although the data now available for the large calorimeter is insufficient to permit a more definite conclusion. An expression of the bias correction for each calorimeter with respect to the sample power cannot be determined. The bias of the medium thermopile-type calorimeter tends to be positive, however, and that of the large resistance-bridge design appears to be negative

  9. Electromagnetic and Hadron Calorimeters in the MIPP Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigmanov, T. S.; Gustafson, H. R.; Longo, M. J.; Rajaram, D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the MIPP experiment is to study the inclusive production of photons, pions, kaons, and nucleons produced in π, K, and p interactions on various targets using beams from the Main Injector at Fermilab. The purpose of the calorimeters is to measure the production of forward-going photons and neutrons. The electromagnetic calorimeter consists of 10 lead plates interspersed with proportional chambers followed by the hadron calorimeter with 64 steel plates interspersed with scintillator. We collected data with a variety of targets with beam energies from 5 GeV/c up to 120 GeV/c. The energy calibration of both calorimeters with electrons, pions, kaons and protons is discussed. The performance of the calorimeters was tested on a neutron sample

  10. Mechanical construction and installation of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, J [IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Adragna, P; Bosi, F [Pisa University and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Alexa, C; Boldea, V [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Alves, R [LIP and FCTUC University of Coimbra (Portugal); Amaral, P; Andresen, X; Behrens, A; Blocki, J [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ananiev, A [LIP and IDMEC-IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Anderson, K [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Antonaki, A [University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Batusov, V [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bednar, P [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Bergeaas, E; Bohm, C [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Biscarat, C [LPC Clermont-Ferrand, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Blanch, O; Blanchot, G [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); others, and

    2013-11-01

    This paper summarises the mechanical construction and installation of the Tile Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN, Switzerland. The Tile Calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter using scintillator as the sensitive detector and steel as the absorber and covers the central region of the ATLAS experiment up to pseudorapidities ±1.7. The mechanical construction of the Tile Calorimeter occurred over a period of about 10 years beginning in 1995 with the completion of the Technical Design Report and ending in 2006 with the installation of the final module in the ATLAS cavern. During this period approximately 2600 metric tons of steel were transformed into a laminated structure to form the absorber of the sampling calorimeter. Following instrumentation and testing, which is described elsewhere, the modules were installed in the ATLAS cavern with a remarkable accuracy for a structure of this size and weight.

  11. Mechanical construction and installation of the ATLAS tile calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, J; Adragna, P; Bosi, F; Alexa, C; Boldea, V; Alves, R; Amaral, P; Andresen, X; Behrens, A; Blocki, J; Ananiev, A; Anderson, K; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Bergeaas, E; Bohm, C; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarises the mechanical construction and installation of the Tile Calorimeter for the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN, Switzerland. The Tile Calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter using scintillator as the sensitive detector and steel as the absorber and covers the central region of the ATLAS experiment up to pseudorapidities ±1.7. The mechanical construction of the Tile Calorimeter occurred over a period of about 10 years beginning in 1995 with the completion of the Technical Design Report and ending in 2006 with the installation of the final module in the ATLAS cavern. During this period approximately 2600 metric tons of steel were transformed into a laminated structure to form the absorber of the sampling calorimeter. Following instrumentation and testing, which is described elsewhere, the modules were installed in the ATLAS cavern with a remarkable accuracy for a structure of this size and weight

  12. Physics and Applications of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, S.; Fleischmann, A.; Gastaldo, L.; Enss, C.

    2018-03-01

    Metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) are calorimetric low-temperature particle detectors that are currently strongly advancing the state of the art in energy-dispersive single particle detection. They are typically operated at temperatures below 100 mK and make use of a metallic, paramagnetic temperature sensor to transduce the temperature rise of the detector upon the absorption of an energetic particle into a change of magnetic flux which is sensed by a superconducting quantum interference device. This outstanding interplay between a high-sensitivity thermometer and a near quantum-limited amplifier results in a very fast signal rise time, an excellent energy resolution, a large dynamic range, a quantum efficiency close to 100% as well as an almost ideal linear detector response. For this reason, a growing number of groups located all over the world is developing MMC arrays of various sizes which are routinely used in a variety of applications. Within this paper, we briefly review the state of the art of metallic magnetic calorimeters. This includes a discussion of the detection principle, sensor materials and detector geometries, readout concepts, the structure of modern detectors as well as the state-of-the-art detector performance.

  13. Progress on the Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Eric Eisenhandler

    The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo) has recently passed a number of major hurdles. The various electronic modules that make up the trigger are either in full production or are about to be, and preparations in the ATLAS pit are well advanced. L1Calo has three main subsystems. The PreProcessor converts analogue calorimeter signals to digital, associates the rather broad trigger pulses with the correct proton-proton bunch crossing, and does a final calibration in transverse energy before sending digital data streams to the two algorithmic trigger processors. The Cluster Processor identifies and counts electrons, photons and taus, and the Jet/Energy-sum Processor looks for jets and also sums missing and total transverse energy. Readout drivers allow the performance of the trigger to be monitored online and offline, and also send region-of-interest information to the Level-2 Trigger. The PreProcessor (Heidelberg) is the L1Calo subsystem with the largest number of electronic modules (124), and most of its fu...

  14. The ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Fordham, C.; Foudas, C.; Goussiou, A.; Jaworski, M.; Kinnel, T.; Lackey, J.; Robl, P.; Silverstein, S.; Dawson, J.W.; Krakauer, D.A.; Talaga, R.L.; Schlereth, J.L.

    1994-10-01

    The design of the ZEUS Calorimeter First Level Trigger (CFLT) is presented. The CFLT utilizes a pipelined architecture to provide trigger data for a global first leel trigger decision 5 μsec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The charges from 13K phototubes are summed into 1792 trigger tower pulseheights which are digitized by flash ADC's. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests. Summary data is forwarded to the Global First Level Trigger for each crossing 2 μsec after the crossing occurred. The CFLT determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the electromagnetic and hadronic energy deposited in various regions of the calorimeter. The CFLT has kept the experimental trigger rate below ∼200 Hz at the highest luminosity experienced at HERA. Performance studies suggest that the CFLT will keep the trigger rate below 1 kHZ against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions on the order of the 100 kHz expected at design luminosity. (orig.)

  15. Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger starts firing

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Hillier

    2007-01-01

    L1Calo is one of the major components of ATLAS First Level trigger, along with the Muon Trigger and Central Trigger Processor. It forms all of the first-level calorimeter-based triggers, including electron, jet, tau and missing ET. The final system consists of over 250 custom designed 9U VME boards, most containing a dense array of FPGAs or ASICs. It is subdivided into a PreProcessor, which digitises the incoming trigger signals from the Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters, and two separate processor systems, which perform the physics algorithms. All of these are highly flexible, allowing the possibility to adapt to beam conditions and luminosity. All parts of the system are read out through Read-Out Drivers, which provide monitoring data and Region of Interest (RoI) information for the Level-2 trigger. Production of the modules is now essentially complete, and enough modules exist to populate the full scale system in USA15. Installation is proceeding rapidly - approximately 90% of the final modules are insta...

  16. COTS Analog Prototype for LHCb's Calorimeter Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Abellan Beteta, Carlos; Herms i Berenguer, Atilà

    The objective of this thesis is to present a proposal for the analogue signal processing chain needed for the LHCb calorimeter upgrade improving the design used originally. The design contains several novelties: the system was designed with low noise in mind from the beginning, it is made to have good immunity to interferences stressing the fact that the board will be shared with large digital circuits, differential operational amplifiers are used in a non-standard way as a mean to obtain opposite polarity signals for the signal treatment and a way to increase the available signal in the front end electronics is proposed. The thesis starts with a brief introduction to the detector and its environment. This is followed by an explanation of the use of shapers in high energy physics detectors and the constraints that the shaper must address in the LHCb calorimeter. This leads to a chapter where the circuit design is explained starting from the analysis of the original circuit and its flaws. Once the original cir...

  17. The ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, S.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Foudas, C.; Fordham, C.; Goussiou, A.; Jaworski, M.; Lackey, J.; Reeder, D.; Robl, P.; Smith, W. H.; Vaiciulis, A.; Wodarczyk, M.; Dawson, J.; Krakauer, D.; Talaga, R.; Schlereth, J.; Zhang, H.

    1995-02-01

    An overview of the ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger is presented. The CFLT uses a pipelined architecture to accept and analyze calorimeter data for every 96 ns beam crossing interval. PMT signals are combined by analog electronics into electromagnetic and hadronic sums for 896 trigger towers. The analog sums are then digitized and analyzed. The CFLT determines the total, transverse, and missing transverse energy, identifies isolated electrons and muons, and sums energies in programmable subregions. Calculations are performed in 96 ns steps, and new data are accepted for every beam crossing. Trigger data are forwarded to the global first level trigger (GFLT) after 2 μs, allowing a GFLT accept to be issued 5 μs after the beam crossing which produced the event. Important features of the CFLT include a 12-bit effective dynamic range, extensive use of memory lookup tables for trigger calculations, fast pattern searches for isolated leptons, and low electronics noise. During the 1993 HERA run, the CFLT reduced a 50 kHz background rate to around 100 Hz.

  18. Liquid Argon Calorimeter performance at High Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Seifert, F; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The expected increase of luminosity at HL-LHC by a factor of ten with respect to LHC luminosities has serious consequences for the signal reconstruction, radiation hardness requirements and operations of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters in the endcap, respectively forward region. Small modules of each type of calorimeter have been built and exposed to a high intensity proton beam of 50 GeV at IHEP/Protvino. The beam is extracted via the bent crystal technique, offering the unique opportunity to cover intensities ranging from $10^6$ p/s up to $3\\cdot10^{11}$ p/s. This exceeds the deposited energy per time expected at HL-LHC by more than a factor of 100. The correlation between beam intensity and the read-out signal has been studied. The data show clear indications of pulse shape distortion due to the high ionization build-up, in agreement with MC expectations. This is also confirmed from the dependence of the HV currents on beam intensity.

  19. Optimization of transition-edge calorimeter performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullom, J.N.; Beall, J.A.; Doriese, W.B.; Duncan, W.D.; Ferreira, L.; Hilton, G.C.; Irwin, K.D.; O'Neil, G.C.; Reintsema, C.D.; Vale, L.R.; Zink, B.L.

    2006-01-01

    Calorimeters that exploit the superconducting-to-normal transition are used to detect individual photons from near-infrared to γ-ray wavelengths. Across this wide range, absorption efficiency, speed, and energy resolution are key performance parameters. Here, we describe recent improvements in the resolution of X-ray and γ-ray transition-edge sensors (TESs). Using the measured dependencies of the high-frequency unexplained noise in TESs, we have optimized the design of our TES X-ray sensors and achieved FWHM energy resolutions of 2.4 eV at 5.9 keV in Constellation-X style sensors and ∼2.9 eV at 5.9 keV in larger sensors suitable for materials analysis. We have also achieved a FWHM energy resolution of 42 eV at 103 keV in a TES calorimeter optimized for the detection of hard X-rays and γ-rays

  20. Determination of the rate of HF hydration and the effects of HF on moisture condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulla, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    There were four basic questions addressed in this report that relate to the HF interaction in the environment. As to whether HF hydrates in the vapor phase and what the rate of that hydration is, there seems ample evidence that HF hydrates readily in the vapor phase and the rate of that hydration is very fast, i.e., dHF/dt greater than or equal to 25 torr sec -1 . Concerning under what conditions condensation of the hydrate will occur and whether a third body is required for condensation, it was found that HF does effect the dew point or condensation of water and data was presented indicating the extent of that effect. It was also determined that condensation will occur without a third body present. Thus, in attempting to model an HF release for the Safety Analysis Report the hydration of HF and the subsequent heat released may be treated as occurring instantaneously; but the ultimate disposition of the HF will be strongly dependent upon the environmental conditions at the time of the release

  1. Determination of the rate of HF hydration and the effects of HF on moisture condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulla, W H

    1982-04-30

    There were four basic questions addressed in this report that relate to the HF interaction in the environment. As to whether HF hydrates in the vapor phase and what the rate of that hydration is, there seems ample evidence that HF hydrates readily in the vapor phase and the rate of that hydration is very fast, i.e., dHF/dt greater than or equal to 25 torr sec/sup -1/. Concerning under what conditions condensation of the hydrate will occur and whether a third body is required for condensation, it was found that HF does effect the dew point or condensation of water and data was presented indicating the extent of that effect. It was also determined that condensation will occur without a third body present. Thus, in attempting to model an HF release for the Safety Analysis Report the hydration of HF and the subsequent heat released may be treated as occurring instantaneously; but the ultimate disposition of the HF will be strongly dependent upon the environmental conditions at the time of the release.

  2. Integration of the monitoring and offline analysis systems of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidantchik, Carmen; Balabram, Luiz Eduardo; Gomes, Andressa Sivollela; Ferreira, Fernando G.; Marroquim, Fernando [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: During the ATLAS detector operation, collaborators perform innumerous analysis related to the calibration in order to acquire detailed information about the hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) equipment. Through the analysis, it is possible to detect faults that would affect data acquisition, which are of physics interest. Some defects examples are: saturation of reading channels, problems in the acquired signal digitization and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Since the commissioning period, members of the collaboration between CERN and UFRJ developed Web systems to support the hard task of monitoring the TileCal equipment. The Tile Commissioning Web System (TCWS) integrates different applications, each one presenting part of the commissioning process. The Web Interface for Shifters (WIS) displays the most recent calibration runs and assists the monitoring of the modules operation. The TileComm Analysis (TCA) allows access to histograms that represents the status of modules and corresponding channels functioning. The Timeline provides the history of the calibration rounds and the state of all modules in chronological order. The Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) contains the status of the histograms, modules and channels. The E-log stores and displays all reports about calibrations. Web Monitoring and Calibration System (MCWS) allows the visualization of the most recent channel status of each module. DCS (Detector Control System) Web System monitors the operation of modules power supply. After the ATLAS operation has started the number of equipment calibrations increased significantly, which has prompted the development of a system that would display all previous information through a centralized way. The Dashboard allows the collaborator to easily access the latest runs or to search for specific ones. After selecting a run, it is possible to check the status of each barrel module through a schematic figure, to view the 10 latest status of a certain module, and

  3. Integration of the monitoring and offline analysis systems of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maidantchik, Carmen; Balabram, Luiz Eduardo; Gomes, Andressa Sivollela; Ferreira, Fernando G.; Marroquim, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Full text: During the ATLAS detector operation, collaborators perform innumerous analysis related to the calibration in order to acquire detailed information about the hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) equipment. Through the analysis, it is possible to detect faults that would affect data acquisition, which are of physics interest. Some defects examples are: saturation of reading channels, problems in the acquired signal digitization and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Since the commissioning period, members of the collaboration between CERN and UFRJ developed Web systems to support the hard task of monitoring the TileCal equipment. The Tile Commissioning Web System (TCWS) integrates different applications, each one presenting part of the commissioning process. The Web Interface for Shifters (WIS) displays the most recent calibration runs and assists the monitoring of the modules operation. The TileComm Analysis (TCA) allows access to histograms that represents the status of modules and corresponding channels functioning. The Timeline provides the history of the calibration rounds and the state of all modules in chronological order. The Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) contains the status of the histograms, modules and channels. The E-log stores and displays all reports about calibrations. Web Monitoring and Calibration System (MCWS) allows the visualization of the most recent channel status of each module. DCS (Detector Control System) Web System monitors the operation of modules power supply. After the ATLAS operation has started the number of equipment calibrations increased significantly, which has prompted the development of a system that would display all previous information through a centralized way. The Dashboard allows the collaborator to easily access the latest runs or to search for specific ones. After selecting a run, it is possible to check the status of each barrel module through a schematic figure, to view the 10 latest status of a certain module, and

  4. High-K rotational bands in {sup 174}Hf and {sup 175}Hf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjoerup, N L; Sletten, G [The Niels Bohr Institute, Roskilbe (Denmark); Walker, P M [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Bentley, M A [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom); Cullen, D M; Sharpey-Schafer, J F; Fallon, P; Smith, G [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.

    1992-08-01

    High sensitivity experiments with {sup 48}Ca, {sup 18}O and {sup 9}Be induced reactions using the ESSA-30, TESSA-3 and NORDBALL arrays have provided extensive new information on the high spin level structures of {sup 174}Hf and {sup 175}Hf. During the series of experiments, several new bands have been found and most known bands have been extended considerably. Spin and excitation energy ranges for {sup 174}Hf are now {approx} 35 {Dirac_h} and {approx} 13 MeV, respectively, and for {sup 175}Hf ranges are {approx} 30 {Dirac_h} and {approx} 7 MeV. respectively. Several new high-K structures have been found in {sup 174}Hf and the structure of these and the already known high-K bands in both nuclei together with the new Tilted Axis Cranking approach might explain the small K-hindrances observed for K-isomers in this region. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Design, Performance, and Calibration of the CMS Hadron-Outer Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullin, Salavat; Acharya, Bannaje Sripathi; Adam, Nadia; Adams, Mark Raymond; Akchurin, Nural; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Anderson, E Walter; Antchev, Georgy; Arcidy, M; Ayan, S; Aydin, Sezgin; Aziz, Tariq; Baarmand, Marc M; Babich, Kanstantsin; Baden, Drew; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bard, Robert; Barnes, Virgil E; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Baiatian, G; Bencze, Gyorgy; Beri, Suman Bala; Berntzon, Lisa; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Bhatti, Anwar; Bodek, Arie; Bose, Suvadeep; Bose, Tulika; Budd, Howard; Burchesky, Kyle; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cankocak, Kerem; Carrell, Kenneth Wayne; Cerci, Salim; Chendvankar, Sanjay; Chung, Yeon Sei; Clarida, Warren; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Cushman, Priscilla; Damgov, Jordan; De Barbaro, Pawel; Debbins, Paul; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demianov, A; de Visser, Theo; Deshpande, Pandurang Vishnu; Díaz, Jonathan; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Dugad, Shashikant; Dumanoglu, Isa; Duru, Firdevs; Efthymiopoulos, I; Elias, John E; Elvira, D; Emeliantchik, Igor; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ershov, Alexander; Erturk, Sefa; Esen, Selda; Eskut, Eda; Fenyvesi, Andras; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Freeman, Jim; Ganguli, Som N; Gaultney, Vanessa; Gamsizkan, Halil; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Genchev, Vladimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Golutvin, Igor; Goncharov, Petr; Grassi, Tullio; Green, Dan; Gribushin, Andrey; Grinev, B; Gurtu, Atul; Murat Güler, A; Gülmez, Erhan; Gümüs, K; Haelen, T; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Halyo, Valerie; Hashemi, Majid; Hauptman, John M; Hazen, Eric; Heering, Arjan Hendrix; Heister, Arno; Hunt, Adam; Ilyina, N; Ingram, D; Isiksal, Engin; Jarvis, Chad; Jeong, Chiyoung; Johnson, Kurtis F; Jones, John; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kalagin, Vladimir; Kalinin, Alexey; Kalmani, Suresh Devendrappa; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kaur, Manjit; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Kellogg, Richard G; Khmelnikov, Alexander; Kim, Heejong; Kisselevich, I; Kodolova, Olga; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Kolossov, V; Korablev, Andrey; Korneev, Yury; Kosarev, Ivan; Kramer, Laird; Krinitsyn, Alexander; Krishnaswamy, Marthi Ramaswamy; Krokhotin, Andrey; Kryshkin, V; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kumar, Arun; Kunori, Shuichi; Laasanen, Alvin T; Ladygin, Vladimir; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Laszlo, Andras; Lawlor, C; Lazic, Dragoslav; Lee, Sang Joon; Levchuk, Leonid; Linn, Stephan; Litvintsev, Dmitri; Lobolo, L; Los, Serguei; Lubinsky, V; Lukanin, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Machado, Emanuel; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mans, Jeremy; Marlow, Daniel; Markowitz, Pete; Martínez, German; Mazumdar, Kajari; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mescheryakov, G; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Miller, Michael; Möller, A; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M; Moissenz, P; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Mossolov, Vladimir; Nagaraj, P; Narasimham, Vemuri Syamala; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Onengüt, G; Ozkan, Cigdem; Ozkurt, Halil; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Ozok, Ferhat; Paktinat, S; Pal, Andras; Patil, Mandakini Ravindra; Penzo, Aldo; Petrushanko, Sergey; Petrosian, A; Pikalov, Vladimir; Piperov, Stefan; Podrasky, V; Polatoz, A; Pompos, Arnold; Popescu, Sorina; Posch, C; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Qian, Weiming; Ralich, Robert; Reddy, L; Reidy, Jim; Rogalev, Evgueni; Roh, Youn; Rohlf, James; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Ruchti, Randy; Ryazanov, Anton; Safronov, Grigory; Sanders, David A; Sanzeni, Christopher; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Satyanarayana, B; Schmidt, Ianos; Sekmen, Sezen; Semenov, Sergey; Senchishin, V; Sergeyev, S; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Singh, B; Singh, Jas Bir; Sirunyan, Albert M; Skuja, Andris; Sharma, Seema; Sherwood, Brian; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Sogut, Kenan; Sonmez, Nasuf; Sorokin, Pavel; Spezziga, Mario; Stefanovich, R; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Sudhakar, Katta; Sulak, Lawrence; Suzuki, Ichiro; Talov, Vladimir; Teplov, Konstantin; Thomas, Ray; Tonwar, Suresh C; Topakli, Huseyin; Tully, Christopher; Turchanovich, L; Ulyanov, A; Vanini, A; Vankov, Ivan; Vardanyan, Irina; Varela, F; Vergili, Mehmet; Verma, Piyush; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Vidal, Richard; Vishnevskiy, Alexander; Vlassov, E; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Volobouev, Igor; Volkov, Alexey; Volodko, Anton; Wang, Lei; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Wetstein, Matthew; Winn, Dave; Wigmans, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Shouxiang; Yazgan, Efe; Yetkin, Taylan; Zálán, Peter; Zarubin, Anatoli; Zeyrek, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with an outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in the calorimeter. Fabrication, testing and calibration of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing $\\et$ measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter will also be used for the muon trigger in coincidence with other muon chambers in CMS.

  6. Implementation of linear bias corrections for calorimeters at Mound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    In the past, Mound has generally made relative bias corrections as part of the calibration of individual calorimeters. The correction made was the same over the entire operating range of the calorimeter, regardless of the magnitude of the range. Recently, an investigation was performed to check the relevancy of using linear bias corrections to calibrate the calorimeters. The bias is obtained by measuring calibrated plutonium and/or electrical heat standards over the operating range of the calorimeter. The bias correction is then calculated using a simple least squares fit (y = mx + b) of the bias in milliwatts over the operating range of the calorimeter in watts. The equation used is B i = B 0 + (B w * W m ), where B i is the bias at any given power in milliwatts, B 0 is the intercept (absolute bias in milliwatts), B w is the slope (relative bias in milliwatts per watt), and W m is the measured power in watts. The results of the study showed a decrease in the random error of bias corrected data for most of the calorimeters which are operated over a large wattage range (greater than an order of magnitude). The linear technique for bias correction has been fully implemented at Mound and has been included in the Technical Manual, ''A Measurement Control Program for Radiometric Calorimeters at Mound'' (MD-21900)

  7. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter and its Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Barillari, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Liquid argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudorapidity region |eta|<3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry from |eta|=1.4 to |eta|=4.8. The calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two endcaps with electromagnetic (EMEC), hadronic (HEC) and forward (FCAL) calorimeters. The lead-liquid argon sampling technique with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the endcap (EMEC). This geometry allows a uniform acceptance over the whole azimuthal range without any gap. The hadronic endcap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with plate geometry and is subdivided into two wheels in depth per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules featuring cylindrical electrodes ...

  8. The ATLAS hadronic tile calorimeter from construction toward physics

    CERN Document Server

    Adragna, P; Anderson, K; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Binet, S; Biscarat, C; Blanchot, G; Bogush, A A; Bohm, C; Boldea, V; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C; Budagov, Yu A; Caloba, L; Calvet, D; Carvalho, J; Castelo, J; Castillo, M V; Sforza, M C; Cavasinni, V; Cerqueira, A S; Chadelas, R; Costanzo, D; Cogswell, F; Constantinescu, S; Crouau, M; Cuenca, C; Damazio, D O; Daudon, F; David, M; Davidek, T; De, K; Del Prete, T; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dotti, A; Downing, R; Efthymiopoulos, I; Errede, D; Errede, S; Farbin, A; Fassouliotis, D; Fedorko, I; Fenyuk, A; Ferdi, C; Ferrer, A; Flaminio, V; Fullana, E; Garde, V; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gildemeister, O; Gilewsky, V; Giangiobbe, V; Giokaris, N; Gomes, A; González, V; Grabskii, V; Grenier, P; Gris, P; Guarino, V; Guicheney, C; Sen-Gupta, A; Hakobyan, H; Haney, M; Henriques, A; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Hurwitz, M; Huston, J; Iglesias, C; And, K J; Junk, T; Karyukhin, A N; Khubua, J; Klereborn, J; Korolkov, I Ya; Krivkova, P; Kulchitskii, Yu A; Kurochkin, Yu; Kuzhir, P; Lambert, D; Le Compte, T; Lefèvre, R; Leitner, R; Lembesi, M; Li, J; Liablin, M; Lokajícek, M; Lomakin, Y; Amengual, J M L; Lupi, A; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Maliukov, S; Manousakis, A; Marques, C; Marroquim, F; Martin, F; Mazzoni, E; Montarou, G; Merritt, F S; Myagkov, A; Miller, R; Minashvili, I A; Miralles, L; Némécek, S; Nessi, M; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Onofre, A; Oreglia, M J; Pantea, D; Pallin, D; Pilcher, J E; Pina, J; Pinhão, J; Podlyski, F; Portell, X; Poveda, J; Price, L E; Pribyl, L; Proudfoot, J; Ramstedt, M; Reinmuth, G; Richards, R; Roda, C; Romanov, V; Rosnet, P; Roy, P; Rumiantsau, V; Russakovich, N; Salto, O; Salvachúa, B; Sanchis, E; Sanders, H; Santoni, C; Santos, J; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Satsunkevich, I S; Says, L P; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J L; Seixas, J M; Selldén, B; Shevtsov, P; Shochet, M; Da Silva, P; Silva, J; Simaitis, V; Sissakian, A N; Solodkov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sosebee, M; Spanó, F; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E A; Starovoitov, P; Suk, M; Sykora, I; Tang, F; Tas, P; Teuscher, R; Tokar, S; Topilin, N; Torres, J; Tsulaia, V; Underwood, D; Usai, G; Valkár, S; Valls, J A; Vartapetian, A H; Vazeille, F; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Vivarelli, I; Volpi, M; White, A; Zaitsev, A; Zenine, A; Zenis, T

    2006-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter, which constitutes the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter, is a non-compensating sampling device made of iron and scintillating tiles. The construction phase of the calorimeter is nearly complete, and most of the effort now is directed toward the final assembly and commissioning in the underground experimental hall. The layout of the calorimeter and the tasks carried out during construction are described, first with a brief reminder of the requirements that drove the calorimeter design. During the last few years a comprehensive test-beam program has been followed in order to establish the calorimeter electromagnetic energy scale, to study its uniformity, and to compare real data to Monte Carlo simulation. The test-beam setup and first results from the data are described. During the test-beam period in 2004, lasting several months, data have been acquired with a complete slice of the central ATLAS calorimeter. The data collected in the test-beam are crucial in order to study...

  9. METROLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF BOMB CALORIMETERS AT REAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Maksimuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-usage measurement equipment for heat of combustion of organic fuels are bomb isoperibol calorimeters with a water thermostat. The stability of work of calorimeters at real conditions is important for maintenance of reliability of measurement results. The article purpose – the analysis of stability for parameters of calorimeters to environment changes. In this work influence room temperature (Тк and heat exchange conditions on metrological characteristics of two models of calorimeters is considered with different degree of thermal protection: V-08МА and BIC 100. For calorimeters V-08МА the increase in a effective heat capacity (W on 0,1 % by growth of Tк on everyone 5 °С is established. To use value W in all interval laboratory temperatures Tк = 14–28 °С it is necessary to correct W on 2,8 J/°C on everyone 1 °С changes of Tк. Updating W is required, if the correction exceeds error in determination W. For calorimeter BIC 100 it is not revealed dependences W from Tк. BIC 100 have constant-temperature cap, high stability a temperature in thermostat and stabilized heat exchange. It is established that an standard deviation of cooling constant for all calorimeters in direct proportional to standard deviation W. 

  10. Development of a portable graphite calorimeter for photons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, M.R.; Duane, S.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop a calorimeter for use in both electron and photon beams. The calorimeter should be more robust than the present NPL primary standard X-ray calorimeter and is designed to be sufficiently portable to enable measurements at clinical accelerators away from NPL. Although intended for therapy-level dosimetry, the new calorimeter can also be used for high-dose measurements at industrial facilities. The system consists of a front end (the calorimeter itself), means for thermal isolation and temperature control, and a measurement system based on thermistors in a DC Wheatstone bridge. The early part of the project focused on the development of a temperature control system sensitive enough to allow measurements of temperature rises of the order of 1 mK. The control system responds to the calorimeter, phantom and air temperatures and maintains the temperature of the calorimeter to within ± 0.2 mK over several hours. Initial operation at NPL in 6, 10 and 16 MV X-ray beams show that the system is capable of measurements of 1 Gy at 2 Gy/min with a random uncertainty of ± 0.5% (1 standard deviation). (author)

  11. Testbeam studies of production modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adragna, P.; Alexa, C.; Anderson, K.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, A.; Batkova, L.; Batusov, V.; Beck, H.P.; Bednar, P.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Biscarat, C.; Blanchot, G.; Bogush, A.; Bohm, C.; Boldea, V.; Bosman, M.; Bromberg, C.; Budagov, J.; Burckhart-Chromek, D.; Caprini, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report test beam studies of 11% of the production ATLAS Tile Calorimeter modules. The modules were equipped with production front-end electronics and all the calibration systems planned for the final detector. The studies used muon, electron and hadron beams ranging in energy from 3 to 350 GeV. Two independent studies showed that the light yield of the calorimeter was ∼70pe/GeV, exceeding the design goal by 40%. Electron beams provided a calibration of the modules at the electromagnetic energy scale. Over 200 calorimeter cells the variation of the response was 2.4%. The linearity with energy was also measured. Muon beams provided an intercalibration of the response of all calorimeter cells. The response to muons entering in the ATLAS projective geometry showed an RMS variation of 2.5% for 91 measurements over a range of rapidities and modules. The mean response to hadrons of fixed energy had an RMS variation of 1.4% for the modules and projective angles studied. The response to hadrons normalized to incident beam energy showed an 8% increase between 10 and 350 GeV, fully consistent with expectations for a noncompensating calorimeter. The measured energy resolution for hadrons of σ/E=52.9%/√(E)+5.7% was also consistent with expectations. Other auxiliary studies were made of saturation recovery of the readout system, the time resolution of the calorimeter and the performance of the trigger signals from the calorimeter.

  12. Testbeam studies of production modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adragna, P [Pisa University and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Alexa, C [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Anderson, K [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Antonaki, A; Arabidze, A [University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Batkova, L [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Batusov, V [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Beck, H P [Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern (Switzerland); Bednar, P [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Bergeaas Kuutmann, E [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Biscarat, C [LPC Clermont-Ferrand, Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Blanchot, G [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Bogush, A [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Minsk (Belarus); Bohm, C [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Boldea, V [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Bosman, M [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Bromberg, C [Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Budagov, J [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Burckhart-Chromek, D [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Caprini, M [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania)

    2009-07-21

    We report test beam studies of 11% of the production ATLAS Tile Calorimeter modules. The modules were equipped with production front-end electronics and all the calibration systems planned for the final detector. The studies used muon, electron and hadron beams ranging in energy from 3 to 350 GeV. Two independent studies showed that the light yield of the calorimeter was {approx}70pe/GeV, exceeding the design goal by 40%. Electron beams provided a calibration of the modules at the electromagnetic energy scale. Over 200 calorimeter cells the variation of the response was 2.4%. The linearity with energy was also measured. Muon beams provided an intercalibration of the response of all calorimeter cells. The response to muons entering in the ATLAS projective geometry showed an RMS variation of 2.5% for 91 measurements over a range of rapidities and modules. The mean response to hadrons of fixed energy had an RMS variation of 1.4% for the modules and projective angles studied. The response to hadrons normalized to incident beam energy showed an 8% increase between 10 and 350 GeV, fully consistent with expectations for a noncompensating calorimeter. The measured energy resolution for hadrons of {sigma}/E=52.9%/{radical}(E)+5.7% was also consistent with expectations. Other auxiliary studies were made of saturation recovery of the readout system, the time resolution of the calorimeter and the performance of the trigger signals from the calorimeter.

  13. Laser conditioning effect on HfO2/SiO2 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yaowei; Zhang Zhe; Liu Hao; Ouyang Sheng; Zheng Yi; Tang Gengyu; Chen Songlin; Ma Ping

    2013-01-01

    Laser conditioning is one of the important methods to improve the laser damage threshold of film optics. Firstly, a large aperture laser was used to irradiate the HfO 2 /SiO 2 reflectors, which were evaporated from hafnia and silica by e-beam. Secondly, a laser calorimeter was used to test the film absorption before and after laser irradiation. Focused ion beam (FIB) was few reported using on laser film, it was used to study the damage morphology and explore the cause of damage. The shooting of the partial ejection on nodule was obtained for the first time, which provided the basis for study the damage process. The results show that film absorption was decreased obviously after the laser irradiation, laser conditioning can raise the laser damage threshold by the 'cleaning mechanism'. For the HfO 2 /SiO 2 reflectors, laser conditioning was effective to eject the nodules on substrate. It resulted from the nodule residue not to affect the subsequent laser. In addition, laser conditioning was not effective to the nodule in the film, which might be from the material spatter in coating process. In this case, other method could be used to get rid of the nodules. (authors)

  14. New tools for the simulation and design of calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womersley, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Two new approaches to the simulation and design of large hermetic calorimeters are presented. Firstly, the Shower Library scheme used in the fast generation of showers in the Monte Carlo of the calorimeter for the D-Zero experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron is described. Secondly, a tool for the design future calorimeters is described, which can be integrated with a computer aided design system to give engineering designers an immediate idea of the relative physics capabilities of different geometries. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. Discussion on the electromagnetic calorimeters of ATLAS and CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksa, Martin, E-mail: martin.aleksa@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Diemoz, Marcella [INFN Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-21

    This document summarizes a discussion on the electromagnetic calorimeters of ATLAS and CMS, two experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), that took place at the 13th Vienna Conference on Instrumentation in February 2013. During the discussion each electromagnetic calorimeter and its performance was described in response to ten questions chosen to cover a wide range from the design and construction of the calorimeters over the calibration and performance to their role in the discovery of the Higgs boson and upgrade plans.

  16. Performance of a highly segmented scintillating fibres electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmone, A.; Bertino, M.; Bini, C.; De Zorzi, G.; Diambrini Palazzi, G.; Di Cosimo, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Garufi, F.; Gauzzi, P.; Zanello, D.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype of scintillating fibres electromagnetic calorimeter has been constructed and tested with 2, 4 and 8 GeV electron beams at the CERN PS. The calorimeter modules consist of a Bi-Pb-Sn alloy and scintillating fibres. The fibres are parallel to the modules longer axis, and nearly parallel to the incident electrons direction. The calorimeter has two different segmentation regions of 24x24 mm 2 and 8x24 mm 2 cross area respectively. Results on energy and impact point space resolution are obtained and compared for the two different granularities. (orig.)

  17. Performance of CREAM Calorimeter Results of Beam Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, H S; Beatty, J J; Bigongiari, G; Castellina, A; Childers, J T; Conklin, N B; Coutu, S; Duvernois, M A; Ganel, O; Han, J H; Hyun, H J; Kang, T G; Kim, H J; Kim, K C; Kim, M Y; Kim, T; Kim, Y J; Lee, J K; Lee, M H; Lutz, L; Maestro, P; Malinine, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Mognet, S I; Nam, S W; Nutter, S; Park, N H; Park, H; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Syed, S; Song, C; Swordy, S; Wu, J; Yang, J; Zhang, H Q; Zei, R; Zinn, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM), a balloon-borne experiment, is under preparation for a flight in Antarctica at the end of 2004. CREAM is planned to measure the energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays directly at energies between 1 TeV and 1000 TeV. Incident particle energies will be measured by a transition radiation detector and a sampling calorimeter. The calorimeter was constructed at the University of Maryland and tested at CERN in 2003. Performance of the calorimeter during the beam tests is reported.

  18. Energy Resolution Performance of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Adzic, Petar; Almeida, Carlos; Almeida, Nuno; Anagnostou, Georgios; Anfreville, Marc; Anicin, Ivan; Antunovic, Zeljko; Auffray, Etiennette; Baccaro, Stefania; Baffioni, Stephanie; Barney, David; Barone, Luciano; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Bell, Ken W; Benetta, Robert; Bercher, Michel; Berthon, Ursula; Betev, Botjo; Beuselinck, Raymond; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Biino, Cristina; Bimbot, Stephane; Blaha, Jan; Bloch, Philippe; Blyth, Simon; Bordalo, Paula; Bornheim, Adolf; Bourotte, Jean; Britton1, D; Brown, Robert M; Brunelière, Renaud; Busson, Philippe; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cavallari, Francesca; Cerutti, Muriel; Chamont, David; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Charlot, Claude; Chatterji, Sudeep; Chen, E Augustine; Chipaux, Rémi; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Cockerill, David J A; Collard, Caroline; Combaret, Christophe; Cossutti, Fabio; Costantini, Silvia; Da Silva, J C; Dafinei, Ioan; Daskalakis, Georgios; Davatz, Giovanna; Debraine, Alain; Decotigny, David; De Min, Alberto; Deiters, Konrad; Dejardin, Marc; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Depasse, Pierre; Descamp, J; Dewhirst, Guy; Dhawan, Satish; Diemoz, Marcella; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Djambazov, Lubomir; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Drndarevic, Snezana; Dupanloup, Michel; Dzelalija, Mile; Ehlers, Jan; El-Mamouni, H; Peisert, Anna; Evangelou, Ioannis; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Fay, Jean; Ferri, Federico; Flower, Paul S; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaillac, Anne-Marie; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gascon-Shotkin, S; Geerebaert, Yannick; Gentit, François-Xavier; Ghezzi, Alessio; Gilly, Jean; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, Sergei; Go, Apollo; Godinovic, Nikola; Golubev, Nikolai; Golutvin, Igor; Gómez-Reino, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Grahl1, J; Gras1, P; Greenhalgh, Justin; Guillaud, Jean-Paul; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hamel-de-Montechenault, G; Hansen, Magnus; Heath, Helen F; AHill, J; Hobson, Peter R; Holmes, Daniel; Holzner, André; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Ille, Bernard; Ingram, Quentin; Jain, Adarsh; Jarry, Patrick; Jauffret, C; Jha, Manoj; Karar, Akli; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Katchanov, V A; Kennedy, Bruce W; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Korjik, M; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Krpic, Dragomir; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Lebeau, Michel; Lecomte, Pierre; Lecoq, Paul; Lemaire, Marie-Claude; Lethuillier, Morgan; Lin, Willis; Lintern, A L; Lister, Alison; Litvin, V; Locci, Elizabeth; Lodge, Anthony B; Longo, Egidio; Loukas, Demetrios; Luckey, D; Lustermann, Werner; Lynch, Clare; MacKay, Catherine Kirsty; Malberti, Martina; Maletic, Dimitrije; Mandjavidze, Irakli; Manthos, Nikolaos; Markou, Athanasios; Mathez, Hervé; Mathieu, Antoine; Matveev, Viktor; Maurelli, Georges; Menichetti, Ezio; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Milleret, Gérard; Miné, Philippe; Mur, Michel; Musienko, Yuri; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nash, Jordan; Neal, Homer; Nédélec, Patrick; Negri, Pietro; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Newman26, H B; Nikitenko, Alexander; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Organtini, Giovanni; Paganini, Pascal; Paganoni, Marco; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paramatti, Riccardo; Pastrone, Nadia; Pauss, Felicitas; Poilleux, Patrick; Puljak, Ivica; Pullia, Antonino; Puzovic, Jovan; Ragazzi, Stefano; Ramos, Sergio; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rander, John; Ranjan, Kirti; Ravat, Olivier; Raymond, M; Razis, Panos A; Redaelli, Nicola; Renker, Dieter; Reucroft, Steve; Reymond, Jean-Marc; Reynaud, Michel; Reynaud, Serge; Romanteau, Thierry; Rondeaux, Françoise; Rosowsky, André; Rovelli, Chiara; Rumerio, Paolo; Rusack, Roger; Rusakov, Sergey V; Ryan, Matthew John; Rykaczewski, Hans; Sakhelashvili, Tariel; Salerno, Roberto; Santos, Marcelino; Seez, Christopher; Semeniouk, Igor; Sharif, Omar; Sharp, Peter; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Shevchenko, Sergey; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Sidiropoulos, Georgios; Sillou, Daniel; Singovsky, Alexander; Sirois, Yves; Sirunyan, Albert M; Smith, Brian; Smith, Vincent J; Sproston, Martin; Suter, Henry; Swain, John; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Takahashi, Maiko; Tapper, Robert J; Tcheremoukhine, Alexandre; Teixeira, Isabel; Teixeira, Joao Paulo; Teller, Olivier; Timlin, Claire; ATriantis, F; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Ueno, Koji; Uzunian, Andrey; Varela, Joao; Vaz-Cardoso, N; Verrecchia, Patrice; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Vigano, S; Viertel, Gert; Virdee, Tejinder; Vlassov, E; Wang, Minzu; Weinstein, Alan; Williams, Jennifer C; Yaselli, Ignacio; Zabi, Alexandre; Zamiatin, Nikolai; Zelepoukine, Serguei; Zeller, Michael E; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Yawei; Zhu, Kejun; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    The energy resolution performance of the CMS lead tungstate crystal electromagnetic calorimeter is presented. Measurements were made with an electron beam using a fully equipped supermodule of the calorimeter barrel. Results are given both for electrons incident on the centre of crystals and for electrons distributed uniformly over the calorimeter surface. The electron energy is reconstructed in matrices of 3 times 3 or 5 times 5 crystals centred on the crystal containing the maximum energy. Corrections for variations in the shower containment are applied in the case of uniform incidence. The resolution measured is consistent with the design goals.

  19. The Small angle TIle Calorimeter project in DELPHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvsvaag, S.J.; Maeland, O.A.; Klovning, A.

    1995-01-01

    The new Small Angle TIle Calorimeter (STIC) covers the forward regions in DELPHI. The main motivation for its construction was to achieve a systematic error of 0.1% on the luminosity determination. This detector consists of a ''shashlik'' type calorimeter, equipped with two planes of silicon pad detectors placed respectively after 4 and 7.4 radiation lengths. A veto counter, composed of two scintillator planes, covers the front of the calorimeter to allow e-γ separation and to provide a neutral energy trigger.The physics motivations for this project, results from extensive testbeam measurements and the performance during the 1994 LEP run are reported here. (orig.)

  20. The small angle tile calorimeter in the DELPHI experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvsvaag, S.J.; Bari, M.; Barreira, G.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Bigi, M.; Bonesini, M.; Bozzo, M.; Camporesi, T.; Carling, H.; Cassio, V.; Castellani, L.; Cereseto, R.; Chignoli, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Dharmasiri, D.R.; Santo, M.C. Espirito; Falk, E.; Fenyuk, A.; Ferrari, P.; Gamba, D.; Giordano, V.; Gouz, Yu.; Guerzoni, M.; Gumenyuk, S.; Hedberg, V.; Jarlskog, G.; Karyukhin, A.; Klovning, A.; Konoplyannikov, A.; Kronkvist, I.; Lanceri, L.; Leoni, R.; Maeland, O.A.; Maio, A.; Mazza, R.; Migliore, E.; Navarria, F.L.; Negri, P.; Nossum, B.; Obraztsov, V.; Onofre, A.; Paganoni, M.; Pegoraro, M.; Peralta, L.; Petrovykh, L.; Pimenta, M.; Poropat, P.; Prest, M.; Read, A.L.; Romero, A.; Shalanda, N.; Simonetti, L.; Skaali, T.B.; Stugu, B.; Terranova, F.; Tome, B.; Torassa, E.; Trapani, P.P.; Verardi, M.G.; Vallazza, E.; Vlasov, E.; Zaitsev, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Small angle TIle Calorimeter (STIC) provides calorimetric coverage in the very forward region of the DELPHI experiment at the CERN LEP collider. The structure of the calorimeters, built with a so-called 'shashlik' technique, gives a perfectly hermetic calorimeter and still allows for the insertion of tracking detectors within the sampling structure to measure the direction of the showering particle. A charged-particle veto system, composed of two scintillator layers, makes it possible to trigger on single photon events and provides e-γ separation. Results are presented from the extensive studies of these detectors in the CERN testbeams prior of installation and of the detector performance at LEP

  1. Proposal for a level 0 calorimeter trigger system for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin, A; Capponi, M; D'Antone, I; De Castro, S; Donà, R; Galli, D; Giacobbe, B; Marconi, U; Massa, I; Piccinini, M; Poli, M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Spighi, R; Vecchi, S; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Zoccoli, A; Zoccoli, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    In this note we present a complete system for the Level-0 LHCb calorimeter triggers. The system is derived from the electromagnetic calorimeter pre-trigger developed for the HERA-B experiment. The proposed system follows closely the Level-0 trigger algorithms presented in the LHCb Technical Proposal based on an electromagnetic and hadronic showers analysis performed on 3x3 calorimeter matrix. The general architecture presented is completely synchronous and quite flexible to allow adaptation to further improvements on the Level-0 trigger algorithms.

  2. Measurements with the Hungarian Heat-Flow Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bod, L.

    1970-01-01

    This calorimeter, like the others, consists of three essential parts: 1) the calorimetric sample; the radiation energy absorbed therein is to be determined; 2) the jacket; a well defined environment which includes the calorimetric sample; 3) the heat transfer medium, separating the former two. The measurement with this calorimeter consists of the determination of the equilibrium temperature difference between the calorimetric sample and the jacket of the calorimeter in the radiation field. From this the radiation energy absorbed in the calorimetric sample can be evaluated

  3. Simulation of secondary emission calorimeter for future colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetkin, E. A.; Yetkin, T.; Ozok, F.; Iren, E.; Erduran, M. N.

    2018-03-01

    We present updated results from a simulation study of a conceptual sampling electromagnetic calorimeter based on secondary electron emission process. We implemented the secondary electron emission process in Geant4 as a user physics list and produced the energy spectrum and yield of secondary electrons. The energy resolution of the SEE calorimeter was σ/E = (41%) GeV1/2/√E and the response linearity to electromagnetic showers was to within 1.5%. The simulation results were also compared with a traditional scintillator calorimeter.

  4. Radioactively induced noise in gas-sampling uranium calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.A.; Rehak, P.

    1982-01-01

    The signal induced by radioactivity of a U 238 absorber in a cell of a gas-sampling uranium calorimeter was studied. By means of Campbell's theorem, the levels of the radioactively induced noise in uranium gas-sampling calorimeters was calculated. It was shown that in order to obtain similar radioactive noise performance as U-liquid argon or U-scintillator combinations, the α-particles from the uranium must be stopped before entering the sensing volume of gas-uranium calorimeters

  5. Development of real-time low energy electron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Mod Ali; Smith, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    A low energy electron beam calorimeter with a thin film window has been fabricated to facilitate a reliable method of dose assessment for electron beam energies down to 200 keV. The system was designed to incorporate a data-logger in order that it could be used on the self-shielded 200 keV facility at MINT. In use, the calorimeter started logging temperature a short time before it passed under the beam and it continued taking data until well after the end of the irradiation. Data could be retrieved at any time after the calorimeter had emerged from the irradiator

  6. Hadron calorimeter module prototype for baryonic matter studies at Nuclotron

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrishchuk, O. P.; Ladygin, V. P.; Petukhov, Yu. P.; Sychkov, S. Ya

    2014-01-01

    The prototype of the hadron calorimeter module consisting of 66 scintillator/lead layers with the 15x15 cm^2 cross section and 5 nuclear interaction lengths has been designed and produced for the zero degree calorimeter of the BM@N experiment. The prototype has been tested with high energy muon beam of the U-70 accelerator at IHEP. The results of the beam test for different types of photo multipliers and light guides are presented. The results of the Monte-Carlo simulation of the calorimeter ...

  7. Comparison of HfCl4, HfI4, TEMA-Hf, and TDMA-Hf as precursors in early growing stages of HfO2 films deposited by ALD: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez-Valadez, M.; Fierro, C.; Farias-Mancilla, J. R.; Vargas-Ortiz, A.; Flores-Acosta, M.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Enriquez-Carrejo, J. L.; Soubervielle-Montalvo, C.; Mani-Gonzalez, P. G.

    2016-06-01

    The final structure of HfO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) after reaction with OH- ions has been analyzed by DFT (density functional theory). The interaction of the precursors: HfCl4 (hafnium tetrachloride), HfI4 (hafnium tetraiodide), TEMA-Hf (tetrakis-ethylmethylamino hafnium), and TDMA-Hf (tetrakis-dimethylamino hafnium) with HO-H was studied employing the B3LYP (Becke 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr) hybrid functional and the PBE (Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof) generalized gradient functional. The structural evolution at the Si(100) surface has been analyzed by LDA (local density approximation). The structural parameters: bond length and bond angle, and the vibrational parameters for the optimized structures are also reported. The presence of hafnium silicate at the interface was detected. The infrared spectra and structural parameters obtained in this work agree with previously reported experimental results.

  8. ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Module Zero

    CERN Multimedia

    1993-01-01

    This module was built and tested with beam to validate the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter design. One original design feature is the folding. 10 000 lead plates and electrodes are folded into an accordion shape and immersed in liquid argon. As they cross the folds, particles are slowed down by the lead. As they collide with the lead atoms, electrons and photons are ejected. There is a knock-on effect and as they continue on into the argon, a whole shower is produced. The electrodes collect up all the electrons and this signal gives a measurement of the energy of the initial particle. The M0 was fabricated by French institutes (LAL, LAPP, Saclay, Jussieu) in the years 1993-1994. It was tested in the H6/H8 beam lines in 1994, leading to the Technical Design Report in 1996.

  9. Electromagnetic Calorimeter Calibration with $\\pi^{0}$

    CERN Multimedia

    Puig Navarro, A

    2009-01-01

    Several methods can be used in order to achieve precise calibration of the LHCb Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) once reasonable cell equalization has been reached. At low transverse energy, the standard calibration procedure is an iterative method based on the fit of the $\\gamma\\gamma$ invariant mass distribution for each cell of the decay $\\pi^{0}\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ with resolved photons. A new technique for generating the combinatorial background of such decays directly from data has been developed. Knowledge of the background could allow an alternative calibration method based on a event by event fit of the same $\\gamma\\gamma$ invariant mass distribution where contributions from groups of cells are considered in a single fit. The background generation procedure and this possible new calibration method are presented in this poster, in addition to an overview of the LHCb Calorimetry system and ECAL calibration techniques.

  10. Calorimeter Simulation with Hadrons in CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piperov, Stefan; /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Fermilab

    2008-11-01

    CMS is using Geant4 to simulate the detector setup for the forthcoming data from the LHC. Validation of physics processes inside Geant4 is a major concern in view of getting a proper description of jets and missing energy for signal and background events. This is done by carrying out an extensive studies with test beam using the prototypes or real detector modules of the CMS calorimeter. These data are matched with Geant4 predictions using the same framework that is used for the entire CMS detector. Tuning of the Geant4 models is carried out and steps to be used in reproducing detector signals are defined in view of measurements of energy response, energy resolution, transverse and longitudinal shower profiles for a variety of hadron beams over a broad energy spectrum between 2 to 300 GeV/c. The tuned Monte Carlo predictions match many of these measurements within systematic uncertainties.

  11. Tests of gas sampling electromagnetic shower calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Carithers, W.; Day, C.; Johnson, K.J.; Wenzel, W.A.; Videau, H.

    1983-01-01

    An electromagnetic shower gas-sampling calorimeter has been tested in both Geiger and proportional discharge modes for incident electron energies in the range 0.125-16 GeV. The 0.2 radiation length-thick layers were lead-fiberglass laminates with cathode strips normal to the sense wires. The 5x10 mm 2 Geiger cells were formed with uniformly spaced nylon fibers perpendicular to the wires. Proportional mode measurements were carried out in the pressure range 1-10 atm. A Monte Carlo simulation is in good agreement with measured shower characteristics and has been used to predict the behavior for oblique of incidence and for various Geiger cell dimensions. (orig.)

  12. Liquid xenon/krypton scintillation calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, D.Yu.; Bolozdynya, A.I.; Brastilov, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    A scintillating LXe/LKr electromagnetic calorimeter has been built at the ITEP and tested at the BATES (MIT) accelerator. The detector consists of PMT matrix and 45 light collecting cells made of aluminized 50 microns Mylar partially covered with p-terphenyl as a wavelength-shifter. Each pyramidal cell has (2.1 x 2.1) x 40 x (4.15 x 4.15) cm dimensions and is viewed by FEU-85 glass-window photomultiplier. The detector has been exposed at 106-348 MeV electron beam. The energy resolution σ E /E ≅ 5% √ E at 100 - 350 MeV range in LXe, the coordinate resolution τ x ≅ 0.7 cm, the time resolution for single cell ≅ 0.6 ns have been obtained. Possible ways to improve energy resolution are discussed. 8 refs., 15 figs

  13. The UA1 upgrade calorimeter trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, M.; Charleton, D.; Ellis, N.; Garvey, J.; Gregory, J.; Jimack, M.P.; Jovanovic, P.; Kenyon, I.R.; Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagedera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.; Biddulph, P.; Eisenhandler, E.; Fensome, I.F.; Landon, M.; Robinson, D.; Oliver, J.; Sumorok, K.

    1990-01-01

    The increased luminosity of the improved CERN Collider and the more subtle signals of second-generation collider physics demand increasingly sophisticated triggering. We have built a new first-level trigger processor designed to use the excellent granularity of the UA1 upgrade calorimeter. This device is entirely digital and handles events in 1.5 μs, thus introducing no dead time. Its most novel feature is fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding with the possibility of demanding an isolated shower of limited penetration. The processor allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. This hard-wired processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It was used extensively in the 1988 and 1989 runs of the CERN Collider. (orig.)

  14. The UA1 upgrade calorimeter trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, N.; Baird, S.A.; Biddulph, P.

    1990-01-01

    The increased luminosity of the improved CERN Collider and the more subtle signals of second-generation collider physics demand increasingly sophisticated triggering. We have built a new first-level trigger processor designed to use the excellent granularity of the UA1 upgrade calorimeter. This device is entirely digital and handles events in 1.5 μs, thus introducing no deadtime. Its most novel feature is fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding with the possibility of demanding an isolated shower of limited penetration. The processor allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. This hard-wired processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It was used extensively in the 1988 and 1989 runs of the CERN Collider. (author)

  15. Muon Detection Based on a Hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ciodaro, Thiago; Abreu, R; Achenbach, R; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Aielli, G; Al-Shabibi, A; Aleksandrov, I; Alexandrov, E; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Amorim, A; Amram, N; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Angelaszek, D; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonelli, S; Anulli, F; Apolle, R; Aracena, I; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Avolio, G; Baak, M; Backes, M; Backlund, S; Badescu, E; Baines, J; Ballestrero, S; Banerjee, S; Bansil, H S; Barnett, B M; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, V; Batraneanu, S; Battaglia, A; Bauss, B; Beauchemin, P; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Begel, M; Behera, P K; Bell, P; Bell, W H; Bellagamba, L; Bellomo, M; Ben Ami, S; Bendel, M; Benhammou, Y; Benslama, K; Berge, D; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bianco, M; Biglietti, M; Blair, R E; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Bondioli, M; Borer, C; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bossini, E; Boveia, A; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A G; Brawn, I P; Brelier, B; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Brock, R; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bucci, F; Buda, S; Burckhart-Chromek, D; Buscher, V; Buttinger, W; Calvet, S; Camarri, P; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Capasso, L; Caprini, M; Caracinha, D; Caramarcu, C; Cardarelli, R; Carlino, G; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cattani, G; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chapleau, B; Childers, J T; Chiodini, G; Christidi, I; Ciapetti, G; Cimino, D; Ciobotaru, M; Coccaro, A; Cogan, J; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Conidi, C; Conventi, F; Corradi, M; Corso-Radu, A; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Crescioli, F; Crone, G; Crupi, R; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cummings, J T; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Dao, V; Darlea, G L; Davis, A O; De Asmundis, R; De Pedis, D; De Santo, A; de Seixas, J M; Degenhardt, J; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Diaz, M A; Dietzsch, T A; Dionisi, C; Dobson, E; Dobson, M; dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Dova, M T; Drake, G; Dufour, M-A; Dumitru, I; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, K V; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Ermoline, Y; Ernst, J; Etzion, E; Falciano, S; Farrington, S; Farthouat, P; Faulkner, P J W; Fedorko, W; Fellmann, D; Feng, E; Ferrag, S; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Fiorini, L; Fischer, G; Flowerdew, M J; Fonseca Martin, T; Francis, D; Fratina, S; French, S T; Front, D; Fukunaga, C; Gadomski, S; Garelli, N; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gaudio, G; Gee, C N P; George, S; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gillman, A R; Giorgi, M; Giunta, M; Giusti, P; Goebel, M; Gonçalo, R; Gonzalez Silva, L; Göringer, C; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Grabowska-Bold, I; Green, B; Groll, M; Guida, A; Guler, H; Haas, S; Hadavand, H; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hansen, J R; Hasegawa, S; Hasegawa, Y; Hauser, R; Hayakawa, T; Hayden, D; Head, S; Heim, S; Hellman, S; Henke, M; Hershenhorn, A; Hidvégi, A; Hillert, S; Hillier, S J; Hirayama, S; Hod, N; Hoffmann, D; Hong, T M; Hryn'ova, T; Huston, J; Iacobucci, G; Igonkina, O; Ikeno, M; Ilchenko, Y; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, M; Iwasaki, H; Izzo, V; Jez, P; Jimenez Otero, S; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Jones, G; Joos, M; Kadlecik, P; Kajomovitz, E; Kanaya, N; Kanega, F; Kanno, T; Kapliy, A; Kaushik, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kazarov, A; Kehoe, R; Kessoku, K; Khomich, A; Khoriauli, G; Kieft, G; Kirk, J; Klemetti, M; Klofver, P; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Kobayashi, T; Koeneke, K; Koletsou, I; Koll, J D; Kolos, S; Kono, T; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kotov, V; Kowalewski, R V; Krasznahorkay, A; Kraus, J; Kreisel, A; Kubota, T; Kugel, A; Kunkle, J; Kurashige, H; Kuze, M; Kwee, R; Laforge, B; Landon, M; Lane, J; Lankford, A J; Laranjeira Lima, S M; Larner, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann Miotto, G; Lei, X; Lellouch, D; Levinson, L; Li, S; Liberti, B; Lilley, J N; Linnemann, J T; Lipeles, E; Lohse, T; Losada, M; Lowe, A; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lundberg, J; Lupu, N; Machado Miguéns, J; Mackeprang, R; Maettig, S; Magnoni, L; Maiani, C; Maltrana, D; Mangeard, P-S; Männer, R; Mapelli, L; Marchese, F; Marino, C; Martin, B; Martin, B T; Martin, T; Martyniuk, A; Marzano, F; Masik, J; Mastrandrea, P; Matsushita, T; McCarn, A; Mechnich, J; Medinnis, M; Meier, K; Melachrinos, C; Mendoza Nava, L M; Merola, L; Messina, A; Meyer, C P; Middleton, R P; Mikenberg, G; Mills, C M; Mincer, A; Mineev, M; Misiejuk, A; Moa, T; Moenig, K; Monk, J; Monticelli, F; Mora Herrera, C; Morettini, P; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Munwes, Y; Murillo Garcia, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nelson, S; Nemethy, P; Neubauer, M S; Neusiedl, A; Newman, P; Nisati, A; Nomoto, H; Nozaki, M; Nozicka, M; Nurse, E; Ochando, C; Ochi, A; Oda, S; Oh, A; Ohm, C; Okumura, Y; Olivito, D; Omachi, C; Osculati, B; Oshita, H; Ospanov, R; Owen, M A; Özcan, V E; Ozone, K; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Panikashvili, N; Paramonov, A; Parodi, F; Pasqualucci, E; Pastore, F; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Petcu, M; Petersen, B A; Petersen, J; Petrolo, E; Phan, A; Piegaia, R; Pilkington, A; Pinder, A; Poddar, S; Polini, A; Pope, B G; Potter, C T; Primavera, M; Prokoshin, F; Ptacek, E; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Ramos Dos Santos Neves, R; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Reinsch, A; Renkel, P; Rescigno, M; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S H; Robinson, M; Rodriguez, D; Roich, A; Romeo, G; Romero, R; Roos, L; Ruiz Martinez, A; Ryabov, Y; Ryan, P; Saavedra, A; Safai Tehrani, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Saland, J; Salnikov, A; Salvatore, F; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santonico, R; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sasaki, O; Savu, D; Scannicchio, D A; Schäfer, U; Scharf, V L; Scheirich, D; Schiavi, C; Schlereth, J; Schmitt, K; Schroder, C; Schroer, N; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekhniaidze, G; Sfyrla, A; Shamim, M; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shooltz, D; Sidoti, A; Silbert, O; Silverstein, S; Sinev, N; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S; Sjoen, R; Sjölin, J; Slagle, K; Sloper, J E; Smith, B C; Soffer, A; Soloviev, I; Spagnolo, S; Spiwoks, R; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stancu, S; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strauss, E A; Strom, D; Su, D; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Taffard, A; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tarem, Z; Taylor, C; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Thomson, M A; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomoto, M; Topfel, C; Torrence, E; Touchard, F; Traynor, D; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Tripiana, M; Triplett, N; True, P; Tsiakiris, M; Tsuno, S; Tuggle, J; Ünel, G; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Vachon, B; Vallecorsa, S; Valsan, L; Vandelli, W; Vari, R; Vaz Gil Lopes, L; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Vermeulen, J C; Volpi, G; Vorwerk, V; Wagner, P; Wang, M; Warburton, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, M; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Wengler, T; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; White, M; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Winklmeier, F; Woods, K S; Wu, S-L; Wu, X; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Xella, S; Yakovlev, A; Yamazaki, Y; Yang, U; Yasu, Y; Yuan, L; Zaitsev, A; Zanello, L; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; zur Nedden, M

    2010-01-01

    The TileCal hadronic calorimeter provides a muon signal which can be used to assist in muon tagging at the ATLAS level-one trigger. Originally, the muon signal was conceived to be combined with the RPC trigger in order to reduce unforeseen high trigger rates due to cavern background. Nevertheless, the combined trigger cannot significantly deteriorate the muon detection performance at the barrel region. This paper presents preliminary studies concerning the impact in muon identification at the ATLAS level-one trigger, through the use of Monte Carlo simulations with single muons with 40 GeV/c momentum. Further, different trigger scenarios were proposed, together with an approach for matching both TileCal and RPC geometries.

  16. Trigger circuits for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Winterberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    Monolithic and discrete circuits have been developed to provide trigger signals for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter detector. These trigger circuits are deadtimeless and create overlapping 4 by 4 energy sums, a cosmic muon trigger, and a 144 channel energy sum. The front end electronics of the PHENIX system sample the energy and timing channels at each bunch crossing (BC) but it is not known immediately if this data is of interest. The information from the trigger circuits is used to determine if the data collected is of interest and should be digitized and stored or discarded. This paper presents details of the design, issues affecting circuit performance, characterization of prototypes fabricated in 1.2 microm Orbit CMOS, and integration of the circuits into the EMCal electronics system

  17. High luminosity liquid-argon calorimeter test beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novgorodova, Olga; Straessner, Arno [TU Dresden, IKTP (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the future HL-LHC the luminosity will increase by factor of 5-7 with respect to the original LHC design. The HiLum collaboration studied the impact on small-sized modules of the ATLAS electromagnetic, hadronic, and forward calorimeters also instrumented by various intensity and position detectors. The intensity of beam varied over a wide range (10{sup 6} to 10{sup 12} p/s) and beyond the maximum expected at HL-LHC for these calorimeters. Results from the last test beam campaign in 2013 on the signal shape analysis from the calorimeter modules are compared with MC simulations. The correlation between high-voltage return currents of the electromagnetic calorimeter and beam intensity is used to estimate critical parameters and compared with predictions.

  18. Scintillation chamber of calorimeters for colliding beam detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested that the scintillation chamber, a technique first discussed almost thirty years ago, might find application in colliding beam detector systems, in particular as a means of efficiently extracting detailed spatial and energy information from a sampling calorimeter

  19. Calibration of the CMS hadron calorimeter in Run 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadeeva, M.; Lychkovskaya, N.

    2018-03-01

    Various calibration techniques for the CMS Hadron calorimeter in Run 2 and the results of calibration using 2016 collision data are presented. The radiation damage corrections, intercalibration of different channels using the phi-symmetry technique for barrel, endcap and forward calorimeter regions are described, as well as the intercalibration with muons of the outer hadron calorimeter. The achieved intercalibration precision is within 3%. The in situ energy scale calibration is performed in the barrel and endcap regions using isolated charged hadrons and in the forward calorimeter using the Zarrow ee process. The impact of pileup and the developed technique of correction for pileup is also discussed. The achieved uncertainty of the response to hadrons is 3.4% in the barrel and 2.6% in the endcap region (at the pseudorapidity range |η|<2) and is dominated by the systematic uncertainty due to pileup contributions.

  20. Calibration of the CMS Hadron Calorimeter in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Chadeeva, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Various calibration techniques for the CMS Hadron calorimeter in Run2 and the results of calibration using 2016 collision data are presented. The radiation damage corrections, intercalibration of different channels using the phi-symmetry technique for barrel, endcap and forward calorimeter regions are described, as well as the intercalibration with muons of the outer hadron calorimeter. The achieved intercalibration precision is within 3\\%. The {\\it in situ} energy scale calibration is performed in the barrel and endcap regions using isolated charged hadrons and in the forward calorimeter using the Z$\\rightarrow ee$ process. The impact of pileup and the developed technique of correction for pileup is also discussed. The achieved uncertainty of the response to hadrons is 3.4\\% in the barrel and 2.6\\% in the endcap region (at $\\vert \\eta \\vert < 2$) and is dominated by the systematic uncertainty due to pileup contributions.

  1. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J. [Savoie Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (FR). Lab. d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  2. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J.

    2010-12-01

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  3. Hadron calorimeter towers with a high space resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellettini, G.; Bertani, R.; Bradaschia, C.; Del Fabbro, R.; Scribano, A.; Terreni, G.

    1982-01-01

    The performances of a set of hadron calorimeter towers for measuring the hadron impact point are described. It is shown that an accuracy of 1-2 cm can be achieved with a proper treatment of the data. (orig.)

  4. LHCb: First year of running for the LHCb calorimeter system

    CERN Multimedia

    Guz, Y

    2011-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of B hadrons at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva) [1, 2]. LHCb is a single-arm spectrometer with a forward angular coverage from approximately 10 mrad to 300 mrad. It comprises a calorimeter system composed of four subdetectors [3]. It selects transverse energy hadron, electron and photon candidates for the first trigger level (L0), which makes a decision 4µs after the interaction. It provides the identification of electrons, photons and hadrons as well as the measurement of their energies and positions. The set of constraints resulting from these functionalities defines the general structure and the main characteristics of the calorimeter system and its associated electronics. A classical structure of an electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) followed by a hadron calorimeter (HCAL) has been adopted. In addition the system includes in front of them the Scintillating Pad Detector (SPD) and Pre-Showe...

  5. Intercalibration of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter Using Jet Trigger Events

    CERN Document Server

    Futyan, David

    2004-01-01

    This note describes a strategy for rapidly obtaining electromagnetic calorimeter crystal intercalibration at LHC start-up in the absence of test beam precalibration of the complete detector. In the case of the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) Electromagnetic Calorimeter, the limit on the precision to which crystals can be intercalibrated in phi using fully simulated jet trigger events, and assuming complete ignorance of the distribution of material in front of the calorimeter, is determined as a function of the pseudorapidity eta. The value of the limit has been found to be close to 1.5% in the barrel and between 3.0% and 1.0% for the fiducial region of the endcaps. The precision is limited by the inhomogeneity of tracker material. With increasing knowledge of the material distribution in the tracker, the attainable precision of the method will increase, with the potential of providing rapid and repeated calibration of the calorimeter.

  6. Use of the calorimeter in the dosimetry for electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez B, A.

    1991-02-01

    The measure of different radiation types, with specific dosemeters, requires that the absorbed dose should be measured with accuracy by some common standard. The existent problem around the dosimetry of accelerated electrons has forced to the development of diverse detector types that after having analyzed the characteristics; dependability and reproducibility are used as dosemeters. Recently the calorimeters have been developed, with the purpose of carrying out dosimetry for electron accelerators. The RISO laboratory in Denmark, in it 10 MeV accelerator had been used for the dosimetry those water calorimeters, later on, using the principle of the water calorimeter, it was designing one similar, for the accelerator of 400 keV. Recently manufactured simple calorimeters of graphite have been used, which can be used in both accelerators of 10 MeV and 400 keV. (Author)

  7. Jet energy measurements with the ZEUS prototype calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, W.

    1993-01-01

    The uranium scintillator calorimeter of the ZEUS detector is designed to achieve an excellent energy calibration and the best possible energy resolution for jets. Therefore the response of the prototype calorimeter to jets has been measured using an interaction trigger. The mean response and energy resolution was measured for jets of 50 GeV - 100 GeV and compared to the one for pions. Within the ZEUS detector dead material is placed in front of the calorimeter. The influence of 4 cm and 10 cm thick aluminium absorbers in front of the calorimeter was measured. The charged multiplicity was measured in front and behind the aluminium absorber. With these multiplicities the energy loss in the absorber is corrected. The correction has been done so that the mean response with absorber is equal to the mean response without absorber. The improvement of the energy resolution is investigated. The measured results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. (orig.) [de

  8. QCALT: A tile calorimeter for KLOE-2 upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balla, A.; Ciambrone, P.; Corradi, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Rm) (Italy); Martini, M., E-mail: matteo.martini@lnf.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Rm) (Italy); Università degli studi Guglielmo Marconi, Rome (Italy); Paglia, C.; Pileggi, G.; Ponzio, B.; Saputi, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Rm) (Italy); Tagnani, D. [INFN, Sezione di Roma 3, Rome (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    The upgrade of the DaΦne machine layout requires a modification of the size and position of the inner focusing quadrupoles of KLOE-2, thus asking for the realization of two new calorimeters, named QCALT, covering this area. To improve the reconstruction of K{sub L}→2π{sup 0} events with photons hitting the quadrupoles, a calorimeter with high efficiency to low energy photons (20–300 MeV), time resolution of less than 1 ns and space resolution of few cm, is needed. To match these requirements we are now constructing a scintillator tile calorimeter where each single tile is readout by mean of SiPM for a total granularity of 1760 channels. We show the design of the different calorimeter components and the present status of the construction.

  9. The ZEUS uranium-scintillator calorimeter for HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilger, E.

    1987-01-01

    The high resolution calorimeter for the ZEUS detector at HERA is presented. The choice of a sandwich calorimeter from depleted uranium plates and plastic scintillator was made to accomplish compensation and thus the best possible energy resolution for hadrons and jets. The calorimeter is segmented transversely into towers and longitudinally into an electromagnetic and one or two hadronic sections. It is divided in a forward, barrel and rear part which surround hermetically the interaction region and the inner detectors. The expected energy resolutions are for electrons σ(E)/E = 0.15/√E, and for hadrons σ(E)/E = 0.35/√E, with a constant term of maximum 2% added in quadrature. First results from calorimeter test measurements are presented. (orig.)

  10. Miniaturised differential micro-calorimeter. Work note ESU Nr 1212

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberi, P.

    1970-01-01

    The author reports the design and realisation of a miniaturized calorimeter which can be quickly implemented, and is particularly appropriate for laboratories working with fluorinating gases. He describes the operation principle, the device realisation, its uses

  11. The optical instrumentation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, J [IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, E46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Adragna, P; Bosi, F [Pisa University and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Alexa, C; Boldea, V [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Alves, R [LIP and FCTUC Univ. of Coimbra (Portugal); Amaral, P; Andresen, X [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ananiev, A [LIP and IDMEC-IST, Lisbon (Portugal); Anderson, K [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Antonaki, A [University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Batusov, V [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bednar, P [Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Bergeaas, E; Bohm, C [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Biscarat, C [LPC Clermont-Ferrand, Universite Blaise Pascal / CNRS-IN2P3, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bosman, M [Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Bromberg, C [Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); others, and

    2013-01-15

    The Tile Calorimeter, covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment up to pseudorapidities of {+-}1.7, is a sampling device built with scintillating tiles that alternate with iron plates. The light is collected in wave-length shifting (WLS) fibers and is read out with photomultipliers. In the characteristic geometry of this calorimeter the tiles lie in planes perpendicular to the beams, resulting in a very simple and modular mechanical and optical layout. This paper focuses on the procedures applied in the optical instrumentation of the calorimeter, which involved the assembly of about 460,000 scintillator tiles and 550,000 WLS fibers. The outcome is a hadronic calorimeter that meets the ATLAS performance requirements, as shown in this paper.

  12. The optical instrumentation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, J; Adragna, P; Bosi, F; Alexa, C; Boldea, V; Alves, R; Amaral, P; Andresen, X; Ananiev, A; Anderson, K; Antonaki, A; Batusov, V; Bednar, P; Bergeaas, E; Bohm, C; Biscarat, C; Blanch, O; Blanchot, G; Bosman, M; Bromberg, C

    2013-01-01

    The Tile Calorimeter, covering the central region of the ATLAS experiment up to pseudorapidities of ±1.7, is a sampling device built with scintillating tiles that alternate with iron plates. The light is collected in wave-length shifting (WLS) fibers and is read out with photomultipliers. In the characteristic geometry of this calorimeter the tiles lie in planes perpendicular to the beams, resulting in a very simple and modular mechanical and optical layout. This paper focuses on the procedures applied in the optical instrumentation of the calorimeter, which involved the assembly of about 460,000 scintillator tiles and 550,000 WLS fibers. The outcome is a hadronic calorimeter that meets the ATLAS performance requirements, as shown in this paper.

  13. Searching triaxial superdeformation in 175Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaowei; Zhejiang Normal Univ., Jinhua; Yu Shaoying; Zhejiang Normal Univ., Jinhua; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Shen Caiwan; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou; Chen Yongshou; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional Total Routhian Surface (TRS) calculation is carried out in order to ascertain if there is triaxial superdeformation in 175 Hf. A five quasi-particle configuration is chosen in the calculation. Unfortunately, the TRS minimum does not show up in the total potential energy surface. (authors)

  14. Ferromagnetic characteristics of HfFe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, N.; Belosevic-Cavor, J.; Cekic, B.; Manasijevic, M.; Milosevic, Z. . E-mail address of correspoding author: novnik@rt270.vin.bg.ac.yu; Novakovic, N.)

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic hyperfine fields at 181 Ta ion-probe sites in the HfFe 2 polycrystalline binary compound were measured using the time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) method. Measurements were performed in the absence of polarizing external magnetic field, at room temperature. The existence of two different structures, dominant cubic MgCu 2 -type and hexagonal MgZn 2 -type in our HfFe 2 sample was refined. Both structures are ferromagnetic with Curie temperatures, which differ significantly (588 K for MgCu 2 and 427 K for MgZn 2 ). The corresponding values of hyperfine fields are H hf 13.8±0.1 T for MgCu 2 -type structure and H hf = 8.0±0.2 T for MgZn 2 -type structure. Calculations using LAPW-Wien 97 program package are in progress and preliminary results are in good agreement with experiment. The analysis includes qualitative explanation of the exchange interactions mechanism between magnetic dipole moment of the observed 181 Ta ion-probe and magnetic dipole moments of the nearest neighbours on the corresponding coordination polyhedra. All these results will be published recently. (author)

  15. Statistical gamma transitions in {sup 174}Hf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farris, L P; Cizewski, J A; Brinkman, M J; Henry, R G; Lee, C S [Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Khoo, T L; Janssens, R V.F.; Moore, E F; Carpenter, M P; Ahmad, I; Lauritsen, T [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kolata, J J; Beard, K B; Ye, B; Garg, U [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States); Kaplan, M S; Saladin, J X; Winchell, D [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The statistical spectrum extracted from the {sup 172}Yb({alpha},2n){sup 174}Hf reaction was fit with Monte Carlo simulations using a modified GDR E1 strength function and several formulations of the level density. (author). 15 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  16. Closing LHCb's calorimeter around the beam-pipe

    CERN Multimedia

    Kristic, R

    2008-01-01

    Photos 1 and 2 show the pre-shower, lead absorber and the scintillating pad detector layers moving in towards the beam-pipe. Photos 3,4 and 5 show the hadron calorimeter with both halves closed around the beam-pipe, to the left of the picture and, in the centre, half of the electromagnetic calorimeter closed in towards the beam-pipe.

  17. Signal feedthroughs for the ATLAS barrel and endcap calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axen, D.; Hackenburg, R.; Hoffmann, A.; Kane, S.; Lissauer, D.; Makowiecki, D.; Muller, T.; Pate, D.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Rehak, M.; Rescia, S.; Sexton, K.; Sondericker, J.; Birney, P.; Dowling, A.W.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Hodges, T.; Holness, F.; Honkanen, N.

    2005-01-01

    The function, design, construction, testing, and installation of the signal feedthroughs for the barrel and endcap ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters are described. The feedthroughs provide a high density and radiation hard method to extract over 200 000 signals from the cryogenic environment of the calorimeters using an application of a design based on flexible kapton circuit board transmission lines. A model to describe the frequency dependent behavior of the transmission lines is also presented

  18. An electron-hadron separator for digital sampling calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, K. de; Geiregat, D.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Bergsma, F.; Binder, U.; Burkard, H.; Capone, A.; Ereditato, A.; Flegel, W.; Grote, H.; Nieuwenhuis, C.; Oeveras, H.; Palladino, V.; Panman, J.; Piredda, G.; Winter, K.; Zacek, G.; Zacek, V.; Bauche, T.; Beyer, R.; Blobel, V.; Buesser, F.W.; Foos, C.; Gerland, L.; Niebergall, F.; Staehelin, P.; Tadsen, A.; Gorbunov, P.; Grigoriev, E.; Khovansky, V.; Maslennikov, A.; Rosanov, A.; Lippich, W.; Nathaniel, A.; Staude, A.; De Pedis, D.; Di Capua, E.; Dore, U.; Loverre, P.F.; Rambaldi-Frenkel, A.; Santacesaria, R.; Zanello, D.

    1989-01-01

    A fast and effective algorithm for electromagnetic and hadronic shower separation has been developed for the digital sampling calorimeter of the CHARM II experiment. It is based on a generalization of the minimal spanning tree concept and can be easily applied to other existing calorimeters. In this particular application, which requires the highest efficiency for retaining electromagnetic showers, one gets, for 99% efficiency, a rejection factor of the order of 100 for hadronic showers. (orig.)

  19. A 3000 element lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crittenden, R.R.; Dzierba, A.R.; Gunter, J.; Lindenbusch, R.; Rust, D.R.; Scott, E.; Smith, P.T.; Sulanke, T.; Teige, S.; Brabson, B.B.; Adams, T.; Bishop, J.M.; Cason, N.M.; LoSecco, J.M.; Manak, J.J.; Sanjari, A.H.; Shephard, W.D.; Steinike, D.L.; Taegar, S.A.; Thompson, D.R.; Chung, S.U.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Olchanski, C.; Weygand, D.P.; Willutzki, H.J.; Denisov, S.; Dushkin, A.; Kochetkov, V.; Lipaev, V.; Popov, A.; Shein, I.; Soldatov, A.; Bar-Yam, Z.; Cummings, J.P.; Dowd, J.P.; Eugenio, P.; Hayek, M.; Kern, W.; King, E.; Anoshina, E.V.; Bodyagin, V.A.; Demianov, A.I.; Gribushin, A.M.; Kodolova, O.L.; Korotkikh, V.L.; Kostin, M.A.; Ostrovidov, A.I.; Sarycheva, L.I.; Sinev, N.B.; Vardanyan, I.N.; Yershov, A.A.; Brown, D.S.; Pedlar, T.K.; Seth, K.K.; Wise, J.; Zhao, D.; Adams, G.S.; Napolitano, J.; Nozar, M.; Smith, J.A.; Witkowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    A 3045 element lead glass calorimeter and an associated fast trigger processor have been constructed, tested and implemented in BNL experiment E852 in conjunction with the multi-particle spectrometer (MPS). Approximately, 10 9 all-neutral and neutral plus charged triggers were recorded with this apparatus during data runs in 1994 and 1995. This paper reports on the construction, testing and performance of this lead glass calorimeter and the associated trigger processor. (orig.)

  20. A fast DSP-based calorimeter hit scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekikawa, S.; Arai, I.; Suzuki, A.; Watanabe, A.; Marlow, D.R.; Mindas, C.R.; Wixted, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    A custom made digital signal processor (DSP) based system has been developed to scan calorimeter hits read by a 32-channel FASTBUS waveform recorder board. The scanner system identifies hit calorimeter elements by surveying their discriminated outputs. This information is used to generate a list of addresses, which guides the read-out process. The system is described and measurements of the scan times are given. (orig.)

  1. New heavy scintillating materials for precise heterogeneous EM-calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britvich, G.I.; Britvich, I.G.; Vasil'chenko, V.G.; Lishin, V.A.; Obraztsov, V.F.; Polyakov, V.A.; Solovjev, A.S.; Ryzhikov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation shows some optical and scintillation properties of new scintillating media, based on heavy composite materials and an inorganic crystal CsI:Br, intended for the creation of precise heterogeneous EM-calorimeters with the energy resolution σ/E congruent with 4-5% E-radical. The possibility to use cheap heavy scintillating plates based on optical ceramics as active media in heterogeneous EM-calorimeters is considered

  2. ATLAS calorimeters: Run-2 performances and Phase-II upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to $10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$. A Liquid Argon-lead sampling (LAr) calorimeter is employed as electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters, except in the barrel region, where a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) is used as hadronic calorimeter. This presentation gives first an overview of the detector operation and data quality, as well as of the achieved performances of the ATLAS calorimetry system. Additionally the upgrade projects of the ATLAS calorimeter system for the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) are presented. For the HL-LHC, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase up to $L \\simeq 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ and the average pile-up up to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The major R&D item is the upgrade of the electronics for both LAr and Tile calorimeters in order to cope with longer latenc...

  3. QAPP for Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) Surface Spills Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This QAPP provides information concerning the analysis of spills associated with hydraulic fracturing. This project is relevant to both the chemical mixing and flowback and produced water stages of the HF water cycle as found in the HF Study Plan.

  4. Application of in-situ nano-scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction to characterize Ni–Ti–Hf high-temperature shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCluskey, Patrick J., E-mail: mccluske@ge.com [GE Global Research, One Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States); Xiao, Kechao [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gregoire, John M. [Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dale, Darren [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Vlassak, Joost J. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 29 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    Combinatorial nanocalorimetry and synchrotron X-ray diffraction were combined to study the martensite–austenite (M–A) phase transformation behavior of Ni–Ti–Hf shape memory alloys. A thin-film library of Ni–Ti–Hf samples with a range of compositions was deposited on a parallel nano-scanning calorimeter device using sputter deposition. Crystallization of each amorphous as-deposited sample by local heating at approximately 10{sup 4} K/s produced a nanoscale grain structure of austenite and martensite. Individual samples were then cycled through the M–A transformation, while the transformation enthalpy was measured by nanocalorimetry and the low- and high-temperature phase compositions were determined by X-ray diffraction. The techniques enable correlation of the observed behavior during thermal cycling with the thermodynamic and structural properties of the samples.

  5. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: Wet etching characteristics of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongliang, Li; Qiuxia, Xu

    2010-03-01

    The wet etching properties of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions are investigated. HF-based solutions are the most promising wet chemistries for the removal of HfSiON, and etch selectivity of HF-based solutions can be improved by the addition of an acid and/or an alcohol to the HF solution. Due to densification during annealing, the etch rate of HfSiON annealed at 900 °C for 30 s is significantly reduced compared with as-deposited HfSiON in HF-based solutions. After the HfSiON film has been completely removed by HF-based solutions, it is not possible to etch the interfacial layer and the etched surface does not have a hydrophobic nature, since N diffuses to the interface layer or Si substrate formation of Si-N bonds that dissolves very slowly in HF-based solutions. Existing Si-N bonds at the interface between the new high-k dielectric deposit and the Si substrate may degrade the carrier mobility due to Coulomb scattering. In addition, we show that N2 plasma treatment before wet etching is not very effective in increasing the wet etch rate for a thin HfSiON film in our case.

  6. Wet etching characteristics of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongliang; Xu Qiuxia

    2010-01-01

    The wet etching properties of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions are investigated. HF-based solutions are the most promising wet chemistries for the removal of HfSiON, and etch selectivity of HF-based solutions can be improved by the addition of an acid and/or an alcohol to the HF solution. Due to densification during annealing, the etch rate of HfSiON annealed at 900 0 C for 30 s is significantly reduced compared with as-deposited HfSiON in HF-based solutions. After the HfSiON film has been completely removed by HF-based solutions, it is not possible to etch the interfacial layer and the etched surface does not have a hydrophobic nature, since N diffuses to the interface layer or Si substrate formation of Si-N bonds that dissolves very slowly in HF-based solutions. Existing Si-N bonds at the interface between the new high-k dielectric deposit and the Si substrate may degrade the carrier mobility due to Coulomb scattering. In addition, we show that N 2 plasma treatment before wet etching is not very effective in increasing the wet etch rate for a thin HfSiON film in our case. (semiconductor technology)

  7. R&D; studies on the hadronic calorimeter and physics simulations on the Standard Model and minimal supersymmetric Standard Model Higgs bosons in the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Duru, Firdevs

    2007-01-01

    This thesis consists of two main parts: R&D; studies done on the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Hadronic Calorimeter (HCAL) and physics simulations on the Higgs boson for a Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and a Standard Model (SM) channel. In the first part, the air core light guides used in the read-out system of the Hadronic Forward (HF) calorimeter and the reflective materials used in them are studied. Then, tests and simulations were performed to find the most efficient way to collect Cerenkov light from the quartz plates, which are proposed as a substitute for the scintillator tiles in the Hadronic Endcap (HE) calorimeter due to radiation damage problems. In the second part physics simulations and their results are presented. The MSSM channel H/A[arrow right]ττ [arrow right]l l v v v v is studied to investigate the jet and missing transverse energy (MET) reconstruction of the CMS detector. The effects of the jet and MET corrections on the Higgs boson mass reconstruction are investigated. ...

  8. Hf layer thickness dependence of resistive switching characteristics of Ti/Hf/HfO2/Au resistive random access memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryo; Azuma, Atsushi; Yoshida, Hayato; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Ito, Takeshi; Shingubara, Shoso

    2018-06-01

    Resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices with a HfO2 dielectric layer have been studied extensively owing to the good reproducibility of their SET/RESET switching properties. Furthermore, it was reported that a thin Hf layer next to a HfO2 layer stabilized switching properties because of the oxygen scavenging effect. In this work, we studied the Hf thickness dependence of the resistance switching characteristics of a Ti/Hf/HfO2/Au ReRAM device. It is found that the optimum Hf thickness is approximately 10 nm to obtain good reproducibility of SET/RESET voltages with a small RESET current. However, when the Hf thickness was very small (∼2 nm), the device failed after the first RESET process owing to the very large RESET current. In the case of a very thick Hf layer (∼20 nm), RESET did not occur owing to the formation of a leaky dielectric layer. We observed the occurrence of multiple resistance states in the RESET process of the device with a Hf thickness of 10 nm by increasing the RESET voltage stepwise.

  9. Estimation of dosimetry parameters for an EB accelerator using graphite calorimeters of different thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benny, P.G.; Khader, S.A.; Sarma, K.S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Graphite calorimeters of different thickness in the range of 0.6 mm to 10 mm have been designed and fabricated for the dosimetry of 2 MeV electron beam accelerator. Average absorbed dose in each of the calorimeters of different thickness has been determined. The paper reports a method for selecting calorimeters with suitable thickness for its application as absorbed dose calorimeters and as total energy absorption calorimeters for an electron beam of particular energy. Also it reports, using calorimeters of different thickness, it is possible to estimate various parameters such as energy fluence, average absorbed dose, absorbed dose at any depth in the medium and practical range.

  10. Hadronic vector boson decay and the art of calorimeter calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobban, Olga Barbara [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Presented here are several studies involving the energy measurement of particles using calorimeters. The first study involves the effects of radiation damage on the response of a prototype calorimeter for the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment. We found that the effects of radiation damage on the calorimeter·s response arc dose dependent and that most of the damage will occur in the first year of running at the Large Hadron Collider. Another study involved the assessment of the Energy Flow Method an algorithm which combines the information from the calorimeter system is combined with that from the tracking system in an attmpt to improve the energy resolution for jet measurements. Using the Energy Flow method an improvement of $\\sim30\\%$ is found but this impovement decreases at high energies when the hadronic calorimeter resolution dominates the quality of the jet energy measurements. Finally, we developed a new method to calibrate a longitudinally segnmented calorimeter. This method eliminates problems with the traditional method used for the calorimeters at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We applied this new method in the search for hadrunic decays of the $W$ and $Z$ bosons in a sample of dijet data taken during Tevatron Run IC. A signal of 9873±3950(sys) ±1130 events was found when the new calibration method was used. This corresponds to a cross section $\\sigma(p\\bar{p} \\to W,Z) \\cdot B(W,Z \\to jets) = 35.6 \\pm 14.2 ({\\rm sys}) \\pm 4.1 (\\rm{stat})$ nb.

  11. Geant4 for the atlas electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordas, K.; Parrour, G.; Simion, St.

    2001-04-01

    We have recently employed the Geant4 tool-kit for the simulation of the barrel part of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. The two approaches used for the description of this geometry are presented and compared. Subsequently, we test the new simulation tool against the predictions of Geant3, the previous generation of the Geant simulation. We do so for muons. With the caveat of some differences in the detector geometry implementations in Geant4 and Geant3, we also show some extremely preliminary results for electrons. A comparison between the two geometry models has shown that there are very small differences, which are under study, but in general the tailored geometry approach is proven sound. We also investigated a way to reduce significantly the memory usage of the straight-forward 'static' geometry description. Comparing Geant4 against Geant3, we find that the mean energy depositions for 50 and 100 GeV muons are in agreement between the two simulations, but the two yield significantly different distributions. Preliminary results on electrons are encouraging and we plan to study these particles next, including comparisons with test beam data. (authors)

  12. Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzo, Aldo

    2007-01-01

    Measuring the energy of hadronic jets with high precision is essential at present and future colliders, in particular at ILC. The 4th concept design is built upon calorimetry criteria that result in the DREAM prototype, read-out via two different types of longitudinal fibers, scintillator and quartz respectively, and therefore capable of determining for each shower the corresponding electromagnetic fraction, thus eliminating the strong effect of fluctuations in this fraction on the overall energy resolution. In this respect, 4th is orthogonal to the other three concepts, which rely on particle flow analysis (PFA). The DREAM test-beam results hold promises for excellent performances, coupled with relatively simple construction and moderate costs, making such a solution an interesting alternative to the PFA paradigm. The next foreseen steps are to extend the dual-readout principle to homogeneous calorimeters (with the potential of achieving even better performances) and to tackle another source of, fluctuation in hadronic showers, originating from binding energy losses in nuclear break-up (measuring neutrons of few MeV energy). (author)

  13. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Garvey, J; Mahout, G; Moye, T H; Staley, R J; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Achenbach, R; Hanke, P; Kluge, E E; Meier, K; Meshkov, P; Nix, O; Penno, K; Schmitt, K; Ay, Cc; Bauss, B; Dahlhoff, A; Jakobs, K; Mahboubi, K; Schäfer, U; Trefzger, T M; Eisenhandler, E F; Landon, M; Moyse, E; Thomas, J; Apostoglou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Perera, V J O; Qian, W; Bohm, C; Hellman, S; Hidvégi, A; Silverstein, S; RT 2003 13th IEEE-NPSS Real Time Conference

    2004-01-01

    The architecture of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger system (L1Calo) is presented. Common approaches have been adopted for data distribution, result merging, readout, and slow control across the three different subsystems. A significant amount of common hardware is utilized, yielding substantial savings in cost, spares, and development effort. A custom, high-density backplane has been developed with data paths suitable for both the em/tt cluster processor (CP) and jet/energy-summation processor (JEP) subsystems. Common modules also provide interfaces to VME, CANbus and the LHC Timing, Trigger and Control system (TTC). A common data merger module (CMM) uses FPGAs with multiple configurations for summing electron/photon and tau/hadron cluster multiplicities, jet multiplicities, or total and missing transverse energy. The CMM performs both crate- and system-level merging. A common, FPGA-based readout driver (ROD) is used by all of the subsystems to send input, intermediate and output data to the data acquis...

  14. Hierarchical trigger of the ALICE calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Hans; Novitzky, Norbert; Kral, Jiri; Rak, Jan; Schambach, Joachim; Wang, Ya-Ping; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Daicui

    2010-01-01

    The trigger of the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters is implemented in 2 hierarchically connected layers of electronics. In the lower layer, level-0 algorithms search shower energy above threshold in locally confined Trigger Region Units (TRU). The top layer is implemented as a single, global trigger unit that receives the trigger data from all TRUs as input to the level-1 algorithm. This architecture was first developed for the PHOS high pT photon trigger before it was adopted by EMCal also for the jet trigger. TRU units digitize up to 112 analogue input signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) and concentrate their digital stream in a single FPGA. A charge and time summing algorithm is combined with a peakfinder that suppresses spurious noise and is precise to single LHC bunches. With a peak-to-peak noise level of 150 MeV the linear dynamic range above threshold spans from MIP energies at 215 up to 50 GeV. Local level-0 decisions take less than 600 ns after LHC collisions, upon which all TRUs transfer ...

  15. Important ATLAS Forward Calorimeter Milestone Reached

    CERN Document Server

    Loch, P.

    The ATLAS Forward Calorimeter working group has reached an important milestone in the production of their detectors. The mechanical assembly of the first electromagnetic module (FCal1C) has been completed at the University of Arizona on February 25, 2002, only ten days after the originally scheduled date. The photo shows the University of Arizona FCal group in the clean room, together with the assembled FCal1C module. The module consists of a stack of 18 round copper plates, each about one inch thick. Each plate is about 90 cm in diameter, and has 12260 precision-drilled holes in it, to accommodate the tube/rod electrode assembly. The machining of the plates, which was done at the Science Technology Center (STC) at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, required high precision to allow for easy insertion of the electrode copper tube. The plates have been carefully cleaned at the University of Arizona, to remove any machining residue and metal flakes. This process alone took about eleven weeks. Exactly 122...

  16. Comparison of HfCl4, HfI4, TEMA-Hf, and TDMA-Hf as precursors in early growing stages of HfO2 films deposited by ALD: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez-Valadez, M.; Fierro, C.; Farias-Mancilla, J.R.; Vargas-Ortiz, A.; Flores-Acosta, M.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Enriquez-Carrejo, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hafnium oxide growth on Si(100) by atomic layer deposition was simulated. • The interface structure was considered as silicate and silicide. • The interface was studied employing DFT. • TDMA-Hf precursor show better interface stability. - Abstract: The final structure of HfO 2 films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) after reaction with OH − ions has been analyzed by DFT (density functional theory). The interaction of the precursors: HfCl 4 (hafnium tetrachloride), HfI 4 (hafnium tetraiodide), TEMA-Hf (tetrakis-ethylmethylamino hafnium), and TDMA-Hf (tetrakis-dimethylamino hafnium) with HO–H was studied employing the B3LYP (Becke 3-parameter, Lee–Yang–Parr) hybrid functional and the PBE (Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof) generalized gradient functional. The structural evolution at the Si(100) surface has been analyzed by LDA (local density approximation). The structural parameters: bond length and bond angle, and the vibrational parameters for the optimized structures are also reported. The presence of hafnium silicate at the interface was detected. The infrared spectra and structural parameters obtained in this work agree with previously reported experimental results.

  17. Comparison of HfCl{sub 4}, HfI{sub 4}, TEMA-Hf, and TDMA-Hf as precursors in early growing stages of HfO{sub 2} films deposited by ALD: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez-Valadez, M. [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Son. (Mexico); Fierro, C.; Farias-Mancilla, J.R. [Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. del Charro 450, Cd. Juárez C.P. 32310, Chihuahua (Mexico); Vargas-Ortiz, A. [Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Facultad de Ingeniería Mochis, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 81223 Los Mochis, Sinaloa (Mexico); Flores-Acosta, M. [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Son. (Mexico); Ramírez-Bon, R. [Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, 76001 Querétaro, Qro. (Mexico); Enriquez-Carrejo, J.L. [Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. del Charro 450, Cd. Juárez C.P. 32310, Chihuahua (Mexico); and others

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Hafnium oxide growth on Si(100) by atomic layer deposition was simulated. • The interface structure was considered as silicate and silicide. • The interface was studied employing DFT. • TDMA-Hf precursor show better interface stability. - Abstract: The final structure of HfO{sub 2} films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) after reaction with OH{sup −} ions has been analyzed by DFT (density functional theory). The interaction of the precursors: HfCl{sub 4} (hafnium tetrachloride), HfI{sub 4} (hafnium tetraiodide), TEMA-Hf (tetrakis-ethylmethylamino hafnium), and TDMA-Hf (tetrakis-dimethylamino hafnium) with HO–H was studied employing the B3LYP (Becke 3-parameter, Lee–Yang–Parr) hybrid functional and the PBE (Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof) generalized gradient functional. The structural evolution at the Si(100) surface has been analyzed by LDA (local density approximation). The structural parameters: bond length and bond angle, and the vibrational parameters for the optimized structures are also reported. The presence of hafnium silicate at the interface was detected. The infrared spectra and structural parameters obtained in this work agree with previously reported experimental results.

  18. Self-diffusion of Er and Hf inpure and HfO2-doped polycrystalline Er2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidecker, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Using a tracer technique, self-diffusion of Er and Hf was measured over the approximate temperature interval of 1600 to 1970 0 C in pure and HfO 2 -doped polycryatalline Er 2 O 3 . Up to about 10 m/o HfO 2 dopant level, the Er self-diffusion coefficients followed a relationship based on cation vacancies. Above 10 m/o HfO 2 , deviation from this relationship occurred, apparently due to clustering of cation vacancies and oxygen interstitials around the dopant hafnia ion. The activation energy for the self-diffusion of Er in pure Er 2 O 3 was 82.2 Kcal/mole and increased with the HfO 2 dopant level present. Self-diffusion of Hf was measured in pure Er 2 O 3 having two impurity levels, and a separation of the grain boundary. The volume diffusion of Hf showed both extrinsic and intrinsic behavior with the transition temperature increasing with the impurity level present in Er 2 O 3 . The activation energy for Hf volume diffusion in the intrinsic region was high, i.e. 235 -+ 9.5 Kcal/mole. The grain boundary diffusion was apparently extrinsic over the entire temperature interval Very low Hf self diffusion rates were found in both pure and HfO 2 doped Er 2 O 3 compositions. Despite a clustering effect, the HfO 2 dopant increased the Hf volume diffusion coefficients

  19. High resolution TDPAC measurements on 181Ta in Hf2Fe, Hf2Co and Hf2Rh at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cekic, B.; Koicki, S.; Ivanovic, N.; Manasijevic, M.; Koteski, V.; Marjanovic, D.

    1998-01-01

    The time differential perturbed angular correlation measurements (TDPAC-method ) on 181 Ta ion probe in Hf 2 Co, Hf 2 Fe and Hf 2 Rh intermetallic compounds have been performed at 1170 K, using a fast - slow time spectrometer consisting of two BaF 2 detectors. The results of the measurements show the presence of two independent electric quadrupole interactions, compatible with the crystalline structure of these polycrystalline compounds. (authors)

  20. Calibration of the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter using muons

    CERN Document Server

    van Woerden, M C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the barrel hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is a sampling calorimeter using plastic scintillator as the active material and iron as the absorber. TileCal , together with the electromagnetic calorimeter, provides precise measurements of hadrons, jets, taus and the missing transverse energy. Cosmic rays muons and muon events produced by scraping 450 GeV protons in one collimator of the LHC machine have been used to test the calibration of the calorimeter. The analysis of the cosmic rays data shows: a) the response of the third longitudinal layer of the Barrel differs from those of the first and second Barrel layers by about 3-4%, respectively and b) the differences between the energy scales of each layer obtained in this analysis and the value set at beam tests using electrons are found to range between -3% and +1%. In the case of the scraping beam data, the responses of all the layer pairs were found to be consisten...

  1. The H1 lead/scintillating-fibre calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appuhn, R.D.; Arndt, C.; Barrelet, E.

    1996-08-01

    The backward region of the H1 detector has been upgraded in order to provide improved measurement of the scattered electron in deep inelastic scattering events. The centerpiece of the upgrade is a high-resolution lead/scintillating-fibre calorimeter. The main design goals of the calorimeter are: good coverage of the region close to the beam pipe, high angular resolution and energy resolution of better than 2% for 30 GeV electrons. The calorimeter should be capable of providing coarse hadronic energy measurement and precise time information to suppress out-of-time background events at the first trigger level. It must be compact due to space restrictions. These requirements were fulfilled by constructing two separate calorimeter sections. The inner electromagnetic section is made of 0.5 mm scintillating plastic fibres embedded in a lead matrix. Its lead-to-fibre ratio is 2.3:1 by volume. The outer hadronic section consists of 1.0 mm diameter fibres with a lead-to-fibre ratio of 3.4:1. The mechanical construction of the new calorimeter and its assembly in the H1 detector are described. (orig.)

  2. Research on calorimeter for high-power microwave measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Hu; Ning, Hui; Yang, Wensen; Tian, Yanmin; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Yang, Meng; Yan, Feng; Cui, Xinhong [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710024 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Based on measurement of the volume increment of polar liquid that is a result of heating by absorbed microwave energy, two types of calorimeters with coaxial capacitive probes for measurement of high-power microwave energy are designed in this paper. The first is an “inline” calorimeter, which is placed as an absorbing load at the end of the output waveguide, and the second is an “offline” calorimeter that is placed 20 cm away from the radiation horn of the high-power microwave generator. Ethanol and high density polyethylene are used as the absorbing and housing materials, respectively. Results from both simulations and a “cold test” on a 9.3 GHz klystron show that the “inline” calorimeter has a measurement range of more than 100 J and an energy absorption coefficient of 93%, while the experimental results on a 9.3 GHz relativistic backward-wave oscillator show that the device’s power capacity is approximately 0.9 GW. The same experiments were also carried out for the “offline” calorimeter, and the results indicate that it can be used to eliminate the effects of the shock of the solenoid on the measurement curves and that the device has a higher power capacity of 2.5 GW. The results of the numerical simulations, the “cold tests,” and the experiments show good agreement.

  3. ATLAS Calorimeters: Run-2 performance and Phase-II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS detector was designed and built to study proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies up to 14 TeV and instantaneous luminosities up to 10^{34} cm^{−2} s^{−1}. A liquid argon (LAr)-lead sampling calorimeter is employed as electromagnetic calorimeter and hadronic calorimter, except in the barrel region, where a scintillator-steel sampling calorimeter (TileCal) is used as hadronic calorimter. This presentation will give first an overview of the detector operation and data quality, as well as the achieved performance of the ATLAS calorimetry system. Additionally, the upgrade projects of the ATLAS calorimeter system for the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC) will be presented. For the HL-LHC, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to increase up to L ≃ 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2} s^{−1} and the average pile-up up to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The major R&D item is the upgrade of the electronics for both LAr and Tile calorimeters in order to cope wit...

  4. The H1 lead/scintillating-fibre calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appuhn, R.-D.; Arndt, C.; Barrelet, E.

    1997-01-01

    The backward region of the H1 detector has been upgraded in order to provide improved measurement of the scattered electron in deep inelastic scattering events. The centerpiece of the upgrade is a high-resolution lead/scintillating-fibre calorimeter. The main design goals of the calorimeter are: good coverage of the region close to the beam pipe, high angular resolution and energy resolution of better than 2% for 30 GeV electrons. The calorimeter should be capable of providing coarse hadronic energy measurement and precise time information to suppress out-of-time background events at the first trigger level. It must be compact due to space restrictions. These requirements were fulfilled by constructing two separate calorimeter sections. The inner electromagnetic section is made of 0.5 mm scintillating plastic fibres embedded in a lead matrix. Its lead-to-fibre ratio is 2.3:1 by volume. The outer hadronic section consists of 1.0 mm diameter fibres with a lead-to-fibre ratio of 3.4:1. The mechanical construction of the new calorimeter and its assembly in the H1 detector are described. (orig.)

  5. Research on calorimeter for high-power microwave measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hu; Ning, Hui; Yang, Wensen; Tian, Yanmin; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Yang, Meng; Yan, Feng; Cui, Xinhong

    2015-12-01

    Based on measurement of the volume increment of polar liquid that is a result of heating by absorbed microwave energy, two types of calorimeters with coaxial capacitive probes for measurement of high-power microwave energy are designed in this paper. The first is an "inline" calorimeter, which is placed as an absorbing load at the end of the output waveguide, and the second is an "offline" calorimeter that is placed 20 cm away from the radiation horn of the high-power microwave generator. Ethanol and high density polyethylene are used as the absorbing and housing materials, respectively. Results from both simulations and a "cold test" on a 9.3 GHz klystron show that the "inline" calorimeter has a measurement range of more than 100 J and an energy absorption coefficient of 93%, while the experimental results on a 9.3 GHz relativistic backward-wave oscillator show that the device's power capacity is approximately 0.9 GW. The same experiments were also carried out for the "offline" calorimeter, and the results indicate that it can be used to eliminate the effects of the shock of the solenoid on the measurement curves and that the device has a higher power capacity of 2.5 GW. The results of the numerical simulations, the "cold tests," and the experiments show good agreement.

  6. On the ionization scintillation calorimeter based on KMgF3 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzulutskov, A.F.

    1990-01-01

    The development of the ionization scintillation calorimeter, using KMgF 3 crystals and high efficiency photocathodes, is proposed. Some characteristics of such calorimeter are compared with those of the high pressure gas one. 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. The development of low-temperature calorimeter on the Peltier elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturevich, Tatyana; Tyagunin, Anatoly

    2017-09-01

    The article is devoted to the design of low-temperature calorimeter on the Peltier elements. This calorimeter can be used to study the temperature dependence of the specific heat capacity of different substances.

  8. A lead-scintillating fiber calorimeter to increase L3 hermeticity

    CERN Document Server

    Basti, G

    1997-01-01

    A lead-scintillating fiber calorimeter has been built to fill the gap between endcap and barrel of the L3 BGO electromagnetic calorimeter. We report details of the construction, as well as results from test-beam and simulation.

  9. Conclusions from the engineering subgroup of the SSC liquid argon calorimeter working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bederede, D.; Cooper, W.; Mulholland, G.; Kroon, P.; Guryn, W.; Lobkowicz, F.; Mason, I.; Pohlen, J.; Schindler, R.H.; Scholle, E.A.; Watanabe, Y.; Watt, R.

    1990-01-01

    The SSC Calorimeter Workshop was organized to explore the feasibility of each calorimeter technology for use in a 4π detector at the SSC. The Liquid Argon Calorimeter group further subdivided into four subgroups; Hermeticity, Engineering, Module Details, and Electronics. This is the report of the Engineering Subgroup whose charge was to evaluate the cost, schedule, manpower, safety, and facilities requirements for the construction of a large liquid argon calorimeter for the SSC

  10. CONSTRUCTION OF A DIFFERENTIAL ISOTHERMAL CALORIMETER OF HIGH SENSITIVITY AND LOW COST.

    OpenAIRE

    Trinca, RB; Perles, CE; Volpe, PLO

    2009-01-01

    CONSTRUCTION OF A DIFFERENTIAL ISOTHERMAL CALORIMETER OF HIGH SENSITIVITY AND LOW COST The high cost of sensitivity commercial calorimeters may represent an obstacle for many calorimetric research groups. This work describes (fie construction and calibration of a batch differential heat conduction calorimeter with sample cells volumes of about 400 mu L. The calorimeter was built using two small high sensibility square Peltier thermoelectric sensors and the total cost was estimated to be about...

  11. Energy calibration of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisenkov, A.V.; Aulchenko, V.M.; Bashtovoy, N.S.; Bondar, A.E.; Grebenuk, A.A.; Epifanov, D.A.; Epshteyn, L.B.; Erofeev, A.L.; Kovalenko, O.A.; Kozyrev, A.N.; Kuzmin, A.S.; Mikhailov, K.Yu.; Logashenko, I.B.; Razuvaev, G.P.; Ruban, A.A.; Shebalin, V.E.; Shwartz, B.A.; Talyshev, A.A.; Titov, V.M.; Yudin, Yu.V.

    2017-01-01

    The VEPP-2000 e + e − collider has been operated in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics since 2010. Experiments are carried out with two detectors CMD-3 and SND. The calorimetry at the CMD-3 detector is based on three subsystems, two coaxial barrel calorimeters—Liquid Xenon calorimeter and crystal CsI calorimeter, and end cap calorimeter with BGO crystals. This paper describes the procedures of the energy calibration of the combined barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector.

  12. Magnetic properties of Hf177 and Hf180 in the strong-coupling deformed model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, S.; Stone, N. J.; Bingham, C. R.; Stone, J. R.; Walker, P. M.; Audi, G.; Gaulard, C.; Köster, U.; Nikolov, J.; Nishimura, K.; Ohtsubo, T.; Podolyak, Z.; Risegari, L.; Simpson, G. S.; Veskovic, M.; Walters, W. B.

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports NMR measurements of the magnetic dipole moments of two high-K isomers, the 37/2-, 51.4 m, 2740 keV state in Hf177 and the 8-, 5.5 h, 1142 keV state in Hf180 by the method of on-line nuclear orientation. Also included are results on the angular distributions of γ transitions in the decay of the Hf177 isotope. These yield high precision E2/M1 multipole mixing ratios for transitions in bands built on the 23/2+, 1.1 s, isomer at 1315 keV and on the 9/2+, 0.663 ns, isomer at 321 keV. The new results are discussed in the light of the recently reported finding of systematic dependence of the behavior of the gR parameter upon the quasiproton and quasineutron make up of high-K isomeric states in this region.

  13. Electric Field Gradients at Hf and Fe Sites in Hf2Fe Recalculated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belosevic-Cavor, J.; Cekic, B.; Novakovic, N.; Koteski, V.; Milosevic, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The electric field gradients (EFG) of the Hf 2 Fe intermetallic compound were calculated using the full-potential linearized augmented plain-wave (FP-LAPW) method as embodied in the WIEN 97 code. The obtained values are compared with other ab-initio calculations and on a qualitative basis with the previously reported experimental data obtained from TDPAC. The calculated results, -23.1.10 21 V/m 2 and 2.7.10 21 V/m 2 for Hf 48f and Fe 32e position, respectively, are in excellent agreement with experimental data (23.4.10 21 V/m 2 and 2.7.10 21 V/m 2 ), better than those reported in earlier calculations. The calculated EFG for Hf 16c position (4.2.10 21 V/m 2 ) is stronger than the experimental one (1.1.10 21 V/m 2 ).

  14. Intercalibration of the longitudinal segments of a calorimeter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrow, M.; Aota, S.; Apollinari, G.; Asakawa, T.; Bailey, M.; Barbaro, P. de; Barnes, V.; Benjamin, D.; Blusk, S.; Bodek, A.; Bolla, G.; Budd, H.; Cauz, D.; Demortier, L.; Fukui, Y.; Gotra, Y.; Hahn, S.; Handa, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Ikeda, H.; Introzzi, G.; Iwai, J.; Kim, S.H.; Koengeter, A.; Kowald, W.; Laasanen, A.; Lamoureux, J.; Lindgren, M.; Liu, J.; Lobban, O.; Melese, P.; Minato, H.; Murgia, S.; Nakada, H.; Patrick, J.; Pauletta, G.; Sakumoto, W.; Santi, L.; Seiya, Y.; Solodsky, A.; Spiegel, L.; Thomas, T.; Vilar, R.; Walsh, A.M.; Wigmans, R.

    2002-01-01

    Three different methods of setting the hadronic energy scale of a longitudinally segmented calorimeter system are compared with each other. The merits of these methods have been studied with test beam data from the CDF Plug Upgrade Calorimeter. It turns out that one of the (commonly used) calibration methods introduces a number of undesirable side effects, such as an increased hadronic signal nonlinearity and trigger biases resulting from the fact that the reconstructed energy of hadrons depends on the starting point of their showers. These problems can be avoided when a different calibration method is used. The results of this study are applied to determine the e/h values of the calorimeter and its segments

  15. The small angle tile calorimeter in the DELPHI experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alvsvaag, S J; Barreira, G; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bigi, M; Bonesini, M; Bozzo, M; Camporesi, T; Carling, H; Cassio, V; Castellani, L; Cereseto, R; Chignoli, F; Della Ricca, G; Dharmasiri, D R; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Gamba, D; Giordano, V; Guz, Yu; Guerzoni, M; Gumenyuk, S A; Hedberg, V; Jarlskog, G; Karyukhin, A N; Klovning, A; Konoplyannikov, A K; Kronkvist, I J; Lanceri, L; Leoni, R; Maeland, O A; Maio, A; Mazza, R; Migliore, E; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Negri, P; Nossum, B; Obraztsov, V F; Onofre, A; Paganoni, M; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Petrovykh, L P; Pimenta, M; Poropat, P; Prest, M; Read, A L; Romero, A; Shalanda, N A; Simonetti, L; Skaali, T B; Stugu, B; Terranova, F; Tomé, B; Torassa, E; Trapani, P P; Verardi, M G; Vallazza, E; Vlasov, E; Zaitsev, A

    1999-01-01

    The {\\bf S}mall angle {\\bf TI}le {\\bf C}alorimeter ({\\bf STIC}) provides calorimetric coverage in the very forward region of the DELPHI experiment at the CERN LEP collider. The structure of the calorimeters, built with a so-called ``shashlik'' technique, gives a perfectly hermetic calorimeter and still allows for the insertion of tracking detectors within the sampling structure to measure the direction of the showering particle. A charged-particle veto system, composed of two scintillator layers, makes it possible to trigger on single photon events and provides e-$\\gamma$ separat ion. Results are presented from the extensive studies of these detectors in the CERN testbeams prior to installation and of the detector performance at LEP.

  16. A calorimeter for the electrolytic cell and other open systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, C.; Papucci, F.; Salvetti, G.; Tognoni, E.; Tombari, E.

    1996-01-01

    It is presented a calorimetric method and the construction details of a differential calorimeter use full for studying the reaction in an electrolytic cell and more generally slow chemico-physical processes occurring in the thermodynamically open systems. The method allows measurements of the heat balance of the cell, from which the enthalpy change of the process under investigation can be calculated. the theoretical description of the calorimetric cell and the results of several studies planned to describe the performances of the instrument up to the boiling point of the electrolytic solution are reported. The features of this calorimeter fulfill most of the requirements of 'cold fusion' experiments, where the heat production is the fundamental and controversial aspect. By controlling both the heat and the matter exchanged, the calorimeter can be utilised also to study bio energetic processes, e. g. fermentation, microbial metabolism and biodegradation, and liquid phase chemical reactions, involving gases as reactants and/or products

  17. CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeter Upgrade Studies for Super-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilki, Burak

    2011-01-01

    When the Large Hadron Collider approaches Super-LHC conditions above a luminosity of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 , the scintillator tiles of the CMS Hadron Endcap calorimeters will lose their efficiencies. As a radiation hard solution, the scintillator tiles are planned to be replaced by quartz plates. In order to improve the efficiency of the photodetection, various methods were investigated including radiation hard wavelength shifters, p-terphenyl or 4% gallium doped zinc oxide. We constructed a 20 layer calorimeter prototype with pTp coated plates of size 20 cm x 20 cm, and tested the hadronic and the electromagnetic capabilities at the CERN H2 beam-line. The beam tests revealed a substantial light collection increase with pTp or ZnO:Ga deposited quartz plates. Here we report on the current R and D for a viable endcap calorimeter solution for CMS with beam tests and radiation damage studies.

  18. R&D proposal the prism plastic calorimeter:PPC

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Marchand, P; Nédélec, P; Salin, P; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: First Goal_Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC) towers with a new "liquid crystal" type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. Second Goal_ Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector,and list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum amount of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronics being outside the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. The R&D program we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  19. OPAL Forward Calorimeter (half cylinder with lead scintillator)

    CERN Multimedia

    1 half cylinder piece is available for loan. The OPAL forward Detector Calorimeter was made in 4 half cylindrical pieces. Two full cylinders were placed round the LEP beam pipe about 3m downstream of the interaction point. The detector was used primarily to measure the luminosity of LEP (rate of interactions) and also to trigger on 2-photon events. In addition it formed an essential part of the detector coverage which OPAL needed to carry out searches for new particles such as the Higgs boson. The detector is made of scintillators sandwiched between lead sheets. The light from the scintillators passes via bars of wavelength shifter and light guides on its way to be measured by photomultipliers. There is a layer of gas filled tube chambers within the calorimeter. These provide a measure of the position of the particles interacting in the calorimeter.

  20. Beam Tests on the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Demonstrator Module

    CERN Document Server

    Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Phase II upgrade aims to increase the accelerator luminosity by a factor of 5-10. Due to the expected higher radiation levels and the aging of the current electronics, a new read-out system of the ATLAS experiment hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) is needed. A prototype of the electronics – the Demonstrator - has been tested exposing a module of the calorimeter to particles at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator of CERN. Data were collected with beams of muons, electrons and hadrons and muons, at various incident energies and impact angles. The measurements aim to check the calibration and to determine the performance the detector exploiting the features of the interactions of the muons, electrons and hadrons with matter. We present the current status and results where the new Demonstrator new electronics were situated in calorimeter modules and exposed to beams of muons, electrons and hadrons with different energies and impact angles.