WorldWideScience

Sample records for hexythiazox pesticide tolerances

  1. 75 FR 12691 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... hexythiazox. The reason for these changes are explained in Unit IV.D. III. Aggregate Risk Assessment and... anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for which there is reliable information.'' This includes..., and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has...

  2. 75 FR 40741 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ..., ornamental landscape plantings, ornamental plants, trees and vines in nurseries, residential fruit trees, nut... or on stone fruit. Gowan Company requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and...: Revising the tolerance ``fruit, stone, group 12, except plums'' to read `` fruit, stone, group 12;...

  3. 76 FR 77703 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... listing is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to provide a guide for readers regarding entities... Project Number 4 (IR-4), 500 College Road East, Suite 201 W, Princeton, NJ 08540. The petitions requested... increasing the existing tolerance for corn, field, stover from 2.5 ppm to 6 ppm, and by removing...

  4. 78 FR 9322 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... for non-cancer and cancer assessments are estimated to be 4.3 ppb for surface water. Since surface... population group receiving the greatest exposure. Based on the explanation in Unit III.C.3., regarding...

  5. 78 FR 42693 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers determine whether this document... by the Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4), 500 College Road East, Suite 201 W, Princeton... in the U.S. The Codex MRL would not cover residues seen in the U.S. field trial data;...

  6. 76 FR 18895 - Hexythiazox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... plants, trees and vines in nurseries, residential fruit trees, nut trees, caneberries, and orchids. Both... plants. The exposure and risk assessment included risks to adult handlers from inhalation exposures. The... Mexican MRLs for beans and there is no Codex, Canadian or Mexican MRL for sweet corn commodities....

  7. 78 FR 53682 - Tetrachlorvinphos; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Tetrachlorvinphos; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... by converting them to permanent tolerances for the combined residues of the insecticide...-OPP-2011-0360, is available at http://www.regulations.gov or at the Office of Pesticide...

  8. 76 FR 27268 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... glyphosate in or on corn, field, forage. Monsanto Company requested this tolerance under the Federal Food... tolerance for residues of the herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, in or on corn, field...

  9. 78 FR 8407 - Endosulfan; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Endosulfan; Pesticide Tolerance AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Order reestablishing tolerance. SUMMARY: EPA has granted an objection to the timing of the revocation of the tolerance for endosulfan on tea. The objection was filed by the Chamber of ] Commerce...

  10. 78 FR 60707 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... herbicide glyphosate in or on canola, seed at 20 parts per million (ppm) by changing the tolerance expression from the combined residues of glyphosate only, to the combined residues of glyphosate and...

  11. 77 FR 59558 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers determine whether this... filing of a pesticide petition (PP 2E8020) by IR-4, 500 College Road East, Suite 201W., Princeton, NJ... provided the appropriate residue field trial data to support a tolerance on this group. EPA...

  12. 78 FR 75262 - Flonicamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers determine whether this document... of a pesticide petition (PP 2E8137) by IR-4, 500 College Rd. East, Suite 201W., Princeton, NJ 08540.... For alfalfa forage, the tolerance was calculated using 5x the mean of the field trial data instead...

  13. 75 FR 53586 - Bifenazate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... code 32532). This listing is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to provide a guide for readers... (PP 9E7642) by Interregional Research Project 4 (IR-4), 500 College Road East, Suite 201W, Princeton... using the Guidance for Setting Pesticide Tolerances Based on Field Trial Data SOP to determine...

  14. 77 FR 60311 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... chlorantraniliprole does not pose a cancer risk to humans. Therefore, a dietary exposure assessment for the purpose of... tolerances in cattle, meat; goat, meat; horse, meat; and sheep, meat to 0.1 ppm. The reason for these changes... from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary...

  15. 75 FR 24421 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... entities may include, but are not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... Health Risk Assessment to support tolerances in/on Asparagus, Barley, Beans, Beets, Brassica leafy greens...

  16. 40 CFR 180.3 - Tolerances for related pesticide chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application or from two or more pesticide chemicals for which tolerances are established is the highest of the... numerical tolerance in this class, unless a higher tolerance level is specifically provided for the combined... present in or on a raw agricultural commodity and there are available methods that permit...

  17. 77 FR 25903 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ...-1079; FRL-9344-9] Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction AGENCY: Environmental... thiamethoxam on multiple commodities. This document is being issued to correct various typographical omissions... established tolerances for the insecticide thiamethoxam in or on: Caneberry subgroup 13-07A at 0.35 parts...

  18. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    conventional cultivation to organic pasture. Soil multiresidual pesticide analysis revealed up to 9 molecules including atrazine up to 2.4 ng g -1 dry soil. Exposure history of endogeic Aporrectodea caliginosa and Allolobophora chlorotica modified their responses to pesticides. In the field, activities...

  19. 77 FR 18710 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... member of the neonicotinoid class of pesticides which also includes thiamethoxam, clothianidin... preliminary evidence suggests that clothianidin operates by direct competitive inhibition, while thiamethoxam...., testicular tubular atrophy with thiamethoxam; mineralized particles in thyroid colloid with...

  20. 76 FR 61587 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ...), announcing the filing of pesticide petitions (PPs 0F7714 and 0F7715) by Bayer CropScience, P.O. Box 12014, 2... maximum residues. Results from ruminant feeding studies and poultry metabolism studies were used to...

  1. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from ...

  2. 78 FR 21267 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Tolerance on Imported Tea'' in docket ID number EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0433. Table--Summary of Toxicological Doses... which the United States is a party. EPA may establish a tolerance that is different from a Codex MRL...

  3. 77 FR 3617 - Etoxazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... cell tumors (testis) and pancreas benign islet cell adenomas were observed (in females) at the high... Development tolerance calculation procedures, the EPA revised the tolerance levels for corn, field,...

  4. NAFTA Guidance on Data Requirements for Pesticide Import Tolerances: Questions & Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    These Qs&As provide details of implementation related to a guidance document describing the data requirements for establishing pesticide import tolerances in Canada and the United States: NAFTA Guidance on Data Requirements for Pesticide Import Tolerances.

  5. 75 FR 17571 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... pendimethalin and its metabolite, expressed as pendimethalin equivalents, in or on alfalfa forage. BASF... not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532...

  6. 77 FR 49732 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... reduced responsiveness to sensory stimuli were observed and disappeared in all animals by day 3 to 4. The... posed by human exposure to the pesticide. For hazards that have a threshold below which there is no... (PAD) or a reference dose (RfD)--and a safe margin of exposure (MOE). For non-threshold risks, the...

  7. 76 FR 34877 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    .../parental animals. In the prenatal developmental toxicity study in rats, maternal toxicity was manifested as... parental systemic and off spring toxicity NOAEL was 1.25 mg/kg/day. ] 3. Conclusion. EPA has determined... Pesticide Programs. Therefore, 40 CFR chapter I is amended as follows: PART 180-- 0 1. The authority...

  8. 77 FR 63745 - Buprofezin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... rather to provide a guide for readers regarding entities likely to be affected by this action. Other...), 500 College Road East, Suite 201 W, Princeton, NJ 08540, and PP 1F7905 by Nichino America, Inc., 4550... levels from field trial data, average residue levels from USDA Pesticide Data Program (PDP) data,...

  9. 78 FR 69562 - Fenpropathrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ..., but rather provides a guide to help readers determine whether this document applies to them... College Rd. East, Suite 201W., Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition requested that 40 CFR 180.466 be amended... residues, distributions of field trial values, and distributions of Pesticide Data Program (PDP)...

  10. 77 FR 40806 - Methoxyfenozide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... intended to be exhaustive, but rather to provide a guide for readers regarding entities likely to be... pesticide petition (PP 1E7842) by IR-4, 500 College Road East, Suite 201W, Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition... citrus oils. However, because residues from the citrus field trials are similar enough to warrant a...

  11. 75 FR 26662 - Fluazinam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ...). This listing is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to provide a guide for readers regarding... filing of a pesticide petition (PP 8E7506) by IR-4, 500 College Road East, Suite 201 W, Princeton, NJ... commodities except apple (for which the average field trial residue value was used) and assumed 100 PCT...

  12. 78 FR 29041 - Sulfoxaflor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes... member of a new class of insecticides, the sulfoximines, and is a highly efficacious activator of the... and mice indicate that sulfoxaflor is an activator of the mammalian nAChR as well, but to a...

  13. 77 FR 73940 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other... sensitizer under the conditions of the guinea pig maximization test. In the mammalian toxicology database..., PAD, LOC for Study and toxicological effects safety factors risk assessment Acute Dietary (Females,...

  14. 77 FR 26450 - Metconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... with metconazole follows. A. Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated the available toxicity data and... of Departure/Levels of Concern Once a pesticide's toxicological profile is determined, EPA identifies........... increased spleen wt (F) and hepatic vacuolation (M). Dermal short-term and Quantification of dermal risk...

  15. 75 FR 19272 - Thifensulfuron methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other... the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also considered available... thyroid/parathyroid weights in female dogs. There were no gross or histopathological changes reported...

  16. 78 FR 44444 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... document applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS... crops: Apples: 45%; asparagus: 30%; barley: 2.5%; cantaloupes: 15%; carrots: 2.5%; celery: 2.5%; corn: 2...

  17. 76 FR 23882 - Metiram; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... entities may include, but are not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... estimated the PCT for existing uses as follows: Apple, 65%; asparagus, 30%; barley, 2%; beans, dried, 2.5...

  18. 78 FR 24094 - Azoxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... follows: Almonds, 25%; apricots, 10%; artichokes, 25%; asparagus, 2.5%; green beans, 10%; blackberries, 5...

  19. 77 FR 66723 - Fluazinam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... pertained to unrelated petitions in the Federal Register notice. For PP 1E7959, the commenter stated that no residue should be allowed for fluazinam and that they do not support manufacture or use of this product... Development (OECD) tolerance calculation procedures. ] V. Conclusion Therefore, tolerances are established for...

  20. 77 FR 25904 - Acequinocyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ..., but rather to provide a guide for readers regarding entities likely to be affected by this action..., Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition requested that 40 CFR 180.599 be amended by establishing tolerances for.... C. Revisions to Petitioned-For Tolerances Based on analysis of the residue field trial...

  1. 76 FR 5704 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). This listing is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to provide a guide...., Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition requested that 40 CFR 180.498 be amended by establishing tolerances for... the tolerance levels based on analysis of the residue field trial data using the Agency's...

  2. 78 FR 70864 - Metaldehyde; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...) requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is... Nutrition Examination Survey, ``What We Eat in America'' (NHANES/ WWEIA) from 2003 through 2008. As...

  3. 78 FR 44440 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... 4 (IR-4) requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES.... Department of Agriculture (USDA) 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, What We Eat...

  4. 78 FR 46274 - Pyroxasulfone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ...., Inc. requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This.... Department of Agriculture's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, What We Eat in America,...

  5. 78 FR 18519 - Abamectin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... strawberries. Syngenta Crop Protection Inc. requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and... anticonvulsant activity did not parallel the rank order for affinity at the 3H ivermectin site. The authors...

  6. 76 FR 76304 - Saflufenacil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... Banana; Coffee, green bean; and Mango. BASF Corporation requested these tolerances under the Federal Food...: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code... herbicide saflufenacil, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on Banana, whole fruit;...

  7. 77 FR 41081 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112... (forage, fodder, straw, and hay): Alfalfa, forage at 5 ppm; alfalfa, hay at 20 ppm; alfalfa, seed at 3 ppm... levels for some commodities and is not establishing tolerances on alfalfa forage, hay, and seed and...

  8. 78 FR 53039 - Pyraclostrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ..., seed at 0.45 ppm; tea oil plant, seed at 0.45 ppm; and ternonia, seed at 0.45 ppm. That document... States is a party. EPA may establish a tolerance that is different from a Codex MRL; however, FFDCA..., seed; sweet rocket, seed; tallowwood, seed; tea oil plant, seed; vernonia, seed; berry, group 13; grape...

  9. 78 FR 46279 - Forchlorfenuron; Temporary Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... grape and kiwi analysis directly into this dietary assessment. For chronic exposures for non-cancer... were used for apple juice, dried apples, dried pears, prune juice, cranberry juice, and grape juice. A... recommended plum tolerance. iii. Cancer. Based on the data summarized in Unit III.A., EPA has concluded that...

  10. 78 FR 76987 - Mandipropamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... factors, with the exception of chemical-specific processing factors for grape wine and sherry. iii. Cancer... tolerances in or on grape at 1.4 ppm; onion, dry bulb at 0.05 ppm; onion, green at 4 ppm; okra at 1.0 ppm.... Cancer (Oral, dermal, inhalation).. Classified as not likely to be carcinogenic to humans. FQPA SF = Food...

  11. 77 FR 26462 - Dimethomorph; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... the proposed tolerance level and commodity definition for vegetable, bulb, group 3 and removed the...; brassica, leafy greens, subgroup 5B; vegetable, leafy except brassica, group 4; onion, green, subgroup 3... dimethomorph for acute exposures are estimated to be 81.1 parts per billion (ppb) for surface water and 0.264...

  12. 77 FR 14291 - Penthiopyrad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...://www.regulations.gov in the document ``Penthiopyrad. Human Health Risk Assessment for the Section 3... alterations (e.g., hunched posture, unsteady gait, reduced body temperature, and increased landing foot splay...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of penthiopyrad in or on...

  13. 75 FR 22245 - Imidacloprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... listing is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to provide a guide for readers regarding entities..., occupational/residential, and residue chemistry databases support the establishment of permanent tolerances of... validity, completeness, and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to...

  14. 75 FR 22252 - Cyromazine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... cyromazine based on a chronic dog study. Decrease in body weight and food consumption are also common effects of cyromazine as observed in chronic dog, rat, mouse, and rabbit studies. No dermal or systemic... used to modify the tolerance values. iii. Cancer. Based on the absence of evidence of...

  15. 78 FR 3328 - Fluroxypyr; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... trade agreements to which the United States is a party. EPA may establish a tolerance that is different..., and the Comptroller General of the United States prior to publication of the rule in the Federal... observed following exposure to dose levels that resulted in maternal death; however, abortions were...

  16. 78 FR 55635 - Prometryn; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... trade agreements to which the United States is a party. EPA may establish a tolerance that is different... consumption and an increased incidence of resorptions, abortions, and post-implantation loss; these effects... incidence of resorptions, abortions, and post- implantation loss leading to decreased number of viable...

  17. 75 FR 69353 - Isoxaben; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    .... Finally, EPA has revised the requested tolerance expression in accordance with current policy. The reasons... generations) per F0 and F1 parental generations were conducted, plus two additional matings (F2 c and F3 a... durations, i.e., from 1-6 months, largely due to use patterns and the fact that residues are removed by...

  18. 78 FR 60709 - Methoxyfenozide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... observed, and parental effects were limited to increased liver weight and microscopic periportal....3., regarding residential use patterns, chronic residential exposure to residues of methoxyfenozide... from the current tolerance of 1.5 ppm for fruit, pome, group 11, in order to harmonize with the Codex...

  19. 78 FR 78731 - Indoxacarb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... (NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers determine... Rd. East, Suite 201 W., Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition requested that 40 CFR 180.564 be amended by... food commodities were based on field trial data, and in some crops tolerance-level residues were...

  20. 78 FR 40017 - Ethalfluralin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... Classification System (NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers... petition (PP 2E8007) by IR-4, 500 College Rd. East, Suite 201 W., Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition... tolerances were based on adequate residue field trial data. The results of these residue data indicate...

  1. 77 FR 42433 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... intended to be exhaustive, but rather to provide a guide for readers regarding entities likely to be... Research Project Number 4 (IR-4), IR-4 Headquarters, 500 College Road East, Suite 201 W, Princeton, NJ... food and water assumed tolerance-level residues for some commodities, average field trial residues...

  2. 77 FR 38199 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... rather to provide a guide for readers regarding entities likely to be affected by this action. Other..., Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition requested that 40 CFR 180.434 be amended by establishing tolerances for.... Additional refinements incorporating average field trial and/or percent crop treated information would...

  3. 78 FR 18504 - Emamectin Benzoate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers determine whether this... (PP 1E7904) by IR-4, 500 College Rd. East, Suite 201 W, Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition requested... based on field trial data. Tolerance-level residues were used for tree nuts (including pistachios)...

  4. 75 FR 14086 - Clopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... rather to provide a guide for readers regarding entities likely to be affected by this action. Other...) by IR-4, 500 College Road East, Suite 201W, Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition requested that 40 CFR... the residue field trial data supporting the revised tolerance resulted in residues that were...

  5. 76 FR 4542 - Mefenoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... rather to provide a guide for readers regarding entities likely to be affected by this action. Other...., Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition requested that 40 CFR 180.546 be amended by establishing tolerances for... athletic fields. EPA assessed residential exposure using the following assumptions: Exposure to adults...

  6. 78 FR 68741 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers determine whether this document... Road East, Suite 201W., Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition requested that 40 CFR 180.474 be amended by... tolerance levels residues for some commodities and used field trial and USDA PDP data for others. EPA...

  7. 76 FR 70890 - Fenamidone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... definitions for which tolerances are being established. The reason for these changes is explained in Unit IV.C... immunosuppression at the highest dose tested, the existing risk assessment points of departure are lower and are... the commodity definitions that were proposed in the Notice of Filing to (1) be consistent with...

  8. 77 FR 64911 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... fluoxastrobin and its Z-isomer in or on poultry, liver; hog, fat; hog, meat byproducts; and rice, grain. Arysta... ppm and established additional tolerances for hog, fat; hog, meat byproducts; and poultry, liver. The... processing factors for dried potato (granules/flakes), potato chips, potato flour, and tomato puree were...

  9. 77 FR 66721 - Metconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... tolerance shows that there will be no increase in the maximum reasonably balanced dietary burden for beef cattle, swine, or poultry but a small increase for diary cattle. There is no increase for beef cattle, swine, or poultry because sweet corn stover is only a significant feed item in dairy cattle. Although...

  10. 77 FR 72232 - Dodine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... electronic version of EPA's tolerance regulations at 40 CFR part 180 through the Government Printing Office's... dose (PAD) or a reference dose (RfD)--and a safe margin of exposure (MOE). For non-threshold risks, the...-Occupational Human Health Risk Assessments Point of departure and Exposure/scenario uncertainty/safety RfD,...

  11. 76 FR 22045 - Fluopicolide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ...., the Agency has used the NAFTA MRL calculator to determine an appropriate tolerance level. There are no... considering residue/processing data and, as applicable, recent agency guidance (``NAFTA Guidance Document for.... EPA and Health Canada, Pest Management Regulatory Agency, 2005. The Agency has considered the...

  12. 75 FR 69005 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ...-HQ-OPP-2008-0781. C. Exposure Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating... Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). As to residue levels in food, EPA used tolerance... any residual concerns after establishing toxicity endpoints and traditional uncertainty/safety factor...

  13. 76 FR 44815 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...]phenyl]-1-(3-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-1H- pyrazole-5-carboxamide, in or on bushberry, subgroup 13-07B at 2.5...-pyrazole-5- carboxamide. 3-bromo-N-[4-chloro-2-methyl-6- [(methylamino)carbonyl]phenyl]-1-(3-chloro-2-pyridinyl)-1H-pyrazole-5- carboxamide. Tolerances are established in or on the following...

  14. 76 FR 16301 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...); hog, fat at 0.15 ppm; hog, kidney at 0.06 ppm; hog, liver at 0.06 ppm; hog, muscle at 0.02 ppm; low....4 ppm; horse, muscle from 0.07 ppm to 0.1 ppm; milk, fat from 0.80 ppm to 1.0 ppm; poultry, fat from..., liver; and hog, muscle should be increased and established as permanent tolerances for residues of...

  15. Pesticide tolerant and phosphorus solubilizing Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 isolated from pesticides treated Achillea clavennae rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasankar, R; Manju Gayathry, G; Sathiavelu, A; Ramalingam, C; Saravanan, V S

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to identify an effective phosphate solubilizing bacteria from pesticide polluted field soil. Based on the formation of solubilization halo on Pikovskaya's agar, six isolates were selected and screened for pesticide tolerance and phosphate (P) solubilization ability through liquid assay. The results showed that only one strain (SGRAJ09) obtained from Achillea clavennae was found to tolerate maximum level of the pesticides tested and it was phylogenetically identified as Pseudomonas sp. It possessed a wide range of pesticide tolerance, ranging from 117 μg mL(-1) for alphamethrin to 2,600 μg mL(-1) for endosulfan. The available P concentrations increased with the maximum and double the maximum dose of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, respectively. On subjected to FT-IR and HPLC analysis, the presence of organic acids functional group in the culture broth and the production of gluconic acid as dominant acid aiding the P solubilization were identified. On comparison with control broth, monocrotophos and imidacloprid added culture broth showed quantitatively high organic acids production. In addition to gluconic acid production, citric and acetic acids were also observed in the pesticide amended broth. Furthermore, the Pseudomonas sp. strain SGRAJ09 possessed all the plant growth promoting traits tested. In presence of monocrotophos and imidacloprid, its plant growth promoting activities were lower than that of the pesticides unamended treatment.

  16. Pesticide food safety standards as companions to tolerances and maximum residue limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carl K Winter; Elizabeth A Jara

    2015-01-01

    Alowable levels for pesticide residues in foods, known as tolerances in the US and as maximum residue limits (MRLs) in much of the world, are widely yet inappropriately perceived as levels of safety concern. A novel approach to develop scientiifcaly defensible levels of safety concern is presented and an example to determine acute and chronic pesticide food safety standard (PFSS) levels for the fungicide captan on strawberries is provided. Using this approach, the chronic PFSS level for captan on strawberries was determined to be 2000 mg kg–1 and the acute PFSS level was determined to be 250 mg kg–1. Both levels are far above the existing tolerance and MRLs that commonly range from 3 to 20 mg kg–1, and provide evidence that captan residues detected at levels greater than the tolerance or MRLs are not of acute or chronic health concern even though they represent violative residues. The beneifts of developing the PFSS approach to serve as a companion to existing tolerances/MRLs include a greater understanding concerning the health signiifcance, if any, from exposure to violative pesticide residues. In addition, the PFSS approach can be universaly applied to al potential pesticide residues on al food commodities, can be modiifed by speciifc jurisdictions to take into account differences in food consumption practices, and can help prioritize food residue monitoring by identifying the pesticide/commodity combinations of the greatest potential food safety concern and guiding development of ifeld level analytical methods to detect pesticide residues on prioritized pesticide/commodity combinations.

  17. Using phylogenetic information and chemical properties to predict species tolerances to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénard, Guillaume; Carsten von der Ohe, Peter; Carlisle Walker, Steven; Lek, Sovan; Legendre, Pierre

    2014-08-22

    Direct estimation of species' tolerance to pesticides and other toxic organic substances is a combinatorial problem, because of the large number of species-substance pairs. We propose a statistical modelling approach to predict tolerances associated with untested species-substance pairs, by using models fitted to tested pairs. This approach is based on the phylogeny of species and physico-chemical descriptors of pesticides, with both kinds of information combined in a bilinear model. This bilinear modelling approach predicts tolerance in untested species-compound pairs based on the facts that closely related species often respond similarly to toxic compounds and that chemically similar compounds often have similar toxic effects. The three tolerance models (median lethal concentration after 96 h) used up to 25 aquatic animal species and up to nine pesticides (organochlorines, organophosphates and carbamates). Phylogeny was estimated using DNA sequences, while the pesticides were described by their mode of toxic action and their octanol-water partition coefficients. The models explained 77-84% of the among-species variation in tolerance (log10 LC50). In cross-validation, 84-87% of the predicted tolerances for individual species were within a factor of 10 of the observed values. The approach can also be used to model other species response to multivariate stress factors.

  18. 75 FR 16017 - Cloquintocet-mexyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... reproduction study. NOAELs for maternal/parental toxicity were either less than or equal to the NOAELs for... Pesticide Programs. 0 Therefore, 40 CFR chapter I is amended as follows: PART 180-- 0 1. The authority citation for part 180 continues to read as follows: Authority: 21 U.S.C. 321(q), 346a and 371. 0 2. Section...

  19. 75 FR 68214 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... incorrect tolerance values for the established tolerances for corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn....02 ppm); corn, field, stover (0.15 ppm); corn, sweet, stover (0.25 ppm); and cotton gin byproducts (0... for corn, field, grain; corn, field, stover; corn, sweet, stover; and cotton gin......

  20. 78 FR 13257 - Pyraflufen-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... trade agreements to which the United States is a party. EPA may establish a tolerance that is different... and food consumption, gastrointestinal (GI) observations, and abortions. Dermal short-term (1 to 30..., and abortions. Cancer (Oral, dermal, inhalation). Classification: ``Likely to be Carcinogenic to...

  1. 76 FR 55272 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... byproducts (0.08 ppm); sheep, meat (0.60 ppm); and sheep, meat byproducts (0.08 ppm). As supported by...; goat, meat byproducts; hog, meat; hog, meat byproducts; horse, meat; horse, meat byproducts; sheep, meat; and sheep, meat byproducts to read as follows: Sec. 180.639 Flubendiamide; tolerances...

  2. 76 FR 59906 - Fluazifop-P-butyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... secondary residues of fluazifop-P-butyl in livestock commodities from consumption of fluazifop-P-butyl... Performance Liquid Chromatography/Ultra-Violet Spectrometry (HPLC/UV)) is available to enforce the tolerance... cover residues of the herbicide fluazifop-P-butyl, including its metabolites and degradates, but...

  3. 76 FR 49318 - Import Tolerances; Order Denying ABC's Petition to Revoke Import Tolerances for Various Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... these countries on crops intended for export to the United States, the conditions under which the... Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), 21 U.S.C. 346a, for the following pesticides: cadusafos (banana); cyproconazole..., dried cones); diquat (banana; green coffee beans); dimethoate (blueberry); fenamiphos (banana; fruit...

  4. Impact of Pesticide Resistance on Toxicity and Tolerance of Hostplant Phytochemicals in Amyelois Transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Vikram A; Siegel, Joel P; Demkovich, Mark R; Zehr, Luke N; Berenbaum, May R

    2016-01-01

    For some polyphagous insects, adaptation to phytochemically novel plants can enhance resistance to certain pesticides, but whether pesticide resistance expands tolerance to phytochemicals has not been examined. Amyelois transitella Walker (navel orangeworm) is an important polyphagous pest of nut and fruit tree crops in California. Bifenthrin resistance, partially attributable to enhanced cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated detoxification, has been reported in an almond-infesting population exposed to intense pesticide selection. We compared the toxicity of bifenthrin and three phytochemicals-chlorogenic acid, and the furanocoumarins xanthotoxin and bergapten-to three strains of A. transitella: pyrethroid-resistant R347 (maintained in the laboratory for ∼10 generations), fig-derived FIG (in the laboratory for ∼25 generations), and CPQ-a laboratory strain derived from almonds ∼40 years ago). Whereas both Ficus carica (fig) and Prunus dulcis (almond) contain chlorogenic acid, furanocoumarins occur only in figs. Both R347 and FIG exhibited 2-fold greater resistance to the three phytochemicals compared with CPQ; surprisingly, bifenthrin resistance was highest in FIG. Piperonyl butoxide, a P450 synergist, increased toxicity of all three phytochemicals only in CPQ, implicating alternate tolerance mechanisms in R347 and FIG. To test the ability of the strains to utilize novel hostplants directly, we compared survival on diets containing seeds of Wisteria sinensis and Prosopis pallida, two non-host Fabaceae species; survival of FIG was highest and survival of R347 was lowest. Our results suggest that, while P450-mediated pesticide resistance enhances tolerance of certain phytochemicals in this species, it is only one of multiple biochemical adaptations associated with acquiring novel hostplants.

  5. High resolution genetic mapping uncovers chitin synthase-1 as the target-site of the structurally diverse mite growth inhibitors clofentezine, hexythiazox and etoxazole in Tetranychus urticae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demaeght, P.; Osborne, E.J.; Odman-Naresh, J.; Grbić, M.; Nauen, R.; Merzendorfer, H.; Clark, R.M.; Van Leeuwen, T.

    2014-01-01

    The acaricides clofentezine, hexythiazox and etoxazole are commonly referred to as ‘mite growth inhibitors’, and clofentezine and hexythiazox have been used successfully for the integrated control of plant mite pests for decades. Although they are still important today, their mode of action has rema

  6. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different kinds of pesticides include insecticides, rodenticides, and herbicides, to name a few. Top of Page How ... in Forensic Toxicology 2017 Forensic Course Abstracts Faculty Bios 2015 ACMT Seminars In Forensic Toxicology 2015 Forensic ...

  7. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... outdoors on rainy or windy days. DO NOT water your garden after using a pesticide. Check the manufacturer's instructions ... home: DO NOT place food scraps in the garden for birds, raccoons, ... puddles of water as soon as possible, change birdbath water at ...

  8. Pesticide-Tolerant Bacteria Isolated from Agricultural Canals in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of South Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra P. Aguirre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine and oxamyl are commonly-used pesticides in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of South Texas. Problem statement: Pesticides may become environmental contaminants due to overuse, runoff and other mechanisms and may impact non-target organisms and ecosystems. Pesticides may be degraded by indigenous microorganisms or by abiotic means. In this study, waterborne bacteria from agricultural canals were examined to assess potential atrazine and oxamyl degradation in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Approach: Water samples were collected March 2007 and June 2009 and inoculated onto agar media containing either atrazine or oxamyl to estimate densities of atrazine-tolerant and oxamyl-tolerant bacteria. Bacterial isolates were characterized morphologically by visually observing colony shape and size and by gram-staining. Commercial test strips and microplates were used to differentiate biochemical and nutritional capabilities of bacteria and an inhibition disk assay was employed to determine pesticide sensitivity. Results: Average density of atrazine-tolerant bacteria was 2,233 cfu mL-1 in March 2007 and 12, 845 cfu mL-1 in June 2009. Average density of oxamyl-tolerant bacteria was 330 cfu mL-1 in 2007 and 1,158 cfu mL-1 in 2009.66.7% of bacteria were Gram-negative. Most isolates were resistant to atrazine or oxamyl regardless of which pesticide medium they were originally grown. Only 2 of 30 tested isolates displayed intermediate and sensitive inhibition phenotypes, respectively, to oxamyl. Biochemical profiles were generally 70% or greater in similarity but still displayed diverse phenotypes. About half of isolates exhibited a unique biochemical phenotypic profile. Microbial communities in the canals could metabolize a variety of organic compounds and demonstrated high carbon substrate utilization and activity. Conclusion: Overall, indigenous pesticide-tolerant microorganisms were present in lowto- moderate densities, displayed diverse

  9. Integrating both interaction pathways between warming and pesticide exposure on upper thermal tolerance in high- and low-latitude populations of an aquatic insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op de Beeck, Lin; Verheyen, Julie; Stoks, Robby

    2017-05-01

    Global warming and chemical pollution are key anthropogenic stressors with the potential to interact. While warming can change the impact of pollutants and pollutants can change the sensitivity to warming, both interaction pathways have never been integrated in a single experiment. Therefore, we tested the effects of warming and multiple pesticide pulses (allowing accumulation) of chlorpyrifos on upper thermal tolerance (CTmax) and associated physiological traits related to aerobic/anaerobic energy production in the damselfly Ischnura elegans. To also assess the role of latitude-specific thermal adaptation in shaping the impact of warming and pesticide exposure on thermal tolerance, we exposed larvae from replicated high- and low-latitude populations to the pesticide in a common garden rearing experiment at 20 and 24 °C, the mean summer water temperatures at high and low latitudes. As expected, exposure to chlorpyrifos resulted in a lower CTmax. Yet, this pesticide effect on CTmax was lower at 24 °C compared to 20 °C because of a lower accumulation of chlorpyrifos in the medium at 24 °C. The effects on CTmax could partly be explained by reduction of the aerobic scope. Given that these effects did not differ between latitudes, gradual thermal evolution is not expected to counteract the negative effect of the pesticide on thermal tolerance. By for the first time integrating both interaction pathways we were not only able to provide support for both of them, but more importantly demonstrate that they can directly affect each other. Indeed, the warming-induced reduction in pesticide impact generated a lower pesticide-induced climate change sensitivity (in terms of decreased upper thermal tolerance). Our results indicate that, assuming no increase in pesticide input, global warming might reduce the negative effect of multiple pulse exposures to pesticides on sensitivity to elevated temperatures.

  10. Molecular characterization of conjugative plasmids in pesticide tolerant and multi-resistant bacterial isolates from contaminated alluvial soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Reshma; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Malik, Abdul

    2011-06-01

    A total of 35 bacteria from contaminated soil (cultivated fields) near pesticide industry from Chinhat, Lucknow, (India) were isolated and tested for their tolerance/resistance to pesticides, heavy metals and antibiotics. Bacterial isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. Gas Chromatography analysis of the soil samples revealed the presence of lindane at a concentration of 547 ng g(-1) and α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan of 422 ng g(-1) and 421 ng g(-1) respectively. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry analysis of the test sample was done and Cr, Zn, Ni, Fe, Cu and Cd were detected at concentrations of 36.2, 42.5, 43.2, 241, 13.3 and 11.20 mg kg(-1) respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of all the isolates were determined for pesticides and heavy metals. All the multi-resistant/tolerant bacterial isolates were also tested for the presence of incompatibility (Inc) group IncP, IncN, IncW, IncQ plasmids and for rolling circle plasmids of the pMV158-family by PCR. Total community DNA was extracted from pesticide contaminated soil. PCR amplification of the bacterial isolates and soil DNA revealed the presence of IncP-specific sequences (trfA2 and oriT) which was confirmed by dot blot hybridization with RP4-derived DIG-labelled probes. Plasmids belonging to IncN, IncW and IncQ group were neither detected in the bacterial isolates nor in total soil DNA. The presence of conjugative or mobilizable IncP plasmids in the isolates indicate that these bacteria have gene transfer capacity with implications for dissemination of heavy metal and antibiotic resistance genes. We propose that IncP plasmids are mainly responsible for the spread of multi-resistant bacteria in the contaminated soils.

  11. High resolution genetic mapping uncovers chitin synthase-1 as the target-site of the structurally diverse mite growth inhibitors clofentezine, hexythiazox and etoxazole in Tetranychus urticae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaeght, Peter; Osborne, Edward J.; Odman-Naresh, Jothini; Grbić, Miodrag; Nauen, Ralf; Merzendorfer, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The acaricides clofentezine, hexythiazox and etoxazole are commonly referred to as ‘mite growth inhibitors’, and clofentezine and hexythiazox have been used successfully for the integrated control of plant mite pests for decades. Although they are still important today, their mode of action has remained elusive. Recently, a mutation in chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) was linked to etoxazole resistance. In this study, we identified and investigated a T. urticae strain (HexR) harboring recessive, monogenic resistance to each of hexythiazox, clofentezine, and etoxazole. To elucidate if there is a common genetic basis for the observed cross-resistance, we adapted a previously developed bulk segregant analysis method to map with high resolution a single, shared resistance locus for all three compounds. This finding indicates that the underlying molecular basis for resistance to all three compounds is identical. This locus is centered on the CHS1 gene, and as supported by additional genetic and biochemical studies, a non-synonymous variant (I1017F) in CHS1 associates with resistance to each of the tested acaricides in HexR. Our findings thus demonstrate a shared molecular mode of action for the chemically diverse mite growth inhibitors clofentezine, hexythiazox and etoxazole as inhibitors of an essential, non-catalytic activity of CHS1. Given the previously documented cross-resistance between clofentezine, hexythiazox and the benzyolphenylurea compounds flufenoxuron and cycloxuron, CHS1 should be also considered as a potential target-site of insecticidal BPUs. PMID:24859419

  12. Evaluation of hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides and their tolerant microorganisms from an agricultural soil to define its bioremediation feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-García, Alejandro; Vega-Loyo, Libia; Aguilar-López, Ricardo; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), nutrients and tolerant microorganisms in an agricultural soil from a locality in Tepeaca, Puebla, Mexico, were determined to define its feasibility for bioremediation. The OCPs detected were heptachlor, aldrin, trans-chlordane, endosulfán I, endosulfán II, 1,1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-trichloroethane (4,4'-DDT), 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (4,4'-DDE) and endrin aldehyde, with values of 0.69-30.81 ng g(-1). The concentration of hydrocarbons in the soil of Middle Hydrocarbons Fraction (MHF), C10 to C28, was 4608-27,748 mg kg(-1) and 1117-19,610 mg kg(-1) for Heavy Hydrocarbons Fraction (HHF), C28 to C35, due to an oil spill from the rupture of a pipeline. The soil was deficient in nitrogen (0.03-0.07%) and phosphorus (0 ppm), and therefore it was advisable to fertilize to bio-stimulate the native microorganisms of soil. In the soil samples, hydrocarbonoclast fungi 3.72 × 10(2) to 44.6 × 10(2) CFU g(-1) d.s. and hydrocarbonoclast bacteria (0.17 × 10(5) to 8.60 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) d.s.) were detected, with a tolerance of 30,000 mg kg(-1) of diesel. Moreover, pesticideclast fungi (5.13 × 10(2) to 42.2 × 10(2) CFU g(-1) d.s.) and pesticideclast bacteria (0.15 × 10(5) to 9.68 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) d.s.) were determined with tolerance to 20 mg kg(-1) of OCPs. Fungi and bacteria tolerant to both pollutants were also quantified. Therefore, native microorganisms had potential to be stimulated to degrade hydrocarbons and pesticides or both pollutants. The concentration of pollutants and the microbial activity analyzed indicated that bioremediation of the soil contaminated with hydrocarbons and pesticides using bio-stimulation of native microorganisms was feasible.

  13. Enhanced Tolerance of House Mosquito to Different Insecticides due to Agricultural and Household Pesticides in Sewage System of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Vatandoost, L Ezeddinloo, A H Mahvi, M R Abai, EB Kia, I Mobedi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Different insecticides are being used for household and agricultural pest control in the capital city of Iran, Tehran. An investigation was carried out in order to evaluate the susceptibility level of laboratory and field collected mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatusin to different insecticides. Field strain was collected from sewage system of the city. Adult females were subjected to the diagnostic dose of different insecticides as recommended by WHO. Results showed that laboratory strains only exhibit resistant to DDT 4%, and susceptible to other insecticides. By using WHO criteria, field strain is resistant to DDT 4%, bendiocarb 0.1%, and tolerant to malathion 5%, permethrin 0.75%, deltamethrin 0.05%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.05% and etofenprox 5%. The field strain is still susceptible to cyfluthrin 0.15%.This findings indicate that routine use of pesticides in household and agricultural pest control may cause resistant in the wastewater mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus.

  14. Impact of pesticide resistance on toxicity and tolerance of hostplant phytochemicals in Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For some polyphagous insects adaptation to phytochemically novel plants confers enhanced resistance to insecticides, but whether insecticide resistance enhances tolerance to novel phytochemicals has not been assessed. We used Amyelois transitella Walker (navel orangeworm), an economically important ...

  15. 77 FR 75859 - Pyraflufen-Ethyl; Extension of Time-Limited Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... byproducts; horse, meat byproducts; sheep, meat byproducts; and milk. Nichino America, Inc. requested the..., meat byproducts; horse, meat byproducts; sheep, meat byproducts; and milk until December 31, 2016. That... was sufficient to establish tolerances for cattle, goat, horse, and sheep meat byproducts and...

  16. 78 FR 24682 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... revoked on the dates specified in the table. Expiration/ Commodity Parts per revocation million date Fruit... tolerances for dinotefuran on pome fruit, group 11 and stone fruit, group 12, in connection with... Federal Register of November 28, 2012. DATES: This final rule amendment is effective April 26,...

  17. 76 FR 33184 - Tetrachlorvinphos; Proposed Extension of Time-Limited Interim Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    .../on beef cattle, hog and poultry commodities, EPA determined that the exception that permitted the use of TCVP as an additive to beef cattle, dairy cattle, horse and swine feed at certain rates was no... studies to modify 5 existing livestock tolerances (fat of cattle, hogs and poultry as well as eggs and...

  18. 75 FR 17564 - Chlorantraniliprole; Extension of Time-Limited Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... chlorantraniliprole in or on cowpea, forage and hay at 0.20 ppm; field pea, vines and hay at 0.20 ppm; cereal grain..., except soybean, crop group 7A, forage and hay (includes cowpea, forage and hay; field pea, vines and hay.... Therefore, the previously established time-limited tolerances for cowpea, forage and hay; field pea,...

  19. High resolution genetic mapping uncovers chitin synthase-1 as the target-site of the structurally diverse mite growth inhibitors clofentezine, hexythiazox and etoxazole in Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaeght, Peter; Osborne, Edward J; Odman-Naresh, Jothini; Grbić, Miodrag; Nauen, Ralf; Merzendorfer, Hans; Clark, Richard M; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The acaricides clofentezine, hexythiazox and etoxazole are commonly referred to as 'mite growth inhibitors', and clofentezine and hexythiazox have been used successfully for the integrated control of plant mite pests for decades. Although they are still important today, their mode of action has remained elusive. Recently, a mutation in chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) was linked to etoxazole resistance. In this study, we identified and investigated a Tetranychus urticae strain (HexR) harboring recessive, monogenic resistance to each of hexythiazox, clofentezine, and etoxazole. To elucidate if there is a common genetic basis for the observed cross-resistance, we adapted a previously developed bulk segregant analysis method to map with high resolution a single, shared resistance locus for all three compounds. This finding indicates that the underlying molecular basis for resistance to all three compounds is identical. This locus is centered on the CHS1 gene, and as supported by additional genetic and biochemical studies, a non-synonymous variant (I1017F) in CHS1 associates with resistance to each of the tested acaricides in HexR. Our findings thus demonstrate a shared molecular mode of action for the chemically diverse mite growth inhibitors clofentezine, hexythiazox and etoxazole as inhibitors of an essential, non-catalytic activity of CHS1. Given the previously documented cross-resistance between clofentezine, hexythiazox and the benzyolphenylurea (BPU) compounds flufenoxuron and cycloxuron, CHS1 should be also considered as a potential target-site of insecticidal BPUs.

  20. 40 CFR 180.467 - Carbon disulfide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances..., insecticide, and fungicide carbon disulfide, from the application of sodium tetrathiocarbonate, in or on...

  1. 40 CFR 180.198 - Trichlorfon; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... the insecticide trichlorfon (dimethyl (2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl) phosphonate) in or on...

  2. 40 CFR 180.239 - Phosphamidon; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... residues of the insecticide phosphamidon (2-chloro-2-diethylcarbamoyl-1-methylvinyl dimethyl...

  3. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated by the d...... these alternatives by returning to the notion of tolerance as the endurance of pain, linking this notion to exemplars and theories relevant to the politics of multiculturalism, religious freedom, and free speech....

  4. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated by the d...... these alternatives by returning to the notion of tolerance as the endurance of pain, linking this notion to exemplars and theories relevant to the politics of multiculturalism, religious freedom, and free speech....

  5. Control of Pesticides 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2000 analytical chemical authority control: 1) herbicides containing aclonifen, clopyralid, dicamba, quinoclamine, bromoxynil, ioxynil, simazine, and terbuthylazine. 2) Fungicides containing fenpropidin......, fluazinam, and kresoxim-methyl, and among insecticides containing fenazaquin. Thus, all the eighteen analysed samples of these pesticides complied with the accepted tolerances with respect to content of active ingredients set by the Danish regulation of pesticides. The only product containing buprofezin...

  6. Control of Pesticides 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    The analytical chemical authority control on pesticide products on the Danish market performed in 2001 is reported. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the products...... comply with the label-claimed content. The tolerance of deviation from the label-claimed content of active ingredient is set by the Danish pesticide regulation. Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2001 analytical chemical authority control: 1...

  7. 40 CFR 180.157 - Methyl 3-[(dimethoxyphos-phinyl) oxy]butenoate, alpha and beta isomers; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN.... (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the insecticide methyl 3- butenoate,...

  8. Control of Pesticides 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    The analytical chemical authority control on pesticide products on the Danish market performed in 2001 is reported. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the products...... comply with the label-claimed content. The tolerance of deviation from the label-claimed content of active ingredient is set by the Danish pesticide regulation. Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2001 analytical chemical authority control: 1....... Satisfactory results were found among herbicides containing pendimethalin and methabenzthiazuron, among fungicides containing azaconazole, tolylfluanid, propamocarb and cyprodinil, and among insecticides containing amitraz, phosalone and diflubenzuron. Thus, the twelve analysed samples of these pesticides...

  9. Respiratory Protection against Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Burak; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Although the respiratory (breathing) system tolerates exposure to a limited degree, some chemicals can impair or destroy portions of it. For many pesticides, the respiratory system is the quickest and most direct route into the circulatory system, allowing rapid transport throughout the body. Thus, it is important to follow the pesticide label and follow directions for control of exposure, especially when respiratory protection is specified. A respirator is a safety device covering at least t...

  10. 40 CFR 180.299 - Dicrotophos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... the insecticide dicrotophos, dimethyl phosphate of 3-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-cis-crotonamide, in or...

  11. 40 CFR 180.461 - Cadusafos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... nematicide/insecticide cadusafos, O-ethyl S,S-di-sec-butyl phosphorodithioate, in or on the following raw..., 1994, for the nematicide/insecticid cadusafos....

  12. 40 CFR 180.1156 - Cinnamaldehyde; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... commodities, when used as a fungicide, insecticide, and algaecide in accordance with good...

  13. Control of pesticides 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2003 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing clodinafop- propargyl, clomazone, fluroxypyr and glyphosate. 2) Fungicides containing bitertanol, fuberidazole, fenhexamid and pencycuron...... containing methoprene complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the 44 examined samples contained OPEO, but 5 of the samples contained NPEO. Three of these five samples were produced before...

  14. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Pesticides Share Facebook Twitter Google+ ... of antimicrobial pesticides (Part 158W) Antimicrobials play an important role in public health and safety. While providing ...

  15. 40 CFR 180.513 - Chlorfenapyr; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chlorfenapyr; tolerances for residues. 180.513 Section 180.513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.513 Chlorfenapyr; tolerances for residues. ...

  16. 40 CFR 180.427 - Tau-Fluvalinate; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... of the insecticide tau-fluvalinate, cyano-(3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl N- -D-valinate, in or on...

  17. 40 CFR 180.647 - d-Phenothrin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... established for residues of the insecticide d-phenothrin in or on all food/feed crops following...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1041 - Nosema locustae; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... insecticide Nosema locustae is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or on all...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1050 - Nitrogen; exemption from the requirements of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... insecticide nitrogen is exempted from the requirements of a tolerance when used after harvest in modified atmospheres for stored product insect control on all food commodities....

  20. Pyrethroids and DDT tolerance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Sengerema District, an area of intensive pesticide usage in north-western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbert, Anitha; Lyantagaye, Sylvester Leonard; Pradel, Gabriele; Ngwa, Che Julius; Nkwengulila, Gamba

    2017-04-01

    To assess the susceptibility status of malaria vectors to pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), characterise the mechanisms underlying resistance and evaluate the role of agro-chemical use in resistance selection among malaria vectors in Sengerema agro-ecosystem zone, Tanzania. Mosquito larvae were collected from farms and reared to obtain adults. The susceptibility status of An. gambiae s.l. was assessed using WHO bioassay tests to permethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, cyfluthrin and DDT. Resistant specimens were screened for knock-down resistance gene (kdr), followed by sequencing both Western and Eastern African variants. A gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) was used to determine pesticide residues in soil and sediments from mosquitoes' breeding habitats. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was resistant to all the insecticides tested. The population of Anopheles gambiae s.l was composed of Anopheles arabiensis by 91%. The East African kdr (L1014S) allele was found in 13 of 305 specimens that survived insecticide exposure, with an allele frequency from 0.9% to 50%. DDTs residues were found in soils at a concentration up to 9.90 ng/g (dry weight). The observed high resistance levels of An. gambiae s.l., the detection of kdr mutations and pesticide residues in mosquito breeding habitats demonstrate vector resistance mediated by pesticide usage. An integrated intervention through collaboration of agricultural, livestock and vector control units is vital. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Induced tolerance from a sublethal insecticide leads to cross-tolerance to other insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Jessica; Jones, Devin K; Relyea, Rick A

    2014-04-01

    As global pesticide use increases, the ability to rapidly respond to pesticides by increasing tolerance has important implications for the persistence of nontarget organisms. A recent study of larval amphibians discovered that increased tolerance can be induced by an early exposure to low concentrations of a pesticide. Since natural systems are often exposed to a variety of pesticides that vary in mode of action, we need to know whether the induction of increased tolerance to one pesticide confers increased tolerance to other pesticides. Using larval wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus), we investigated whether induction of increased tolerance to the insecticide carbaryl (AChE-inhibitor) can induce increased tolerance to other insecticides that have the same mode of action (chlorpyrifos, malathion) or a different mode of action (Na(+)channel-interfering insecticides; permethrin, cypermethrin). We found that embryonic exposure to sublethal concentrations of carbaryl induced higher tolerance to carbaryl and increased cross-tolerance to malathion and cypermethrin but not to chlorpyrifos or permethrin. In one case, the embryonic exposure to carbaryl induced tolerance in a nonlinear pattern (hormesis). These results demonstrate that that the newly discovered phenomenon of induced tolerance also provides induced cross-tolerance that is not restricted to pesticides with the same mode of action.

  2. Multi-residue analysis of 30 currently used pesticides in fine airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5) by microwave-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscollà, Clara; Yusà, Vicent; Beser, Ma Isabel; Pastor, Agustin

    2009-12-18

    A confirmatory and rapid procedure has been developed for the determination of 30 currently used pesticides (CUP) in fine airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5) at trace level. The proposed method includes extraction of PM 2.5-bound pesticides by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) followed by a direct injection into LC-MS/MS. The main parameters affecting the MAE extraction (time, temperature and volume of solvent) were optimised using statistical design of experiments (DoE). The matrix effect was also evaluated. Recoveries ranged from 72 to 109% and the limit of quantification (LoQ) was 32.5 pg m(-3) for chlorpyrifos, 13.5 pg m(-3) for fenhexamid, imazalil and prochloraz, and 6.5 pg m(-3) for the rest of pesticides, when air volumes of 760 m(3) were collected. The method was applied to 54 samples collected from three stations of the atmospheric monitoring network of the Regional Valencia Government (Spain) during April-July 2009. Nineteen out of 30 pesticides investigated were found in at least one sample: omethoate, carbendazim, acetamiprid, thiabendazole, malathion, flusilazole, metalaxyl, azoxystrobin, iprovalicarb, myclobutanil, tebuconazole, triflumizole, cyprodinil, tebufenpyrad, buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, hexythiazox, flufenoxuron and fenazaquin. The measured concentrations ranged from 6.5 to 1208 pg m(-3). To our knowledge, 11 of the pesticides detected have been reported for the first time in ambient air.

  3. Ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the extraction of pesticides from bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Asensio-Ramos, María; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2009-10-23

    This paper describes a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure using room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection capable of quantifying trace amounts of eight pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox and fenazaquin) in bananas. Fruit samples were first homogenized and extracted (1g) with acetonitrile and after suitable evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in 10 mL of water, a DLLME procedure using 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) as extraction solvent was used. Experimental conditions affecting the DLLME procedure (sample pH, sodium chloride percentage, ionic liquid amount and volume of disperser solvent) were optimized by means of an experimental design. In order to determine the presence of a matrix effect, calibration curves for standards and fortified banana extracts (matrix matched calibration) were studied. Mean recovery values of the extraction of the pesticides from banana samples were in the range of 69-97% (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 53-63%) with a relative standard deviation lower than 8.7% in all cases. Limits of detection achieved (0.320-4.66 microg/kg) were below the harmonized maximum residue limits established by the European Union (EU). The proposed method, was also applied to the analysis of this group of pesticides in nine banana samples taken from the local markets of the Canary Islands (Spain). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of RTILs as extraction solvents for DLLME of pesticides from samples different than water.

  4. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  5. National Pesticide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any pest." Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides Repellents Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Local Contacts Find local pesticide & pest control information Pesticide Information and Resources: Frequently Asked Questions: ...

  6. Herbicide-tolerant Transgenic Soybean over 15 Years of Cultivation: Pesticide Use, Weed Resistance, and Some Economic Issues. The Case of the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Bonny

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM herbicide-tolerant (HT crops have been largely adopted where they have been authorized. Nevertheless, they are fiercely criticized by some, notably because of the herbicide use associated with them. However, how much herbicide is applied to GMHT crops compared to conventional crops, and what impacts does the use of herbicide have? The paper first presents some factors explaining the predominance of GMHT crops. Then, trends in the use of herbicide for GM crops are studied in the case of the most widespread HT crop: HT soybean in the USA. The trends in the toxicity of herbicides applied to HT soybean are also addressed, as well as the appearance of glyphosate-resistant (GR weeds. Lastly, the paper examines the spread of GR weeds and its impact. How are farmers, weed scientists, and the industry coping with this development, and what are the prospects of glyphosate-tolerant crops given weed resistance? In conclusion, some issues of sustainability and innovation governance raised by genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops are discussed.

  7. Application of liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to the determination of a new generation of pesticides in processed fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, Anna; Bolzoni, Luciana; Bandini, Mirella

    2004-05-21

    This paper describes a method for the sensitive and selective determination of 24 new pesticide residues (azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, fenazaquin, indoxacarb, fenothiocarb, furathiocarb, benfuracarb, imidachloprid, dimethomorph, fenpyroximate, hexythiazox, tebufenpyrad, tebufenozide, difeconazole, fenbuconazole, flusilazole, paclobutrazol, tebuconazole, tetraconazole, bromuconazole, etofenprox, fenhexamid, pyridaben) in apple puree, concentrated lemon juice and tomato puree. A miniaturized extraction-partition procedure requiring small amounts of non-chlorinated solvents was used. The extracts are analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) without any further clean-up step. The pesticides are separated on a reversed-phase polar column using a gradient elution. Fifty-five simultaneous MS-MS transitions of precursor ions were monitored (two or three for each pesticide). Studies at fortification levels of 0.001-0.020 and 0.010-0.200 mg/kg gave mean recoveries ranging from 76 to 106% for all compounds, except for imidacloprid, with (R.S.D.s) < or = 15%. The excellent sensitivity and selectivity of LC-MS-MS method allowed quantitation and identification at low levels also in difficult matrices with a run time of 20 min. With the developed method almost 100 samples of commercial fruit products (nectars, juices, purees) were analyzed. None of samples contained residues higher than 0.010 mg/kg.

  8. Obsolete pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  9. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Processing of Pressed Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Ţibulcă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of pesticide residues in food and environment determined UN institutions to track their presence and establish rules of tolerance in foodstuffs of animal origin. Pesticide use leads to their presence as residue in foods. The research objectives were to establish the level of organo-chlorine pesticides in raw milk and their evolution during the process of obtaining pressed cheese.

  10. 21 CFR 170.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 170.19... chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use of... exemption granted or a tolerance prescribed under section 408 of the Act, the processed food will not...

  11. 21 CFR 570.19 - Pesticide chemicals in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pesticide chemicals in processed foods. 570.19... chemicals in processed foods. When pesticide chemical residues occur in processed foods due to the use of... exemption granted or a tolerance prescribed under section 408 of the act, the processed food will not...

  12. 40 CFR 180.620 - Etofenprox; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... the insecticide etofenprox in or on the following raw agricultural commodity: Commodity Parts per... residues of etofenprox (2- -2-methylpropyl-3-phenoxy benzyl ether) in connection with use of the...

  13. 76 FR 69692 - Withdrawal of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... 23, 2010 (75 FR 57942) (FRL-8845-4), which announced the submission of a pesticide petition (PP... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of lactoperoxidase (CAS No. 9003-99-0) in or...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1159 - Pelargonic acid; exemption from the requirement of tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., vats, fillers, evaporators, pasteurizers and aseptic equipment in restaurants, food service operations, dairies, breweries, wineries, beverage and food processing plants. ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1196 - Peroxyacetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... handling establishments including, but not limited to dairies, dairy barns, restaurants, food service operations, breweries, wineries, and beverage and food processing plants. ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1225 - Decanoic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., fillers, evaporators, pasteurizers and aseptic equipment in restaurants, food service operations, dairies, breweries, wineries, beverage and food processing plants. ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD...

  17. 40 CFR 176.9 - Publication of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Publication of a tolerance. 176.9... TIME-LIMITED TOLERANCES FOR EMERGENCY EXEMPTIONS § 176.9 Publication of a tolerance. (a) If EPA issues... tolerance for residues resulting from use of the pesticide under the exemption will be safe, then EPA...

  18. Pesticide extraction from table grapes and plums using ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2009-12-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been used as extraction solvents in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the determination of eight multi-class pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox, and fenazaquin) in table grapes and plums. The developed method involves the combination of DLLME and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Samples were first homogenized and extracted with acetonitrile. After evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in water containing sodium chloride, a quick DLLME procedure that used the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) and methanol was developed. The RTIL dissolved in a very small volume of acetonitrile was directed injected in the chromatographic system. The comparison between the calibration curves obtained from standards and from spiked sample extracts (matrix-matched calibration) showed the existence of a strong matrix effect for most of the analyzed pesticides. A recovery study was also developed with five consecutive extractions of the two types of fruits spiked at three concentration levels. Mean recovery values were in the range of 72-100% for table grapes and 66-105% for plum samples (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 64-75% and 58-66%, respectively). Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range 0.651-5.44 microg/kg for table grapes and 0.902-6.33 microg/kg for plums, representing LODs below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union in these fruits. The potential of the method was demonstrated by analyzing 12 commercial fruit samples (six of each type).

  19. Pesticide Exposure and Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Burak; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2017-01-01

    Exposureto pesticides can trigger or exacerbate asthma, induce bronchospasm, orincrease bronchial hyperreactivity. Pesticides that inhibit cholinesterase canprovoke bronchospasm through increased cholinergic activity. At high doses,certain pesticides can act as airway irritants. Low levels that areinsufficient to cause acute poisoning can trigger severe reactions in thosewithout a previous diagnosis of asthma. Pesticides linked to asthma, wheezing,and hyperreactive airway disease include: 1. ...

  20. 77 FR 75039 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ..., Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective December 19, 2012. Objections and... States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, What We Eat in... Nutrition Examination Survey, What We Eat in America, (NHANES/WWEIA). This dietary survey was conducted...

  1. 75 FR 33190 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... mutagenicity in Chinese Hamster V79 cells, albeit at cytotoxic dose levels. However, trifloxystrobin is... to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (59 FR...

  2. 78 FR 32146 - Triforine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... document to refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor..., herbaceous plants, and woody shrubs and vines. There are no new residential uses with this petition; however... primary use pattern of triforine to control diseases on roses and other ornamental plants, children...

  3. 77 FR 73945 - Fenpyroximate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112... leaves at 15 ppm; and vegetable, fruiting, group 8-10 at 0.2 ppm; corn, field, grain at 0.02 ppm; corn, field, forage/ silage at 2.0 ppm; corn, field, stover at 7.0 ppm; corn, field, aspirated fractions at...

  4. 75 FR 17573 - Nicosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... residues of nicosulfuron on corn, forage. DATES: This regulation is effective April 7, 2010. Objections and... production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311...) for all existing (corn) and new uses (meat and milk commodities) of nicosulfuron. iii. Cancer....

  5. 75 FR 29908 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... conazoles (e.g., altered cholesterol levels, stress responses, altered DNA methylation). At this time, there..., including barley (0.35 ppm), wheat (0.07 ppm), meat byproducts of cattle, goats, horses and sheep (0.2 ppm), meat byproducts of hogs (0.05 ppm), liver of poultry (0.02 ppm), meat of cattle, goats, horses,...

  6. 78 FR 46267 - Trifluralin; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the urine. Also, protein electrophoresis of urine samples... females. FQPA SF = 1x........ ] Cancer (Oral, dermal, inhalation) Classification: Possible Human... for carrot, orange, orange juice, pepper, potato, and tomato. iii. Cancer. EPA determines whether...

  7. 78 FR 14461 - Fenpyrazamine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... fruit, crop subgroup 13-07F at 3.5 ppm; grape, juice at 7.0 ppm; grape, raisins at 4.5 ppm; low growing... accordance with the Agency's 2005 Guidelines for Cancer Risk Assessment, EPA classified fenpyrazamine as... FQPA SF = 1x........ day. [based on decreased body weight and food consumption]. Cancer (Oral, dermal...

  8. 78 FR 25396 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ....2 ppm to fruit, pome, group 11- 10 at 0.2 ppm; cranberry, grape, juneberry, kiwifruit, lingonberry... and existing commodities. iii. Cancer. Based on the data summarized in Unit III.A., EPA has concluded that glyphosate does not pose a cancer risk to humans. Therefore, a dietary exposure assessment for the...

  9. 77 FR 13502 - Pyriofenone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ...; and 100% of all grapes are treated with pyriofenone. iii. Cancer. Based on the data summarized in Unit... metabolites and degradates, in or on grape and grape, raisin. ISK BioSciences Corporation requested these...-trimethoxy- 6-methylphenyl) methanone, in or on grape at 0.2 parts per million (ppm). That notice referenced...

  10. 77 FR 27130 - Ametoctradin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... (ppm); brassica, leafy greens, subgroup 5B at 50 ppm; grape at 5.0 ppm; grape, raisin at 8 ppm; hop... concern was identified in the available data. iii. Cancer. Based on the data summarized in Unit III.A., EPA has concluded that ametoctradin does not pose a cancer risk to humans. Therefore, a dietary...

  11. 77 FR 59106 - Glufosinate Ammonium; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... identified. Cancer (Oral, dermal, inhalation) Classification: ``Not likely to be Carcinogenic to Humans... apple juice, pear juice, grape juice, and raisins, for which factors derived from the processing studies... crops that are currently registered for glufosinate ammonium if available. iii. Cancer. Based on the...

  12. 76 FR 61592 - Isopyrazam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... safety standards-setting organization in trade agreements to which the United States is a party. EPA may... neurotoxicity study in rats (decreased rearing and locomotor activity) and the developmental effect (bilateral...

  13. 77 FR 38204 - Cyflufenamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... treatment with cyflufenamid, seen only in the rat, included increased follicular cell hypertrophy (as well... oxidation is an important source of energy for ATP production in the mitochondria. Cyflufenamid-induced... and quantity of spermatozoa were observed in dogs. Leydig cell hypertrophy was observed in rats and...

  14. 78 FR 76561 - Endothall; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... than doses resulting in kidney lesions. Proliferative lesions of the gastric epithelium were observed... inhalation toxicity studies in the rat including rales, labored respiration, pale lungs (gross necropsy), increased absolute and relative lung weights, subacute inflammation, alveolar proteinosis, and...

  15. 78 FR 13264 - Acetochlor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... erythrocytes. Species-specific target organs include the nasal olfactory epithelium in rats and the lungs in... hyperplasia and polypoid adenomata in nasal epithelium of adult F1 offspring at study termination in the third... epithelium of adult F1 offspring at study termination in the third study). There was no evidence...

  16. 78 FR 37468 - Cyproconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... oral feeding studies included increased macrophages in the lung, increased white blood cell counts and...), hypertrophy of the thyroid follicular epithelium in both males and females, and increased incidences of... epithelium in both males and females. Cancer (oral, dermal, EPA has classified cyproconazole as ``not...

  17. 77 FR 10962 - Flazasulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... or on fruit, citrus, group 10 at 0.01 parts per million (ppm); grapes at 0.01 ppm; and sugarcane at 0... 26.9 parts per billion (ppb) for surface water and 102 ppb for ground water. EDWCs of flazasulfuron and its degradates for chronic exposures for non-cancer assessments are estimated to be 4.67 ppb for...

  18. 75 FR 70143 - Acequinocyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... bean, edible podded; hop, dried cones; okra and vegetable, fruiting, group 8. The Interregional... degradates in or on vegetable, fruiting, group 8 at 0.7 parts per million (ppm); okra at 0.7 ppm; bean... assessments are estimated to be 2.45 parts per billion (ppb) acequinocyl for surface water and 0.0036 ppb...

  19. 76 FR 11344 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ..., as well as, the absence of genotoxic effects, the Agency classified difenoconazole as a Group C... the absence of genotoxic effects, the Agency classified difenoconazole as a Group C, possible human... are estimated to be 15.8 parts per billion (ppb) for surface water and 0.0128 ppb for ground water...

  20. 78 FR 49927 - Imazapic; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... mutagenicity studies, no evidence of mutagenicity was observed. Imazapic is classified as a ``Group E... chronic exposures for non-cancer assessments are estimated to be 1.46 ppb for surface water and 13.73 ppb... dietary exposure model. For chronic dietary risk assessment, the water concentration of value 13.73 ppb...

  1. 75 FR 40745 - Cyazofamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... Uses on Brassica (Cole) Leafy Vegetables Crop Group 5, Turnip Greens, Spinach, and Hops,'' pp 34-38 in... (EDWCs) of CTCA for acute exposures are estimated to be 136 parts per billion (ppb) for surface water and 2.18 ppb for ground water. Chronic exposures for non-cancer assessments are estimated to be 133 ppb...

  2. 75 FR 17579 - Aminopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... seen in fetuses at 500 mg/kg/day. The high dose group was removed from the study because of the... for aminopyralid) are estimated to be 1.937 parts per billion (ppb) for surface water and 0.63 ppb for... exposure model. For chronic dietary risk assessment, the water concentration of value 1.937 ppb was used to...

  3. 78 FR 48068 - Topramezone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk assessment, topramezone was classified as ``not likely to be... ocular opacities. In fact, HPPD inhibitors (e.g. nitisinone) are used as an effective therapeutic agent... experience indicates that a therapeutic dose (1 mg/kg/day dose) has an excellent safety record in infants...

  4. 75 FR 24428 - Spirodiclofen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    .... Dietary exposure from hops is the result of beer consumption. DEEM-FCID assumes that 100% of the residue in hops are transferred to beer during the brewing process (no residue remain in/on the spent hops...

  5. 78 FR 3333 - Spiromesifen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ..., bloated stomachs, and pale liver), and decreased spleen weights. Cancer (Oral, dermal, inhalation... (free and conjugated). 2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency used screening level water... Provisional Cranberry Model and Screening Concentration in Ground Water (SCI-GROW) models the...

  6. 77 FR 58045 - Clopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... limiting ridge of the stomach, and decreased body weight were observed following chronic exposure. There... increased epithelial hyperplasia and thickening of the limiting ridge of the stomach in both sexes... food commodities. 2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency used screening level...

  7. 77 FR 3621 - Rimsulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... dilation and cysts in the glandular stomach, and degeneration of the testicular artery and tunica albuginea... all food commodities. 2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency used screening level water... Reservoir Screening Tool (FIRST) and Screening Concentration in Ground Water (SCI-GROW) models,...

  8. 76 FR 71459 - Prohexadione Calcium; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... doses up to the limit dose in mice, fore-stomach hyperplasia was seen only at very high doses in rats... exposure from drinking water. The Agency used screening level water exposure models in the dietary exposure.../Exposure Analysis Modeling System (PRZM/EXAMS) and Screening Concentration in Ground Water (SCI-...

  9. 75 FR 60321 - Spinosad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... lymphoid organs, liver, kidney, stomach, female reproductive tract, and epididymis, and less severely in... area. 2. Dietary exposure from drinking water. The Agency used screening level water exposure models in... at http://www.epa.gov/oppefed1/models/water/index.htm . Based on the First Index Reservoir...

  10. 78 FR 66651 - Imazapyr; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... (NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers determine... and no additional studies are needed. EPA also determined that the toxicity data identified no hazard... requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd., Ft....

  11. 77 FR 73937 - Spirodiclofen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... (NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers determine..., pome fruit, stone fruit, and tree nut crops and reviewed the residue chemistry data submitted in support of these uses. Apple and grape processing studies were required as conditional to...

  12. 78 FR 40020 - Fenbuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... cancer studies and other relevant data. If quantitative cancer risk assessment is appropriate, cancer... Confidential Business Information (CBI)) for inclusion in the public docket. Information not marked... factors specified in FFDCA section 408(b)(2)(D), EPA has reviewed the available scientific data and other...

  13. 75 FR 29901 - Boscalid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... of exposure, and it is not an eye or skin irritant. Following subchronic and chronic exposure to...-chloro-N-(4'-chloro-5-hydroxy-biphenyl-2-yl) nicotinamide and glucuronic acid conjugate of 2-chloro-N-(4'-chloro-5- hydroxy-biphenyl-2-yl) nicotinamide, calculated as the stoichiometric equivalent of boscalid...

  14. 78 FR 13252 - Pyroxasulfone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... adverse effects in several target organs. Effects seen in animal studies included cardiac toxicity (increased cardiomyopathy in mice and rats), liver toxicity (centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy... of minimal to mild cardiac myofiber degeneration at the limit dose. No adverse effects were noted in...

  15. 75 FR 42324 - Pyraclostrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... available data from USDA/National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA/NASS), proprietary market surveys... significant subpopulations is taken into account through EPA's computer-based model for evaluating the... Standard Operating Procedures and recommended approaches of the Health Effects Division's Science...

  16. 78 FR 49932 - Emamectin; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... data from United States Department of Agriculture/National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA/NASS... significant subpopulations is taken into account through EPA's computer-based model for evaluating the... method may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701...

  17. 78 FR 17123 - Amitraz; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... assumed that the average rate captures the variation in number of cows treated. The Agency believes that... levels of government or between the Federal Government and Indian tribes. Thus, the Agency has determined... 13175, entitled ``Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments'' (65 FR 67249, November...

  18. 76 FR 12877 - Fomesafen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... accordance with current Agency policy. These revisions are discussed in Unit IV.D. III. Aggregate Risk... not registered for any specific use patterns that would result in residential exposure. 4. Cumulative... incidence of liver hyalinization in males) occurred at the same dose causing parental effects (liver...

  19. 76 FR 82146 - Tepraloxydim; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... use patterns that would result in residential exposure. 4. Cumulative effects from substances with a... immunotoxicity study will result in a NOAEL less than that (5 mg/kg/ day) used to derive the current cRfD... indicative of neurotoxicity were seen in the parental animals or offspring; nor was there evidence for...

  20. 75 FR 26668 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ..., developmental toxicity (manifested as increased intrauterine death) at the same dose as parental toxicity, and... presence of maternal/parental systemic toxicity; (2) clear NOAELs and LOAELs were established in the... Therefore, 40 CFR chapter I is amended as follows: PART 180--[AMENDED] 0 1. The authority citation for part...

  1. 75 FR 29441 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    .../ecfr . To access the harmonized test guidelines referenced in this document electronically, please go to http://www.epa.gov/ocspp and select ``Test Methods and Guidelines.'' C. Can I File an Objection or... mouse bone-marrow micronucleus assay and a bacterial DNA damage/repair assay. Based on the results...

  2. 77 FR 75561 - Quinclorac; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... damage in primary rat hepatocytes. There is also no evidence of a genotoxic response in whole animal test systems (in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay) and was negative in a mammalian cell in...

  3. 75 FR 5518 - Dithianon; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ....gpoaccess.gov/ecfr . To access the OPPTS harmonized test guidelines referenced in this document electronically, please go to http://www.epa.gov/oppts and select ``Test Methods & Guidelines'' on the left-side... assay and an acceptable in vitro UDS assay), and NMRI mice (an unacceptable in vivo micronucleus...

  4. 78 FR 67042 - Boscalid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... (NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers determine.... It was the IR-4, 500 College Rd. East, Suite 201W, Princeton, NJ 08540 that petitioned EPA for these... evaluation of the field trial data with the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development...

  5. 75 FR 6576 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... exhaustive, but rather to provide a guide for readers regarding entities likely to be affected by this action...) by IR-4, 500 College Road East, Suite 201W, Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition requested that 40 CFR...; anticipated residues derived from field trial data for apples, broccoli, cabbage, celery, grapefruit,...

  6. 77 FR 48907 - Fludioxonil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ..., but rather to provide a guide for readers regarding entities likely to be affected by this action... Road East, Suite 201W, Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition requested that 40 CFR 180.516 be amended by... group 5, grape, cherry, peach, and plum. The anticipated residues were estimated from field trial...

  7. 75 FR 53581 - Spiromesifen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... rather to provide a guide for readers regarding entities likely to be affected by this action. Other... IR-4, 500 College Road East, Suite 201 W, Princeton, NJ 08540 and PP 9F7602 by Bayer CropScience, 2 T... adjusted field trial data for dry peas were evaluated using the Agency's maximum-likelihood estimation...

  8. 78 FR 70870 - Etofenprox; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... (NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers determine... Interregional Research Project No. 4 (IR-4), 500 College Road East, Suite 201 W, Princeton, NJ 08540. The... Database (DEEM-FCID) default processing factors. The submitted crop field trial data were conducted at...

  9. 76 FR 53641 - Tetraconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). This listing is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to provide a guide... Project Headquarters, 500 College Road East, Suite 201 W, Princeton, NJ 08450, and (PP) 0F7737 by Isagro S... growing berry, subgroup 13-07G at 0.25 ppm (0E7735), and corn, field, forage; corn field, grain;...

  10. 76 FR 55807 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... rather to provide a guide for readers regarding entities likely to be affected by this action. Other..., 500 College Road East, Suite 201W, Princeton, NJ 08540. The IR-4 petition (PP 0E7723) requested that... residue field trials and PCT assumptions for some commodities. EPA made conservative...

  11. 78 FR 19130 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... (NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers determine..., Princeton, NJ 08540 and Valent U.S.A. Corporation, P.O. Box 8025, Walnut Creek, CA 94596, respectively. The... Survey, What We Eat in America (NHANES/WWEIA). As to residue levels in food, EPA used maximum field...

  12. 78 FR 57280 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers determine whether this document applies to...), IR-4 Project Headquarters, 500 College Road East, Suite 201 W, Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition.../groups: Mayhaw at 0.6 ppm; field corn forage, field corn stover, pop corn forage, pop corn stover,...

  13. 77 FR 10968 - Fluopyram; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... neurotoxicity study, transient decreased motor activity was seen only on the day of treatment, but no other... includes the immunotoxicity study and neurotoxicity screening battery. ii. The fluopyram toxicology database did not demonstrate evidence of neurotoxicity. Although transient decreases in motor and...

  14. 75 FR 35653 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ...: Turfgrass on golf courses, residential lawns, commercial grounds, parks, playgrounds, athletic fields... registered for use on turfgrass (on golf courses, residential lawns, commercial grounds, parks, playgrounds.../ day in males) based on hematology and other clinical chemistry findings at the LOAEL of 34...

  15. 76 FR 55804 - Dicamba; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... morphologically and taxonomically similar to other cereal grains, including wheat. It is used to make flour in a..., because it is used to make flour in a manner similar to wheat and other cereal grains, it will likely... other hays and silages; residues in meat, milk, poultry and eggs will remain the same. Further...

  16. 76 FR 38036 - Propylene Oxide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ..., food processors, food handlers, and food retailers, not States or Tribes, nor does this action alter... citation for part 180 continues to read as follows: Authority: 21 U.S.C. 321(q), 346a and 371. 0 2....

  17. 76 FR 16308 - Dichlormid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... regulates growers, food processors, food handlers, and food retailers, not States or tribes, nor does this....S.C. 321(q), 346a and 371. 0 2. Section 180.469 is amended by revising paragraph (a) to read...

  18. 78 FR 78738 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), do not apply. This final rule directly regulates growers, food processors....S.C. 321(q), 346a and 371. 0 2. In Sec. 180.361, in the table in paragraph (a), revise the...

  19. 77 FR 46304 - Rimsulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... (RFA) (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) do not apply. This final rule directly regulates growers, food processors....S.C. 321(q), 346a and 371. 0 2. Section 180.478 is amended by alphabetically adding the...

  20. 76 FR 25240 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... metabolism of clothianidin is complex, with a few major (> 10% of the total radioactive residues) and... level in leafy vegetables and the 1.5 factor was based on metabolism data. ii. Chronic exposure. In... and spleen in multiple studies in the clothianidin data base, and evidence showing that juvenile...

  1. 76 FR 18899 - Indaziflam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ........ Subchronic oral (gavage) in days) and intermediate-term (1 to UFA = 10x the dog. LOAEL = 15 mg/kg/ 6 months... (gavage) in (1 to 30 days) and intermediate- NOAEL = 7.5 mg/kg/day the dog. LOAEL = 15 mg/kg/ term (1 to 6... Inhalation (or oral) LOC for MOE = 100..... Subchronic oral (gavage) in days) and intermediate-term (1...

  2. 77 FR 70908 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Handling Establishments, and New Horse Spot-On and Total Release Fogger Products,'' at pages 40-45 in.... Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, What We Eat in America..., vegetable gardens, pet spot-ons, indoor aerosol sprays, crack and crevice sprays. EPA assessed...

  3. 76 FR 28675 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... the eyes and exhibits a skin-sensitization potential in animals and humans. The thyroid and thymus... measured in food. If EPA relies on such information, EPA must require pursuant to FFDCA section 408(f)(1... neurotoxicity study were staining of the fur or perianal region with urine and decreased motor activity. The...

  4. 77 FR 72226 - Picoxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... interstitial cell benign tumors in high dose male rats. Quantification of cancer is based on a non-linear (i.e... associated decreased body weight and body weight gain. In the rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies... the parents and offspring; no reproductive toxicity was seen. Picoxystrobin induced a...

  5. 75 FR 5526 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ....0 ppm; chocolate at 3.0 ppm; citrus, dried pulp at 14.0 ppm; cocoa powder at 3.0 ppm; coffee, bean...; oil radish at 0.3 ppm; okra at 0.7 ppm; olive at 4.0 ppm; olive, oil at 40.0 ppm; papaya at 2.0 ppm... seed at 0.3 ppm; poultry, fat at 0.02 ppm; poultry, meat at 0.02 ppm; poultry, meat byproducts at...

  6. 78 FR 42736 - Spirotetramat; Proposed Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... 10-10; pineapple; coffee, green bean; and instant coffee, based on EPA's conclusion that aggregate... requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd., Ft....

  7. 75 FR 50914 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... reassessed in light of the recalculated beef and dairy cattle, swine and poultry dietary burdens and... multiple studies (the 2-generation reproduction and 1- generation supplemental studies). Additionally, the..., milk fat, meat byproducts (previously listed as liver and kidney separately), meat and fat of cattle...

  8. 78 FR 66649 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site at http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?&c=ecfr&tpl... be CBI or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Mail: OPP Docket... 408(b)(2)(D), EPA has reviewed the available scientific data and other relevant information in...

  9. 77 FR 8746 - Indoxacarb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, is not... through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site at http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?&c... in section 408(b)(2)(D) of FFDCA, EPA has reviewed the available scientific data and other...

  10. 77 FR 67771 - Flonicamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ...). ] Cancer A nonlinear RfD approach was used to assess cancer risk. FQPA SF = Food Quality Protection Act... the food consumption data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 and 1998 Continuing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  11. 78 FR 60715 - Sedaxane; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... data from the USDA's 2003- 2008 NHANES/WWEIA. As to residue levels in food, EPA conducted a partially.../oppefed1/models/water/index.htm . Based on the Tier I Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) Index Reservoir... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  12. 77 FR 12207 - Pyroxasulfone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... time. The reasons for these changes are explained in Unit IV.C. III. Aggregate Risk Assessment and... cord sections (dog), skeletal muscle ] myopathy, kidney toxicity (increased incidence of chronic... variation in sensitivity among members of the human population (intraspecies). C. Exposure Assessment 1...

  13. 78 FR 18511 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... exposure assessment can be found at http://www.epa.gov/oppefed1/models/water/index.htm . Based on the Tier... aggregate risk index (ARI) approach was used instead of the MOE approach. ARIs of greater than 1 indicate... anemia as well as leukopenia characterized by reductions in neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes;...

  14. 76 FR 5691 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...-2010-0385. All documents in the docket are listed in the docket index available at http://www.regulations.gov . Although listed in the index, some information is not publicly available, e.g., Confidential... appeared to be a target of cyprodinil, causing mild anemia in rats exposed subchronically. Chronic...

  15. 75 FR 22240 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... documents in the docket are listed in the docket index available at http://www.regulations.gov . Although listed in the index, some information is not publicly available, e.g., Confidential Business Information... appeared to be a target of cyprodinil, causing mild anemia in rats exposed subchronically. Chronic...

  16. 78 FR 40027 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... regenerative anemia. Incidental oral short-term....... NOAEL = 4.38 mg/kg/ LOC for MOE = 100.. 90-day feeding...%; cabbage at 10%; cauliflower at http://www.epa.gov/oppefed1/models/water/index.htm . EPA utilized the... in surface water, the Tier 1 FQPA Index Reservoir Screening Tool (FIRST) model for surface...

  17. 76 FR 27256 - Saflufenacil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    .... All documents in the docket are listed in the docket index available at http://www.regulations.gov . Although listed in the index, some information is not publicly available, e.g., Confidential Business... in disruption of heme synthesis which in turn causes anemia. In these studies,...

  18. 78 FR 20461 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... anemia as well as effects on the liver and the cardiovascular system. Developmental effects were observed...) effects of anemia were noted in rats, consisting of alterations in hemoglobin parameters. Increased renal... assessment can be found at http://www.epa.gov/oppefed1/models/water/index.htm . 3. From non-dietary...

  19. 77 FR 52240 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ...- dinitrobenzyl alcohol metabolite (CL 202347), in or on lettuce, leaf at 3.0 parts per million (ppm); Brassica... qualitative or quantitative susceptibility to the young. The overall weight of evidence suggests that this... in the prenatal developmental studies or in young rats in the 2-generation reproduction study. In...

  20. 77 FR 23625 - Quizalofop Ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... of the liver in both sexes and mild anemia in males. No treatment-related effects on brain weight or... anemia in males. Cancer (Oral, dermal, inhalation).. No concern as to human carcinogenicity. UFA... Cowpea, forage 3.0 Cowpea, hay 3.0 Crambe, meal 2.0 Flax, seed 0.05 Gold of pleasure, meal 2.0 Lentil...

  1. 77 FR 35295 - Methyl Bromide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... entities likely to be affected by this action. Other types of entities not listed in this unit could also..., including a fermentation chamber. Therefore, given the complexity of the ruminant digestive system, there...

  2. 77 FR 52236 - Thifensulfuron Methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... eye and skin irritation and is not a dermal sensitizer. Most findings in the submitted studies related... the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also considered available... any of the studies. In the rat developmental study, there were no maternal effects at the highest...

  3. 78 FR 71523 - Quinclorac; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ..., and reliability as well as the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also... skin. Quinclorac is a skin sensitizer. Subchronic toxicity includes, decreased body weight gains... acute, subchronic and chronic studies with quinclorac. There was no increased qualitative...

  4. 75 FR 81878 - Imazosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... through the Government Printing Office's e-CFR site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/ecfr . To access the... exposure level--generally referred to as a population-adjusted dose (PAD) or a reference dose (RfD)--and a... Exposure/Scenario uncertainty/safety RfD, PAD, LOC for risk Study and toxicological factors...

  5. 75 FR 56892 - Fenarimol; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... ``Fenarimol. Human Health Risk Assessment for the Proposed New Food Use of Fenarimol in/on Imported Cucurbit... Exposure/Scenario Uncertainty/Safety RfD, PAD, LOC for Risk Study and Toxicological Factors Assessment... its metabolites and degradates in or on vegetable, cucurbit, group 9. Gowan Company requested this...

  6. 75 FR 29435 - Diquat Dibromide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    .... Effects in the offspring were observed only at or above dose levels which resulted in parental toxicity..., loading, and applying products with a low-pressure handwand or backpack sprayer; and applying diquat... incidence of kidney lesions. Parental effects, including clinical signs, ulceration of the tongue, and...

  7. 75 FR 5522 - Spiromesifen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ...), thyroid effects (increased thyroid stimulating hormone, increased thyroxine binding capacity, decreased T 3 and T 4 levels, colloidal alteration and thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy), liver effects... the issuance of a proposed rule, the requirements of the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (5...

  8. 76 FR 31485 - Bromoxynil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ...%; cotton 5%; flax 35%; garlic 70%; mint 25%; oats 5%; onion 70%; rye 1%; sorghum 2.5%; and wheat 35%. The... as follows: Alfalfa 1%; barley 20%; corn 2.5%; cotton 2.5%; flax 35%; garlic 50%; mint 25%; oats 5... refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest...

  9. 77 FR 10381 - Metaflumizone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Registration for a Fire Ant Bait for Application to Citrus, Tree Nuts, and Grape, and a new Section 3... poor general health and body weight deficits which were also associated with improper nursing behavior... the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (NTTAA), Public Law 104-113, section 12(d...

  10. 76 FR 50904 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... consumers, including infants and children. Thiamethoxam shows toxicological effects primarily in the liver... produce quantitative differences in the binding affinity of the neonicotinoids towards these receptors...

  11. 78 FR 65565 - Fomesafen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... vertical activity and time in central quadrant) in males. Chronic dietary (All populations) NOAEL= 0.25 mg... document to refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor... motor activity (horizontal and vertical activity and time in central quadrant) was observed at the...

  12. 75 FR 22256 - Difenoconazole Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... absence of genotoxic effects, EPA considers the cancer effects to be a threshold effect. Specific... chemicals (e.g., the organotins, heavy metals, or halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons) that would be expected... in the database, but the effects are transient or occur at doses exceeding the limit dose. It is not...

  13. 77 FR 52246 - Clothianidin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ..., Seed Treatment on Leafy Vegetables, Increased Application Rate for Vegetables, and Expanded Uses on... Ground Water (SCI-GROW) models, the estimated drinking water concentrations (EDWCs) of clothianidin for...

  14. 78 FR 8410 - Thiacloprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Screening Concentration in Ground Water (SCI- GROW) models, the estimated drinking water concentrations...) (FRL-9354-3). As part of this action, EPA expanded and revised the existing stone fruit group 12...

  15. 76 FR 82157 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Clerk on or before February 28, 2012. Addresses for mail and hand delivery of objections and hearing... neurological effects in rodents. Furthermore, the conazoles produce a diverse range of biochemical...

  16. 76 FR 3026 - Fluazinam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ..., DAPA and AMPA, in the following animal tissues and meat byproducts at 0.03 ppm: Cattle, fat; cattle... metabolites AMPA and DAPA in the following animal tissues and meat byproducts: Cattle, fat; cattle, kidney... for readers regarding entities likely to be affected by this action. Other types of entities...

  17. 76 FR 59909 - Amisulbrom; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... both sexes of rats only at an excessive dose; and forestomach tumors in female rats also only at an... to malignancy; The liver tumors in rats seen only at excessive doses (i.e., greater than the Limit...; The forestomach tumors seen only in female rats occurred only at an excessive dose which was...

  18. 75 FR 60327 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... ``Fluoxastrobin. Human Health Risk Assessment for Proposed Uses on Sweet Corn, Field Corn/Sweet Corn Grown for... studies to human risk. EPA has also considered available information concerning the variability of the... mild or low toxicity following repeated administration in all tested species other than the dog....

  19. 75 FR 4274 - Novaluron; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... navigation menu. C. Can I File an Objection or Hearing Request? Under section 408(g) of FFDCA, 21 U.S.C. 346a... to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest...

  20. 77 FR 42654 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... exposure for 28 days. There is no evidence of increased susceptibility following prenatal exposure to rats... lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets... threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on...

  1. 77 FR 65827 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    .... There is no evidence of increased susceptibility following prenatal exposure to rats and rabbits and... lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets... of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the...

  2. 77 FR 73951 - Pyriproxyfen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... of prenatal or postnatal sensitivity or increased susceptibility in developmental studies in rats and... document to refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Pyriproxyfen is currently registered...

  3. 75 FR 26673 - Clethodim; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... document to refer to non-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Clethodim is not registered for any... prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the completeness of the database on toxicity and exposure unless EPA...

  4. 75 FR 80346 - Flutolanil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...-occupational, non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Flutolanil is currently registered for the following uses that... children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal toxicity and the...

  5. 76 FR 69642 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... hypertrophy and slight increases in hemosiderin-laden Kupffer cells. It is noteworthy that with chronic... cells; 4. Centrilobular hypertrophy, and 5. Increases in alkaline phosphatase release. Slight...-stained abdominal fur, ungroomed coat, ptosis, decreased motor activity, prostration, limp muscle tone...

  6. 77 FR 47296 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... weights, and histopathology findings ranging from hepatocyte vacuolization to centrilobular hypertrophy...; centrilobular hypertrophy, and increases in alkaline phosphatase release. Slight indications of effects in the... fur, ungroomed coat, ptosis, decreased motor activity, prostration, limp muscle tone, muscle...

  7. 75 FR 50902 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... gait and limited use of rear legs) and loss of muscle mass. An acute neurotoxicity study with mancozeb... thyroid weight and macroscopic changes in the thyroid - hypertrophy, follicular dilation) Incidental Oral... changes in the thyroid - hypertrophy, follicular dilation) Inhalation (Short- and Intermediate- Inhalation...

  8. 76 FR 18906 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code...%; asparagus, 34%; barley, 0.9%, beet, sugar, 2.9%; cantaloupe, 10%; carrot, 13%; casaba, 10%; corn, field, 1...%; asparagus, 16%; barley, 0.2%, beet, sugar, 1.3%; carrot, 9%; casaba, 8%; corn, field, 1%; corn, sweet, 12...

  9. 75 FR 74634 - Spiroxamine; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... degradates in or on artichoke, globe, import at 0.7 parts per million (ppm) asparagus, import at 0.05 ppm... those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS... equivalent, in or on artichoke, globe at 0.7 parts per million (ppm); asparagus at 0.05 ppm and vegetable...

  10. 77 FR 41284 - Azoxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311... estimated the PCT for existing uses as follows: Almonds, 25%; apricots, 10%; artichokes, 25%; asparagus, 2.5..., group 18, hay 120 Artichoke, globe 4.0 Asparagus 0.04 Atemoya 2.0 Avocado 2.0 Banana * Barley, bran 6.0...

  11. 77 FR 43524 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ...: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code...-methylacetamidine, in or on asparagus at 0.8 ppm; Brassica, leafy greens, subgroup 5B at 15 parts per million (ppm... document titled ``Acetamiprid: Human Health Risk Assessment for New Uses on Asparagus; Brassica, Leafy...

  12. 76 FR 34883 - Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ...? Section 553 of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(3)(B), provides that, when an... presentation and format of the regulation, and make other minor, non- substantive improvements to the...

  13. 77 FR 70902 - Fenpropathrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... based on species-specific pharmacodynamics of homologous sodium channel isoforms in rats and humans. In... also revised the proposed commodity definition for tea to tea, dried in order to reflect the Agency's...

  14. 76 FR 69648 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    .... Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to trifloxystrobin, EPA... of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 and 1998, Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals... studies or in young rats in the 2-generation reproduction study. iv. There are no residual uncertainties...

  15. 77 FR 36919 - Sedaxane; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to sedaxane, EPA considered exposure under...) 1994-1996 and 1998 Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). As to residue... residual uncertainties. There is no evidence for increased susceptibility following prenatal and/or...

  16. 77 FR 12727 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to trifloxystrobin... of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 and 1998, Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals... studies or in young rats in the 2-generation reproduction study. iv. There are no residual uncertainties...

  17. 76 FR 50898 - Metconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to metconazole, EPA considered exposure under... Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). As to residue levels in food, EPA assumed that metconazole residues... offspring based on the result of the 2-generation reproduction study. iii. There are no residual...

  18. 75 FR 4284 - Triticonazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    .... Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to triticonazole, EPA considered.... Department of ] Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 and 1998 Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by... reproduction study. iv. There are no residual uncertainties identified in the exposure database. The dietary...

  19. 77 FR 12731 - Thiamethoxam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to thiamethoxam, EPA considered exposure under the petitioned... 1998 Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). For residue levels in food... are no residual uncertainties identified in the exposure databases. The dietary food exposure...

  20. 75 FR 8261 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to flumioxazin, EPA considered exposure... Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 and 1998 Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). As... context of all available toxicity data and to identify any residual concerns after establishing toxicity...

  1. 76 FR 23891 - Pyrasulfotole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to pyrasulfotole, EPA considered exposure under the... Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). As to residue levels in food, EPA assumed that residues are... concern for developmental effects is low, and EPA did not identify any residual uncertainties after...

  2. 76 FR 69653 - Abamectin (avermectin); Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    .... Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to abamectin (avermectin), EPA... Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 and 1998 Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by... generally used in animal testing and thus removes the residual concern of the steepness of the dose-response...

  3. 78 FR 28507 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...) (FRL-8865-8). C. Exposure Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary... the Food Commodity Intake Database (DEEM-FCID) Version 3.16, which uses food consumption data from the...-generation reproduction study. iii. There are no residual uncertainties identified in the exposure databases...

  4. 76 FR 76309 - Isoxaflutole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... = level of concern. C. Exposure Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating... States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 and 1998 Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake... following findings: i. The toxicity database for isoxaflutole is complete. ii. There are not residual...

  5. 78 FR 36093 - Fenpyroximate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ..., December 12, 2012 (77 FR 73945) (FRL-9360-3). C. Exposure Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed... Model--Food Consumption Intake Database (DEEM-FCID, ver. 3.16), which incorporates consumption... necessary to account for this increased susceptibility of infants and children. iv. There are no residual...

  6. 76 FR 54127 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... concern. DAF = dermal absorption factor. C. Exposure Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed...) 1994-1996 and 1998 Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). As to residue... neurotoxicity study, has been used for overall risk assessments. Therefore, there are no residual uncertainties...

  7. 77 FR 56133 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... human population (intraspecies). C. Exposure Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In... States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 and 1998 Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake...-generation reproduction study. iv. There are no residual uncertainties identified in the exposure databases...

  8. 78 FR 57276 - Quinoxyfen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to quinoxyfen, EPA considered exposure... dietary exposure assessment EPA used Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model--Food Consumption Intake Database... are no residual uncertainties identified in the exposure databases. The dietary food exposure...

  9. 76 FR 20537 - Etoxazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    .... Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to etoxazole, EPA considered... Surveys for Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). As to residue levels in food, an unrefined, chronic... the same dose in the rat multi-generation reproduction study, the Agency did not identify any residual...

  10. 77 FR 59114 - Cyazofamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to cyazofamid, EPA... Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994 to 1996 and 1998 Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by.... Therefore, there are no residual concerns regarding developmental effects in the young. iv. There are no...

  11. 77 FR 56782 - Bifenthrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to bifenthrin, EPA considered exposure under the... Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). As to residue levels in food, EPA conducted a highly-refined, acute... pyrethroid chemicals also noted no residual uncertainties regarding age-related sensitivities for the young...

  12. 75 FR 4279 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ...-HQ-OPP-2008-0876. C. Exposure Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating... Intake by Individuals (CSFII). As to residue levels in food, the chronic dietary exposure analysis was... required. iii. There are no residual uncertainties identified in the exposure databases. The dietary food...

  13. 77 FR 45498 - Pyrimethanil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    .... Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to pyrimethanil, EPA considered... 1998 Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). As to residue levels in food... to decreased thyroid hormone levels in offspring. v. There are no residual uncertainties with respect...

  14. 77 FR 58493 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... assessment. C. Exposure Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary... Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 and 1998 Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by... no residual uncertainties for pre- and/or postnatal toxicity because: The developmental toxicity...

  15. 77 FR 28276 - Penflufen; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to penflufen, EPA considered exposure under the... (USDA) 1994-1996 and 1998 Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). As to... conservative exposure estimates were incorporated into the risk assessment for penflufen. There are no residual...

  16. 75 FR 17566 - Flutolanil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ...-8365-6). C. Exposure Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary... from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 and 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intake by.... There are no residual uncertainties identified in the exposure databases. The dietary food exposure...

  17. 76 FR 27261 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... application exposure to children from wood treatment (antimicrobial use). Further information regarding EPA..., and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) authorizing use to control the disease, laurel wilt (caused by Raffaelea... (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311)....

  18. 78 FR 23497 - Propiconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... oral post application exposure to children from wood treatment (antimicrobial use). 4. Cumulative... is post application exposure to children from wood treatment (antimicrobial use). The aggregate MOE... (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311)....

  19. 78 FR 33744 - Sedaxane; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... pyrazole carboxamide fungicides. Metabolic processes involving cleavage of the linkage between the pyrazole and phenyl rings of these compounds have the potential to produce common pyrazole-metabolites....

  20. 78 FR 78740 - Isopyrazam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...)-1,4-methano-naphthalen-5-yl]-1H-pyrazole- 4-carboxamide), as the sum of its syn-isomer (3...-pyrazole-4-carboxamide) and anti-isomer (3- (difluoromethyl)-1-methyl-N-[(1RS, 4SR, 9SR)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-(1- methylethyl)-1,4-methano-naphthalen-5-yl]-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide) in or on the...

  1. 76 FR 18915 - Ethiprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...) for residues of the insecticide ethiprole [5-amino-1- -4- -1H- pyrazole-3-carbonitrile], including its...-dichloro-4- (trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4- -1H-pyrazole-3- carbonitrile], expressed as parent equivalent, in... [5-amino-1- -4- -1H- pyrazole-3-carbonitrile], in or on the following imported plant...

  2. 77 FR 28270 - Fluxapyroxad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ..., 3- (difluoromethyl)-1-methyl-N-(3',4',5'-trifluoro -2-yl)- 1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide, in or on... residues of fluxapyroxad, 3-(difluoromethyl)-1-methyl-N-(3',4',5'-trifluoro -2-yl)- 1H-pyrazole-4...-(difluoromethyl)-1-methyl-N-(3',4',5'-trifluoro[1,1'- biphenyl]-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide in or on...

  3. 78 FR 36671 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... studies UFA = 10x day. Developmental UFH = 10x aPAD = 0.10 mg/kg/day. Neurotoxicity in rat. FQPA SF = 1x.../ Chronic Toxicity/ UFA = 10x kg/day. Oncogenicity Study in UFH = 10x cPAD = 0.071 mg/kg/day rats. FQPA SF........ Developmental Neurotoxicity Incidental Oral (1-30 days and 1-6 UFA = 10x in rat. mo.). UFH = 10x LOAEL = 45...

  4. 77 FR 72975 - Zeta Cypermethrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... = 11.20 mg/ old and adults). mg/kg. day. kg based on motor UFA = 10x aPAD = 0.07 mg/kg/day.. activity... the rat. LOAEL = HED = 1.15 mg/kg/day... 0.05 mg/L based on UFA = 3x increased salivation. UFH = 10x... = uncertainty factor. UFA = extrapolation from animal to human (interspecies). UFH = potential variation...

  5. 78 FR 33736 - Imidacloprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...).. LOAEL = 42 mg/kg/day Acute RfD = 0.14 mg/ Acute neurotoxicity--rat LOAEL = UFA = 10x kg/day 42 mg/kg/day... Combined chronic toxicity/ UFA = 10x mg/kg/day carcinogenicity--rat. LOAEL = UFH = 10x cPAD = 0.057 mg/kg..... Prenatal developmental toxicity-- days) Intermediate-term (1 to 6 UFA = 10x rat. LOAEL = 30 mg/kg/day...

  6. 77 FR 47539 - Paraquat Dichloride; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ...) derived from application of either the bis(methyl sulfate) or the dichloride salt (both calculated as the... laboratory-scale: The ``laboratory jar test'' (coagulation using alum with either lime or soda ash... the bis(methylsulfate) or the dichloride salt (both calculated as the cation), in or on the following...

  7. 78 FR 33731 - Propamocarb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production... decrements. Additionally, in the rat 2-generation reproduction studies, parental and offspring effects... = 100...... 2-Generation NOAEL = 150 mg/kg/day.. Reproduction Toxicity UFA = 10X Study--Rat. UFH =...

  8. 76 FR 50893 - Fluoxastrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ...: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code... induced. In the rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies and the 2- generation reproduction rat study... on reproduction. Fluoxastrobin is not acutely neurotoxic in rats up to a single high dose of...

  9. 78 FR 67048 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    .... Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112... using prothioconazole-desthio. Reproduction studies in the rat with prothioconazole and prothioconazole...-generation reproduction studies in the rat with prothioconazole-destio effects, include skeletal...

  10. 78 FR 75257 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... effects in maternal animals. In the two-generation reproduction studies, a qualitative susceptibility was... them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production... rabbits) and two multi-generation reproduction toxicity studies in rats. In the first of two...

  11. Tolerating Zero Tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian N.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…

  12. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  13. Household Products Database: Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Contact Us More Resources Browse Pesticides Category Pesticides activator algaecide ants ants & roaches ants, roaches aphids ... snakes sow bugs spiders termites termites, carpenter ants/bees ticks tomatoes total vegetation control tree trees trees, ...

  14. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1017 - Diatomaceous earth; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) It is used or intended for use for control of insects in food or feed processing and food or feed... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD... good agricultural practice in pesticide formulations applied to growing crops, to food commodities...

  16. Pesticides and honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Pedro; Godinho, Joana

    2012-01-01

    After the analysis of the criterion of toxicological classification (TC) of pesticides to honeybees and of the evolution of TC and of legislation related to the theme, in Portugal, it is demonstrated how the absence of rigor of the Portuguese Pesticide Regulation Authority (AFN) and of the pesticides suppliers contribute to the very high probability of mortality of honeybees by pesticides and finally are presented proposals for the optimization of perspectives to...

  17. Pesticides and Environmental Health

    OpenAIRE

    İlter, Hüseyin; Gökdeniz, Mehmet; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2017-01-01

    Pesticidesare used to prevent, control harmful organisms or to reduce their damage inagriculture. The use of pesticides is still indispensable in order to preventthe negative effects of the agricultural diseases and pests.3,2 million tons inthe world, almost 40 thousand tons of pesticide consumption in Turkey is themost important indicator of this. Pesticides get mixed and transform throughair, water and soil then other living things in these environments. Themovement of a pesticide is affect...

  18. Pesticides and food safety

    OpenAIRE

    Ötegen, Volkan Recai; Akbaba, Muhsin; Nazlıcan, Ersin; Kurt, Burak

    2017-01-01

    Besidesprevention of tropical diseases, pesticides are also used to make agriculturalactivities fertile. But pesticides are potentially harmful to our health andmay be toxic to the immune, reproductive and nervous systems. Afterapplication; pesticide residues consist depending on factors such as plantspecies, time of administration, how it applied. While pesticides make foodsupply sustainable, there are concerns about residues in food that peopleconsume. Therefore food safety concept introduc...

  19. Mycotoxins, pesticides and toxic metals in commercial spices and herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholds, Ingars; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bavrins, Konstantins; Kuckovska, Galina; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2017-03-01

    A total of 300 samples representing six condiments (black pepper, basil, oregano, nutmeg, paprika, and thyme) were analysed for 11 mycotoxins, 134 pesticides and 4 heavy metals by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mycotoxins were detected in 4%, 10% and 30% of all nutmeg, basil and thyme samples, respectively. The residues of 24 pesticides were detected in 59% of the analysed condiments. The maximum residue levels of pesticides were exceeded in 10% of oregano and 46% of thyme samples. A risk assessment of heavy metals was performed, indicating daily intake levels far below the tolerable intake levels.

  20. Agricultural pesticide use and food safety:California’s model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minghua Zhang; Michael R Zeiss; Shu Geng

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides have been an essential part of agriculture to protect crops and livestock from pest infestations and yield reduc-tion for many decades. Despite their usefulness, pesticides could pose potential risks to food safety and the environment as wel as human health. This paper reviews the positive beneifts of agricultural pesticide use as wel as some potential negative impacts on the environment and food safety. In addition, using the case of California, we discuss the need for both residue monitoring and effective pest management to promote food safety. Twenty years’ pesticide residue data from California’s pesticide residue monitoring program were analyzed. Results showed that more than 95% of food samples were in compliance with US pesticide residue standards (tolerances). However, certain commodities from certain sources had high percentages of residues above tolerance levels. Even when residues above tolerance levels were detected, most were at levels wel below 1 mg kg–1, and most posed negligible acute health risk. However, a few detected residues had the potential to cause health effects. Therefore, establishing an effective food residue monitoring program is important to ensure food quality throughout the marketplace.

  1. Health effect of agricultural pesticide use in China: implications for the development of GM crops

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Zhang; Ruifa Hu; Jikun Huang; Xusheng Huang; Guanming Shi; Yifan Li; Yanhong Yin; Zhaohui Chen

    2016-01-01

    It is notable that the adoption of GM glyphosate-tolerant crops increases glyphosate use but reduces non-glyphosate herbicide use; and adoption of GM insect-resistant crops significantly reduces insecticide use. While the health hazard of pesticide use has been well documented, little literature evaluates the health effects of different pesticides related to GM crops in an integrated framework. This study aims to associate the uses of different pesticides related to GM crops with the blood ch...

  2. 78 FR 3418 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... human health and the environment from unintentional misuse of pesticides. Web-distributed labeling would... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web- Distributed Labeling for Pesticide... is announcing the availability of and seeking public comment on a draft Pesticide Registration Notice...

  3. Pesticides and oncogenic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakonaki, Elena; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides constitute a diverse class of chemicals used for the protection of agricultural products. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides can cause malignant transformation of cells in in vitro and in vivo models. In the current minireview a comprehensive summary of recent in vitro findings is presented along with data reported from human population studies, regarding the impact of pesticide exposure on activation or dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Substantial mechanistic work suggests that pesticides are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and increase their transcriptional expression in vitro, whereas human population studies indicate associations between pesticide exposure levels and mutation occurrence in cancer-related genes. Further work is required to fully explore the exact mechanisms by which pesticide exposure affects the integrity and normal function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human populations.

  4. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  5. Biodegradation of carbamate pesticides by natural river biofilms in different seasons and their effects on biofilm community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Chien-Jung; Lin, Mon-Chu; Chiu, Wan-Hsin; Chen, Colin S

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the ability of natural river biofilms from different seasons to degrade the carbamate pesticides methomyl, carbaryl and carbofuran in single and multiple pesticide systems, and the effects of these pesticides on algal and bacterial communities within biofilms. Spring biofilms had the lowest biomass of algae and bacteria but showed the highest methomyl degradation (>99%) and dissipation rates, suggesting that they might contain microorganisms with high methomyl degradation abilities. Degradation of carbofuran (54.1-59.5%) by biofilms in four seasons was similar, but low degradation of carbaryl (0-27.5%) was observed. The coexistence of other pesticides was found to cause certain effects on pesticide degradation and primarily resulted in lower diversity of diatoms and bacteria than when using a single pesticide. The tolerant diatoms and bacteria potentially having the ability to degrade test pesticides were identified. River biofilms could be suitable biomaterials or used to isolate degraders for bioremediating pesticide-contaminated water.

  6. Growth promotion of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants by single and mixed cultures of efficient phosphate solubilizing bacteria that are tolerant to abiotic stress and pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzuay, María Soledad; Ciancio, María Gabriela Ruiz; Ludueña, Liliana Mercedes; Angelini, Jorge Guillermo; Barros, Germán; Pastor, Nicolás; Taurian, Tania

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were, to analyze in vitro phosphate solubilization activity of six native peanut bacteria and to determine the effect of single and mixed inoculation of these bacteria on peanut and maize plants. Ability to produce organic acids and cofactor PQQ, to solubilize FePO4 and AlPO4 and phosphatase activity were analyzed. Also, the ability to solubilize phosphate under abiotic stress and in the presence of pesticides of the selected bacteria was determined. The effect of single and mixed bacterial inocula was analyzed on seed germination, maize plant growth and in a crop rotation plant assay with peanut and maize. The six strains produced gluconic acid and five released cofactor PQQ into the medium. All bacteria showed ability to solubilize phosphate from FePO4 and AlPO4 and phosphatase activity. The ability of the bacteria to solubilize tricalcium phosphate under abiotic stress and in presence of pesticides indicated encouraging results. Bacterial inoculation on peanut and maize increased seed germination, plant́s growth and P content. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study showed efficient phosphate mineralizing and solubilization ability and would be potential P-biofertilizers for peanut and maize. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Safe Disposal of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the pesticide label. Check with your local solid waste management authority, environmental agency or health department to find ... of your phone book under categories such as solid waste, public works, or garbage, ... containers. Pesticide residues can contaminate the new contents and cause serious ...

  8. Neurotoxicity of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Matthew C; Firestone, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Several pesticides such as organophosphates, carbamates and the organochlorine pesticides directly target nervous tissue as their mechanism of toxicity. In several others, such as the fumigants, the nervous system is affected by toxicological mechanisms that diffusely affect most or all tissues in the body. Both the central and peripheral nervous system are involved in the acute toxidromes of many pesticides resulting in acute short-term effects. There is strong human epidemiological evidence for persistent nervous system damage following acute intoxication with several important pesticide groups such as organophosphates and certain fumigants. However, whether persistent nervous system damage follows chronic low-level exposure to pesticides in adults (particularly organophosphpates), and whether in utero and/or early childhood exposure leads to persistent nervous system damage, is a subject of study at present. Parkinson's Disease, one of the most common chronic central nervous system diseases, has been linked to pesticide exposure in some studies, but other studies have failed to find an association. Several new pesticidal chemicals such as the neo-nicotinoids and fipronil have central nervous system effects, but only case reports are available to date on acute human intoxications with several of these. Little data are yet available on whether long-term effects result from these chemicals. Several ongoing or recently completed studies should add valuable insight into the effects of pesticides on the human nervous system particularly the effect of low-dose, chronic exposure both in adults and children.

  9. Pesticide Sector Performed Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lvxian

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Further output growth in the first half of 2007 According to data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the output of pesticides (usually refering to pure pesticide technical) in China was 856 thousand tons in the first half of 2007, an increase of 25.6% over the same period of 2006.

  10. Food and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA sets limits on how much of a pesticide may be used on food during growing and processing, and how much can remain on the food you buy. Learn about regulation of pesticides on food and how you can limit exposure.

  11. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  12. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  13. 40 CFR 180.31 - Temporary tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary tolerances. 180.31 Section 180.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... period designed to allow the orderly marketing of the raw agricultural commodities produced while...

  14. 76 FR 70896 - Polyethylene Glycol; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyethylene Glycol; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... amu), 17,000; also known as polyethylene glycol, when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide...(oxyethylene, minimum number average molecular weight (in amu), 17,000; also known as polyethylene...

  15. 75 FR 13277 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). This listing is not intended to be...-chloro-3,3,3,-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2,2- dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate), in or on tea (import tolerance... onion, bulb, subgroup 3-07A at 0.2 ppm; onion, green, subgroup 3-07B at 9.0 ppm; caneberry subgroup...

  16. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highes...... individuals in the target group necessarily react to the economic incentives as predicted by economic modeling. It also demonstrates that a small first green-tax-step over time might develop into a better tax design.......This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest...... pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...

  17. Watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implementation of pesticide reduction practices to reduce pesticide usage within agricultural watersheds has the potential to reduce pesticide concentrations within agricultural streams. The watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and the biota within agricultural he...

  18. 分散固相萃取净化气相色谱串联质谱法测定茶叶、西葫芦和芒果中噻螨酮和噻嗪酮残留量%Residue Determination of Hexythiazox and Buprofezin in Tea, Marrow and Mango by Gas Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry after Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction Cleanup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新忠; 罗逢健; 张芬; 刘光明; 楼正云; 陈宗懋

    2012-01-01

    A novel and sensitive method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of hexythiazox and buprofezin residue in tea, mango and marrow using gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Target compounds were extracted by acetonitrile followed by dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup. The fragmentation pathway and matrix effect were investigated. Over the concentration in the range of 0. 040 - 4. 000 mg/L for buprofezin and 0. 025 -2. 5 mg/L for hexythiazox in different matrix, the correlation coefficients (r) of the calibration curves were above 0. 9910, and the limits of detection (LODs) were 0. 005 mg/L and 0. 010 mg/L for each other. The average recoveries of hexythiazox and buprofezin in different matrix at three spiked concentration levels ranged from 83. 6% to 116. 9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 2.0% and 15. 7% (n = 5). The limits of quantitation (LOQs) of hexythiazox and buprofezin, were 0.010 mg/kg in green tea and 0. 002 mg/kg in marrow and mango sample. Then, the proposed method was successfully applied to the routine market monitoring of mango and marrow in different regions in China, there was no hexythiazox and buprofezin residue detected in the all of samples (n=120) ; and it has also been applied to the residue analysis of buprofezin field test samples (n = 20) in tea garden, the residues of buprofezin were from not detected to 3. 9 mg/kg.%建立了分散固相萃取净化、气相色谱串联质谱法(GC-MS/MS)测定茶叶、芒果和西葫芦中噻螨酮和噻嗪酮残留分析方法,并对噻螨酮、噻嗪酮的质谱裂解规律和基质效应进行了分析.噻嗪酮和噻螨酮分别在0.040~4.0 mg/L和0.025~2.5 mg/L浓度范围内呈线性关系,相关系数0.9910,检出限分别为0.005和0.010 mg/L;不同样品中噻螨酮和噻嗪酮平均同收率为83.6%~116.9%之间,相对标准偏差为2.0%~15.7%,方法定量限为茶叶中0.010 mg/kg,西葫芦、芒果中为0

  19. Pesticide Registration Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and...

  20. Control of Pesticides 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the pro......The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients...... analytical chemical authority control: Herbicides containing metamitron, propaquizafop and haloxyfop-ethoxyethyl. Fungicides containing azoxystrobin, propiconazole, cyprodinil, picoxystrobin and fenpropidin. Insecticides containing pirimicarb. Plant growth regulators containing chlormequat chloride, mepiquat...

  1. Control of Pesticides 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2004 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing bentazone, dicamba, dichlorprop-P, mecoprop-P, MCPA, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methylsodium, rimsulfuron and triasulfuron. 2) Fungicides...

  2. Control of Pesticides 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2000 analytical chemical authority control: 1) herbicides containing aclonifen, clopyralid, dicamba, quinoclamine, bromoxynil, ioxynil, simazine, and terbuthylazine. 2) Fungicides containing fenpropidin...

  3. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  4. Control of pesticides 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2003 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing clodinafop- propargyl, clomazone, fluroxypyr and glyphosate. 2) Fungicides containing bitertanol, fuberidazole, fenhexamid and pencycuron...

  5. Control of Pesticides 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2004 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing bentazone, dicamba, dichlorprop-P, mecoprop-P, MCPA, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methylsodium, rimsulfuron and triasulfuron. 2) Fungicides...

  6. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  7. Why We Review Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    As required by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA periodically reviews existing registered pesticides to ensure they can be used safely, without unreasonable risks to human health and the environment.

  8. Control of Pesticides 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients...... analytical chemical authority control: Herbicides containing metamitron, propaquizafop and haloxyfop-ethoxyethyl. Fungicides containing azoxystrobin, propiconazole, cyprodinil, picoxystrobin and fenpropidin. Insecticides containing pirimicarb. Plant growth regulators containing chlormequat chloride, mepiquat...

  9. [Neurotoxicology of pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides have been used for many years for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests such as insects, rodents, and weeds. However, most pesticides are not completely specific for pests and can also induce damage to the human nervous system. In particular, insecticides often directly targets the nervous system by affecting major targets such as the neuro-transmitter metabolism, neuronal receptors, and ion channels; acetylcholine (ACh) esterase for organo-phosphates and carbamates, nicotinic ACh receptor for neonicotinoids, γ-aminobutyric acid receptors/chloride channels for organochlorides and fipronil, and voltage-gated sodium channel for pyrethroids. Additional targets include sites in the sodium channels, glutamate-gated chloride channels, and octopamine and ryanodine receptors. Several pesticides also produce adverse neurological effects indirectly by disrupting the general cellular mechanisms that support the high metabolic activity of the nervous system. Nowadays, more potent pesticides are being developed as replacements for the older, harmful ones. Pesticide neurotoxicity in humans may involve the central or peripheral nervous system or both and may induce typical neuronal damage in case of acute poisoning even by new agents. However, whether effect of exposure to pesticides at below acute-poisoning threshold level remains unclear. Moreover, neurotoxicology for behavioral and higher-brain function remains an unresolved and a challenging problem.

  10. 40 CFR 180.1180 - Kaolin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kaolin; exemption from the requirement... From Tolerances § 180.1180 Kaolin; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) The biochemical pesticide kaolin is temporarily exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the insecticide...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1092 - Menthol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Menthol; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1092 Menthol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the pesticidal chemical menthol...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1040 - Ethylene glycol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene glycol; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1040 Ethylene glycol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Ethylene glycol as a component of pesticide formulations is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when...

  13. Pesticides in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Grmek-Košnik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of pesticides deceives of indisputable advantage, however remainders of pesticides in drinking water might represent potential danger for health on foodstuffs. In European Union (EU pesticides and their relevant metabolic, degrading and reactive products, with exception for aldrin, dieldrin, heptaclor and heptaclor epoxide, should not exceed the concentration of 0.10 μg/l. At limit value 0.10 μg/l we wish to achieve null value these substances in drinking water.Methods: In years 2004 and 2005 monitoring of pesticides in drinking waters on pipes of consumers in all larger towns in state was done. Majority of pesticides were analysed by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry while fluid cromatography was used primarily for badly volatile or polar and termolabile compound.Results: Results of analyses of drinking water and of ground waters for years 2004 and 2005 showed that levels of atrazine, desethyl-atrazine and 2.6 dichlorobenzamide were exceeded few times when compared to required levels. In 2005 bentazone, MCPP, metolachlor, terbuthylazin were exceeded. In 2004 concentration of pesticides were exceeded in 25 samples in 15 different areas, supplying 183,881 inhabitants. In 2005 concentration of pesticides were exceeded in 31 samples in 14 different areas, supplying 151,297 inhabitants. The distribution shows, that contamination was present mostly in the northeast part of Slovenia, where intensive agriculture takes place.Conclusions: Received status review acquired by monitoring of pesticides in drinking water is only an assessment of circumstances that will gain in representativity by enlarged number of sampling locations and longer observation time. For assessment of trends of pollution of drinking water in Slovenia it will be necessary to monitor concentration of pesticides through longer period. We could have unpolluted drinking water only with restricted use of pesticides on water-protection ranges or

  14. Human Health Benchmarks for Pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Advanced testing methods now allow pesticides to be detected in water at very low levels. These small amounts of pesticides detected in drinking water or source...

  15. Seletividade de produtos fitossanitários sobre o ácaro predador Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae Selectivity ofthe pesticides tothe predaceous mite Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli,, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os ácaros predadores das famílias Phytoseiidae e Stigmaeidae constituem-se nos principais inimigos naturais de Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes em citros. Este ácaro-praga causa sérios prejuízos na produção, devido à transmissão do vírus da leprose dos citros (CiLV. Apesar do grande volume de informações sobre a sensibilidade de ácaros Phytoseiidae a agrotóxicos, praticamente não existem informações sobre o efeito desses compostos em ácaros Stigmaeidae no Brasil. Sendo assim, o trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito dos principais agrotóxicos utilizados em citros sobre o ácaro predador Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Acari: Stigmaeidae, em condições de laboratório. Arenas de folhas de citros da variedade Pera, contendo 25 fêmeas adultas de A. brasiliensis, foram pulverizadas em torre de Potter. Avaliaram-se as mortalidades dos ácaros 72 horas após a aplicação. O efeito dos produtos na reprodução do acarino e a viabilidade dos ovos também foram avaliados. Quanto à seletividade, conforme proposta da "Organização Internacional para o Controle Biológico" (IOBC, os produtos foram classificados como: classe 1 - inócuo (E99%, calda sulfocálcica, cyhexatin, flufenoxuron, hexythiazox, óxido de fenbutatin, propargite, pyridaben e spirodiclofen. Estudos conduzidos em condições de campo ainda são necessários para se compreender melhor o efeito desses agrotóxicos sobre o ácaro predador.The predaceous mites of the families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae are the most important natural enemies of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes on citrus. This mite causes serious damages to the yield due to the transmission of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV. Despite the considerable amount of information on susceptibility of phytoseiids to pesticides, the effect of these compounds is not very known for stigmaeid mites in Brazil. This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of the main pesticides used in

  16. 40 CFR 180.367 - n-Octyl bicycloheptenedi-carboximide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from dermal application, in food commodities as follows: Commodity Parts per million Cattle, fat 0.3 Goat, fat 0.3 Hog, fat 0.3 Horse, fat 0.3 Milk, fat 0.3 Sheep, fat 0.3 (2) N-octylbicycloheptene... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD...

  17. 40 CFR 180.450 - Beta-(4-Chlorophenoxy)-alpha-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol; tolerances for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beta-(4-Chlorophenoxy)-alpha-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol; tolerances for residues. 180.450 Section 180.450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1213 - Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1213 Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M... tolerance is established for residues of the microbial pesticide Coniothyrium minitans strain...

  19. Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute (SPRI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute (SPRI), established in 1963, is the first professional pesticide institute in China. After being approved by the Science & Technology Committee of PRC, it became the base for Shanghai Branch of National Pesticide R&D South center.

  20. Pesticides: A Community Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumstead, Cynthia, Ed.; And Others

    Developed to provide an introduction to the issues surrounding the use of chemical pesticides, this booklet encourages individuals and communities to become active in determining the safe use and regulation of pesticides. The major components of the guide include: (1) an explanation of the issue; (2) pesticides and their effect on human health;…

  1. A comparative study of allowable pesticide residue levels on produce in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neff Roni A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The U.S. imports a substantial and increasing portion of its fruits and vegetables. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration currently inspects less than one percent of import shipments. While countries exporting to the U.S. are expected to comply with U.S. tolerances, including allowable pesticide residue levels, there is a low rate of import inspections and few other incentives for compliance. Methods This analysis estimates the quantity of excess pesticide residue that could enter the U.S. if exporters followed originating country requirements but not U.S. pesticide tolerances, for the top 20 imported produce items based on quantities imported and U.S. consumption levels. Pesticide health effects data are also shown. Results The model estimates that for the identified items, 120 439 kg of pesticides in excess of U.S. tolerances could potentially be imported to the U.S., in cases where U.S. regulations are more protective than those of originating countries. This figure is in addition to residues allowed on domestic produce. In the modeling, the top produce item, market, and pesticide of concern were oranges, Chile, and Zeta-Cypermethrin. Pesticides in this review are associated with health effects on 13 body systems, and some are associated with carcinogenic effects. Conclusions There is a critical information gap regarding pesticide residues on produce imported to the U.S. Without a more thorough sampling program, it is not possible accurately to characterize risks introduced by produce importation. The scenario presented herein relies on assumptions, and should be considered illustrative. The analysis highlights the need for additional investigation and resources for monitoring, enforcement, and other interventions, to improve import food safety and reduce pesticide exposures in originating countries.

  2. Om tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Begrebet tolerance og dets betydninger diskuteres med henblik på en tydeliggørelse af begrebets forbindelse med stat, religion, ytringsfrihed, skeptisk erkendelsesteori, antropologi og pædagogik.......Begrebet tolerance og dets betydninger diskuteres med henblik på en tydeliggørelse af begrebets forbindelse med stat, religion, ytringsfrihed, skeptisk erkendelsesteori, antropologi og pædagogik....

  3. Om tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Begrebet tolerance og dets betydninger diskuteres med henblik på en tydeliggørelse af begrebets forbindelse med stat, religion, ytringsfrihed, skeptisk erkendelsesteori, antropologi og pædagogik.......Begrebet tolerance og dets betydninger diskuteres med henblik på en tydeliggørelse af begrebets forbindelse med stat, religion, ytringsfrihed, skeptisk erkendelsesteori, antropologi og pædagogik....

  4. 40 CFR 180.1101 - Parasitic (parasitoid) and predatory insects; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... insects; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1101 Section 180.1101 Protection of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1101 Parasitic (parasitoid) and predatory insects; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Parasitic (parasitoid) and predatory...

  5. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the NPDES...

  6. 75 FR 3235 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products... Applications EPA received applications as follows to register pesticide products containing active ingredients...

  7. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  8. Bioeconomic Analysis of Pesticide Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Moffitt, L. Joe; Farnsworth, Richard L.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of insects to develop resistance to specific pesticides affects pesticide demand. However, the affect of resistance on demand cannot be observed or measured. This analysis substitutes an expression for the unobserved resistance variable in a pesticide demand model and then illustrates the model's potential by estimating demand for DDT. To arrive at the expression characterizing the unobserved resistance variable a biological resistance model is constructed then incorporated into t...

  9. Pesticide exposure--Egyptian scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2004-05-20

    Pesticides have contributed to dramatic increases in crop yields and in the quantity and variety of the diet. Also, they have helped to limit the spread of certain diseases. But pesticides have harmful effects; they can cause injury to human health as well as to the environment. The range of these adverse health effects includes acute and persistent injury to the nervous system, lung damage, injury to the reproductive organs, dysfunction of the immune and endocrine systems, birth defects, and cancer. Problems associated with pesticide hazards to man and the environment are not confined to the developing countries. Developed nations have already suffered these problems, and still facing some problems in certain locations. For many reasons, the severity of pesticide hazards is much pronounced in Third World Countries. A number of long persistent organochlorines and highly toxic organophosphates, which have been banned or severely restricted, are still marketed and used in many developing countries. The misuse of pesticides by concerned individuals, in addition to lack of or weak national controlling plans are behind the outbreak of adverse effects in developing countries. Since about 25 years, the use of DDT and many other organochlorine pesticides in Egyptian agriculture has been banned. However, these long persistent compounds are still detectable in many different types of environmental samples (e.g., water, fish, sediment, vegetables, fruits, milk, foodstuffs, etc.). Large number of compounds known as "extremely hazardous", "highly hazardous", "probable human carcinogenic", and "possible human carcinogenic", are listed among the pesticides registered and recommended for use in Egypt during the season of 2001/2002. The present article deals with: trends and patterns of pesticide use, impact of pesticides on human health, factors contributing to pesticide risks, environmental impacts of pesticides, and bioaccumulation of pesticide residues in food; giving special

  10. Modelling pesticides residues

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of a specific method to assess the presence of residues in agricultural commodities. The following objectives are formulated: to identify and describe main processes in environment — plant exchanges, to build of a model to assess the residue concentration at harvest in agricultural commodities, to understand the functioning of the modelled system, to characterise pesticides used in field crops and identify optimisation potentials in phytosanitary...

  11. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  12. Electronic Submissions of Pesticide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications for pesticide registration can be submitted electronically, including forms, studies, and draft product labeling. Applicants need not submit multiple electronic copies of any pieces of their applications.

  13. NAFTA Guidance Document on Data Requirements for Tolerances on Imported Commodities in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to provide detailed guidance on data requirements that meet the North American Free Trade Agreement standards for the establishment of pesticide import tolerances or maximum residue levels in Canada and the United States.

  14. Towards Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper; Jurjen Iedema; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2013-01-01

    Across Europe, public attitudes towards lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals range from broad tolerance to widespread rejection. Attitudes towards homosexuality are more than mere individual opinions, but form part of the social and political structures which foster or hinder the equality

  15. Repressive Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Jarlbæk

    2016-01-01

    to an administrative culture of repressive tolerance of organised interests: authorities listen but only reacts in a very limited sense. This bears in it the risk of jeopardising the knowledge transfer from societal actors to administrative ditto thus harming the consultation institutions’ potential for strengthening...

  16. Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE). 1. Agricultural pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans HJB; Beek MA; Linders JBHJ

    1992-01-01

    In this report a risk assessment or evaluation system for agricultural pesticides is presented, which estimates the hazards for man and environment resulting from the use of these pesticides. The evaluation system has also been placed within the context of the Uniform System for the Evaluation

  17. Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE). 1. Agricultural pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans HJB; Beek MA; Linders JBHJ

    1992-01-01

    In this report a risk assessment or evaluation system for agricultural pesticides is presented, which estimates the hazards for man and environment resulting from the use of these pesticides. The evaluation system has also been placed within the context of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of

  18. 40 CFR 180.1291 - Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1291 Cold pressed neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the biochemical pesticide cold pressed neem oil are exempt from the requirement of a...

  19. Training Manual Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health and Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maden, van der E.C.L.J.; Koomen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in the horticulture sector. While emphasis is often on the correct and efficient application of pesticides, the risk associated with application of pesticides receives less attention. Those working with pesticides need to know about occupational pesticide exposure and

  20. 77 FR 75855 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerance for Emergency Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    .... Empirical processing factors were used for apple, orange, grape and tomato juice, applesauce, and dried... the remaining processed commodities (where provided). ii. Cancer. Based on the data summarized in Unit IV.A., EPA has concluded that spirotetramat does not pose a cancer risk to humans. Therefore, a...

  1. 77 FR 20752 - Methyl Bromide; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... necessary to prevent the introduction of a plant pest into the United States or the dissemination of a plant... partition into organic vs. aqueous environments, and is therefore commonly used to predict the likelihood...). See the February 22, 2002, Residue Chemistry Chapter for the methyl bromide RED available in...

  2. 75 FR 56897 - S-metolachlor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... at the LOAEL in maternal animals. Cancer Metolachlor has been classified as a Group C carcinogen with... data, total EDWCs for peak and average surface water respectively are 219 ppb (78 ppb parent + 48 ppb metolachlor ESA+ 94 ppb metolachlor OA) and 119 ppb (18 ppb parent + 34 ppb metolachlor ESA+ 67 ppb...

  3. 78 FR 7266 - Alpha-Cypermethrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... reproduction studies with the cypermethrins, there was no evidence of increased qualitative or quantitative... increased quantitative or qualitative susceptibility was seen in the pyrethroid scientific literature... Confidential Business Information (CBI)) for inclusion in the public docket. Information not marked...

  4. 77 FR 26954 - 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... subchronic and chronic oral exposure were the liver, stomach and lung. Repeated oral exposure also resulted... mg/kg/ stomach lesions in 75% of the day. males and by slight sinusoidal histocytosis in the liver of... Agency used screening level water exposure models in the dietary exposure analysis and risk...

  5. 78 FR 38226 - Sulfoxaflor; Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ..., subgroup 4A 6.0 Leafy petiole, subgroup 4B 2.0 Milk 0.15 Nuts, tree, group 14 0.015 Onion, bulb, subgroup 3... Poultry, meat 0.01 Poultry, meat byproducts 0.01 Rapeseed, meal 0.50 Rapeseed subgroup 20A 0.40 Sheep, fat 0.10 Sheep, meat 0.15 Sheep, meat byproducts 0.40 Soybean, seed 0.20 Tomato, paste 2.60...

  6. 77 FR 41346 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ...). This listing is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide for readers regarding... evidence of carcinogenicity in two adequate rodent carcinogenicity studies, trinexapac-ethyl is not...: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd., Ft. Meade, MD...

  7. 77 FR 67282 - Dinotefuran; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers determine whether this... of carcinogenicity in two adequate rodent carcinogenicity studies, dinotefuran is not expected to... Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes Rd., Ft. Meade, MD 20755-5350; telephone...

  8. 76 FR 7707 - Fludioxonil; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... females seen in the 1-year dog feeding study. For food and water consumption, the chronic exposure to... years old, the most highly exposed population subgroup. iii. Cancer. Based on the available data, EPA... carcinogenicity, and poses a negligible cancer risk. Cancer studies with fludioxonil only showed marginal...

  9. 76 FR 22620 - Triflusulfuron-Methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... commodities to be consistent with current Agency policy and has made a technical correction to the chemical... toxicity study, decreased parental body weight/weight gain and offspring weight during lactation were... specific use patterns that would result in residential exposure. 4. Cumulative effects from substances with...

  10. 77 FR 8741 - Spirotetramat; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... is not registered for any specific use patterns that would result in residential exposure. 4... the same dose as parental toxicity. Therefore, no evidence of increased susceptibility of offspring... and because the current POD is considered ] extremely protective, an uncertainty factor (UF DB ) is...

  11. 75 FR 46847 - Halosulfuron-methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... listing is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to provide a guide for readers regarding entities...) by IR-4 Project Headquarters, 500 College Road East, Suite 201 W, Princeton, NJ 08549. The petition..., dried shelled, except soybean, subgroup 6C due to insufficient field trial data to support this...

  12. 78 FR 30213 - 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Classification System (NAICS) codes is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers... Road East, Suite 201W, Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition requested that 40 CFR 180.155 be amended by..., all forms degrade to the acid fairly quickly in the field and in biological systems. ] Therefore,...

  13. 76 FR 55814 - 2,4-D; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... grains, including wheat. It is used to make flour in a manner similar to wheat and other cereal grains... Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). However, because it is used to make flour in a manner similar to... teff be substituted in the livestock diet for other hays and silages; residues in meat, milk, poultry...

  14. 77 FR 48899 - Flutriafol; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... in 2011, cotton growers suffered 30- 66 percent yield losses in fields infested with cotton root rot. Fields infested with cotton root rot disease last year are expected to have even heavier losses this year... conditions cotton root rot fungus flourished on stressed cotton plants to reduce yields and produce...

  15. 77 FR 66715 - Fluridone; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... exemption under section 18 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) authorizing... consumption information from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 and 1998 Nationwide... Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization food standards program, and it is recognized as...

  16. 76 FR 56644 - Sulfur Dioxide; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... fruits (excluding dark raisins and prunes), lemon and lime juices, wine, molasses, and sauerkraut juice... scenario is considered ``worst-case,'' in that it assumes the ventilation stack is at the edge of...

  17. 77 FR 26456 - Carfentrazone-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... enzyme in heme biosynthesis and its inhibition can lead toxic effects where heme is utilized (e.g., red... histopathology findings consisting of hepatic pigment deposition, hepatocytomegaly, single cell necrosis,...

  18. 77 FR 75560 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances, Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)(3)(B)) provides that, when an agency for good cause finds... follows: PART 180-- 0 1. The authority citation for part 180 continues to read as follows: Authority: 21...

  19. 78 FR 36677 - Triforine, Pesticide Tolerances; Technical Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)(3)(B)) provides that, when an agency for good cause finds... 180-- 0 1. The authority citation for part 180 continues to read as follows: Authority: 21 U.S.C....

  20. 75 FR 8256 - Nicosulfuron; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to assist you and others in determining whether this...-2009-0569. B. Exposure Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary... increased susceptibility observed following in utero nicosulfuron exposure to rats or rabbits in the...

  1. 77 FR 72223 - Clodinafop-Propargyl; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... observed only in males at the highest treatment-dose (71 mg/kg/day), and were fully reversed after a 4-week... requirements. Dated: November 27, 2012. G. Jeffrey Herndon, Acting Director, Registration Division, Office of...

  2. 76 FR 7712 - Clothianidin; Time-Limited Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... subgroups of consumers, including infants and children. EPA considered the toxicity of clothianidin as well... differences in the binding affinity of the neonicotinoids towards these receptors which, in turn, confers the...

  3. 77 FR 4248 - Cyazofamid; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... effect expected in a lifetime. For more information on the general principles EPA uses in risk.../ultraviolet/detector (HPLC/UV) method (``Independent Laboratory Validation of the Residue Method for...

  4. 76 FR 38033 - Cloquintocet-mexyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... listed in the docket index available at http://www.regulations.gov . Although listed in the index, some... methods may be requested from: Chief, Analytical Chemistry Branch, Environmental Science Center, 701 Mapes... follows: PART 180-- 0 1. The authority citation for part 180 continues to read as follows: Authority: 21...

  5. 76 FR 82152 - Cyhalofop-butyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and tick control on pets). Cyhalofop-butyl is not registered for any specific use patterns that would result in... for infants and children in the case of threshold effects to account for prenatal and postnatal...

  6. 77 FR 59561 - Sulfoxaflor; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... are uniquely sensitive to perturbation of the muscular nicotinic receptor by sulfoxaflor, leading to sustained muscle contraction and increased neonatal deaths. Supporting studies indicate that...

  7. 77 FR 48902 - S-Metolachlor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... parental or reproductive toxicity. There are no residual uncertainties with regard to pre- and/or postnatal..., 2010 (75 FR 56899) (FRL-8842-3). C. Exposure Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In... Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII), 1994-1996 and 1998. As to residue levels in food...

  8. 78 FR 53047 - Halosulfuron-methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to halosulfuron-methyl, EPA considered... Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model--Food Consumption Intake Database (DEEM-FCID, ver. 3.16), which... residual uncertainties for prenatal toxicity in both rats and rabbits for the following reasons: i. In both...

  9. 77 FR 12740 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to trinexapac-ethyl... Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII). As to residue levels in food, EPA assumed that residues are present..., EPA's concern for these effects is low, and there are no residual uncertainties since the effects only...

  10. 77 FR 71555 - Halosulfuron-Methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Assessment 1. Dietary exposure from food and feed uses. In evaluating dietary exposure to halosulfuron-methyl... of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 and 1998 Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals... concern for these effects is low, and there are no residual uncertainties for prenatal toxicity in rats...

  11. 78 FR 29049 - Streptomycin; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    .... Antibiotic resistance risk. EPA estimated the potential for development of antibiotic resistance in... tuberculosis and used for several other bacterial diseases. However, based upon the limitations of the use... million (ppm) and dried grapefruit pulp at 0.40 ppm. Streptomycin is an antibiotic of the aminoglycoside...

  12. 76 FR 23898 - Mefenpyr-diethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ...-dihydro-5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3,5- dicarboxylic acid, diethyl ester) and its dichlorophenyl-pyrazoline...,5- dihydro-5-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3,5-dicarboxylic acid, diethyl ester) and its dichlorophenyl...-pyrazole-3,5-dicarboxylic acid, diethyl ester) and its 2,4-dichlorophenyl-pyrazoline...

  13. 76 FR 5696 - Fluazifop-P-butyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Developmental Toxicity in 50 years of age). kilograms/day (mg/kg/day) aPAD = 0.50mg/kg/day...... Rats. UFA = 10x... (All NOAEL= 0.74 mg/kg/day..... Chronic RfD = 0.0074 mg/kg/ 2-generation Reproduction populations). UFA............ Developmental Toxicity in to 30 days). UFA = 10x Rats. UFH = 10x Maternal LOAEL = 300 mg/ FQPA SF = 1x...

  14. 76 FR 31479 - Pyraflufen-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... LOAEL = UFA = 10x kg/day. 98 mg/kg/day based on liver UFH = 10x cPAD = 0.2 mg/kg/day. toxicity. FQPA SF....... Developmental Toxicity-Rabbit 30 days). UFA = 10x LOAEL = 60 mg/kg/day based on UFH = 10x decreases in body...). UFA= 10x 98 mg/kg/day based on liver UFH= 10x toxicity at interim FQPA SF = 1x............

  15. 76 FR 5711 - Bispyribac-sodium; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA). DATES: This regulation is effective February 2, 2011. Objections.... (includes FQPA SF = Rabbit Maternal LOAEL = 300 mg/kg/ 1X). day based on lethargy, diarrhea and decreased... MOE = 100 day based on lethargy, diarrhea absorption rate = (Residential, and decreased...

  16. Sampling strategies for estimating acute and chronic exposures of pesticides in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires that human exposure to pesticides through drinking water be considered when establishing pesticide tolerances in food. Several systematic and seasonally weighted systematic sampling strategies for estimating pesticide concentrations in surface water were evaluated through Monte Carlo simulation, using intensive datasets from four sites in northwestern Ohio. The number of samples for the strategies ranged from 4 to 120 per year. Sampling strategies with a minimal sampling frequency outside the growing season can be used for estimating time weighted mean and percentile concentrations of pesticides with little loss of accuracy and precision, compared to strategies with the same sampling frequency year round. Less frequent sampling strategies can be used at large sites. A sampling frequency of 10 times monthly during the pesticide runoff period at a 90 km 2 basin and four times monthly at a 16,400 km2 basin provided estimates of the time weighted mean, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentile concentrations that fell within 50 percent of the true value virtually all of the time. By taking into account basin size and the periodic nature of pesticide runoff, costs of obtaining estimates of time weighted mean and percentile pesticide concentrations can be minimized.

  17. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide Laws--2002 Update: A Review…

  18. TESTING SIDE-EFFECTS OF COMMON PESTICIDES ON A. SWIRSKII UNDER GREENHOUSE CIRCUMSTANCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenaert, J; Vissers, M; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    If a grower uses predatory mites, and should use chemical compounds, he needs to be very careful in his choice of products. The selected products have to be efficient against the target pest and at the same time compatible with the present beneficial's. Useful tools for such product selection under greenhouse circumstances are side effects lists. These lists are freely available on the websites of producing companies of biological control agents. But not all products (e.g. newly developed ones) have been tested for side effects. Moreover the information already available in these tables is not based on field tests. For this reason, we have developed a protocol for quick screening of side effects of chemical plant protection products under field conditions. For these experiments we have chosen the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii as test organism, because this is an often used phytoseiid mite, which is very sensitive to pesticides. Hibiscus rosa sinensis is the standard reference plant in our side effects trials because the chosen predatory mite has shown very good control of pests on this plant species. The experimental design consists of eight test objects in 4 replications. Test object 1 is a positive reference (water spray) and test object 2 a negative reference (deltamethrin spray, a product with long residual activity against beneficial organisms). The plot size is 0,68 m2 and each plot contains 32 Hibiscus plants. The greenhouse temperature is set at 20±2°C. The test strategy has the following sequence: introduction of an overdose of Amblyseius swirskii mites 14 days before spraying the pesticides > precount of predatory mites 4 days before application (4DBA) > spray application (A) for the 6 test products and for the 2 references > counting's after application (1, 2, 4, 8 en 12 weeks after application = 1 till 12WAA). The counting's of the number of predatory mites are performed on 20 Hibiscus leaves/plot under a binocular. Because of the absence of any

  19. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus Reduces Organophosphate Pesticide Absorption and Toxicity to Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinder, Mark; McDowell, Tim W; Daisley, Brendan A; Ali, Sohrab N; Leong, Hon S; Sumarah, Mark W; Reid, Gregor

    2016-10-15

    Organophosphate pesticides used in agriculture can pose health risks to humans and wildlife. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus, a genus of commensal bacteria, would reduce absorption and toxicity of consumed organophosphate pesticides (parathion and chlorpyrifos [CP]). Several Lactobacillus species were screened for toleration of 100 ppm of CP or parathion in MRS broth based on 24-h growth curves. Certain Lactobacillus strains were unable to reach stationary-phase culture maxima and displayed an abnormal culture morphology in response to pesticide. Further characterization of commonly used, pesticide-tolerant and pesticide-susceptible, probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) and L. rhamnosus strain GR-1 (LGR-1), respectively, revealed that both strains could significantly sequester organophosphate pesticides from solution after 24-h coincubations. This effect was independent of metabolic activity, as L. rhamnosus GG did not hydrolyze CP and no difference in organophosphate sequestration was observed between live and heat-killed strains. Furthermore, LGR-1 and LGG reduced the absorption of 100 μM parathion or CP in a Caco-2 Transwell model of the small intestine epithelium. To determine the effect of sequestration on acute toxicity, newly eclosed Drosophila melanogaster flies were exposed to food containing 10 μM CP with or without supplementation with live LGG. Supplementation with LGG simultaneously, but not with administration of CP 3 days prior (prophylactically), mitigated CP-induced mortality. In summary, the results suggest that L. rhamnosus may be useful for reducing toxic organophosphate pesticide exposure via passive binding. These findings could be transferable to clinical and livestock applications due to affordability and practical ability to supplement products with food-grade bacteria. The consequences of environmental pesticide pollution due to widespread usage in agriculture and soil leaching are becoming a

  20. PESTICIDE APPLICATION TECHNICS IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Banaj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Pesticide application tehnics improvement is the result of several-year recording theoretical models, numerous practical tests, and data collection relating to technical systems in plant protection and its environment in the narrowest sense. In this first edition, the authors cover the area they have dealt with for many years. The authors aimed to present complete and clear methods how to solve specific problems in the agricultural practice management, plant protection, and direct practice application – ‘‘Know- How'', with as many as possible useful data. References used, along with local ones, are mostly American and from Western Europe. This textbook is intended for those who already use the agricultural technique in plant protection and those who are just acquiring the basics of technical systems proper application in daily practice, regardless the size of the agricultural farm. The authors covered in details and explained some bases of physics logic, analysis, and synthesis of specific laws while using pesticides due to extremely importance in understanding the problem area.

  1. Health and environmental hazards of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyaniwura, T T

    1991-01-01

    The increase in world population and in demand for food and economic crops has put a pesticide burden on man and the environment. Pesticide residues from vector control and agricultural uses contaminate the terrestrial and aquatic surroundings and contribute to the pollution problem of the environment. Various human toxicoses have resulted from pesticide use. The major pathogenic pesticides are chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphates. With careful and enlightened use, pesticide toxicity, to both man and the environment, could be significantly reduced.

  2. Biodegradation and Utilization of Organophosphorus Pesticide Malathion by Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three strains of filamentous Cyanobacteria were used to study their growth and utilization of organophosphorus pesticide malathion. A sharp decrease in the growth of the algal strains was observed by increasing the concentration of malathion. Amongst them Nostoc muscorum tolerated different concentrations and was recorded as the highest efficient strain for biodegradation (91% of this compound. Moreover, carbohydrate and protein content of their cells overtopped the other strains especially at higher concentrations. The algal strains were further subjected to grow under P-limitation in absence and presence of malathion. Although, the algal growth under P-limitation recorded a very poor level, a massive enhanced growth and phosphorous content of cells were obtained when the P-limited medium was amended with malathion. This study clarified that N. muscorum with its capability to utilize malathion as a sole phosphorous source is considered as an inexpensive and efficient biotechnology for remediation of organophosphorus pesticide from contaminated wastewater.

  3. Analytical methods for detecting pesticide switches with evolution of pesticide resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Juan J. Nieto; Cheke, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    After a pest develops resistance to a pesticide, switching between different unrelated pesticides is a common management option, but this raises the following questions: (1) What is the optimal frequency of pesticide use? (2) How do the frequencies of pesticide applications affect the evolution of pesticide resistance? (3) How can the time when the pest population reaches the economic injury level (EIL) be estimated and (4) how can the most efficient frequency of pesticide applications be dete...

  4. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  5. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PPIS includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status for all products registered in the U.S.

  6. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution Particulate Matter Ozone Chemicals Chemicals Home Mercury Lead Arsenic Volatile Organic Compounds Plastics Pesticides Climate Change Climate Change Home What is Climate Change Greenhouse ...

  7. Consumer Products Treated with Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many products (e.g., cutting boards, kitchen sponges, cat litter, toothbrushes and juvenile toys) are being treated with antimicrobial pesticides. Learn about requirements that apply to such products.

  8. Pesticides to Control Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 300 pesticide products in seven chemical classes are registered with EPA, meaning EPA has evaluated their safety and effectiveness: pyrethins, pyrethroids, desiccants, biochemicals, pyrroles, neonicotinoids, and insect growth regulators.

  9. In Case of Pesticide Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Call the Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222 for help with first aid information. The ... Health Land, Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By ...

  10. KINETICS OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF LOW LEVEL PESTICIDE WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are chemical substances intended to protect food crops and livestock from pests in order to pro-mote agricultural productivity and protect public health. Contamination of soil, air and water and threat to human and animal health are the major constraints in the use of pesticides. Treatment of pesticide contaminated water is, therefore, paramount. Biological treatment provides the most economical option when compared to other treatment methods. The aim of the study was to develop a safe and effective in the farm biological treatment for low level agricultural pesticide wastewater. The degradation of the fungicide captan was evaluated under batch and continuous modes of operation with a retention time of 15 days. The initial cell number (30.1ח106 cells/mL in the soil water mixture first declined with time during the 24 h reaching 15.6ח106 and 11.1ח106 cells/mL in the batch and continuous bioreactors, respectively. This was due to the inhibitory effect of pesticide on some of the soil microbial species that had less tolerance to captan at the initial concentration of 144 mg L-1. Then, the microbial population started growing, reaching its maximum after 5 and 12 days from the start in the batch and continuous bioreactors, respectively. The lag period and the specific growth rate for the batch bioreactor were 22 h and 0.096 h-1, respectively. A captan degradation efficiency of 89.6% was achieved after 10 days in the continuous bioreactor compared to a degradation efficiency of 100% after 5 d in the batch bioreactor. This study showed that the effluent from the continuous bioreactor has a captan concentration of 12 mg L-1 which is not acceptable for livestock water according to Health Canada Guidelines. A half life of 52 h is observed in the batch bioreactor.

  11. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues.

  12. Hair as a marker for pesticides exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Baker, Charlotte; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2011-01-01

    Rats were orally treated with mixtures of chlorinated pesticides. Hair was collected and analyzed for pesticide residues over a period of up to four weeks. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the recovered pesticides in hair were determined using gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Results suggest that hair can be used as a biomarker for the monitoring of organochlorinated pesticide residues at low parts per billion levels. Chlorinated pesticides were also detected in human hair of environmentally exposed and occupationally exposed individuals, which indicates that hair can be used for monitoring pesticides exposure.

  13. 77 FR 15015 - Revocation of Tolerance Exemptions for Diethyl Phthalate and Methyl Ethyl Ketone; No Data Being...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Revocation of Tolerance Exemptions for Diethyl Phthalate and Methyl Ethyl Ketone... diethyl phthalate and methyl ethyl ketone when used as inert ingredients in pesticide products because... tolerance exemptions for residues of diethyl phthalate and methyl ethyl ketone in or on raw agricultural...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1067 - Methyl eugenol and malathion combination; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methyl eugenol and malathion... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1067 Methyl eugenol and malathion combination; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The insect attractant methyl eugenol and...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1279 - Zucchini yellow mosaic virus-weak strain; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zucchini yellow mosaic virus-weak strain; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1279 Section 180.1279 Protection of... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1279 Zucchini yellow mosaic virus—weak...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1120 - Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1120 Streptomyces sp. strain K61; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biological pesticide Streptomyces sp. strain K61 is exempted from the...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1161 - Clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clarified hydrophobic extract of neem... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1161 Clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil...

  18. Effects of pesticides on plant growth promoting traits of Mesorhizobium strain MRC4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munees Ahemad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effect of selected pesticides [herbicides (metribuzin and glyphosate, insecticides (imidacloprid and thiamethoxam and fungicides (hexaconazole, metalaxyl and kitazin] at recommended and higher dose rates on plant growth promoting activities of the Mesorhizobium sp. isolated from chickpea-nodules. A total of 50 rhizobial strains recovered from the nodules of chickpea root systems were identified following morphological, biochemical and host-specificity tests and tested for pesticide-tolerance. Among these strains, the Mesorhizobium sp. strain MRC4 was specifically selected due to the highest tolerance levels for all selected pesticides and the maximum production of plant growth promoting substances. Strain MRC4 produced indole acetic acid (44 μg ml−1, siderophores [salicylic acid (35 μg ml−1 and 2,3-dihydroxy benzoic acid (19 μg ml−1], exo-polysaccharides (21 μg ml−1, HCN and ammonia. Under pesticide-stress, pesticide-concentration dependent progressive-decline in all plant growth promoting traits of the Mesorhizobium sp. strain MRC4 exposed was observed except for exo-polysaccharides which consistently increased with exceeding the concentration of each pesticide from recommended dose. For instance, hexaconazole at three times the recommended dose elicited the maximum stress on siderophore-biosynthesis by the Mesorhizobium sp. strain MRC4 and decreased salicylic acid and DHBA by 40% and 47%, respectively and the greatest stimulatory effect on exo-polysaccharides secretion was shown by imidacloprid which stimulated the Mesorhizobium sp. strain MRC4 to secrete EPS by 38%, compared to control. Generally, the maximum toxicity to plant growth promoting traits of Mesorhizobium was shown by glyphosate, thiamethoxam and hexaconazole, at three times the recommended rate among herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, respectively. This study revealed an additional aspect of the toxicological

  19. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides... required to support registration of biochemical pesticides. Sections 158.2080 through 158.2084 identify...

  20. 40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides data requirements...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2110 Microbial pesticides data requirements. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1) The following § 158.2120 through §...

  1. 40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides classified for restricted...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted use. The following uses of pesticide products containing the...

  2. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2100 Microbial pesticides definition and applicability. (a) This subpart applies to all living or dead microbial pesticides as...

  3. Pesticide Degrading Bacteria in Aquatic Environment: Bioprospecting and Evaluation of Biotechnological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rodrigues dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides play an important role in the increase of productivity in agro-industry and the extensive use of these substances cause environmental, economic and social damage in time. Microbial activity is an essential part in the dynamics and the destination of pesticides in the environment. This research focuses in prospecting and characterizing bacterial strains which are potentially able to degrade/tolerate Atrazine, Chlorpyrifos, Methyl parathion and Picloram. Bacteria were isolated from water samples collected according to the degree of salinity along the Pacoti River's estuary (Ceara, located in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. A total of 49 bacterial strains were isolated, all of which tolerated/ downgraded concentrations up to 200mg/L of picloram, atrazine and methyl parathion. Tested in pesticide mixtures, the percentage and tolerance level showed that 73% grew in concentrations up to 200mg/L, 17,4% tolerated/ downgraded up to 150ml/L and the remainder only grew in concentrations under 100ml/L. The strains which had the best performance against pesticides, by points, were P1 (13Db e 14D; P2 (10E; P3 (2M, 9M, 10M, 12Mb, 14M, 17M 18Mp 19M e 20M. A high percentage of isolates (67% expressed luminescence when exposed to the pesticides atrazine and methyl parathion in concentrations between 150 and 200ml/L. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i4.748

  4. 77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... relationship between EPA-approved labels for pesticides registered under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide... AGENCY Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for.... SUMMARY: The Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice)...

  5. Immunotoxicity of organophosphorous pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tamara; Handy, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This study reviews the toxic effects of organophosphate (OP) pesticides on the immune systems and immune functions of invertebrates, fish, and higher vertebrate wildlife. The fundamental features and mechanisms of OP-induced immunotoxicity are illustrated with reference to parathion, chlorpyrifos, malathion, and diazinon. Immunotoxicity may be direct via inhibition of serine hydrolases or esterases in components of the immune system, through oxidative damage to immune organs, or by modulation of signal transduction pathways controlling immune functions. Indirect effects include modulation by the nervous system, or chronic effects of altered metabolism/nutrition on immune organs. Immunotoxicities are varied and include pathology of immune organs, and decreased humoral and/or cell mediated immunity. Altered non-specific immunity, decreased host resistance, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity are also features of immunotoxicity; although not all of these have been conclusively demonstrated in terms of pollutant exposure and immunotoxic effects in wildlife within individual experiments. Immunotoxicological biomarkers and biological monitoring tools are urgently needed to assess the extent of immunotoxicity in wildlife. Selection of universal biomarkers is hampered by the physiological diversity of immune systems in animals. However, by drawing on evidence from human epidemiology and tiered approaches in mammalian immunotoxicity evaluation, a selection of generic biomarkers of immunotoxicity in animals is suggested. Priorities for future research are also identified.

  6. Pesticide Exposures May Alter Mouth Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162249.html Pesticide Exposures May Alter Mouth Bacteria Study of Washington farm workers finds alterations persist ... News) -- Pesticide exposure may change the makeup of bacteria in the mouths of farm workers, a new ...

  7. Pesticide risks around the home (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

  8. 75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products: Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products... comments by the comment period deadline identified. II. Registration Applications EPA received applications...

  9. 76 FR 38160 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an... hereby providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must...

  10. 75 FR 80490 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active... providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be...

  11. 76 FR 63298 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...] Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not... receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  12. 75 FR 23759 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an... providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be...

  13. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing... to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be received on or before December 27, 2010...

  14. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an... providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be...

  15. 75 FR 8939 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an... hereby providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must...

  16. Chiral Pesticides: Identification, Description and Environmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless...

  17. Assessing Human Health Risk from Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA protects human health and the environment by evaluating the risk associated with pesticides before allowing them to be used in the United States. Learn about the tools and processes used in risk assessment for pesticides.

  18. How We Engage Our Pesticide Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of EPA's pesticide program is directly connected to our efforts to engage all stakeholders. In addition to meetings on pesticide-specific actions, we sponsor advisory committees that include diverse, independent stakeholders.

  19. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    London, L.; Beseler, C.; Bouchard, M.F.; Bellinger, D.C.; Colosio, C.; Grandjean, P.; Harari, R.; Kootbodien, T.; Kromhout, H.; Little, F.; Meijster, T.; Moretto, A.; Rohlman, D.S.; Stallones L.

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and

  20. Chiral Pesticides: Identification, Description and Environmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless...

  1. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective ...

  2. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  3. Chronic dietary risk for pesticide residues in food in Brazil: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, E D; Souza, L C K R

    2004-11-01

    The objective was to conduct a dietary risk assessment of pesticides registered in Brazil up to 14 January 2004. The theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) was calculated for 275 compounds using the Brazilian maximum residue limits (MRL) and food consumption. The chronic dietary risk assessment was conducted by comparing the TMDI with the Brazilian acceptable daily intake (ADI) or, when not available, with the ADI from other sources. The TMDI was higher than the ADI (%ADI>100) in at least one Brazilian region for eight pesticides, including five organophosphorus insecticides. For these compounds, the higher TMDI (expressed as %ADI) ranged from 140 (metam sodium) to 14,000 (methyl bromide). Rice, beans, citrus and tomato were the commodities that contributed most to ingestion. Change in pesticide use patterns and the establishment of ADIs by the Brazilian government have reduced the number of compounds for which the TMDI exceeded the ADI in the last 4 years. Risk assessment methodology based on TMDI calculation, however, is conservative as it assumes that the food supply is always treated with all the registered pesticides for that crop and that one always consumes food containing residues at the tolerance level. Furthermore, for six compounds with TMDI exceeding the ADI, a more realistic estimation of the pesticide daily intake was conducted using monitoring residue data from the Brazilian National Pesticide Residue Program. For these compounds, the higher refined intakes ranged from 2% (dimethoate) to 180% (fenitrothion) of the ADIs. The implementation of a national pesticide residue monitoring programme by the government was important to allow the refinement of the risk assessment. However, adequate daily food consumption data are still needed to assess better the public health risk to Brazilian consumers from food produced from crops treated with pesticides.

  4. Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship and Risk Analysis of Some Pesticides in the Goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqir Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean+/-SEM levels (ppm of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34+/-0.007, 0.063+/-0.002, 0.034+/-0.002 and 0.092+/-0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW, melting point (MP, and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985 for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.

  5. Pesticide use in Vietnamese vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, P.V.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, Peter; Brink, van den P.J.; Huong, P.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam has had varying success over the past decade with its pesticides policy. Some of the most toxic pesticides have been banned from the market. But while many countries have successfully decreased agricultural pesticide use per hectare, this has not (yet) happened in Vietnam. Due to

  6. STUDY OF BACTERIAL RESISTANCE TO ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS PESTICIDES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nazarian and M. Mousawi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The broadness application of organophosphorus compounds has abounded the number of its polluted areas. Bioremediation has widely focused on insitu bacterial degradation of organophosphorus residues in the world. Therefore, in this research six numbers of samples from two different sources, soil and water randomly were isolated using different organophosphorus pesticides containing mineral solution without supplementation. More than 100 isolated strains were selected according to their simultaneous optimal growth on mineral medium with organophosphorus and Mac Conkey,s agar. More than 50 percent of them were lost above resistance. The resistant strains were identified by two methods, the biochemical convention and API 20E procedure with positive agreement. The identified strains belonged to Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium species. The maximum tolerant concentrations of different organophosphorus pesticides by these resistant strains were 2.5, 4 and 8 g/L of guthion, methyl parathion and Dimethoate, respectively. The resistance to these pesticides due to organ phosphorous degrading plasmids had the ability to express hydrolytic enzymes. Resistant bacteria lost these plasmids by acridin orange and could translocate to sensitive strains. Thus, certain environmental bacteria could be used as protection tools against antinerve agents.

  7. Potential and real residues of pesticides in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šovljanski Radmila A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Crops and their products can be contaminated either by direct application of pesticides for the protection of insects, acarives, agents of plant diseases and/or weeds, i.e. as the result of growing them on the soil containing pesticide residues applied in previous years. For the protection of sugar beet in our country, 23 insectisides, 17 fungicides and 18 herbicides have been registered. The pre-harvest interval (PHI ranges from 14 to 42 days i.e. they are provided by the time of application (PTA whereas the pre-harvest interval for herbicides ranges from 30 to 91 days and is ensured by the application period. Based on the results from the literature and on their own studies, the authors are of the opinion that the residues of the applied pesticides in sugar beet protection in accordance with the principles of good agricultural practice will be significantly lower than the maximum tolerable ammounts and that at the level from 1/4 to 1/10 of MRL. IT is necessary to emphasize the necessity of MRL determination both in leaves and in sugar loaf.in case they are used as animal feed.

  8. Impact of a pesticide cocktail (fenhexamid, folpel, deltamethrin) on the abundance of Glomeromycota in two agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; van Tuinen, Diederik; Chatagnier, Odile; Rouard, Nadine; Béguet, Jérémie; Kuszala, Catherine; Soulas, Guy; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2017-01-15

    . mosseae was the most tolerant taxon to pesticide exposure.

  9. 77 FR 50617 - Pesticide Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III; Revisions to General Tolerance Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... American Pistachio Growers trade association. III. Response to Comments In this section, EPA describes the... profitable minor crop. For these reasons, EPA concludes it would be appropriate to include Chinese jujube as.... EPA received one comment from the American Pistachio Growers trade association that supported...

  10. 75 FR 76284 - Pesticide Tolerance Crop Grouping Program II; Revisions to General Tolerance Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... standards are technical standards (e.g., materials specifications, test methods, and sampling procedures... spp. Pepper, nonbell, Capsicum chinese Jacq., 8-10B, 8-10C C. annuum L. var. annuum, C. frutescens L..., Cydonia oblonga Mill. Quince, Chinese, Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai, Quince, Japanese, Chaenomeles...

  11. 75 FR 807 - Pesticide Tolerance Crop Grouping Program II; Revision to General Tolerance Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ...) Milkweed, Asclepias spp. L.; (19) Mustard seed, Brassica hirta Moench, Sinapis alba L. subsp. alba; (20... pleasure; Hare's ear mustard; Lesquerella; Lunaria; Meadowfoam; Milkweed; Mustard seed; Oil radish; Poppy...

  12. Chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative damage is reduced under warming and predation risk: Explaining antagonistic interactions with a pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2017-07-01

    Interactions with pollutants and environmental factors are poorly studied for physiological traits. Yet physiological traits are important for explaining and predicting interactions at higher levels of organization. We investigated the single and combined impact of the pesticide chlorpyrifos, predation risk and warming on endpoints related to oxidative stress in the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum. We thereby integrated information on reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzymes and oxidative damage. All three treatments impacted the oxidative stress levels and for most traits the pesticide interacted antagonistically with warming or predation risk. Chlorpyrifos exposure resulted in increased ROS levels, decreased antioxidant defence and increased oxidative damage compared to the control situation. Under warming, the pesticide-induced increase in oxidative stress was less strong and the investment in antioxidant defence higher. Although both the pesticide and predation risk increased oxidative damage, the effects of the pesticide on oxidative damage were less strong in the presence of predator cues (at 20 °C). Despite the weaker pesticide-induced effects under predation risk, the combination of the pesticide and predator cues consistently caused the highest ROS levels, the lowest antioxidant defence and the highest oxidative damage, indicating the importance of cumulative stressor effects for impairing fitness. Our results provide the first evidence for antagonistic interactions of warming and predation risk with a pollutant for physiological traits. We identified two general mechanisms that may generate antagonistic interactions for oxidative stress: cross-tolerance and the maximum cumulative levels of damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution of Heavy Metals in the Soils Associated with the Commonly Used Pesticides in Cotton Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Rashid Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soils contain both heavy metals and pesticides originating from various agricultural practices. It is quite important to study the relationships between these two classes of compounds. To accomplish this, 52 soil samples were collected from cotton fields and analyzed for their metal contents (Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Cr, and Cd and levels of most commonly used pesticides (imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and emamectin. FAAS was used for metal estimation and the pesticides were determined by HPLC equipped with UV detector. The results of the study revealed slightly enhanced levels of Ni and Cd in these samples while the rest of the metals were present within tolerable range. Acetamiprid residues in soil were strongly positively correlated with Cu and negatively correlated with Cr. Similarly, imidacloprid in soil was negatively correlated with Ni. Thus it was evidenced that Cu stabilizes acetamiprid while Cr and Ni facilitate the degradation of acetamiprid and imidacloprid in the soil.

  14. Pesticide bioconcentration modelling for fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa

    2007-01-01

    The model presented allows simulating the pesticide concentration evolution in fruit trees and estimating the pesticide bioconcentration factor in fruits. Pesticides are non-ionic organic compounds that are degraded in soils cropped with woody species, fruit trees and other perennials. The model allows estimating the pesticide uptake by plants through the water transpiration stream and also the time in which maximum pesticide concentration occur in the fruits. The equation proposed presents the relationships between bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the following variables: plant water transpiration volume (Q), pesticide transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF), pesticide stem-water partition coefficient (K(Wood,W)), stem dry biomass (M) and pesticide dissipation rate in the soil-plant system (k(EGS)). The modeling started and was developed from a previous model "Fruit Tree Model" (FTM), reported by Trapp and collaborators in 2003, to which was added the hypothesis that the pesticide degradation in the soil follows a first order kinetic equation. The FTM model for pesticides (FTM-p) was applied to a hypothetic mango plant cropping (Mangifera indica) treated with paclobutrazol (growth regulator) added to the soil. The model fitness was evaluated through the sensitivity analysis of the pesticide BCF values in fruits with respect to the model entry data variability.

  15. Simulating pesticide transport in urbanized catchments: a new spatially-distributed dynamic pesticide runoff model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ting; Seuntjens, Piet; van Griensven, Ann; Bronders, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination in surface water. However, pesticide behaviours in urban areas, particularly on hard surfaces, are far less studied than those in agricultural areas. Pesticide application on hard surfaces (e.g. roadsides and walkways) is of particular concern due to the high imperviousness and therefore high pesticide runoff potential. Experimental studies have shown that pesticide behaviours on and interactions with hard surfaces are important factors controlling the pesticide runoff potential, and therefore the magnitude and timing of peak concentrations in surface water. We conceptualized pesticide behaviours on hard surfaces and incorporated the conceptualization into a new pesticide runoff model. The pesticide runoff model was implemented in a catchment hydrological model WetSpa-Python (Water and Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants and Atmosphere, Python version). The conceptualization for pesticide processes on hard surfaces accounts for the differences in pesticide behaviour on different hard surfaces. Four parameters are used to describe the partitioning and wash-off of each pesticide on hard surfaces. We tested the conceptualization using experimental dataset for five pesticides on two types of hard surfaces, namely concrete and asphalt. The conceptualization gave good performance in accounting for the wash-off pattern for the modelled pesticides and surfaces, according to quantitative evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and percent bias. The resulting pesticide runoff model WetSpa-PST (WetSpa for PeSTicides) can simulate pesticides and their metabolites at the catchment scale. Overall, it includes four groups of pesticide processes, namely pesticide application, pesticide interception by plant foliage, pesticide processes on land surfaces (including partitioning, degradation and wash-off on hard surface; partitioning, dissipation, infiltration and runoff in soil) and pesticide processes in

  16. Chiral Synthons in Pesticide Syntheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feringa, Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The use of chiral synthons in the preparation of enantiomerically pure pesticides is described in this chapter. Several routes to chiral synthons based on asymmetric synthesis or on natural products are illustrated. Important sources of chiral building blocks are reviewed. Furthermore the implicatio

  17. Pesticides, People, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2005-01-01

    If a teacher were to ask his/her students what they do when they find ants or other insects in their homes, their most common response would probably be, "Get the bug spray!" Because students are not only being exposed to pesticides but are also developing patterns of behavior likely to continue throughout their lives. Discussions about…

  18. Toleration, Groups, and Multiculturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    to the political and social relationship between the subject and the objects of toleration. Finally, toleration is often argued to be a normative requirement on the basis of the way it affects the object or receiver of toleration, e.g. on the basis of the good of or right to freedom from non-interference which......The chapter considers how groups might be relevant as objects of policies of toleration and the different senses 'group' might have in relation to questions of toleration. The chapter argues that groups can be relevant to toleration in several different ways as objects of toleration. Toleration...... is routinely defined as involving an objection component, a power requirement and an acceptance component. The objection and acceptance components refer to reasons or dispositions of the subjects of toleration, e.g. public authorities deciding how to act in relation to groups. The power condition refers...

  19. Health effect of agricultural pesticide use in China: implications for the development of GM crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Hu, Ruifa; Huang, Jikun; Huang, Xusheng; Shi, Guanming; Li, Yifan; Yin, Yanhong; Chen, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    It is notable that the adoption of GM glyphosate-tolerant crops increases glyphosate use but reduces non-glyphosate herbicide use; and adoption of GM insect-resistant crops significantly reduces insecticide use. While the health hazard of pesticide use has been well documented, little literature evaluates the health effects of different pesticides related to GM crops in an integrated framework. This study aims to associate the uses of different pesticides related to GM crops with the blood chemistry panel and peripheral nerve conduction of Chinese farmers. Pesticides used by farmers were recorded and classified as glyphosate, non-glyphosate herbicides, chemical lepidopteran insecticides, biological lepidopteran insecticides, non-lepidopteran insecticides and fungicides. The multivariate regression results show that none of the examined 35 health indicators was associated with glyphosate use, while the use of non-glyphosate herbicides was likely to induce renal dysfunction and decrease of serum folic acid. The use of chemical lepidopteran insecticides might be associated with hepatic dysfunction, serum glucose elevation, inflammation and even severe nerve damage. In this context, if GM crops are adopted, the alterations in pesticide use may benefit farmer health in China and globe, which has positive implications for the development of GM crops. PMID:27721390

  20. Pesticides and their effects on wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    About 560 active ingredients are currently used as pesticides. Applications of these pesticides are made to agricultural lands and other areas inhabited by wildlife. Unfortunately, many agricultural-use pesticides also entail some measure of risk to organisms other than the pest species. Because testing of pesticides prior to registration cannot evaluate all the potential environmental-pesticide-wildlife/fish interactions, current methods of risk assessment do not always provide sufficient safety to nontarget organisms. This is evidenced by die-offs of fish and wildlife from applications of pesticides at environmentally {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} rates, the linking of population declines of some species with agrochemical use, and observations of survival-threatening behavioral changes in laboratory and field animals exposed to typical field levels of pesticides. It is important to note, however, that the majority of pesticides, when properly applied, have not caused significant injury to wildlife. A brief summary of pesticide effects on wildlife and fish are presented for the common classes of pesticides in use today.

  1. The use and disposal of household pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Charlotte N B; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Golding, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed.

  2. 40 CFR 180.1202 - Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1202 Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticides, Bacillus sphaericus when used in or on all food crops....

  3. 40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a seed treatment in or on all food commodities. An exemption...

  4. 76 FR 19001 - Sulfuryl Fluoride; Addendum to Proposed Order Granting Objections to Tolerances and Denying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... treatments and for structural fumigation for which there is significant sulfuryl fluoride use and no readily... fluoride/fluoride tolerances for rice commodities associated with direct fumigation of rice that were... phosphine) rather than sulfuryl fluoride. (See Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances,...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1206 - Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1206 Aspergillus flavus AF36; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Aspergillus flavus AF36 in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, hulls; cotton, meal;...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1289 - Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1289 Candida oleophila Strain O; exemption from the requirement... the microbial pesticide, Candida oleophila Strain O, on apples and pears when applied/used as a post...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1253 - Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1253 Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108; exemption from the... the microbial pesticide Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108 when used in or on all agricultural...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1102 - Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2 (ATCC #20847) strain T-22; exemption from requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2 (ATCC... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1102 Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2... of a tolerance is established for residues of the biofungicide Trichoderma harzianum KRL-AG2...

  9. Lactose tolerance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen ...

  10. Fate of pesticides during beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Suga, Keiko; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-04-27

    The fates of more than 300 pesticide residues were investigated in the course of beer brewing. Ground malt artificially contaminated with pesticides was brewed via steps such as mashing, boiling, and fermentation. Analytical samples were taken from wort, spent grain, and beer produced at certain key points in the brewing process. The samples were extracted and purified with the QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe) method and were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a multiresidue method. In the results, a majority of pesticides showed a reduction in the unhopped wort and were adsorbed onto the spent grain after mashing. In addition, some pesticides diminished during the boiling and fermentation. This suggests that the reduction was caused mainly by adsorption, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. After the entire process of brewing, the risks of contaminating beer with pesticides were reduced remarkably, and only a few pesticides remained without being removed or resolved.

  11. AFFINITY OF THE ALLIGATOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR FOR SERUM PESTICIDE CONTAMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top predators, like the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) bioaccumulate and biomagnify persistent pollutants, such as organochlorine pesticides. In a recently published study, several pesticides and pesticide metabolites not previously reported in alligator eggs wer...

  12. A mobile App for military operational entomology pesticide applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated over 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treat...

  13. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... reduce negative health effects of pesticides in humans and prevent pesticide .... young current or recently graduated Ugandan students from Makerere ...... pesticides on Tanzanian small-scale coffee growers. J. Expo Anal ...

  14. Citizen's Guide to Pest Control and Pesticide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaches consumers how to control pests, choose, use, store, and dispose pesticides safely, reduce exposure when others use pesticides, prevent pesticide poisoning, handle an emergency, and how to choose a pest control company.

  15. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  16. The enzymatic basis for pesticide bioremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Colin; Pandey, Gunjan; Hartley, Carol J.; Jackson, Colin J.; Cheesman, Matthew J.; Taylor, Matthew C.; Pandey, Rinku; Khurana, Jeevan L.; Teese, Mark; Coppin, Chris W; Weir, Kahli M.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Lal, Rup; Russell, Robyn J.; Oakeshott, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes are central to the biology of many pesticides, influencing their modes of action, environmental fates and mechanisms of target species resistance. Since the introduction of synthetic xenobiotic pesticides, enzymes responsible for pesticide turnover have evolved rapidly, in both the target organisms and incidentally exposed biota. Such enzymes are a source of significant biotechnological potential and form the basis of several bioremediation strategies intended to reduce the environmen...

  17. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit Roig; Olivier Thomas; Aghleb Bartegi; Wissem Mnif; Aicha Bouaziz; Aziza Ibn Hadj Hassine

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soi...

  18. Pesticide burial grounds in Poland: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Manecki, Piotr

    2011-10-01

    Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20000 Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100000 Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues.

  19. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    J?rs, Erik; Gonz?les, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; dos Santos, Raquel A.; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; B?lum, Jesper; Lander, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated wit...

  20. 75 FR 74673 - Pesticides; Regulation To Clarify Labeling of Pesticides for Export; Notification to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 168 RIN 2070-AJ53 Pesticides; Regulation To Clarify Labeling of Pesticides for Export...(a) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). As described in the Agency's... specificity to existing labeling regulations for the export of unregistered pesticide products and...

  1. Pesticides: Benefaction or Pandora's Box? A synopsis of the environmental aspects of 243 pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders JBHJ; Jansma JW; Mensink BJWG; Otermann K; ACT

    1994-01-01

    The report provides an overview of physical, chemical and environmental data of 243 pesticides. The data mentioned are based on confidential information supplied by the manufacturers of the pesticides. For all pesticides mentioned a Final Environmental File, which is public, is derived. Tables with

  2. Analytical methods for detecting pesticide switches with evolution of pesticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Nieto, Juan J; Cheke, Robert A

    2013-10-01

    After a pest develops resistance to a pesticide, switching between different unrelated pesticides is a common management option, but this raises the following questions: (1) What is the optimal frequency of pesticide use? (2) How do the frequencies of pesticide applications affect the evolution of pesticide resistance? (3) How can the time when the pest population reaches the economic injury level (EIL) be estimated and (4) how can the most efficient frequency of pesticide applications be determined? To address these questions, we have developed a novel pest population growth model incorporating the evolution of pesticide resistance and pulse spraying of pesticides. Moreover, three pesticide switching methods, threshold condition-guided, density-guided and EIL-guided, are modelled, to determine the best choice under different conditions with the overall aim of eradicating the pest or maintaining its population density below the EIL. Furthermore, the pest control outcomes based on those three pesticide switching methods are discussed. Our results suggest that either the density-guided or EIL-guided method is the optimal pesticide switching strategy, depending on the frequency (or period) of pesticide applications.

  3. 75 FR 33705 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 156 RIN 2070-AJ74 Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling Compliance Date AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... December 16, 2010. This change is being made because there is insufficient time for pesticide registrants...

  4. Pesticides: Benefaction or Pandora's Box? A synopsis of the environmental aspects of 243 pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders JBHJ; Jansma JW; Mensink BJWG; Otermann K; ACT

    1994-01-01

    The report provides an overview of physical, chemical and environmental data of 243 pesticides. The data mentioned are based on confidential information supplied by the manufacturers of the pesticides. For all pesticides mentioned a Final Environmental File, which is public, is derived. Tables with

  5. 77 FR 64990 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue... Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC). EPA values and welcomes diversity. In an effort to obtain... American food supply, the education and protection from unreasonable risk of those who apply or are...

  6. 75 FR 13284 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue... to be considered for appointment to the Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC). EPA values and... American food supply, the education and protection from unreasonable risk of those who apply or are...

  7. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  8. Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  9. Occupational pesticide exposures and respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-11-28

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting.

  10. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health. PMID:21776230

  11. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ye

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting.

  12. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite, goet......, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral....

  13. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...... of the nominal feedback con-troller....

  14. Mechanical tolerance stackup and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Bryan R

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundDimensioning and TolerancingTolerance Format and Decimal PlacesConverting Plus/Minus Dimensions and Tolerances into Equal Bilaterally Toleranced DimensionsVariation and Sources of VariationTolerance AnalysisWorst-case Tolerance StackupsStatistical Tolerance StackupsGeometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)Converting Plus/Minus Tolerancing to Positional Tolerancing and Projected Tolerance ZonesDiametral and Radial Tolerance StackupsSpecifying Material Condition Modifiers and Their Effect on Tolerance Stackups The Tolerance Stackup SketchThe Tolerance Stackup Report FormTolerance S

  15. Compromise and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    Political compromise is akin to toleration, since both consist of an "agreement to disagree." Compromise and toleration also share a predicament of being regarded as ambiguous virtues that require of us to accept something we actually regard as wrong. However, we misunderstand the nature......, justification, and limits of compromise if we see it merely as a matter of toleration. While toleration is mainly a matter of accepting citizens' equal right to co-existence as subjects to law, political compromise includes the parties in making law – it makes them co-authors of law. Toleration entails...... respecting the plurality of conceptions of the good in society, whereas political compromise embodies the disagreements in coercive laws. This difference between toleration and compromise has two important consequences. First, political compromise is justified in a different manner than is toleration...

  16. Pesticide usage pattern in tea ecosystem, their retrospects and alternative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusubramanian, G; Rahman, A; Sarmah, M; Ray, Somnath; Bora, S

    2008-11-01

    Tea is a perennial plantation crop grown under monoculture providing favorable conditions for a variety of pests. The concept of pest control has undergone a considerable change over the past few decades. In recent years there has been a greater dependence on the use of pesticides (7.35-16.75 kgha(-1)) with little importance laid on other safe control methods for the management of tea pests. Due to this practice, the tea pests showed a higher tolerance/ resistance status due to formation of greater amount of esterases, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase. Thus, over reliance on pesticides end up with pesticide residue in made tea (DDT - 10.4-47.1%; endosulfan - 41.1-98.0%; dicofol- 0.0-82.4%; ethion - 0.0-36.2%; cypermethrin - 6.0- 45.1%). The growing concern about the pesticide residue in made tea, its toxicity hazards to consumers, the spiraling cost of pesticides and their application have necessitated a suitable planning which will ensure a safe, economic as well as effective pest management in tea. At present it is a global concern to minimize chemical residue in tea and European union and German law imposed stringent measures for the application of chemicals in tea and fixed MRL values at market at global level, central insecticide board and prevention of food adulteration regulation committee have reviewed the MRL position for tea and has recommended 10 insecticides, 5 acaricides, 9 herbicides and 5 fungicides for use in tea and issued the tea distribution and export control order 2005 which will help the country to limit the presence of undesirable substances in tea. This review attempts to provide the readers with a comprehensive account of pesticide use in North East in tea, surveillance report of the European community regarding the residue level in Assam and Darjeeling tea, recent amendments by international and national regulatory bodies, revised MRL values of pesticides in tea, an update about the current strategies for the management

  17. Pesticide poisoning in the developing world--a minimum pesticides list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eddleston, Michael; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Buckley, Nick

    2002-01-01

    In parts of the developing world, pesticide poisoning causes more deaths than infectious diseases. Use of pesticides is poorly regulated and often dangerous; their easy availability also makes them a popular method of self-harm. In 1985, the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) produced...... pesticides be restricted--where this has been done, suicide rates have fallen. Since an Essential Drugs List was established in 1977, use of a few essential drugs has rationalised drug use in many regions. An analogous Minimum Pesticides List would identify a restricted number of less dangerous pesticides...... a voluntary code of conduct for the pesticide industry in an attempt to limit the harmful effects of pesticides. Unfortunately, a lack of adequate government resources in the developing world makes this code ineffective, and thousands of deaths continue today. WHO has recommended that access to highly toxic...

  18. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self......-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. METHODS: The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed...... by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. RESULTS: Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5%) were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36). In 511 (76%) cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately outside...

  19. Pesticide biotransformation and fate in heterogeneous environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.P.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects and relative impacts of environmental variables on the behaviour of pesticides, through the effect on pesticide-degrading microorganisms, was studied in a broad spectrum and covered the most relevant emission routes. It is shown that the effect of landscape geochemistry, which i

  20. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to