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Sample records for hexian homo erectus

  1. The ESR dating of the Nanjing Homo erectus stratigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tiemei; Wu En; Yang Quan; Hu Yanqiu

    1997-01-01

    Five fossil tooth enamel samples collected from the stratum of the Nanjing Homo erectus were ESR dated. The average age is 355 +- 42 ka, based on the early uranium-uptake model. Additional uranium series measurement of fossil teeth confirms the appropriateness of the early uranium-uptake model for these ESR samples. Considering also the uranium-series ages of two calcite samples from the flow stone covering the fossil-containing stratum, an age value of 350 +- 50 ka for the Nanjing Homo erectus stratum is evaluated, which means that the Nanjing Homo erectus appeared in the late stage of Peking Man and also in the stage of human evolution earlier than Hexian Homo erectus

  2. A new Homo erectus (Zhoukoudian V) brain endocast from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiujie; Schepartz, Lynne A; Liu, Wu

    2010-01-22

    A new Homo erectus endocast, Zhoukoudian (ZKD) V, is assessed by comparing it with ZKD II, ZKD III, ZKD X, ZKD XI, ZKD XII, Hexian, Trinil II, Sambungmacan (Sm) 3, Sangiran 2, Sangiran 17, KNM-ER 3733, KNM-WT 15 000, Kabwe, Liujiang and 31 modern Chinese. The endocast of ZKD V has an estimated endocranial volume of 1140 ml. As the geological age of ZKD V is younger than the other ZKD H. erectus, evolutionary changes in brain morphology are evaluated. The brain size of the ZKD specimens increases slightly over time. Compared with the other ZKD endocasts, ZKD V shows important differences, including broader frontal and occipital lobes, some indication of fuller parietal lobes, and relatively large brain size that reflect significant trends documented in later hominin brain evolution. Bivariate and principal component analyses indicate that geographical variation does not characterize the ZKD, African and other Asian specimens. The ZKD endocasts share some common morphological and morphometric features with other H. erectus endocasts that distinguish them from Homo sapiens.

  3. Homo erectus in Salkhit, Mongolia?

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    Lee, Sang-Hee

    2015-08-01

    In 2006, a skullcap was discovered in Salkhit, Mongolia. The Salkhit skullcap has a mostly complete frontal, two partially complete parietals, and nasals. No chronometric dating has been published yet, and suggested dates range from early Middle Pleistocene to terminal Late Pleistocene. While no chronometric date has been published, the presence of archaic features has led to a potential affiliation with archaic hominin species. If it is indeed Homo erectus or archaic Homo sapiens, Salkhit implies a much earlier spread of hominins farther north and inland Asia than previously thought. In this paper, the nature of the archaic features in Salkhit is investigated. The Salkhit skullcap morphology and metrics were compared with Middle and Late Pleistocene hominin fossils from northeast Asia: Zhoukoudian Locality 1, Dali, and Zhoukoudian Upper Cave. Results show an interesting pattern: on one hand, the archaic features that Salkhit shares with the Zhoukoudian Locality 1 sample also are shared with other later hominins; on the other hand, Salkhit is different from the Middle Pleistocene materials in the same way later hominins differ from the Middle Pleistocene sample, in having a broader frontal and thinner supraorbital region. This may reflect encephalization and gracilization, a modernization trend found in many places. It is concluded that the archaic features observed in Salkhit are regionally predominant features rather than diagnostic features of an archaic species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. A geometric morphometric study of a Middle Pleistocene cranium from Hexian, China.

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    Cui, Yaming; Wu, Xinzhi

    2015-11-01

    The Hexian calvarium is one of the most complete and well-preserved Homo erectus fossils ever found in east Asia, apart from the Zhoukoudian specimens. Various methods bracket the age of the Hexian fossil to between 150 and 412 ka (thousands of years ago). The Hexian calvarium has been considered to be H. erectus given its morphological similarities to Zhoukoudian and Javan H. erectus. However, discussion continues regarding the affinities of the Hexian specimen with other H. erectus fossils. The arguments mainly focus on its relationships to other Asian H. erectus fossils, including those from both China and Java. To better determine the affinities of the Hexian cranium, our study used 3D landmark and semilandmark geometric morphometric techniques and multivariate statistical analyses to quantify the shape of the neurocranium and to compare the Hexian cranium to other H. erectus specimens. The results of this study confirmed the morphological similarities between Hexian and Chinese H. erectus in overall morphology, and particularly in the structure of the frontal bone and the posterior part of the neurocranium. Although the Hexian specimen shows the strongest connection to Chinese H. erectus, the morphology of the lateral neurocranium resembles early Indonesian H. erectus specimens, possibly suggesting shared common ancestry or gene flow from early Indonesian populations. Overall cranial and frontal bone morphology are strongly influenced by geography. Although geographically intermediate between Zhoukoudian and Indonesian H. erectus, the Hexian specimen does not form part of an obvious morphological gradient with regard to overall cranial shape. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Did Morality First Evolve in Homo erectus?

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    Margaret Boone Rappaport

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With findings from cognitive science, neuroscience, information science, and paleoanthropology, an anthropologist and astronomer-priest team take a new look at the nature of morality, and suggest parameters that are often very different from the philosophical and theological literatures. They see morality as a biologically-based arbitration mechanism that works along a timeline with a valence of good to bad. It is rational, purposeful, social, and affected by emotion but not dominated by it. The authors examine the age and sex structure, family roles, environment, cognition, and lifeway of Homo erectus, an early hominin who arose 1.9 million years ago, and propose that he had a rudimentary moral system that his biology and culture enabled – but only after he learned to control fire. Hearths gave rise to an intense, social, emotional, experiential context where belief systems could be learned by youth before they achieved adult cognition.

  6. Orsang Man: a robust Homo sapiens in Central India with Asian Homo erectus features

    OpenAIRE

    Dambricourt-Malassé, Anne; Raj, Rachna; Shah, Samit

    2013-01-01

    17th World Congress of the International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences "Evolving Humanity, Emerging Worlds", Manchester, August 5th-10th, 2013 Accepted preprint; A Homo sapiens calvarium recovered in a fluvial deposit of the Orsang River give evidence of genetic continuity between late Asian Homo erectus suggesting an Asian "like-cromagnoid" stadium in the evolutionary process. IRSL dating of the host sediments provided an age ranging from 50 to 30 ka. The interesting fea...

  7. Ecospaces occupied by Homo erectus and Homo sapiens in insular Southeast Asia in the Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertler, Christine; Haupt, Susanne; Volmer, Rebekka; Bruch, Angela

    2014-05-01

    Hominins migrated to the islands of the Sunda Shelf multiple times. At least two immigration events are evident, an early immigration of Homo erectus in the late Early Pleistocene and a second immigration of Homo sapiens during the Late Pleistocene. Regional environments changed considerably in the Pleistocene. Expansion patterns among hominins are at least co-determined by their ecologies and environmental change. We examine these expansion patterns on the basis of habitat reconstructions. Mammalian communities provide a geographically extensive record and permit to assess hominin ecospaces. Although chronological resolution is low, they represent the most complete record of habitat changes associated with hominin expansion patterns. In order to reconstruct and compare hominin ecospaces on a quantitative scale, we set up a reference sample consisting of mammalian communities of 117 national parks in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The diversity of such communities is assessed by ecological profiling of specialized herbivore taxa. Moreover, datasets on climate and vegetation correlate with the diversity structure of such specialized herbivore communities. Reconstructing the diversity structure of communities at key sites in Pleistocene Southeast Asia permits to infer features of the climatic and vegetation framework associated with different hominin taxa. Our results show that Homo erectus and Homo sapiens did not occupy similar ecospaces. The ecospace of Homo erectus is characterized by comparatively low diversity among frugivorous and folivorous taxa, while obligate grazers are part of the assemblages. Specialized herbivore communities with such a diversity structure occur at present in East Africa, while they are absent in Southeast Asia. In the reference sample, this type of ecospace corresponds to seasonal wetlands. Although Homo sapiens still inhabits this type of environment in Southeast Asia, his ecospace is wider. Homo sapiens is associated with

  8. A Comprehensive Exploration of Java Man: Bio-Cultural Evolution from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens

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    Samuel J Haryono

    2017-02-01

    An overlap of time period between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens has not been confirmed. In the history of man, there have been two missing links: one between man and ape, and one between progressive Homo erectus and archaic Homo sapiens.  Specimen dating on Java Man has been discrepant among research groups, and the use of molecular biology in ancient specimens has been a novelty. This study intends to use fossilised specimens, to harvest DNA to be sequenced for ribosomal DNA analysis for comparative phylogeny among ancient and modern man and other hominids. Dental calculus will be analysed to identify starch, carbohydrate, and protein to illustrate paleo dietary pattern. Soil samples will be examined for pollen and phytoliths to elaborate on ancient ecosystem. Blood samples will be procured from indigenous people along the riverflow region of Bengawan Solo to analyse modern human DNA. We hope that we may reconstruct the evolution pathway, construct the phylogenetic tree between ancient and modern hominids, and discover the uniqueness of Homo sapiens sapiens. Keywords: Java Man, Ribosomal DNA, Hominid Phylogenetic,

  9. Thickened cranial vault and parasagittal keeling: correlated traits and autapomorphies of Homo erectus?

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    Balzeau, Antoine

    2013-06-01

    Homo erectus sensu lato (s.l.) is a key species in the hominin fossil record for the study of human evolution, being one of the first species discovered and perhaps the most documented, but also because of its long temporal range and having dispersed out of Africa earlier than any other human species. Here I test two proposed autapomorphic traits of H. erectus, namely the increased thickness of the upper cranial vault and parasagittal keeling. The definition of these two anatomical features and their expression and variation among hominids are discussed. The results of this study indicate that the upper vault in Asian H. erectus is not absolutely thicker compared with fossil anatomically modern Homo sapiens, whereas Broken Hill and Petralona have values above the range of variation of H. erectus. Moreover, this anatomical region in Asian H. erectus is not significantly thicker compared with Pan paniscus. In addition, these results demonstrate that cranial vault thickness should not be used to make hypotheses regarding sexual attribution of fossil hominin specimens. I also show that the relation between relief on the external surface of the upper vault, parasagittal keeling and bregmatic eminence, and bone thickness is complex. In this context, the autapomorphic status of the two analysed traits in H. erectus may be rejected. Nevertheless, different patterns in the distribution of bone thickness on the upper vault were identified. Some individual variations are visible, but specificities are observable in samples of different species. The pattern of bone thickness distribution observed in Asian H. erectus, P. paniscus, possibly australopiths, and early Homo or Homo ergaster/erectus appears to be shared by these different species and would be a plesiomorphic trait among hominids. In contrast, two apomorphic states for this feature were identified for Neandertals and H. sapiens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Taxonomic differences in deciduous upper second molar crown outlines of Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis and Homo erectus.

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    Bailey, Shara E; Benazzi, Stefano; Souday, Caroline; Astorino, Claudia; Paul, Kathleen; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-07-01

    A significant number of Middle to Late Pleistocene sites contain primarily (and sometimes only) deciduous teeth (e.g., Grotta del Cavallo, Mezmaiskaya, Blombos). Not surprisingly, there has been a recent renewed interest in deciduous dental variation, especially in the context of distinguishing Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens. Most studies of the deciduous dentition of fossil hominins have focused on standard metrical variation but morphological (non-metric and morphometric) variation also promises to shed light on long standing taxonomic questions. This study examines the taxonomic significance of the crown outline of the deciduous upper second molar through principal components analysis and linear discriminant analysis. We examine whether or not the crown shape of the upper deciduous second molar separates H. neanderthalensis from H. sapiens and explore whether it can be used to correctly assign individuals to taxa. It builds on previous studies by focusing on crown rather than cervical outline and by including a large sample of geographically diverse recent human populations. Our samples include 17 H. neanderthalensis, five early H. sapiens, and 12 Upper Paleolithic H. sapiens. In addition, we include two Homo erectus specimens in order to evaluate the polarity of crown shape differences observed between H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. Our results show that crown outline shape discriminates H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis quite well, but does not do well at distinguishing H. erectus from H. sapiens. We conclude that the crown outline shape observed in H. sapiens is a primitive retention and that the skewed shape observed in H. neanderthalensis is a derived condition. Finally, we explore the phylogenetic implications of the results for the H. erectus molars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Venturing out safely: The biogeography of Homo erectus dispersal out of Africa.

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    Carotenuto, F; Tsikaridze, N; Rook, L; Lordkipanidze, D; Longo, Laura; Condemi, Silvana; Raia, P

    2016-06-01

    The dispersal of Homo erectus out of Africa at some 1.9 million years ago is one of the most important, crucial, and yet controversial events in human evolution. Current opinions about this episode expose the contrast between those who see H. erectus as a highly social, cooperative species seeking out new ecological opportunities to exploit, and those preferring a passive, climate driven explanation for such an event. By using geostatistics techniques and probabilistic models, we characterised the ecological context of H. erectus dispersal, from its East African origin to the colonization of Eurasia, taking into account both the presence of other large mammals and the physical characteristics of the landscape as potential factors. Our model indicated that H. erectus followed almost passively the large herbivore fauna during its dispersal. In Africa, the dispersal was statistically associated with the presence of large freshwater bodies (Rift Valley Lakes). In Eurasia, the presence of H. erectus was associated with the occurrence of geological outcrops likely yielding unconsolidated flint. During the early phase of dispersal, our model indicated that H. erectus actively avoided areas densely populated by large carnivores. This pattern weakened as H. erectus dispersed over Europe, possibly because of the decreasing presence of carnivores there plus the later acquisition of Acheulean technology. During this later phase, H. erectus was associated with limestone and shaley marl, and seems to have been selecting for high-elevation sites. While our results do not directly contradict the idea that H. erectus may have been an active hunter, they clearly point to the fact that predator avoidance may have conditioned its long-distance diffusion as it moved outside Africa. The modelled dispersal route suggests that H. erectus remained preferentially associated with low/middle latitude (i.e., comparatively warm) sites throughout its colonization history. Copyright

  12. New 1.5 million-year-old Homo erectus maxilla from Sangiran (Central Java, Indonesia).

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    Zaim, Yahdi; Ciochon, Russell L; Polanski, Joshua M; Grine, Frederick E; Bettis, E Arthur; Rizal, Yan; Franciscus, Robert G; Larick, Roy R; Heizler, Matthew; Aswan; Eaves, K Lindsay; Marsh, Hannah E

    2011-10-01

    Sangiran (Solo Basin, Central Java, Indonesia) is the singular Homo erectus fossil locale for Early Pleistocene Southeast Asia. Sangiran is the source for more than 80 specimens in deposits with (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages of 1.51-0.9 Ma. In April 2001, we recovered a H. erectus left maxilla fragment (preserving P(3)- M(2)) from the Sangiran site of Bapang. The find spot lies at the base of the Bapang Formation type section in cemented gravelly sands traditionally called the Grenzbank Zone. Two meters above the find spot, pumice hornblende has produced an (40)Ar/(39)Ar age of 1.51 ± 0.08 Ma. With the addition of Bpg 2001.04, Sangiran now has five H. erectus maxillae. We compare the new maxilla with homologs representing Sangiran H. erectus, Zhoukoudian H. erectus, Western H. erectus (pooled African and Georgian specimens), and Homo habilis. Greatest contrast is with the Zhoukoudian maxillae, which appear to exhibit a derived pattern of premolar-molar relationships compared to Western and Sangiran H. erectus. The dental patterns suggest distinct demic origins for the earlier H. erectus populations represented at Sangiran and the later population represented at Zhoukoudian. These two east Asian populations, separated by 5000 km and nearly 800 k.yr., may have had separate origins from different African/west Eurasian populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Variation and diversity in Homo erectus: a 3D geometric morphometric analysis of the temporal bone.

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    Terhune, Claire E; Kimbel, William H; Lockwood, Charles A

    2007-07-01

    Although the level of taxonomic diversity within the fossil hominin species Homo erectus (sensu lato) is continually debated, there have been relatively few studies aiming to quantify the morphology of this species. Instead, most researchers have relied on qualitative descriptions or the evaluation of nonmetric characters, which in many cases display continuous variation. Also, only a few studies have used quantitative data to formally test hypotheses regarding the taxonomic composition of the "erectus" hypodigm. Despite these previous analyses, however, and perhaps in part due to these varied approaches for assessing variation within specimens typically referred to H. erectus (sensu lato) and the general lack of rigorous statistical testing of how variation within this taxon is partitioned, there is currently little consensus regarding whether this group is a single species, or whether it should instead be split into separate temporal or geographically delimited taxa. In order to evaluate possible explanations for variation within H. erectus, we tested the general hypothesis that variation within the temporal bone morphology of H. erectus is consistent with that of a single species, using great apes and humans as comparative taxa. Eighteen three-dimensional (3D) landmarks of the temporal bone were digitized on a total of 520 extant and fossil hominid crania. Landmarks were registered by Generalized Procrustes Analysis, and Procrustes distances were calculated for comparisons of individuals within and between the extant taxa. Distances between fossil specimens and between a priori groupings of fossils were then compared to the distances calculated within the extant taxa to assess the variation within the H. erectus sample relative to that of known species, subspecies, and populations. Results of these analyses indicate that shape variation within the entire H. erectus sample is generally higher than extant hominid intraspecific variation, and putative H. ergaster

  14. Cranial vault thickness in primates: Homo erectus does not have uniquely thick vault bones.

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    Copes, Lynn E; Kimbel, William H

    2016-01-01

    Extremely thick cranial vaults have been noted as a diagnostic characteristic of Homo erectus since the first fossil of the species was identified, but relatively little work has been done on elucidating its etiology or variation across fossils, living humans, or extant non-human primates. Cranial vault thickness (CVT) is not a monolithic trait, and the responsiveness of its layers to environmental stimuli is unknown. We obtained measurements of cranial vault thickness in fossil hominins from the literature and supplemented those data with additional measurements taken on African fossil specimens. Total CVT and the thickness of the cortical and diploë layers individually were compared to measures of CVT in extant species measured from more than 500 CT scans of human and non-human primates. Frontal and parietal CVT in fossil primates was compared to a regression of CVT on cranial capacity calculated for extant species. Even after controlling for cranial capacity, African and Asian H. erectus do not have uniquely high frontal or parietal thickness residuals, either among hominins or extant primates. Extant primates with residual CVT thickness similar to or exceeding H. erectus (depending on the sex and bone analyzed) include Nycticebus coucang, Perodicticus potto, Alouatta caraya, Lophocebus albigena, Galago alleni, Mandrillus sphinx, and Propithecus diadema. However, the especially thick vaults of extant non-human primates that overlap with H. erectus values are composed primarily of cortical bone, while H. erectus and other hominins have diploë-dominated vault bones. Thus, the combination of thick vaults comprised of a thickened diploë layer may be a reliable autapomorphy for members of the genus Homo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cranial base morphology and temporal bone pneumatization in Asian Homo erectus.

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    Balzeau, Antoine; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique

    2006-10-01

    The external morphological features of the temporal bone are used frequently to determine taxonomic affinities of fossils of the genus Homo. Temporal bone pneumatization has been widely studied in great apes and in early hominids. However, this feature is rarely examined in the later hominids, particularly in Asian Homo erectus. We provide a comparative morphological and quantitative analysis of Asian Homo erectus from the sites of Ngandong, Sambungmacan, and Zhoukoudian, and of Neandertals and anatomically modern Homo sapiens in order to discuss causes and modalities of temporal bone pneumatization during hominid evolution. The evolution of temporal bone pneumatization in the genus Homo is more complex than previously described. Indeed, the Zhoukoudian fossils have a unique pattern of temporal bone pneumatization, whereas Ngandong and Sambungmacan fossils, as well as the Neandertals, more closely resemble the modern human pattern. Moreover, these Chinese fossils are characterized by a wide midvault and a relatively narrow occipital bone. Our results support the point of view that cell development does not play an active role in determining cranial base morphology. Instead, pneumatization is related to available space and to temporal bone morphology, and its development is related to correlated morphology and the relative disposition of the bones and cerebral lobes. Because variation in pneumatization is extensive within the same species, the phyletic implications of pneumatization are limited in the taxa considered here.

  16. Age of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus determined with (26)Al/(10)Be burial dating.

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    Shen, Guanjun; Gao, Xing; Gao, Bin; Granger, Darryl E

    2009-03-12

    The age of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus, commonly known as 'Peking Man', has long been pursued, but has remained problematic owing to the lack of suitable dating methods. Here we report cosmogenic (26)Al/(10)Be burial dating of quartz sediments and artefacts from the lower strata of Locality 1 in the southwestern suburb of Beijing, China, where early representatives of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus were discovered. This study marks the first radioisotopic dating of any early hominin site in China beyond the range of mass spectrometric U-series dating. The weighted mean of six meaningful age measurements, 0.77 +/- 0.08 million years (Myr, mean +/- s.e.m.), provides the best age estimate for lower cultural layers 7-10. Together with previously reported U-series dating of speleothem calcite and palaeomagnetic stratigraphy, as well as sedimentological considerations, these layers may be further correlated to S6-S7 in Chinese loess stratigraphy or marine isotope stages (MIS) 17-19, in the range of approximately 0.68 to 0.78 Myr ago. These ages are substantially older than previously supposed and may imply early hominin's presence at the site in northern China through a relatively mild glacial period corresponding to MIS 18.

  17. Dental size reduction in Indonesian Homo erectus: Implications for the PU-198 premolar and the appearance of Homo sapiens on Java.

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    Polanski, Joshua M; Marsh, Hannah E; Maddux, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    The recent recovery of a hominin maxillary third premolar, PU-198, within the faunal collections from Punung Cave (East Java) has led to assertions that Homo sapiens appeared on Java between 143,000 and 115,000 years ago. The taxonomic assignment of PU-198 to H. sapiens was based predominantly on the small size of the specimen, following an analysis which found little to no overlap in premolar size between Homo erectus and terminal Pleistocene/Holocene H. sapiens. Here, we re-evaluate the use of size in the taxonomic assignment of PU-198 in light of 1) new buccolingual and mesiodistal measurements taken on the fossil, 2) comparisons to a larger sample of H. erectus and H. sapiens maxillary third premolars, and 3) evidence of a diachronic trend in post-canine dental size reduction among Javan H. erectus. Our results demonstrate PU-198 to be slightly larger than previously suggested, reveal substantial overlap in premolar size between H. erectus and H. sapiens, and indicate a statistically significant reduction in premolar size between early and late Javan H. erectus. Our findings cast doubt on the assignment of PU-198 to H. sapiens, and accordingly, question the appearance of H. sapiens on Java between 143,000 and 115,000 years ago. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence from facial morphology for similarity of Asian and African representatives of Homo erectus.

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    Rightmire, G P

    1998-05-01

    It has been argued that Homo erectus is a species confined to Asia. Specialized characters displayed by the Indonesian and Chinese skulls are said to be absent in material from eastern Africa, and individuals from Koobi Fora and Nariokotome are now referred by some workers to H. ergaster. This second species is held to be the ancestor from which later human populations are derived. The claim for two taxa is evaluated here with special reference to the facial skeleton. Asian fossils examined include Sangiran 4 and Sangiran 17, several of the Ngandong crania, Gongwangling, and of course the material from Zhoukoudian described by Weidenreich ([1943] Palaeontol. Sin. [New Ser. D] 10:1-484). African specimens compared are KNM-ER 3733 and KNM-ER 3883 from Koobi Fora and KNM-WT 15000 from Nariokotome. Hominid 9 from Olduvai is useful only insofar as the brows and interorbital pillar are preserved. Neither detailed anatomical comparisons nor measurements bring to light any consistent patterns in facial morphology which set the African hominids apart from Asian H. erectus. Faces of the African individuals do tend to be high and less broad across the orbits. Both of the Koobi Fora crania but not KNM-WT 15000 have nasal bones that are narrow superiorly, while the piriform aperture is relatively wide. In many other characters, including contour of the supraorbital torus, glabellar prominence, nasal bridge dimensions, internasal keeling, anatomy of the nasal sill and floor, development of the canine jugum, orientation of the zygomaticoalveolar pillar, rounding of the anterolateral surface of the cheek, formation of a malar tubercle, and palatal rugosity, there is variation among individuals from localities within the major geographic provinces. Here it is not possible to identify features that are unique to either the Asian or African assemblages. Additional traits such as a forward sloping "crista nasalis," presence of a "sulcus maxillaris," a high (and massive) cheek coupled

  19. Morphology and structure of Homo erectus humeri from Zhoukoudian, Locality 1

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    Song Xing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Regional diversity in the morphology of the H. erectus postcranium is not broadly documented, in part, because of the paucity of Asian sites preserving postcranial fossils. Yet, such an understanding of the initial hominin taxon to spread throughout multiple regions of the world is fundamental to documenting the adaptive responses to selective forces operating during this period of human evolution. Methods The current study reports the first humeral rigidity and strength properties of East Asian H. erectus and places its diaphyseal robusticity into broader regional and temporal contexts. We estimate true cross-sectional properties of Zhoukoudian Humerus II and quantify new diaphyseal properties of Humerus III using high resolution computed tomography. Comparative data for African H. erectus and Eurasian Late Pleistocene H. sapiens were assembled, and new data were generated from two modern Chinese populations. Results Differences between East Asian and African H. erectus were inconsistently expressed in humeral cortical thickness. In contrast, East Asian H. erectus appears to exhibit greater humeral robusticity compared to African H. erectus when standardizing diaphyseal properties by the product of estimated body mass and humeral length. East Asian H. erectus humeri typically differed less in standardized properties from those of side-matched Late Pleistocene hominins (e.g., Neanderthals and more recent Upper Paleolithic modern humans than did African H. erectus, and often fell in the lower range of Late Pleistocene humeral rigidity or strength properties. Discussion Quantitative comparisons indicate that regional variability in humeral midshaft robusticity may characterize H. erectus to a greater extent than presently recognized. This may suggest a temporal difference within H. erectus, or possibly different ecogeographical trends and/or upper limb loading patterns across the taxon. Both discovery and analysis of more adult H

  20. Fractal dimension of the middle meningeal vessels: variation and evolution in Homo erectus, Neanderthals, and modern humans.

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    Bruner, Emiliano; Mantini, Simone; Perna, Agostino; Maffei, Carlotta; Manzi, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The middle meningeal vascular network leaves its traces on the endocranial surface because of the tight relationship between neurocranial development and brain growth. Analysing the endocast of fossil specimens, it is therefore possible to describe the morphology of these structures, leading inferences on the cerebral physiology and metabolism in extinct human groups. In this paper, general features of the meningeal vascular traces are described for specimens included in the Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, and Homo sapiens hypodigms. The complexity of the arterial network is quantified by its fractal dimension, calculated through the box-counting method. Modern humans show significant differences from the other two taxa because of the anterior vascular dominance and the larger fractal dimension. Neither the fractal dimension nor the anterior development are merely associated with cranial size increase. Considering the differences between Neanderthals and modern humans, these results may be interpreted in terms of phylogeny, cerebral functions, or cranial structural network.

  1. The Age of the 20 Meter Solo River Terrace, Java, Indonesia and the Survival of Homo erectus in Asia

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    Indriati, Etty; Swisher, Carl C.; Lepre, Christopher; Quinn, Rhonda L.; Suriyanto, Rusyad A.; Hascaryo, Agus T.; Grün, Rainer; Feibel, Craig S.; Pobiner, Briana L.; Aubert, Maxime; Lees, Wendy; Antón, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Homo erectus was the first human lineage to disperse widely throughout the Old World, the only hominin in Asia through much of the Pleistocene, and was likely ancestral to H. sapiens. The demise of this taxon remains obscure because of uncertainties regarding the geological age of its youngest populations. In 1996, some of us co-published electron spin resonance (ESR) and uranium series (U-series) results indicating an age as young as 35–50 ka for the late H. erectus sites of Ngandong and Sambungmacan and the faunal site of Jigar (Indonesia). If correct, these ages favor an African origin for recent humans who would overlap with H. erectus in time and space. Here, we report 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating analyses and new ESR/U-series age estimates from the “20 m terrace" at Ngandong and Jigar. Both data sets are internally consistent and provide no evidence for reworking, yet they are inconsistent with one another. The 40Ar/39Ar analyses give an average age of 546±12 ka (sd±5 se) for both sites, the first reliable radiometric indications of a middle Pleistocene component for the terrace. Given the technical accuracy and consistency of the analyses, the argon ages represent either the actual age or the maximum age for the terrace and are significantly older than previous estimates. Most of the ESR/U-series results are older as well, but the oldest that meets all modeling criteria is 143 ka+20/−17. Most samples indicated leaching of uranium and likely represent either the actual or the minimum age of the terrace. Given known sources of error, the U-series results could be consistent with a middle Pleistocene age. However, the ESR and 40Ar/39Ar ages preclude one another. Regardless, the age of the sites and hominins is at least bracketed between these estimates and is older than currently accepted. PMID:21738710

  2. Dating Trinil: towards establishing an age framework for the hominin-bearing deposits at the Homo erectus site Trinil (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joordens, Josephine; Adhityatama, Shinatria; Yurnaldi, Dida; Reimann, Tony; Rahayu Ekowati, Dian; Huffman, Frank; Barianto, Didit; Sutisna, Indra; Pop, Eduard; Alink, Gerrit; Kuiper, Klaudia; Priyatno, Hadi; Simanjuntak, Truman; Verpoorte, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    In the 1890s, the anatomist Eugène Dubois found the first fossils of our extinct relative Homo erectus at Trinil on Java (Indonesia). Since then, one of the major questions of humankind has been to find out "what made us human". H. erectus was morphologically in many ways like us, and the first hominin species to spread, from about 1.8 Ma onwards, over Africa, Eurasia and Southeast Asia. However, it is still unknown what behavioural and lifestyle characteristics allowed H. erectus to achieve this cosmopolitan distribution, and reach the island of Java at 1.5 Ma. Dating of Javanese hominin sites is notoriously difficult, yet crucial to resolve the climatic-environmental backdrop and biogeography of hominin species in the region. At present, there is still a lack of well-constrained ages for the important hominin-bearing Hauptknochenschicht (HK) at Trinil. Moreover, the fossiliferous layers above the HK have not been dated at all. Also, there is a paucity of climatic-environmental data on the HK and overlying layers. This hampers the reconstruction of a climatic-environmental framework with temporal correlations to hominin fossils from Trinil, and placement Trinil layers in the context of Asian hominin biogeography. Here, we report on our pilot fieldwork at Trinil in August 2016, as part of an ongoing collaborative project of the ARKENAS Jakarta (Indonesia) and the Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University (The Netherlands). We have collected geochronological sediment samples from a number of carefully measured and described stratigraphic sections covering the HK and overlying layers, for the application of three dating methods (OSL, Ar/Ar, paleomagnetism). The aim is to provide a first reliable age model for the hominin-bearing and other fossiliferous layers at Trinil. We will present preliminary fieldwork results and discuss the implications for dispersal of fauna (including hominins).

  3. Inner tooth morphology of Homo erectus from Zhoukoudian. New evidence from an old collection housed at Uppsala University, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolli, Clément; Pan, Lei; Dumoncel, Jean; Kullmer, Ottmar; Kundrát, Martin; Liu, Wu; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Mancini, Lucia; Schrenk, Friedemann; Tuniz, Claudio

    2018-03-01

    Locality 1, in the Lower Cave of the Zhoukoudian cave complex, China, is one of the most important Middle Pleistocene paleoanthropological and archaeological sites worldwide, with the remains of c. 45 Homo erectus individuals, 98 mammalian taxa, and thousands of lithic tools recovered. Most of the material collected before World War II was lost. However, besides two postcranial elements rediscovered in China in 1951, four human permanent teeth from the 'Dragon Bone Hill,' collected by O. Zdansky between 1921 and 1923, were at the time brought to the Paleontological Institute of Uppsala University, Sweden, where they are still stored. This small sample consists of an upper canine (PMU 25719), an upper third molar (PMU M3550), a lower third premolar crown (PMU M3549), and a lower fourth premolar (PMU M3887). Some researchers have noted the existence of morpho-dimensional differences between the Zhoukoudian and the H. erectus dental assemblage from Sangiran, Java. However, compared to its chrono-geographical distribution, the Early to Middle Pleistocene dental material currently forming the Chinese-Indonesian H. erectus hypodigm is quantitatively meager and still poorly characterized for the extent of its endostructural variation. We used micro-focus X-ray tomography techniques of virtual imaging coupled with geometric morphometrics for comparatively investigating the endostructural conformation (tissue proportions, enamel thickness distribution, enamel-dentine junction morphology, pulp cavity shape) of the four specimens stored in Uppsala, all previously reported for their outer features. The results suggest the existence of time-related differences between continental and insular Southeast Asian dental assemblages, the Middle Pleistocene Chinese teeth apparently retaining an inner signature closer to the likely primitive condition represented by the Early Pleistocene remains from Java, while the Indonesian stock evolved toward tooth structural simplification

  4. L'evolució del cervell humà: des d'Homo erectus a Homo sapiens

    OpenAIRE

    Coma Almenar, Herena

    2017-01-01

    Homo sapiens presenta unes característiques morfològiques cerebrals que han possibilitat les capacitats cognitives que podem observar actualment. Però no ha estat a causa d'un fet puntual en la nostra historia evolutiva, sinó que anys de canvis en la dotació genètica i l'adaptació a l'entorn ha procurat el nostre augment del volum encefàlic i de la seva reorganització i connectivitat, on la asimetria cerebral ha estat l'estratègia per optimitzar els recursos neuronals. No obstant, en el regis...

  5. High-resolution record of the Matuyama–Brunhes transition constrains the age of Javanese Homo erectus in the Sangiran dome, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Masayuki; Matsu'ura, Shuji; Kamishima, Yuko; Kondo, Megumi; Takeshita, Yoshihiro; Kitaba, Ikuko; Danhara, Tohru; Aziz, Fachroel; Kurniawan, Iwan; Kumai, Hisao

    2011-01-01

    A detailed paleomagnetic study conducted in the Sangiran area, Java, has provided a reliable age constraint on hominid fossil-bearing formations. A reverse-to-normal polarity transition marks a 7-m thick section across the Upper Tuff in the Bapang Formation. The transition has three short reversal episodes and is overlain by a thick normal polarity magnetozone that was fission-track dated to the Brunhes chron. This pattern closely resembles another high-resolution Matuyama–Brunhes (MB) transition record in an Osaka Bay marine core. In the Sangiran sediments, four successive transitional polarity fields lie just below the presumed main MB boundary. Their virtual geomagnetic poles cluster in the western South Pacific, partly overlapping the transitional virtual geomagnetic poles from Hawaiian and Canary Islands’ lavas, which have a mean 40Ar/39Ar age of 776 ± 2 ka. Thus, the polarity transition is unambiguously the MB boundary. A revised correlation of tuff layers in the Bapang Formation reveals that the hominid last occurrence and the tektite level in the Sangiran area are nearly coincident, just below the Upper Middle Tuff, which underlies the MB transition. The stratigraphic relationship of the tektite level to the MB transition in the Sangiran area is consistent with deep-sea core data that show that the meteorite impact preceded the MB reversal by about 12 ka. The MB boundary currently defines the uppermost horizon yielding Homo erectus fossils in the Sangiran area. PMID:22106291

  6. High-resolution record of the Matuyama-Brunhes transition constrains the age of Javanese Homo erectus in the Sangiran dome, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Masayuki; Matsu'ura, Shuji; Kamishima, Yuko; Kondo, Megumi; Takeshita, Yoshihiro; Kitaba, Ikuko; Danhara, Tohru; Aziz, Fachroel; Kurniawan, Iwan; Kumai, Hisao

    2011-12-06

    A detailed paleomagnetic study conducted in the Sangiran area, Java, has provided a reliable age constraint on hominid fossil-bearing formations. A reverse-to-normal polarity transition marks a 7-m thick section across the Upper Tuff in the Bapang Formation. The transition has three short reversal episodes and is overlain by a thick normal polarity magnetozone that was fission-track dated to the Brunhes chron. This pattern closely resembles another high-resolution Matuyama-Brunhes (MB) transition record in an Osaka Bay marine core. In the Sangiran sediments, four successive transitional polarity fields lie just below the presumed main MB boundary. Their virtual geomagnetic poles cluster in the western South Pacific, partly overlapping the transitional virtual geomagnetic poles from Hawaiian and Canary Islands' lavas, which have a mean (40)Ar/(39)Ar age of 776 ± 2 ka. Thus, the polarity transition is unambiguously the MB boundary. A revised correlation of tuff layers in the Bapang Formation reveals that the hominid last occurrence and the tektite level in the Sangiran area are nearly coincident, just below the Upper Middle Tuff, which underlies the MB transition. The stratigraphic relationship of the tektite level to the MB transition in the Sangiran area is consistent with deep-sea core data that show that the meteorite impact preceded the MB reversal by about 12 ka. The MB boundary currently defines the uppermost horizon yielding Homo erectus fossils in the Sangiran area.

  7. Man the fat hunter: the demise of Homo erectus and the emergence of a new hominin lineage in the Middle Pleistocene (ca. 400 kyr Levant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Ben-Dor

    Full Text Available The worldwide association of H. erectus with elephants is well documented and so is the preference of humans for fat as a source of energy. We show that rather than a matter of preference, H. erectus in the Levant was dependent on both elephants and fat for his survival. The disappearance of elephants from the Levant some 400 kyr ago coincides with the appearance of a new and innovative local cultural complex--the Levantine Acheulo-Yabrudian and, as is evident from teeth recently found in the Acheulo-Yabrudian 400-200 kyr site of Qesem Cave, the replacement of H. erectus by a new hominin. We employ a bio-energetic model to present a hypothesis that the disappearance of the elephants, which created a need to hunt an increased number of smaller and faster animals while maintaining an adequate fat content in the diet, was the evolutionary drive behind the emergence of the lighter, more agile, and cognitively capable hominins. Qesem Cave thus provides a rare opportunity to study the mechanisms that underlie the emergence of our post-erectus ancestors, the fat hunters.

  8. Preliminary study on ESR dating of Hexian-Man and its fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Peihua; Zheng Lizhen; Quan Yucai; Liang Renyou; Xu Yunhua; Fang Yingsan; Fang Dusheng

    1995-01-01

    ESR dating results for samples of synchronous animal tooth with the skull of Hexian-Man in the lower part of the second layer show that the age of Hexian-Man is about 300(299.80) ka, corresponding to the late stage of Peiking-Man (the HIII skull of Peking-Man). The ages of Hexian-Man's Fauna are 150-300 ka, corresponding to those of the 2nd-3rd-4th layers of Peking-Man's Cave

  9. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  10. Anatomické změny na kostrách v evoluci rodu Homo

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmannová, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to describe the anatomical features on the skeletons of species Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensi, Homo sapiens and Homo naledi. For each type are described those features which characterize it. Emphasis is placed on changes in the anatomy of the skull and pelvis, but they are also mentioned other features typical for the species. Part of this work is to outline the mobility and function of the skeleton. Information about individual species are supplem...

  11. Homo floresiensis: microcephalic, pygmoid, Australopithecus, or Homo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Debbie; Donlon, Denise; Groves, Colin; Wright, Richard

    2006-10-01

    The remarkable partial adult skeleton (LB1) excavated from Liang Bua cave on the island of Flores, Indonesia, has been attributed to a new species, Homo floresiensis, based upon a unique mosaic of primitive and derived features compared to any other hominin. The announcement precipitated widespread interest, and attention quickly focused on its possible affinities. LB1 is a small-bodied hominin with an endocranial volume of 380-410 cm3, a stature of 1m, and an approximate geological age of 18,000 years. The describers [Brown, P., Sutikna, T., Morwood, M.J., Soejono, R.P., Jatmiko, Wayhu Saptomo, E., Awe Due, R., 2004. A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431, 1055-1061] originally proposed that H. floresiensis was the end product of a long period of isolation of H. erectus or early Homo on a small island, a process known as insular dwarfism. More recently Morwood, Brown, and colleagues [Morwood, M.J., Brown, P., Jatmiko, Sutikna, T., Wahyu Saptomo, E., Westaway, K.E., Awe Due, R., Roberts, R.G., Maeda, T., Wasisto, S., Djubiantono, T., 2005. Further evidence for small-bodied hominins from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 437, 1012-1017] reviewed this assessment in light of new material from the site and concluded that H. floresiensis is not likely to be descended from H. erectus, with the genealogy of the species remaining uncertain. Other interpretations, namely that LB1 is a pygmy or afflicted with microcephaly, have also been put forward. We explore the affinities of LB1 using cranial and postcranial metric and non-metric analyses. LB1 is compared to early Homo, two microcephalic humans, a 'pygmoid' excavated from another cave on Flores, H. sapiens (including African pygmies and Andaman Islanders), Australopithecus, and Paranthropus. Based on these comparisons, we conclude that it is unlikely that LB1 is a microcephalic human, and it cannot be attributed to any known species. Its attribution to a new

  12. Spinal cord evolution in early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marc R; Haeusler, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The discovery at Nariokotome of the Homo erectus skeleton KNM-WT 15000, with a narrow spinal canal, seemed to show that this relatively large-brained hominin retained the primitive spinal cord size of African apes and that brain size expansion preceded postcranial neurological evolution. Here we compare the size and shape of the KNM-WT 15000 spinal canal with modern and fossil taxa including H. erectus from Dmanisi, Homo antecessor, the European middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos, and Pan troglodytes. In terms of shape and absolute and relative size of the spinal canal, we find all of the Dmanisi and most of the vertebrae of KNM-WT 15000 are within the human range of variation except for the C7, T2, and T3 of KNM-WT 15000, which are constricted, suggesting spinal stenosis. While additional fossils might definitively indicate whether H. erectus had evolved a human-like enlarged spinal canal, the evidence from the Dmanisi spinal canal and the unaffected levels of KNM-WT 15000 show that unlike Australopithecus, H. erectus had a spinal canal size and shape equivalent to that of modern humans. Subadult status is unlikely to affect our results, as spinal canal growth is complete in both individuals. We contest the notion that vertebrae yield information about respiratory control or language evolution, but suggest that, like H. antecessor and European middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos, early Homo possessed a postcranial neurological endowment roughly commensurate to modern humans, with implications for neurological, structural, and vascular improvements over Pan and Australopithecus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bone strength and athletic ability in hominids: Ardipithecus ramidus to Homo sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    The ability of the femur to resist bending stresses is determined by its midlength cross-sectional geometry, its length and the elastic properties of the mineral part of the bone. The animal's athletic ability, determined by a ``bone strength index,'' is limited by this femoral bending strength in relation to the loads on the femur. This analysis is applied to the fossil record for Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis, Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Australopithecus afarensis and Ardipithecus ramidus. Evidence that the femoral bone strength index of modern Homo sapiens has weakened over the last 50,000 years is found.

  14. Dental microwear and diets of African early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Peter S; Grine, Frederick E; Teaford, Mark F; El Zaatari, Sireen

    2006-01-01

    Conventional wisdom ties the origin and early evolution of the genus Homo to environmental changes that occurred near the end of the Pliocene. The basic idea is that changing habitats led to new diets emphasizing savanna resources, such as herd mammals or underground storage organs. Fossil teeth provide the most direct evidence available for evaluating this theory. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of dental microwear in Plio-Pleistocene Homo from Africa. We examined all available cheek teeth from Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, and South Africa and found 18 that preserved antemortem microwear. Microwear features were measured and compared for these specimens and a baseline series of five extant primate species (Cebus apella, Gorilla gorilla, Lophocebus albigena, Pan troglodytes, and Papio ursinus) and two protohistoric human foraging groups (Aleut and Arikara) with documented differences in diet and subsistence strategies. Results confirmed that dental microwear reflects diet, such that hard-object specialists tend to have more large microwear pits, whereas tough food eaters usually have more striations and smaller microwear features. Early Homo specimens clustered with baseline groups that do not prefer fracture resistant foods. Still, Homo erectus and individuals from Swartkrans Member 1 had more small pits than Homo habilis and specimens from Sterkfontein Member 5C. These results suggest that none of the early Homo groups specialized on very hard or tough foods, but that H. erectus and Swartkrans Member 1 individuals ate, at least occasionally, more brittle or tough items than other fossil hominins studied.

  15. The affinities of Homo floresiensis based on phylogenetic analyses of cranial, dental, and postcranial characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Debbie; Groves, Colin P; Lee, Michael S Y; Jungers, William L

    2017-06-01

    Although the diminutive Homo floresiensis has been known for a decade, its phylogenetic status remains highly contentious. A broad range of potential explanations for the evolution of this species has been explored. One view is that H. floresiensis is derived from Asian Homo erectus that arrived on Flores and subsequently evolved a smaller body size, perhaps to survive the constrained resources they faced in a new island environment. Fossil remains of H. erectus, well known from Java, have not yet been discovered on Flores. The second hypothesis is that H. floresiensis is directly descended from an early Homo lineage with roots in Africa, such as Homo habilis; the third is that it is Homo sapiens with pathology. We use parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic methods to test these hypotheses. Our phylogenetic data build upon those characters previously presented in support of these hypotheses by broadening the range of traits to include the crania, mandibles, dentition, and postcrania of Homo and Australopithecus. The new data and analyses support the hypothesis that H. floresiensis is an early Homo lineage: H. floresiensis is sister either to H. habilis alone or to a clade consisting of at least H. habilis, H. erectus, Homo ergaster, and H. sapiens. A close phylogenetic relationship between H. floresiensis and H. erectus or H. sapiens can be rejected; furthermore, most of the traits separating H. floresiensis from H. sapiens are not readily attributable to pathology (e.g., Down syndrome). The results suggest H. floresiensis is a long-surviving relict of an early (>1.75 Ma) hominin lineage and a hitherto unknown migration out of Africa, and not a recent derivative of either H. erectus or H. sapiens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Five years of Homo floresiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Leslie C

    2010-06-01

    Since Homo floresiensis was first described in October 2004 there has been a lively debate over its status. Is it a late surviving species of early Homo or merely a modern individual afflicted with disordered growth and one of the many syndromes resulting in microchephaly? Recently the discovery team has published a series of articles providing detailed descriptions of the hominin material, its geomorphological context, and the associated archaeology and faunal material (Morwood and Jungers: J Hum Evol 57 (2009) 437-648). In addition, other researchers have put forward new hypotheses for possible pathologies including Laron's Syndrome and Myxoedematous Endemic (ME) Cretinism. Here I review this new information and conclude that the evidence supports the hypothesis that Homo floresiensis is a late-surviving species of early Homo with its closest morphological affinities to early African pre-erectus/ergaster hominins. Although this hypothesis requires fundamental paradigm changes in our understanding of human evolution, it provides a more economical explanation for H. floresiensis than do the alternatives. None of the current explanations for microcephaly and disordered growth account for the range of features observed in H. floresiensis. Neither do they provide explanations for why a pathological condition in modern humans would mimic so closely the morphology observed in earlier hominins. This conclusion is based on the current evidence for H. floresiensis and on the particular pathological explanations that have appeared in the literature. There is no doubt that controversy over H. floresiensis will continue until new and conclusive evidence is available to settle the debate one way or another. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Brain size and encephalization in early to Mid-Pleistocene Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rightmire, G Philip

    2004-06-01

    Important changes in the brain have occurred during the course of human evolution. Both absolute and relative size increases can be documented for species of Homo, culminating in the appearance of modern humans. One species that is particularly well-represented by fossil crania is Homo erectus. The mean capacity for 30 individuals is 973 cm(3). Within this group there is substantial variation, but brain size increases slightly in specimens from later time periods. Other Middle Pleistocene crania differ from those of Homo erectus. Characters of the facial skeleton, vault, and cranial base suggest that fossils from sites such as Arago Cave in France, the Sima de los Huesos in Spain, Bodo in Ethiopia, Broken Hill in Zambia, and perhaps Dali in China belong to the taxon Homo heidelbergensis. Ten of these mid-Quaternary hominins have brains averaging 1,206 cm(3) in volume, and many fall beyond the limits of size predicted for Homo erectus of equivalent age. When orbit height is used to construct an index of relative brain size, it is apparent that the (significant) increase in volume documented for the Middle Pleistocene individuals is not simply a consequence of larger body mass. Encephalization quotient values confirm this finding. These changes in absolute and relative brain size can be taken as further corroborative evidence for a speciation event, in which Homo erectus produced a daughter lineage. It is probable that Homo heidelbergensis originated in Africa or western Eurasia and then ranged widely across the Old World. Archaeological traces indicate that these populations differed in their technology and behavior from earlier hominins. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Hominid mandibular corpus shape variation and its utility for recognizing species diversity within fossil Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lague, Michael R; Collard, Nicole J; Richmond, Brian G; Wood, Bernard A

    2008-12-01

    Mandibular corpora are well represented in the hominin fossil record, yet few studies have rigorously assessed the utility of mandibular corpus morphology for species recognition, particularly with respect to the linear dimensions that are most commonly available. In this study, we explored the extent to which commonly preserved mandibular corpus morphology can be used to: (i) discriminate among extant hominid taxa and (ii) support species designations among fossil specimens assigned to the genus Homo. In the first part of the study, discriminant analysis was used to test for significant differences in mandibular corpus shape at different taxonomic levels (genus, species and subspecies) among extant hominid taxa (i.e. Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo). In the second part of the study, we examined shape variation among fossil mandibles assigned to Homo (including H. habilis sensu stricto, H. rudolfensis, early African H. erectus/H. ergaster, late African H. erectus, Asian H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens). A novel randomization procedure designed for small samples (and using group 'distinctness values') was used to determine whether shape variation among the fossils is consistent with conventional taxonomy (or alternatively, whether a priori taxonomic groupings are completely random with respect to mandibular morphology). The randomization of 'distinctness values' was also used on the extant samples to assess the ability of the test to recognize known taxa. The discriminant analysis results demonstrated that, even for a relatively modest set of traditional mandibular corpus measurements, we can detect significant differences among extant hominids at the genus and species levels, and, in some cases, also at the subspecies level. Although the randomization of 'distinctness values' test is more conservative than discriminant analysis (based on comparisons with extant specimens), we were able to detect at least four distinct groups among the

  19. Associated ilium and femur from Koobi Fora, Kenya, and postcranial diversity in early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Carol V; Feibel, Craig S; Hammond, Ashley S; Leakey, Louise N; Moffett, Elizabeth A; Plavcan, J Michael; Skinner, Matthew M; Spoor, Fred; Leakey, Meave G

    2015-04-01

    During the evolution of hominins, it is generally accepted that there was a shift in postcranial morphology between Australopithecus and the genus Homo. Given the scarcity of associated remains of early Homo, however, relatively little is known about early Homo postcranial morphology. There are hints of postcranial diversity among species, but our knowledge of the nature and extent of potential differences is limited. Here we present a new associated partial ilium and femur from Koobi Fora, Kenya, dating to 1.9 Ma (millions of years ago) that is clearly attributable to the genus Homo but documents a pattern of morphology not seen in eastern African early Homo erectus. The ilium and proximal femur share distinctive anatomy found only in Homo. However, the geometry of the femoral midshaft and contour of the pelvic inlet do not resemble that of any specimens attributed to H. erectus from eastern Africa. This new fossil confirms the presence of at least two postcranial morphotypes within early Homo, and documents diversity in postcranial morphology among early Homo species that may reflect underlying body form and/or adaptive differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Morphological comparison of archaic Homo sapiens crania from China and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Bräuer, G

    1993-12-01

    Regional features play a great role in the analysis of the differentiations of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. However, this poses the question how widespread and variable these features are. In order to examine this with regard to the features commonly seen in China their occurrence and variability were determined in Chinese as well as in African crania of archaic and late Pleistocene/Holocene modern Homo sapiens. Furthermore, some features known from Africa were examined with regard to their occurrence and variability in China. Although the variability might change due to new finds, the present results for some features point to larger morphological spectra in the African than in the Chinese archaic Homo sapiens. It is furthermore remarkable that the early modern Chinese in many features show deviations from the pattern of archaic Homo sapiens of this region and exhibit broader spectra similar to those seen in African archaic and early modern Homo sapiens.

  1. Homo naledi, a new species of the genus Homo from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lee R; Hawks, John; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Churchill, Steven E; Schmid, Peter; Delezene, Lucas K; Kivell, Tracy L; Garvin, Heather M; Williams, Scott A; DeSilva, Jeremy M; Skinner, Matthew M; Musiba, Charles M; Cameron, Noel; Holliday, Trenton W; Harcourt-Smith, William; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Bastir, Markus; Bogin, Barry; Bolter, Debra; Brophy, Juliet; Cofran, Zachary D; Congdon, Kimberly A; Deane, Andrew S; Dembo, Mana; Drapeau, Michelle; Elliott, Marina C; Feuerriegel, Elen M; Garcia-Martinez, Daniel; Green, David J; Gurtov, Alia; Irish, Joel D; Kruger, Ashley; Laird, Myra F; Marchi, Damiano; Meyer, Marc R; Nalla, Shahed; Negash, Enquye W; Orr, Caley M; Radovcic, Davorka; Schroeder, Lauren; Scott, Jill E; Throckmorton, Zachary; Tocheri, Matthew W; VanSickle, Caroline; Walker, Christopher S; Wei, Pianpian; Zipfel, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Homo naledi is a previously-unknown species of extinct hominin discovered within the Dinaledi Chamber of the Rising Star cave system, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa. This species is characterized by body mass and stature similar to small-bodied human populations but a small endocranial volume similar to australopiths. Cranial morphology of H. naledi is unique, but most similar to early Homo species including Homo erectus, Homo habilis or Homo rudolfensis. While primitive, the dentition is generally small and simple in occlusal morphology. H. naledi has humanlike manipulatory adaptations of the hand and wrist. It also exhibits a humanlike foot and lower limb. These humanlike aspects are contrasted in the postcrania with a more primitive or australopith-like trunk, shoulder, pelvis and proximal femur. Representing at least 15 individuals with most skeletal elements repeated multiple times, this is the largest assemblage of a single species of hominins yet discovered in Africa. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09560.001 PMID:26354291

  2. Homo floresiensis contextualized: a geometric morphometric comparative analysis of fossil and pathological human samples.

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    Karen L Baab

    Full Text Available The origin of hominins found on the remote Indonesian island of Flores remains highly contentious. These specimens may represent a new hominin species, Homo floresiensis, descended from a local population of Homo erectus or from an earlier (pre-H. erectus migration of a small-bodied and small-brained hominin out of Africa. Alternatively, some workers suggest that some or all of the specimens recovered from Liang Bua are pathological members of a small-bodied modern human population. Pathological conditions proposed to explain their documented anatomical features include microcephaly, myxoedematous endemic hypothyroidism ("cretinism" and Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity. This study evaluates evolutionary and pathological hypotheses through comparative analysis of cranial morphology. Geometric morphometric analyses of landmark data show that the sole Flores cranium (LB1 is clearly distinct from healthy modern humans and from those exhibiting hypothyroidism and Laron syndrome. Modern human microcephalic specimens converge, to some extent, on crania of extinct species of Homo. However in the features that distinguish these two groups, LB1 consistently groups with fossil hominins and is most similar to H. erectus. Our study provides further support for recognizing the Flores hominins as a distinct species, H. floresiensis, whose affinities lie with archaic Homo.

  3. Homo floresiensis Contextualized: A Geometric Morphometric Comparative Analysis of Fossil and Pathological Human Samples

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    Baab, Karen L.; McNulty, Kieran P.; Harvati, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The origin of hominins found on the remote Indonesian island of Flores remains highly contentious. These specimens may represent a new hominin species, Homo floresiensis, descended from a local population of Homo erectus or from an earlier (pre-H. erectus) migration of a small-bodied and small-brained hominin out of Africa. Alternatively, some workers suggest that some or all of the specimens recovered from Liang Bua are pathological members of a small-bodied modern human population. Pathological conditions proposed to explain their documented anatomical features include microcephaly, myxoedematous endemic hypothyroidism (“cretinism”) and Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity). This study evaluates evolutionary and pathological hypotheses through comparative analysis of cranial morphology. Geometric morphometric analyses of landmark data show that the sole Flores cranium (LB1) is clearly distinct from healthy modern humans and from those exhibiting hypothyroidism and Laron syndrome. Modern human microcephalic specimens converge, to some extent, on crania of extinct species of Homo. However in the features that distinguish these two groups, LB1 consistently groups with fossil hominins and is most similar to H. erectus. Our study provides further support for recognizing the Flores hominins as a distinct species, H. floresiensis, whose affinities lie with archaic Homo. PMID:23874886

  4. Hominid mandibular corpus shape variation and its utility for recognizing species diversity within fossil Homo

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    Lague, Michael R; Collard, Nicole J; Richmond, Brian G; Wood, Bernard A

    2008-01-01

    Mandibular corpora are well represented in the hominin fossil record, yet few studies have rigorously assessed the utility of mandibular corpus morphology for species recognition, particularly with respect to the linear dimensions that are most commonly available. In this study, we explored the extent to which commonly preserved mandibular corpus morphology can be used to: (i) discriminate among extant hominid taxa and (ii) support species designations among fossil specimens assigned to the genus Homo. In the first part of the study, discriminant analysis was used to test for significant differences in mandibular corpus shape at different taxonomic levels (genus, species and subspecies) among extant hominid taxa (i.e. Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo). In the second part of the study, we examined shape variation among fossil mandibles assigned to Homo(including H. habilis sensu stricto, H. rudolfensis, early African H. erectus/H. ergaster, late African H. erectus, Asian H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens). A novel randomization procedure designed for small samples (and using group ‘distinctness values’) was used to determine whether shape variation among the fossils is consistent with conventional taxonomy (or alternatively, whether a priori taxonomic groupings are completely random with respect to mandibular morphology). The randomization of ‘distinctness values’ was also used on the extant samples to assess the ability of the test to recognize known taxa. The discriminant analysis results demonstrated that, even for a relatively modest set of traditional mandibular corpus measurements, we can detect significant differences among extant hominids at the genus and species levels, and, in some cases, also at the subspecies level. Although the randomization of ‘distinctness values’ test is more conservative than discriminant analysis (based on comparisons with extant specimens), we were able to detect at least four distinct groups

  5. Implications of new early Homo fossils from Ileret, east of Lake Turkana, Kenya.

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    Spoor, F; Leakey, M G; Gathogo, P N; Brown, F H; Antón, S C; McDougall, I; Kiarie, C; Manthi, F K; Leakey, L N

    2007-08-09

    Sites in eastern Africa have shed light on the emergence and early evolution of the genus Homo. The best known early hominin species, H. habilis and H. erectus, have often been interpreted as time-successive segments of a single anagenetic evolutionary lineage. The case for this was strengthened by the discovery of small early Pleistocene hominin crania from Dmanisi in Georgia that apparently provide evidence of morphological continuity between the two taxa. Here we describe two new cranial fossils from the Koobi Fora Formation, east of Lake Turkana in Kenya, that have bearing on the relationship between species of early Homo. A partial maxilla assigned to H. habilis reliably demonstrates that this species survived until later than previously recognized, making an anagenetic relationship with H. erectus unlikely. The discovery of a particularly small calvaria of H. erectus indicates that this taxon overlapped in size with H. habilis, and may have shown marked sexual dimorphism. The new fossils confirm the distinctiveness of H. habilis and H. erectus, independently of overall cranial size, and suggest that these two early taxa were living broadly sympatrically in the same lake basin for almost half a million years.

  6. Homo capax

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    Patricio Mena Malet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo intenta reflexionar sobre algunas características estructurales del homo capax tal como ha sido pensado por Ricoeur de modo explícito a partir de su obra de 1990, Soimême comme un autre. Así, lo que interrogaremos no son las capacidades que Ricoeur analiza a partir de 1990, poder actuar, decir, narrar y narrarse, y considerarse imputable de las consecuencias de sus acciones, sino el ser capaz mismo. ¿Qué significa ser capaz? ¿Se trata como lo afirma el propio Ricoeur de un carácter esencial de la humanidad del hombre? ¿Es un a priori por tanto? La tesis que quisiéramos defender son, primero que el trasfondo de la capacidad es su ser en relación y la pasibilidad, y segundo que solo en el encuentro con lo otro el ser capaz estiliza sus poderes con los que se abrirá al mundo.This essay aims to reflect on some structural characteristics of the homo capax as it has been explicitly conceived by Ricoeur since his 1990 work, Soimême comme un autre. What we examine are not the capabilities that Ricoeur analyzes starting in 1990, to be able to act, speak, narrate, and be narrated, and to be regarded as attributable to the consequences of one's actions, but rather the capable human being itself. What does it mean to be capable? Is it, as Ricoeur himself says, part of the essential nature of man's humanity? Is it therefore a priori? The thesis that we would like to defend is that, first, the background of capability is man's being in relation and passibility, and second, only in encounters with the other does the capable human being stylize the powers with which it opens the world.

  7. Phylogenetic rate shifts in feeding time during the evolution of Homo.

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    Organ, Chris; Nunn, Charles L; Machanda, Zarin; Wrangham, Richard W

    2011-08-30

    Unique among animals, humans eat a diet rich in cooked and nonthermally processed food. The ancestors of modern humans who invented food processing (including cooking) gained critical advantages in survival and fitness through increased caloric intake. However, the time and manner in which food processing became biologically significant are uncertain. Here, we assess the inferred evolutionary consequences of food processing in the human lineage by applying a Bayesian phylogenetic outlier test to a comparative dataset of feeding time in humans and nonhuman primates. We find that modern humans spend an order of magnitude less time feeding than predicted by phylogeny and body mass (4.7% vs. predicted 48% of daily activity). This result suggests that a substantial evolutionary rate change in feeding time occurred along the human branch after the human-chimpanzee split. Along this same branch, Homo erectus shows a marked reduction in molar size that is followed by a gradual, although erratic, decline in H. sapiens. We show that reduction in molar size in early Homo (H. habilis and H. rudolfensis) is explicable by phylogeny and body size alone. By contrast, the change in molar size to H. erectus, H. neanderthalensis, and H. sapiens cannot be explained by the rate of craniodental and body size evolution. Together, our results indicate that the behaviorally driven adaptations of food processing (reduced feeding time and molar size) originated after the evolution of Homo but before or concurrent with the evolution of H. erectus, which was around 1.9 Mya.

  8. Craniometric ratios of microcephaly and LB1, Homo floresiensis, using MRI and endocasts

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    Vannucci, Robert C.; Barron, Todd F.; Holloway, Ralph L.

    2011-01-01

    The designation of Homo floresiensis as a new species derived from an ancient population is controversial, because the type specimen, LB1, might represent a pathological microcephalic modern Homo sapiens. Accordingly, two specific craniometric ratios (relative frontal breadth and cerebellar protrusion) were ascertained in 21 microcephalic infants and children by using MRI. Data on 118 age-equivalent control (normocephalic) subjects were collected for comparative purposes. In addition, the same craniometric ratios were determined on the endocasts of 10 microcephalic individuals, 79 normal controls (anatomically modern humans), and 17 Homo erectus specimens. These ratios were then compared with those of two LB1 endocasts. The findings showed that the calculated cerebral/cerebellar ratios of the LB1 endocast [Falk D, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:2513–2518] fall outside the range of living normocephalic individuals. The ratios derived from two LB1 endocasts also fall largely outside the range of modern normal human and H. erectus endocasts and within the range of microcephalic endocasts. The findings support but do not prove the contention that LB1 represents a pathological microcephalic Homo sapiens rather than a new species, (i.e., H. floresiensis). PMID:21825126

  9. What constitutes Homo sapiens? Morphology versus received wisdom.

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    Schwartz, Jeffrey

    2016-06-20

    Although Linnaeus coined Homo sapiens in 1735, it was Blumenbach forty years later who provided the first morphological definition of the species. Since humans were not then allowed to be ante-Diluvian, his effort applied to the genus, as well. After the Feldhofer Grotto Neanderthal disproved this creationist notion, and human-fossil hunting became legitimate, new specimens were allocated either to sapiens or new species within Homo, or even to new species within new genera. Yet as these taxonomic acts reflected the morphological differences between specimens, they failed to address the question: What constitutes H. sapiens? When in 1950 Mayr collapsed all human fossils into Homo, he not only denied humans a diverse evolutionary past, he also shifted the key to identifying its species from morphology to geological age - a practice most paleoanthropologists still follow. Thus, for example, H. erectus is the species that preceded H. sapiens, and H. sapiens is the species into which H. erectus morphed. In order to deal with a growing morass of morphologically dissimilar specimens, the non-taxonomic terms "archaic" (AS) and "anatomically modern" (AMS) were introduced to distinguish between the earlier and later versions of H. sapiens, thereby making the species impossible to define. In attempting to disentangle fact from scenario, I begin from the beginning, trying to delineate features that may be distinctive of extant humans (ES), and then turning to the fossils that have been included in the species. With the exception of Upper Paleolithic humans - e.g. from Cro-Magnon, Dolni Vestonice, Mladeč - I argue that many specimens regarded as AMS, and all those deemed AS, are not H. sapiens. The features these AMS do share with ES suggest the existence of a sapiens clade. Further, restudy of near-recent fossils, especially from southwestern China (∼11-14.5 ka), reinforces what discoveries such as H. floresiensis indicate: "If it's recent, it's not necessarily H. sapiens".

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae).

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    Zhang, Yanhong; Zhang, Huixian; Lin, Qiang; Huang, Liangmin

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus was first determined in this article. The total length of H. erectus mitogenome is 16,529 bp, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. The features of the H. erectus mitochondrial genome were similar to the typical vertebrates. The overall base composition of H. erectus is 31.8% A, 28.6% T, 24.3% C and 15.3% G, with a slight A + T rich feature (60.4%).

  11. Craniofacial morphology of Homo floresiensis: description, taxonomic affinities, and evolutionary implication.

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    Kaifu, Yousuke; Baba, Hisao; Sutikna, Thomas; Morwood, Michael J; Kubo, Daisuke; Saptomo, E Wahyu; Jatmiko; Awe, Rokhus Due; Djubiantono, Tony

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes in detail the external morphology of LB1/1, the nearly complete and only known cranium of Homo floresiensis. Comparisons were made with a large sample of early groups of the genus Homo to assess primitive, derived, and unique craniofacial traits of LB1 and discuss its evolution. Principal cranial shape differences between H. floresiensis and Homo sapiens are also explored metrically. The LB1 specimen exhibits a marked reductive trend in its facial skeleton, which is comparable to the H. sapiens condition and is probably associated with reduced masticatory stresses. However, LB1 is craniometrically different from H. sapiens showing an extremely small overall cranial size, and the combination of a primitive low and anteriorly narrow vault shape, a relatively prognathic face, a rounded oval foramen that is greatly separated anteriorly from the carotid canal/jugular foramen, and a unique, tall orbital shape. Whereas the neurocranium of LB1 is as small as that of some Homo habilis specimens, it exhibits laterally expanded parietals, a weak suprameatal crest, a moderately flexed occipital, a marked facial reduction, and many other derived features that characterize post-habilis Homo. Other craniofacial characteristics of LB1 include, for example, a relatively narrow frontal squama with flattened right and left sides, a marked frontal keel, posteriorly divergent temporal lines, a posteriorly flexed anteromedial corner of the mandibular fossa, a bulbous lateral end of the supraorbital torus, and a forward protruding maxillary body with a distinct infraorbital sulcus. LB1 is most similar to early Javanese Homo erectus from Sangiran and Trinil in these and other aspects. We conclude that the craniofacial morphology of LB1 is consistent with the hypothesis that H. floresiensis evolved from early Javanese H. erectus with dramatic island dwarfism. However, further field discoveries of early hominin skeletal remains from Flores and detailed analyses of the

  12. The Lake Ndutu cranium and early Homo sapiens in Africa.

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    Rightmire, G P

    1983-06-01

    The partial cranium from Lake Ndutu, near Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania, has generally been viewed as Homo erectus, although points of similarity to H. sapiens have also been recognized. Bones of the vault are in fact quite thick, and the cranium is small. Length and breadth dimensions are comparable to those of earlier H. erectus from Koobi Fora and Ileret, and the Ndutu individual is more similar in size to O.H. 12 than to O.H. 9. Unfortunately, the facial skeleton and frontal bone are very incomplete, and little useful information can be obtained from these parts of the existing reconstruction. The parietals are also damaged, but the left temporal is more satisfactorily preserved, and the occiput is nearly complete. Occipital morphology, mastoid shape, and characteristics of the glenoid cavity and tympanic plate probably provide the best available guide to affinities of the Ndutu hominid. In many of these features the cranium resembles Broken Hill, Elandsfontein, and other African fossils referred to archaic H. sapiens. There are some similarities to modern humans also, but no ties to the Neanderthals of Europe. Allocation of Ndutu to an African subspecies of H. sapiens seems most appropriate, even if the pattern of relationships between such archaic populations and recent humans is still unclear.

  13. First occurrence of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean.

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    Woodall, L C; Koldewey, H J; Santos, S V; Shaw, P W

    2009-10-01

    A seahorse specimen from Banco Açores (Azores Archipelago) was identified using morphological and molecular genetic data as Hippocampus erectus. This specimen represents the first record of H. erectus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean, well outside its reported range, and may provide evidence of long-distance translocation in what are assumed to be relatively sedentary fish.

  14. The Homo floresiensis Controversy

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    COLIN GROVES

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A completely new and unexpected quasi human species, Homo floresiensis, nicknamed the Hobbit, was described in 2004 from Liang Bua, a cave in Flores. Like many important new contributions to the human fossil record in the past, many commentators refused to believe that a new species had been discovered, and the type specimen was interpreted as a pathological modern human, usually as a microcephalic dwarf. There is no substance to these claims: close analysis shows that Homo floresiensis is not only a genuinely new species, but that its closest affinities lie with Plio-Pleistocene African species such as Homo habilis, so that it documents an earlier dispersal of hominins from Africa and had hitherto been suspected.

  15. Homo economicus belief inhibits trust.

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    Ziqiang Xin

    Full Text Available As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners' benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals' homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people's increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust.

  16. Homo Economicus Belief Inhibits Trust

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    Xin, Ziqiang; Liu, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    As a foundational concept in economics, the homo economicus assumption regards humans as rational and self-interested actors. In contrast, trust requires individuals to believe partners’ benevolence and unselfishness. Thus, the homo economicus belief may inhibit trust. The present three experiments demonstrated that the direct exposure to homo economicus belief can weaken trust. And economic situations like profit calculation can also activate individuals’ homo economicus belief and inhibit their trust. It seems that people’s increasing homo economicus belief may serve as one cause of the worldwide decline of trust. PMID:24146907

  17. Disproportionate Cochlear Length in Genus Homo Shows a High Phylogenetic Signal during Apes’ Hearing Evolution

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    Braga, J.; Loubes, J-M.; Descouens, D.; Dumoncel, J.; Thackeray, J. F.; Kahn, J-L.; de Beer, F.; Riberon, A.; Hoffman, K.; Balaresque, P.; Gilissen, E.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in lifestyles and body weight affected mammal life-history evolution but little is known about how they shaped species’ sensory systems. Since auditory sensitivity impacts communication tasks and environmental acoustic awareness, it may have represented a deciding factor during mammal evolution, including apes. Here, we statistically measure the influence of phylogeny and allometry on the variation of five cochlear morphological features associated with hearing capacities across 22 living and 5 fossil catarrhine species. We find high phylogenetic signals for absolute and relative cochlear length only. Comparisons between fossil cochleae and reconstructed ape ancestral morphotypes show that Australopithecus absolute and relative cochlear lengths are explicable by phylogeny and concordant with the hypothetized ((Pan,Homo),Gorilla) and (Pan,Homo) most recent common ancestors. Conversely, deviations of the Paranthropus oval window area from these most recent common ancestors are not explicable by phylogeny and body weight alone, but suggest instead rapid evolutionary changes (directional selection) of its hearing organ. Premodern (Homo erectus) and modern human cochleae set apart from living non-human catarrhines and australopiths. They show cochlear relative lengths and oval window areas larger than expected for their body mass, two features corresponding to increased low-frequency sensitivity more recent than 2 million years ago. The uniqueness of the “hypertrophied” cochlea in the genus Homo (as opposed to the australopiths) and the significantly high phylogenetic signal of this organ among apes indicate its usefulness to identify homologies and monophyletic groups in the hominid fossil record. PMID:26083484

  18. Variations and asymmetries in regional brain surface in the genus Homo.

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    Balzeau, Antoine; Holloway, Ralph L; Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique

    2012-06-01

    Paleoneurology is an important field of research within human evolution studies. Variations in size and shape of an endocast help to differentiate among fossil hominin species whereas endocranial asymmetries are related to behavior and cognitive function. Here we analyse variations of the surface of the frontal, parieto-temporal and occipital lobes among different species of Homo, including 39 fossil hominins, ten fossil anatomically modern Homo sapiens and 100 endocasts of extant modern humans. We also test for the possible asymmetries of these features in a large sample of modern humans and observe individual particularities in the fossil specimens. This study contributes important new information about the brain evolution in the genus Homo. Our results show that the general pattern of surface asymmetry for the different regional brain surfaces in fossil species of Homo does not seem to be different from the pattern described in a large sample of anatomically modern H. sapiens, i.e., the right hemisphere has a larger surface than the left, as do the right frontal, the right parieto-temporal and the left occipital lobes compared with the contra-lateral side. It also appears that Asian Homo erectus specimens are discriminated from all other samples of Homo, including African and Georgian specimens that are also sometimes included in that taxon. The Asian fossils show a significantly smaller relative size of the parietal and temporal lobes. Neandertals and anatomically modern H. sapiens, who share the largest endocranial volume of all hominins, show differences when considering the relative contribution of the frontal, parieto-temporal and occipital lobes. These results illustrate an original variation in the pattern of brain organization in hominins independent of variations in total size. The globularization of the brain and the enlargement of the parietal lobes could be considered derived features observed uniquely in anatomically modern H. sapiens. Copyright

  19. Parental care improves immunity in the seahorse (Hippocampus erectus).

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    Lin, Tingting; Zhang, Dong; Liu, Xin; Xiao, Dongxue

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the sexual dimorphism in immune response in the seahorse Hippocampus erectus in which males compete for mates and invest heavily in parental care was assessed. Variability in immunocompetence in virginal seahorses with differing levels of sexual maturity (i.e., immaturity, early maturity and maturity) and with different mating statuses (i.e., virginal, experienced mating failure and experienced mating success) were analyzed by evaluating immune parameters in the plasma. Additionally, ultrastructural characteristics of the inner epithelium of the brood pouch were compared between males that had experienced mating failure and those that had succeeded. Generally, immunity in sexually mature virgin males was greater than in females, and mating competition significantly reduced males' immunity. However, parental care gave males stronger immune and metabolic abilities and resulted in their immunity significantly rebounding after a successful mating. The present study quantitatively clarifies, for the first time, how parental care and mating competition jointly affect immunity. Moreover, previous findings that females display more efficient immune defenses than males in conventional species (i.e., males are as competitor and females as care giver) and that males' immunity is higher than females' in the pipefish (i.e., females are as competitor and males as care giver) in combination with the present results indicate that parental care is a key factor for sexual dimorphism in immunity. The care-giving sex has strong immunity regardless of the sex in charge of mating competition or not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Draft genome of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus.

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    Lin, Qiang; Qiu, Ying; Gu, Ruobo; Xu, Meng; Li, Jia; Bian, Chao; Zhang, Huixian; Qin, Geng; Zhang, Yanhong; Luo, Wei; Chen, Jieming; You, Xinxin; Fan, Mingjun; Sun, Min; Xu, Pao; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Xu, Junming; Fu, Hongtuo; Shi, Qiong

    2017-06-01

    The lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus , is an Atlantic species and mainly inhabits shallow sea beds or coral reefs. It has become very popular in China for its wide use in traditional Chinese medicine. In order to improve the aquaculture yield of this valuable fish species, we are trying to develop genomic resources for assistant selection in genetic breeding. Here, we provide whole genome sequencing, assembly, and gene annotation of the lined seahorse, which can enrich genome resource and further application for its molecular breeding. A total of 174.6 Gb (Gigabase) raw DNA sequences were generated by the Illumina Hiseq2500 platform. The final assembly of the lined seahorse genome is around 458 Mb, representing 94% of the estimated genome size (489 Mb by k-mer analysis). The contig N50 and scaffold N50 reached 14.57 kb and 1.97 Mb, respectively. Quality of the assembled genome was assessed by BUSCO with prediction of 85% of the known vertebrate genes and evaluated using the de novo assembled RNA-seq transcripts to prove a high mapping ratio (more than 99% transcripts could be mapped to the assembly). Using homology-based, de novo and transcriptome-based prediction methods, we predicted 20 788 protein-coding genes in the generated assembly, which is less than our previously reported gene number (23 458) of the tiger tail seahorse ( H. comes ). We report a draft genome of the lined seahorse. These generated genomic data are going to enrich genome resource of this economically important fish, and also provide insights into the genetic mechanisms of its iconic morphology and male pregnancy behavior. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Patterns of dental development in Homo, Australopithecus, Pan, and Gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B H

    1994-07-01

    Smith ([1986] Nature 323:327-330) distinguished patterns of development of teeth of juvenile fossil hominids as being "more like humans" or "more like apes" based on statistical similarity to group standards. Here, this central tendency discrimination (CTD) is tested for its ability to recognize ape and human patterns of dental development in 789 subadult hominoids. Tooth development of a modern human sample (665 black southern Africans) was scored entirely by an outside investigator; pongid and fossil hominid samples (59 Pan, 50 Gorilla, and 14 fossil hominids) were scored by the author. The claim of Lampl et al. ([1993] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 90:113-127) that Smith's 1986 method succeeds in only 8% of human cases was not sustained. Figures for overall success of classification (87% humans, 68% apes) mask important effects of teeth sampled and age class. For humans, the power of CTD varied between 53% and 92% depending on the number and kind of teeth available--nearly that of a coin toss when data described only two nearby teeth, but quite successful with more teeth or distant teeth. For apes, only age class affected accuracy: "Infant" apes (M1 development or = root 1/4), however, were correctly discriminated in 87% of cases. Overall, CTD can be considered reliable (accuracy of 92% for humans and 88% for apes) when data contrast development of distant dental fields and subjects are juveniles (not infants). Restricting analysis of fossils to specimens satisfying these criteria, patterns of dental development of gracile australopithecines and Homo habilis remain classified with African apes. Those of Homo erectus and Neanderthals are classified with humans, suggesting that patterns of growth evolved substantially in the Hominidae. To standardize future research, the computer program that operationalizes CTD is now available.

  2. New fossils from Koobi Fora in northern Kenya confirm taxonomic diversity in early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leakey, Meave G; Spoor, Fred; Dean, M Christopher; Feibel, Craig S; Antón, Susan C; Kiarie, Christopher; Leakey, Louise N

    2012-08-09

    Since its discovery in 1972 (ref. 1), the cranium KNM-ER 1470 has been at the centre of the debate over the number of species of early Homo present in the early Pleistocene epoch of eastern Africa. KNM-ER 1470 stands out among other specimens attributed to early Homo because of its larger size, and its flat and subnasally orthognathic face with anteriorly placed maxillary zygomatic roots. This singular morphology and the incomplete preservation of the fossil have led to different views as to whether KNM-ER 1470 can be accommodated within a single species of early Homo that is highly variable because of sexual, geographical and temporal factors, or whether it provides evidence of species diversity marked by differences in cranial size and facial or masticatory adaptation. Here we report on three newly discovered fossils, aged between 1.78 and 1.95 million years (Myr) old, that clarify the anatomy and taxonomic status of KNM-ER 1470. KNM-ER 62000, a well-preserved face of a late juvenile hominin, closely resembles KNM-ER 1470 but is notably smaller. It preserves previously unknown morphology, including moderately sized, mesiodistally long postcanine teeth. The nearly complete mandible KNM-ER 60000 and mandibular fragment KNM-ER 62003 have a dental arcade that is short anteroposteriorly and flat across the front, with small incisors; these features are consistent with the arcade morphology of KNM-ER 1470 and KNM-ER 62000. The new fossils confirm the presence of two contemporary species of early Homo, in addition to Homo erectus, in the early Pleistocene of eastern Africa.

  3. Homo Oeconomicus and Behavioral Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Brzezicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in behavioral trends in both economic theory and practical applications. As a science with vast potential for explaining complex market behaviors, behavioral economics is drifting away from the classical model of homo oeconomicus deployed by mainstream economics. This paper discusses the significance and role of the homo oeconomicus model in light of behavioral economics. It analyzes the direction of changes affecting homo oeconomicus, examines the definition of anomalies within the context of behavioral economics and discusses the anomalous status of homo oeconomicus. The paper proposes a hypothesis that the attitude characterizing homo oeconomicus is unique and incidental. The presented interdisciplinary analysis relies on economics, behavioral economics, economic psychology, behavioral finance and the methodology of science to discuss the homo oeconomicus model. The paper reviews change trends in economics, which are largely propelled by advancements in behavioral economics. The key methodological tools deployed in this paper are theoretical analysis and a compilation of extensive research findings. The results were used to formulate new theories advocating the development of a modern approach to the homo oeconomicus model, recognizing its significance and the growing importance of behavioral economics.

  4. What do cranial bones of LB1 tell us about Homo floresiensis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzeau, Antoine; Charlier, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Cranial vault thickness (CVT) of Liang Bua 1, the specimen that is proposed to be the holotype of Homo floresiensis, has not yet been described in detail and compared with samples of fossil hominins, anatomically modern humans or microcephalic skulls. In addition, a complete description from a forensic and pathological point of view has not yet been carried out. It is important to evaluate scientifically if features related to CVT bring new information concerning the possible pathological status of LB1, and if it helps to recognize affinities with any hominin species and particularly if the specimen could belong to the species Homo sapiens. Medical examination of the skull based on a micro-CT examination clearly brings to light the presence of a sincipital T (a non-metrical variant of normal anatomy), a scar from an old frontal trauma without any evident functional consequence, and a severe bilateral hyperostosis frontalis interna that may have modified the anterior morphology of the endocranium of LB1. We also show that LB1 displays characteristics, related to the distribution of bone thickness and arrangements of cranial structures, that are plesiomorphic traits for hominins, at least for Homo erectus s.l. relative to Homo neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. All the microcephalic skulls analyzed here share the derived condition of anatomically modern H. sapiens. Cranial vault thickness does not help to clarify the definition of the species H. floresiensis but it also does not support an attribution of LB1 to H. sapiens. We conclude that there is no support for the attribution of LB1 to H. sapiens as there is no evidence of systemic pathology and because it does not have any of the apomorphic traits of our species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fungitoxic potential of tagetes erectus for the management of alternaria alternata strains of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, T.; Shafique, S.; Shafique, S.; Zaheer, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) is economically the most vital vegetable crops of this world but diseases reduce tomato production to a greater extent worldwide. Plants exudates contribute a lot in fight against pathogens. The current study indicates the pathogenic potential of Alternaria alternata FCBP-573 against tomato. RAPD analysis confirmed that A. alternata FCBP-573 had variability in its genetic constitution with other two isolates; this disparity in genetic constitution might be a cause to stir up more pathogenicity in this isolate. Therefore, it was selected as the most pathogenic isolate and subjected to biological control through Tagetes erectus L. In antifungal bioassays different plant parts of T. erectus with 1-4% concentrations of aqueous, and organic extracts of each part were evaluated against A. alternata FCBP- 573. Results revealed that the growth of A. alternata FCBP-573 was greatly inhibited at 4% concentration of methanol extract followed by aqueous and n-hexane extract. Among different plant parts tested, root extract exhibited more promising results by causing 81-92% reduction in biomass. The research concludes that aqueous and organic extracts of ornamentals have potential to obstruct dreadful effect of pathogenic fungi by suppressing their growth. T. erectus conferred vital and surprisingly stable compounds having inhibitory potential against A. alternata FCBP-573. (author)

  6. The dispersal of Homo sapiens across southern Asia: how early, how often, how complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennell, Robin; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2012-07-01

    The timing and the paths of colonization of southern Asia by Homo sapiens are poorly known, though many population geneticists, paleoanthropologists, and archaeologists have contended that this process began with dispersal from East Africa, and occurred between 60,000 and 40,000 years ago. However, the evidence for this scenario is very weak, particularly the lack of human skeletal evidence between the Levant and Borneo before 40 ka, and other explanations are possible. Here we argue that environmental and archaeological information is increasingly indicating the likelihood that H. sapiens exited Africa much earlier than commonly thought, and may have colonized much of southern Asia well before 60,000 years ago. Additionally, we cannot exclude the possibility that several dispersal events occurred, from both North and East Africa, nor the likelihood that early populations of H. sapiens in southern Asia interbred with indigenous populations of Neanderthals, Denisovans and Homo erectus. The population history of southern Asia during the Upper Pleistocene is likely far more complex than currently envisaged.

  7. Island Rule, quantitative genetics and brain-body size evolution in Homo floresiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Raia, Pasquale

    2017-06-28

    Colonization of islands often activate a complex chain of adaptive events that, over a relatively short evolutionary time, may drive strong shifts in body size, a pattern known as the Island Rule. It is arguably difficult to perform a direct analysis of the natural selection forces behind such a change in body size. Here, we used quantitative evolutionary genetic models, coupled with simulations and pattern-oriented modelling, to analyse the evolution of brain and body size in Homo floresiensis , a diminutive hominin species that appeared around 700 kya and survived up to relatively recent times (60-90 kya) on Flores Island, Indonesia. The hypothesis of neutral evolution was rejected in 97% of the simulations, and estimated selection gradients are within the range found in living natural populations. We showed that insularity may have triggered slightly different evolutionary trajectories for body and brain size, which means explaining the exceedingly small cranial volume of H. floresiensis requires additional selective forces acting on brain size alone. Our analyses also support previous conclusions that H. floresiensis may be most likely derived from an early Indonesian H. erectus , which is coherent with currently accepted biogeographical scenario for Homo expansion out of Africa. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. The Emergence of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensberger, Boyce

    1980-01-01

    Describes chronologically the evolution of the human race on earth so as to refute Darwin's theory of descent from animals. Skull fragments from sites around the world suggest at least two possible routes toward the emergence of Homo sapiens sapiens. (Author/SK)

  9. Variation among early Homo crania from Olduvai Gorge and the Koobi Fora region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rightmire, G P

    1993-01-01

    Fossils recognized as early Homo were discovered first at Olduvai Gorge in 1959 and 1960. Teeth, skull parts and hand bones representing three individuals were found in Bed I, and more material followed from Bed I and lower Bed II. By 1964, L.S.B. Leakey, P.V. Tobias, and J.R. Napier were ready to name Homo habilis. But almost as soon as they had, there was confusion over the hypodigm of the new species. Tobias himself suggested that OH 13 resembles Homo erectus from Java, and he noted that OH 16 has teeth as large as those of Australopithecus. By the early 1970s, however, Tobias had put these thoughts behind him and returned to the opinion that all of the Olduvai remains are Homo habilis. At about this time, important discoveries began to flow from the Koobi Fora region in Kenya. To most observers, crania such as KNM-ER 1470 confirmed the presence of Homo in East Africa at an early date. Some of the other specimens were problematical. A.C. Walker and R.E. Leakey raised the possibility that larger skulls including KNM-ER 1470 differ significantly from smaller-brained, small-toothed individuals such as KNM-ER 1813. Other workers emphasized that there are differences of shape as well as size among the hominids from Koobi Fora. There is now substantial support for the view that in the Turkana and perhaps also in the Olduvai assemblages, there is more variation than would be expected among male and female conspecifics. One way to approach this question of sorting would be to compare all of the new fossils against the original material from Olduvai which was used to characterize Homo habilis in 1964. A problem is that the Olduvai remains are fragmentary, and none of them provides much information about vault form or facial structure. An alternative is to work first with the better crania, even if these are from other sites. I have elected to treat KNM-ER 1470 and KNM-ER 1813 as key individuals. Comparisons are based on discrete anatomy and measurements. Metric results

  10. The Evolution of Homo Economicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Komarovskaia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a review of the ways in which interdisciplinary research in modern economic thought gives a more realistic understanding of human behavior and economic decision making. On the one hand, economic imperialism drove wider application of economics methods across social sciences and brought about new interdisciplinary fields, such as law and economics, economic sociology, public choice theory, etc. On the other hand, the origin of behavioral economics, experimental economics, and neuroeconomics bridging psychology, neurobiology, and economics influences the change in the methodology used by the economics itself and fuels transformation of the model of rational economic behavior 'homo economicus', one of the central assumptions of the neoclassical economics. George Akerlof and Robert Shiller's animal spirits, prospect theory of Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, research by Amartya Sen, Daniel McFadden, Vernon Smith, and other economists focusing on decision making either significantly limit, or supplement the homo economicus concept providing a deeper insight into the nature of human rationality. Behavioral economics has already become so strong as a separate discipline that it can be classified into two streams - Classical and Modern, and its main principles should be incorporated into a basic course of traditional economics. The achievements of behavioral economics yield higher quality of economic research and forecasting. Interdisciplinary approach to the human behavior studies and transformation of homo economicus offer new tools for the development policy making.

  11. The dynamics of reproductive rate, offspring survivorship and growth in the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; Li, Gang; Qin, Geng; Lin, Junda; Huang, Liangmin; Sun, Hushan; Feng, Peiyong

    2012-01-01

    Summary Seahorses are the vertebrate group with the embryonic development occurring within a special pouch in males. To understand the reproductive efficiency of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 under controlled breeding experiments, we investigated the dynamics of reproductive rate, offspring survivorship and growth over births by the same male seahorses. The mean brood size of the 1-year old pairs in the 1st birth was 85.4±56.9 per brood, which was significantly smaller than that in the 6th birth (465.9±136.4 per brood) (Pseahorses H. erectus increased with the brood pouch development. PMID:23213429

  12. Homo creator: facet of creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Grekova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to highlight the essence of the concepts of «creativity» and «creative person». We give a definition of «Homo creator», which is treated as a creative person. For definition of creativity as a term analyzes existing in modern and ancient philosophical literature interpretation. «Homo creator» is analyzed as a person free from fears and experiences, some of the faces and boundaries that limit a person; active, open, proactive and creative person can create something new and unknown; constantly provides further restructuring of nature, creates a new objective environment in which developing human civilization and nature. Outlined the phenomenon of creativity as a complex complex phenomenon. It is proved that creativity is a social and cultural phenomenon that is focused basically on something new and expressing the present culture. Creativity - a special quality of that belongs to man as a social being and promotes change and development in all spheres of public life and undoubtedly overcomes various crisis conditions and situations that pose basic questions of human existence and the meaning of its relationships with the outside world . The phenomenon of creativity as an option to overcome the existential crisis of identity. The problem of studying the influence of modern art to overcome the «boundary» conditions of human life and further reflection on existential experiences of her creative life position is relevant to the subject of scientific research.

  13. The biting performance of Homo sapiens and Homo heidelbergensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Ricardo Miguel; Fitton, Laura C; Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Stringer, Chris B; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Bromage, Timothy G; O'Higgins, Paul

    2018-05-01

    Modern humans have smaller faces relative to Middle and Late Pleistocene members of the genus Homo. While facial reduction and differences in shape have been shown to increase biting efficiency in Homo sapiens relative to these hominins, facial size reduction has also been said to decrease our ability to resist masticatory loads. This study compares crania of Homo heidelbergensis and H. sapiens with respect to mechanical advantages of masticatory muscles, force production efficiency, strains experienced by the cranium and modes of deformation during simulated biting. Analyses utilize X-ray computed tomography (CT) scan-based 3D models of a recent modern human and two H. heidelbergensis. While having muscles of similar cross-sectional area to H. heidelbergensis, our results confirm that the modern human masticatory system is more efficient at converting muscle forces into bite forces. Thus, it can produce higher bite forces than Broken Hill for equal muscle input forces. This difference is the result of alterations in relative in and out-lever arm lengths associated with well-known differences in midfacial prognathism. Apparently at odds with this increased efficiency is the finding that the modern human cranium deforms more, resulting in greater strain magnitudes than Broken Hill when biting at the equivalent tooth. Hence, the facial reduction that characterizes modern humans may not have evolved as a result of selection for force production efficiency. These findings provide further evidence for a degree of uncoupling between form and function in the masticatory system of modern humans. This may reflect the impact of food preparation technologies. These data also support previous suggestions that differences in bite force production efficiency can be considered a spandrel, primarily driven by the midfacial reduction in H. sapiens that occurred for other reasons. Midfacial reduction plausibly resulted in a number of other significant changes in morphology, such

  14. Dermatitis and systemic mycosis in lined seahorses Hippocampus erectus associated with a marine-adapted Fusarium solani species complex pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a 4 month epizootic, 100% of 152 lined seahorses Hippocampus erectus in three separate groups died while in quarantine following shipment to a public aquarium. Twelve animals with skin depigmentation and ulceration were received by the Aquatic Pathology Service, University of Georgia, College...

  15. Homo economicus: van positief naar normatief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, R.F.; Sent, E.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Homo economicus werd in de interpretatie van neoklassieke economen zoals Milton Friedman als basis voor ‘positieve’ voorspellingen gepositioneerd. Dat zijn voorspellingen over wat is. Gedragseconomen zoals Amos Tversky en Daniel Kahneman zetten de homo economicus juist weg als zijnde ‘normatief’.

  16. The evolution of homo touristicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duccio Canestrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the evolution of homo touristicus, a concept that originally referred to a person with a decent level of income who travelled for pleasure for short periods of time, taking advantage of the geoeconomic disparity between their habitual residence and the destinations chosen. This category has grown to include new sub-species and varieties that take in a wide range of forms and motivations and goes far beyond the old ways of being a tourist. These days, tourism is constructed according to new tastes and new technologies; it seems genetically modified and as such it promotes itself and consumes. Although there is still a generic demand for escape, the settings have changed. This paper sets out some of these changes, goes on to note the particular obsession with the safety of the tourist and, finally, appeals for a harmonious development of tourist activity.

  17. The hand of Homo naledi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Deane, Andrew S.; Tocheri, Matthew W.; Orr, Caley M.; Schmid, Peter; Hawks, John; Berger, Lee R.; Churchill, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    A nearly complete right hand of an adult hominin was recovered from the Rising Star cave system, South Africa. Based on associated hominin material, the bones of this hand are attributed to Homo naledi. This hand reveals a long, robust thumb and derived wrist morphology that is shared with Neandertals and modern humans, and considered adaptive for intensified manual manipulation. However, the finger bones are longer and more curved than in most australopiths, indicating frequent use of the hand during life for strong grasping during locomotor climbing and suspension. These markedly curved digits in combination with an otherwise human-like wrist and palm indicate a significant degree of climbing, despite the derived nature of many aspects of the hand and other regions of the postcranial skeleton in H. naledi. PMID:26441219

  18. Adult Neandertal clavicles from the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain) in the context of Homo pectoral girdle evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Antonio; Rodriguez-Perez, Francisco Javier; Bastir, Markus; Estalrrich, Almudena; Huguet, Rosa; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Pastor, Juan Francisco; de la Rasilla, Marco

    2016-06-01

    We undertook a three-dimensional geometric morphometric (3DGM) analysis on 12 new Neandertal clavicle specimens from the El Sidrón site (Spain), dated to 49,000 years ago. The 3DGM methods were applied in a comparative framework in order to improve our understanding of trait polarity in features related to Homo pectoral girdle evolution, using other Neandertals, Homo sapiens, Pan, ATD6-50 (Homo antecessor), and KNM-WT 15000 (Homo ergaster/erectus) in the reference collection. Twenty-nine homologous landmarks were measured for each clavicle. Variation and morphological similarities were assessed through principal component analysis, conducted separately for the complete clavicle and the diaphysis. On average, Neandertal clavicles had significantly larger muscular entheses, double dorsal curvature, clavicle torsion, and cranial orientation of the acromial end than non-Neandertal clavicles; the El Sidrón clavicles fit this pattern. Variation within the samples was large, with extensive overlap between Homo species; only chimpanzee specimens clearly differed from the other specimens in morphometric terms. Taken together, our morphometric analyses are consistent with the following phylogenetic sequence. The primitive condition of the clavicle is manifest in the cranial orientation of both the acromial and sternal ends. The derived condition expressed in the H. sapiens + Neandertal clade is defined by caudal rotation of both the sternal and acromial ends, but with variation in the number of acromia remaining in a certain cranial orientation. Finally, the autapomorphic Neandertal condition is defined by secondarily acquired primitive cranial re-orientation of the acromial end, which varies from individual to individual. These results suggest that the pace of phylogenetic change in the pectoral girdle does not seem to follow that of other postcranial skeletal features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gross, histological and ultrastructural morphology of the aglomerular kidney in the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelson, S B; Yanong, R P E; Kane, A; Teal, C N; Berzins, I K; Smith, S A; Brown, C; Camus, A

    2015-09-01

    Histologic evaluation of the renal system in the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus reveals a cranial kidney with low to moderate cellularity, composed of a central dorsal aorta, endothelial lined capillary sinusoids, haematopoietic tissue, fine fibrovascular stroma, ganglia and no nephrons. In comparison, the caudal kidney is moderately to highly cellular with numerous highly convoluted epithelial lined tubules separated by interlacing haematopoietic tissue, no glomeruli, fine fibrovascular stroma, numerous capillary sinusoids, corpuscles of Stannius and clusters of endocrine cells adjacent to large calibre vessels. Ultrastructural evaluation of the renal tubules reveals minimal variability of the tubule epithelium throughout the length of the nephron and the majority of tubules are characterized by epithelial cells with few apical microvilli, elaborate basal membrane infolding, rare electron dense granules and abundant supporting collagenous matrix. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Growth and survival of Hippocampus erectus (Perry, 1810 juveniles fed on Artemia with different HUFA levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Vite-Garcia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Survival during first months after birth is one of the bottlenecks for consolidating the seahorse farming industry. In this work, Artemia metanauplii enriched with two highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA rich commercial emulsions with different docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels (63% and 14% of total lipids, a vegetable oil with no DHA, and non-enriched Artemia as control, were used to feed 5-day-old juvenile Hippocampus erectus for 60 days. Enriched Artemia had similar levels of DHA (13% and 9%, despite great differences of DHA in the emulsions, with traces of DHA in non-enriched and vegetable oil enriched Artemia. More than 20% of DHA was found in 24 h starved juveniles fed both DHA-enriched treatments, similar to values in newly born juveniles, but those fed vegetable oil enriched Artemia or non-enriched Artemia had 5% of DHA. Total lipid and protein levels were similar in juveniles from the four treatments. The n-3/n-6 ratio was almost four-fold higher in seahorses fed DHA-enriched treatments compared to juveniles fed the non-enriched treatments. Survival of seahorses only partially reflected the DHA levels: it was lower in the vegetable oil treatment, similar in the seahorses fed Artemia with higher DHA and in the control treatment, and higher in seahorses fed the HUFA-enriched Artemia with lower DHA levels, although growth was similar in the two DHA-enriched Artemia treatments. Juvenile H. erectus seahorses perform better when they have at least 20% of DHA in their tissues, and these levels can be attained with no more than 14% of DHA in emulsions, eliminating the need for more expensive emulsions with higher DHA levels.

  1. The Homo Energeticus: maturity, inheritance, identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, modern society’s intimate bond to the convenience and reliability of delivered energy services results in a form of identification I call the Homo Energeticus. The Homo Energeticus relies upon a mature system of services for achieving an equivalency of status and prestige that is historically similar to the morality of a noble class. I describe the uniqueness of this identity by its imperative for acquiring experience through an invisibility of energy expenditures. In this way, the Homo Energeticus cultivates a highly individualized life whose ambience of perfection, while created personally, is only successful insofar as it conceals energy expenditures in labor and supply. (letter)

  2. The leptin system and its expression at different nutritional and pregnant stages in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus)

    OpenAIRE

    Huixian Zhang; Geng Qin; Yanhong Zhang; Shuisheng Li; Qiang Lin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Leptin is an essential hormone for the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake in vertebrate animals. To better understand the physiological roles of leptin in nutrient regulation in paternal ovoviviparous fish (family Syngnathidae), the present study cloned the full-length of leptin-a and leptin receptor (lepr) genes in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus). Results showed that there was a 576-bp intron between two exons in leptin-a gene but no leptin-b gene in seahorse. Alth...

  3. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Dayane K D; Souza, Ivone A DE; Oliveira, Antônio F M DE; Barbosa, Mariana O; Santana, Marllon A N; Pereira, Daniel F; Lira, Eduardo C; Vieira, Jeymesson R C

    2016-09-01

    Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE). The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  4. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAYANE K.D. NASCIMENTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE. The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  5. The origin and evolution of Homo sapiens

    OpenAIRE

    Stringer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    If we restrict the use of Homo sapiens in the fossil record to specimens which share a significant number of derived features in the skeleton with extant H. sapiens, the origin of our species would be placed in the African late middle Pleistocene, based on fossils such as Omo Kibish 1, Herto 1 and 2, and the Levantine material from Skhul and Qafzeh. However, genetic data suggest that we and our sister species Homo neanderthalensis shared a last common ancestor in the middle Pleistocene approx...

  6. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Two Seahorse Species (Hippocampus erectus and H. mohnikei and the Development of Molecular Markers for Population Genetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lin

    Full Text Available Seahorse conservation has been performed utilizing various strategies for many decades, and the deeper understanding of genomic information is necessary to more efficiently protect the germplasm resources of seahorse species. However, little genetic information about seahorses currently exists in the public databases. In this study, high-throughput RNA sequencing for two seahorse species, Hippocampus erectus and H. mohnikei, was carried out, and de novo assembly generated 37,506 unigenes for H. erectus and 36,113 unigenes for H. mohnikei. Among them, 17,338 (46.23% unigenes for H. erectus and 17,900 (49.57% for H. mohnikei were successfully annotated based on the information available from the public databases. Through comparing the unigenes of two seahorse species, 7,802 candidate orthologous genes were identified and 5,268 genes among them could be annotated. In addition, gene ontology analysis of two species was similarly performed on biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions. Twenty-four and twenty-one unigenes in H. erectus and H. mohnikei were annotated in the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids pathways, and both seahorses lacked the Δ12 and Δ15 desaturases. Total of 8,992 and 9,116 SSR loci were obtained from H. erectus and H. mohnikei unigenes, respectively. Dozens of SSR were developed and then applied to assess the population genetic diversity, as well as cross-amplified in a related species, H. trimaculatus. The HO and HE values of the tested populations for H. erectus, H. mohnikei, and H. trimaculatus were medium. These resources would facilitate the conservation of the species through a better understanding of the genomics and comparative genome analysis within the Hippocampus genus.

  7. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Two Seahorse Species (Hippocampus erectus and H. mohnikei) and the Development of Molecular Markers for Population Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; Luo, Wei; Wan, Shiming; Gao, Zexia

    2016-01-01

    Seahorse conservation has been performed utilizing various strategies for many decades, and the deeper understanding of genomic information is necessary to more efficiently protect the germplasm resources of seahorse species. However, little genetic information about seahorses currently exists in the public databases. In this study, high-throughput RNA sequencing for two seahorse species, Hippocampus erectus and H. mohnikei, was carried out, and de novo assembly generated 37,506 unigenes for H. erectus and 36,113 unigenes for H. mohnikei. Among them, 17,338 (46.23%) unigenes for H. erectus and 17,900 (49.57%) for H. mohnikei were successfully annotated based on the information available from the public databases. Through comparing the unigenes of two seahorse species, 7,802 candidate orthologous genes were identified and 5,268 genes among them could be annotated. In addition, gene ontology analysis of two species was similarly performed on biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions. Twenty-four and twenty-one unigenes in H. erectus and H. mohnikei were annotated in the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids pathways, and both seahorses lacked the Δ12 and Δ15 desaturases. Total of 8,992 and 9,116 SSR loci were obtained from H. erectus and H. mohnikei unigenes, respectively. Dozens of SSR were developed and then applied to assess the population genetic diversity, as well as cross-amplified in a related species, H. trimaculatus. The HO and HE values of the tested populations for H. erectus, H. mohnikei, and H. trimaculatus were medium. These resources would facilitate the conservation of the species through a better understanding of the genomics and comparative genome analysis within the Hippocampus genus.

  8. Ennäe homo / Feliks Krapp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krapp, Feliks

    1999-01-01

    Elisabeth Ohlsoni fotonäitus "Ecce homo" Pärnu Uue Kunsti Muuseumis 14. VII-22. VIII. E. Ohlsoni sõnum: Kristus armastab kõiki ning on olemas ka seksuaalvähemuste jaoks, vaid ühiskond pole seda alati.

  9. Homo homini : [luuletused] / Valeria Ränik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ränik, Valeria, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: Homo homini ; "Tegelikult on täiuslik kõik..." ; Mõned kõned ; "Vihmadest lekib lagi..." ; "Sündisid siia, et maksta maksu..." ; "Mingis kohas, mingil ajal..." ; "Emajõgi, Amme jõgi..." ; Kaktus ; Eraelamus ; "Minevikule vesi peale..."

  10. Comparative Status of Sequestered Carbon Stock of Azadirachta indica and Conocarpus erectus at the University of Karachi Campus, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Ajani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon sequestration by trees is one of the most cost-effective and efficient methods to remove carbon dioxide from atmosphere since trees remove and store carbon at higher rates compared to other land covers. Carbon storage by trees typically ranges from 1 to 8 MgC ha-1 yr-1.The carbon is sequestered in different parts of the trees as biomass. The measurements of biomass provide reasonably accurate estimate of the amount of carbon that was removed from lower troposphere over the years. Therefore, the present study investigates and compares the carbon stock of native Azadirachta indica and exotic Conocarpus erectus, which are extensively cultivated in the campus of the University of Karachi, Pakistan. The above-ground and below-ground biomass of 327 trees of A. indica and 253 trees of C. erectus were estimated by using non-destructive method. The average carbon content of A. indica is calculated to be 662.32 + 1144.81 Kg while that of C. erectus is 192.70 + 322.60 Kg. The independent t-test analysis showed significant difference (p < 0.001 between the means of the carbon content of both the species. The carbon contents of two different species were also correlated with bole’s diameter at breast height (DBH and tree’s height. The analysis demonstrated greater correlation between the carbon content and the DBH of both the species compared to that with their height. The study will help to understand the carbon sequestration potential of two different types of species for planting particularly in urban area of the world.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-5, Issue-2, March-May 2016, Page: 89-97

  11. Variations of immune parameters in the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus after infection with enteritis pathogen of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Zhang, Dong; Liu, Xin; Xiao, Dongxue

    2016-03-01

    Enteritis has been increasingly recognized as one of the major obstacles for the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus mass culture success. In the present study, the intestinal bacteria strains of the lined seahorses H. erectus suffered from enteritis were isolated, then their pathogenicities were confirmed by artificial infection, and one pathogenic bacteria strain named DS3 was obtained. The median lethal dose (LD50) of strain DS3 for 10 days was determined. The seahorses with different infection levels of uninfected (control), early stage of infection (ESI) and late stage of infection (LSI) were respectively sampled at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days post infection, and 12 immune parameters in the plasma were analyzed. The strain DS3 identified with a biochemical test combined with a molecular method was Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and its LD50 for 10 days was 1.3 × 10(3) cfu/fish. Six parameters including monocytes/leucocytes, leucocytes phagocytic rate, interleukin-2, interferon-α, lysozyme and immunoglobulin M exhibited a generally similar variation trend: highest in the control, second in the ESI and lowest in the LSI throughout the entire experiment. In view of the infection level of V. parahaemolyticus to H. erectus is largely decided by the seahorse's own immune capacity, therefore, these immune parameters were high in the non- or slightly infected seahorses, and low in the severely infected individuals may be an indicator for immune level. These immune parameters may be reliable indicators for the juvenile and broodstock quality assessment. Moreover, clarification of the enteritis pathogen also provides guidances for targeted medicine choice for the lined seahorse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. New magnetostratigraphy for the Olduvai Subchron in the Koobi Fora Formation, northwest Kenya, with implications for early Homo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepre, Christopher J.; Kent, Dennis V.

    2010-02-01

    A problematic magnetostratigraphy for the Koobi Fora Formation has contributed to debates on the evolutionary implications for early hominin fossils. To address this, 50 independent samples distributed over a nearly 63-m-thick interval were collected from the lower-middle KBS Member type section in fossil collection Area 102, northeast Turkana Basin. Characteristic directions obtained by thermal demagnetization define a coherent magnetostratigraphy that is supported by alternating-field studies on 28 sister specimens and the prior tephrochronological framework. Two long polarity intervals were recognized, each 30-40 m in thickness, and interpreted as the upper part of the normal polarity Olduvai Subchron and the overlying reverse polarity Matuyama Chron. The end Olduvai consists of a normal-reverse-normal polarity sequence occurring over a thickness of at least 1 m but perhaps up to 5 m, suggesting that this subchron has a short reverse interval in its uppermost part. Such a fine-scale structure also has been reported from several other sites, like the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary and point stratotype section at Vrica, Italy, which serves as a basis for formally delimiting three temporally discrete polarity subintervals for the Olduvai Subchron. These paleomagnetic results that place the upper boundary of the Olduvai at ˜ 48 m above the base of the KBS Member, coupled with published radioisotopic dates, firmly secure the age of partial cranium KNM-ER 3733 in the interval 1.78-1.48 Ma, with an interpolated age of ˜ 1.7 Ma, giving this fossil the most unambiguous numerical-age constraints, as compared to the oldest Homo cranial remains from Europe and Asia. Nonetheless, assured placement of the top of the Olduvai Subchron in the KBS Member is not sufficient in the face of other uncertainties to influence conventional interpretations of the timing and direction for the global dispersal of early Homo erectus.

  13. Hominin teeth from the Middle Pleistocene site of Yiyuan, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Song; Sun, Chengkai; Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Han, Fei; Zhang, Yingqi; Liu, Wu

    2016-06-01

    In 1981-1982, some hominin fossils, including a relatively complete skull and seven isolated teeth, were recovered from the Middle Pleistocene site of Yiyuan in Eastern China. In the present study we provide a detailed metric and morphological comparison of the Yiyuan dental sample in order to characterize better the variability of the human populations that inhabited China during the Middle Pleistocene. Aside from taxonomic and phylogenetic questions, the lack of understanding and/or knowledge about the morphological variability of these populations have caused concern about the human versus non-human nature of some of the hominin dental remains found in East Asia during the Early and the Middle Pleistocene. Thus, our study aims to present a detailed description and comparison of the Yiyuan isolated teeth to 1) discuss and support their human nature and 2) to explore their taxonomic affinities with regard to other penecontemporaneous populations from Asia. Our results clearly differentiate the Yiyuan sample from Pongo specimens and support a human attribution for the Yiyuan material. Our analyses also suggest that the Yiyuan teeth form a morphologically coherent group together with samples from Zhoukoudian, Chaoxian and Hexian. They are different from the more derived specimens from Panxian Dadong, suggesting a pattern of biogeographic isolation and different evolutionary trends between northern and southern China during the Middle Pleistocene. In addition, and despite sharing a common morphological bauplan with Homo erectus sensu stricto (s.s.), the Yiyuan, Zhoukoudian and Hexian teeth are also different from the Indonesian Early Pleistocene samples. In particular, the expression of a highly crenulated or dendritic enamel-dentine surface could be unique to these groups. Our study supports the notion that the taxonomy of the Pleistocene hominins from Asia may have been oversimplified. Future studies should explore the variability of the Asian specimens and

  14. The dynamics of reproductive rate, offspring survivorship and growth in the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lin

    2012-02-01

    Seahorses are the vertebrate group with the embryonic development occurring within a special pouch in males. To understand the reproductive efficiency of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 under controlled breeding experiments, we investigated the dynamics of reproductive rate, offspring survivorship and growth over births by the same male seahorses. The mean brood size of the 1-year old pairs in the 1st birth was 85.4±56.9 per brood, which was significantly smaller than that in the 6th birth (465.9±136.4 per brood (P<0.001. The offspring survivorship and growth rate increased with the births. The fecundity was positively correlated with the length of brood pouches of males and trunk of females. The fecundity of 1-year old male and 2-year old female pairs was significantly higher than that from 1-year old couples (P<0.001. The brood size (552.7±150.4 of the males who mated with females that were isolated for the gamete-preparation, was larger than those (467.8±141.2 from the long-term pairs (P<0.05. Moreover, the offspring from the isolated females had higher survival and growth rates. Our results showed that the potential reproductive rate of seahorses H. erectus increased with the brood pouch development.

  15. Survival, growth performance and immune capacity of the juvenile lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus fed with rifampicin-treated copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Wang, Changbo; Liu, Xin; Gao, Fen; Xiao, Dongxue; Zhang, Dong; Zhu, Xialian

    2017-06-19

    Gastrointestinal disease is one of the most serious diseases in cultured seahorse juveniles. Treatment with antimicrobials of live food (i.e. copepods and Artemia) that is used to feed the juveniles may be a promising measure to alleviate the occurrence of gastrointestinal disease. However, relevant investigations are rare. In the present study, we first investigated the antimicrobial efficacies on bacteria within copepods that were treated with 4 antimicrobials, including 3 antibiotics (i.e. enrofloxacin hydrochloride, oxytetracycline and rifampicin [RFP]) that are approved for use in aquaculture and 1 disinfectant (i.e. povidone iodine). We then assessed the effects of copepods treated with the antimicrobial that had the best antimicrobial efficacy on survival, growth performance and immune capacity of juvenile lined seahorses Hippocampus erectus. The results showed that RFP had the best antimicrobial efficacy on both Pseudoalteromonas spp. and Vibrio spp., 2 dominant bacteria with potential pathogenicity within the copepods; the proper concentration of RFP was 6 mg l-1. Moreover, H. erectus juveniles fed with RFP-treated copepods demonstrated an improved survivorship and immune capacity and had a lower abundance of pathogenic bacteria within their gastrointestinal tracts compared to juveniles fed with untreated copepods. These results suggest that treating live food with RFP is a potential measure for reducing the incidence of gastrointestinal disease in seahorse juveniles.

  16. From Homo Abilis to Homo Rationalis through Analytic Perception and Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lenzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the stage of “Homo habilis” man has gained - in the course  of about two million years during which he has undergone a gradual evolution from the initial animal stage - its status as “Homo rationalis”. However, not all individuals are able to satisfactorily activate the skill of reasoning. It is undeniable that a fundamental step towards this activation is the development of mathematical skills, which are a common heritage of all human beings. Hence the need for more concrete and better coordinateddidactic approaches, ultimately leading to the basic concepts of this discipline, which has an essential role in the acquisition of rationality.   Dall’Homo Abilis all’Homo Rationalis tramite la Percezione Analitica e la Matematica A partire dall’Homo abilis, l’uomo ha conquistato – nel corso di circa 2 milioni di anni, in cui si è progressivamente allontanato da uno stadio bestiale – il suo status di Homo rationalis. Però non tutti gli individui sono in grado di attivare in modo soddisfacente le abiltà di ragionamento. È innegabile che una tappa fondamentale verso quest’attivazione sia costituita dallo sviluppo delle abilità matematiche, che sono patrimonio di ogni essere umano. Da ciò deriva la necessità di impostazioni didattiche più concrete e meglio coordinate, da cui far scaturire in modo comprensibile i concetti fondamentali di tale disciplina, che ha un ruolo essenziale per l’acquisizione della razionalità.  Paole Chiave: filogenesi; memoria di specie; Homo sapiens sapiens; percezione

  17. Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Tim D; Asfaw, Berhane; DeGusta, David; Gilbert, Henry; Richards, Gary D; Suwa, Gen; Howell, F Clark

    2003-06-12

    The origin of anatomically modern Homo sapiens and the fate of Neanderthals have been fundamental questions in human evolutionary studies for over a century. A key barrier to the resolution of these questions has been the lack of substantial and accurately dated African hominid fossils from between 100,000 and 300,000 years ago. Here we describe fossilized hominid crania from Herto, Middle Awash, Ethiopia, that fill this gap and provide crucial evidence on the location, timing and contextual circumstances of the emergence of Homo sapiens. Radioisotopically dated to between 160,000 and 154,000 years ago, these new fossils predate classic Neanderthals and lack their derived features. The Herto hominids are morphologically and chronologically intermediate between archaic African fossils and later anatomically modern Late Pleistocene humans. They therefore represent the probable immediate ancestors of anatomically modern humans. Their anatomy and antiquity constitute strong evidence of modern-human emergence in Africa.

  18. Homo floresiensis. Humanos distintos a nosotros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Marmelada

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Desde su descubrimiento, la polémica en torno al estatus de Homo floresiensis no ha cesado. ¿Son humanos de nuestra propia especie, pero que eran pigmeos que padecieron enanismo, microcefalia y otra serie de patologías, o se trata de miembros de una especie distinta a la nuestra? El hallazgo de restos pertenecientes a 13 individuos y el estudio de varias partes de su esqueleto avalan la segunda hipótesis.

  19. Leukotriene signaling in the extinct human subspecies Homo denisovan and Homo neanderthalensis. Structural and functional comparison with Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Susan; Kakularam, Kumar Reddy; Horn, Thomas; Reddanna, Pallu; Kuhn, Hartmut; Heydeck, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian lipoxygenases (LOXs) have been implicated in cell differentiation and in the biosynthesis of pro- and anti-inflammatory lipid mediators. The initial draft sequence of the Homo neanderthalensis genome (coverage of 1.3-fold) suggested defective leukotriene signaling in this archaic human subspecies since expression of essential proteins appeared to be corrupted. Meanwhile high quality genomic sequence data became available for two extinct human subspecies (H. neanderthalensis, Homo denisovan) and completion of the human 1000 genome project provided a comprehensive database characterizing the genetic variability of the human genome. For this study we extracted the nucleotide sequences of selected eicosanoid relevant genes (ALOX5, ALOX15, ALOX12, ALOX15B, ALOX12B, ALOXE3, COX1, COX2, LTA4H, LTC4S, ALOX5AP, CYSLTR1, CYSLTR2, BLTR1, BLTR2) from the corresponding databases. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences in connection with site-directed mutagenesis studies and structural modeling suggested that the major enzymes and receptors of leukotriene signaling as well as the two cyclooxygenase isoforms were fully functional in these two extinct human subspecies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Homo faber or homo credente? What defines humans, and what could Homo naledi contribute to this debate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlev L. Tönsing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The transition from pre-human to human has, for a long time, been associated with tool use and construction. The implicit self-definition of humans in this is that of planned control over life world. This is reflected on in the work of Hanna Arendt on the homo faber and the novel by Max Frisch of that name. However, this definition has become problematic in a number of ways: Planned tool use has been seen to occur outside the human species, and the focus on control of the environment has become suspect because of the environmental crisis. The burial practices of Homo naledi indicate high-level self-awareness and social communication, with little tool use being evident. This article asks whether this might be an occasion to redefine our conception of what it means to be human away from the focus on mastery and control and towards including trust, also religious trust, as the true mark of humanity.

  1. Homo Tangens, or Man Touching and Tangible

    OpenAIRE

    J Mizinska

    2011-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of the concept sense of touch, which is considered in all its aspects and dimensions. The author's aim is to determine what is touch in terms of philosophy, what types it has and what traditional functions (i.e. prior to the emergence of virtual reality) each of these functions performed. The conducted research allows the author to make a conclusion about the importance of perceiving the role and significance of man as a homo tangens - man touching and t...

  2. Homo Tangens, or Man Touching and Tangible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mizinska

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the concept sense of touch, which is considered in all its aspects and dimensions. The author's aim is to determine what is touch in terms of philosophy, what types it has and what traditional functions (i.e. prior to the emergence of virtual reality each of these functions performed. The conducted research allows the author to make a conclusion about the importance of perceiving the role and significance of man as a homo tangens - man touching and tangible.

  3. Van Homo Ludens naar Homo Turisticus: regressie of stap in de menselijke evolutie?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengkeek, J.

    2009-01-01

    In zijn afscheidsrede wilde hoogleraar Jaap Lengkeek (Wageningen Universiteit) terugblikken op een idee, een begrip, dat op zijn eigen werk de afgelopen jaren invloed heeft gehad. Het begrip dat hij hiervoor koos is 'Homo Ludens', de spelende mens, dat door de bekende historicus Johan Huizinga in

  4. A NEW PARADIGMA OF THE ECONOMICAL AGENT. FROM ADAM SMITHS HOMO ECONOMICUS TO HOMO GENEROSUS BASED ON SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUP ANCA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed form outside, many actions of the economical agent seem to be impulse by the self interest. As a prototype of this kind of person we have the Homo economicus as Adam Smith described it. In a blitz portrait we identify some characteristics: he is perfect rational, perfect egoist, perfect free, perfect competitive and perfect social. The aim of this research is to permute the barycentre from Homo economicus based on self interest, to Homo generosus, based on social responsibility. As a support we have used the prison dilemma to illustrate the roll of cooperation instead self interest. This new coordination will be analyzed to the level of ethical system. Homo economicus is identified in ethics of consequences and the homo generosus in ethics of duty. In my vision, the prototype of homo generosus, is delineated under Kant's categorical imperative: respectful, based on principles as subject and sovereign.

  5. Political Socialization as a Sphere of Being of Homo Politicus

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    И А Щеглов

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Political socialization means something more than political context of socialization. Study in political socialization must be oriented on political socialization as special science category with own history, opening by the logic of Homo politicus being content of political socialization. Homo politicus, rationalized and ideologized in its version, means technological view on the problem of political socialization.

  6. Political Socialization as a Sphere of Being of Homo Politicus

    OpenAIRE

    И А Щеглов

    2008-01-01

    Political socialization means something more than political context of socialization. Study in political socialization must be oriented on political socialization as special science category with own history, opening by the logic of Homo politicus being content of political socialization. Homo politicus, rationalized and ideologized in its version, means technological view on the problem of political socialization.

  7. Improved analyses of human mtDNA sequences support a recent African origin for Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, D; Steel, M; Waddell, P J; Hendy, M D

    1995-09-01

    New quantitative methods are applied to the 135 human mitochondrial sequences from the Vigilant et al. data set. General problems in analyzing large numbers of short sequences are discussed, and an improved strategy is suggested. A key feature is to focus not on individual trees but on the general "landscape" of trees. Over 1,000 searches were made from random starting trees with only one tree (a local optimum) being retained each time, thereby ensuring optima were found independently. A new tree comparison metric was developed that is unaffected by rearrangements of trees around many very short internal edges. Use of this metric showed that downweighting hypervariable sites revealed more evolutionary structure than studies that weighted all sites equally. Our results are consistent with convergence toward a global optimum. Crucial features are that the best optima show very strong regional differentiation, a common group of 49 African sequences is found in all the best optima, and the best optima contain the 16 !Kung sequences in a separate group of San people. The other 86 sequences form a heterogeneous mixture of Africans, Europeans, Australopapuans, and Asians. Thus all major human lineages occur in Africa, but only a subset occurs in the rest of the world. The existence of these African-only groups strongly contradicts multiregional theories for the origin of Homo sapiens that require widespread migration and interbreeding over the entire range of H. erectus. Only when the multiregional model is rejected is it appropriate to consider the root, based on a single locus, to be the center of origin of a population (otherwise different loci could give alternative geographic positions for the root). For this data, several methods locate the root within the group of 49 African sequences and are thus consistent with the recent African origin of H. sapiens. We demonstrate that the time of the last common ancestor cannot be the time of major expansion in human numbers

  8. Genetic, physiologic and ecogeographic factors contributing to variation in Homo sapiens: Homo floresiensis reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gary D

    2006-11-01

    A new species, Homo floresiensis, was recently named for Pleistocene hominid remains on Flores, Indonesia. Significant controversy has arisen regarding this species. To address controversial issues and refocus investigations, I examine the affinities of these remains with Homo sapiens. Clarification of problematic issues is sought through an integration of genetic and physiological data on brain ontogeny and evolution. Clarification of the taxonomic value of various 'primitive' traits is possible given these data. Based on this evidence and using a H. sapiens morphological template, models are developed to account for the combination of features displayed in the Flores fossils. Given this overview, I find substantial support for the hypothesis that the remains represent a variant of H. sapiens possessing a combined growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor I axis modification and mutation of the MCPH gene family. Further work will be required to determine the extent to which this variant characterized the population.

  9. Genetics and the making of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Sean B

    2003-04-24

    Understanding the genetic basis of the physical and behavioural traits that distinguish humans from other primates presents one of the great new challenges in biology. Of the millions of base-pair differences between humans and chimpanzees, which particular changes contributed to the evolution of human features after the separation of the Pan and Homo lineages 5-7 million years ago? How can we identify the 'smoking guns' of human genetic evolution from neutral ticks of the molecular evolutionary clock? The magnitude and rate of morphological evolution in hominids suggests that many independent and incremental developmental changes have occurred that, on the basis of recent findings in model animals, are expected to be polygenic and regulatory in nature. Comparative genomics, population genetics, gene-expression analyses and medical genetics have begun to make complementary inroads into the complex genetic architecture of human evolution.

  10. Homo Novus - A Human Without Illusions

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Ulrich J; Willführ, Kai P

    2010-01-01

    Converging evidence from disciplines including sociobiology, evolutionary psychology and human biology forces us to adopt a new idea of what it means to be a human. As cherished concepts such as free will, naïve realism, humans as creation's crowning glory fall and our moral roots in ape group dynamics become clearer, we have to take leave of many concepts that have been central to defining our humanness. What emerges is a new human, the homo novus, a human being without illusions. Leading authors from many different fields explore these issues by addressing these illusions and providing evidence for the need to switch to this new idea of man, in spite of understandable reluctance to let go of our most beloved illusions.

  11. The origin and evolution of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Chris

    2016-07-05

    If we restrict the use of Homo sapiens in the fossil record to specimens which share a significant number of derived features in the skeleton with extant H. sapiens, the origin of our species would be placed in the African late middle Pleistocene, based on fossils such as Omo Kibish 1, Herto 1 and 2, and the Levantine material from Skhul and Qafzeh. However, genetic data suggest that we and our sister species Homo neanderthalensis shared a last common ancestor in the middle Pleistocene approximately 400-700 ka, which is at least 200 000 years earlier than the species origin indicated from the fossils already mentioned. Thus, it is likely that the African fossil record will document early members of the sapiens lineage showing only some of the derived features of late members of the lineage. On that basis, I argue that human fossils such as those from Jebel Irhoud, Florisbad, Eliye Springs and Omo Kibish 2 do represent early members of the species, but variation across the African later middle Pleistocene/early Middle Stone Age fossils shows that there was not a simple linear progression towards later sapiens morphology, and there was chronological overlap between different 'archaic' and 'modern' morphs. Even in the late Pleistocene within and outside Africa, we find H. sapiens specimens which are clearly outside the range of Holocene members of the species, showing the complexity of recent human evolution. The impact on species recognition of late Pleistocene gene flow between the lineages of modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans is also discussed, and finally, I reconsider the nature of the middle Pleistocene ancestor of these lineages, based on recent morphological and genetic data.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. FROM HOMO OECONOMICUS TO HOMO ALTIORE (HOLISTIC. IN THE SEARCH OF A NEW PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Mikołajek-Gocejna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic slowdown has brought about dramatic consequences in many countries: nonrepayable debts, extreme difficulties for individuals and businesses in obtaining credit, bankruptcies, investor distrust and falls in global stock markets, government bailouts against banks and other financial institutions at risk of failure. In fact, the crisis would probably not have taken place without some political decisions, related to monetary and economic policy, as well as insufficient regulation and monitoring. It can be said that during the crisis, the “invisible hand” of free market turned to “stealing hand” through market games driven by the irrational and irresponsible behaviors of politicians, creditors, and consumers. Current economic theory has been constructed on a foundation laid more than 200 years ago. The traditional economic and finance models are based on the premises of perfect competition, efficient markets, rational behaviors, and market equilibrium. This paradigm suggests that the “invisible hand” will work its magic to resolve all imbalances and bring the economy back to the steady-state equilibrium because market participants behave rationally. This article was inspired by Leibstein’s hypothesis that homo oeconomicus is not a model case but extreme form of behavior that surfaces under extraordinary circumstances. The aim of this paper is an attempt to shift from the concept of homo economicus to the concept of homo altiore (holistic, trying to capture the whole complex nature of human beings.

  13. Plasma levels of immune factors and sex steroids in the male seahorse Hippocampus erectus during a breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Liu, Xin; Xiao, Dongxue; Zhang, Dong

    2017-06-01

    To better understand the endocrine- and immune-response pattern during reproduction in a fish species having parental care behaviors and also to accumulate the endocrine- and immune-related data for future explanations of the low reproductive efficiency in seahorse species, the variations of immune factors and sex steroids in the plasma of the male lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus at different breeding stages, i.e., pre-pregnancy, pregnancy (early, middle, and late periods), and post-pregnancy, were investigated in the present study. The immune factors included monocytes/leucocytes (M/L), leucocyte phagocytic rate (LPR), immunoglobulin M (Ig M), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-α (IFN-α), and lysozyme (LZM). The sex steroids included testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 11β-hydroxytestosterone (11β-OHT), 17α-methyltestosterone (17α-MT), 17β-estradiol (E2), and 17α-hydroxy-20β-dihydroprogesterone (17α-20β-P). Moreover, the immune metabolic activity of epithelium cells in the brood pouch at different breeding stages was also analyzed through ultrastructural observations of the abundance of cytoplasmic granules, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and exocytosis. The results show that a higher immune level was observed during pregnancy, particularly in the early and middle periods, and a lower immune level was noted during pre-pregnancy. Correspondingly, the epithelium cells in the brood pouch also showed a stronger immune metabolic activity during pregnancy and weaker activity during pre-pregnancy. Four sex steroids of T, 11β-OHT, 17α-MT, and E2 were higher during pre-pregnancy and lower during post-pregnancy, whereas 11-KT and 17α-20β-P, which were positively correlated with part immune factors, were higher during pregnancy. No negative correlations between sex steroids and immune factors were observed. In conclusion, the higher immune competence during pregnancy may indicate that parental care could improve immunity, which may

  14. Early Homo and the role of the genus in paleoanthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villmoare, Brian

    2018-01-01

    The history of the discovery of early fossils attributed to the genus Homo has been contentious, with scholars disagreeing over the generic assignment of fossils proposed as members of our genus. In this manuscript I review the history of discovery and debate over early Homo and evaluate the various taxonomic hypotheses for the genus. To get a sense of how hominin taxonomy compares to taxonomic practice outside paleoanthropology, I compare the diversity of Homo to genera in other vertebrate clades. Finally, I propose a taxonomic model that hews closely to current models for hominin phylogeny and is consistent with taxonomic practice across evolutionary biology. © 2018 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  15. Diagnosing Homo sapiens in the fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Christopher Brian; Buck, Laura Tabitha

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosing Homo sapiens is a critical question in the study of human evolution. Although what constitutes living members of our own species is straightforward, in the fossil record this is still a matter of much debate. The issue is complicated by questions of species diagnoses and ideas about the mode by which a new species is born, by the arguments surrounding the behavioural and cognitive separateness of the species, by the increasing appreciation of variation in the early African H. sapiens record and by new DNA evidence of hybridization with extinct species. This study synthesizes thinking on the fossils, archaeology and underlying evolutionary models of the last several decades with recent DNA results from both H. sapiens and fossil species. It is concluded that, although it may not be possible or even desirable to cleanly partition out a homogenous morphological description of recent H. sapiens in the fossil record, there are key, distinguishing morphological traits in the cranium, dentition and pelvis that can be usefully employed to diagnose the H. sapiens lineage. Increasing advances in retrieving and understanding relevant genetic data provide a complementary and perhaps potentially even more fruitful means of characterizing the differences between H. sapiens and its close relatives.

  16. The evolution and development of cranial form in Homo sapiens

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, Daniel E.; McBratney, Brandeis M.; Krovitz, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Despite much data, there is no unanimity over how to define Homo sapiens in the fossil record. Here, we examine cranial variation among Pleistocene and recent human fossils by using a model of cranial growth to identify unique derived features (autapomorphies) that reliably distinguish fossils attributed to “anatomically modern” H. sapiens (AMHS) from those attributed to various taxa of “archaic” Homo spp. (AH) and to test hypotheses about the changes in cranial development that underlie the ...

  17. Allometric scaling of infraorbital surface topography in Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Scott D; Franciscus, Robert G

    2009-02-01

    Infraorbital morphology is often included in phylogenetic and functional analyses of Homo. The inclusion of distinct infraorbital configurations, such as the "canine fossa" in Homo sapiens or the "inflated" maxilla in Neandertals, is generally based on either descriptive or qualitative assessments of this morphology, or simple linear chord and subtense measurements. However, the complex curvilinear surface of the infraorbital region has proven difficult to quantify through these traditional methods. In this study, we assess infraorbital shape and its potential allometric scaling in fossil Homo (n=18) and recent humans (n=110) with a geometric morphometric method well-suited for quantifying complex surface topographies. Our results indicate that important aspects of infraorbital shape are correlated with overall infraorbital size across Homo. Specifically, individuals with larger infraorbital areas tend to exhibit relatively flatter infraorbital surface topographies, taller and narrower infraorbital areas, sloped inferior orbital rims, anteroinferiorly oriented maxillary body facies, posteroinferiorly oriented maxillary processes of the zygomatic, and non-everted lateral nasal margins. In contrast, individuals with smaller infraorbital regions generally exhibit relatively depressed surface topographies, shorter and wider infraorbital areas, projecting inferior orbital rims, posteroinferiorly oriented maxillary body facies, anteroinferiorly oriented maxillary processes, and everted lateral nasal margins. These contrasts form a continuum and only appear dichotomized at the ends of the infraorbital size spectrum. In light of these results, we question the utility of incorporating traditionally polarized infraorbital morphologies in phylogenetic and functional analyses without due consideration of continuous infraorbital and facial size variation in Homo. We conclude that the essentially flat infraorbital surface topography of Neandertals is not unique and can be

  18. The leptin system and its expression at different nutritional and pregnant stages in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixian Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is an essential hormone for the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake in vertebrate animals. To better understand the physiological roles of leptin in nutrient regulation in paternal ovoviviparous fish (family Syngnathidae, the present study cloned the full-length of leptin-a and leptin receptor (lepr genes in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus. Results showed that there was a 576-bp intron between two exons in leptin-a gene but no leptin-b gene in seahorse. Although the primary amino acid sequence conservation of seahorse leptin-a was very low, the 3-D structure modeling of seahorse leptin-a revealed strong conservation of tertiary structure with other vertebrates. Seahorse leptin-a mRNA was highly expressed in brain, whereas lepr mRNA was mainly expressed in ovary and gill. Interestingly, both leptin-a and lepr mRNA were expressed in the brood pouch of male seahorse, suggesting the leptin system plays a role during the male pregnancy. Physiological experiments showed that the expression of hepatic leptin-a and lepr mRNA in unfed seahorses was significantly higher than that in those fed 100%, as well as 60%, of their food during the fasting stage, showing that seahorse might initiate the leptin system to regulate its energy metabolism while starving. Moreover, the expression of leptin-a in the brood pouch of pregnant seahorse was significantly upregulated compared with non-pregnant seahorse, whereas the expression of lepr was downregulated, suggesting that the leptin system might be involved in the male pregnancy. In conclusion, the leptin system plays a role in the energy metabolism and food intake, and might provide new insights into molecular regulation of male pregnancy in seahorse.

  19. Population Genomics Reveals Seahorses (Hippocampus erectus) of the Western Mid-Atlantic Coast to Be Residents Rather than Vagrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J. T.; Waldman, John; Robinson, John D.; Hickerson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding population structure and areas of demographic persistence and transients is critical for effective species management. However, direct observational evidence to address the geographic scale and delineation of ephemeral or persistent populations for many marine fishes is limited. The Lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus) can be commonly found in three western Atlantic zoogeographic provinces, though inhabitants of the temperate northern Virginia Province are often considered tropical vagrants that only arrive during warm seasons from the southern provinces and perish as temperatures decline. Although genetics can locate regions of historical population persistence and isolation, previous evidence of Virginia Province persistence is only provisional due to limited genetic sampling (i.e., mitochondrial DNA and five nuclear loci). To test alternative hypotheses of historical persistence versus the ephemerality of a northern Virginia Province population we used a RADseq generated dataset consisting of 11,708 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) sampled from individuals collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico to Long Island, NY. Concordant results from genomic analyses all infer three genetically divergent subpopulations, and strongly support Virginia Province inhabitants as a genetically diverged and a historically persistent ancestral gene pool. These results suggest that individuals that emerge in coastal areas during the warm season can be considered “local” and supports offshore migration during the colder months. This research demonstrates how a large number of genes sampled across a geographical range can capture the diversity of coalescent histories (across loci) while inferring population history. Moreover, these results clearly demonstrate the utility of population genomic data to infer peripheral subpopulation persistence in difficult-to-observe species. PMID:25629166

  20. Population genomics reveals seahorses (Hippocampus erectus of the western mid-Atlantic coast to be residents rather than vagrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J T Boehm

    Full Text Available Understanding population structure and areas of demographic persistence and transients is critical for effective species management. However, direct observational evidence to address the geographic scale and delineation of ephemeral or persistent populations for many marine fishes is limited. The Lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus can be commonly found in three western Atlantic zoogeographic provinces, though inhabitants of the temperate northern Virginia Province are often considered tropical vagrants that only arrive during warm seasons from the southern provinces and perish as temperatures decline. Although genetics can locate regions of historical population persistence and isolation, previous evidence of Virginia Province persistence is only provisional due to limited genetic sampling (i.e., mitochondrial DNA and five nuclear loci. To test alternative hypotheses of historical persistence versus the ephemerality of a northern Virginia Province population we used a RADseq generated dataset consisting of 11,708 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP sampled from individuals collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico to Long Island, NY. Concordant results from genomic analyses all infer three genetically divergent subpopulations, and strongly support Virginia Province inhabitants as a genetically diverged and a historically persistent ancestral gene pool. These results suggest that individuals that emerge in coastal areas during the warm season can be considered "local" and supports offshore migration during the colder months. This research demonstrates how a large number of genes sampled across a geographical range can capture the diversity of coalescent histories (across loci while inferring population history. Moreover, these results clearly demonstrate the utility of population genomic data to infer peripheral subpopulation persistence in difficult-to-observe species.

  1. The leptin system and its expression at different nutritional and pregnant stages in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huixian; Qin, Geng; Zhang, Yanhong; Li, Shuisheng; Lin, Qiang

    2016-10-15

    Leptin is an essential hormone for the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake in vertebrate animals. To better understand the physiological roles of leptin in nutrient regulation in paternal ovoviviparous fish (family Syngnathidae), the present study cloned the full-length of leptin-a and leptin receptor (lepr) genes in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus). Results showed that there was a 576-bp intron between two exons in leptin-a gene but no leptin-b gene in seahorse. Although the primary amino acid sequence conservation of seahorse leptin-a was very low, the 3-D structure modeling of seahorse leptin-a revealed strong conservation of tertiary structure with other vertebrates. Seahorse leptin-a mRNA was highly expressed in brain, whereas lepr mRNA was mainly expressed in ovary and gill. Interestingly, both leptin-a and lepr mRNA were expressed in the brood pouch of male seahorse, suggesting the leptin system plays a role during the male pregnancy. Physiological experiments showed that the expression of hepatic leptin-a and lepr mRNA in unfed seahorses was significantly higher than that in those fed 100%, as well as 60%, of their food during the fasting stage, showing that seahorse might initiate the leptin system to regulate its energy metabolism while starving. Moreover, the expression of leptin-a in the brood pouch of pregnant seahorse was significantly upregulated compared with non-pregnant seahorse, whereas the expression of lepr was downregulated, suggesting that the leptin system might be involved in the male pregnancy. In conclusion, the leptin system plays a role in the energy metabolism and food intake, and might provide new insights into molecular regulation of male pregnancy in seahorse. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Temperature-induced physiological stress and reproductive characteristics of the migratory seahorse Hippocampus erectus during a thermal stress simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Geng; Johnson, Cara; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Huixian; Yin, Jianping; Miller, Glen; Turingan, Ralph G; Guisbert, Eric; Lin, Qiang

    2018-05-15

    Inshore-offshore migration occurs frequently in seahorse species either because of prey opportunities or because it is driven by reproduction, and variations in water temperature may dramatically change migratory seahorse behavior and physiology. The present study investigated the behavioral and physiological responses of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus under thermal stress and evaluated the potential effects of different temperatures on its reproduction. The results showed that the thermal tolerance of the seahorses was time dependent. Acute thermal stress (30°C, 2-10 hours) increased the basal metabolic rate (breathing rate) and the expression of stress response genes ( Hsp genes) significantly and further stimulated seahorse appetite. Chronic thermal treatment (30°C, 4 weeks) led to a persistently higher basal metabolic rate, higher stress response gene expression, and higher mortality, indicating that the seahorses could not acclimate to chronic thermal stress and might experience massive mortality due to excessive basal metabolic rates and stress damage. Additionally, no significant negative effects on gonad development or reproductive endocrine regulation genes were observed in response to chronic thermal stress, suggesting that seahorse reproductive behavior could adapt to higher-temperature conditions during migration and within seahorse breeding grounds. In conclusion, this simulation experiment indicated that temperature variations during inshore-offshore migration have no effect on reproduction but promote basal metabolic rates and stress responses significantly. Therefore, we suggest that the high observed tolerance of seahorse reproduction was in line with the inshore-offshore reproductive migration pattern of lined seahorse. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. The evolution and functional characterization of lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus) CCKs involved in fasting and thermal stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huixian; Qin, Geng; Sun, Jinhui; Zhang, Bo; Lin, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) plays an important role in the regulation of vertebrate appetite and feeding behaviour. In the present study, the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of two CCK precursors were cloned and analysed in the Syngnathidae fish, the lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus). Both CCK1 and CCK2 in the seahorse consist of four exons. The sequence of the octapeptide of seahorse CCK1 (DYMGWMDF) was the same as that of the chicken and human, while the octapeptide of seahorse CCK2 (DYEGWMDF) was unique among vertebrates. According to the phylogenetic analysis, two types of CCKs were produced by teleost-specific genome duplication (TGD). Both CCK1 and CCK2 were highly expressed in the brain, while detectable amounts of CCK1 mRNA in the brood pouch and CCK2 mRNA in the intestine were also found. Both CCK1 and CCK2 mRNA levels significantly increased during the transition from endogenous to exogenous nutrition. Additionally, fasting induced a significant increase in the CCK1 mRNA expression in the brain of juvenile seahorses but had no effect on CCK2 transcript levels. In addition, the CCK1 and CCK2 mRNA levels in the seahorse brain significantly increased after a high-temperature treatment. Thus, the mRNA expression of CCK had obvious tissue specificities and this preliminary study opens new avenues for further functional studies on the endocrine regulations of CCK in the transition from endogenous to exogenous nutrition, food intake regulation and metabolism in the seahorse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spatial and temporal variation of body size among early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Manuel; Stock, Jay T

    2015-05-01

    The estimation of body size among the earliest members of the genus Homo (2.4-1.5Myr [millions of years ago]) is central to interpretations of their biology. It is widely accepted that Homo ergaster possessed increased body size compared with Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis, and that this may have been a factor involved with the dispersal of Homo out of Africa. The study of taxonomic differences in body size, however, is problematic. Postcranial remains are rarely associated with craniodental fossils, and taxonomic attributions frequently rest upon the size of skeletal elements. Previous body size estimates have been based upon well-preserved specimens with a more reliable species assessment. Since these samples are small (n Koobi Fora after 1.7Myr, indicating regional size variation. The significant body size differences between specimens from Koobi Fora and Olduvai support the cranial evidence for at least two co-existing morphotypes in the Early Pleistocene of eastern Africa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mandibular ramus shape variation and ontogeny in Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Claire E; Ritzman, Terrence B; Robinson, Chris A

    2018-04-27

    As the interface between the mandible and cranium, the mandibular ramus is functionally significant and its morphology has been suggested to be informative for taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses. In primates, and particularly in great apes and humans, ramus morphology is highly variable, especially in the shape of the coronoid process and the relationship of the ramus to the alveolar margin. Here we compare ramus shape variation through ontogeny in Homo neanderthalensis to that of modern and fossil Homo sapiens using geometric morphometric analyses of two-dimensional semilandmarks and univariate measurements of ramus angulation and relative coronoid and condyle height. Results suggest that ramus, especially coronoid, morphology varies within and among subadult and adult modern human populations, with the Alaskan Inuit being particularly distinct. We also identify significant differences in overall anterosuperior ramus and coronoid shapes between H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis, both in adults and throughout ontogeny. These shape differences are subtle, however, and we therefore suggest caution when using ramus morphology to diagnose group membership for individual specimens of these taxa. Furthermore, we argue that these morphologies are unlikely to be representative of differences in masticatory biomechanics and/or paramasticatory behaviors between Neanderthals and modern humans, as has been suggested by previous authors. Assessments of ontogenetic patterns of shape change reveal that the typical Neanderthal ramus morphology is established early in ontogeny, and there is little evidence for divergent postnatal ontogenetic allometric trajectories between Neanderthals and modern humans as a whole. This analysis informs our understanding of intraspecific patterns of mandibular shape variation and ontogeny in H. sapiens and can shed further light on overall developmental and life history differences between H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis. Copyright

  6. LB1 and LB6 Homo floresiensis are not modern human (Homo sapiens) cretins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Excavations in the late Pleistocene deposits at Liang Bua cave, Flores, have uncovered the skeletal remains of several small-bodied and small-brained hominins in association with stone artefacts and the bones of Stegodon. Due to their combination of plesiomorphic, unique and derived traits, they were ascribed to a new species, Homo floresiensis, which, along with Stegodon, appears to have become extinct ∼17 ka (thousand years ago). However, recently it has been argued that several characteristics of H. floresiensis were consistent with dwarfism and evidence of delayed development in modern human (Homo sapiens) myxoedematous endemic (ME) cretins. This research compares the skeletal and dental morphology in H. floresiensis with the clinical and osteological indicators of cretinism, and the traits that have been argued to be associated with ME cretinism in LB1 and LB6. Contrary to published claims, morphological and statistical comparisons did not identify the distinctive skeletal and dental indicators of cretinism in LB1 or LB6 H. floresiensis. Brain mass, skeletal proportions, epiphyseal union, orofacial morphology, dental development, size of the pituitary fossa and development of the paranasal sinuses, vault bone thickness and dimensions of the hands and feet all distinguish H. floresiensis from modern humans with ME cretinism. The research team responsible for the diagnosis of ME cretinism had not examined the original H. floresiensis skeletal materials, and perhaps, as a result, their research confused taphonomic damage with evidence of disease, and thus contained critical errors of fact and interpretation. Behavioural scenarios attempting to explain the presence of cretinous H. sapiens in the Liang Bua Pleistocene deposits, but not unaffected H. sapiens, are both unnecessary and not supported by the available archaeological and geochronological evidence from Flores. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Spell of Homo Informaticus: Two Superstitions and Three Dreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Povilas Saulauskas

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Even at the dawn of a full-fledged information society Homo Informaticus as well as its netted counterpart - Homo Irretitus - already carries a handful of badly compatible fears and hopes. First, anxieties about an inevitable desolation of habitual patterns of human interaction and values,as well as an inexorably impending threat of horrifying global control. Second, evergreen optimism of rapidly approaching egalitarian era under the pledge of free universal access to information, cornucopian abundance of all imaginable material and spiritual goods, and unrestricted reign of knowledge once for all overthrowing unjust orders of power and brute force. The article puts under the close scrutiny the key pro et contra arguments involved in the theoretical articulation of these basic attitudes and examines the topical question: why can neither the dreadful fears nor the gay hopes of Homo Irretitus be reasonably sustained in the face of critical inquiry?

  8. Rethinking the dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groucutt, Huw S; Petraglia, Michael D; Bailey, Geoff; Scerri, Eleanor M L; Parton, Ash; Clark-Balzan, Laine; Jennings, Richard P; Lewis, Laura; Blinkhorn, James; Drake, Nick A; Breeze, Paul S; Inglis, Robyn H; Devès, Maud H; Meredith-Williams, Matthew; Boivin, Nicole; Thomas, Mark G; Scally, Aylwyn

    2015-01-01

    Current fossil, genetic, and archeological data indicate that Homo sapiens originated in Africa in the late Middle Pleistocene. By the end of the Late Pleistocene, our species was distributed across every continent except Antarctica, setting the foundations for the subsequent demographic and cultural changes of the Holocene. The intervening processes remain intensely debated and a key theme in hominin evolutionary studies. We review archeological, fossil, environmental, and genetic data to evaluate the current state of knowledge on the dispersal of Homo sapiens out of Africa. The emerging picture of the dispersal process suggests dynamic behavioral variability, complex interactions between populations, and an intricate genetic and cultural legacy. This evolutionary and historical complexity challenges simple narratives and suggests that hybrid models and the testing of explicit hypotheses are required to understand the expansion of Homo sapiens into Eurasia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Un psicópata llamado Homo Economicus

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano Arrondo, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    La corriente principal de la economía se asienta sobre la existencia de un individuo llamado homo economicus. Este individuo se caracteriza principalmente por ser racional, egoísta, falto de empatía, centrado en la maximización de sus beneficios y contar con una información completa. Aunque abundan las publicaciones que critican la existencia real de este ser, este trabajo propone observar la situación desde otro enfoque. Para ello, observa las coincidencias entre el homo econo...

  10. ABOUT OTHER KIND OF PRODUCTIVITY AND GROWTH (HOMO-SAPIENS TO HOMO-OECONOMICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivan Alexandru

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Part of a larger research, this paper ranges among the matter of ideas confrontation concerning the causes of the economic crises and those keys to be passed. Paper aims at finding and praising the defining elements of our economy, in the purpose of better understanding the nowadays crisis, and at presenting certain conceptually different approaches. In this purpose, analytical presentations are focussed on the specific realities of the economic life that are in position in the last centuries, which are considered to be favouring the arriving to the critical states in the last years and to be promoting those maintaining, or which allow explaining certain effects and tendencies. The approach is made from the angle of the nature of the productivity that is had in view and highlighted in the market regulating mechanisms, and of the due growth. The paper is grounded on important analysis on the matter (including anterior researches of the author, but their dimensions does not allow their presentation in the abstract. Analysis starts from interpreting the very nowadays crisis, from different sites concerning the core (general causes, by correlating with certain features of the industrialized consuming society. More recent references are made in the literature on the matter. Modern western economy is defined from the angle of focussing on material-quantitative productivity and growth. Analysis tries to explain certain effects concerning this kind of focus. Interesting effects and tendencies are noticed, that miss to the traditional approaches. Further on an opposed theoretic model is discussed. This is built and developed inside the service economy (on the case of two conceptually similar approaches, came from two different sources of economic thought in the field; original contributions of the author are involved. Adequately to the knowledge society, this last one is considered more favourable for homo sapiens, at least once the visible effects of

  11. Reinventing Liberalism : Towards a Paradigm beyond the Homo Economicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, A.M. (Arthur Mathieu) van

    2018-01-01

    textabstractIn this article I describe how neoliberal hegemony is a deeply disseminated governing rationality that puts the economy at the centre of society, its institutions, and human understanding and action. I argue that if neoliberal rationality and the homo economicus remain at the centre of

  12. Synthesis of D-Homo Analogs of Neurosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Di Chenna

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available 17(13→18-Abeo and D-homo analogs of the natural neurosteroid 3α-hydroxy-5αH-pregnan-20-one were prepared by anionic or radical (mercury (II hydride mediated rearrangements of steroidal cyclopropylketones respectively.

  13. From Purgatorius ceratops to Homo sapiens - Primate Evolutionary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 7. From Purgatorius ceratops to Homo sapiens - Primate Evolutionary History. Sindhu Radhakrishna. General Article Volume 11 Issue 7 July 2006 pp 51-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Homo sapiens natriuretic peptide precursor type C (NPPC) mRNA,partial cds and 3' UTR.

    OpenAIRE

    Landi, Stefano; Melaiu, Ombretta; Cabiati, Manuela; Landi, Debora; Caselli, Chiara; Prescimone, Tommaso; Giannessi, Daniela; Gemignani, Federica; Del Ry, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    LOCUS HQ419060 318 bp mRNA linear PRI 24-NOV-2010 DEFINITION Homo sapiens natriuretic peptide precursor type C (NPPC) mRNA, partial cds and 3' UTR. ACCESSION HQ419060 VERSION HQ419060.1 GI:312261407 KEYWORDS . SOURCE Homo sapiens (human) ORGANISM Homo sapiens Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo. REFERENCE 1 (bases 1 to 318) AUTHORS Landi,S., Melaiu,O., Cabiati,M., Landi,D., C...

  15. A comparison of tooth structure in Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens sapiens: a radiographic study.

    OpenAIRE

    Zilberman, U; Smith, P

    1992-01-01

    Tooth components of 1st and 2nd erupted permanent molars were measured from standardised radiographs of Homo sapiens sapiens and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Enamel height was greater in Homo sapiens sapiens but pulp height and width and the height of the enamel to floor of the pulp chamber were greater in Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Dentine height, crown width and enamel width showed similar results in the two groups. Unerupted first molars were measured to analyse the influence of func...

  16. The functions of sound production in the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus, and effects of loud ambient noise on its behavior and physiology in captive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul August

    Loud noise in aquaria represents a cacophonous environment for captive fishes. I tested the effects of loud noise on acoustic communication, feeding behavior, courtship behavior, and the stress response of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus. Total Root Mean Square (RMS) power of ambient noise to which seahorses are exposed in captivity varies widely but averages 126.1 +/- 0.8 deciBels with reference to one micropascal (dB re: 1 muPa) at the middle of the water column and 133.7 +/- 1.1 dB at the tank bottom, whereas ambient noise in the wild averages 119.6 +/- 3.5 dB. Hearing sensitivity of H. erectus, measured from auditory evoked potentials, demonstrated maximum spectrum-level sensitivities of 105.0 +/- 1.5 dB and 3.5 x 10-3 + 7.6 x 10-4 m/s2 at 200 Hz; which is characteristic of hearing generalists. H. erectus produces acoustic clicks with mean peak spectrum-level amplitudes of 94.3 +/- 0.9 dB at 232 +/- 16 Hz and 1.5 x 10 -3 +/- 1.9 x 10-4 m/s2 at 265 +/- 22 Hz. Frequency matching of clicks to best hearing sensitivity, and estimates of audition of broadband signals suggest that seahorses may hear conspecific clicks, especially in terms of particle motion. Behavioral investigations revealed that clicking did not improve prey capture proficiency. However, animals clicked more often as time progressed in a courtship sequence, and mates performed more courtship behaviors with control animals than with muted animals, lending additional evidence to the role of clicking as an acoustic signal during courtship. Despite loud noise and the role of clicking in communication, masking of the acoustic signal was not demonstrated. Seahorses exposed to loud noise in aquaria for one month demonstrated physiological, chronic stress responses: reduced weight and body condition, and increased heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Behavioral alterations were characterized by greater mean and variance of activity among animals housed in loud tanks in the first week, followed by

  17. Reflexões sobre a articulação entre o homo faber e o homo sapiens na enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Nogueira Valenca

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudo reflexivo com o objetivo de analisar a articulação entre o enfermeiro-docente (Homo sapiens e o enfermeiro-assistencial (Homo faber no ambiente hospitalar, à luz do pensamento gramsciano. Na Enfermagem, coexistem duas dimensões: a teórica, exemplificada na figura do enfermeiro docente com seus projetos de pesquisa e publicações científicas; e a dimensão prática, com a atuação técnico-assistencial. Evidencia-se o distanciamento do enfermeiro docente em relação aos cenários de prática da graduação, assim como do enfermeiro assistencial, da pesquisa e da prática baseada em evidências científicas. Face ao dilema entre Homo faber e Homo sapiens na Enfermagem, emerge a importância de refletir sobre a dimensão ética subjacente às ações de ambos, centradas no ser humano. Este diálogo não pode ser ignorado, pois dele depende o desbravamento de novos horizontes e o crescimento da Enfermagem enquanto ciência e prática social.

  18. THE REPRESENTATIVENESS OF HOMO OECONOMICUS AND ITS RATIONALITY

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    Paula-Elena DIACON

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The homo oeconomicus model is an essential concept of the neoclassical analysis. It defines the agent capable of rational choices in pursuing the maximization of his own utility functions. Over time, the notion remained at the basis of many debates, related mainly to its relevance. However, the concept remained, until now, a fundamental component of mainstream analysis. This article aims to present a brief overview of the arguments that support the use of this model, but also its limitations and inconsistencies. Our main goal is to analyze if homo oeconomicus can be or not considered an ideal representation of the economic agent. Further, the analysis emphasize on the attribute of rationality, which is one of the most disputed feature in the literature.

  19. Homo religiosus : philosophical anthropology Viktor Emil Frankl 's .

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    Marcos Vinícius da Costa Meireles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work, entitled The Homo religiosus: the philosophical anthropology of Viktor Emil Frankl, is rooted in the anthropology of Frankl and aims to understand Frankl’s anthropology and its spiritual dynamic in religious experience. Using theoretical-bibliographical research with these main works—The Ignored Presence of God (1948, The Unconditioned Man (1949, Patient Man (1950, and The Search for God and Questions about the Meaning of Life (1984—this work traverses through Frankl’s anthropology, the spiritual dimension, the search for meaning, and one’s relationship with God. The work is divided into three parts. The first part consists of contextualization and critique. The second part puts forward a proposal, and the third part discusses the experience of the Homo religiosus.

  20. The evolution of Homo sapiens denisova and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis miRNA targeting genes in the prenatal and postnatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunbin, Konstantin V; Afonnikov, Dmitry A; Kolchanov, Nikolay A; Derevianko, Anatoly P; Rogaev, Eugeny I

    2015-01-01

    As the evolution of miRNA genes has been found to be one of the important factors in formation of the modern type of man, we performed a comparative analysis of the evolution of miRNA genes in two archaic hominines, Homo sapiens neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens denisova, and elucidated the expression of their target mRNAs in bain. A comparative analysis of the genomes of primates, including species in the genus Homo, identified a group of miRNA genes having fixed substitutions with important implications for the evolution of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens denisova. The mRNAs targeted by miRNAs with mutations specific for Homo sapiens denisova exhibited enhanced expression during postnatal brain development in modern humans. By contrast, the expression of mRNAs targeted by miRNAs bearing variations specific for Homo sapiens neanderthalensis was shown to be enhanced in prenatal brain development. Our results highlight the importance of changes in miRNA gene sequences in the course of Homo sapiens denisova and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis evolution. The genetic alterations of miRNAs regulating the spatiotemporal expression of multiple genes in the prenatal and postnatal brain may contribute to the progressive evolution of brain function, which is consistent with the observations of fine technical and typological properties of tools and decorative items reported from archaeological Denisovan sites. The data also suggest that differential spatial-temporal regulation of gene products promoted by the subspecies-specific mutations in the miRNA genes might have occurred in the brains of Homo sapiens denisova and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, potentially contributing to the cultural differences between these two archaic hominines.

  1. Culture Prefigures Cognition in Pan/Homo Bonobos

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    Sue SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article questions traditional approaches to the study of primate cognition. Because of a widespread assumption that cognition in non-human primates is genetically encoded, these approaches neglect how profoundly apes’ cultural rearing experiences affect test results. We describe how three advanced cognitive abilities – imitation, theory of mind and language – emerged in bonobos maturing in a Pan/Homo culture.

  2. Homo-psychologicus: Reactionary behavioural aspects of epidemics

    OpenAIRE

    Alhaji Cherif; Kamal Barley; Marcel Hurtado

    2016-01-01

    We formulate an in silico model of pathogen avoidance mechanism and investigate its impact on defensive behavioural measures (e.g., spontaneous social exclusions and distancing, crowd avoidance and voluntary vaccination adaptation). In particular, we use SIR(B)S (e.g., susceptible-infected-recovered with additional behavioural component) model to investigate the impact of homo-psychologicus aspects of epidemics. We focus on reactionary behavioural changes, which apply to both social distancin...

  3. Human evolution. Evolution of early Homo: an integrated biological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Susan C; Potts, Richard; Aiello, Leslie C

    2014-07-04

    Integration of evidence over the past decade has revised understandings about the major adaptations underlying the origin and early evolution of the genus Homo. Many features associated with Homo sapiens, including our large linear bodies, elongated hind limbs, large energy-expensive brains, reduced sexual dimorphism, increased carnivory, and unique life history traits, were once thought to have evolved near the origin of the genus in response to heightened aridity and open habitats in Africa. However, recent analyses of fossil, archaeological, and environmental data indicate that such traits did not arise as a single package. Instead, some arose substantially earlier and some later than previously thought. From ~2.5 to 1.5 million years ago, three lineages of early Homo evolved in a context of habitat instability and fragmentation on seasonal, intergenerational, and evolutionary time scales. These contexts gave a selective advantage to traits, such as dietary flexibility and larger body size, that facilitated survival in shifting environments. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisova specimen: New insights on their evolutionary histories using whole-genome comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa Rodrigues; Viscardi, Lucas Henrique; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria Cátira

    2012-12-01

    After a brief review of the most recent findings in the study of human evolution, an extensive comparison of the complete genomes of our nearest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), of extant Homo sapiens, archaic Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisova specimen were made. The focus was on non-synonymous mutations, which consequently had an impact on protein levels and these changes were classified according to degree of effect. A total of 10,447 non-synonymous substitutions were found in which the derived allele is fixed or nearly fixed in humans as compared to chimpanzee. Their most frequent location was on chromosome 21. Their presence was then searched in the two archaic genomes. Mutations in 381 genes would imply radical amino acid changes, with a fraction of these related to olfaction and other important physiological processes. Eight new alleles were identified in the Neanderthal and/or Denisova genetic pools. Four others, possibly affecting cognition, occured both in the sapiens and two other archaic genomes. The selective sweep that gave rise to Homo sapiens could, therefore, have initiated before the modern/archaic human divergence.

  5. Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisova specimen: new insights on their evolutionary histories using whole-genome comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rodrigues Paixão-Côrtes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After a brief review of the most recent findings in the study of human evolution, an extensive comparison of the complete genomes of our nearest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, of extant Homo sapiens, archaic Homo neanderthalensis and the Denisova specimen were made. The focus was on non-synonymous mutations, which consequently had an impact on protein levels and these changes were classified according to degree of effect. A total of 10,447 non-synonymous substitutions were found in which the derived allele is fixed or nearly fixed in humans as compared to chimpanzee. Their most frequent location was on chromosome 21. Their presence was then searched in the two archaic genomes. Mutations in 381 genes would imply radical amino acid changes, with a fraction of these related to olfaction and other important physiological processes. Eight new alleles were identified in the Neanderthal and/or Denisova genetic pools. Four others, possibly affecting cognition, occured both in the sapiens and two other archaic genomes. The selective sweep that gave rise to Homo sapiens could, therefore, have initiated before the modern/archaic human divergence.

  6. Associated ilium and femur from Koobi Fora, Kenya, and postcranial diversity in early Homo

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, C.V.; Feibel, C.S.; Hammond, A.S.; Leakey, L.N.; Moffett, E.A.; Plavcan, J.M.; Skinner, Matthew M.; Spoor, F.; Leakey, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    During the evolution of hominins, it is generally accepted that there was a shift in postcranial morphology between Australopithecus and the genus Homo. Given the scarcity of associated remains of early Homo, however, relatively little is known about early Homo postcranial morphology. There are hints of postcranial diversity among species, but our knowledge of the nature and extent of potential differences is limited. Here we present a new associated partial ilium and femur from Koobi Fora, K...

  7. Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks Paulo Shakarian1*, J. Kenneth Wickiser2 1 Paulo Shakarian...significantly attacked. Citation: Shakarian P, Wickiser JK (2012) Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks...to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Similar Pathogen Targets in Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens Protein Networks 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  8. Dental topography and diets of Australopithecus afarensis and early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Peter

    2004-05-01

    Diet is key to understanding the paleoecology of early hominins. We know little about the diets of these fossil taxa, however, in part because of a limited fossil record, and in part because of limitations in methods available to infer their feeding adaptations. This paper applies a new method, dental topographic analysis, to the inference of diet from fossil hominin teeth. This approach uses laser scanning to generate digital 3D models of teeth and geographic information systems software to measure surface attributes, such as slope and occlusal relief. Because it does not rely on specific landmarks that change with wear, dental topographic analysis allows measurement and comparison of variably worn teeth, greatly increasing sample sizes compared with techniques that require unworn teeth. This study involved comparison of occlusal slope and relief of the lower second molars of Australopithecus afarensis (n=15) and early Homo (n=8) with those of Gorilla gorilla gorilla (n=47) and Pan troglodytes troglodytes (n=54). Results indicate that while all groups show reduced slope and relief in progressively more worn specimens, there are consistent differences at given wear stages among the taxa. Early Homo shows steeper slopes and more relief than chimpanzees, whereas A. afarensis shows less slope and relief than any of the other groups. The differences between the two hominin taxa are on the same order as those between the extant apes, suggesting similar degrees of difference in diet. Because these chimpanzees and gorillas differ mostly in fallback foods where they are sympatric, results suggest that the early hominins may likewise have differed mostly in fallback foods, with A. afarensis emphasizing harder, more brittle foods, and early Homo relying on tougher, more elastic foods.

  9. Self-domestication in Homo sapiens: Insights from comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofanopoulou, Constantina; Gastaldon, Simone; O'Rourke, Thomas; Samuels, Bridget D; Messner, Angela; Martins, Pedro Tiago; Delogu, Francesco; Alamri, Saleh; Boeckx, Cedric

    2017-01-01

    This study identifies and analyzes statistically significant overlaps between selective sweep screens in anatomically modern humans and several domesticated species. The results obtained suggest that (paleo-)genomic data can be exploited to complement the fossil record and support the idea of self-domestication in Homo sapiens, a process that likely intensified as our species populated its niche. Our analysis lends support to attempts to capture the "domestication syndrome" in terms of alterations to certain signaling pathways and cell lineages, such as the neural crest.

  10. Homo plastic and aloplastic communities sociological study from the science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    This sociological reflection tries to understand the differences between the view and the handling that the so-called culture societies have about technique opposite to the view and the handling they have in the so-called science societies. The author maintains that the present developed societies are halfway between these two kinds of societies. The use of technique in one or the other type of society leads the author to name homo plastic communities to those who adapt themselves to the environment and aloplastic communities to those who adapt the environment to their needs. (Author)

  11. Homo noosphericus как актуализация образа Homo Futurus

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    Цветков А. П.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The realisation of gap between existing and proper, and therefore, of deficit of one’s substantiality and fullness, that is identity, have caused the phenomenon which Hegel signified as “unhappy consciousness”. In the context of opposition of existing and proper and with the help of key points of Noospherology, the idea about sharp necessity of culture-forming ideal image actualization of a person, Homo Responsabilis, is grounded through possible implementation of homo noosphericus project. The deep nostalgia of an individual for integrity and fullness of one’s own existence caused the evolution of idealized Homo Responsabilis images in European culture: “Homo Sanctus” of Middle Ages, “Homo Humanitatis” of Renaissance, “Homo Sapiens” of the Rational Era, “Homo Machina” of Enlightenment , “Homo Economicus” of Modern Times and so on. Essentially, up to the middle of the 20th century the ideal image of Homo Responsabilis had actual projection not only to present but mainly to future that generated and stimulated the responsibility of a human for one’s present and future. A contemporary person finds oneself in other situation. A separate individual drops behind “the speed” of humankind development in the sense of intellectuality and civilization. In the condition of accelerating multiple increase of information a person is obliged to glide on the surface of signs without having even time to correlate them with corresponding meanings and even more to deepen into their sense. Sad as it may seem to admit the horizons of intellectual and spiritual wild-growing for a human are becoming more distant. The project Homo Noosphericus, the actualization of Homo Responsabilis image, is justified by the analysis of such key points of noosphere studies as “cosmism”, “biosphere”, “noosphere”, “semiosphere”, “gaia conception” and “anthropic principle”. Such an analysis allows to uncover and to frame an

  12. Crystal structure of Homo sapiens protein LOC79017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Euiyoung; Bingman, Craig A.; Aceti, David J.; Phillips, Jr., George N. (UW)

    2010-02-08

    LOC79017 (MW 21.0 kDa, residues 1-188) was annotated as a hypothetical protein encoded by Homo sapiens chromosome 7 open reading frame 24. It was selected as a target by the Center for Eukaryotic Structural Genomics (CESG) because it did not share more than 30% sequence identity with any protein for which the three-dimensional structure is known. The biological function of the protein has not been established yet. Parts of LOC79017 were identified as members of uncharacterized Pfam families (residues 1-95 as PB006073 and residues 104-180 as PB031696). BLAST searches revealed homologues of LOC79017 in many eukaryotes, but none of them have been functionally characterized. Here, we report the crystal structure of H. sapiens protein LOC79017 (UniGene code Hs.530024, UniProt code O75223, CESG target number go.35223).

  13. Behavioural controversy concerning homo economicus: a Humean perspective

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    Khandakar Elahi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In his monumental masterpiece, A Treatise on Human Nature, which explains the methodology of human reasoning concerning matters of fact and describes the roles that passions and morals play in it, Hume arrives at an enormously interesting maxim: An academic controversy cannot continue for long unless the disputants assign different meanings to the major terms employed in the debate. This theory has been applied in this paper to examine the behavioural criticisms about Homo Economicus (HE, the pivotal perception in the neoclassical microeconomic model.To achieve this objective, the paper discusses the origin and evolution of the concept, reviews behavioural criticisms, summarises the main tenets of Hume’s philosophy of human knowledge and finally examines the behavioural opinions from Hume’s perspective. The paper concludes that Hume’s theory convincingly explains the reason why the HE controversy is continuing for over half century- a fact that both the mainstream and behavioural economists are ignoring.

  14. Brain shape in human microcephalics and Homo floresiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Dean; Hildebolt, Charles; Smith, Kirk; Morwood, M J; Sutikna, Thomas; Jatmiko; Saptomo, E Wayhu; Imhof, Herwig; Seidler, Horst; Prior, Fred

    2007-02-13

    Because the cranial capacity of LB1 (Homo floresiensis) is only 417 cm(3), some workers propose that it represents a microcephalic Homo sapiens rather than a new species. This hypothesis is difficult to assess, however, without a clear understanding of how brain shape of microcephalics compares with that of normal humans. We compare three-dimensional computed tomographic reconstructions of the internal braincases (virtual endocasts that reproduce details of external brain morphology, including cranial capacities and shape) from a sample of 9 microcephalic humans and 10 normal humans. Discriminant and canonical analyses are used to identify two variables that classify normal and microcephalic humans with 100% success. The classification functions classify the virtual endocast from LB1 with normal humans rather than microcephalics. On the other hand, our classification functions classify a pathological H. sapiens specimen that, like LB1, represents an approximately 3-foot-tall adult female and an adult Basuto microcephalic woman that is alleged to have an endocast similar to LB1's with the microcephalic humans. Although microcephaly is genetically and clinically variable, virtual endocasts from our highly heterogeneous sample share similarities in protruding and proportionately large cerebella and relatively narrow, flattened orbital surfaces compared with normal humans. These findings have relevance for hypotheses regarding the genetic substrates of hominin brain evolution and may have medical diagnostic value. Despite LB1's having brain shape features that sort it with normal humans rather than microcephalics, other shape features and its small brain size are consistent with its assignment to a separate species.

  15. DEFINIENDO HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: APROXIMACIÓN ANTROPOLÓGICA DEFININDO HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: APROXIMAÇÃO ANTROPOLÓGICA DEFINING HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Valdebenito

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reflexiona sobre los encuentros y desencuentros entre el ser humano y el resto de los animales, en tanto miembros de sistemas en permanente interacción(1. Abordar la definición de Homo, repasar su evolución biológica y cultural y reflexionar sobre los resabios de animalidad que quedan en el comportamiento social del Homo sapiens-sapiens es su objetivo principal. Se busca reflexionar sobre los dilemas morales que acompañan al hombre en tanto ser cultural; para ello se analizan dos dilemas éticos: la violencia y el incestoEste artigo reflete sobre os encontros e desencontros entre o ser humano e os demais animais, enquanto membros de sistemas em permanente interação(1. Seu principal objetivo é abordar a definição de Homo, traçar um panorama de sua evolução biológica e cultural e refletir sobre os resquícios da animalidade que permanecem no comportamento social do Homo sapiens-sapiens. Busca-se refletir sobre os dilemas morais que acompanham o homem enquanto ser cultural, o que para isso são considerados como dilemas éticos: a violência e o incestoThis paper reflects on the similarities and differences between human beings and animals as members of systems in permanent interaction. The main goal is to define Homo, reviewing his/her biological and cultural evolution and reflecting on the animal social behaviors that still remain in Homo sapiens-sapiens. The paper reflect on the moral dilemmas present in humans as cultural beings, taking as example the ethical dilemmas of violence and incest

  16. Genomic structure and expression pattern of MHC IIα and IIβ genes reveal an unusual immune trait in lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Wang, Xin; Qu, Hongyue; Qin, Geng; Zhang, Huixian; Lin, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are crucial in the adaptive immune system, and the gene duplication of MHC in animals can generally result in immune flexibility. In this study, we found that the lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus) has only one gene copy number (GCN) of MHC IIα and IIβ, which is different from that in other teleosts. Together with the lack of spleen and gut-associated lymphatic tissue (GALT), the seahorse may be referred to as having a partial but natural "immunodeficiency". Highly variable amino acid residues were found in the IIα and IIβ domains, especially in the α1 and β1 domains with 9.62% and 8.43% allelic variation, respectively. Site models revealed seven and ten positively selected positions in the α1 and β1 domains, respectively. Real-time PCR experiments showed high expression levels of the MHC II genes in intestine (In), gill (Gi) and trunk kidney (TK) and medium in muscle (Mu) and brood pouch (BP), and the expression levels were significantly up-regulated after bacterial infection. Specially, relative higher expression level of both MHC IIα and IIβ was found in Mu and BP when compared with other fish species, in which MHC II is expressed negligibly in Mu. These results indicate that apart from TK, Gi and In, MU and BP play an important role in the immune response against pathogens in the seahorse. In conclusion, high allelic variation and strong positive selection in PBR and relative higher expression in MU and BP are speculated to partly compensate for the immunodeficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. DEFINIENDO HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: APROXIMACIÓN ANTROPOLÓGICA DEFININDO HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: APROXIMAÇÃO ANTROPOLÓGICA DEFINING HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Valdebenito

    2007-01-01

    Este artículo reflexiona sobre los encuentros y desencuentros entre el ser humano y el resto de los animales, en tanto miembros de sistemas en permanente interacción(1). Abordar la definición de Homo, repasar su evolución biológica y cultural y reflexionar sobre los resabios de animalidad que quedan en el comportamiento social del Homo sapiens-sapiens es su objetivo principal. Se busca reflexionar sobre los dilemas morales que acompañan al hombre en tanto ser cultural; para ello se analizan d...

  18. Study of a temporal bone of Homo heildelbergensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza, Rafael; Botella, Miguel; Ciges, Miguel

    2005-05-01

    The characteristic features of the Hh specimen conformed to those of other Pleistocene human fossils, indicating strong cranial structures and a heavy mandible. The mastoid was large and suggested a powerful sternocleidomastoid muscle. The inner ear and tympanic cavities were similar in size and orientation, suggesting that their functions were probably similar. Our observations suggest that the left ear of this Hh specimen was healthy. The large canaliculo-fenestral angle confirms that this ancestor was bipedal. It also strongly suggests that Hh individuals were predisposed to develop certain pathologies of the labyrinth capsule associated with bipedalism, in particular otosclerosis. We studied a temporal bone of Homo heidelbergensis (Hh) in order to investigate the clinical and physiological implications of certain morphological features, especially those associated with the evolutionary reorganization of the inner ear. The bone, found in a breach of a cave near MAáaga in southern Spain, together with Middle Upper Pleistocene faunal remains, is >300000 years old. Four analytical methods were employed. A 3D high-resolution surface laser scan was used for anatomical measurements. For the sectional analysis of the middle and inner ears of Hh we used high-resolution CT, simultaneously studying a normal temporal bone from Homo sapiens sapiens (Hss). To study the middle and inner ear spaces we used 3D reconstruction CT preceded by an intra-bone air shielding technique. To examine the tympanic cavities and measure the canaliculo fenestral angle, we used a special minimally invasive endoscopic procedure. The surface, sectional and 3D CT examinations showed that the Hh specimen was generally more robust and larger than the Hss specimen. It had a large glenoid fossa. The external meatus was wide and deep. The middle ear, and especially the mastoid, was large and widely pneumatized. There were no appreciable differences in the position and size of the labyrinthine spaces

  19. Genome digging: insight into the mitochondrial genome of Homo.

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    Igor V Ovchinnikov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A fraction of the Neanderthal mitochondrial genome sequence has a similarity with a 5,839-bp nuclear DNA sequence of mitochondrial origin (numt on the human chromosome 1. This fact has never been interpreted. Although this phenomenon may be attributed to contamination and mosaic assembly of Neanderthal mtDNA from short sequencing reads, we explain the mysterious similarity by integration of this numt (mtAncestor-1 into the nuclear genome of the common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans not long before their reproductive split.Exploiting bioinformatics, we uncovered an additional numt (mtAncestor-2 with a high similarity to the Neanderthal mtDNA and indicated that both numts represent almost identical replicas of the mtDNA sequences ancestral to the mitochondrial genomes of Neanderthals and modern humans. In the proteins, encoded by mtDNA, the majority of amino acids distinguishing chimpanzees from humans and Neanderthals were acquired by the ancestral hominins. The overall rate of nonsynonymous evolution in Neanderthal mitochondrial protein-coding genes is not higher than in other lineages. The model incorporating the ancestral hominin mtDNA sequences estimates the average divergence age of the mtDNAs of Neanderthals and modern humans to be 450,000-485,000 years. The mtAncestor-1 and mtAncestor-2 sequences were incorporated into the nuclear genome approximately 620,000 years and 2,885,000 years ago, respectively.This study provides the first insight into the evolution of the mitochondrial DNA in hominins ancestral to Neanderthals and humans. We hypothesize that mtAncestor-1 and mtAncestor-2 are likely to be molecular fossils of the mtDNAs of Homo heidelbergensis and a stem Homo lineage. The d(N/d(S dynamics suggests that the effective population size of extinct hominins was low. However, the hominin lineage ancestral to humans, Neanderthals and H. heidelbergensis, had a larger effective population size and possessed genetic diversity

  20. Alexis de Tocqueville y su daguerrotipo del homo democraticus

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    Aramayo, Roberto R.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is on Tocqueville and his thoughts about the vicissitudes of the democracy which have been given a fresh impetus because of the massive demonstrations driven or generated by the 15th-May spirit. Such as the texts written by the rest of the classical authors, his writings were right when both approaching the problems and arousing diagnostics and are still capable to drive us to think anew about the rules of the democratic game. Following the paradoxical destiny of his great-grandfather Malesherbes, who defended the rights of the people before Louis 16th and next the rights of the King before the revolutionary court, the aristocratic Tocqueville became a champion of the unstoppable democratic revolution but without forgetting the potential dangers caused by this revolution. His comparison between both French and American revolutions helped him to define the qualities of the homo democraticus. The text intends to work as a sort of lay-out of the material collected in this issue.Tocqueville y sus reflexiones en torno a los avatares de la democracia cobran una inusitada vigencia con las movilizaciones generada por el espíritu del 15M. Como cualquier otro clásico que se precie de merecer tal nombre, sus escritos aciertan a la hora de plantear los problemas y suscitar diagnósticos que no han perdido su capacidad para hacernos repensar las reglas del juego democrático. Siguiendo el paradójico destino de su bisabuelo Malesherbes, quien defendió los derechos del pueblo ante Luis XVI y luego a éste frente al tribunal revolucionario, el aristocrático Tocqueville se convertiría en un paladín de la imparable revolución democrática, sin dejar de analizar los potenciales peligros entrañados por ésta. Su comparación entre las revoluciones americana y francesa le serviría para definir a los atributos del homo democraticus. El texto pretende servir de presentación a los materiales recogidos en este número.

  1. Inferential reasoning by exclusion in children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew; Collier-Baker, Emma; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    The cups task is the most widely adopted forced-choice paradigm for comparative studies of inferential reasoning by exclusion. In this task, subjects are presented with two cups, one of which has been surreptitiously baited. When the empty cup is shaken or its interior shown, it is possible to infer by exclusion that the alternative cup contains the reward. The present study extends the existing body of comparative work to include human children (Homo sapiens). Like chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that were tested with the same equipment and near-identical procedures, children aged three to five made apparent inferences using both visual and auditory information, although the youngest children showed the least-developed ability in the auditory modality. However, unlike chimpanzees, children of all ages used causally irrelevant information in a control test designed to examine the possibility that their apparent auditory inferences were the product of contingency learning (the duplicate cups test). Nevertheless, the children's ability to reason by exclusion was corroborated by their performance on a novel verbal disjunctive syllogism test, and we found preliminary evidence consistent with the suggestion that children used their causal-logical understanding to reason by exclusion in the cups task, but subsequently treated the duplicate cups information as symbolic or communicative, rather than causal. Implications for future comparative research are discussed. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  2. "Homo reciprocusSeneka, Paulus en weldoenerskap1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Joubert

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available "Homo reciprocus": Seneca, Paul and benefaction Reciprocity was basic to most forms of social interaction in the ancient Mediterranean world. Any exchange of services/gits was based on the principle that the obligations incurred between two parties required an adequate response. In his ethical treatise on beneit exchange, "De beneficiis,"Seneca presents an idealistic reinterpretation of the basic tenets of benefaction by providing a "lex vitae", a law of conduct, according to which the giving of beneits becomes an intrinsically rewarding experience in itself. On his part, the apostle Paul conceptualises his "ecumenical" collecion for the Jerusalem church in terms of the principles inherent to beneit exchange in the Graeco-Roman world. He involves his communities as beneiciaries in the reciprocal relationship between himself and Jerusalem. In Romans 15:25-31, when the acceptance of the collecion hangs in the balance, Paul reinterprets the reciprocal relationship with Jerusalem in terms of altruistic Christian principles. From this new angle of incidence his churches are presented as having successfully completed the collection since they unselishly fulilled their moral duies towards the latter.

  3. Homo Ludens Revisited: Huizinga y el deporte moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastaldo, Edison

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo me gustaría proponer una lectura del fenómeno del deporte contemporáneo, desde la perspectiva del magistral Homo Ludens, obra del filósofo holandés publicado originalmente en 1938. Para esto, después de una breve presentación del autor y su obra, se exploran algunas condiciones de posibilidad de la existencia del principio del juego en el deporte moderno. Para Huizinga, el "espíritu del juego" encabeza las principales manifestaciones de la cultura humana en todas las épocas y sociedades. Sin embargo, este principio se estaría pervirtiendo en el mundo moderno, donde el trabajo asume aspectos de un juego (el ganar de los concurrentes, vencer el récord de las ventas y el mundo del juego asume el carácter de trabajo (atletas profesionales, negocios, contratos, patrocinadores. ¿Como pensaría la perspectiva humanista y libertaria de Huizinga sobre el juego el mundo de los deportes contemporáneos? O, dicho de otro modo, ¿hay espacio para la práctica de ocio creativo y humanización en el mundo del deporte?

  4. Sobre la identidad del fragmento craneal atribuido a Homo sp. en Venta Mlcena (Orce Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyá-Solá, S.

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal morphology of the cranial fragment attributed to Homo from Venta Micena (Granada is analysed. The presence of a coronal suture close to lambda does not permit its attribution to the genus Homo. The distace between the coronal suture and lambda (4 cm., the presence of tentorial procces and the digital impresions strongly suggesst its attribution to a juvenil specimen of Equus stenonis.Se analiza la morfología de la cara interna del fragmento craneal de Venta Micena atribuido inicialmente al género Homo. Se detecta la presencia de la sutura coronal a cuatro centímetros del punto lambda. Ello, conjuntamente a las fuertes impresiones digitales del endocraneo y la presencia de una cresta del proceso oseo tentoríal hacen imposible la adscripción de esta pieza al género Homo., atribuyendose a Equus stenonis.

  5. Preestrita pihtimus : Friedrich Nietzsche ja tema substantsiaalne mina (Ecce homo) / Jaan Undusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Undusk, Jaan, 1958-

    1998-01-01

    Varem ilmunud raamatu järelsõnana: Nietzsche, Friedrich. Ecce homo : kuidas saadakse selleks, mis ollakse / tlk. Jaan Undusk. Tallinn : Vagabund, 1996. Sisu: Poeetiline, filosoofiline, dionüüsiline kaanon ; Künism contra hulluskahtlus ; Antikristlik pihtimus ; Egoretoorika

  6. Significance of some previously unrecognized apomorphies in the nasal region of Homo neanderthalensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, J H; Tattersall, I

    1996-01-01

    For many years, the Neanderthals have been recognized as a distinctive extinct hominid group that occupied Europe and western Asia between about 200,000 and 30,000 years ago. It is still debated, however, whether these hominids belong in their own species, Homo neanderthalensis, or represent an extinct variant of Homo sapiens. Our ongoing studies indicate that the Neanderthals differ from modern humans in their skeletal anatomy in more ways than have been recognized up to now. The purpose of ...

  7. Improved age control on early Homo fossils from the upper Burgi Member at Koobi Fora, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Joordens , Josephine ,; Dupont-Nivet , Guillaume; Feibel , Craig ,; Spoor , Fred; Sier , Mark ,; Van Der Lubbe , Jeroen ,; Nielsen , Trine; Knul , Monika ,; Davies , Gareth ,; Vonhof , Hubert ,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; To address questions regarding the evolutionary origin, radiation and dispersal of the genus Homo, it is crucial to be able to place the occurrence of hominin fossils in a high-resolution chronological framework. The period around 2 Ma (millions of years ago) in eastern Africa is of particular interest as it is at this time that a more substantial fossil record of the genus Homo is first found. Here we combine magnetostratigraphy and strontium (Sr) isotope stratigraphy...

  8. Further morphological evidence on South African earliest Homo lower postcanine dentition: Enamel thickness and enamel dentine junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Dumoncel, Jean; de Beer, Frikkie; Hoffman, Jakobus; Thackeray, John Francis; Duployer, Benjamin; Tenailleau, Christophe; Braga, José

    2016-07-01

    The appearance of the earliest members of the genus Homo in South Africa represents a key event in human evolution. Although enamel thickness and enamel dentine junction (EDJ) morphology preserve important information about hominin systematics and dietary adaptation, these features have not been sufficiently studied with regard to early Homo. We used micro-CT to compare enamel thickness and EDJ morphology among the mandibular postcanine dentitions of South African early hominins (N = 30) and extant Homo sapiens (N = 26), with special reference to early members of the genus Homo. We found that South African early Homo shows a similar enamel thickness distribution pattern to modern humans, although three-dimensional average and relative enamel thicknesses do not distinguish australopiths, early Homo, and modern humans particularly well. Based on enamel thickness distributions, our study suggests that a dietary shift occurred between australopiths and the origin of the Homo lineage. We also observed that South African early Homo postcanine EDJ combined primitive traits seen in australopith molars with derived features observed in modern human premolars. Our results confirm that some dental morphological patterns in later Homo actually occurred early in the Homo lineage, and highlight the taxonomic value of premolar EDJ morphology in hominin species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fossil evidence for the origin of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jeffrey H; Tattersall, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Our species Homo sapiens has never received a satisfactory morphological definition. Deriving partly from Linnaeus's exhortation simply to "know thyself," and partly from the insistence by advocates of the Evolutionary Synthesis in the mid-20th Century that species are constantly transforming ephemera that by definition cannot be pinned down by morphology, this unfortunate situation has led to huge uncertainty over which hominid fossils ought to be included in H. sapiens, and even over which of them should be qualified as "archaic" or as "anatomically modern," a debate that is an oddity in the broader context of paleontology. Here, we propose a suite of features that seems to characterize all H. sapiens alive today, and we review the fossil evidence in light of those features, paying particular attention to the bipartite brow and the "chin" as examples of how, given the continuum from developmentally regulated genes to adult morphology, we might consider features preserved in fossil specimens in a comparative analysis that includes extant taxa. We also suggest that this perspective on the origination of novelty, which has gained a substantial foothold in the general field of evolutionary developmental biology, has an intellectual place in paleoanthropology and hominid systematics, including in defining our species, H. sapiens. Beginning solely with the distinctive living species reveals a startling variety in morphologies among late middle and late Pleistocene hominids, none of which can be plausibly attributed to H. sapiens/H. neanderthalensis admixture. Allowing for a slightly greater envelope of variation than exists today, basic "modern" morphology seems to have appeared significantly earlier in time than the first stirrings of the modern symbolic cognitive system. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Homo sapiens in Arabia by 85,000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groucutt, Huw S; Grün, Rainer; Zalmout, Iyad A S; Drake, Nick A; Armitage, Simon J; Candy, Ian; Clark-Wilson, Richard; Louys, Julien; Breeze, Paul S; Duval, Mathieu; Buck, Laura T; Kivell, Tracy L; Pomeroy, Emma; Stephens, Nicholas B; Stock, Jay T; Stewart, Mathew; Price, Gilbert J; Kinsley, Leslie; Sung, Wing Wai; Alsharekh, Abdullah; Al-Omari, Abdulaziz; Zahir, Muhammad; Memesh, Abdullah M; Abdulshakoor, Ammar J; Al-Masari, Abdu M; Bahameem, Ahmed A; Al Murayyi, Khaled M S; Zahrani, Badr; Scerri, Eleanor L M; Petraglia, Michael D

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the timing and character of the expansion of Homo sapiens out of Africa is critical for inferring the colonization and admixture processes that underpin global population history. It has been argued that dispersal out of Africa had an early phase, particularly ~130-90 thousand years ago (ka), that reached only the East Mediterranean Levant, and a later phase, ~60-50 ka, that extended across the diverse environments of Eurasia to Sahul. However, recent findings from East Asia and Sahul challenge this model. Here we show that H. sapiens was in the Arabian Peninsula before 85 ka. We describe the Al Wusta-1 (AW-1) intermediate phalanx from the site of Al Wusta in the Nefud desert, Saudi Arabia. AW-1 is the oldest directly dated fossil of our species outside Africa and the Levant. The palaeoenvironmental context of Al Wusta demonstrates that H. sapiens using Middle Palaeolithic stone tools dispersed into Arabia during a phase of increased precipitation driven by orbital forcing, in association with a primarily African fauna. A Bayesian model incorporating independent chronometric age estimates indicates a chronology for Al Wusta of ~95-86 ka, which we correlate with a humid episode in the later part of Marine Isotope Stage 5 known from various regional records. Al Wusta shows that early dispersals were more spatially and temporally extensive than previously thought. Early H. sapiens dispersals out of Africa were not limited to winter rainfall-fed Levantine Mediterranean woodlands immediately adjacent to Africa, but extended deep into the semi-arid grasslands of Arabia, facilitated by periods of enhanced monsoonal rainfall.

  11. Is Homo sapiens polytypic? Human taxonomic diversity and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The term race is a traditional synonym for subspecies, however it is frequently asserted that Homo sapiens is monotypic and that what are termed races are nothing more than biological illusions. In this manuscript a case is made for the hypothesis that H. sapiens is polytypic, and in this way is no different from other species exhibiting similar levels of genetic and morphological diversity. First it is demonstrated that the four major definitions of race/subspecies can be shown to be synonymous within the context of the framework of race as a correlation structure of traits. Next the issue of taxonomic classification is considered where it is demonstrated that H. sapiens possesses high levels morphological diversity, genetic heterozygosity and differentiation (F(ST)) compared to many species that are acknowledged to be polytypic with respect to subspecies. Racial variation is then evaluated in light of the phylogenetic species concept, where it is suggested that the least inclusive monophyletic units exist below the level of species within H. sapiens indicating the existence of a number of potential human phylogenetic species; and the biological species concept, where it is determined that racial variation is too small to represent differentiation at the level of biological species. Finally the implications of this are discussed in the context of anthropology where an accurate picture of the sequence and timing of events during the evolution of human taxa are required for a complete picture of human evolution, and medicine, where a greater appreciation of the role played by human taxonomic differences in disease susceptibility and treatment responsiveness will save lives in the future.

  12. Sacral Variability in Tailless Species: Homo sapiens and Ochotona princeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tague, Robert G

    2017-05-01

    Homo sapiens is variable in number of sacral vertebrae, and this variability can lead to obstetrical complication. This study uses the comparative method to test the hypothesis that sacral variability in H. sapiens is associated with absence of a tail. Three species of lagomorphs are studied: Ochotona princeps (N = 271), which is tailless, and Lepus californicus (N = 212) and Sylvilagus audubonii (N = 206), which have tails. Results show that O. princeps has (1) higher diversity index for number of sacral vertebrae (0.49) compared to L. californicus (0.25) and S. audubonii (0.26) and (2) significantly higher percentage of individuals with the species-specific nonmodal number of sacral vertebrae (43.9%) compared to L. californicus (14.2%) and S. audubonii (15.5%). Comparison of H. sapiens (N = 1,030; individuals of age 20-39 years) with O. princeps shows similarities between the species in diversity index (also 0.49 in H. sapiens) and percentage of individuals with nonmodal number of sacral vertebrae (37.3% in H. sapiens). Homeotic transformation best explains the results. H. sapiens and O. princeps show propensity for caudal shift at the sacral-caudal border (i.e., homeotic transformation of the first caudal vertebra to a sacral vertebra). Caudal and cranial shift among presacral vertebrae increases or decreases this propensity, respectively. Increase in number of sacral vertebrae in H. sapiens by homeotic transformation reduces pelvic outlet capacity and can be obstetrically hazardous. Anat Rec, 300:798-809, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Homo-psychologicus: Reactionary behavioural aspects of epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhaji Cherif

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We formulate an in silico model of pathogen avoidance mechanism and investigate its impact on defensive behavioural measures (e.g., spontaneous social exclusions and distancing, crowd avoidance and voluntary vaccination adaptation. In particular, we use SIR(BS (e.g., susceptible-infected-recovered with additional behavioural component model to investigate the impact of homo-psychologicus aspects of epidemics. We focus on reactionary behavioural changes, which apply to both social distancing and voluntary vaccination participations. Our analyses reveal complex relationships between spontaneous and uncoordinated behavioural changes, the emergence of its contagion properties, and mitigation of infectious diseases. We find that the presence of effective behavioural changes can impede the persistence of disease. Furthermore, it was found that under perfect effective behavioural change, there are three regions in the response factor (e.g., imitation and/or reactionary and behavioural scale factor (e.g., global/local factors ρ–α behavioural space. Mainly, (1 disease is always endemic even in the presence of behavioural change, (2 behavioural-prevalence plasticity is observed and disease can sometimes be eradication, and (3 elimination of endemic disease under permanence of permanent behavioural change is achieved. These results suggest that preventive behavioural changes (e.g., non-pharmaceutical prophylactic measures, social distancing and exclusion, crowd avoidance are influenced by individual differences in perception of risks and are a salient feature of epidemics. Additionally, these findings indicates that care needs to be taken when considering the effect of adaptive behavioural change in predicting the course of epidemics, and as well as the interpretation and development of the public health measures that account for spontaneous behavioural changes.

  14. Homo-psychologicus: Reactionary behavioural aspects of epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Alhaji; Barley, Kamal; Hurtado, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    We formulate an in silico model of pathogen avoidance mechanism and investigate its impact on defensive behavioural measures (e.g., spontaneous social exclusions and distancing, crowd avoidance and voluntary vaccination adaptation). In particular, we use SIR(B)S (e.g., susceptible-infected-recovered with additional behavioural component) model to investigate the impact of homo-psychologicus aspects of epidemics. We focus on reactionary behavioural changes, which apply to both social distancing and voluntary vaccination participations. Our analyses reveal complex relationships between spontaneous and uncoordinated behavioural changes, the emergence of its contagion properties, and mitigation of infectious diseases. We find that the presence of effective behavioural changes can impede the persistence of disease. Furthermore, it was found that under perfect effective behavioural change, there are three regions in the response factor (e.g., imitation and/or reactionary) and behavioural scale factor (e.g., global/local) factors ρ-α behavioural space. Mainly, (1) disease is always endemic even in the presence of behavioural change, (2) behavioural-prevalence plasticity is observed and disease can sometimes be eradication, and (3) elimination of endemic disease under permanence of permanent behavioural change is achieved. These results suggest that preventive behavioural changes (e.g., non-pharmaceutical prophylactic measures, social distancing and exclusion, crowd avoidance) are influenced by individual differences in perception of risks and are a salient feature of epidemics. Additionally, these findings indicates that care needs to be taken when considering the effect of adaptive behavioural change in predicting the course of epidemics, and as well as the interpretation and development of the public health measures that account for spontaneous behavioural changes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis of Novel Homo-N-Nucleoside Analogs Composed of a Homo-1,4-Dioxane Sugar Analog and Substituted 1,3,5-Triazine Base Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enantioselective syntheses from dimethyl tartrate of 1,3,5-triazine homo-N-nucleoside analogs, containing a 1,4-dioxane moiety replacing the sugar unit in natural nucleosides, were accomplished. The triazine heterocycle in the nucleoside analogs was further substituted with combinations of NH2, OH and Cl in the 2,4-triazine positions.

  16. Are Homo sapiens nonsupranuchal fossa and Neanderthal suprainiac fossa convergent traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewska, Wioletta

    2011-04-01

    The autapomorphic status of the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa was recently confirmed. This was a result of a detailed analysis of the internal bone composition in the area of the suprainiac depression on Neanderthal and Homo sapiens specimens. However, while anatomical differences between Neanderthal suprainiac fossa and the depression in the inion region of the occipital bone of fossil and recent Homo sapiens have been discussed in detail, the etiology of these structures has not been resolved. In this article, the hypothesis that the Homo sapiens non-supranuchal fossa and the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa both formed to maintain the optimal shape of the occipital plane (to minimize strain on the posterior cranial vault) is tested. First, the variation in the expression of the fossa above inion in the crania of recent Homo sapiens from European, African, and Australian samples was examined, and the degree of structural similarity between these depressions and the Neanderthal suprainiac fossa was assessed. Next, the relationship between the shape of the occipital squama in the midsagittal plane and two particular features (the degree of the occipital torus development and the occurrence of a depression in the inion region that is not the supranuchal fossa) were analyzed. Based on the results, it is suggested that the Homo sapiens non-supranuchal fossa and Neanderthal suprainiac fossa are convergent traits. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Nicotinamidase/pyrazinamidase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis forms homo-dimers stabilized by disulfide bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Daniel; Sheen, Patricia; Gilman, Robert H; Bueno, Carlos; Santos, Marco; Pando-Robles, Victoria; Batista, Cesar V; Zimic, Mirko

    2014-12-01

    Recombinant wild-pyrazinamidase from H37Rv Mycobacterium tuberculosis was analyzed by gel electrophoresis under differential reducing conditions to evaluate its quaternary structure. PZAse was fractionated by size exclusion chromatography under non-reducing conditions. PZAse activity was measured and mass spectrometry analysis was performed to determine the identity of proteins by de novo sequencing and to determine the presence of disulfide bonds. This study confirmed that M. tuberculosis wild type PZAse was able to form homo-dimers in vitro. Homo-dimers showed a slightly lower specific PZAse activity compared to monomeric PZAse. PZAse dimers were dissociated into monomers in response to reducing conditions. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the existence of disulfide bonds (C72-C138 and C138-C138) stabilizing the quaternary structure of the PZAse homo-dimer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative skeletal features between Homo floresiensis and patients with primary growth hormone insensitivity (Laron Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Israel; Kornreich, Liora; Laron, Zvi

    2007-10-01

    Comparison between the skeletal remains of Homo floresiensis and the auxological and roentgenological findings in a large Israeli cohort of patients with Laron Syndrome (LS, primary or classical GH insensitivity or resistance) revealed striking morphological similarities, including extremely small stature and reduced cranial volume. LS is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a molecular defect of the Growth Hormone (GH) receptor or in the post-receptor cascades. Epidemiological studies have shown that LS occurs more often in consanguineous families and isolates, and it has been described in several countries in South East Asia. It is our conclusion that the findings from the island of Flores, which were attributed to a new species of the genus Homo, may in fact represent a local, highly inbred, Homo sapiens population in whom a mutation for the GH receptor had occurred. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Linking the HOMO-LUMO gap to torsional disorder in P3HT/PCBM blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, John A.; Pitman, Amy L.; Moewes, Alexander; Kurmaev, Ernst Z.; Finkelstein, Larisa D.; Zhidkov, Ivan S.; Savva, Achilleas

    2015-01-01

    The electronic structure of [6,6]-phenyl C 61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and P3HT/PCBM blends is studied using soft X-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. We find that annealing reduces the HOMO-LUMO gap of P3HT and P3HT/PCBM blends, whereas annealing has little effect on the HOMO-LUMO gap of PCBM. We propose a model connecting torsional disorder in a P3HT polymer to the HOMO-LUMO gap, which suggests that annealing helps to decrease the torsional disorder in the P3HT polymers. Our model is used to predict the characteristic length scales of the flat P3TH polymer segments in P3HT and P3HT/PCBM blends before and after annealing. Our approach may prove useful in characterizing organic photovoltaic devices in situ or even in operando

  20. Variability in first Homo: Analysis of the ratio between the skulls KNM-ER 1470 and KNM-ER 1813 based on sexual dimorphism of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, S W Ferreira; Lorenzo, C

    2015-10-01

    The study of the skulls KNM-ER 1470 and KNM-ER 1813, considered the first members of the genus Homo, has raised some debates. While some of researchers maintain that there is only one species, another group argues that there are two species. On one hand these two fossils are still taxonomically undetermined, on the other hand they bring up another problem related to the existence of a genus with multiple species since its beginning, according to the last discoveries. In this paper, we have compared the size ratio between these fossils with ratios established in populations of Homo sapiens, in order to know if they fit into the human standard, considering intra-sexual and inter-sexual variation. Results help to establish whether these fossils correspond to different species or their differences could be related to sexual dimorphism within a single species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Entre vapores e dublagens : dissidências homo/eróticas nas tramas do envelhecimento

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Altair Pocahy

    2011-01-01

    Esta pesquisa de doutorado em Educação analisa formas de regulação do gênero e da sexualidade em interseccionalidade com a ‗idade‘. Este estudo buscou problematizar os discursos de objetificação dirigidos a homens idosos que exercem práticas homo/eróticas. E tratou de compreender de que maneira se produzem estratégias de contestação às significações desqualificantes sobre a (homo)sexualidade e o envelhecimento. A análise nos possibilitou compreender algumas das relações de poder em torno das ...

  2. DEFINIENDO HOMO SAPIENS-SAPIENS: APROXIMACIÓN ANTROPOLÓGICA

    OpenAIRE

    Valdebenito, Carolina

    2007-01-01

    Este artículo reflexiona sobre los encuentros y desencuentros entre el ser humano y el resto de los animales, en tanto miembros de sistemas en permanente interacción(1). Abordar la definición de Homo, repasar su evolución biológica y cultural y reflexionar sobre los resabios de animalidad que quedan en el comportamiento social del Homo sapiens-sapiens es su objetivo principal. Se busca reflexionar sobre los dilemas morales que acompañan al hombre en tanto ser cultural; para ello se analizan d...

  3. Induction and consolidation of calcium-based homo- and heterosynaptic potentiation and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Y; Kulvicius, T.; Tetzlaff, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive mechanisms of homo- and heterosynaptic plasticity play an important role in learning and memory. In order to maintain plasticity-induced changes for longer time scales (up to several days), they have to be consolidated by transferring them from a short-lasting early-phase to a long...... into the complex interactions between homo- and heterosynaptic plasticity over a broad variety of time (minutes to days) and spatial scales (several micrometers). © 2016 Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use...

  4. Paleoenvironmental evolution and geomorphic dynamics recorded in the Homo-bearing Pleistocene stratigraphic succession of Aalat (Eritrea, East Africa): A pedological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Mercatante, Giuseppe; Donato, Paola; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Carnevale, Giorgio; Delfino, Massimo; Oms, Oriol; Papini, Mauro; Pavia, Marco; Sani, Federico; Rook, Lorenzo

    2017-04-01

    The Aalat stratigraphic succession represents a 300 m-thick continental archive in the northern sector of the African Rift Valley (Dandiero basin, Eritrea). Based on high-resolution magnetostratigraphy, along with tephrostratigrapic, paleontological and paleoanthropological data and correlations, the chronological constraints for the emplacement of this succession can be fixed at two stages characterized by normal polarity of the Earth's magnetic field, i.e. the base of the Jaramillo event and the lower part of the Brunhes chron, marking the Early to Middle Pleistocene transition. Remains of Homo erectus/ergaster and abundant fossil vertebrates were identified. Despite nowadays the study area has a typical arid, hot desert climate, the sedimentary succession records repeated shifts from fluvial to lacustrine facies, in line with dominant mammalian taxa characterized by strong water dependence and ichthyofauna typical of shallow-water fluvio-lacustrine paleoenvironments. The dominance of these water-controlled depositional environments over more than 250 ka suggests a major tectonic control, even though a clear overprinting of Pleistocene climate changes can be detected. The main morphological soil features, along with physico-chemical, mineralogical, geochemical and micromorphological data of selected soil profiles and horizons depict an overall poor to moderate degree of soil development, coherently with high rates of sedimentation of about 1 mm/year and local erosive phases. Nonetheless, the presence of calcic and especially petrocalcic horizons and one petrogypsic horizon at different stratigraphic heights clearly indicates cyclical phases of geomorphic stability, which allowed important leaching and accumulation of carbonate (or gypsum). Their complex, polygenetic fabric, often showing brecciation and re-dissolution features, points to a polyphased genesis, caused by changes in soil moisture conditions over time. This finding, together with the alternation of

  5. Revised stratigraphy and chronology for Homo floresiensis at Liang Bua in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutikna, Thomas; Tocheri, Matthew W.; Morwood, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Homo floresiensis, a primitive hominin species discovered in Late Pleistocene sediments at Liang Bua (Flores, Indonesia), has generated wide interest and scientific debate. A major reason this taxon is controversial is because the H. floresiensis-bearing deposits, which include associated stone...

  6. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology: Volume 51, Molecular biology of /ital Homo sapiens/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume is the second part of a collection of papers submitted by the participants to the 1986 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology entitled Molecular Biology of /ital Homo sapiens/. The 49 papers included in this volume are grouped by subject into receptors, human cancer genes, and gene therapy. (DT)

  7. Improved age control on early Homo fossils from the upper Burgi Member at Koobi Fora, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joordens, J.C.A.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Feibel, C.S.; Spoor, F.; Sier, M.J.; Lubbe, J.H.J.L. van der; Kellberg Nielsen, T.; Knul, M.V.; Davies, G.R.; Vonhof, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    To address questions regarding the evolutionary origin, radiation and dispersal of the genus Homo, it is crucial to be able to place the occurrence of hominin fossils in a high-resolution chronological framework. The period around 2 Ma (millions of years ago) in eastern Africa is of particular

  8. Improved age control on early Homo fossils from the upper Burgi Member at Koobi Fora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joordens, J.C.A.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Feibeld, C.S.; Spoor, F.; Sier, M.J.; Lubbe, J.H.J.L.; Nielsen, T.K.; Knul, M.V.; Davies, G.R.; Vonhof, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    To address questions regarding the evolutionary origin, radiation and dispersal of the genus Homo, it is crucial to be able to place the occurrence of hominin fossils in a high-resolution chronological framework. The period around 2Ma (millions of years ago) in eastern Africa is of particular

  9. Spatial Construction Skills of Chimpanzees ("Pan Troglodytes") and Young Human Children ("Homo Sapiens Sapiens")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Patrizia; Hayashi, Misato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    Spatial construction tasks are basic tests of visual-spatial processing. Two studies have assessed spatial construction skills in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (Homo sapiens sapiens) with a block modelling task. Study 1a subjects were three young chimpanzees and five adult chimpanzees. Study 1b subjects were 30 human children…

  10. Stravovacích návyky z hlediska fylogeneze Homo sapiens sapiens.

    OpenAIRE

    HOLÁ, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    This Bachelor's thesis on the synthesis of literature, is attempting to create an overview of our human ancestor's dietary habits. The time frame is from the oldest representative of the hominoid family, genus Ardipithecus ramidus, to neolithic Homo sapiens.This will show the connection between the changing food spectrum and the phylogeny of our species.

  11. Design of homo-organic acid producing strains using multi-objective optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Tae Yong; Park, Jong Myoung; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2015-01-01

    Production of homo-organic acids without byproducts is an important challenge in bioprocess engineering to minimize operation cost for separation processes. In this study, we used multi-objective optimization to design Escherichia coli strains with the goals of maximally producing target organic ...

  12. "Homo Virtualis": Virtual Worlds, Learning, and an Ecology of Embodied Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmon, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    This article previews the emergence of "homo virtualis." Drawing on data from seven research studies, peer-reviewed published research articles, and selected excerpts of 30 months of field notes taken in Second Life [SL], the article examines virtual learning environments and embodiment through the lens of interactions of avatars with…

  13. Homo sapiens zestárl o 100 tisíc let

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nývltová Fišáková, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2017), s. 12 ISSN 2533-784X Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : paleoanthropology * hominization * Homo sapiens * human fossils * archaeological dating Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.avcr.cz/opencms/export/sites/avcr.cz/.content/galerie-souboru/AB/A_03_2017_web.pdf

  14. Homo-FRET imaging as a tool to quantify protein and lipid clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Arjen N; Hoetzl, Sandra; Hofman, Erik G; Voortman, Jarno; van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M P; van Meer, Gerrit; Gerritsen, Hans C

    2011-02-25

    Homo-FRET, Förster resonance energy transfer between identical fluorophores, can be conveniently measured by observing its effect on the fluorescence anisotropy. This review aims to summarize the possibilities of fluorescence anisotropy imaging techniques to investigate clustering of identical proteins and lipids. Homo-FRET imaging has the ability to determine distances between fluorophores. In addition it can be employed to quantify cluster sizes as well as cluster size distributions. The interpretation of homo-FRET signals is complicated by the fact that both the mutual orientations of the fluorophores and the number of fluorophores per cluster affect the fluorescence anisotropy in a similar way. The properties of the fluorescence probes are very important. Taking these properties into account is critical for the correct interpretation of homo-FRET signals in protein- and lipid-clustering studies. This is be exemplified by studies on the clustering of the lipid raft markers GPI and K-ras, as well as for EGF receptor clustering in the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Homo-FRET Imaging as a tool to quantify protein and lipid clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, A.N.; Hoetzl, S.; Hofman, E.G.; Voortman, J.; van Bergen en Henegouwen, P.M.P.; van Meer, G.; Gerritsen, H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Homo-FRET, Förster resonance energy transfer between identical fluorophores, can be conveniently measured by observing its effect on the fluorescence anisotropy. This review aims to summarize the possibilities of fluorescence anisotropy imaging techniques to investigate clustering of identical

  16. Microbial synthesis of functional homo-, random, and block polyhydroxyalkanoates by β-oxidation deleted Pseudomonas entomophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shijun; Cai, Longwei; Wu, Linping

    2014-01-01

    -link with other PHA polymer chains. However, it has been very difficult to obtain structurally controllable functional homo-, random, or block PHA. For the first time, a β-oxidation deleted Pseudomonas entomophila was used to successfully synthesize random copolymers of 3-hydroxydodecanoate (3HDD) and 3-hydroxy-9...... be controlled to meet various requirements....

  17. Combining metabolic engineering and biocompatible chemistry for high-yield production of homo-diacetyl and homo-(S,S)-2,3-butanediol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianming; Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Brock-Nannestad, Theis; Chen, Jun; Lee, Sang Yup; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2016-07-01

    Biocompatible chemistry is gaining increasing attention because of its potential within biotechnology for expanding the repertoire of biological transformations carried out by enzymes. Here we demonstrate how biocompatible chemistry can be used for synthesizing valuable compounds as well as for linking metabolic pathways to achieve redox balance and rescued growth. By comprehensive rerouting of metabolism, activation of respiration, and finally metal ion catalysis, we successfully managed to convert the homolactic bacterium Lactococcus lactis into a homo-diacetyl producer with high titer (95mM or 8.2g/L) and high yield (87% of the theoretical maximum). Subsequently, the pathway was extended to (S,S)-2,3-butanediol (S-BDO) through efficiently linking two metabolic pathways via chemical catalysis. This resulted in efficient homo-S-BDO production with a titer of 74mM (6.7g/L) S-BDO and a yield of 82%. The diacetyl and S-BDO production rates and yields obtained are the highest ever reported, demonstrating the promising combination of metabolic engineering and biocompatible chemistry as well as the great potential of L. lactis as a new production platform. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; Bolter, Debra R

    2015-06-16

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4-5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition.

  19. Life as a Cosmic Phenomenon: 2. the Panspermic Trajectory of Homo Sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokoro, Gensuke; Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    We discuss the origin and evolution of Homo sapiens in a cosmic context, and in relation to the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe theory of panspermia for which there is now overwhelming evidence. It is argued that the first bacteria (archea) incident on the Earth via the agency of comets 3.8-4 billion years ago continued at later times to be augmented by viral genes (DNA, RNA) from space that eventually led to the evolutionary patterns we see in present-day biology. We argue that the current evolutionary status of Homo sapiens as well as its future trajectory is circumscribed by evolutionary processes that were pre-determined on a cosmic scale -- over vast distances and enormous spans of cosmic time. Based on this teleological hypothesis we postulate that two distinct classes of cosmic viruses (cosmic viral genes) are involved in accounting for the facts relating to the evolution of life.

  20. Three Arm Star Homo- And Co-Polymers Via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A.; Sobh, R.A.; Ayoub, M.M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Star homo and co-polymers of some vinyl monomers such as methylmethacrylate, butylmethacrylate and styrene (MMA, BMA, St.) were prepared using N, N, N', N' tetramethylethylenediamine ligand/ CuBr catalytic system via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Three armed benzene based core was successfully used as initiator. Low polydispersities and regular molecular weight values were obtained in most cases especially at low conversions. MMA and BuMA showed comparable behavior where controlled and true ATRP was observed even at the high conversions. However, styrene monomer recorded irregular high polydispersities at high conversions in spite of the relatively low molecular weight values. 1HNMR confirmed the structures of the resulting polymers. Transmission Electron microscope (TEM) proved the nano-structure of the star polymers. The thermal behavior of the MMA star homo and copolymers was studied. The effect of the star shape on the thermal behavior was very clear with respect to the linear ones

  1. Homo Clima: Climate Man and Productive Power - Government through Climate Change as Bioaesthetic Frame; Homo Clima: Klimatmaenniskan och den produktiva makten - styrning genom klimatfoeraendring som bioestetisk inramning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoglund, Annika

    2011-07-01

    Former creative resistance to environmentally hazardous activities has during the last decades, through discussions on climate change, been increasingly reoriented by meteorology, expert knowledge and policy discourse. The ecological system's perspective on climate change, proclaiming the human not simply as a disturbance in a natural balancing system, but as changing it, has become a causal model for the possibility to change that human. This PhD thesis interrogates how statements in IPCC reports and a Swedish newspaper (DN) constitute truth claims on climate change. What subjectivities does parlance on climate change produce and what type of citizen is called upon to optimize vitality in relation to atmospheric molecules? How is self-management of every-day activities established by help to interactivity and self-techniques framed by technical artefacts? These questions are addressed by a 'governmentality' perspective on how discourse, conceived as partaking in a process of productive power, strives to make climate change an ethico-politic question that fosters 'Homo Clima', climate man. What strategies and techniques this form of 'government' deploys are described by six interconnecting themes; 'Atmospheric biopolitics fosters contingency', 'Mortality/Vitality', 'The moral population in the atmosphere moral economy', 'Homo Clima' and 'Bioaesthetics through technical artefacts', ending in a discussion upon these themes as an act which 'Re-thematizes climate change'. The chapters illustrate how statements on the prevention and mitigation of climate risks mold scientific rationalities, mathematically modelled futures and calculations of molecular compounds with how these same futures and molecules correlate to individual culpability, responsibility and morality. From Foucauldian biopolitics to Foucauldian ethics, this can be conceived as an optimization of the vitality of

  2. Pygmoid Australomelanesian Homo sapiens skeletal remains from Liang Bua, Flores: Population affinities and pathological abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, T.; Indriati, E.; Soejono, R. P.; Hsü, K.; Frayer, D. W.; Eckhardt, R. B.; Kuperavage, A. J.; Thorne, A.; Henneberg, M.

    2006-01-01

    Liang Bua 1 (LB1) exhibits marked craniofacial and postcranial asymmetries and other indicators of abnormal growth and development. Anomalies aside, 140 cranial features place LB1 within modern human ranges of variation, resembling Australomelanesian populations. Mandibular and dental features of LB1 and LB6/1 either show no substantial deviation from modern Homo sapiens or share features (receding chins and rotated premolars) with Rampasasa pygmies now living near Liang Bua Cave. We propose ...

  3. Spatial determinants of the mandibular curve of Spee in modern and archaic Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Myra F; Holton, Nathan E; Scott, Jill E; Franciscus, Robert G; Marshall, Steven D; Southard, Thomas E

    2016-10-01

    The curve of Spee (COS) is a mesio-distally curved alignment of the canine through distal molar cusp tips in certain mammals including modern humans and some fossil hominins. In humans, the alignment varies from concave to flat, and previous studies have suggested that this difference reflects craniofacial morphology, including the degree of alveolar prognathism. However, the relationship between prognathism and concavity of the COS has not been tested in craniofacially variant populations. We tested the hypothesis that greater alveolar prognathism covaries with a flatter COS in African-American and European-American populations. We further examined this relationship in fossil Homo including Homo neanderthalensis and early anatomically modern Homo sapiens, which are expected to extend the amount of variation in the COS from the extant sample. These hypotheses were tested using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Landmarks were recorded from the skulls of 166 African-Americans, 123 European-Americans, and 10 fossil hominin mandible casts. Landmarks were subjected to generalized Procrustes analysis, principal components analysis, and two-block partial least squares analysis. We documented covariation between the COS and alveolar prognathism such that relatively prognathic individuals have a flatter COS. Mandibular data from the fossil hominin taxa generally confirm and extend this correlation across a greater range of facial size and morphology in Homo. Our results suggest that the magnitude of the COS is related to a suite of features associated with alveolar prognathism in modern humans and across anthropoids. We also discuss the implications for spatial interactions between the dental arches. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Post-cranial skeletons of hypothyroid cretins show a similar anatomical mosaic as Homo floresiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxnard, Charles; Obendorf, Peter J; Kefford, Ben J

    2010-09-27

    Human remains, some as recent as 15 thousand years, from Liang Bua (LB) on the Indonesian island of Flores have been attributed to a new species, Homo floresiensis. The definition includes a mosaic of features, some like modern humans (hence derived: genus Homo), some like modern apes and australopithecines (hence primitive: not species sapiens), and some unique (hence new species: floresiensis). Conversely, because only modern humans (H. sapiens) are known in this region in the last 40 thousand years, these individuals have also been suggested to be genetic human dwarfs. Such dwarfs resemble small humans and do not show the mosaic combination of the most complete individuals, LB1 and LB6, so this idea has been largely dismissed. We have previously shown that some features of the cranium of hypothyroid cretins are like those of LB1. Here we examine cretin postcrania to see if they show anatomical mosaics like H. floresiensis. We find that hypothyroid cretins share at least 10 postcranial features with Homo floresiensis and unaffected humans not found in apes (or australopithecines when materials permit). They share with H. floresiensis, modern apes and australopithecines at least 11 postcranial features not found in unaffected humans. They share with H. floresiensis, at least 8 features not found in apes, australopithecines or unaffected humans. Sixteen features can be rendered metrically and multivariate analyses demonstrate that H. floresiensis co-locates with cretins, both being markedly separate from humans and chimpanzees (P0.999). We therefore conclude that LB1 and LB6, at least, are, most likely, endemic cretins from a population of unaffected Homo sapiens. This is consistent with recent hypothyroid endemic cretinism throughout Indonesia, including the nearby island of Bali.

  5. New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens

    OpenAIRE

    Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Ben-Ncer, Abdelouahed; Bailey, Shara E.; Freidline, Sarah E.; Neubauer, Simon; Skinner, Matthew M.; Bergmann, Inga; Le Cabec, Adeline; Benazzi, Stefano; Harvati, Katerina; Gunz, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Fossil evidence points to an African origin of Homo sapiens from a group called either H. heidelbergensis or H. rhodesiensis. However, the exact place and time of emergence of H. sapiens remain obscure because the fossil record is scarce and the chronological age of many key specimens remains uncertain. In particular, it is unclear whether the present day ‘modern’ morphology rapidly emerged approximately 200 thousand years ago (ka) among earlier representatives of H. sapiens1 or evolved gradu...

  6. Post-cranial skeletons of hypothyroid cretins show a similar anatomical mosaic as Homo floresiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Oxnard

    Full Text Available Human remains, some as recent as 15 thousand years, from Liang Bua (LB on the Indonesian island of Flores have been attributed to a new species, Homo floresiensis. The definition includes a mosaic of features, some like modern humans (hence derived: genus Homo, some like modern apes and australopithecines (hence primitive: not species sapiens, and some unique (hence new species: floresiensis. Conversely, because only modern humans (H. sapiens are known in this region in the last 40 thousand years, these individuals have also been suggested to be genetic human dwarfs. Such dwarfs resemble small humans and do not show the mosaic combination of the most complete individuals, LB1 and LB6, so this idea has been largely dismissed. We have previously shown that some features of the cranium of hypothyroid cretins are like those of LB1. Here we examine cretin postcrania to see if they show anatomical mosaics like H. floresiensis. We find that hypothyroid cretins share at least 10 postcranial features with Homo floresiensis and unaffected humans not found in apes (or australopithecines when materials permit. They share with H. floresiensis, modern apes and australopithecines at least 11 postcranial features not found in unaffected humans. They share with H. floresiensis, at least 8 features not found in apes, australopithecines or unaffected humans. Sixteen features can be rendered metrically and multivariate analyses demonstrate that H. floresiensis co-locates with cretins, both being markedly separate from humans and chimpanzees (P0.999. We therefore conclude that LB1 and LB6, at least, are, most likely, endemic cretins from a population of unaffected Homo sapiens. This is consistent with recent hypothyroid endemic cretinism throughout Indonesia, including the nearby island of Bali.

  7. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nishimura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved "Out of Africa" to explore the more

  8. Debate sobre el Homo Economicus. El caso de los funcionarios de casilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Barragán Robles

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: A partir de un caso empírico se estudia la decisión de las personas para participar voluntariamente como funcionarios de casilla el día de la jornada electoral en México. Al respecto, interesaba analizar si esa participación era motivada por un comportamiento prosocial, donde el ciudadano contribuía a la existencia de un bien público: la democracia. De ser el caso, se descartaría el comportamiento de Homo Economicus.Métodos: Ante la falta de información para hacer este estudio a nivel individual, se decidió hacerlo a nivel más agregado, a nivel municipal. Por medio de una regresión logística se exploró la probabilidad de que un municipio tuviera una alta tasa de aceptación para participar en la jornada electoral como funcionarios de casilla. Específicamente, se estudió en qué medida la variable dependiente se explica por variables asociadas a un comportamiento prosocial o a un comportamiento de Homo Economicus.Resultados: Los resultados muestran que, efectivamente, una parte de la participación es motivada por la responsabilidad ciudadana y el compromiso social, es decir, un comportamiento divergente del Homo Economicus. En tanto que la otra parte de la participación responde a incentivos no explícitos que estarían asociados al self-interest.Conclusiones: En este artículo se concluye que una parte de quienes aceptan la invitación para participar como funcionarios de casilla, lo hacen respondiendo a un comportamiento prosocial, pero para el resto no es posible descartar un comportamiento de Homo Economicus. Todo ello apunta a la necesidad de seguir trabajando para consolidar la calidad de la democracia mexicana.

  9. Through Steams & Porno Videos: Homo/Erotic Dissident Threads in the Discoursive Tapestry of Aging Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Altair Pocahy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes forms of regulation of gender and sexuality in their relationshipwith the normative discourses triggered by the discursive production of the ‘aging’. Seeking thegames of truth that surround the experience of elderly men with homo erotic practices, this study(the result of a doctoral thesis in Education tried to understand how the modern discursivepractices can build and materialize the aging body as “abject”.

  10. Homo-Tandem Polymer Solar Cells withVOC>1.8 V for Efficient PV-Driven Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Yangqin; Le Corre, Vincent M.; Gaï tis, Alexandre; Neophytou, Marios; Hamid, Mahmoud Abdul; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Beaujuge, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Efficient homo-tandem and triple-junction polymer solar cells are constructed by stacking identical subcells composed of the wide-bandgap polymer PBDTTPD, achieving power conversion efficiencies >8% paralleled by open-circuit voltages >1.8 V

  11. Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tanya M; Tafforeau, Paul; Reid, Donald J; Grün, Rainer; Eggins, Stephen; Boutakiout, Mohamed; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2007-04-10

    Recent developmental studies demonstrate that early fossil hominins possessed shorter growth periods than living humans, implying disparate life histories. Analyses of incremental features in teeth provide an accurate means of assessing the age at death of developing dentitions, facilitating direct comparisons with fossil and modern humans. It is currently unknown when and where the prolonged modern human developmental condition originated. Here, an application of x-ray synchrotron microtomography reveals that an early Homo sapiens juvenile from Morocco dated at 160,000 years before present displays an equivalent degree of tooth development to modern European children at the same age. Crown formation times in the juvenile's macrodont dentition are higher than modern human mean values, whereas root development is accelerated relative to modern humans but is less than living apes and some fossil hominins. The juvenile from Jebel Irhoud is currently the oldest-known member of Homo with a developmental pattern (degree of eruption, developmental stage, and crown formation time) that is more similar to modern H. sapiens than to earlier members of Homo. This study also underscores the continuing importance of North Africa for understanding the origins of human anatomical and behavioral modernity. Corresponding biological and cultural changes may have appeared relatively late in the course of human evolution.

  12. Prediction of host - pathogen protein interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Homo sapiens using sequence motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Tong; Liu, Wei; Guo, Yu; Yang, Cheng; Lin, Jianping; Rao, Zihe

    2015-03-26

    Emergence of multiple drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis (MDR-TB) threatens to derail global efforts aimed at reigning in the pathogen. Co-infections of M. tuberculosis with HIV are difficult to treat. To counter these new challenges, it is essential to study the interactions between M. tuberculosis and the host to learn how these bacteria cause disease. We report a systematic flow to predict the host pathogen interactions (HPIs) between M. tuberculosis and Homo sapiens based on sequence motifs. First, protein sequences were used as initial input for identifying the HPIs by 'interolog' method. HPIs were further filtered by prediction of domain-domain interactions (DDIs). Functional annotations of protein and publicly available experimental results were applied to filter the remaining HPIs. Using such a strategy, 118 pairs of HPIs were identified, which involve 43 proteins from M. tuberculosis and 48 proteins from Homo sapiens. A biological interaction network between M. tuberculosis and Homo sapiens was then constructed using the predicted inter- and intra-species interactions based on the 118 pairs of HPIs. Finally, a web accessible database named PATH (Protein interactions of M. tuberculosis and Human) was constructed to store these predicted interactions and proteins. This interaction network will facilitate the research on host-pathogen protein-protein interactions, and may throw light on how M. tuberculosis interacts with its host.

  13. ‘Welc(homo Naledi’! What does our newest relative have to say to us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël P. Veldsman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The new hominin fossil called Homo naledi that was discovered 2 years ago in the Dinaledi Chamber (South Africa was welcomed into the species of human relatives on 10 September 2015. Welcomed? Representing at least 15 individuals with most skeletal elements repeated multiple times, this is the largest assemblage of a single species of hominins yet discovered in Africa. Do, however, these bones represent a new Homo species? It is this question that I have tried to capture in my playful grammatically incorrect title ‘Welc(homo Naledi’! However, it is not this question that I will endeavour to answer, but a very different theological implication. My aim in this article is definitely not to argue an opinion on the diverse question regarding the discovery of the fossil skeletons from the Dinaledi Chamber. My aim is related but different, much more modest, restricted and focused. It is to ask ‘on the other historic side’ (that is, beyond the fossil record! of Naledi about human distinctiveness and symbolic behaviour, specifically on soteriology. Within the broader contemporary philosophical-theological discourses on anthropology and specifically the fundamental question, ‘Are we special?’, I would like ultimately to take on the intriguing theological implications for soteriology from the Naledi (and earlier findings.

  14. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations in the Pectoral Muscles of Common Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Bonobos (Pan paniscus), and Humans (Homo sapiens)

    OpenAIRE

    Potau, J. M.; Arias-Martorell, J.; Bello-Hellegouarch, G.; Casado, A.; Pastor, J. F.; de Paz, F.; Diogo, R.

    2018-01-01

    We have analyzed anatomic variations in the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan\\ud troglodytes) and bonobos(Pan paniscus) and compared them to anatomic variations in these muscles in humans(Homo sapiens). We\\ud have macroscopically dissected these muscles in six adult Pan troglodytes, five Pan paniscus of ages ranging from fetus to adult, and\\ud five adult Homo sapiens. Although Pan troglodytes are thought to lack a separate pectoralis abdominis muscle, we...

  15. Homo-Tandem Polymer Solar Cells withVOC>1.8 V for Efficient PV-Driven Water Splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Yangqin

    2016-03-06

    Efficient homo-tandem and triple-junction polymer solar cells are constructed by stacking identical subcells composed of the wide-bandgap polymer PBDTTPD, achieving power conversion efficiencies >8% paralleled by open-circuit voltages >1.8 V. The high-voltage homo-tandem is used to demonstrate PV-driven electrochemical water splitting with an estimated solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of ≈6%. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.

  16. Heterochrony and the paleoanthropological record: the origins o the genus homo reconsidered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bermúdez de Castro, Jose María

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a critical review is made of the main theories concerning the process of appearance and subsequent evolutionary success of the genus Homo. Furthennore, the current evidence coming from the paleoanthropological record is analyzed in order to establish the interrelation between the biological and cultural factors implicated in that process. It is suggested that the evidence of the paleoanthropological record presumably related to early Homo is basically explicable from the consideration of the strengthening of the social links in the bosom of the group, likely due to the abandonment of an hierarchyzed society in favour of a more cooperative one. This change does not necessarily imply, nor does it exclude the possibility of the formation of stable nuclear families, and probably appeared as a result of a biological change consisting of a decrease of the rate of development, that produced certain prolongation of all life history periods, and some delay in the offset signal for growth (but resulting in paedomorphic adults. As a consequence, there was an increase of the interactive and operative capacities that permitted the emergence of a novel and successful ecological niche under the new environmental conditions arised in the late Pliocene. Other additional heterochrony processes are suggested to explain the subsequent morphological evolution of the genus Homo.

    En este trabajo se realiza una revisión critica de las principales teorías relacionadas con el proceso de aparición y subsiguiente éxito evolutivo del género Homo. Se analiza asimismo la evidencia más reciente procedente del registro paleoantropológico, para establecer la interrelación entre los factores biológicos y culturales implicados en dicho proceso. Se sugiere que la evidencia del registro paleoantropológico presumiblemente relacionado con los primeros representantes del género Homo puede explicarse básicamente desde

  17. Mandibular molar root morphology in Neanderthals and Late Pleistocene and recent Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2010-11-01

    Neanderthals have a distinctive suite of dental features, including large anterior crown and root dimensions and molars with enlarged pulp cavities. Yet, there is little known about variation in molar root morphology in Neanderthals and other recent and fossil members of Homo. Here, we provide the first comprehensive metric analysis of permanent mandibular molar root morphology in Middle and Late Pleistocene Homo neanderthalensis, and Late Pleistocene (Aterian) and recent Homo sapiens. We specifically address the question of whether root form can be used to distinguish between these groups and assess whether any variation in root form can be related to differences in tooth function. We apply a microtomographic imaging approach to visualise and quantify the external and internal dental morphologies of both isolated molars and molars embedded in the mandible (n=127). Univariate and multivariate analyses reveal both similarities (root length and pulp volume) and differences (occurrence of pyramidal roots and dental tissue volume proportion) in molar root morphology among penecontemporaneous Neanderthals and Aterian H. sapiens. In contrast, the molars of recent H. sapiens are markedly smaller than both Pleistocene H. sapiens and Neanderthals, but share with the former the dentine volume reduction and a smaller root-to-crown volume compared with Neanderthals. Furthermore, we found the first molar to have the largest average root surface area in recent H. sapiens and Neanderthals, although in the latter the difference between M(1) and M(2) is small. In contrast, Aterian H. sapiens root surface areas peak at M(2). Since root surface area is linked to masticatory function, this suggests a distinct occlusal loading regime in Neanderthals compared with both recent and Pleistocene H. sapiens. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Viral and vector zoonotic exploitation of a homo-sociome memetic complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, C E; Burgess, G W

    2015-05-01

    As most newly characterized emerging infectious diseases are considered to be zoonotic, a modern pre-eminence ascribed within this classification lies clearly within the viral taxonomic realm. In particular, RNA viruses deserve special concern given their documented impact on conservation biology, veterinary medicine and public health, with an unprecedented ability to promote an evolutionary host-pathogen arms race from the ultimate infection and immunity perspective. However, besides the requisite molecular/gross anatomical and physiological bases for infectious diseases to transmit from one host to another, both viral pathogens and their reservoirs/vectors exploit a complex anthropological, cultural, historical, psychological and social suite that specifically defines the phylodynamics within Homo sapiens, unlike any other species. Some of these variables include the ecological benefits of living in groups, decisions on hunting and foraging behaviours and dietary preferences, myths and religious doctrines, health economics, travel destinations, population planning, political decisions on agricultural product bans and many others, in a homo-sociome memetic complex. Taken to an extreme, such complexities elucidate the underpinnings of explanations as to why certain viral zoonoses reside in neglected people, places and things, whereas others are chosen selectively and prioritized for active mitigation. Canine-transmitted rabies serves as one prime example of how a neglected viral zoonosis may transition to greater attention on the basis of renewed advocacy, social media, local champions and vested international community engagement. In contrast, certain bat-associated and arboviral diseases suffer from basic ignorance and perpetuated misunderstanding of fundamental reservoir and vector ecology tenets, translated into failed control policies that only exacerbate the underlying environmental conditions of concern. Beyond applied biomedical knowledge, epidemiological

  19. Homo sapiens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køppe, Simo; Emmeche, Claus

    2018-01-01

    I den politiske kamp strides forskellige opfattelser af hvad mennesket er og bør være. De er blevet udformet af de humanistiske videnskaber igennem et langt historisk forløb med indspil fra også samfunds- og naturvidenskaberne. Dette kapitel beskriver den biologiske menneskeopfattelse: mennesket ...

  20. Pygmoid Australomelanesian Homo sapiens skeletal remains from Liang Bua, Flores: population affinities and pathological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, T; Indriati, E; Soejono, R P; Hsü, K; Frayer, D W; Eckhardt, R B; Kuperavage, A J; Thorne, A; Henneberg, M

    2006-09-05

    Liang Bua 1 (LB1) exhibits marked craniofacial and postcranial asymmetries and other indicators of abnormal growth and development. Anomalies aside, 140 cranial features place LB1 within modern human ranges of variation, resembling Australomelanesian populations. Mandibular and dental features of LB1 and LB6/1 either show no substantial deviation from modern Homo sapiens or share features (receding chins and rotated premolars) with Rampasasa pygmies now living near Liang Bua Cave. We propose that LB1 is drawn from an earlier pygmy H. sapiens population but individually shows signs of a developmental abnormality, including microcephaly. Additional mandibular and postcranial remains from the site share small body size but not microcephaly.

  1. Improved age control on early Homo fossils from the upper Burgi Member at Koobi Fora, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joordens, Josephine C A; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Feibel, Craig S; Spoor, Fred; Sier, Mark J; van der Lubbe, Jeroen H J L; Nielsen, Trine Kellberg; Knul, Monika V; Davies, Gareth R; Vonhof, Hubert B

    2013-12-01

    To address questions regarding the evolutionary origin, radiation and dispersal of the genus Homo, it is crucial to be able to place the occurrence of hominin fossils in a high-resolution chronological framework. The period around 2 Ma (millions of years ago) in eastern Africa is of particular interest as it is at this time that a more substantial fossil record of the genus Homo is first found. Here we combine magnetostratigraphy and strontium (Sr) isotope stratigraphy to improve age control on hominin-bearing upper Burgi (UBU) deposits in Areas 105 and 131 on the Karari Ridge in the eastern Turkana Basin (Kenya). We identify the base of the Olduvai subchron (bC2n) plus a short isolated interval of consistently normal polarity that we interpret to be the Pre-Olduvai event. Combined with precession-forced (~20 kyr [thousands of years]) wet-dry climate cycles resolved by Sr isotope ratios, the magnetostratigraphic data allow us to construct an age model for the UBU deposits. We provide detailed age constraints for 15 hominin fossils from Area 131, showing that key specimens such as cranium KNM-ER 1470, partial face KNM-ER 62000 and mandibles KNM-ER 1482, KNM-ER 1801, and KNM-ER 1802 can be constrained between 1.945 ± 0.004 and 2.058 ± 0.034 Ma, and thus older than previously estimated. The new ages are consistent with a temporal overlap of two species of early Homo that can be distinguished by their facial morphology. Further, our results show that in this time interval, hominins occurred throughout the wet-dry climate cycles, supporting the hypothesis that the lacustrine Turkana Basin was a refugium during regionally dry periods. By establishing the observed first appearance datum of a marine-derived stingray in UBU deposits at 2.058 ± 0.034 Ma, we show that at this time the Turkana Basin was hydrographically connected to the Indian Ocean, facilitating dispersal of fauna between these areas. From a biogeographical perspective, we propose that the Indian Ocean

  2. Inventing Homo gardarensis: prestige, pressure, and human evolution in interwar Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaergaard, Peter C

    2014-06-01

    In the 1920s there were still very few fossil human remains to support an evolutionary explanation of human origins. Nonetheless, evolution as an explanatory framework was widely accepted. This led to a search for ancestors in several continents with fierce international competition. With so little fossil evidence available and the idea of a Missing Link as a crucial piece of evidence in human evolution still intact, many actors participated in the scientific race to identify the human ancestor. The curious case of Homo gardarensis serves as an example of how personal ambitions and national pride were deeply interconnected as scientific concerns were sometimes slighted in interwar palaeoanthropology.

  3. Data of 10 SSR markers for genomes of homo sapiens and monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K K V V V S; Raju, S Viswanadha; Someswara Rao, Chinta

    2017-06-01

    In this data, we present 10 Simple Sequence Repeat(SSR) markers TAGA, TCAT, GAAT, AGAT, AGAA, GATA, TATC, CTTT, TCTG and TCTA which are extracted from the genomes of homo sapiens and monkeys using string matching mechanism [1]. All loci showed 4 Base Pair(bp) in allele size, indicating that there are some polymorphisms between individuals correlating to the number of SSR repeats that maybe useful for the detection of similarity among the genotypes. Collectively, these data show that the SSR extraction is a valuable method to illustrate genetic variation of genomes.

  4. Debate sobre el Homo Economicus. El caso de los funcionarios de casilla

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslava Barragán Robles; Roberto Escalante Semerena; Lilia Domínguez Villalobos

    2017-01-01

    Antecedentes: A partir de un caso empírico se estudia la decisión de las personas para participar voluntariamente como funcionarios de casilla el día de la jornada electoral en México. Al respecto, interesaba analizar si esa participación era motivada por un comportamiento prosocial, donde el ciudadano contribuía a la existencia de un bien público: la democracia. De ser el caso, se descartaría el comportamiento de Homo Economicus.Métodos: Ante la falta de información para hacer este estudio...

  5. (S)-homo-AMPA, a specific agonist at the mGlu6 subtype of metabotropic glutamic acid receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadian, H; Nielsen, B; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    1997-01-01

    of the spectroscopic configurational assignments. The activities of 6 and 7 at ionotropic EAA (iGlu) receptors and at mGlu1-7 were studied. (S)-Homo-AMPA (6) was shown to be a specific agonist at mGlu6 (EC50 = 58 +/- 11 microM) comparable in potency with the endogenous mGlu agonist (S)-glutamic acid (EC50 = 20 +/- 3......Our previous publication (J. Med. Chem. 1996, 39, 3188-3194) described (RS)-2-amino-4-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)butyric acid (Homo-AMPA) as a highly selective agonist at the mGlu6 subtype of metabotropic excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors. Homo-AMPA has already become a standard agonist...... microM). Although Homo-AMPA did not show significant effects at iGlu receptors, (R)-Homo-AMPA (7), which was inactive at mGlu1-7, turned out to be a weak N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist (IC50 = 131 +/- 18 microM)....

  6. HOMO (PRE FABER / Homo (prefaber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel de la Cova Morillo-Velarde

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En el presente número de la Revista PpA, dedicado a la vivienda prefabricada, se entrelazan dos de los campos de investigación de la arquitectura más efervescentes del último siglo: técnica y habitar. Industrialización, estandarización, modulación y seriación se confunden con el concepto de prefabricación como finas capas de un hojaldre difíciles de separar, horneadas bajo un mismo fuego que no es otro que el de responder a través de la producción reglada al alojamiento. En todos estos términos, el valor de la técnica, donde la figura del artesano aún permite pensar en una respuesta específica para cada producto, virará hacia el de la tecnología, dificultando incluir el hecho particular dentro del proceso creativo. Esta confrontación entre objetividad y contingencia adquiere mayor relevancia en el caso de la vivienda prefabricada, por la distancia especulativa que implica la ultimación del diseño previo a su construcción. La actual proliferación de soluciones predefinidas a la hora de enfrentarse al proyecto arquitectónico –principalmente en aspectos constructivos– y el aumento de la producción prefabricada de viviendas a nivel mundial requieren una reflexión disciplinar en la materia, que hilvane relaciones intencionadas entre hombre y producto. SUMMARY This issue of PPA is dedicated to the prefabricated home, and intertwines two of the most lively research areas in architecture over the last century: craftsmanship and living. Industrialization, standardization, modularization and serial production become blended with the concept of prefabrication as thin layers of puff pastry, difficult to separate, baked under the same fire which is nothing more than responding to accommodation needs through regulated production. In all these terms, the value of craftsmanship, where the artisan is still allowed to think of a specific response for each product, will veer towards that of technology, making the inclusion of that response in the creative process more difficult. This confrontation between objectivity and contingency becomes more important in the case of the prefabricated home, due to the speculative distance involved in the finalization of the design, prior to its construction. The current proliferation of predefined solutions that are available for tackling the architectural project, mainly in construction aspects, and the increased prefabricated production of homes worldwide require a disciplinary reflection on the subject, which tacks together the intended relationships between man and product.

  7. Geometric morphometrics in primatology: craniofacial variation in Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Wood, C G; Luboga, S A

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, morphometric studies have relied on statistical analysis of distances, angles or ratios to investigate morphometric variation among taxa. Recently, geometric techniques have been developed for the direct analysis of landmark data. In this paper, we offer a summary (with examples) of three of these newer techniques, namely shape coordinate, thin-plate spline and relative warp analyses. Shape coordinate analysis detected significant craniofacial variation between 4 modern human populations, with African and Australian Aboriginal specimens being relatively prognathous compared with their Eurasian counterparts. In addition, the Australian specimens exhibited greater basicranial flexion than all other samples. The observed relationships between size and craniofacial shape were weak. The decomposition of shape variation into affine and non-affine components is illustrated via a thin-plate spline analysis of Homo and Pan cranial landmarks. We note differences between Homo and Pan in the degree of prognathism and basicranial flexion and the position and orientation of the foramen magnum. We compare these results with previous studies of these features in higher primates and discuss the utility of geometric morphometrics as a tool in primatology and physical anthropology. We conclude that many studies of morphological variation, both within and between taxa, would benefit from the graphical nature of these techniques.

  8. Early stone technology on Flores and its implications for Homo floresiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Adam; Aziz, Fachroel; van den Bergh, Gert D; Morwood, Michael J; Moore, Mark W; Kurniawan, Iwan; Hobbs, Douglas R; Fullagar, Richard

    2006-06-01

    In the Soa Basin of central Flores, eastern Indonesia, stratified archaeological sites, including Mata Menge, Boa Lesa and Kobatuwa (Fig. 1), contain stone artefacts associated with the fossilized remains of Stegodon florensis, Komodo dragon, rat and various other taxa. These sites have been dated to 840-700 kyr bp (thousand years before present). The authenticity of the Soa Basin artefacts and their provenance have been demonstrated by previous work, but to quell lingering doubts, here we describe the context, attributes and production modes of 507 artefacts excavated at Mata Menge. We also note specific similarities, and apparent technological continuity, between the Mata Menge stone artefacts and those excavated from Late Pleistocene levels at Liang Bua cave, 50 km to the west. The latter artefacts, dated to between 95-74 and 12 kyr ago, are associated with the remains of a dwarfed descendent of S. florensis, Komodo dragon, rat and a small-bodied hominin species, Homo floresiensis, which had a brain size of about 400 cubic centimetres. The Mata Menge evidence negates claims that stone artefacts associated with H. floresiensis are so complex that they must have been made by modern humans (Homo sapiens).

  9. Initiation of the microgene polymerization reaction with non-repetitive homo-duplexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itsko, Mark; Zaritsky, Arieh; Rabinovitch, Avinoam; Ben-Dov, Eitan

    2008-01-01

    Microgene Polymerization Reaction (MPR) is used as an experimental system to artificially simulate evolution of short, non-repetitive homo-duplex DNA into multiply-repetitive products that can code for functional proteins. Blunt-end ligation by DNA polymerase is crucial in expansion of homo-duplexes (HDs) into head-to-tail multiple repeats in MPR. The propagation mechanism is known, but formation of the initial doublet (ID) by juxtaposing two HDs and polymerization through the gap has been ambiguous. Initiation events with pairs of HDs using Real-Time PCR were more frequent at higher HD concentrations and slightly below the melting temperature. A process molecularity of about 3.1, calculated from the amplification efficiency and the difference in PCR cycles at which propagation was detected at varying HD concentrations, led to a simple mechanism for ID formation: the gap between two HDs is bridged by a third. Considering thermodynamic aspects of the presumed intermediate 'nucleation complex' can predict relative propensity for the process with other HDs

  10. Histamine H3 receptor ligands in the group of (homo)piperazine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanska, Katarzyna; Kuder, Kamil; Kiec-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2017-11-23

    Since its' discovery in 1983, followed by gene cloning in 1999, the histamine H3 receptor served as an outstanding target for drug discovery. The wide spectrum of possible therapeutic implications make H3R's one of the most researched areas in the vast GPCR ligands field - started from imidazole containing ligands, through various successful imidazole replacements, with recent introduction of Wakix® to pharmaceutical market. One of such replacements is piperazine moiety, a significant versatile scaffold in rational drug design for most of the GPCR ligands. Therefore, herein we review ligands built on piperazine, as well as its seven membered analogue azepine, that target H3R's and their potential therapeutical applications, in order to elucidate the current state of the art in this vast field. Due to a high level of structural divergence among compounds described herein, we decided to divide them into groups, where the key division element was the position of nitrogen basicity decreasing moieties in (homo)piperazine ring. Paying attention to a number of published structures and their overall high biological activity, one can realize that the (homo)piperazine scaffold bids a versatile template also for histamine H3 receptor ligands. With two possible substitution sites and therefore a number of possible structural combinations, piperazine derivatives stand as one of the largest group of high importance among H3R ligands. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. La cultura del consumismo: de la oikos aristotélica al homo oeconomicus de la posmodernidad.

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Larrea, Iñaki

    2010-01-01

    El presente ensayo se presenta como un breve recorrido por la Historia del pensamiento Económico. Desde el clásico“homo oeconómicus” aristotélico hasta la génesis del ethos capitalista, que según Max Weber definiría a la Modernidad. Ello nos serviría como punto de partida para reflexionar sobre la naturaleza de la sociedad postindustrial de consumo, y, a su vez, sobre lo que la supuesta crisis del espirítu capitalista weberiano implica en la definición sociológica del “homo oeconómicus” ...

  12. Before the Emergence of Homo sapiens: Overview on the Early-to-Middle Pleistocene Fossil Record (with a Proposal about Homo heidelbergensis at the subspecific level)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The origin of H. sapiens has deep roots, which include two crucial nodes: (1) the emergence and diffusion of the last common ancestor of later Homo (in the Early Pleistocene) and (2) the tempo and mode of the appearance of distinct evolutionary lineages (in the Middle Pleistocene). The window between 1,000 and 500 thousand years before present appears of crucial importance, including the generation of a new and more encephalised kind of humanity, referred to by many authors as H. heidelbergensis. This species greatly diversified during the Middle Pleistocene up to the formation of new variants (i.e., incipient species) that, eventually, led to the allopatric speciation of H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. The special case furnished by the calvarium found near Ceprano (Italy), dated to 430–385 ka, offers the opportunity to investigate this matter from an original perspective. It is proposed to separate the hypodigm of a single, widespread, and polymorphic human taxon of the Middle Pleistocene into distinct subspecies (i.e., incipient species). The ancestral one should be H. heidelbergensis, including specimens such as Ceprano and the mandible from Mauer. PMID:21716742

  13. Reconstructing the ups and downs of primate brain evolution: implications for adaptive hypotheses and Homo floresiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton Robert A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain size is a key adaptive trait. It is often assumed that increasing brain size was a general evolutionary trend in primates, yet recent fossil discoveries have documented brain size decreases in some lineages, raising the question of how general a trend there was for brains to increase in mass over evolutionary time. We present the first systematic phylogenetic analysis designed to answer this question. Results We performed ancestral state reconstructions of three traits (absolute brain mass, absolute body mass, relative brain mass using 37 extant and 23 extinct primate species and three approaches to ancestral state reconstruction: parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo. Both absolute and relative brain mass generally increased over evolutionary time, but body mass did not. Nevertheless both absolute and relative brain mass decreased along several branches. Applying these results to the contentious case of Homo floresiensis, we find a number of scenarios under which the proposed evolution of Homo floresiensis' small brain appears to be consistent with patterns observed along other lineages, dependent on body mass and phylogenetic position. Conclusions Our results confirm that brain expansion began early in primate evolution and show that increases occurred in all major clades. Only in terms of an increase in absolute mass does the human lineage appear particularly striking, with both the rate of proportional change in mass and relative brain size having episodes of greater expansion elsewhere on the primate phylogeny. However, decreases in brain mass also occurred along branches in all major clades, and we conclude that, while selection has acted to enlarge primate brains, in some lineages this trend has been reversed. Further analyses of the phylogenetic position of Homo floresiensis and better body mass estimates are required to confirm the plausibility of the evolution of its small brain

  14. HOMO VIATOR – O DIMENSIUNE FUNDAMENTALĂ A SPIRITUALITĂŢII OCCIDENTALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana CIOCOI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Articolul de faţă reflectă modificările fundamentale care s-au produs în mentalitatea occidentală contemporană prin intermediul conceptului de călător (homo viator. Noţiunea de călător este tratată în sens culturologic larg drept  desco­peritor de lumi necunoscute, explorator, navigator sau aventurier al oricărui tip de cunoaştere, care reprezintă trăsătura fundamentală a omului occidental. Prototipul absolut al acestui model cultural îl reprezintă Ulise, eroul din Odiseea lui Homer. Conceptul de „călătorie” oferă, astfel, o viziune transversală asupra evoluţiei literaturii occidentale, al cărei centru iradiant – tensiunea cunoaşterii – a problematizat cele mai variate forme de călătorie şi de călător. Istoria romanului occidental este urmărit dea lungul secolelor şi a epocilor literare pentru a observa cum s-a modificat percepţia călătoriei, iar odată cu ea, şi spiritualitatea occidentală. Viziunea contemporană asupra călătoriei este analizată în baza romanului lui Michel Houellebecq „Harta şi teritoriul” (2010. HOMO VIATOR – A FUNDAMENTAL DIMENSION  OF WESTERN SPIRITUALITYThe article reflects the changes produced in the western contemporary mentality through the concept of the traveler (homo viator. The notion of traveler is approached in wide cultural meaning as a discoverer of unknown worlds, explorer, navigator or adventurer of every type of knowing, that represents the fundamental feature of the occidental man. The absolute prototype of this cultural model is represented by Ulysses, the hero of Homer’s Odyssey. The concept of “travel” offers thus a transverse vision upon the evolution of the occidental literature whose irradiant centre – the tension of knowing – discussed the problems of the most varied forms of travel and traveler. The history of the western novel is followed over centuries and literary epochs in order to observe which way the perception of travel

  15. Internal nasal floor configuration in Homo with special reference to the evolution of Neandertal facial form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciscus, Robert G

    2003-06-01

    The presence of a steeply sloping or depressed nasal floor within the nasal cavity of Neandertals is frequently mentioned as a likely specialization or autapomorphy. The depressed nasal floor has also been seen as contributing to a relatively more capacious nasal cavity in Neandertals, which is tied to cold-climate respiratory adaptation and energetics. These observations have been limited largely to a relatively few intact crania, and the character states associated with this trait have not been as precisely codified or analyzed as those published for Plio-Pleistocene hominins (McCollum et al., 1993, J. Hum. Evol. 24, 87; McCollum, 2000, Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 112, 275). This study examines the internal nasal floor topography in complete crania and isolated maxillae in European, west Asian, and African fossil Homo (n=158) including 25 Neandertals, and a wide range of recent humans from Europe, the Near East, and Africa (n=522). The configuration of the internal nasal floor relative to the nasal cavity entrance is codified as: 1) level, forming a smooth continuous plane; 2) sloped or mildly stepped; or 3) bilevel with a pronounced vertical depression. The frequency of these nasal floor configurations, and their relationship to both nasal margin cresting patterning and a comprehensive set of nasofacial metrics is examined. Neandertals show a high frequency of the bilevel (depressed) configuration in both adults and subadults (80%), but this configuration is also present in lower frequencies in Middle Pleistocene African, Late Pleistocene non-Neandertal (Skhul, Qafzeh), and European Later Upper Paleolithic samples (15%-50%). The bilevel configuration is also present in lower frequencies (ca. 10%) in all recent human samples, but attains nearly 20% in some sub-Saharan African samples. Across extinct and extant Homo (excluding Neandertals), internal nasal floor configuration is not associated with piriform aperture nasal margin patterning, but the two are strongly

  16. Differential effects of visual context on pattern discrimination by pigeons (Columba livia) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Debbie M; Cook, Robert G

    2003-06-01

    Three experiment examined the role of contextual information during line orientation and line position discriminations by pigeons (Columba livia) and humans (Homo sapiens). Experiment 1 tested pigeons' performance with these stimuli in a target localization task using texture displays. Experiments 2 and 3 tested pigeons and humans, respectively, with small and large variations of these stimuli in a same-different task. Humans showed a configural superiority effect when tested with displays constructed from large elements but not when tested with the smaller, more densely packed texture displays. The pigeons, in contrast, exhibited a configural inferiority effect when required to discriminate line orientation, regardless of stimulus size. These contrasting results suggest a species difference in the perceptionand use of features and contextual information in the discrimination of line information.

  17. The economic consequences of homo economicus: neoclassical economic theory and the fallacy of market optimality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calnitsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents a critique of the standard ascension from the rational agent to the optimal market in economic theory. Critiques of homo economicus are found unsatisfactory on grounds that its employment allows for the prediction of essential features of actual markets. using this same criterion we introduce Gary Becker’s essay, ‘irrational Behavior and economic Theory,’which demonstrated that the same features of markets could be derived from non-rational behaviour. Thus, non-rationality is equally predictive but is less restrictive than rationality. Once the assumption of rationality is relaxed, the concept of market optimality (though not market order must also be sacrificed.

  18. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kostidis, L.I.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 {mu}m{sup 2}. After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Pyrolysis gas chromatographic study of homo polymers and copolymers of chlorotrifluoroethylene and styrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, M.; Munir, A.

    1993-01-01

    Polymer degradation reactions have always been important for the development of thermally stable polymers. Among different available techniques, pyrolysis gas chromatography (PGC) has been used frequently to establish thermal stability and the plausible mechanism of degradation reactions. In the present work, homo polymers of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) and styrene and their copolymers were studied by PGC/IR for separation and identification of degraded products and to understand the degradation mechanism. Besides monomers, C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/, SiF/sub 4/, C/sub 6/H/sub 6/ C/sub 3/F/sub 5/Cl, C/sub 7/H sub 8/, C/sub 8/H/sub 10/ are the observed pyrolysis products. Mechanism for different degradation reactions have also been studied. (author)

  20. The mystery of the seven spheres how homo sapiens will conquer space

    CERN Document Server

    Bignami, Giovanni F

    2015-01-01

    In this book, Giovanni Bignami, the outstanding Italian scientist and astronomer, takes the reader on a journey through the “seven spheres”, from our own planet to neighboring stars. The author offers a gripping account of the evolution of Homo Sapiens to the stage where our species is developing capabilities, in the form of new energy propulsion systems, that will enable us to conquer space. The reader will learn how we first expanded our activities to reach beyond our planet, to the Moon, and how nuclear energy, nuclear fusion, and matter–antimatter annihilation will enable us to extend our exploration. After Mars and Jupiter we shall finally reach the nearest stars, which we now know are surrounded by numerous planets, some of which are bound to be habitable. The book includes enticing descriptions of such newly discovered planets and also brings alive key historical characters in our story, such as Jules Verne and Werner von Braun.

  1. FOSSIL REPTILES FROM THE PLEISTOCENE HOMO-BEARING LOCALITY OF BUIA (ERITREA, NORTHERN DANAKIL DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASSIMO DELFINO

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The early to early-Middle Pleistocene fossil assemblage form the Buia area (Northern Danakil Depression, Eritrea hosts, along with Homo and several other large mammal taxa, the following reptiles: Nile Crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus, Serrated Hinged Terrapin, Pelusios cf. P. sinuatus, Nile Monitor, Varanus niloticus and African Rock Python, Python gr. sebae. All the identified taxa belong to living species. At present, these taxa do not occur in the Northern Danakil depression since it is an arid area. P. sinuatus is not a member of the Eritrean herpetofauna. Although the marked preponderance of the crocodile remains is probably connected to the taphonomy of the sites and the collecting methods used, the ecological value of the reptile fauna corroborates that of the mammals, in indicating a lacustrine or fluvio-deltaic palaeoenvironment and a tropical/subtropical or even sub-Sahelic climate. The Buia remains represent the first reported Eritrean palaeoherpetofauna. 

  2. The success of failed Homo sapiens dispersals out of Africa and into Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabett, Ryan J

    2018-02-01

    The evidence for an early dispersal of Homo sapiens from Africa into the Levant during Marine Isotope Stage 5 (MIS-5) 126-74 ka (thousand years ago) was characterized for many years as an 'abortive' expansion: a precursor to a sustained dispersal from which all extant human populations can be traced. Recent archaeological and genetic data from both western and eastern parts of Eurasia and from Australia are starting to challenge that interpretation. This Perspective reviews the current evidence for a scenario where the MIS-5 dispersal encompassed a much greater geographic distribution and temporal duration. The implications of this for tracking and understanding early human dispersal in Southeast Asia specifically are considered, and the validity of measuring dispersal success only through genetic continuity into the present is examined.

  3. Earliest evidence for the structure of Homo sapiens populations in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerri, Eleanor M. L.; Drake, Nick A.; Jennings, Richard; Groucutt, Huw S.

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the structure and variation of Homo sapiens populations in Africa is critical for interpreting multiproxy evidence of their subsequent dispersals into Eurasia. However, there is no consensus on early H. sapiens demographic structure, or its effects on intra-African dispersals. Here, we show how a patchwork of ecological corridors and bottlenecks triggered a successive budding of populations across the Sahara. Using a temporally and spatially explicit palaeoenvironmental model, we found that the Sahara was not uniformly ameliorated between ∼130 and 75 thousand years ago (ka), as has been stated. Model integration with multivariate analyses of corresponding stone tools then revealed several spatially defined technological clusters which correlated with distinct palaeobiomes. Similarities between technological clusters were such that they decreased with distance except where connected by palaeohydrological networks. These results indicate that populations at the Eurasian gateway were strongly structured, which has implications for refining the demographic parameters of dispersals out of Africa.

  4. A Review on Structures and Functions of Bcl-2 Family Proteins from Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Dakshinamurthy; Sivaraman, Thirunavukkarasu

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells evade apoptosis, which is regulated by proteins of Bcl-2 family in the intrinsic pathways. Numerous experimental three-dimensional (3D) structures of the apoptotic proteins and the proteins bound with small chemical molecules/peptides/proteins have been reported in the literature. In this review article, the 3D structures of the Bcl-2 family proteins from Homo sapiens and as well complex structures of the anti-apoptotic proteins bound with small molecular inhibitors reported in the literature to date have been comprehensively listed out and described in detail. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms by which the Bcl-2 family proteins modulate the apoptotic processes and strategies for designing antagonists to anti-apoptotic proteins have been concisely discussed.

  5. Protamines and spermatogenesis in Drosophila and Homo sapiens : A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanippayoor, Rachelle L; Alpern, Joshua H M; Moehring, Amanda J

    2013-04-01

    The production of mature and motile sperm is a detailed process that utilizes many molecular players to ensure the faithful execution of spermatogenesis. In most species that have been examined, spermatogenesis begins with a single cell that undergoes dramatic transformation, culminating with the hypercompaction of DNA into the sperm head by replacing histones with protamines. Precise execution of the stages of spermatogenesis results in the production of motile sperm. While comparative analyses have been used to identify similarities and differences in spermatogenesis between species, the focus has primarily been on vertebrate spermatogenesis, particularly mammals. To understand the evolutionary basis of spermatogenetic variation, however, a more comprehensive comparison is needed. In this review, we examine spermatogenesis and the final packaging of DNA into the sperm head in the insect Drosophila melanogaster and compare it to spermatogenesis in Homo sapiens.

  6. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P S; Prawer, S; Nugent, K W; Bettiol, A A; Kostidis, L I; Jamieson, D N [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 {mu}m{sup 2}. After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Decontestualizzazione del sintomo e biografia: il malessere dell'Homo narrativus - Narrarsi nella precarietà

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Bardi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Partendo da alcune considerazioni antropologiche, che si riferiscono all'uomo come "narrativus" o "narrans" che dir si voglia, identificherei come condizione di benessere psicofisico il bisogno di vivere narrativamente, il bisogno cioè di biografia. Procederei poi a identificare come la medicina sia oggi spesso messa sotto accusa perché ha smarrito questa dimensione nell'eccesso di tecnologia e specializzazione. così si è creata un'estraneità tra medicina e salute in senso ampio. Procederei poi a rilevare come la posizione dell'uomo oggi venga resa frammentaria anche a livello lavorativo, impedendo il consolidarsi di biografie lineari- la precarietà sul lavoro costituirebbe come ulteriore attacco all'homo narrativus. In conclusione evidenzierei come recupero di salute "antropologica" implichi un modificarsi e della medicina e del lavoro.

  8. Kinetics of free radical decay reactions in lactic acid homo and copolymers irradiated to sterilization dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantoglu, O.; Ozbey, T.; Gueven, O.

    1995-01-01

    The kinetics of free radical decay reactions of poly(L-Lactic acid), poly(DL-Lactic acid) and random copolymer of lactic and glycolic acid have been investigated for decays taking place in air and in vacuum. The change in ESR lines of γ-irradiated polymers have been followed over a long time period. The decay has been found to follow neither simple first-order nor second-order kinetics. Various kinetic approaches including composite first or second-order mechanisms and diffusion-controlled first or second-order equations were determined to be also unsatisfactory. The decay of radicals in bulk irradiated lactic acid homo and copolymers was found to be best described when the second-order non-classical equation with time dependent rate constant approach was used. (Author)

  9. HOMO AND HETEROPOLYNUCLEAR NEW OXALATOORGANOTIN (IV ADDUCTS. AN INFRARED AND MÖSSBAUER STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Qamar-Kane

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Six new oxalato homo (Sn only and hetero (Sn, Cd, Sb polynuclear adducts have been obtained on allowing (Me4N2(C2O4∙2H2O to react with SnPh2Cl2 or (Me4N2(C2O4SnPh2∙H2O to react with SnPh2Cl2, SnMe2Cl2, CdCl2, CdBr2∙4H2O or SbCl3 in specific ratio. The obtained adducts have been studied by elemental analyses and infrared spectroscopy and structures suggested on the basis of the spectroscopic data.

  10. HOMO ACADEMICUS: CRISE IDENTITÁRIA E PRÁTICA CIENTÍFICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Maria Martins Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visa a argumentar sobre o construto identitário do homo academicus, ou seja, o intelectual que se estabelece no campo universitário, compartilha habitus e atitude dóxica (Bourdieu, 2007; 2009; 2011. No que tange às etiquetas identificadoras,  Bauman  (2007 categoriza o intelectual pela prática científica, situada por relações históricas. Na convergência entre espaço, valores e performativos, constrói-se uma estrada da qual emergem a  prática logocêntrica que se transforma em dogma a partir da permanência de práticas dóxicas do século das Luzes. 

  11. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kostidis, L.I.; Jamieson, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 μm 2 . After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs

  12. GalaxyHomomer: a web server for protein homo-oligomer structure prediction from a monomer sequence or structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Minkyung; Park, Taeyong; Heo, Lim; Park, Chiwook; Seok, Chaok

    2017-07-03

    Homo-oligomerization of proteins is abundant in nature, and is often intimately related with the physiological functions of proteins, such as in metabolism, signal transduction or immunity. Information on the homo-oligomer structure is therefore important to obtain a molecular-level understanding of protein functions and their regulation. Currently available web servers predict protein homo-oligomer structures either by template-based modeling using homo-oligomer templates selected from the protein structure database or by ab initio docking of monomer structures resolved by experiment or predicted by computation. The GalaxyHomomer server, freely accessible at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/homomer, carries out template-based modeling, ab initio docking or both depending on the availability of proper oligomer templates. It also incorporates recently developed model refinement methods that can consistently improve model quality. Moreover, the server provides additional options that can be chosen by the user depending on the availability of information on the monomer structure, oligomeric state and locations of unreliable/flexible loops or termini. The performance of the server was better than or comparable to that of other available methods when tested on benchmark sets and in a recent CASP performed in a blind fashion. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Structural basis for the roles of starch and sucrose in homo-exopolysaccharide formation by Lactobacillus reuteri 35-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Yuxiang; Dobruchowska, Justyna M; van der Kaaij, Rachel M; Gerwig, Gerrit J; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) that are important for biofilm formation in the mammalian oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Sucrose is a well-known substrate for homo-EPS formation by Lactobacillus reuteri glucansucrases (GS). Starch is the main fermentable

  14. Molecular biology of Homo sapiens: Abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Spring Harbor symposium on quantitative biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.D.; Siniscalco, M.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. The topic for this meeting was the ''Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens.'' Sessions were entitled Human Gene Map, Human Cancer Genes, Genetic Diagnosis, Human Evolution, Drugs Made Off Human Genes, Receptors, and Gene Therapy. (DT)

  15. Molecular biology of Homo sapiens: Abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Spring Harbor symposium on quantitative biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.D.; Siniscalco, M.

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts of papers presented at the 51st Cold Springs Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology. The topic for this meeting was the ''Molecular Biology of Homo sapiens.'' Sessions were entitled Human Gene Map, Human Cancer Genes, Genetic Diagnosis, Human Evolution, Drugs Made Off Human Genes, Receptors, and Gene Therapy. (DT)

  16. Mis juhtus Andres Lapeteusega? : error'ist kõrgklassi homo soveticus'e näitel / Liisa Kaljula

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljula, Liisa, 1982-

    2014-01-01

    Autor analüüsib 2014. a. Tallinna Semiosalongi loengute sarja põhiteema - error'i mõiste avamiseks ühe inimliigi kujunemislugu - Eesti filmiklassikast tuntud tegelaskuju Andres Lapeteuse tõusu ning langust homo soveticus'ena

  17. MAGNETOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE HOMO-BEARING PLEISTOCENE DANDIERO BASIN (DANAKIL DEPRESSION, ERITREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA ALBIANELLI

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Four magnetozones have been found in the 530 m thick profile of the Dandiero Group. The lower unit, the Bukra Sand and Gravel, extends in the R1 reversed magnetozone from 150 m below the tephra level which was used as the reference marker between the sampled sections. The normal magnetozone N1 is almost completely covered by the lacustrine and deltaic sediments of the Alat Formation, while the following reversed magnetozone contains both the Wara Sand and Gravel and the lacustrine Goreya Fm. The N2 polarity zone is completely occupied by the Aro Sand. This polarity sequence has been calibrated to the geomagnetic time scale using the Early to Middle Pleistocene age of the associated vertebrate fauna and fission-track dating. The four magnetozones were thus regarded as representing the chrons by which the Pleistocene is correlated with magnetochronology. Their three reversal boundaries provided the dates of 1.07, 0.99 and 0.78 Ma, allowing to determine average sedimentation rates close to 1 m/ky. Cyclostratigraphy of the magnetic signal, analysed by the spectral analysis of the time series across the Jaramillo and late Matuyama chrons, confirmed that value. The evidenced cyclicities were directly related to the alternating lithofacies, and both to the astronomical parameters driving the climate changes during the deposition of the Dandiero group (some five hundred thousand years. The section with the Homo site covers the Jaramillo/Matuyama boundary, and the Homo bed located 2 m below this limit is dated 0.992 Ma. 

  18. Steeds verder voorbij de natuurlijke levensverwachting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    De menselijke levensverwachting is sterk toegenomen. We zijn het langstlevende zoogdier op aarde. De maximale levensduur van halfapen is 30 jaar, van grote apen 50 tot 60 jaar. Homo erectus, de eerste succesvolle mens, kon 65 jaar worden, de primitieve Homo sapiens haalde de 80.De moderne Homo

  19. New wrist bones of Homo floresiensis from Liang Bua (Flores, Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Caley M; Tocheri, Matthew W; Burnett, Scott E; Awe, Rokus Due; Saptomo, E Wahyu; Sutikna, Thomas; Jatmiko; Wasisto, Sri; Morwood, Michael J; Jungers, William L

    2013-02-01

    The carpals from the Homo floresiensis type specimen (LB1) lack features that compose the shared, derived complex of the radial side of the wrist in Neandertals and modern humans. This paper comprises a description and three-dimensional morphometric analysis of new carpals from at least one other individual at Liang Bua attributed to H. floresiensis: a right capitate and two hamates. The new capitate is smaller than that of LB1 but is nearly identical in morphology. As with capitates from extant apes, species of Australopithecus, and LB1, the newly described capitate displays a deeply-excavated nonarticular area along its radial aspect, a scaphoid facet that extends into a J-hook articulation on the neck, and a more radially-oriented second metacarpal facet; it also lacks an enlarged palmarly-positioned trapezoid facet. Because there is no accommodation for the derived, palmarly blocky trapezoid that characterizes Homo sapiens and Neandertals, this individual most likely had a plesiomorphically wedge-shaped trapezoid (like LB1). Morphometric analyses confirm the close similarity of the new capitate and that of LB1, and are consistent with previous findings of an overall primitive articular geometry. In general, hamate morphology is more conserved across hominins, and the H. floresiensis specimens fall at the far edge of the range of variation for H. sapiens in a number of metrics. However, the hamate of H. floresiensis is exceptionally small and exhibits a relatively long, stout hamulus lacking the oval-shaped cross-section characteristic of human and Neandertal hamuli (variably present in australopiths). Documentation of a second individual with primitive carpal anatomy from Liang Bua, along with further analysis of trapezoid scaling relative to the capitate in LB1, refutes claims that the wrist of the type specimen represents a modern human with pathology. In total, the carpal anatomy of H. floresiensis supports the hypothesis that the lineage leading to the

  20. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of some A- and B modified D-homo lactone androstane derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Marina P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of several A- and B-modified D-homo lactone androstane derivatives from 3β-hydroxy-17-oxa-D-homoandrost-5-en-16-one (1 is reported. 17-Oxa-Dhomoandrost- 4-ene-3,16-dione (2, obtained by the Oppenauer oxidation of compound 1, was converted via the unstable intermediate 3,16-dioxo-4,17-dioxa-D-homoandrostane- 5α-carboxaldehyde (3 to 17-oxa-D-homo-3,5-seco-4-norandrostan-5-one-3-carboxylic acid (4, which was also obtained directly from compound 2. Compound 1 was acetylated to give 17-oxa-D-homoandrost-5-en-16-on-3β-yl acetate (5 which was then oxidized with chromium(VI-oxide in 50% acetic acid or with meta-chlorperbenzoic acid and chromium(VI-oxide to yield compounds 6-8 and 5α-hydroxy-17-oxa-D-homoandrostane- 6,16-dion-3β-yl acetate (9, respectively. The oximination of compound 9 gave a mixture of 6(E-hydroximino-5α-hydroxy-17-oxa-D-homoandrostan-16-on-3β-yl acetate (10 and 6(Z-hydroximino-5α-hydroxy-17-oxa-D-homoandrostan-16-on-3β-yl acetate (11, the hydrolysis of which gave 6(E-hydroximino-3β,5α-dihydroxy-17-oxa-D-homoandrostan- 16-one (12 and 6(Z-hydroximino-3β,5α-dihydroxy-17-oxa-D-homoandrostan-16-one (13. 6-Nitrile-17-oxa-5,6-seco-D-homoandrostane-5,16-dion-3β-yl acetate (14 was obtained under the Beckmann fragmentation of compounds 10 and 11. Only pure and stable compounds (1, 2, 4, 5, 9 and 14 were tested in vitro on six malignant cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, PC-3, HeLa, HT-29, K562 and one non-tumor MRC-5 cell line. Significant antiproliferative activity against MDA-MB-231 cells showed compounds 1, 5 and 9, while compound 2 exhibited a strong antiproliferative activity. Only compound 14 showed weak antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells. All tested compounds were not toxic on MRC-5 cells, whereas Doxorubicin was highly toxic on these cells. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172021

  1. Emprego de catalisadores à base de níquel para homo- e copolimerização de estireno The use of nickel-based catalysts for homo-and copolymerization of styrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Ferreira Jr.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the homo- and copolymerization of styrene with nickel catalysts. The catalytic activity, polymer stereoregularity, polymer molecular weight and polydispersity are dependent upon nickel ligands and reaction parameters. Catalysts supported on silica, treated with methylaluminoxane (MAO, have shown higher stereospecificity and activity compared to homogeneous ones. The influence of these parameters is discussed focusing on the elucidation of some aspects of the polymerization mechanism.

  2. Machine Learning Methods to Predict Density Functional Theory B3LYP Energies of HOMO and LUMO Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Florbela; Xiao, Kaixia; Latino, Diogo A R S; Wu, Chengcheng; Zhang, Qingyou; Aires-de-Sousa, Joao

    2017-01-23

    Machine learning algorithms were explored for the fast estimation of HOMO and LUMO orbital energies calculated by DFT B3LYP, on the basis of molecular descriptors exclusively based on connectivity. The whole project involved the retrieval and generation of molecular structures, quantum chemical calculations for a database with >111 000 structures, development of new molecular descriptors, and training/validation of machine learning models. Several machine learning algorithms were screened, and an applicability domain was defined based on Euclidean distances to the training set. Random forest models predicted an external test set of 9989 compounds achieving mean absolute error (MAE) up to 0.15 and 0.16 eV for the HOMO and LUMO orbitals, respectively. The impact of the quantum chemical calculation protocol was assessed with a subset of compounds. Inclusion of the orbital energy calculated by PM7 as an additional descriptor significantly improved the quality of estimations (reducing the MAE in >30%).

  3. Study of Cadmium adsorption of Nickel and Zinc on a natural bentonite and homo ionic of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Giraldo, German Dario; Pinzon Bello, Jorge Alejo

    1999-01-01

    It was studied the adsorption of cadmium, nickel and zinc in aqueous solution at 25oC over a bentonite from the Cauca Valley, in its native state as well as in its sodium homo ionic form. The Langmuir isotherm adequately describes the adsorption of these metal ions over both bentonites, and the thermodynamic distribution coefficient, Kdm, which allow quantifying the degree of adsorption, can be calculated. Baeyens-bradbury model correlates well the adsorption of the metal ions over both bentonites but Kdm cannot be calculated from it. The adsorption data do not adjust to freundlich isotherm or B.E.T. As well as they do to the previously mentioned models. The sodium homo ionic bentonite adsorbs nickel and zinc better than the native bentonite, whereas there are not significant differences in cadmium adsorption. The order of adsorption over both bentonites, Cadmium > Zinc > Nickel, follow the HSAB principle

  4. How to Survive the Anthropocene: Adaptive Atheism and the Evolution of Homo deiparensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. LeRon Shults

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Why is it so easy to ignore the ecological and economic crises of the Anthropocene? This article unveils some of the religious biases whose covert operation facilitates the repression or rejection of warnings about the consequences of extreme climate change and excessive capitalist consumption. The evolved defaults that are most relevant for our purposes here have to do with mental credulity toward religious content (beliefs about supernatural agents and with social congruity in religious contexts (behaviors shaped by supernatural rituals. Learning how to contest these phylogenetically inherited and culturally fortified biases may be a necessary condition for adapting to and altering our current natural and social environments in ways that will enhance the chances for the survival (and flourishing of Homo sapiens and other sentient species. I outline a conceptual framework, derived from empirical findings and theoretical developments in the bio-cultural sciences of religion, which can help clarify why and how gods are imaginatively conceived and nurtured by ritually engaged believers. Finally, I discuss the role that “adaptive atheism” might play in responding to the crises of the Anthropocene.

  5. Silicon homo-heterojunction solar cells: A promising candidate to realize high performance more stably

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Tan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the influences of diverse physical parameters on the performances of a silicon homo-heterojunction (H-H solar cell, which encompasses both homojunction and heterojunction, together with their underlying mechanisms by the aid of AFORS-HET simulation. It is found that the performances of H-H solar cell are less sensitive to (i the work function of the transparent conductive oxide layer, (ii the interfacial density of states at the front hydrogenated amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si interface, (iii the peak dangling bond defect densities within the p-type a-Si:H (p-a-Si:H layer, and (iv the doping concentration of the p-a-Si:H layer, when compared to that of the conventional heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT counterparts. These advantages are due to the fact that the interfacial recombination and the recombination within the a-Si:H region are less affected by all the above parameters, which fundamentally benefit from the field-effect passivation of the homojunction. Therefore, the design of H-H structure can provide an opportunity to produce high-efficiency solar cells more stably.

  6. Cultura e leitura: Homo zappiens, um leitor ubíquo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Rettenmaier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Das transformações que ocorreram da cultura à cibercultura nasce um novo homem, o Homo zappiens. Neste estudo, uma pesquisa exploratória, bibliográfica e qualitativa, pretende-se compreender como a tecnologia influenciou a cultura do jovem do século XXI a partir de uma narrativa transmídia, partindo de um estudo sobre a cultura em Roger Chartier (1988; 1995 e Lucia Santaella (2003, do perfil do jovem leitor e das gerações jovens com base em  Diana Oblinger e James Oblinger (2005 e Wim Veen e Ben Vrakking (2009, e dos tipos de leitor de Lucia Santaella (2004, para apresentar e analisar a franquia Assassin’s Creed. Neste estudo foi possível perceber que essas aventuras transmidiáticas são potenciais formadoras de novos leitores que buscam encontrar no universo tecnológico as aventuras que ele próprio, leitor das tecnologias e das palavras, quer imaginar e criar, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento e transformação da cultura que vive.

  7. Object permanence in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, J

    2001-06-01

    Juvenile and adult orangutans (n = 5; Pongo pygmaeus), chimpanzees (n = 7; Pan troglodytes), and 19- and 26-month-old children (n = 24; Homo sapiens) received visible and invisible displacements. Three containers were presented forming a straight line, and a small box was used to displace a reward under them. Subjects received 3 types of displacement: single (the box visited 1 container), double adjacent (the box visited 2 contiguous containers), and double nonadjacent (the box visited 2 noncontiguous containers). All species performed at comparable levels, solving all problems except the invisible nonadjacent displacements. Visible displacements were easier than invisible, and single were easier than double displacements. In a 2nd experiment, subjects saw the baiting of either 2 adjacent or 2 nonadjacent containers with no displacements. All species selected the empty container more often when the baited containers were nonadjacent than when they were adjacent. It is hypothesized that a response bias and inhibition problem were responsible for the poor performance in nonadjacent displacements.

  8. The Arrival of Homo sapiens into the Southern Cone at 14,000 Years Ago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo G Politis

    Full Text Available The Arroyo Seco 2 site contains a rich archaeological record, exceptional for South America, to explain the expansion of Homo sapiens into the Americas and their interaction with extinct Pleistocene mammals. The following paper provides a detailed overview of material remains found in the earliest cultural episodes at this multi-component site, dated between ca. 12,170 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 14,064 cal yrs B.P. and 11,180 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 13,068 cal yrs B.P.. Evidence of early occupations includes the presence of lithic tools, a concentration of Pleistocene species remains, human-induced fractured animal bones, and a selection of skeletal parts of extinct fauna. The occurrence of hunter-gatherers in the Southern Cone at ca. 14,000 cal yrs B.P. is added to the growing list of American sites that indicate a human occupation earlier than the Clovis dispersal episode, but posterior to the onset of the deglaciation of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM in the North America.

  9. Homo imitans? Seven reasons why imitation couldn't possibly be associative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-01-19

    Many comparative and developmental psychologists believe that we are Homo imitans; humans are more skilled and prolific imitators than other animals, because we have a special, inborn 'intermodal matching' mechanism that integrates representations of others with representations of the self. In contrast, the associative sequence learning (ASL) model suggests that human infants learn to imitate using mechanisms that they share with other animals, and the rich resources provided by their sociocultural environments. This article answers seven objections to the ASL model: (i) it presents evidence that newborns do not imitate; (ii) argues that infants receive a plentiful supply of the kind of experience necessary for learning to imitate; (iii) suggests that neither infants nor adults can imitate elementally novel actions; (iv) explains why non-human animals have a limited capacity for imitation; (v) discusses the goal-directedness of imitation; (vi) presents evidence that improvement in imitation depends on visual feedback; and (vii) reflects on the view that associative theories steal 'the soul of imitation'. The empirical success of the ASL model indicates that the mechanisms which make imitation possible, by aligning representations of self with representations of others, have been tweaked by cultural evolution, not built from scratch by genetic evolution. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. The Arrival of Homo sapiens into the Southern Cone at 14,000 Years Ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Gustavo G; Gutiérrez, María A; Rafuse, Daniel J; Blasi, Adriana

    The Arroyo Seco 2 site contains a rich archaeological record, exceptional for South America, to explain the expansion of Homo sapiens into the Americas and their interaction with extinct Pleistocene mammals. The following paper provides a detailed overview of material remains found in the earliest cultural episodes at this multi-component site, dated between ca. 12,170 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 14,064 cal yrs B.P.) and 11,180 14C yrs B.P. (ca. 13,068 cal yrs B.P.). Evidence of early occupations includes the presence of lithic tools, a concentration of Pleistocene species remains, human-induced fractured animal bones, and a selection of skeletal parts of extinct fauna. The occurrence of hunter-gatherers in the Southern Cone at ca. 14,000 cal yrs B.P. is added to the growing list of American sites that indicate a human occupation earlier than the Clovis dispersal episode, but posterior to the onset of the deglaciation of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the North America.

  11. Gracility of the modern Homo sapiens skeleton is the result of decreased biomechanical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Timothy M; Shaw, Colin N

    2015-01-13

    The postcranial skeleton of modern Homo sapiens is relatively gracile compared with other hominoids and earlier hominins. This gracility predisposes contemporary humans to osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Explanations for this gracility include reduced levels of physical activity, the dissipation of load through enlarged joint surfaces, and selection for systemic physiological characteristics that differentiate modern humans from other primates. This study considered the skeletal remains of four behaviorally diverse recent human populations and a large sample of extant primates to assess variation in trabecular bone structure in the human hip joint. Proximal femur trabecular bone structure was quantified from microCT data for 229 individuals from 31 extant primate taxa and 59 individuals from four distinct archaeological human populations representing sedentary agriculturalists and mobile foragers. Analyses of mass-corrected trabecular bone variables reveal that the forager populations had significantly higher bone volume fraction, thicker trabeculae, and consequently lower relative bone surface area compared with the two agriculturalist groups. There were no significant differences between the agriculturalist and forager populations for trabecular spacing, number, or degree of anisotropy. These results reveal a correspondence between human behavior and bone structure in the proximal femur, indicating that more highly mobile human populations have trabecular bone structure similar to what would be expected for wild nonhuman primates of the same body mass. These results strongly emphasize the importance of physical activity and exercise for bone health and the attenuation of age-related bone loss.

  12. The Homo sapiens 'hemibun': its developmental pattern and the problem of homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczewska, W; Kuźmiński, L

    2009-01-01

    The occipital bun is widely considered a Neanderthal feature. Its homology to the 'hemibun' observed in some European Upper Palaeolithic anatomically modern humans is a current problem. This study quantitatively evaluates the degree of occipital plane convexity in African and Australian modern human crania to analyse a relationship between this feature and some neurocranial variables. Neanderthal and European Upper Palaeolithic Homo sapiens crania were included in the analysis as well. The results of this study indicated that there is a significant relationship between the degree of occipital plane convexity and the following two features in the examined crania of modern humans: the ratio of the maximum neurocranial height to the maximum width of the vault and the ratio of bregma-lambda chord to bregma-lambda arc. The results also revealed that some H. sapiens crania (modern and fossil) show the Neanderthal shape of the occipital plane and that the neurocranial height and shape of parietal midsagittal profile has an influence on occipital plane convexity in the hominins included in this study. This study suggests that the occurrence of the great convexity of the occipital plane in the Neanderthals and H. sapiens is a "by-product" of the relationship between the same neurocranial features and there is no convincing evidence that the Neanderthal occipital bun and the similar structure in H. sapiens develop during ontogeny in the same way.

  13. Normalization of Complete Genome Characteristics: Application to Evolution from Primitive Organisms to Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorimachi, Kenji; Okayasu, Teiji; Ohhira, Shuji

    2015-04-01

    Normalized nucleotide and amino acid contents of complete genome sequences can be visualized as radar charts. The shapes of these charts depict the characteristics of an organism's genome. The normalized values calculated from the genome sequence theoretically exclude experimental errors. Further, because normalization is independent of both target size and kind, this procedure is applicable not only to single genes but also to whole genomes, which consist of a huge number of different genes. In this review, we discuss the applications of the normalization of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid contents of complete genomes to the investigation of genome structure and to evolutionary research from primitive organisms to Homo sapiens. Some of the results could never have been obtained from the analysis of individual nucleotide or amino acid sequences but were revealed only after the normalization of nucleotide and amino acid contents was applied to genome research. The discovery that genome structure was homogeneous was obtained only after normalization methods were applied to the nucleotide or predicted amino acid contents of genome sequences. Normalization procedures are also applicable to evolutionary research. Thus, normalization of the contents of whole genomes is a useful procedure that can help to characterize organisms.

  14. Pair-bonding, romantic love, and evolution: the curious case of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Campbell, Lorne; Overall, Nickola C

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates a thesis containing three interconnected propositions. First, romantic love is a "commitment device" for motivating pair-bonding in humans. Second, pair-bonding facilitated the idiosyncratic life history of hominins, helping to provide the massive investment required to rear children. Third, managing long-term pair bonds (along with family relationships) facilitated the evolution of social intelligence and cooperative skills. We evaluate this thesis by integrating evidence from a broad range of scientific disciplines. First, consistent with the claim that romantic love is an evolved commitment device, our review suggests that it is universal; suppresses mate-search mechanisms; has specific behavioral, hormonal, and neuropsychological signatures; and is linked to better health and survival. Second, we consider challenges to this thesis posed by the existence of arranged marriage, polygyny, divorce, and infidelity. Third, we show how the intimate relationship mind seems to be built to regulate and monitor relationships. Fourth, we review comparative evidence concerning links among mating systems, reproductive biology, and brain size. Finally, we discuss evidence regarding the evolutionary timing of shifts to pair-bonding in hominins. We conclude there is interdisciplinary support for the claim that romantic love and pair-bonding, along with alloparenting, played critical roles in the evolution of Homo sapiens. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Temporal coherence for pure tones in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilans, Erikson G; Dent, Micheal L

    2015-02-01

    Auditory scene analysis has been suggested as a universal process that exists across all animals. Relative to humans, however, little work has been devoted to how animals perceptually isolate different sound sources. Frequency separation of sounds is arguably the most common parameter studied in auditory streaming, but it is not the only factor contributing to how the auditory scene is perceived. Researchers have found that in humans, even at large frequency separations, synchronous tones are heard as a single auditory stream, whereas asynchronous tones with the same frequency separations are perceived as 2 distinct sounds. These findings demonstrate how both the timing and frequency separation of sounds are important for auditory scene analysis. It is unclear how animals, such as budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), perceive synchronous and asynchronous sounds. In this study, budgerigars and humans (Homo sapiens) were tested on their perception of synchronous, asynchronous, and partially overlapping pure tones using the same psychophysical procedures. Species differences were found between budgerigars and humans in how partially overlapping sounds were perceived, with budgerigars more likely to segregate overlapping sounds and humans more apt to fuse the 2 sounds together. The results also illustrated that temporal cues are particularly important for stream segregation of overlapping sounds. Lastly, budgerigars were found to segregate partially overlapping sounds in a manner predicted by computational models of streaming, whereas humans were not. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Ben-Ncer, Abdelouahed; Bailey, Shara E; Freidline, Sarah E; Neubauer, Simon; Skinner, Matthew M; Bergmann, Inga; Le Cabec, Adeline; Benazzi, Stefano; Harvati, Katerina; Gunz, Philipp

    2017-06-07

    Fossil evidence points to an African origin of Homo sapiens from a group called either H. heidelbergensis or H. rhodesiensis. However, the exact place and time of emergence of H. sapiens remain obscure because the fossil record is scarce and the chronological age of many key specimens remains uncertain. In particular, it is unclear whether the present day 'modern' morphology rapidly emerged approximately 200 thousand years ago (ka) among earlier representatives of H. sapiens or evolved gradually over the last 400 thousand years. Here we report newly discovered human fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, and interpret the affinities of the hominins from this site with other archaic and recent human groups. We identified a mosaic of features including facial, mandibular and dental morphology that aligns the Jebel Irhoud material with early or recent anatomically modern humans and more primitive neurocranial and endocranial morphology. In combination with an age of 315 ± 34 thousand years (as determined by thermoluminescence dating), this evidence makes Jebel Irhoud the oldest and richest African Middle Stone Age hominin site that documents early stages of the H. sapiens clade in which key features of modern morphology were established. Furthermore, it shows that the evolutionary processes behind the emergence of H. sapiens involved the whole African continent.

  17. Similar Efficacies of Selection Shape Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes in Both Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brandon S; Burrus, Chad R; Ji, Chao; Hahn, Matthew W; Montooth, Kristi L

    2015-08-21

    Deleterious mutations contribute to polymorphism even when selection effectively prevents their fixation. The efficacy of selection in removing deleterious mitochondrial mutations from populations depends on the effective population size (Ne) of the mitochondrial DNA and the degree to which a lack of recombination magnifies the effects of linked selection. Using complete mitochondrial genomes from Drosophila melanogaster and nuclear data available from the same samples, we reexamine the hypothesis that nonrecombining animal mitochondrial DNA harbor an excess of deleterious polymorphisms relative to the nuclear genome. We find no evidence of recombination in the mitochondrial genome, and the much-reduced level of mitochondrial synonymous polymorphism relative to nuclear genes is consistent with a reduction in Ne. Nevertheless, we find that the neutrality index, a measure of the excess of nonsynonymous polymorphism relative to the neutral expectation, is only weakly significantly different between mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This difference is likely the result of the larger proportion of beneficial mutations in X-linked relative to autosomal loci, and we find little to no difference between mitochondrial and autosomal neutrality indices. Reanalysis of published data from Homo sapiens reveals a similar lack of a difference between the two genomes, although previous studies have suggested a strong difference in both species. Thus, despite a smaller Ne, mitochondrial loci of both flies and humans appear to experience similar efficacies of purifying selection as do loci in the recombining nuclear genome. Copyright © 2015 Cooper et al.

  18. Evolutionary genetic analyses of MEF2C gene: implications for learning and memory in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Arasappa, Rashmi; Rao, Naren P

    2013-02-01

    MEF2C facilitates context-dependent fear conditioning (CFC) which is a salient aspect of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. CFC might have played a crucial role in human evolution because of its advantageous influence on survival of species. In this study, we analyzed 23 orthologous mammalian gene sequences of MEF2C gene to examine the evidence for positive selection on this gene in Homo sapiens using Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML) and HyPhy software. Both PAML Bayes Empirical Bayes (BEB) and HyPhy Fixed Effects Likelihood (FEL) analyses supported significant positive selection on 4 codon sites in H. sapiens. Also, haplotter analysis revealed significant ongoing positive selection on this gene in Central European population. The study findings suggest that adaptive selective pressure on this gene might have influenced human evolution. Further research on this gene might unravel the potential role of this gene in learning and memory as well as its pathogenetic effect in certain hippocampal disorders with evolutionary basis like schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Do humans (Homo sapiens) and fish (Pterophyllum scalare) make similar numerosity judgments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Agrillo, Christian; Izard, Véronique; Bisazza, Angelo

    2016-11-01

    Numerous studies have shown that many animal species can be trained to discriminate between stimuli differing in numerosity. However, in the absence of generalization tests with untrained numerosities, what decision criterion was used by subjects remains unclear: the subjects may succeed by selecting a specific number of items (a criterion over absolute numerosities), or by applying a more general relative numerosity rule, for example, selecting the larger/smaller quantity of items. The latter case may require more powerful representations, supporting judgments of order ("more/less") beyond simple "same/different" judgments, but a relative numerosity rule may also be more adaptive. In previous research, we showed that guppies (Poecilia reticulata) spontaneously prefer relative numerosity rules. To date it is unclear whether this preference is shared by other fish and, more broadly, other species. Here we compared the performance of angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) with that of human adults (Homo sapiens) in a task in which subjects were initially trained to select arrays containing 10 dots (either in 5 vs. 10 or 10 vs. 20 comparisons). Subsequently they were tested with the previously trained numerosity and a novel numerosity (respectively, 20 or 5). In the absence of explicit instructions, both species spontaneously favored a relative rule, selecting the novel numerosity. These similarities demonstrate that, beyond shared representations for numerical quantities, vertebrate species may also share a system for taking decisions about quantities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Female-directed violence as a form of sexual coercion in humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Nicole; Shackelford, Todd K

    2016-11-01

    Male-perpetrated female-directed violence (FDV) may be associated with greater sexual access to a female. Accordingly, FDV is expected to be associated with greater copulation frequency. Research on nonhuman primates affirms this hypothesis, but no previous research has investigated this relationship in humans (Homo sapiens). The current research tests the hypothesis that FDV is associated with in-pair copulation frequency and, thus, may function as a form of sexual coercion. It was predicted that men who perpetrate FDV will secure more in-pair copulations than men who do not perpetrate violence (Prediction 1a), and that average monthly rates of FDV would positively correlate with in-pair copulation frequency (Prediction 1b). Male participants (n = 355) completed a survey, reporting limited demographic information (e.g., age, relationship length), in-pair copulation frequency, and history of physical violence perpetration. As predicted, violent men secured more in-pair copulations, on average, than nonviolent men, and monthly rates of violence positively correlated with in-pair copulation frequency. In humans, as in nonhuman primates, FDV by males may facilitate greater sexual access to a female. We discuss the implications of the current research for an evolutionary perspective on partner violence, and draw on research on nonhuman primates to highlight profitable avenues of research on FDV in humans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Vibrational and electronic investigations, thermodynamic parameters, HOMO and LUMO analysis on Lornoxicam by density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhasini, M.; Sailatha, E.; Gunasekaran, S.; Ramkumaar, G. R.

    2015-11-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman spectra of Lornoxicam were recorded in the region 4000-450 cm-1 and 4000-50 cm-1 respectively. Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to calculate the optimized geometrical parameters, atomic charges, and vibrational wavenumbers and intensity of the vibrational bands. The computed vibrational wave numbers were compared with the FT-IR and FT-Raman experimental data. The computational calculations at DFT/B3LYP level with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-31++G(d,p) basis sets. The complete vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the Vibrational modes calculated using Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA 4) program. The oscillator's strength calculated by TD-DFT and Lornoxicam is approach complement with the experimental findings. The NMR chemical shifts 13C and 1H were recorded and calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The Natural charges and intermolecular contacts have been interpreted using Natural Bond orbital (NBO) analysis and the HOMO-LUMO energy gap has been calculated. The thermodynamic properties like Entropy, Enthalpy, Specific heat capacity and zero vibrational energy have been calculated. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was investigated using theoretical calculations.

  2. New fossil remains of Homo naledi from the Lesedi Chamber, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, John; Elliott, Marina; Schmid, Peter; Churchill, Steven E; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Roberts, Eric M; Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah; Garvin, Heather M; Williams, Scott A; Delezene, Lucas K; Feuerriegel, Elen M; Randolph-Quinney, Patrick; Kivell, Tracy L; Laird, Myra F; Tawane, Gaokgatlhe; DeSilva, Jeremy M; Bailey, Shara E; Brophy, Juliet K; Meyer, Marc R; Skinner, Matthew M; Tocheri, Matthew W; VanSickle, Caroline; Walker, Christopher S; Campbell, Timothy L; Kuhn, Brian; Kruger, Ashley; Tucker, Steven; Gurtov, Alia; Hlophe, Nompumelelo; Hunter, Rick; Morris, Hannah; Peixotto, Becca; Ramalepa, Maropeng; van Rooyen, Dirk; Tsikoane, Mathabela; Boshoff, Pedro; Dirks, Paul HGM; Berger, Lee R

    2017-01-01

    The Rising Star cave system has produced abundant fossil hominin remains within the Dinaledi Chamber, representing a minimum of 15 individuals attributed to Homo naledi. Further exploration led to the discovery of hominin material, now comprising 131 hominin specimens, within a second chamber, the Lesedi Chamber. The Lesedi Chamber is far separated from the Dinaledi Chamber within the Rising Star cave system, and represents a second depositional context for hominin remains. In each of three collection areas within the Lesedi Chamber, diagnostic skeletal material allows a clear attribution to H. naledi. Both adult and immature material is present. The hominin remains represent at least three individuals based upon duplication of elements, but more individuals are likely present based upon the spatial context. The most significant specimen is the near-complete cranium of a large individual, designated LES1, with an endocranial volume of approximately 610 ml and associated postcranial remains. The Lesedi Chamber skeletal sample extends our knowledge of the morphology and variation of H. naledi, and evidence of H. naledi from both recovery localities shows a consistent pattern of differentiation from other hominin species. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24232.001 PMID:28483039

  3. Greater Emphasis on Female Attractiveness in Homo Sapiens: A Revised Solution to an Old Evolutionary Riddle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gottschall

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence from psychology and cross-cultural anthropology supports a general rule of greater emphasis on female physical attractiveness in Homo sapiens. As sensed by Darwin (1871 and clarified by Trivers (1972, generally higher female parental investment is a key determinant of a common pattern of sexual selection in which male animals are more competitive, more eager sexually and more conspicuous in courtship display, ornamentation, and coloration. Therefore, given the larger minimal and average parental investment of human females, keener physical attractiveness pressure among women has long been considered an evolutionary riddle. This paper briefly surveys previous thinking on the question, before offering a revised explanation for why we should expect humans to sharply depart from general zoological pattern of greater emphasis on male attractiveness. This contribution hinges on the argument that humans have been seen as anomalies mainly because we have been held up to the wrong zoological comparison groups. I argue that humans are a partially sex-role reversed species, and more emphasis on female physical attractiveness is relatively common in such species. This solution to the riddle, like those of other evolutionists, is based on peculiarities in human mating behavior, so this paper is also presented as a refinement of current thinking about the evolution of human mating preferences.

  4. Experimental studies illuminate the cultural transmission of percussive technologies in Homo and Pan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew

    2015-11-19

    The complexity of Stone Age tool-making is assumed to have relied upon cultural transmission, but direct evidence is lacking. This paper reviews evidence bearing on this question provided through five related empirical perspectives. Controlled experimental studies offer special power in identifying and dissecting social learning into its diverse component forms, such as imitation and emulation. The first approach focuses on experimental studies that have discriminated social learning processes in nut-cracking by chimpanzees. Second come experiments that have identified and dissected the processes of cultural transmission involved in a variety of other force-based forms of chimpanzee tool use. A third perspective is provided by field studies that have revealed a range of forms of forceful, targeted tool use by chimpanzees, that set percussion in its broader cognitive context. Fourth are experimental studies of the development of flint knapping to make functional sharp flakes by bonobos, implicating and defining the social learning and innovation involved. Finally, new and substantial experiments compare what different social learning processes, from observational learning to teaching, afford good quality human flake and biface manufacture. Together these complementary approaches begin to delineate the social learning processes necessary to percussive technologies within the Pan-Homo clade. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. The type specimen (LB1) of Homo floresiensis did not have Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Dean; Hildebolt, Charles; Smith, Kirk; Jungers, William; Larson, Susan; Morwood, Michael; Sutikna, Thomas; Jatmiko; Saptomo, E Wahyu; Prior, Fred

    2009-09-01

    The type specimen (LB1) of Homo floresiensis has been hypothesized to be a pathological human afflicted with Laron Syndrome (LS), a type of primary growth hormone insensitivity (Hershkovitz et al.: Am J Phys Anthropol 134 [2007] 198-208). Comparing measurements, photographs and three-dimensional, computed-tomography reconstructions of LB1 with data and diagnoses from the literature on LS, we critically evaluate numerous skull and postcranial traits that Hershkovitz et al. identified as being shared by LB1 and patients with LS. The statements regarding most of these traits are new to the clinical literature and lack quantitative support. LB1 and patients with LS differ markedly in the size and shape of the cranium; thickness and pneumatization of cranial bones; morphology of the face, mandible, teeth, and chin; form of the shoulder, wrist, and pelvis; and general body proportions including relative foot size. Claims that patients with LS are similar to LB1 in displaying protracted scapulae, short clavicles, low degrees of humeral torsion, flaring ilia, and curved tibiae are not supported by data or corroborating images. Some points of similarity (e.g., femoral neck-shaft angle, femoral bicondylar angle, and estimated stature) can be found in other hominins, and cannot be considered diagnostic. From our review and analysis, we conclude that LB1 did not suffer from LS. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Revised stratigraphy and chronology for Homo floresiensis at Liang Bua in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutikna, Thomas; Tocheri, Matthew W; Morwood, Michael J; Saptomo, E Wahyu; Jatmiko; Awe, Rokus Due; Wasisto, Sri; Westaway, Kira E; Aubert, Maxime; Li, Bo; Zhao, Jian-xin; Storey, Michael; Alloway, Brent V; Morley, Mike W; Meijer, Hanneke J M; van den Bergh, Gerrit D; Grün, Rainer; Dosseto, Anthony; Brumm, Adam; Jungers, William L; Roberts, Richard G

    2016-04-21

    Homo floresiensis, a primitive hominin species discovered in Late Pleistocene sediments at Liang Bua (Flores, Indonesia), has generated wide interest and scientific debate. A major reason this taxon is controversial is because the H. floresiensis-bearing deposits, which include associated stone artefacts and remains of other extinct endemic fauna, were dated to between about 95 and 12 thousand calendar years (kyr) ago. These ages suggested that H. floresiensis survived until long after modern humans reached Australia by ~50 kyr ago. Here we report new stratigraphic and chronological evidence from Liang Bua that does not support the ages inferred previously for the H. floresiensis holotype (LB1), ~18 thousand calibrated radiocarbon years before present (kyr cal. BP), or the time of last appearance of this species (about 17 or 13-11 kyr cal. BP). Instead, the skeletal remains of H. floresiensis and the deposits containing them are dated to between about 100 and 60 kyr ago, whereas stone artefacts attributable to this species range from about 190 to 50 kyr in age. Whether H. floresiensis survived after 50 kyr ago--potentially encountering modern humans on Flores or other hominins dispersing through southeast Asia, such as Denisovans--is an open question.

  7. Pathophysiology of GPCR Homo- and Heterodimerization: Special Emphasis on Somatostatin Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi K. Somvanshi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs are cell surface proteins responsible for translating >80% of extracellular reception to intracellular signals. The extracellular information in the form of neurotransmitters, peptides, ions, odorants etc is converted to intracellular signals via a wide variety of effector molecules activating distinct downstream signaling pathways. All GPCRs share common structural features including an extracellular N-terminal, seven-transmembrane domains (TMs linked by extracellular/intracellular loops and the C-terminal tail. Recent studies have shown that most GPCRs function as dimers (homo- and/or heterodimers or even higher order of oligomers. Protein-protein interaction among GPCRs and other receptor proteins play a critical role in the modulation of receptor pharmacology and functions. Although ~50% of the current drugs available in the market target GPCRs, still many GPCRs remain unexplored as potential therapeutic targets, opening immense possibility to discover the role of GPCRs in pathophysiological conditions. This review explores the existing information and future possibilities of GPCRs as tools in clinical pharmacology and is specifically focused for the role of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs in pathophysiology of diseases and as the potential candidate for drug discovery.

  8. Homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli differently affect sugarcane-based fuel ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Thiago Olitta; Gomes, Fernanda Sgarbosa; Lopes, Mario Lucio; de Amorim, Henrique Vianna; Eggleston, Gillian; Basso, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial contamination during industrial yeast fermentation has serious economic consequences for fuel ethanol producers. In addition to deviating carbon away from ethanol formation, bacterial cells and their metabolites often have a detrimental effect on yeast fermentative performance. The bacterial contaminants are commonly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), comprising both homo- and heterofermentative strains. We have studied the effects of these two different types of bacteria upon yeast fermentative performance, particularly in connection with sugarcane-based fuel ethanol fermentation process. Homofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum was found to be more detrimental to an industrial yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAT-1), when compared with heterofermentative Lactobacillus fermentum, in terms of reduced yeast viability and ethanol formation, presumably due to the higher titres of lactic acid in the growth medium. These effects were only noticed when bacteria and yeast were inoculated in equal cell numbers. However, when simulating industrial fuel ethanol conditions, as conducted in Brazil where high yeast cell densities and short fermentation time prevail, the heterofermentative strain was more deleterious than the homofermentative type, causing lower ethanol yield and out competing yeast cells during cell recycle. Yeast overproduction of glycerol was noticed only in the presence of the heterofermentative bacterium. Since the heterofermentative bacterium was shown to be more deleterious to yeast cells than the homofermentative strain, we believe our findings could stimulate the search for more strain-specific antimicrobial agents to treat bacterial contaminations during industrial ethanol fermentation.

  9. Uncovering homo-and hetero-interactions on the cell membrane using single particle tracking approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torreno-Pina, Juan A; Manzo, Carlo; Garcia-Parajo, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    The plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells is responsible for a myriad of functions that regulate cell physiology and plays a crucial role in a multitude of processes that include adhesion, migration, signaling recognition and cell–cell communication. This is accomplished by specific interactions between different membrane components such as lipids and proteins on the lipid bilayer but also through interactions with the underlying cortical actin cytoskeleton on the intracellular side and the glycocalyx matrix in close proximity to the extracellular side. Advanced biophysical techniques, including single particle tracking (SPT) have revealed that the lateral diffusion of molecular components on the plasma membrane represents a landmark manifestation of such interactions. Indeed, by studying changes in the diffusivity of individual membrane molecules, including sub-diffusion, confined diffusion and/or transient arrest of molecules in membrane compartments, it has been possible to gain insight on the nature of molecular interactions and to infer on its functional role for cell response. In this review, we will revise some exciting results where SPT has been crucial to reveal homo- and hetero-interactions on the cell membrane. (paper)

  10. Silicon homo-heterojunction solar cells: A promising candidate to realize high performance more stably

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Miao; Zhong, Sihua; Wang, Wenjie; Shen, Wenzhong

    2017-08-01

    We have investigated the influences of diverse physical parameters on the performances of a silicon homo-heterojunction (H-H) solar cell, which encompasses both homojunction and heterojunction, together with their underlying mechanisms by the aid of AFORS-HET simulation. It is found that the performances of H-H solar cell are less sensitive to (i) the work function of the transparent conductive oxide layer, (ii) the interfacial density of states at the front hydrogenated amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) interface, (iii) the peak dangling bond defect densities within the p-type a-Si:H (p-a-Si:H) layer, and (iv) the doping concentration of the p-a-Si:H layer, when compared to that of the conventional heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) counterparts. These advantages are due to the fact that the interfacial recombination and the recombination within the a-Si:H region are less affected by all the above parameters, which fundamentally benefit from the field-effect passivation of the homojunction. Therefore, the design of H-H structure can provide an opportunity to produce high-efficiency solar cells more stably.

  11. Structural and molecular study of the supraspinatus muscle of modern humans (Homo sapiens) and common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potau, J M; Casado, A; de Diego, M; Ciurana, N; Arias-Martorell, J; Bello-Hellegouarch, G; Barbosa, M; de Paz, F J; Pastor, J F; Pérez-Pérez, A

    2018-04-21

    To analyze the muscle architecture and the expression pattern of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms in the supraspinatus of Pan troglodytes and Homo sapiens in order to identify differences related to their different types of locomotion. We have analyzed nine supraspinatus muscles of Pan troglodytes and ten of Homo sapiens. For each sample, we have recorded the muscle fascicle length (MFL), the pennation angle, and the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA). In the same samples, by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we have assessed the percentages of expression of the MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa, and MyHC-IIx isoforms. The mean MFL of the supraspinatus was longer (p = 0.001) and the PCSA was lower (p sapiens than in Pan troglodytes. Although the percentage of expression of MyHC-IIa was lower in Homo sapiens than in Pan troglodytes (p = 0.035), the combination of MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx was expressed at a similar percentage in the two species. The longer MFL in the human supraspinatus is associated with a faster contractile velocity, which reflects the primary function of the upper limbs in Homo sapiens-the precise manipulation of objects-an adaptation to bipedal locomotion. In contrast, the larger PCSA in Pan troglodytes is related to the important role of the supraspinatus in stabilizing the glenohumeral joint during the support phase of knuckle-walking. These functional differences of the supraspinatus in the two species are not reflected in differences in the expression of the MyHC isoforms. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Has evolution 'prepared' us to deal with death? Paleoanthropological aspects of the enigma of Homo naledi's disposal of their dead

    OpenAIRE

    du Toit, Cornel W.

    2017-01-01

    The Homo naledi discovery introduced questions that had not been previously posed regarding fossil finds. This is because, apart from their fascinating physiology, they seemingly deliberately disposed of their dead in a ritualised way. Although this theory may still be disproved in future, the present article provisionally accepts it. This evokes religious questions because it suggests the possibility of causal thinking, wilful and cooperative behaviour, and the possibility that this behaviou...

  13. Similarity analysis between chromosomes of Homo sapiens and monkeys with correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures

    OpenAIRE

    Someswara Rao, Chinta; Viswanadha Raju, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys. We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. sapiens and monkeys is measured for a total of 210 chromosomes related to 10 species. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship b...

  14. Photoprotective Effects of Hydroalcohol Tagetes Erectus Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Trop J Pharm Res, December 2011;10 (6): 747. Tropical Journal of .... This plant is used in traditional system of medicine as analgesic ... Anne French hair- removing cream. The mice ..... Geriatr Med 2001; 17: 643-659. 21. Kligman LH.

  15. Homo-junction ferroelectric field-effect-transistor memory device using solution-processed lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Bhansali, Unnat. S.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    High performance homo-junction field-effect transistor memory devices were prepared using solution processed transparent lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films for both the ferroelectric and semiconducting active layers. A highest field-effect mobility

  16. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations in the Pectoral Muscles of Common Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, Bonobos (Pan paniscus, and Humans (Homo sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Potau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed anatomic variations in the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and bonobos (Pan paniscus and compared them to anatomic variations in these muscles in humans (Homo sapiens. We have macroscopically dissected these muscles in six adult Pan troglodytes, five Pan paniscus of ages ranging from fetus to adult, and five adult Homo sapiens. Although Pan troglodytes are thought to lack a separate pectoralis abdominis muscle, we have identified this muscle in three of the Pan troglodytes; none of the Pan paniscus, however, had this muscle. We have also found deep supernumerary fascicles in the pectoralis major of two Pan troglodytes and all five Pan paniscus. In all six Pan troglodytes, the pectoralis minor was inserted at the supraspinatus tendon, while, in Pan paniscus and Homo sapiens, it was inserted at the coracoid process of the scapula. Some of the anatomic features and variations of these muscles in common chimpanzees and bonobos are similar to those found in humans, therefore enhancing our knowledge of primate comparative anatomy and evolution and also shedding light on several clinical issues.

  17. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations in the Pectoral Muscles of Common Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), Bonobos (Pan paniscus), and Humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potau, J M; Arias-Martorell, J; Bello-Hellegouarch, G; Casado, A; Pastor, J F; de Paz, F; Diogo, R

    2018-01-01

    We have analyzed anatomic variations in the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) and compared them to anatomic variations in these muscles in humans (Homo sapiens) . We have macroscopically dissected these muscles in six adult Pan troglodytes , five Pan paniscus of ages ranging from fetus to adult, and five adult Homo sapiens . Although Pan troglodytes are thought to lack a separate pectoralis abdominis muscle, we have identified this muscle in three of the Pan troglodytes ; none of the Pan paniscus , however, had this muscle. We have also found deep supernumerary fascicles in the pectoralis major of two Pan troglodytes and all five Pan paniscus . In all six Pan troglodytes , the pectoralis minor was inserted at the supraspinatus tendon, while, in Pan paniscus and Homo sapiens , it was inserted at the coracoid process of the scapula. Some of the anatomic features and variations of these muscles in common chimpanzees and bonobos are similar to those found in humans, therefore enhancing our knowledge of primate comparative anatomy and evolution and also shedding light on several clinical issues.

  18. A Profile of an ‘A’ List Homo –Habitus, Attitude, Boredom and The End of Enjoyment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasho Alexander Lambevski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Embodying signifiers of silent suffering, frequently envenomed by envy disguised as patronising pity, enraged as a result of admiration never returned, duped by their naïve belief in gay (capitalist Eden, stress-ridden, moving through a psychosocial reality that almost never fails to disappoint, split between a deadly wish to speak in monotone with their larynxes, bodies and dicks, and a little flicker that tells them to resists this urge, too many homo men express, in the guise of the composite character I describe below, the emotional battleground created by the new bourgeoisie’s deployment of the breathtakingly beautiful masculine homo male body as a sign/image vehicle in asserting its own social domination in a late capitalist society. The character I develop here can be read as a simulation and fabulation of the homonormative new bourgeois self as a syndrome with a range of affective cripplings coming from the technologically assisted channelling of homosexual desire via the mass circulation of the imaginary of the homo new bourgeoisie. 

  19. The mitogenome of a 35,000-year-old Homo sapiens from Europe supports a Palaeolithic back-migration to Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hervella, M.; Svensson, E. M.; Alberdi, A.; G?nther, T.; Izagirre, N.; Munters, A. R.; Alonso, S.; Ioana, M.; Ridiche, F.; Soficaru, A.; Jakobsson, M.; Netea, M. G.; de-la-Rua, C.

    2016-01-01

    After the dispersal of modern humans (Homo sapiens) Out of Africa, hominins with a similar morphology to that of present-day humans initiated the gradual demographic expansion into Eurasia. The mitogenome (33-fold coverage) of the Pestera Muierii 1 individual (PM1) from Romania (35 ky cal BP) we present in this article corresponds fully to Homo sapiens, whilst exhibiting a mosaic of morphological features related to both modern humans and Neandertals. We have identified the PM1 mitogenome as ...

  20. Technology as a factor of identity transformation: development of HOMO TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim A. Emelin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the understanding of identity as an individual’s identity with the self within the cultural historical chronotope, and experienced as the feeling of belonging/ non-belonging to some communities, controllability/uncontrollability of situations and predictability/non-predictability of events, the paper describes the processes of identity transformation in the course of a technological development. Taken as the initial point, the idea of organ-extension (K. Marx, E. Kapp and technological extension of man (S. Freud, M. McLuhan means that technologies are the extension of a human body and its organs. The processes of technological extension assume a particular scale under condition of information society development, within which computer-, telecommunication-, transport-, bio-, nano- and other high technologies have become an actual cultural historical force that has a power to transform a human. Special attention is paid to the fact that unlike the precedent technologies that have just facilitated some or other human performance, modern technologies of information society do not only change the human topology, widen and expand human natural abilities but also really transform higher mental functions and mediate mental processes and relations between human individuals. Man becomes not only a biological and social creature but also a technological one, i.e. so called HOMO TECHNOLOGICUS. The scale and speed of cultural historical changes make the study of the technological extensions role in the transformation of identity a key point for developing ways of comprehending their role in the life of a modern person, and also for forecasting the evolution of relationship between man and machines in the future.

  1. Time-resolved homo-FRET studies of biotin-streptavidin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoni, Alessandra; Nardo, Luca; Rigler, Rudolf

    2016-09-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer is a mechanism of fluorescence quenching that is notably useful for characterizing properties of biomolecules and/or their interactions. Here we study water-solutions of Biotin-Streptavidin complexes, in which Biotin is labeled with a rigidly-bound fluorophore that can interact by Förster resonance energy transfer with the fluorophores labeling the other, up to three, Biotins of the same complex. The fluorophore, Atto550, is a Rhodamine analogue. We detect the time-resolved fluorescence decay of the fluorophores with an apparatus endowed with single-photon sensitivity and temporal resolution of ~30ps. The decay profiles we observe for samples containing constant Biotin-Atto550 conjugates and varying Streptavidin concentrations are multi-exponential. Each decay component can be associated with the rate of quenching exerted on each donor by each of the acceptors that label the other Biotin molecules, depending on the binding site they occupy. The main features that lead to this result are that (i) the transition dipole moments of the up-to-four Atto550 fluorophores that label the complexes are fixed as to both relative positions and mutual orientations; (ii) the fluorophores are identical and the role of donor in each Biotin-Streptavidin complex is randomly attributed to the one that has absorbed the excitation light (homo-FRET). Obviously the high-temporal resolution of the excitation-detection apparatus is necessary to discriminate among the fluorescence decay components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Homo sapiens as physician and patient: a view from Darwinian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Franco, Angel A

    2013-09-01

    Medicine's cardinal diagnostic and therapeutic resource is the clinical encounter. Over the last two centuries and particularly over the last five decades the function of the clinical encounter has been eroded to the point of near irrelevance because of the atomized and atomizing influence of technology and microspecialization. Meanwhile, over the past five decades the exceptionalist view of Homo sapiens inherent in the social and religious traditions of the West has similarly undergone radical changes. H. sapiens is now best understood as a microecosystem integrated into a much broader ecosystem: the biosphere. That human microecosystem is composed of constituents derived from the archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryan domains via endosymbiotic, commensalistic and mutualistic interactions. This amalgamation of 100 trillion cells and viral elements is regulated by a composite genome aggregated over the 3.8 billion years of evolutionary history of organic life. No component of H. sapiens or its genome can be identified as irreducibly and exclusively human. H. sapiens' humanity is an emergent property of the microecosystem. Ironically as H. sapiens is viewed by evolutionary science in a highly integrated manner medicine approaches it as a balkanized, deaggregated entity through the eye of 150 different specialties. To effectively address the needs of H sapiens in its role as patient by the same species in its role as physician the disparate views must be harmonized. Here I review some conceptual elements that would assist a physician in addressing the needs of the patient in integrum, as a microecosystem, by the former address the latter as a historical gestalt being. The optimal way to recover the harmony between patient and physician is through a revitalization of the clinical encounter via an ecological and Darwinian epistemology.

  3. Evaluating the transitional mosaic: frameworks of change from Neanderthals to Homo sapiens in eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William; White, Dustin; Lewis, Mark; Stringer, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Defining varying spatial and temporal analytical scales is essential before evaluating the responses of late Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens to Abrupt Environmental Transitions (AETs) and environmental disasters for the period 130-25 ka. Recent advances in addressing the population histories and interactions (using both genetic and archaeological evidence) of Neanderthals and H. sapiens have encouraged consideration of more subtle dynamics of archaeological change. Descriptions of change based on methodologies pioneered some 160 years ago are no longer adequate to explain the patterning we now see in the record. New chronological results, using multiple dating methods, allow us to begin to unpick the spatial and temporal scales of change. Isochronic markers (such as specific volcanic eruptions) can be used to create temporal frameworks (lattices), and results from other dating techniques compared against them. A combination of chronological lattices and direct dating of diagnostic artefacts and human fossils permits us, for the first time, to have greater confidence in connecting human (recent hominin) species and their behavioural responses to environmental conditions, and in quantifying scales of change over time and space (time-transgression). The timing of innovations, particularly those in bone, antler and ivory, can be directly quantified and tested, and used to re-evaluate longstanding models of cultural change. This paper also uses these new chronologies to explore the ecologies of late Neanderthals and early H. sapiens: their population densities, mobilities, resources exploited and possible interactions. Environmental productivity estimates are used to generate new questions of potential population densities and mobilities, and thus the sensitivity of these groups to environmental perturbations. Scales and intensities of effect on environments from natural disasters and AETs (notably Heinrich Events and the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption) are defined

  4. Optimization of mNeonGreen for Homo sapiens increases its fluorescent intensity in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida-Miyake, Emiko; Koike, Masato; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Tanida, Isei

    2018-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is tremendously useful for investigating many cellular and intracellular events. The monomeric GFP mNeonGreen is about 3- to 5-times brighter than GFP and monomeric enhanced GFP and shows high photostability. The maturation half-time of mNeonGreen is about 3-fold faster than that of monomeric enhanced GFP. However, the cDNA sequence encoding mNeonGreen contains some codons that are rarely used in Homo sapiens. For better expression of mNeonGreen in human cells, we synthesized a human-optimized cDNA encoding mNeonGreen and generated an expression plasmid for humanized mNeonGreen under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The resultant plasmid was introduced into HEK293 cells. The fluorescent intensity of humanized mNeonGreen was about 1.4-fold higher than that of the original mNeonGreen. The humanized mNeonGreen with a mitochondria-targeting signal showed mitochondrial distribution of mNeonGreen. We further generated an expression vector of humanized mNeonGreen with 3xFLAG tags at its carboxyl terminus as these tags are useful for immunological analyses. The 3xFLAG-tagged mNeonGreen was recognized well with an anti-FLAG-M2 antibody. These plasmids for the expression of humanized mNeonGreen and mNeonGreen-3xFLAG are useful tools for biological studies in mammalian cells using mNeonGreen.

  5. Forearm articular proportions and the antebrachial index in Homo sapiens, Australopithecus afarensis and the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank L'Engle; Cunningham, Deborah L; Amaral, Lia Q

    2015-12-01

    When hominin bipedality evolved, the forearms were free to adopt nonlocomotor tasks which may have resulted in changes to the articular surfaces of the ulna and the relative lengths of the forearm bones. Similarly, sex differences in forearm proportions may be more likely to emerge in bipeds than in the great apes given the locomotor constraints in Gorilla, Pan and Pongo. To test these assumptions, ulnar articular proportions and the antebrachial index (radius length/ulna length) in Homo sapiens (n=51), Gorilla gorilla (n=88), Pan troglodytes (n=49), Pongo pygmaeus (n=36) and Australopithecus afarensis A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 are compared. Intercept-adjusted ratios are used to control for size and minimize the effects of allometry. Canonical scores axes show that the proximally broad and elongated trochlear notch with respect to size in H. sapiens and A. afarensis is largely distinct from G. gorilla, P. troglodytes and P. pygmaeus. A cluster analysis of scaled ulnar articular dimensions groups H. sapiens males with A.L. 438-1 ulna length estimates, while one A.L. 288-1 ulna length estimate groups with Pan and another clusters most closely with H. sapiens, G. gorilla and A.L. 438-1. The relatively low antebrachial index characterizing H. sapiens and non-outlier estimates of A.L. 288-1 and A.L. 438-1 differs from those of the great apes. Unique sex differences in H. sapiens suggest a link between bipedality and forearm functional morphology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Extant ape dental topography and its implications for reconstructing the emergence of early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthaume, Michael A; Schroer, Kes

    2017-11-01

    Dental topography reflects diet accurately in several extant and extinct mammalian clades. However, dental topographic dietary reconstructions have high success rates only when closely related taxa are compared. Given the dietary breadth that exists among extant apes and likely existed among fossil hominins, dental topographic values from many species and subspecies of great apes are necessary for making dietary inferences about the hominin fossil record. Here, we present the results of one metric of dental topography, Dirichlet normal energy (DNE), for seven groups of great apes (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes troglodytes and schweinfurthii, Gorilla gorilla gorilla, Gorilla beringei graueri and beringei). Dirichlet normal energy was inadequate at differentiating folivores from frugivores, but was adequate at predicting which groups had more fibrous diets among sympatric African apes. Character displacement analyses confirmed there is substantial dental topographic and relative molar size (M 1 :M 2 ratio; length, width, and area) divergence in sympatric apes when compared to their allopatric counterparts, but character displacement is only present in relative molar size when DNE is also considered. Presence of character displacement is likely due to indirect competition over similar food resources. Assuming similar ecological conditions in the Plio-Pleistocene, the derived masticatory apparatuses of the robust australopiths and early Homo may be due to indirect competition over dietary resources between the taxa, causing dietary niche partitioning. Our results imply that dental topography cannot be used to predict dietary categories in fossil hominins without consideration of ecological factors, such as dietary and geographic overlap. In addition, our results may open new avenues for understanding the community compositions of early hominins and the formation of specific ecological niches among hominin taxa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  7. The origins and persistence of Homo floresiensis on Flores: biogeographical and ecological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennell, Robin W.; Louys, Julien; O'Regan, Hannah J.; Wilkinson, David M.

    2014-07-01

    The finding of archaeological evidence predating 1 Ma and a small hominin species (Homo floresiensis) on Flores, Indonesia, has stimulated much research on its origins and ancestry. Here we take a different approach and examine two key questions - 1) how did the ancestors of H. floresiensis reach Flores and 2) what are the possibilities for estimating the likelihood of hominin persistence for over 1 million years on a small island? With regard to the first question, on the basis of the biogeography we conclude that the mammalian, avian, and reptilian fauna on Flores arrived from a number of sources including Java, Sulawesi and Sahul. Many of the terrestrial taxa were able to float or swim (e.g. stegodons, giant tortoises and the Komodo dragon), while the rodents and hominins probably accidentally rafted from Sulawesi, following the prevailing currents. The precise route by which hominins arrived on Flores cannot at present be determined, although a route from South Asia through Indochina, Sulawesi and hence Flores is tentatively supported on the basis of zoogeography. With regards to the second question, we find the archaeological record equivocal. A basic energetics model shows that a greater number of small-bodied hominins could persist on Flores than larger-bodied hominins (whether H. floresiensis is a dwarfed species or a descendent of an early small-bodied ancestor is immaterial here), which may in part explain their apparent long-term success. Yet the frequent tsunamis and volcanic eruptions in the region would certainly have affected all the taxa on the island, and at least one turnover event is recorded, when Stegodon sondaari became extinct. The question of the likelihood of persistence may be unanswerable until we know much more about the biology of H. floresiensis.

  8. Homo floresiensis and the late Pleistocene environments of eastern Indonesia: defining the nature of the relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, K. E.; Morwood, M. J.; Sutikna, T.; Moore, M. W.; Rokus, A. D.; van den Bergh, G. D.; Roberts, R. G.; Saptomo, E. W.

    2009-12-01

    Evidence from Liang Bua, a limestone cave on the island of Flores in East Indonesia, provides a unique opportunity to explore the long term relationship between hominins and their environment. Occupation deposits at the site span ˜95 ka and contain abundant stone artefacts, well preserved faunal remains and evidence for an endemic species of hominin: Homo floresiensis. Work at the site included detailed geomorphological and environmental analysis, which has enabled comparisons to be drawn between changes in the occupational intensity in the cave, using stone tool and faunal counts, and changes in the environmental conditions, using the characteristics of the sedimentary layers in the cave and speleothem records. These comparisons demonstrate that H. floresiensis endured rapidly fluctuating environmental conditions over the last ˜100 ka, which influenced the geomorphological processes in the cave and their occupational conditions. The intensity of occupation in the cave changed significantly between 95 and 17 ka, with peaks in occupation occurring at 100-95, 74-61 and 18-17 ka. These correlate with episodes of channel formation and erosion in the cave, which in turn correspond with high rainfall, thick soils and high bio-productivity outside. In contrast, periods of low occupational intensity correlate with reduced channel activity and pooling associated with drier periods from 94 to 75 and 36 to 19 ka. This apparent link between intensity of hominin use of the cave and the general conditions outside relates to the expansion and contraction of the rainforest and the ability of H. floresiensis to adapt to habitat changes. This interpretation implies that these diminutive hominins were able to survive abrupt and prolonged environmental changes by changing their favoured occupation sites. These data provide the basis for a model of human-environment interactions on the island of Flores. With the addition of extra data from other sites on Flores, this model will

  9. Basic Concepts in G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Homo- and Heterodimerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Franco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs were considered to be expressed as monomers on the cell surface of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. It is now becoming evident that this view must be overtly changed since these receptors can form homodimers, heterodimers, and higher-order oligomers on the plasma membrane. Here we discuss some of the basics and some new concepts of receptor homo- and heteromerization. Dimers-oligomers modify pharmacology, trafficking, and signaling of receptors. First of all, GPCR dimers must be considered as the main molecules that are targeted by neurotransmitters or by drugs. Thus, binding data must be fitted to dimer-based models. In these models, it is considered that the conformational changes transmitted within the dimer molecule lead to cooperativity. Cooperativity must be taken into account in the binding of agonists-antagonists-drugs and also in the binding of the so-called allosteric modulators. Cooperativity results from the intramolecular cross-talk in the homodimer. As an intramolecular cross-talk in the heterodimer, the binding of one neurotransmitter to one receptor often affects the binding of the second neurotransmitter to the partner receptor. Coactivation of the two receptors in a heterodimer can change completely the signaling pathway triggered by the neurotransmitter as well as the trafficking of the receptors. Heterodimer-specific drugs or dual drugs able to activate the two receptors in the heterodimer simultaneously emerge as novel and promising drugs for a variety of central nervous system (CNS therapeutic applications.

  10. Investigation into the Mechanism of Homo- and Heterodimerization of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrie, J Albert; Moolman, Wessel J A; Cozier, Gyles E; Schwager, Sylva L; Acharya, K Ravi; Sturrock, Edward D

    2018-04-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a central role in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which is primarily responsible for blood pressure homeostasis. Studies have shown that ACE inhibitors yield cardiovascular benefits that cannot be entirely attributed to the inhibition of ACE catalytic activity. It is possible that these benefits are due to interactions between ACE and RAS receptors that mediate the protective arm of the RAS, such as angiotensin II receptor type 2 (AT 2 R) and the receptor MAS. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the molecular interactions of ACE, including ACE homodimerization and heterodimerization with AT 2 R and MAS, respectively. Molecular interactions were assessed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence complementation in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells transfected with vectors encoding fluorophore-tagged proteins. The specificity of dimerization was verified by competition experiments using untagged proteins. These techniques were used to study several potential requirements for the germinal isoform of angiotensin-converting enzyme expressed in the testes (tACE) dimerization as well as the effect of ACE inhibitors on both somatic isoforms of angiotensin-converting enzyme expressed in the testes (sACE) and tACE dimerization. We demonstrated constitutive homodimerization of sACE and of both of its domains separately, as well as heterodimerization of both sACE and tACE with AT 2 R, but not MAS. In addition, we investigated both soluble sACE and the sACE N domain using size-exclusion chromatography-coupled small-angle X-ray scattering and we observed dimers in solution for both forms of the enzyme. Our results suggest that ACE homo- and heterodimerization does occur under physiologic conditions. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Ag(I)-mediated homo and hetero pairs of guanosine and cytidine: monitoring by circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, Iryna

    2014-01-24

    Ag(I)-containing compounds are attractive as antibacterial and antifungal agents. The renewed interest in the application of silver(I) compounds has led to the need for detailed knowledge of the mechanism of their action. One of the possible ways is the coordination of Ag(I) to G-C pairs of DNA, where Ag(+) ions form Ag(I)-mediated base pairs and inhibit the transcription. Herein, a systematic chiroptical study on silver(I)-mediated homo and mixed pairs of the C-G complementary-base derivatives cytidine(C) and 5'-guanosine monophosphate(G) in water is presented. Ag(I)-mediated homo and hetero pairs of G and C and their self-assembled species were studied under two pH levels (7.0 and 10.0) by vibrational (VCD) and electronic circular dichroism(ECD). VCD was used for the first time in this field and showed itself to be a powerful method for obtaining specific structural information in solution. Based on results of the VCD experiments, the different geometries of the homo pairs were proposed under pH 7.0 and 10.0. ECD was used as a diagnostic tool to characterize the studied systems and as a contact point between the previously defined structures of the metal or proton mediated pairs of nucleobases and the systems studied here. On the basis of the obtained data, the formation of the self-assembled species of cytidine with a structure similar to the i-motif structure in DNA was proposed at pH 10.0. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Homo- and heterodinuclear coordination polymers based on a tritopic cyclam bis-terpyridine unit: Structure and rheological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Li; Fan, Jiangxia; Ren, Yong; Xiong, Kun [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Yan, Minhao, E-mail: yanminhao@swust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Tuo, Xianguo, E-mail: tuoxg@swust.edu.cn [Laboratory of National Defense for Radioactive Waste and Environmental Security, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Terech, Pierre [SPrAM, UMR CEA/CNRS/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, Grenoble F-38054 (France); Royal, Guy [Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble I, Département de Chimie Moléculaire, UMR CNRS-5250, Institut de Chimie Moléculaire de Grenoble, FR CNRS-2607, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-03-01

    An innovative coordination polymer based on a tritopic ligand having the bis-terpyridine cyclam (CHTT) unit is explored. Homo- or heteronuclear 1D coordination polymers can be formed with bivalent metal ions such as Co(II) and Ni(II) in solvent DMF. Creep-recovery curves of the (Co{sup II}){sub 2}CHTT gels formed from 1D coordination polymers were analyzed with the Burgers model and demonstrated an original self-healing property, unusual in the class of molecular gels. The influence of the metal type was studied through the structural features using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments. In gels, the corresponding network involves genuine fibers (R ≈ 35 Å), bundles of these fibers and also a fraction of finite size aggregates (rods with aspect ratio f ≈ 3–5). We found that the distribution of these latter structural components is sensitive to the metal ions type. Such tritopic 1D coordination polymers exhibit a range of original structural features and a facile control of the developed structures in solutions and gels by tuning their thermodynamic parameters. The versatility associated to the intrinsic dynamic ability of the systems should pave the way to original properties for molecular devices. - Graphical abstract: A tritopic ligand with a bis-terpyridine cyclam (CHTT) unit can form homo- and heterobinuclear coordination polymers with bivalent metal ions in DMF. Gels exhibit a remarkable self-healing property while structures of solutions and gels are studied by small-angle neutron scattering. - Highlights: • Homo- and heteronuclear coordination polymers based on innovative tritopic ligand. • The gels formed from the coordination polymers demonstrated self-healing property. • Influence of the metal type was studied through the structural properties by SANS. • Versatility of the singular system present original properties for molecular device.

  13. Repeat polymorphisms in the Homo sapiens heme oxygenase-1 gene in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Simon J.; Grover, Madhusudan; Choi, Kyoung Moo; Wadhwa, Akhilesh; Zubair, Adeel; Wilson, Laura A.; Wu, Yanhong; Abell, Thomas L.; Hasler, William L.; Koch, Kenneth L.; McCallum, Richard W.; Nguyen, Linda A. B.; Parkman, Henry P.; Sarosiek, Irene; Snape, William J.; Tonascia, James; Hamilton, Frank A.; Pasricha, Pankaj J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis in Homo sapiens cause significant morbidity. Etiology or risk factors have not been clearly identified. Failure to sustain elevated heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) expression is associated with delayed gastric emptying in diabetic mice and polymorphisms in the HO1 gene (HMOX1, NCBI Gene ID:3162) are associated with worse outcomes in other diseases. Aim Our hypothesis was that longer polyGT alleles are more common in the HMOX1 genes of individuals with gastroparesis than in controls without upper gastrointestinal motility disorders. Methods Repeat length was determined in genomic DNA. Controls with diabetes (84 type 1, 84 type 2) and without diabetes (n = 170) were compared to diabetic gastroparetics (99 type 1, 72 type 2) and idiopathic gastroparetics (n = 234). Correlations of repeat lengths with clinical symptom sub-scores on the gastroparesis cardinal symptom index (GCSI) were done. Statistical analyses of short (32) repeat alleles and differences in allele length were used to test for associations with gastroparesis. Results The distribution of allele lengths was different between groups (P = 0.016). Allele lengths were longest in type 2 diabetics with gastroparesis (29.18±0.35, mean ± SEM) and longer in gastroparetics compared to non-diabetic controls (28.50±0.14 vs 27.64±0.20 GT repeats/allele, P = 0.0008). Type 2 diabetic controls had longer alleles than non-diabetic controls. In all gastroparetic groups, allele lengths were longer in African Americans compared to other racial groups, differences in the proportion of African Americans in the groups accounted for the differences between gastroparetics and controls. Diabetic gastroparetics with 1 or 2 long alleles had worse GCSI nausea sub-scores (3.30±0.23) as compared to those with 0 long alleles (2.66±0.12), P = 0.022. Conclusions Longer poly-GT repeats in the HMOX1 gene are more common in African Americans with gastroparesis. Nausea symptoms are worse in

  14. Repeat polymorphisms in the Homo sapiens heme oxygenase-1 gene in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Simon J; Grover, Madhusudan; Choi, Kyoung Moo; Wadhwa, Akhilesh; Zubair, Adeel; Wilson, Laura A; Wu, Yanhong; Abell, Thomas L; Hasler, William L; Koch, Kenneth L; McCallum, Richard W; Nguyen, Linda A B; Parkman, Henry P; Sarosiek, Irene; Snape, William J; Tonascia, James; Hamilton, Frank A; Pasricha, Pankaj J; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis in Homo sapiens cause significant morbidity. Etiology or risk factors have not been clearly identified. Failure to sustain elevated heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) expression is associated with delayed gastric emptying in diabetic mice and polymorphisms in the HO1 gene (HMOX1, NCBI Gene ID:3162) are associated with worse outcomes in other diseases. Our hypothesis was that longer polyGT alleles are more common in the HMOX1 genes of individuals with gastroparesis than in controls without upper gastrointestinal motility disorders. Repeat length was determined in genomic DNA. Controls with diabetes (84 type 1, 84 type 2) and without diabetes (n = 170) were compared to diabetic gastroparetics (99 type 1, 72 type 2) and idiopathic gastroparetics (n = 234). Correlations of repeat lengths with clinical symptom sub-scores on the gastroparesis cardinal symptom index (GCSI) were done. Statistical analyses of short (32) repeat alleles and differences in allele length were used to test for associations with gastroparesis. The distribution of allele lengths was different between groups (P = 0.016). Allele lengths were longest in type 2 diabetics with gastroparesis (29.18±0.35, mean ± SEM) and longer in gastroparetics compared to non-diabetic controls (28.50±0.14 vs 27.64±0.20 GT repeats/allele, P = 0.0008). Type 2 diabetic controls had longer alleles than non-diabetic controls. In all gastroparetic groups, allele lengths were longer in African Americans compared to other racial groups, differences in the proportion of African Americans in the groups accounted for the differences between gastroparetics and controls. Diabetic gastroparetics with 1 or 2 long alleles had worse GCSI nausea sub-scores (3.30±0.23) as compared to those with 0 long alleles (2.66±0.12), P = 0.022. Longer poly-GT repeats in the HMOX1 gene are more common in African Americans with gastroparesis. Nausea symptoms are worse in subjects with longer alleles.

  15. The rhizome of Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Pediculus humanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoult Didier

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondria are thought to have evolved from eubacteria-like endosymbionts; however, the origin of the mitochondrion remains a subject of debate. In this study, we investigated the phenomenon of chimerism in mitochondria to shed light on the origin of these organelles by determining which species played a role in their formation. We used the mitochondria of four distinct organisms, Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and multichromosome Pediculus humanus, and attempted to identify the origin of each mitochondrial gene. Results Our results suggest that the origin of mitochondrial genes is not limited to the Rickettsiales and that the creation of these genes did not occur in a single event, but through multiple successive events. Some of these events are very old and were followed by events that are more recent and occurred through the addition of elements originating from current species. The points in time that the elements were added and the parental species of each gene in the mitochondrial genome are different to the individual species. These data constitute strong evidence that mitochondria do not have a single common ancestor but likely have numerous ancestors, including proto-Rickettsiales, proto-Rhizobiales and proto-Alphaproteobacteria, as well as current alphaproteobacterial species. The analysis of the multichromosome P. humanus mitochondrion supports this mechanism. Conclusions The most plausible scenario of the origin of the mitochondrion is that ancestors of Rickettsiales and Rhizobiales merged in a proto-eukaryotic cell approximately one billion years ago. The fusion of the Rickettsiales and Rhizobiales cells was followed by gene loss, genomic rearrangements and the addition of alphaproteobacterial elements through ancient and more recent recombination events. Each gene of each of the four studied mitochondria has a different origin, while in some cases, multichromosomes may allow for

  16. Repeat polymorphisms in the Homo sapiens heme oxygenase-1 gene in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Gibbons

    Full Text Available Idiopathic and diabetic gastroparesis in Homo sapiens cause significant morbidity. Etiology or risk factors have not been clearly identified. Failure to sustain elevated heme oxygenase-1 (HO1 expression is associated with delayed gastric emptying in diabetic mice and polymorphisms in the HO1 gene (HMOX1, NCBI Gene ID:3162 are associated with worse outcomes in other diseases.Our hypothesis was that longer polyGT alleles are more common in the HMOX1 genes of individuals with gastroparesis than in controls without upper gastrointestinal motility disorders.Repeat length was determined in genomic DNA. Controls with diabetes (84 type 1, 84 type 2 and without diabetes (n = 170 were compared to diabetic gastroparetics (99 type 1, 72 type 2 and idiopathic gastroparetics (n = 234. Correlations of repeat lengths with clinical symptom sub-scores on the gastroparesis cardinal symptom index (GCSI were done. Statistical analyses of short (32 repeat alleles and differences in allele length were used to test for associations with gastroparesis.The distribution of allele lengths was different between groups (P = 0.016. Allele lengths were longest in type 2 diabetics with gastroparesis (29.18±0.35, mean ± SEM and longer in gastroparetics compared to non-diabetic controls (28.50±0.14 vs 27.64±0.20 GT repeats/allele, P = 0.0008. Type 2 diabetic controls had longer alleles than non-diabetic controls. In all gastroparetic groups, allele lengths were longer in African Americans compared to other racial groups, differences in the proportion of African Americans in the groups accounted for the differences between gastroparetics and controls. Diabetic gastroparetics with 1 or 2 long alleles had worse GCSI nausea sub-scores (3.30±0.23 as compared to those with 0 long alleles (2.66±0.12, P = 0.022.Longer poly-GT repeats in the HMOX1 gene are more common in African Americans with gastroparesis. Nausea symptoms are worse in subjects with longer alleles.

  17. Is Homo heidelbergensis a distinct species? New insight on the Mauer mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, Aurélien; Marchal, François; Condemi, Silvana

    2009-03-01

    The discovery of new fossils in Africa, Asia, and Europe, and the recognition of a greater diversity in the middle Pleistocene fossil record, has led to a reconsideration of the species Homo heidelbergensis. This nomen, formulated by Schoetensack in 1908 to describe the Mauer jaw (Germany), was almost forgotten during most of the past century. Numerous fossils have been attributed to it but no consensus has arisen concerning their classification. The holotype anatomical traits are still poorly understood, and numerous fossils with no mandibular remains have been placed in the taxon. Some researchers propose H. heidelbergensis as an Afro-European taxon that is ancestral to both modern humans and Neandertals whereas others think it is a strictly European species that is part of the Neandertal lineage. We focus on the validity of H. heidelbergensis, using the traditional basis of species recognition: anatomical description. We provide a comparative morphological analysis using 47 anatomical traits of 36 Pleistocene fossils from Africa, Asia, and Europe and 35 extant human mandibles. We re-examine the mandibular features of Mauer and discuss the specimen's inclusion in H. heidelbergensis, as well as alternative evolutionary theories. To lend objectivity to specimen grouping, we use multiple correspondence analysis associated with hierarchical classification that creates clusters corresponding to phenetic similarities between jaws. Our phenetic and comparative morphological analyses support the validity of H. heidelbergensis as a taxon. A set of morphological features can be statistically identified for the definition of the species. Some traits can be used to delimit H. heidelbergensis in an evolutionary framework (e.g., foramina mentale posteriorly positioned, horizontal retromolar surface). Those traits are also present on African (e.g., Tighenif) and European (e.g., Sima de los Huesos) specimens that show a close relationship with the Mauer mandible. Therefore, the

  18. Pressupostos de uma cosmovisão humanista na constitutividade do "Homo Juridicus" contemporâneo

    OpenAIRE

    Venturi, Eliseu Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A discussão trazida nesta dissertação se fundamenta no conceito de homo juridicus desenvolvido pelo jurista francês Alain Supiot (2007) enquanto construção dogmática, coligada às noções de pessoa e de personalidade, e recuperada em torno dos homens concretos em suas vidas particulares e em coletividade (Enrique Dussel). Baseia-se, igualmente, nas preocupações de Supiot por se compreender o direito como técnica de humanização das técnicas e, ainda, em se ter uma das tarefas da ciência ...

  19. Similarity analysis between chromosomes of Homo sapiens and monkeys with correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someswara Rao, Chinta; Viswanadha Raju, S

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys. We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. sapiens and monkeys is measured for a total of 210 chromosomes related to 10 species. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship between the H. sapiens and monkey. This similarity will be helpful at theft identification, maternity identification, disease identification, etc.

  20. The theory of Homo comperiens, the firm’s market price, and the implication for a firm’s profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Landström, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    This thesis proposes a theory of inefficient markets that uses limited rational choice as a central trait and I call it the theory of Homo comperiens. The theory limits the alternatives and states that the subjects are aware of and only allow them to have rational preference relations on the limited action set and state set, i.e. limited rationality is introduced. With limited rational choice, I drive a wedge between the market price and the intrinsic value and thus create an arbitrage market...

  1. Filling the gap. Human cranial remains from Gombore II (Melka Kunture, Ethiopia; ca. 850 ka) and the origin of Homo heidelbergensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profico, Antonio; Di Vincenzo, Fabio; Gagliardi, Lorenza; Piperno, Marcello; Manzi, Giorgio

    2016-06-20

    African archaic humans dated to around 1,0 Ma share morphological affinities with Homo ergaster and appear distinct in cranio-dental morphology from those of the Middle Pleistocene that are referred to Homo heidelbergensis. This observation suggests a taxonomic and phylogenetic discontinuity in Africa that ranges across the Matuyama/Brunhes reversal (780 ka). Yet, the fossil record between roughly 900 and 600 ka is notoriously poor. In this context, the Early Stone Age site of Gombore II, in the Melka Kunture formation (Upper Awash, Ethiopia), provides a privileged case-study. In the Acheulean layer of Gombore II, somewhat more recent than 875 ±10 ka, two large cranial fragments were discovered in 1973 and 1975 respectively: a partial left parietal (Melka Kunture 1) and a right portion of the frontal bone (Melka Kunture 2), which probably belonged to the same cranium. We present here the first detailed description and computer-assisted reconstruction of the morphology of the cranial vault pertaining to these fossil fragments. Our analysis suggest that the human fossil specimen from Gombore II fills a phenetic gap between Homo ergaster and Homo heidelbergensis. This appears in agreement with the chronology of such a partial cranial vault, which therefore represents at present one of the best available candidates (if any) for the origin of Homo heidelbergensis in Africa.

  2. Entre vapores & vídeos pornôs: dissidências homo/eróticas na trama discursiva do envelhecimento masculino Through steams & porno videos: homo/erotic dissident threads in the discoursive tapestry of aging men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Altair Pocahy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa formas de regulação do gênero e da sexualidade em sua articulação com os discursos normativos acionados na produção discursiva do envelhecimento. Buscando problematizar os jogos de verdade que cercam as experimentações de homens idosos em práticas homo/eróticas, tratou-se neste estudo (resultado de uma tese de doutorado em Educação de compreender como algo em torno de uma forma que o corpo toma é fabricado e descrito como verdade, produzindo sua materialidade (discursiva 'abjeta'.This article analyzes forms of regulation of gender and sexuality in their relationship with the normative discourses triggered by the discursive production of the 'aging'. Seeking the games of truth that surround the experience of elderly men with homo erotic practices, this study (the result of a doctoral thesis in Education tried to understand how the modern discursive practices can build and materialize the aging body as "abject".

  3. The Sima de los Huesos (Burgos, northern Spain): palaeoenvironment and habitats of Homo heidelbergensis during the Middle Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Nuria; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2011-06-01

    Interpreting how environmental dynamics respond to global climate change and how this has affected human evolution and dispersal is an on-going topic of debate. During the early Middle Pleistocene (˜0.6-0.4 Ma), as compared to earlier, environmental conditions were relatively more stable, with longer climatic cycles alternating between open and forested landscapes. During this interval, humans spread successfully providing an important number of fossil sites where fossils or tools are reported. The Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos (Burgos, northern Spain) site (Atapuerca-SH) is one of the earliest localities with hominin evidence in the European Middle Pleistocene, with the most important accumulation of Homo heidelbergensis so far. We have analyzed the abundant faunal record from Sima de los Huesos, which is mainly comprised of carnivores, in order to approach an interpretation of the palaeoenvironmental circumstances where these hominids inhabited within the Sierra. Other sites from Sierra de Atapuerca referred to the same Faunal Unit (FU 6), are roughly contemporaneous, and include important ungulates, which are here analyzed with Atapuerca-SH. Additional information provided by isotopic analysis helps elucidate the ancient ecology of taxa present in Sima de los Huesos allowing for an accurate portrayal of the setting in which humans lived. The timing of the spread of Homo heidelbergensis is dominated by a relative climatic and environmental stability and points to a landscape dominated by savannah-like open woodland.

  4. Elucidation of the Specific Formation of Homo- and Heterodimeric Forms of ThbZIP1 and Its Role in Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianguang Nie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein–protein interactions are important for the molecular understanding of the biological processes of proteins. The dimerization of bZIPs (basic leucine zipper proteins is involved in modifying binding site specificities, altering dimer stability, and permitting a new set of specific protein-to-protein interactions to occur at the promoter. In the present study, we studied the whether ThbZIP1 form homo- and heterodimers using the yeast two-hybrid method. Five bZIP genes were cloned from Tamarix hispida to investigate their interaction with ThbZIP1. Our results showed that ThbZIP1 can form homodimers with itself, and three out of five bZIPs could interact with the ThbZIP1 protein to form heterodimers. Real-time RT-PCR results suggested that these ThbZIPs can all respond to abiotic stresses and abscisic acid (ABA, and shared very similar expression patterns in response to NaCl, ABA or PEG6000. Subcellular localization studies showed that all ThbZIPs are targeted to the nucleus. Our results showed that ThbZIP1 are dimeric proteins, which can form homo- or heterodimers.

  5. Geological and taphonomic context for the new hominin species Homo naledi from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Paul HGM; Berger, Lee R; Roberts, Eric M; Kramers, Jan D; Hawks, John; Randolph-Quinney, Patrick S; Elliott, Marina; Musiba, Charles M; Churchill, Steven E; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Schmid, Peter; Backwell, Lucinda R; Belyanin, Georgy A; Boshoff, Pedro; Hunter, K Lindsay; Feuerriegel, Elen M; Gurtov, Alia; Harrison, James du G; Hunter, Rick; Kruger, Ashley; Morris, Hannah; Makhubela, Tebogo V; Peixotto, Becca; Tucker, Steven

    2015-01-01

    We describe the physical context of the Dinaledi Chamber within the Rising Star cave, South Africa, which contains the fossils of Homo naledi. Approximately 1550 specimens of hominin remains have been recovered from at least 15 individuals, representing a small portion of the total fossil content. Macro-vertebrate fossils are exclusively H. naledi, and occur within clay-rich sediments derived from in situ weathering, and exogenous clay and silt, which entered the chamber through fractures that prevented passage of coarser-grained material. The chamber was always in the dark zone, and not accessible to non-hominins. Bone taphonomy indicates that hominin individuals reached the chamber complete, with disarticulation occurring during/after deposition. Hominins accumulated over time as older laminated mudstone units and sediment along the cave floor were eroded. Preliminary evidence is consistent with deliberate body disposal in a single location, by a hominin species other than Homo sapiens, at an as-yet unknown date. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09561.001 PMID:26354289

  6. Spectroscopic, Homo-Lumo and NLO studies of tetra fluoro phthalate doped Coumarin crystals using DFT method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, B.; Kumaresan, P.; Nithiyanantham, S.; Sampathkumar, K.

    2017-08-01

    In the present examination, a methodical study has been done on the development of unadulterated and Coumarin doped Tetrafluoro Phthalate precious stones. Powder X-beam diffraction studies were done and the cross section parameters were computed by minimum square technique in pure and doped crystals. FT-IR, UV-Vis, Thermal, Micro-hardness and Dielectric studies were additionally done for the pure and doped crystals. The tentatively watched FT-IR and FT-Raman groups were allotted to various ordinary methods of the atom. The steadiness and charge delocalization of the particle were likewise concentrations were done by characteristic security orbital (NBO) examination. The HOMO-LUMO energies depict the charge exchange happens inside the particle. Atomic electrostatic potential has been broken down the electronic properties such as excitation energies, oscillator quality, wavelengths and HOMO-LUMO energies were acquired by time-subordinate DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The SHG of pure and doped TFP stones were examined through Nd:YAG Q-exchanged laser.

  7. Incorporation of [1-C14] Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate into Carotenoids and Homo carotenoids using a Cell-free Preparation of Micrococcus Luteus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Wandawi, H.

    1998-01-01

    The early steps up to the formation of acyclic unsaturated carotenes (e.g.,phytoene to lycopene) are presumed to be common to the biosynthesis of all carotenoids with 40 or more carbon atoms, nevertheless, no direct evidence so far available to confirm this for homo carotenoids (c 45 and c 50 carotenoids). In the present study, an active cell-free preparation was obtained from diphenylamine-inhibited cells of Micrococcus Iuteus and found to be capable to incorporate radioactivity from Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (labelled with C-14)into carotenoids and homo carotenoids, providing for the first time a direct evidence which suggests that both carotenoids and homo carotenoids are sharing the same biological origin. Furthermore, the technique developed in this study may be considered as a valuable method for preparation of biological-active labelled compounds which may have some advantages over conventional chemical syntheses methods

  8. Age of the earliest known hominids in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, C C; Curtis, G H; Jacob, T; Getty, A G; Suprijo, A; Widiasmoro

    1994-02-25

    40Ar/39Ar laser-incremental heating of hornblende separated from pumice recovered at two hominid sites in Java, Indonesia, has yielded well-defined plateaus with weighted mean ages of 1.81 +/- 0.04 and 1.66 +/- 0.04 million years ago (Ma). The hominid fossils, a juvenile calvaria of Pithecanthropus and a partial face and cranial fragments of Meganthropus, commonly considered part of the Asian Homo erectus hypodigm, are at least 0.6 million years older than fossils referred to as Homo erectus (OH-9) from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, and comparable in age with the oldest Koobi Fora Homo cf. erectus (Homo ergaster) in Kenya. These ages lend further credence to the view that Homo erectus may have evolved outside of Africa. If the ancestor of Homo erectus ventured out of Africa before 1.8 Ma, the dispersal would have predated the advent of the Acheulean culture at 1.4 Ma, possibly explaining the absence of these characteristic stone cleavers and hand axes in East Asia.

  9. How We Got Here: Evolutionary Changes in Skull Shape in Humans & Their Ancestors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    This activity uses inquiry to investigate how large changes in shape can evolve from small changes in the timing of development. Students measure skull shape in fetal, infant, juvenile, and adult chimpanzees and compare them to adult skulls of "Homo sapiens," "Homo erectus," and "Australopithecus afarensis." They conclude by re-interpreting their…

  10. Dating Of Remains Of Neanderthals And Homo Sapiens From Anatolian Region By ESR-US Combined Methods Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Farkh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We tried in the present study to apply the electron spin resonance method ESR combined with uranium-series method US for dating fossilized human teeth and found valuable archaeological sites such as Karain Cave in Anatolia. Karain Cave is a crucial site in a region that has yielded remains of Neanderthals and Homo sapiens our direct ancestors. The dating of these remains allowed us to trace the history since the presence of man on earth. Indeed Anatolia in Turkey is an important region of the world because it represents a passage between Africa the Middle East and Europe. Our study was conducted on faunal teeth found near human remains. The combination of ESR and US data on the teeth provides an understanding of their complex geochemical evolution and get better estimated results. Our samples were taken from the central cutting where geological layers are divided into archaeological horizons each 10 cm. The AH4 horizon of I.3 layer which represents the boundary between the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic is dated to 29 4 ka by the ESR-US model. Below two horizons AH6 and AH8 in the same layer I.4 are dated respectively 40 6 and 45 7 ka using the ESR-US model. In layer II where a stalagmite floor was taken we made two U-Th dating at the base and on the top ages oscillated around 120 ka. Since human remains were collected from AH3 horizon for Homo sapiens and AH5 and AH7 horizons for the Neanderthal man so the dates obtained in AH4 AH6 and AH8 represent maximum ages. Thus they provide the disappearance of Neanderthal man between 45 and 40 ka and the appearance of Homo sapiens in 29 ka in Anatolia region. Undoubtedly there is a chronological gap between the Middle and Upper Paleolithic represented by the disappearance of Neanderthals and the appearance of sapiens and none of our results confirm the contemporaneity of these two species in this region.

  11. Relative orientation of collagen molecules within a fibril: a homology model for homo sapiens type I collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Thomas A; Nash, Anthony; Birch, Helen L; de Leeuw, Nora H

    2018-02-15

    Type I collagen is an essential extracellular protein that plays an important structural role in tissues that require high tensile strength. However, owing to the molecule's size, to date no experimental structural data are available for the Homo sapiens species. Therefore, there is a real need to develop a reliable homology model and a method to study the packing of the collagen molecules within the fibril. Through the use of the homology model and implementation of a novel simulation technique, we have ascertained the orientations of the collagen molecules within a fibril, which is currently below the resolution limit of experimental techniques. The longitudinal orientation of collagen molecules within a fibril has a significant effect on the mechanical and biological properties of the fibril, owing to the different amino acid side chains available at the interface between the molecules.

  12. Study of local conformation and molecular movements of homo-polypeptides in aqueous solutions by using magnetic resonance and relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perly, Bruno

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to study local conformations and mobilities of some typical homo-polypeptides by using techniques of magnetic resonance. By using these techniques, it is possible to make highly local observations of molecular elements which allows very efficient analysis of structural and dynamic properties of several biologically important compounds to be performed, and the study of their interactions. After a presentation of the general properties of the studied polypeptides, of magnetic resonance and of magnetic relaxation, the author presents some elements of macromolecular dynamics and movement models. Then, he reports the study of local conformations and structural transitions, applications of spin marking to the dynamic study of polypeptides, a dynamic study of the polypeptide skeleton under the form of statistic balls, the study of local movements of side chains by using nuclear relaxation, the study of the coupling of movements of main and side chains, and of the nuclear relaxation induced by a radical spin marker

  13. HOMO-LUMO analysis of multi walled carbon nanotubes doped Tetrafluoro Phthalate crystals for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, B.; Kumaresan, P.; Nithiyanantham, S.; Sampathkumar, K.

    2018-01-01

    The MWCNTs doped Tetrafluoro Phthalate (C6H2F4O4) precious stones are constantly having higher transmission rate contrasted with immaculate Tetrafluoro Phthalate crystal. The dependability of Tetrafluoro Phthalate crystal was enhanced by doping MWCNTs.The basic, synthetic, optical, mechanical and non-direct optical properties of the doped precious crystals were dissected with the portrayal concentrates, for example, powder XRD, FT-IR, UV-Visible, Hardness and SHG estimations individually. The dopants are relied upon to substitute the carbon iotas in the Tetrafluoro Phthalate grid because of their change of valency and in addition vicinity of ionic sweep. The strength and charge delocalization of the particle were additionally concentrated on by characteristic security orbital (NBO) examination. The HOMO-LUMO energies depict the charge exchange happens inside the atom. Atomic electrostatic potential has been dissected. The SHG productivity of the immaculate and colors doped TFP crystals were additionally contemplated utilizing Nd:YAG Q-exchanged laser.

  14. De novo design of an RNA tile that self-assembles into a homo-octameric nanoprism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinwen; Liu, Zhiyu; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Guansong; Mao, Chengde

    2015-01-01

    Rational, de novo design of RNA nanostructures can potentially integrate a wide array of structural and functional diversities. Such nanostructures have great promises in biomedical applications. Despite impressive progress in this field, all RNA building blocks (or tiles) reported so far are not geometrically well defined. They are generally flexible and can only assemble into a mixture of complexes with different sizes. To achieve defined structures, multiple tiles with different sequences are needed. In this study, we design an RNA tile that can homo-oligomerize into a uniform RNA nanostructure. The designed RNA nanostructure is characterized by gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy and cryogenic electron microscopy imaging. We believe that development along this line would help RNA nanotechnology to reach the structural control that is currently associated with DNA nanotechnology.

  15. Description, new reconstruction, comparative anatomy, and classification of the Sterkfontein Stw 53 cranium, with discussions about the taxonomy of other southern African early Homo remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curnoe, Darren; Tobias, Phillip V

    2006-01-01

    Specimen Stw 53 was recovered in 1976 from Member 5 of the Sterkfontein Formation. Since its incomplete initial description and comparison, the partial cranium has figured prominently in discussions about the systematics of early Homo. Despite publication of a preliminary reconstruction in 1985, Stw 53 has yet to be compared comprehensively to other Plio-Pleistocene fossils or assessed systematically. In this paper, we report on a new reconstruction of this specimen and provide a detailed description and comparison of its morphology. Our reconstruction differs in important respects from the earlier one, especially in terms of neurocranial length, breadth, and height. However, given that Stw 53 exhibits extensive damage, these dimensions are most likely prone to much error in reconstruction. In areas of well-preserved bone, Stw 53 shares many cranial features with Homo habilis, and we propose retaining it within this species. We also consider the affinities of dental remains from Sterkfontein Member 5, along with those from Swartkrans and Drimolen previously assigned to Homo. We find evidence for sympatry of H. habilis and Australopithecus robustus and possibly Plio-Pleistocene Homo sapiens sensu lato in Sterkfontein Member 5. At Swartkrans and Drimolen, we find evidence of H. habilis. We also compare the morphologies of Stw 53 and SK 847 and find compelling evidence to assign the latter specimen to H. habilis, as has been proposed.

  16. Wobble↔Watson-Crick tautomeric transitions in the homo-purine DNA mismatches: a key to the intimate mechanisms of the spontaneous transversions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic capability of the homo-purine DNA base mispairs to perform wobble↔Watson-Crick/Topal-Fresco tautomeric transitions via the sequential intrapair double proton transfer was discovered for the first time using QM (MP2/DFT) and QTAIM methodologies that are crucial for understanding the microstructural mechanisms of the spontaneous transversions.

  17. The mitogenome of a 35,000-year-old Homo sapiens from Europe supports a Palaeolithic back-migration to Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hervella, M.; Svensson, E.M.; Alberdi, A.; Gunther, T.; Izagirre, N.; Munters, A.R.; Alonso, S.; Ioana, M.; Ridiche, F.; Soficaru, A.; Jakobsson, M.; Netea, M.G.; Rua, C. de la

    2016-01-01

    After the dispersal of modern humans (Homo sapiens) Out of Africa, hominins with a similar morphology to that of present-day humans initiated the gradual demographic expansion into Eurasia. The mitogenome (33-fold coverage) of the Pestera Muierii 1 individual (PM1) from Romania (35 ky cal BP) we

  18. Ethylene homo- and copolymerization chain-transfers: A perspective from supported (n BuCp) 2 ZrCl 2 catalyst active centre distribution

    KAUST Repository

    Atiqullah, Muhammad; Al-Harthi, Mamdouh A.; Anantawaraskul, Siripon; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.

    2015-01-01

    /MAO/(nBuCp)2ZrCl2 - were applied to evaluate the active-centre-dependent ethylene homo- and copolymerization rates, as well as the corresponding chain termination rates. This approach, from a microkinetic mechanistic viewpoint, elucidates better the 1-hexene

  19. Analysis of Three Sugarcane Homo/Homeologous Regions Suggests Independent Polyploidization Events of Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum spontaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Mariane de Mendonça; Del Bem, Luiz Eduardo; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; de Setta, Nathalia; Kitajima, João Paulo; Cruz, Guilherme Marcelo Queiroga; Sforça, Danilo Augusto; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes; Grativol, Clícia; Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; Vicentini, Renato; Vincentz, Michel

    2017-02-01

    Whole genome duplication has played an important role in plant evolution and diversification. Sugarcane is an important crop with a complex hybrid polyploid genome, for which the process of adaptation to polyploidy is still poorly understood. In order to improve our knowledge about sugarcane genome evolution and the homo/homeologous gene expression balance, we sequenced and analyzed 27 BACs (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome) of sugarcane R570 cultivar, containing the putative single-copy genes LFY (seven haplotypes), PHYC (four haplotypes), and TOR (seven haplotypes). Comparative genomic approaches showed that these sugarcane loci presented a high degree of conservation of gene content and collinearity (synteny) with sorghum and rice orthologous regions, but were invaded by transposable elements (TE). All the homo/homeologous haplotypes of LFY, PHYC, and TOR are likely to be functional, because they are all under purifying selection (dN/dS ≪ 1). However, they were found to participate in a nonequivalently manner to the overall expression of the corresponding gene. SNPs, indels, and amino acid substitutions allowed inferring the S. officinarum or S. spontaneum origin of the TOR haplotypes, which further led to the estimation that these two sugarcane ancestral species diverged between 2.5 and 3.5 Ma. In addition, analysis of shared TE insertions in TOR haplotypes suggested that two autopolyploidization may have occurred in the lineage that gave rise to S. officinarum, after its divergence from S. spontaneum. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. When Homo Academicus meets Homo Journalisticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    2017-01-01

    The longstanding tension between journalists and academics is explored by analysing data from qualitative interviews with 25 journalists and scientists using an analytical framework derived from Bourdieu’s field theory. The article empirically shows how journalism and science are both constructed...... around the opposition between knowledge (content) and communication (form). Based on the analysis of narratives in the communication processes between the two fields, the article shows that scientists and journalists take different positions according to the existing ideals within their respective fields......, revealing different science-communication habitus. The article presents a typology of proximity and distance, in which communication between the fields becomes easier or more difficult as both fields try to protect their historic professional identities....

  1. Speleothem carbon isotopes in the tropics: a proxy for vegetation and what they reveal about the demise of Homo floresiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroxton, N.; Gagan, M. K.; Ayliffe, L. K.; Hellstrom, J.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.; Zhao, J.; Hantoro, W. S.; Rifai, H.; Scott-Gagan, H.; Cowley, J. A.; Suwargadi, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    Most long-term speleothem climate records focus on δ18O (Cruz Jr. et al. 2005, Wang et al. 2005, Meckler et al. 2012, Carolin et al. 2013). In tropical regions, where temperature variability is relatively small, speleothem δ18O serves as a proxy for precipitation amount. On orbital timescales, changes in moisture source, sea level and global ice volume also influence speleothem δ18O. As both δ18O and δ13C are measured simultaneously, a wealth of potential paleoclimatic information from the δ13C records for numerous sites awaits publication. However, δ13C is less well understood as an environmental proxy, and a simple control and explanation may not be forthcoming. We present a new 92,000-year long speleothem δ13C record for Liang Luar cave in Flores, Indonesia. Here, δ13C acts as a proxy for soil CO2 production above the cave, which is strongly linked to vegetative changes. Since vegetation and soil CO2 production are closely linked to a climatic control, changes in speleothem δ13C can be considered an environmental response to climate change. The Liang Luar δ13C record mainly tracks the δ18O, indicating close affiliation between vegetation and climate. Peak vegetation cover and soil activity (lower δ13C) occur in the early Holocene. The Last Glacial Maximum does not have notably higher δ13C than Isotope Stages 3 and 5a. δ13C variability in the glacial is much higher than that in the Holocene. Differences between the δ13C and δ18O records indicate periods of vegetative change without a climatic cause. The largest increase in δ13C (8‰) during the last 90kyr occurred at 68kyr BP. This anomalous δ13C excursion represents a major loss of vegetation around Liang Luar. The last surviving non-human member of the Homo genus: Homo floresiensis, disappeared from the stratigraphic record in nearby Liang Bua cave between 17 and 10kyr BP (Roberts et al. 2009). The cause of the disappearance, (e.g. climate change, volcanic catastrophe or human competition

  2. Azole affinity of sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) enzymes from Candida albicans and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrilow, Andrew G; Parker, Josie E; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2013-03-01

    Candida albicans CYP51 (CaCYP51) (Erg11), full-length Homo sapiens CYP51 (HsCYP51), and truncated Δ60HsCYP51 were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. CaCYP51 and both HsCYP51 enzymes bound lanosterol (K(s), 14 to 18 μM) and catalyzed the 14α-demethylation of lanosterol using Homo sapiens cytochrome P450 reductase and NADPH as redox partners. Both HsCYP51 enzymes bound clotrimazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole tightly (dissociation constants [K(d)s], 42 to 131 nM) but bound fluconazole (K(d), ~30,500 nM) and voriconazole (K(d), ~2,300 nM) weakly, whereas CaCYP51 bound all five medical azole drugs tightly (K(d)s, 10 to 56 nM). Selectivity for CaCYP51 over HsCYP51 ranged from 2-fold (clotrimazole) to 540-fold (fluconazole) among the medical azoles. In contrast, selectivity for CaCYP51 over Δ60HsCYP51 with agricultural azoles ranged from 3-fold (tebuconazole) to 9-fold (propiconazole). Prothioconazole bound extremely weakly to CaCYP51 and Δ60HsCYP51, producing atypical type I UV-visible difference spectra (K(d)s, 6,100 and 910 nM, respectively), indicating that binding was not accomplished through direct coordination with the heme ferric ion. Prothioconazole-desthio (the intracellular derivative of prothioconazole) bound tightly to both CaCYP51 and Δ60HsCYP51 (K(d), ~40 nM). These differences in binding affinities were reflected in the observed 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values, which were 9- to 2,000-fold higher for Δ60HsCYP51 than for CaCYP51, with the exception of tebuconazole, which strongly inhibited both CYP51 enzymes. In contrast, prothioconazole weakly inhibited CaCYP51 (IC(50), ~150 μM) and did not significantly inhibit Δ60HsCYP51.

  3. Ion beam synthesis and characterization of large area 3C-SiC pseudo substrates for homo- and heteroepitaxy; Ionenstrahlsynthese und Charakterisierung grossflaechiger 3C-SiC-Pseudosubstrate fuer die Homo- und Heteroepitaxie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberlen, Maik

    2006-12-15

    In this work, large area epitaxial 3C-SiC films on Si(100) and Si(111) were formed by ion beam synthesis and subsequently characterized for their structural and crystalline properties. These SiC/Si structures are meant to be used as SiC pseudosubstrates for the homo- and heteroepitaxial growth of other compound semiconductors. The suitability of these pseudosubstrates for this purpose was tested using various epitaxial systems and thin film growth methods. For this the homoepitaxial growth of 3C-SiC employing C{sub 60}-MBE and the heteroepitaxial growth of hexagonal GaN films grown by MOCVD and IBAMBA was studied in detail. The comparison of the structural and crystalline properties with data from literature enabled a qualified judgement of the potential of the 3C-SiC pseudosubstrates as an alternative substrate for the epitaxial growth of such films. These new 3C-SiC pseudosubstrates also enabled studies of other little known epitaxial systems: For the first time hexagonal ZnO films on (111) oriented pseudosubstrates were grown using PLD. The method if IBAMBE enabled the growth of cubic GaN layers on (100)-oriented pseudosubstrates. (orig.)

  4. Terrestrial environmental changes around the Gulf of Aden over the last 210 kyr deduced from the sediment n-alkane record: Implications for the dispersal of Homo sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaji, Yuta; Kawahata, Hodaka; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Murayama, Masafumi; Tamaki, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed long-chain (C25-C36) n-alkanes and pollen grains in sediments from the Gulf of Aden covering the last 212 kyr to reconstruct the surrounding terrestrial environment, a critical region for the dispersal of Homo sapiens. Substantial increases in the flux of n-alkanes during 200-185, 120-95, and 70-50 ka were interpreted to indicate enhanced vegetation biomass in the Arabian Peninsula and the northern part of the Horn of Africa or increase in lithogenic material inputs. Periods of enhanced n-alkane flux occurred during or immediately after pluvial episodes, indicating that the increased precipitation may have induced substantially enhanced vegetation biomass, creating favorable conditions for Homo sapiens. Additionally, vegetation may have increased due to moderate precipitation unrecorded by speleothems or in accordance with the lowering of sea level, indicating that the dispersal might have been possible even after the shift to an arid environment indicated by the speleothems.

  5. Discrimination of artificial categories structured by family resemblances: a comparative study in people (Homo sapiens) and pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Hiroshi; Jitsumori, Masako

    2007-02-01

    Adult humans (Homo sapiens) and pigeons (Columba livia) were trained to discriminate artificial categories that the authors created by mimicking 2 properties of natural categories. One was a family resemblance relationship: The highly variable exemplars, including those that did not have features in common, were structured by a similarity network with the features correlating to one another in each category. The other was a polymorphous rule: No single feature was essential for distinguishing the categories, and all the features overlapped between the categories. Pigeons learned the categories with ease and then showed a prototype effect in accord with the degrees of family resemblance for novel stimuli. Some evidence was also observed for interactive effects of learning of individual exemplars and feature frequencies. Humans had difficulty in learning the categories. The participants who learned the categories generally responded to novel stimuli in an all-or-none fashion on the basis of their acquired classification decision rules. The processes that underlie the classification performances of the 2 species are discussed.

  6. Highly Crystalline C8-BTBT Thin-Film Transistors by Lateral Homo-Epitaxial Growth on Printed Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janneck, Robby; Pilet, Nicolas; Bommanaboyena, Satya Prakash; Watts, Benjamin; Heremans, Paul; Genoe, Jan; Rolin, Cedric

    2017-11-01

    Highly crystalline thin films of organic semiconductors offer great potential for fundamental material studies as well as for realizing high-performance, low-cost flexible electronics. The fabrication of these films directly on inert substrates is typically done by meniscus-guided coating techniques. The resulting layers show morphological defects that hinder charge transport and induce large device-to-device variability. Here, a double-step method for organic semiconductor layers combining a solution-processed templating layer and a lateral homo-epitaxial growth by a thermal evaporation step is reported. The epitaxial regrowth repairs most of the morphological defects inherent to meniscus-guided coatings. The resulting film is highly crystalline and features a mobility increased by a factor of three and a relative spread in device characteristics improved by almost half an order of magnitude. This method is easily adaptable to other coating techniques and offers a route toward the fabrication of high-performance, large-area electronics based on highly crystalline thin films of organic semiconductors. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. An enlarged parietal foramen in the late archaic Xujiayao 11 neurocranium from Northern China, and rare anomalies among Pleistocene Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiu-Jie; Xing, Song; Trinkaus, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We report here a neurocranial abnormality previously undescribed in Pleistocene human fossils, an enlarged parietal foramen (EPF) in the early Late Pleistocene Xujiayao 11 parietal bones from the Xujiayao (Houjiayao) site, northern China. Xujiayao 11 is a pair of partial posteromedial parietal bones from an adult. It exhibits thick cranial vault bones, arachnoid granulations, a deviated posterior sagittal suture, and a unilateral (right) parietal lacuna with a posteriorly-directed and enlarged endocranial vascular sulcus. Differential diagnosis indicates that the perforation is a congenital defect, an enlarged parietal foramen, commonly associated with cerebral venous and cranial vault anomalies. It was not lethal given the individual's age-at-death, but it may have been associated with secondary neurological deficiencies. The fossil constitutes the oldest evidence in human evolution of this very rare condition (a single enlarged parietal foramen). In combination with developmental and degenerative abnormalities in other Pleistocene human remains, it suggests demographic and survival patterns among Pleistocene Homo that led to an elevated frequency of conditions unknown or rare among recent humans.

  8. An enlarged parietal foramen in the late archaic Xujiayao 11 neurocranium from Northern China, and rare anomalies among Pleistocene Homo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Jie Wu

    Full Text Available We report here a neurocranial abnormality previously undescribed in Pleistocene human fossils, an enlarged parietal foramen (EPF in the early Late Pleistocene Xujiayao 11 parietal bones from the Xujiayao (Houjiayao site, northern China. Xujiayao 11 is a pair of partial posteromedial parietal bones from an adult. It exhibits thick cranial vault bones, arachnoid granulations, a deviated posterior sagittal suture, and a unilateral (right parietal lacuna with a posteriorly-directed and enlarged endocranial vascular sulcus. Differential diagnosis indicates that the perforation is a congenital defect, an enlarged parietal foramen, commonly associated with cerebral venous and cranial vault anomalies. It was not lethal given the individual's age-at-death, but it may have been associated with secondary neurological deficiencies. The fossil constitutes the oldest evidence in human evolution of this very rare condition (a single enlarged parietal foramen. In combination with developmental and degenerative abnormalities in other Pleistocene human remains, it suggests demographic and survival patterns among Pleistocene Homo that led to an elevated frequency of conditions unknown or rare among recent humans.

  9. Emergence of a Homo sapiens-specific gene family and chromosome 16p11.2 CNV susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttle, Xander; Giannuzzi, Giuliana; Duyzend, Michael H; Schraiber, Joshua G; Narvaiza, Iñigo; Sudmant, Peter H; Penn, Osnat; Chiatante, Giorgia; Malig, Maika; Huddleston, John; Benner, Chris; Camponeschi, Francesca; Ciofi-Baffoni, Simone; Stessman, Holly A F; Marchetto, Maria C N; Denman, Laura; Harshman, Lana; Baker, Carl; Raja, Archana; Penewit, Kelsi; Janke, Nicolette; Tang, W Joyce; Ventura, Mario; Banci, Lucia; Antonacci, Francesca; Akey, Joshua M; Amemiya, Chris T; Gage, Fred H; Reymond, Alexandre; Eichler, Evan E

    2016-08-11

    Genetic differences that specify unique aspects of human evolution have typically been identified by comparative analyses between the genomes of humans and closely related primates, including more recently the genomes of archaic hominins. Not all regions of the genome, however, are equally amenable to such study. Recurrent copy number variation (CNV) at chromosome 16p11.2 accounts for approximately 1% of cases of autism and is mediated by a complex set of segmental duplications, many of which arose recently during human evolution. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of the locus and identify bolA family member 2 (BOLA2) as a gene duplicated exclusively in Homo sapiens. We estimate that a 95-kilobase-pair segment containing BOLA2 duplicated across the critical region approximately 282 thousand years ago (ka), one of the latest among a series of genomic changes that dramatically restructured the locus during hominid evolution. All humans examined carried one or more copies of the duplication, which nearly fixed early in the human lineage--a pattern unlikely to have arisen so rapidly in the absence of selection (P sapiens-specific duplication. In summary, the duplicative transposition of BOLA2 at the root of the H. sapiens lineage about 282 ka simultaneously increased copy number of a gene associated with iron homeostasis and predisposed our species to recurrent rearrangements associated with disease.

  10. Visible spatial contiguity of social information and reward affects social learning in brown capuchins (Sapajus apella) and children (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lara A; Whiten, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Animal social learning is typically studied experimentally by the presentation of artificial foraging tasks. Although productive, results are often variable even for the same species. We present and test the hypothesis that one cause of variation is that spatial distance between rewards and the means of reward release causes conflicts for participants' attentional focus. We investigated whether spatial contiguity between a visible reward and the means of release would affect behavioral responses that evidence social learning, testing 21 brown capuchins ( Sapajus apella ), a much-studied species with variant evidence for social learning, and one hundred eighty 2- to 4-year-old human children ( Homo sapiens ), a benchmark species known for a strong social learning disposition. Participants were presented with a novel transparent apparatus where a reward was either proximal or distal to a demonstrated means of releasing it. A distal reward location decreased attention toward the location of the demonstration and impaired subsequent success in gaining rewards. Generally, the capuchins produced the alternative method to that demonstrated, whereas children copied the method demonstrated, although a distal reward location reduced copying in younger children. We conclude that some design features in common social learning tasks may significantly degrade the evidence for social learning. We have demonstrated this for 2 different primates but suggest that it is a significant factor to control for in social learning research across all taxa. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Chirality- and sequence-selective successive self-sorting via specific homo- and complementary-duplex formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiguchi, Wataru; Tanabe, Junki; Yamada, Hidekazu; Iida, Hiroki; Taura, Daisuke; Ousaka, Naoki; Yashima, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Self-recognition and self-discrimination within complex mixtures are of fundamental importance in biological systems, which entirely rely on the preprogrammed monomer sequences and homochirality of biological macromolecules. Here we report artificial chirality- and sequence-selective successive self-sorting of chiral dimeric strands bearing carboxylic acid or amidine groups joined by chiral amide linkers with different sequences through homo- and complementary-duplex formations. A mixture of carboxylic acid dimers linked by racemic-1,2-cyclohexane bis-amides with different amide sequences (NHCO or CONH) self-associate to form homoduplexes in a completely sequence-selective way, the structures of which are different from each other depending on the linker amide sequences. The further addition of an enantiopure amide-linked amidine dimer to a mixture of the racemic carboxylic acid dimers resulted in the formation of a single optically pure complementary duplex with a 100% diastereoselectivity and complete sequence specificity stabilized by the amidinium–carboxylate salt bridges, leading to the perfect chirality- and sequence-selective duplex formation. PMID:26051291

  12. Synthesis and conformational analysis of linear homo- and heterooligomers from novel 2-C-branched sugar amino acids (SAAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guang-Zong; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Heng-Xi; Rademacher, Christoph; Zou, Xiao-Peng; Zheng, Hong-Ning; Xu, Fei; Wang, Xiao-Li; Linker, Torsten; Yin, Jian

    2018-04-26

    Sugar amino acids (SAAs), as biologically interesting structures bearing both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups represent an important class of multifunctional building blocks. In this study, we develop an easy access to novel SAAs in only three steps starting from nitro compounds in high yields in analytically pure form, easily available by ceric (IV) mediated radical additions. Such novel SAAs have been applied in the assembly of total nine carbopeptoids with the form of linear homo- and heterooligomers for the structural investigations employing circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, which suggest that the carbopeptoids emerge a well-extended, left (or right)-handed conformation similar to polyproline II (PPII) helices. NMR studies also clearly demonstrated the presence of ordered secondary structural elements. 2D-ROESY spectra were acquired to identify i+1 NH ↔  i C 1 H, i C 2 H correlations which support the conformational analysis of tetramers by CD spectroscopy. These findings provide interesting information of SAAs and their oligomers as potential scaffolds for discovering new drugs and materials.

  13. A photographic portrait of Father Benignus Wanat, discalced Carmelite, with Christ’s head Ecce Homo in the background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Platowska-Sapetowa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This photographic memory of the late Father Benignus Józef Wanat OCD is based upon a high quality photo, anonymously posted and found accidentally on Facebook on 11 April 2013 after his funeral. Investigations established that the photographer, Jacek Praśkiewicz, is a photographer from Kielce. Additionally, the work includes a descriptive analysis of various aspects of several works of art: a psycho-physical description of the character portrayed its settings and lighting, a description of the ceremonial costume used and its symbolic elements. It has been established that the photo was taken at a celebration of an anniversary held on 12 December 2008. What is crucial to emphasise is this: the relationship of the portrayed person (Fr Benignus Józef Wanat OCD with the portrait’s background, which uses a fragmented image of Christ Ecce Homo, which is of unknown provenance. This latter aspect included a description of the work which is very important, because it shows the supporting facts taken from the biography of Father Benignus, corroborated by the statements of witnesses, of his imitative attitude to Christ, in relation to God-Man suffering in humble silence and bringing aid to his fellow human even to the extent of the sacrifice of his life. [Translatio by Fr E. Wanat SDS

  14. Structural basis for the roles of starch and sucrose in homo-exopolysaccharide formation by Lactobacillus reuteri 35-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuxiang; Dobruchowska, Justyna M; van der Kaaij, Rachel M; Gerwig, Gerrit J; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2016-10-20

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) that are important for biofilm formation in the mammalian oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Sucrose is a well-known substrate for homo-EPS formation by Lactobacillus reuteri glucansucrases (GS). Starch is the main fermentable carbohydrate in the human diet, and often consumed simultaneously with sucrose. Recently we have characterized L. reuteri strains that also possess 4,6-α-glucanotransferases (4,6-α-GTases) that act on starch yielding isomalto-/malto-polysaccharides. In this study we have characterized the EPS formed by L. reuteri 35-5 cells and enzymes from sucrose plus starch. The data show that both in vivo and in vitro the L. reuteri 35-5 GS and 4,6-α-GTase enzymes, incubated with sucrose plus starch, cross-react and contribute to synthesis of the final hybrid EPS products. This may have strong effects on the EPS functional properties, influence biofilm formation, and affect the relationship between dietary intake of sucrose and starch, and dental caries formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Building the genomic nation: ‘Homo Brasilis’ and the ‘Genoma Mexicano’ in comparative cultural perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael; García-Deister, Vivette; López-Beltrán, Carlos; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Schwartz-Marín, Ernesto; Wade, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between genetic research, nationalism and the construction of collective social identities in Latin America. It makes a comparative analysis of two research projects – the ‘Genoma Mexicano’ and the ‘Homo Brasilis’ – both of which sought to establish national and genetic profiles. Both have reproduced and strengthened the idea of their respective nations of focus, incorporating biological elements into debates on social identities. Also, both have placed the unifying figure of the mestizo/mestiço at the heart of national identity constructions, and in so doing have displaced alternative identity categories, such as those based on race. However, having been developed in different national contexts, these projects have had distinct scientific and social trajectories: in Mexico, the genomic mestizo is mobilized mainly in relation to health, while in Brazil the key arena is that of race. We show the importance of the nation as a frame for mobilizing genetic data in public policy debates, and demonstrate how race comes in and out of focus in different Latin American national contexts of genomic research, while never completely disappearing. PMID:27479999

  16. Homo- or Hetero- Triplet-Triplet Annihilation? A Case Study with Perylene-Bodipy Dyads/Triads

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xiaoneng

    2017-07-06

    The photophysical processes of intramolecular ‘ping-pong’ energy transfers in the iodinated reference dyad BDP-I2-Py, as well as the uniodinated dyad BDP-Py and triad BDP-2Py, were studied. For BDP-I2-Py, a forward Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the perylene (Py) unit to the diiodoBDP unit (7 ps) and a backward triplet energy transfer (TTET, 3 ns) from the diiodoBDP unit to the Py unit were observed. For the BDP-Py and BDP-2Py systems, a FRET (5 ~ 8 ps) and a photo-induced electron transfer (PET) (1-1.5 ns) were observed in acetonitrile. The uniodinated dyad and triad were used as the triplet energy acceptor and emitter for a TTA upconversion with palladium tetraphenyltetrabenzoporphyrin as the triplet photosensitizer. A maximum upconversion quantum yield of 12.6 % was measured. Given that the dyad (BDP-Py) contains one BDP unit and one Py unit, while the triad (BDP-2Py) contains two Py units and one BDP unit, and based on the results from steady-state femtosecond and nanosecond transient optical spectroscopies, it is concluded that neither intramolecular homo- triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) nor intramolecular hetero-TTA is possible during a TTA upconversion for those upconversion systems.

  17. Ion beam synthesis and characterization of large area 3C-SiC pseudo substrates for homo- and heteroepitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeberlen, Maik

    2006-12-01

    In this work, large area epitaxial 3C-SiC films on Si(100) and Si(111) were formed by ion beam synthesis and subsequently characterized for their structural and crystalline properties. These SiC/Si structures are meant to be used as SiC pseudosubstrates for the homo- and heteroepitaxial growth of other compound semiconductors. The suitability of these pseudosubstrates for this purpose was tested using various epitaxial systems and thin film growth methods. For this the homoepitaxial growth of 3C-SiC employing C 60 -MBE and the heteroepitaxial growth of hexagonal GaN films grown by MOCVD and IBAMBA was studied in detail. The comparison of the structural and crystalline properties with data from literature enabled a qualified judgement of the potential of the 3C-SiC pseudosubstrates as an alternative substrate for the epitaxial growth of such films. These new 3C-SiC pseudosubstrates also enabled studies of other little known epitaxial systems: For the first time hexagonal ZnO films on (111) oriented pseudosubstrates were grown using PLD. The method if IBAMBE enabled the growth of cubic GaN layers on (100)-oriented pseudosubstrates. (orig.)

  18. Regulator of G Protein Signaling 7 (RGS7) Can Exist in a Homo-oligomeric Form That Is Regulated by Gαo and R7-binding Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayou, Junior; Wang, Qiang; Jang, Geeng-Fu; Pronin, Alexey N; Orlandi, Cesare; Martemyanov, Kirill A; Crabb, John W; Slepak, Vladlen Z

    2016-04-22

    RGS (regulator of G protein signaling) proteins of the R7 subfamily (RGS6, -7, -9, and -11) are highly expressed in neurons where they regulate many physiological processes. R7 RGS proteins contain several distinct domains and form obligatory dimers with the atypical Gβ subunit, Gβ5 They also interact with other proteins such as R7-binding protein, R9-anchoring protein, and the orphan receptors GPR158 and GPR179. These interactions facilitate plasma membrane targeting and stability of R7 proteins and modulate their activity. Here, we investigated RGS7 complexes using in situ chemical cross-linking. We found that in mouse brain and transfected cells cross-linking causes formation of distinct RGS7 complexes. One of the products had the apparent molecular mass of ∼150 kDa on SDS-PAGE and did not contain Gβ5 Mass spectrometry analysis showed no other proteins to be present within the 150-kDa complex in the amount close to stoichiometric with RGS7. This finding suggested that RGS7 could form a homo-oligomer. Indeed, co-immunoprecipitation of differentially tagged RGS7 constructs, with or without chemical cross-linking, demonstrated RGS7 self-association. RGS7-RGS7 interaction required the DEP domain but not the RGS and DHEX domains or the Gβ5 subunit. Using transfected cells and knock-out mice, we demonstrated that R7-binding protein had a strong inhibitory effect on homo-oligomerization of RGS7. In contrast, our data indicated that GPR158 could bind to the RGS7 homo-oligomer without causing its dissociation. Co-expression of constitutively active Gαo prevented the RGS7-RGS7 interaction. These results reveal the existence of RGS protein homo-oligomers and show regulation of their assembly by R7 RGS-binding partners. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Has evolution ‘prepared’ us to deal with death? Paleoanthropological aspects of the enigma of Homo naledi’s disposal of their dead

    OpenAIRE

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2017-01-01

    The Homo naledi discovery introduced questions that had not been previously posed regarding fossil finds. This is because, apart from their fascinating physiology, they seemingly deliberately disposed of their dead in a ritualised way. Although this theory may still be disproved in future, the present article provisionally accepts it. This evokes religious questions because it suggests the possibility of causal thinking, wilful and cooperative behaviour, and the possibility that this behaviou...

  20. Ethylene homo- and copolymerization chain-transfers: A perspective from supported (n BuCp) 2 ZrCl 2 catalyst active centre distribution

    KAUST Repository

    Atiqullah, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    Polymerization chain termination reactions and unsaturation of the polymer backbone end are related. Therefore, in this study, the parameters resulting from the modelling of the active centre distribution of the supported catalyst - silica/MAO/(nBuCp)2ZrCl2 - were applied to evaluate the active-centre-dependent ethylene homo- and copolymerization rates, as well as the corresponding chain termination rates. This approach, from a microkinetic mechanistic viewpoint, elucidates better the 1-hexene-induced positive comonomer effect and chain transfer phenomenon. The kinetic expressions, developed on the basis of the proposed polymerization mechanisms, illustrate how the active site type-dependent chain transfer phenomenon is influenced by the different apparent termination rate constants and momoner concentrations. The active centre-specific molecular weight M ni (for the above homo- and copolymer), as a function of chain transfer probability, p CTi, varied as follows: log (p C Ti) = log (mwru) - log (Mn i), where mw ru is the molecular weight of the repeat unit. The physical significance of this finding has been explained. The homo- and copolymer backbones showed all the three chain end unsaturations (vinyl, vinylidene, and trans-vinylene). The postulated polymerization mechanisms reveal the underlying polymer chemistry. The results of the present study will contribute to develop in future supported metallocene catalysts that will be useful to synthesize polyethylene precursors having varying chain end unsaturations, which can be eventually used to prepare functional polyethylenes. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015 Indian Academy of Sciences.

  1. Differential Responding by Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta and Humans (Homo sapiens to Variable Outcomes in the Assurance Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey E. Parrish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral flexibility in how one responds to variable partner play can be examined using economic coordination games in which subjects play against a variety of partners and therefore may need to alter their behavior to produce the highest payoff. But how do we study this behavioral flexibility once players have settled on a response? Here, we investigated how responding by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta and humans (Homo sapiens playing a computerized single-player version of a coordination game, the Assurance game, changed as a function of the variable responses (Stag/Hare generated by multiple simulations (SIMs. We were interested in whether individuals could track and differentially respond to changing frequencies of Stag and Hare play by the SIMs, especially with regard to the payoff dominant (Stag-Stag outcome, something that could not be done with real partners as they quickly settled on the Stag response. For both monkeys and humans, there was a linear relationship between proportion of Stag play by the subject and the likelihood of the Stag choice by the SIM such that both species increased their use of Stag as the SIM increased its use of the Stag response. However, humans more closely matched their proportion of Stag responses to that of the SIM, whereas monkeys adopted a different, but equally effective, strategy of exploiting the higher-paying Stag alternative. These results suggest that monkeys and humans demonstrate sensitivity to a dynamic game environment in which they encounter variable contingencies for the same response options, although they may employ different strategies to maximize reward.

  2. Homo sapiens-Specific Binding Site Variants within Brain Exclusive Enhancers Are Subject to Accelerated Divergence across Human Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehra, Rabail; Abbasi, Amir Ali

    2018-03-01

    Empirical assessments of human accelerated noncoding DNA frgaments have delineated presence of many cis-regulatory elements. Enhancers make up an important category of such accelerated cis-regulatory elements that efficiently control the spatiotemporal expression of many developmental genes. Establishing plausible reasons for accelerated enhancer sequence divergence in Homo sapiens has been termed significant in various previously published studies. This acceleration by including closely related primates and archaic human data has the potential to open up evolutionary avenues for deducing present-day brain structure. This study relied on empirically confirmed brain exclusive enhancers to avoid any misjudgments about their regulatory status and categorized among them a subset of enhancers with an exceptionally accelerated rate of lineage specific divergence in humans. In this assorted set, 13 distinct transcription factor binding sites were located that possessed unique existence in humans. Three of 13 such sites belonging to transcription factors SOX2, RUNX1/3, and FOS/JUND possessed single nucleotide variants that made them unique to H. sapiens upon comparisons with Neandertal and Denisovan orthologous sequences. These variants modifying the binding sites in modern human lineage were further substantiated as single nucleotide polymorphisms via exploiting 1000 Genomes Project Phase3 data. Long range haplotype based tests laid out evidence of positive selection to be governing in African population on two of the modern human motif modifying alleles with strongest results for SOX2 binding site. In sum, our study acknowledges acceleration in noncoding regulatory landscape of the genome and highlights functional parts within it to have undergone accelerated divergence in present-day human population.

  3. Is capitalism in our genes? Competition, cooperation and the idea of homo oeconomicus from an evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portera Mariagrazia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years a growing number of academic disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences have turned to the evolutionary approach: Evolutionary Economics, among these disciplines, is a thriving subfield of Economics, which adopts Darwin’s evolutionary ideas and concepts for the understanding of economic system and modes of production. Evolutionary hypotheses such as the „selfish gene“ idea, the ideas of „inclusive fitness“, „struggle for life“ and „survival of the fittest“ may suggest - and have indeed suggested - that humans are rational self-interest individuals, doing what they can to increase their own reproductive chances or at least the chances of their close relatives („inclusive fitness“. To put it differently, evolutionary theory seems to suggest that capitalism (in a broad sense is a system that has co-evolved with humans and best fits our evolved psychology. Is this the whole story? Is capitalism „in our genes“? In this paper I argue that conclusions such as „we are born to be rational self-interested agents“ or „capitalism is encoded in our genome“ are the result of a misleading application of Darwin’s evolutionary theory to human socio-economic processes, mainly to justify a (Western society based on selfish principles, but which is not naturally selfish in itself. Evolution seems to be the result of cooperative, not only (or not mainly competitive processes, and the model of Homo oeconomicus, that is the idea that humans are rational self-interested agents always trying to maximize profit, is, also from an bio-evolutionary perspective, nothing more than a fictional exercise.

  4. Paleoneurology of two new neandertal occipitals from El Sidrón (asturias, Spain) in the context of homo endocranial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Melián, Angel; Rosas, Antonio; García-Tabernero, Antonio; Bastir, Markus; De La Rasilla, Marco

    2011-08-01

    The endocranial surface description and comparative analyses of two new neandertal occipital fragments (labelled SD-1149 and SD-370a) from the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain) reveal new aspects of neandertal brain morphological asymmetries. The dural sinus drainage pattern, as observed on the sagittal-transverse system, as well as the cerebral occipito-petalias, point out a slightly differential configuration of the neandertal brain when compared to other Homo species, especially H. sapiens. The neandertal dural sinus drainage pattern is organized in a more asymmetric mode, in such a way that the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) drains either to the right or to the left transverse sinuses, but in no case in a confluent mode (i.e. simultaneous continuation of SSS with both right (RTS) and left (LTS) transverse sinuses). Besides, the superior sagittal sinus shows an accentuated deviation from of the mid-sagittal plane in its way to the RTS in 35% of neandertals. This condition, which increases the asymmetry of the system, is almost nonexistent neither in the analyzed Homo fossil species sample nor in that of anatomically modern humans. Regarding the cerebral occipito-petalias, neandertals manifest one of the lowest percentages of left petalia of the Homo sample (including modern H. sapiens). As left occipito-petalia is the predominant pattern in hominins, it seems as if neandertals would have developed a different pattern of brain hemispheres asymmetry. Finally, the relief and position of the the cerebral sulci and gyri impressions observed in the El Sidrón occipital specimens look similar to those observed in modern H. sapiens. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Human orexin/hypocretin receptors form constitutive homo- and heteromeric complexes with each other and with human CB1 cannabinoid receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jäntti, Maria H.; Mandrika, Ilona; Kukkonen, Jyrki P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • OX 1 and OX 2 orexin and CB 1 cannabinoid receptor dimerization was investigated. • Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer method was used. • All receptors readily formed constitutive homo- and heteromeric complexes. - Abstract: Human OX 1 orexin receptors have been shown to homodimerize and they have also been suggested to heterodimerize with CB 1 cannabinoid receptors. The latter has been suggested to be important for orexin receptor responses and trafficking. In this study, we wanted to assess the ability of the other combinations of receptors to also form similar complexes. Vectors for expression of human OX 1 , OX 2 and CB 1 receptors, C-terminally fused with either Renilla luciferase or GFP 2 green fluorescent protein variant, were generated. The constructs were transiently expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and constitutive dimerization between the receptors was assessed by bioluminescence energy transfer (BRET). Orexin receptor subtypes readily formed homo- and hetero(di)mers, as suggested by significant BRET signals. CB 1 receptors formed homodimers, and they also heterodimerized with both orexin receptors. Interestingly, BRET efficiency was higher for homodimers than for almost all heterodimers. This is likely to be due to the geometry of the interaction; the putatively symmetric dimers may place the C-termini in a more suitable orientation in homomers. Fusion of luciferase to an orexin receptor and GFP 2 to CB 1 produced more effective BRET than the opposite fusions, also suggesting differences in geometry. Similar was seen for the OX 1 –OX 2 interaction. In conclusion, orexin receptors have a significant propensity to make homo- and heterodi-/oligomeric complexes. However, it is unclear whether this affects their signaling. As orexin receptors efficiently signal via endocannabinoid production to CB 1 receptors, dimerization could be an effective way of forming signal complexes with optimal cannabinoid concentrations

  6. Evaluation of electron population terms for 4p, 3p, and (2p): how do HOMO and LUMO shrink or expand depending on nuclear charges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Waro; Hayashi, Satoko; Narahara, Kenji; Yamaki, Daisuke; Hada, Masahiko

    2008-01-01

    Electron population terms are evaluated for N=Se, S, and O. Calculations are performed on HOMO and LUMO constructed by pure atomic 4p(Se), 3p(S), and 2p(O) orbitals, employing the 6-311+G(3d) and/or 6-311(++)G(3df,3pd) basis sets at the HF, MP2, and DFT (B3 LYP) levels. Se(4+), Se(2+), Se(0), and Se(2-) with the O(h) symmetry are called G(A: Se) and HSe(+), H(2)Se, and HSe(-) with the C(infinityh) or C(2v) symmetry are named G(B: Se), here [G(A+B: Se) in all]. HOMO and LUMO in G(A+B: N) (N=Se, S, and O) satisfy the conditions of the calculations for . The (4p), (3p), and (2p) values correlate well with the corresponding MO energies (epsilon(N)) for all calculation levels employed. Plots of (HOMO) and (LUMO) versus Q(N) (N=Se, S, and O) at the HF and MP2 levels are analyzed as two correlations. However, the plots at the DFT level can be analyzed as single correlation. A regression curve is assumed for the analysis. Behaviors of clarify how valence orbitals shrink or expand depending on Q(N). The applicability of is examined to establish a new method that enables us to analyze chemical shifts with the charge effect separately from others. A utility program derived from the Gaussian 03 (NMRANAL-NH03G) is applied to evaluate and examine the applicability to the NMR analysis.

  7. Homo periculosus var. infestus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    variety infestus or dangerous humans of a particularly aggressive variety. ... Forests of West Africa; Horn of Africa; Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands; ... despite the global impact of the quotable quote from our own Nobel laureate:.

  8. Governing homo economicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pultz, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I examine how young unemployed people deal with the risk of unemployment in the Danish welfare state, focusing on two main issues. I examine the technologies currently being used in the unemployment system to manage youth unemployment and I explore how the young unemployed people...... who are the subject of these technologies understand and react to them. I also consider the affective work, which underpins these technologies and the ways this shapes the framing of risks. In this article, I draw on a Danish research study (2014–2015) that examined the ways in which the Danish...... unemployment fund operated and I used in-depth interviews to explore the ways in which 33 young unemployed Danes interacted with the unemployment fund. Using the conceptual tools provided by the governmentality risk perspective, I analysed the relationship between institutionalised risk management...

  9. Den egnede homo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Nebeling

    2014-01-01

    Retten til at adoptere og stifte familie er genstand for politiske kampe om anerkendelse og inklusion. En artikel om homoseksuelle familier og transnational adoption i Folketinget 1988-2010.......Retten til at adoptere og stifte familie er genstand for politiske kampe om anerkendelse og inklusion. En artikel om homoseksuelle familier og transnational adoption i Folketinget 1988-2010....

  10. Homo-Hetero

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    distance inter-connectedness, at least across national boundaries, preferably between ... individuals would be increasingly free from the ascribed particularistic identities ... religious nationalism is seen as a part of the conflicting process of ...

  11. Homo-junction ferroelectric field-effect-transistor memory device using solution-processed lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Bhansali, Unnat. S.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2012-06-01

    High performance homo-junction field-effect transistor memory devices were prepared using solution processed transparent lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films for both the ferroelectric and semiconducting active layers. A highest field-effect mobility of 8.7 cm2/Vs was obtained along with an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. The ferroelectric thin film transistors showed a low sub-threshold swing value of 0.19 V/dec and a significantly reduced device operating voltage (±4 V) compared to the reported hetero-junction ferroelectric transistors, which is very promising for low-power non-volatile memory applications.

  12. Homo-junction ferroelectric field-effect-transistor memory device using solution-processed lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2012-06-22

    High performance homo-junction field-effect transistor memory devices were prepared using solution processed transparent lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films for both the ferroelectric and semiconducting active layers. A highest field-effect mobility of 8.7 cm2/Vs was obtained along with an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. The ferroelectric thin filmtransistors showed a low sub-threshold swing value of 0.19 V/dec and a significantly reduced device operating voltage (±4 V) compared to the reported hetero-junction ferroelectrictransistors, which is very promising for low-power non-volatile memory applications.

  13. Identification of the ancestral haplotype for apolipoprotein B suggests an African origin of Homo sapiens sapiens and traces their subsequent migration to Europe and the Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapacz, J.; Hasler-Rapacz, J.O. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)); Chen, L.; Wu, Mingjiuan; Schumaker, V.N. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Butler-Brunner, E.; Butler, R. (Swiss Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Bern (Switzerland))

    1991-02-15

    The probable ancestral haplotype for human apolipoprotein B (apoB) has been identified through immunological analysis of chimpanzee and gorilla serum and sequence analysis of their DNA. Moreover, the frequency of this ancestral apoB haplotype among different human populations provides strong support for the African origin of Homo sapiens sapiens and their subsequent migration from Africa to Europe and to the Pacific. The approach used here for the identification of the ancestral human apoB haplotype is likely to be applicable to many other genes.

  14. THE COMPARISON OF ALIENATION IN “KÜRK MANTOLU MADONNA” BY SABAHATTİN ALİ AND “HOMO FABER” BY MAX FRISCH

    OpenAIRE

    İnci Aras

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine Sabahattin Ali’s “Kürk Mantolu Madonna”, one of the most important literary classics of Contemporary Turkish Literature, and Max Frisch’s “Homo Faber”, a famous novel in Contemporary German Literature. The main purpose of this study on these works which belong to Turkish and German cultures is to evaluate the characters related to their social and personal alienation. Therefore we carry out our analysis in line with the similarities and differences between main chara...

  15. Identification of the ancestral haplotype for apolipoprotein B suggests an African origin of Homo sapiens sapiens and traces their subsequent migration to Europe and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapacz, J.; Hasler-Rapacz, J.O.; Chen, L.; Wu, Mingjiuan; Schumaker, V.N.; Butler-Brunner, E.; Butler, R.

    1991-01-01

    The probable ancestral haplotype for human apolipoprotein B (apoB) has been identified through immunological analysis of chimpanzee and gorilla serum and sequence analysis of their DNA. Moreover, the frequency of this ancestral apoB haplotype among different human populations provides strong support for the African origin of Homo sapiens sapiens and their subsequent migration from Africa to Europe and to the Pacific. The approach used here for the identification of the ancestral human apoB haplotype is likely to be applicable to many other genes

  16. Dynamically formed hydrous zirconium (IV) oxide-polyelectrolyte membranes. III: Poly(acrylic acid) and substituted poly(acrylic acid) homo, co and terpolymer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Reenen, A.J.; Sanderson, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A series of acrylic acid and substituted acrylic acid homo, co and terpolymers was synthesised. These polymers were used as polyelectrolytes in dynamically formed hydrous zirconium (iv) oxide-polyelectrolyte membranes. Substitution of the acrylic acid α-hydrogen was done to increase the number of carboxylic acid groups per monomer unit and to change the acid strength of acrylic acid carboxylic acid group. None of these changes improved the salt rejection of these membranes over that of commercially used poly(acrylic acid). Improvement in rejection was found when a hydrophobic comonomer, vinyl acetate, was used in conjunction with acrylic acid in a copolymer dynamic membrane. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  17. The mitogenome of a 35,000-year-old Homo sapiens from Europe supports a Palaeolithic back-migration to Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervella, M; Svensson, E M; Alberdi, A; Günther, T; Izagirre, N; Munters, A R; Alonso, S; Ioana, M; Ridiche, F; Soficaru, A; Jakobsson, M; Netea, M G; de-la-Rua, C

    2016-05-19

    After the dispersal of modern humans (Homo sapiens) Out of Africa, hominins with a similar morphology to that of present-day humans initiated the gradual demographic expansion into Eurasia. The mitogenome (33-fold coverage) of the Peştera Muierii 1 individual (PM1) from Romania (35 ky cal BP) we present in this article corresponds fully to Homo sapiens, whilst exhibiting a mosaic of morphological features related to both modern humans and Neandertals. We have identified the PM1 mitogenome as a basal haplogroup U6*, not previously found in any ancient or present-day humans. The derived U6 haplotypes are predominantly found in present-day North-Western African populations. Concomitantly, those found in Europe have been attributed to recent gene-flow from North Africa. The presence of the basal haplogroup U6* in South East Europe (Romania) at 35 ky BP confirms a Eurasian origin of the U6 mitochondrial lineage. Consequently, we propose that the PM1 lineage is an offshoot to South East Europe that can be traced to the Early Upper Paleolithic back migration from Western Asia to North Africa, during which the U6 lineage diversified, until the emergence of the present-day U6 African lineages.

  18. Protein-protein interaction site prediction in Homo sapiens and E. coli using an interaction-affinity based membership function in fuzzy SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwastava, Brijesh Kumar; Basu, Subhadip; Maulik, Ujjwal

    2015-10-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) site prediction aids to ascertain the interface residues that participate in interaction processes. Fuzzy support vector machine (F-SVM) is proposed as an effective method to solve this problem, and we have shown that the performance of the classical SVM can be enhanced with the help of an interaction-affinity based fuzzy membership function. The performances of both SVM and F-SVM on the PPI databases of the Homo sapiens and E. coli organisms are evaluated and estimated the statistical significance of the developed method over classical SVM and other fuzzy membership-based SVM methods available in the literature. Our membership function uses the residue-level interaction affinity scores for each pair of positive and negative sequence fragments. The average AUC scores in the 10-fold cross-validation experiments are measured as 79.94% and 80.48% for the Homo sapiens and E. coli organisms respectively. On the independent test datasets, AUC scores are obtained as 76.59% and 80.17% respectively for the two organisms. In almost all cases, the developed F-SVM method improves the performances obtained by the corresponding classical SVM and the other classifiers, available in the literature.

  19. Molecular structure, vibrational, UV, NMR, HOMO-LUMO, MEP, NLO, NBO analysis of 3,5 di tert butyl 4 hydroxy benzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathammal, R.; Sangeetha, K.; Sangeetha, M.; Mekala, R.; Gadheeja, S.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 3,5 di tert butyl 4 hydroxy benzoic acid. The properties of title compound have been evaluated by quantum chemical calculation (DFT) using B3LYP functional and 6-31 + G (d, p) as basis set. IR Spectra has been recorded using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) in the region 4000-400 cm-1. The vibrational assignment of the calculated normal modes has been made on the basis set. The isotropic chemical shifts computed by 13C and 1H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) analyses also show good agreement with experimental observations. The theoretical UV-Vis spectrum of the compound are used to study the visible absorption maxima (λ max). The structure activity relationship have been interpreted by mapping electrostatic potential surface (MEP), which is valuable information for the quality control of medicines and drug receptor interactions. The Mullikan charges, HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital) - LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital) energy are analyzed. HOMO-LUMO energy gap and other related molecular properties are also calculated. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis is carried out to investigate the various intra and inter molecular interactions of molecular system. The Non-linear optical properties such as dipole moment (μ), polarizability (αtot) and molecular first order hyperpolarizability (β) of the title compound are computed with B3LYP/6-31 + G (d,p) level of theory.

  20. Nietzsche como destino da filosofia e da humanidade? interpretação contextual do § 1 do capítulo "por que sou um destino", de ecce homo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Stegmaier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following translation is a reduced and revised version of the paper Schicksal Nietzsche? Zu Nietzsches Selbsteinschätzung als Schicksal der Philosophie und der Menschheit (Ecce Homo, Warum ich ein Schicksal bin §1" - originally published in Nietzsche-Studien 37 (2008 - which was specially prepared to be presented in lecture organized by the Grupo de Pesquisa Spinoza & Nietzsche (Spinoza & Nietzsche research group - SpiN, in the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro's Federal University, on September 14, 2009. In the text, the autor employs his own philological-hermeneutical methodology, which is called contextual interpretation, in the purpose to clarify the concepts of the first aphorism from "Why I am a destiny", from Ecce Homo, in its own context, in the context of Ecce Homo and in the context of the entire work from Nietzsche.

  1. On the High School Education of a Pithecanthropus Erectus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Sean

    2014-01-01

    This article examines our modern ways of schooling youth in light of philosophic and personal narrative accounts of "the Dionysian" aspect--a term the author uses to understand his own experiences and aspirations as a high school English teacher. Having articulated the meaning of this term, he goes on to point out how schools today are…

  2. Human orexin/hypocretin receptors form constitutive homo- and heteromeric complexes with each other and with human CB{sub 1} cannabinoid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jäntti, Maria H., E-mail: maria.jantti@helsinki.fi [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, POB 66, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Mandrika, Ilona, E-mail: ilona@biomed.lu.lv [Latvian Biomedical Research and Study Centre, Ratsupites Str. 1, Riga LV 1067 (Latvia); Kukkonen, Jyrki P., E-mail: jyrki.kukkonen@helsinki.fi [Department of Veterinary Biosciences, POB 66, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • OX{sub 1} and OX{sub 2} orexin and CB{sub 1} cannabinoid receptor dimerization was investigated. • Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer method was used. • All receptors readily formed constitutive homo- and heteromeric complexes. - Abstract: Human OX{sub 1} orexin receptors have been shown to homodimerize and they have also been suggested to heterodimerize with CB{sub 1} cannabinoid receptors. The latter has been suggested to be important for orexin receptor responses and trafficking. In this study, we wanted to assess the ability of the other combinations of receptors to also form similar complexes. Vectors for expression of human OX{sub 1}, OX{sub 2} and CB{sub 1} receptors, C-terminally fused with either Renilla luciferase or GFP{sup 2} green fluorescent protein variant, were generated. The constructs were transiently expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and constitutive dimerization between the receptors was assessed by bioluminescence energy transfer (BRET). Orexin receptor subtypes readily formed homo- and hetero(di)mers, as suggested by significant BRET signals. CB{sub 1} receptors formed homodimers, and they also heterodimerized with both orexin receptors. Interestingly, BRET efficiency was higher for homodimers than for almost all heterodimers. This is likely to be due to the geometry of the interaction; the putatively symmetric dimers may place the C-termini in a more suitable orientation in homomers. Fusion of luciferase to an orexin receptor and GFP{sup 2} to CB{sub 1} produced more effective BRET than the opposite fusions, also suggesting differences in geometry. Similar was seen for the OX{sub 1}–OX{sub 2} interaction. In conclusion, orexin receptors have a significant propensity to make homo- and heterodi-/oligomeric complexes. However, it is unclear whether this affects their signaling. As orexin receptors efficiently signal via endocannabinoid production to CB{sub 1} receptors, dimerization could be an effective way

  3. Theoretical study on the molecular structure and vibrational properties, NBO and HOMO-LUMO analysis of the POX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) series of molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Jorge E.; Gil, Diego M.; Lanús, Hernán E.; Altabef, Aida Ben

    2015-02-01

    The fourth member of the series of compounds of the type POX3 with X = I was synthesized and characterized by infrared spectroscopy. The geometrical parameters and vibrational properties of POX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules were investigated theoretically by means DFT and ab initio methods. Available geometrical and vibrational data were used together with theoretical calculations in order to obtain a set of scaled force constants. The observed trends in geometrical parameters are analyzed and compared with those obtained in a previous work for the VOX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) series of compounds. NBO analysis was performed in order to know the hyper-conjugative interactions that favor one structure over another. The molecular properties such as ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, chemical potential, chemical hardness, softness and global electrophilicity index have been deduced from HOMO-LUMO analysis.

  4. Spectroscopic investigation (FT-IR, FT-Raman), HOMO-LUMO, NBO, and molecular docking analysis of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, a potential anticancer agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Islam, S. S.; Ahmad, Hilal; Prabaharan, A.

    2018-02-01

    Nitrosourea plays an important role in the treatment of cancer. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, also known as ENU, (chemical formula C3H7N3O2), is a highly potent mutagen. The chemical is an alkylating agent and acts by transferring the ethyl group of ENU to nucleobases (usually thymine) in nucleic acids. The molecular structure of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea has been elucidated using experimental (FT-IR and FT-Raman) and theoretical (DFT) techniques. APT charges, Mulliken atomic charges, Natural bond orbital, Electrostatic potential, HOMO-LUMO and AIM analysis were performed to identify the reactive sites and charge transfer interactions. Furthermore, to evaluate the anticancer activity of ENU molecular docking studies were carried out against 2JIU protein.

  5. Report: Umano post-Umano. Verso l’homo technologicus? TriesteNext 5˄ edizione 23-25 settembre 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPERANZA, MARIA TERESA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human post‐Human. Towards homo technologicus? The fifth edition of TriesteNext, European Exhibition of scientific research has gathered students and young graduates, scientists and philosophers, businessmen and men of the institutions in order to discuss the latest achievements and future developments of scientific research, from biotechnology to logistics, from robotics to astrophysics, from informatics to marketing. The dialogue between science and philosophy, hosted by TriesteNext, analyzed the specific characteristics of the human being, the only being in the world able to produce language, to get in a cognitive relationship with the world and to undertake a recognition process with other men, a relationship that affects his very being and his way of acting in the world.

  6. Fine tuning the HOMO energy levels of polythieno[3,4-b]thiophene derivatives by incorporation of thiophene-3,4-dicarboxylate moiety for photovoltaic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xiao-Lian; Zuo, Li-Jian; Nan, Ya-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    To lower the HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) energy level of polythieno[3,4-b]thiophene (∼−4.5eV), a series of ester-functionalized polythieno[3,4-b]thiophene derivatives (P1–P3) were designed and synthesized by Stille cross coupling reaction. The resulting copolymers exhibited broad...... voltage (Voc) of 0.54V, a short circuit current density (Isc) of 3.3mA/cm2, a fill factor (FF) of 0.57, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.02%. A high Voc up to 0.71V was achieved in the solar cell based on a P3:PCBM blend....

  7. L’institution du lien social : À propos des ouvrages d’Alain Supiot, Homo Juridicus. Essai sur la fonction anthropologique du droit et Tis

    OpenAIRE

    Courtois, Gérard

    2010-01-01

    Alain Supiot, à côté de nombreuses publications en droit social, poursuit une réflexion qui concerne le droit en tant que tel, comme en témoignent ses ouvrages : « Homo Juridicus » et « Tisser le lien social ». Le second présente des contributions issues du séminaire pluri-disciplinaire tenu depuis de nombreuses années à la Maison des sciences de l’Homme Ange-Guépin, le premier –auquel nous nous tiendrons- expose en deux parties « nos croyances fondatrices » et trois études présentées comme d...

  8. The Watinglo mandible: a second terminal Pleistocene Homo sapiens fossil from tropical Sahul with a test on existing models for the human settlement of the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbeck, D; O'Connor, S

    2011-02-01

    This paper analyses a fossil human mandible, dated to circa 10ka, from Watinglo rockshelter on the north coast of Papua New Guinea. The fossil is metrically and morphologically similar to male mandibles of recent Melanesians and Australian Aborigines. It is distinguished from Kow Swamp and Coobool Creek male mandibles (Murray Valley, terminal Pleistocene) by being smaller and having different shape characteristics, as well as smaller teeth and a slower rate of tooth wear. It pairs with the Liang Lemdubu female (Late Glacial Maximum, Aru Islands) in suggesting that the morphology of the terminal Pleistocene inhabitants of tropical Sahul was gracile compared to their contemporaries within the southern Murray drainage. An explanatory scenario for this morphological contrast is developed in the context of the Homo sapiens early fossil record, Australasian mtDNA evidence, terminal Pleistocene climatic variation, and the possibility of multiple entry points into Sahul. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. On the interconnection of stable protein complexes: inter-complex hubs and their conservation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Concettina

    2015-01-01

    Protein complexes are key molecular entities that perform a variety of essential cellular functions. The connectivity of proteins within a complex has been widely investigated with both experimental and computational techniques. We developed a computational approach to identify and characterise proteins that play a role in interconnecting complexes. We computed a measure of inter-complex centrality, the crossroad index, based on disjoint paths connecting proteins in distinct complexes and identified inter-complex hubs as proteins with a high value of the crossroad index. We applied the approach to a set of stable complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in Homo sapiens. Just as done for hubs, we evaluated the topological and biological properties of inter-complex hubs addressing the following questions. Do inter-complex hubs tend to be evolutionary conserved? What is the relation between crossroad index and essentiality? We found a good correlation between inter-complex hubs and both evolutionary conservation and essentiality.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of non-linear free radical polymerization using a percolation kinetic gelation model (I): free radical homo polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiass, M.; Dabir, B.; Nikazar, M.; Rey, A.D.; Mirzadeh, H.

    2001-01-01

    A kinetic gelation model that incorporates the kinetics of free radical homo polymerization is implemented to determine the effects of kinetics on polymerization statistics and microstructures. The simulation is performed on a simple cubic lattice that has 100 sites in each direction. A new algorithm for random selecting of the next step in a self-avoiding random walk and very efficient mechanisms of mobility of components are introduced to improve the generality of the predictions by removing commonly accruing deficiencies due to early trapping of radicals. A first order kinetics is considered for decomposition of initiator that enables us to consider the effect of temperature on polymerization reaction. Better understanding of microstructural evolution during polymerization and providing a framework to produce a realistic system of highly packed random chains within polymer network are among the benefits of model

  11. El papel de la imaginación en la refutación de Adam Smith a la tesis del homo economicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de la Cruz Garrido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La filosofía moral de Adam Smith se fundamenta en el papel de la imaginación para explicar el orden social en un nivel macro, y como mecanismo de identificación afectiva en un nivel micro. En ambos casos, el rol de la imaginación en nuestra psicología moral refuta la tesis de un homo economicus, o de que el ser humano está motivado a entrar en sociedad por su interés personal. Esto sirve de premisa para refutar la posición hobbesiana de un estado de naturaleza histórico que está en la base de nuestros juicios morales que fundan la sociedad civil y la necesidad del magistrado.

  12. Molecular structure, vibrational spectra, MEP, HOMO-LUMO and NBO analysis of Hf(SeO3)(SeO4)(H2O)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankova, Rumyana; Genieva, Svetlana; Halachev, Nenko; Dimitrova, Ginka

    2016-02-01

    Hf(SeO3)(SeO4)(H2O)4 was obtained with the hydrothermal synthesis. The geometry optimization of this molecule was done by Density Functional Theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-31G(d) basis set and LANL2DZ for Hf. The experimental infrared spectrum was compared with calculated and complete vibrational assignment was provided. The bond orders and the electronic properties of the molecule were calculated. The natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) was performed in order to study the intramolecular bonding interactions among bonds and delocalization of unpaired electrons. The calculated highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) with frontier orbital gap were presented. The electrostatic potential was calculated in order to investigate the reaction properties of the molecule. The thermodynamic properties of the studied compound at different temperatures were calculated.

  13. A abordagem interdisciplinar no estudo do Homo brasilis: a genética em acordo e desacordo com a história

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pereira Brandão

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, temos o objetivo de confrontar os registros históricos e interpretações historiográficas referentes às ancestralidades indígena e judaica na formação populacional da região Sudeste brasileira com os resultados obtidos pelo geneticista Sérgio Pena em suas pesquisas sobre a origem filogenética do segmento da população brasileira autoclassificada como "branca". Nosso trabalho compara os resultados apresentados por Pena na obra Homo brasilis com dados históricos originados não só de fontes bibliográficas, mas também de fontes documentais. Concluímos que os dados filogenéticos para a ancestralidade matrilinear apresentados por Pena coincidem com os dados históricos, havendo, porém, discrepância quanto à ancestralidade patrilinear.

  14. Vibrational spectra, molecular structure, NBO, HOMO-LUMO and first order hyperpoalarizability analysis of 1,4-bis(4-formylphenyl)anthraquinone by density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renjith, R.; Mary, Y. Sheena; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Thiemann, Thies; Van Alsenoy, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Anthraquinone derivatives are most important class of a system that absorb in the visible region. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic analyses were carried out on 1,4-bis(4-formylphenyl)anthraquinone. The interpretation of the spectra was aided by DFT calculations of the molecule. The vibrational wavenumbers were examined theoretically using the Gaussian09 set of quantum chemistry codes, and the normal modes were assigned by potential energy distribution (PED) calculations. A computation of the first hyperpolarizability of the compound indicates that this class of substituted anthraquinones may be a good candidate as a NLO material. Optimized geometrical parameters of the compound are in agreement with similar reported structures. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis.

  15. Light Has Been Thrown (on Human Origins: a Brief History of Palaeoanthropology, with Notes on the "Punctuated" Origin of Homo Sapiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Manzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available “Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history”: this was the single line that Charles Darwin devoted to human evolution in the Origin of Species (1859. At present, there is a number of extinct species, which we understand  to be related to human evolution, demonstrating that the Darwin’s prediction was correct: light has been thrown, indeed. Moreover, the science of human origin (or palaeoanthropology appears to be able to shed much light not only on the natural history of humankind, but also on mechanisms and patterns of "evolution" as a general phenomenon. This is of special interest when we focus on data and hypotheses concerning the origin of our own species, Homo sapiens.

  16. Structural modelling and comparative analysis of homologous, analogous and specific proteins from Trypanosoma cruzi versus Homo sapiens: putative drug targets for chagas' disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, Priscila V S Z; Guimarães, Ana C R; Otto, Thomas D; Miranda, Antonio B; Dardenne, Laurent E; Degrave, Wim M

    2010-10-29

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, an endemic infection that causes thousands of deaths every year in Latin America. Therapeutic options remain inefficient, demanding the search for new drugs and/or new molecular targets. Such efforts can focus on proteins that are specific to the parasite, but analogous enzymes and enzymes with a three-dimensional (3D) structure sufficiently different from the corresponding host proteins may represent equally interesting targets. In order to find these targets we used the workflows MHOLline and AnEnΠ obtaining 3D models from homologous, analogous and specific proteins of Trypanosoma cruzi versus Homo sapiens. We applied genome wide comparative modelling techniques to obtain 3D models for 3,286 predicted proteins of T. cruzi. In combination with comparative genome analysis to Homo sapiens, we were able to identify a subset of 397 enzyme sequences, of which 356 are homologous, 3 analogous and 38 specific to the parasite. In this work, we present a set of 397 enzyme models of T. cruzi that can constitute potential structure-based drug targets to be investigated for the development of new strategies to fight Chagas' disease. The strategies presented here support the concept of structural analysis in conjunction with protein functional analysis as an interesting computational methodology to detect potential targets for structure-based rational drug design. For example, 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase (EC 1.3.1.34) and triacylglycerol lipase (EC 3.1.1.3), classified as analogous proteins in relation to H. sapiens enzymes, were identified as new potential molecular targets.

  17. A single source precursor route to group 13 homo- and heterometallic oxides as highly active supports for gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Shashank K.; Mendez, Violaine; Jeanneau, Erwann; Caps, Valerie; Daniè le, Sté phane

    2012-01-01

    A new Mitsubishi-type of star-shaped homoleptic derivative of indium(III), In4(mdea)6 (2, mdeaH2 = N-methyldiethanolamine) , was synthesized by the chloro-aminoalkoxo exchange reaction of a heteroleptic complex In6Cl6(mdea)6 (1) and used as a facile single source molecular precursor for the sol-gel preparation of high surface area indium oxide. Successful deposition of gold nanoparticles (1 wt.-%) of average size 3.3 nm on the above metal oxide by using HAuCl4· 3H2O afforded a highly efficient Au/In2O3 catalyst for the aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene at low temperature. The above single source precursor approach was further extended to obtain other group 13 homo- and heterometallic oxides, namely, α-Ga2O 3, β-Ga2O3 and Al4Ga 2O9, as highly active supports for gold catalysts. The obtained Au/M2O3 (M = Ga, In) and Au/Al4Ga 2O9 catalysts were thoroughly characterized by using several physicochemical techniques such as XRD, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A comparative study of the above catalysts for the model aerobic oxidation of stilbene in methylcyclohexane was undertaken. Highly efficient catalysts for aerobic oxidation reactions were obtained by depositing gold nanoparticles on group 13 mono- or mixed metal oxides prepared from the hydrolysis of well-characterized homo- and heterometallic N-methyldiethanolaminate derivatives. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A single source precursor route to group 13 homo- and heterometallic oxides as highly active supports for gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Shashank K.

    2012-12-14

    A new Mitsubishi-type of star-shaped homoleptic derivative of indium(III), In4(mdea)6 (2, mdeaH2 = N-methyldiethanolamine) , was synthesized by the chloro-aminoalkoxo exchange reaction of a heteroleptic complex In6Cl6(mdea)6 (1) and used as a facile single source molecular precursor for the sol-gel preparation of high surface area indium oxide. Successful deposition of gold nanoparticles (1 wt.-%) of average size 3.3 nm on the above metal oxide by using HAuCl4· 3H2O afforded a highly efficient Au/In2O3 catalyst for the aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene at low temperature. The above single source precursor approach was further extended to obtain other group 13 homo- and heterometallic oxides, namely, α-Ga2O 3, β-Ga2O3 and Al4Ga 2O9, as highly active supports for gold catalysts. The obtained Au/M2O3 (M = Ga, In) and Au/Al4Ga 2O9 catalysts were thoroughly characterized by using several physicochemical techniques such as XRD, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A comparative study of the above catalysts for the model aerobic oxidation of stilbene in methylcyclohexane was undertaken. Highly efficient catalysts for aerobic oxidation reactions were obtained by depositing gold nanoparticles on group 13 mono- or mixed metal oxides prepared from the hydrolysis of well-characterized homo- and heterometallic N-methyldiethanolaminate derivatives. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Recent advances in forest products research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Jakes

    2016-01-01

    Wood has always played an integral role in meeting our materials needs. The earliest evidence of woodworking dates back 1.5 million years to the modern human ancestor Homo erectus.1 Many characteristics that made wood a favorable material for our ancestors—relative abundance, ease of forming and shaping, exceptional strength-toweight ratio,...

  20. The Centre for Early Human Behaviour (EHB) at the University of Bergen: A transdisciplinary exploration into the evolution of homo sapiens behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolowski, Stefan; Henshilwood, Christopher; Jansen, Eystein

    2017-04-01

    Homo sapiens was anatomically modern by 200 000 years ago in Africa, but there is no archaeological evidence to demonstrate that behaviour was modern at the time. Attributes of modern behaviour, perhaps inspired by changes in the human brain, are only recognizable after 100 000 years ago. Before we can study the process, we must critically define the criteria for the term 'modern behaviour' and then find a means to recognize such behavior in the record. This seemingly simple research statement involves complex exploration by a team of specialists. In this highly competitive research field our centre will, for the first time, be able to rise to the challenge by combining the skills of cutting-edge scientists in archaeology, climate reconstruction and modelling, and the cognitive and social sciences. Over the next decade we will integrate knowledge and methods from different disciplines to synthesize approaches and contribute to a sophisticated understanding of early human behaviour. Our highly ambitious research program will focus explicitly on rare, well preserved archaeological sites occupied in the period between 100-50 000 years ago because these contain the 'keys' for unlocking the past. A major competitive edge is the EHB Director's 25 years of archaeological experience and his long-term exclusive access, with permits, to a number of the best-preserved sites in the southern Cape, South Africa - a region regarded as a major locus for vital evidence that could inform on the behaviour of early humans. Our planned excavations at existing and new sites and our ground-breaking and innovative interdisciplinary approaches, including climate (The Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research) and cognitive research, to understanding the processes that shaped human cultures. Primarily, EHB will directly address unanswered, first order questions about Homo sapiens: a) what defines the switch to 'modern behaviour', exactly how should this term be defined and then, when, why and

  1. A comparative analysis of global and local processing of hierarchical visual stimuli in young children (Homo sapiens) and monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lillo, Carlo; Spinozzi, Giovanna; Truppa, Valentina; Naylor, Donna M

    2005-05-01

    Results obtained with preschool children (Homo sapiens) were compared with results previously obtained from capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) in matching-to-sample tasks featuring hierarchical visual stimuli. In Experiment 1, monkeys, in contrast with children, showed an advantage in matching the stimuli on the basis of their local features. These results were replicated in a 2nd experiment in which control trials enabled the authors to rule out that children used spurious cues to solve the matching task. In a 3rd experiment featuring conditions in which the density of the stimuli was manipulated, monkeys' accuracy in the processing of the global shape of the stimuli was negatively affected by the separation of the local elements, whereas children's performance was robust across testing conditions. Children's response latencies revealed a global precedence in the 2nd and 3rd experiments. These results show differences in the processing of hierarchical stimuli by humans and monkeys that emerge early during childhood. 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  2. The relative use of proximity, shape similarity, and orientation as visual perceptual grouping cues in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinozzi, Giovanna; De Lillo, Carlo; Truppa, Valentina; Castorina, Giulia

    2009-02-01

    Recent experimental results suggest that human and nonhuman primates differ in how they process visual information to assemble component parts into global shapes. To assess whether some of the observed differences in perceptual grouping could be accounted for by the prevalence of different grouping factors in different species, we carried out 2 experiments designed to evaluate the relative use of proximity, similarity of shape, and orientation as grouping cues in humans (Homo sapiens) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Both species showed similarly high levels of accuracy using proximity as a cue. Moreover, for both species, grouping by orientation similarity produced a lower level of performance than grouping by proximity. Differences emerged with respect to the use of shape similarity as a cue. In humans, grouping by shape similarity also proved less effective than grouping by proximity but the same was not observed in capuchins. These results suggest that there may be subtle differences between humans and capuchin monkeys in the weighting assigned to different grouping cues that may affect the way in which they combine local features into global shapes. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Structural Exploration and Conformational Transitions in MDM2 upon DHFR Interaction from Homo sapiens: A Computational Outlook for Malignancy via Epigenetic Disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arundhati Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural basis for exploration into MDM2 and MDM2-DHFR interaction plays a vital role in analyzing the obstruction in folate metabolism, nonsynthesis of purines, and further epigenetic regulation in Homo sapiens. Therefore, it leads to suppression of normal cellular behavior and malignancy. This has been earlier documented via yeast two-hybrid assays. So, with a novel outlook, this study explores the molecular level demonstration of the best satisfactory MDM2 model selection after performing manifold modeling techniques. Z-scores and other stereochemical features were estimated for comparison. Further, protein-protein docking was executed with MDM2 and the experimentally validated X-ray crystallographic DHFR. Residual disclosure from the best suited simulated protein complex disclosed 18 side chain and 3 ionic interactions to strongly accommodate MDM2 protein into the pocket-like zone in DHFR due to the positive environment by charged residues. Lysine residues from MDM2 played a predominant role. Moreover, evaluation from varied energy calculations, folding rate, and net area for solvent accessibility implied the active participation of MDM2 with DHFR. Fascinatingly, conformational transitions from coils to helices and β-sheets after interaction with DHFR affirm the conformational strength and firmer interaction of human MDM2-DHFR. Therefore, this probe instigates near-future clinical research and interactive computational investigations with mutations.

  4. Surface functionalization of PLGA nanoparticles by non-covalent insertion of a homo-bifunctional spacer for active targeting in cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamake, S. I.; Raut, S. L.; Ranjan, A. P.; Gryczynski, Z.; Vishwanatha, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the surface functionalization of polymeric PLGA nanoparticles by non-covalent insertion of a homo-bifunctional chemical crosslinker, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3) for targeted cancer therapy. We dissolved BS3 in aqueous solution of PVA during formulation of nanoparticles by a modified solid/oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation method. The non-covalent insertion of BS3 was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Curcumin and annexin A2 were used as a model drug and a cell specific target, respectively. Nanoparticles were characterized for particle size, zeta potential and surface morphology. The qualitative assessment of antibody attachment was performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as confocal microscopy. The optimized formulation showed antibody attachment of 86%. However, antibody attachment was abolished upon blocking the functional groups of BS3. The availability of functional antibodies was evaluated by the presence of a light chain fraction after gel electrophoresis. We further evaluated the in vitro release kinetics of curcumin from antibody coated and uncoated nanoparticles. The release of curcumin is enhanced upon antibody attachment and followed an anomalous release pattern. We also observed that the cellular uptake of nanoparticles was significantly higher in annexin A2 positive cells than in negative cells. Therefore, these results demonstrate the potential use of this method for functionalization as well as to deliver chemotherapeutic agents for treating cancer.

  5. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of SET/TAF-Iβ ΔN from Homo sapiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhen; Yang, Weili; Shi, Nuo; Gao, Yongxiang; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen

    2010-01-01

    The SET/TAF-Iβ that lacked the first 22 residues of the N-terminus from Homo sapiens was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.7 Å resolution. The histone chaperone SET encoded by the SET gene, which is also known as template-activating factor Iβ (TAF-Iβ), is a multifunctional molecule that is involved in many biological phenomena such as histone binding, nucleosome assembly, chromatin remodelling, replication, transcription and apoptosis. A truncated SET/TAF-Iβ ΔN protein that lacked the first 22 residues of the N-terminus but contained the C-terminal acidic domain and an additional His 6 tag at the C-terminus was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using sodium acetate as precipitant at 283 K. The crystals diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution and belonged to space group P4 3 2 1 2

  6. Crystal Structure of the Homo sapiens Kynureninase-3-Hydroxyhippuric Acid Inhibitor Complex: Insights into the Molecular Basis Of Kynureninase Substrate Specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima,Santiago; Kumar,Sunil; Gawandi,Vijay; Momany,Cory; Phillips,Robert S.; (Georgia)

    2009-02-23

    Homo sapiens kynureninase is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate dependent enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of 3-hydroxykynurenine to yield 3-hydroxyanthranilate and L-alanine as part of the tryptophan catabolic pathway leading to the de novo biosynthesis of NAD{sup +}. This pathway results in quinolinate, an excitotoxin that is an NMDA receptor agonist. High levels of quinolinate have been correlated with the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as AIDS-related dementia and Alzheimer's disease. We have synthesized a novel kynureninase inhibitor, 3-hydroxyhippurate, cocrystallized it with human kynureninase, and solved the atomic structure. On the basis of an analysis of the complex, we designed a series of His-102, Ser-332, and Asn-333 mutants. The H102W/N333T and H102W/S332G/N333T mutants showed complete reversal of substrate specificity between 3-hydroxykynurenine and L-kynurenine, thus defining the primary residues contributing to substrate specificity in kynureninases.

  7. What meaning means for same and different: Analogical reasoning in humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Timothy M; Beran, Michael J; Thompson, Roger K R; Kleider, Heather M; Washburn, David A

    2008-05-01

    Thus far, language- and token-trained apes (e.g., D. Premack, 1976; R. K. R. Thompson, D. L. Oden, & S. T. Boysen, 1997) have provided the best evidence that nonhuman animals can solve, complete, and construct analogies, thus implicating symbolic representation as the mechanism enabling the phenomenon. In this study, the authors examined the role of stimulus meaning in the analogical reasoning abilities of three different primate species. Humans (Homo sapiens), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed the same relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) tasks with both meaningful and nonmeaningful stimuli. This discrimination of relations-between-relations serves as the basis for analogical reasoning. Meaningfulness facilitated the acquisition of analogical matching for human participants, whereas individual differences among the chimpanzees suggest that meaning can either enable or hinder their ability to complete analogies. Rhesus monkeys did not succeed in the RMTS task regardless of stimulus meaning, suggesting that their ability to reason analogically, if present at all, may be dependent on a dimension other than the representational value of stimuli. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Age-Related Changes in Locomotor Performance Reveal a Similar Pattern for Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus domesticus, Canis familiaris, Equus caballus, and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marck, Adrien; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Foulonneau, Vincent; Marc, Andy; Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Noirez, Philippe; Bronikowski, Anne M; Morgan, Theodore J; Garland, Theodore; Carter, Patrick A; Hersen, Pascal; Di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2017-04-01

    Locomotion is one of the major physiological functions for most animals. Previous studies have described aging mechanisms linked to locomotor performance among different species. However, the precise dynamics of these age-related changes, and their interactions with development and senescence, are largely unknown. Here, we use the same conceptual framework to describe locomotor performances in Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus domesticus, Canis familiaris, Equus caballus, and Homo sapiens. We show that locomotion is a consistent biomarker of age-related changes, with an asymmetrical pattern throughout life, regardless of the type of effort or its duration. However, there is variation (i) among species for the same mode of locomotion, (ii) within species for different modes of locomotion, and (iii) among individuals of the same species for the same mode of locomotion. Age-related patterns are modulated by genetic (such as selective breeding) as well as environmental conditions (such as temperature). However, in all cases, the intersection of the rising developmental phase and the declining senescent phase reveals neither a sharp transition nor a plateau, but a smooth transition, emphasizing a crucial moment: the age at peak performance. This transition may define a specific target for future investigations on the dynamics of such biological interactions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Analysis of protein targets in pathogen-host interaction in infectious diseases: a case study on Plasmodium falciparum and Homo sapiens interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sovan; Sengupta, Kaustav; Chatterjee, Piyali; Basu, Subhadip; Nasipuri, Mita

    2017-09-23

    Infection and disease progression is the outcome of protein interactions between pathogen and host. Pathogen, the role player of Infection, is becoming a severe threat to life as because of its adaptability toward drugs and evolutionary dynamism in nature. Identifying protein targets by analyzing protein interactions between host and pathogen is the key point. Proteins with higher degree and possessing some topologically significant graph theoretical measures are found to be drug targets. On the other hand, exceptional nodes may be involved in infection mechanism because of some pathway process and biologically unknown factors. In this article, we attempt to investigate characteristics of host-pathogen protein interactions by presenting a comprehensive review of computational approaches applied on different infectious diseases. As an illustration, we have analyzed a case study on infectious disease malaria, with its causative agent Plasmodium falciparum acting as 'Bait' and host, Homo sapiens/human acting as 'Prey'. In this pathogen-host interaction network based on some interconnectivity and centrality properties, proteins are viewed as central, peripheral, hub and non-hub nodes and their significance on infection process. Besides, it is observed that because of sparseness of the pathogen and host interaction network, there may be some topologically unimportant but biologically significant proteins, which can also act as Bait/Prey. So, functional similarity or gene ontology mapping can help us in this case to identify these proteins. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Utilization of Boron Compounds for the Modification of Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid as Inhibitor of Histone Deacetylase Class II Homo sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Ridla; Parikesit, Arli Aditya; Satriyanto, Cipta Prio; Kerami, Djati; Tambunan, Usman Sumo Friend

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) has a critical function in regulating gene expression. The inhibition of HDAC has developed as an interesting anticancer research area that targets biological processes such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell differentiation. In this study, an HDAC inhibitor that is available commercially, suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), has been modified to improve its efficacy and reduce the side effects of the compound. Hydrophobic cap and zinc-binding group of these compounds were substituted with boron-based compounds, whereas the linker region was substituted with p-aminobenzoic acid. The molecular docking analysis resulted in 8 ligands with ΔG binding value more negative than the standards, SAHA and trichostatin A (TSA). That ligands were analyzed based on the nature of QSAR, pharmacological properties, and ADME-Tox. It is conducted to obtain a potent inhibitor of HDAC class II Homo sapiens. The screening process result gave one best ligand, Nova2 (513246-99-6), which was then further studied by molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:25214833

  11. Structural Exploration and Conformational Transitions in MDM2 upon DHFR Interaction from Homo sapiens: A Computational Outlook for Malignancy via Epigenetic Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arundhati; Ray, Sujay

    2016-01-01

    Structural basis for exploration into MDM2 and MDM2-DHFR interaction plays a vital role in analyzing the obstruction in folate metabolism, nonsynthesis of purines, and further epigenetic regulation in Homo sapiens. Therefore, it leads to suppression of normal cellular behavior and malignancy. This has been earlier documented via yeast two-hybrid assays. So, with a novel outlook, this study explores the molecular level demonstration of the best satisfactory MDM2 model selection after performing manifold modeling techniques. Z-scores and other stereochemical features were estimated for comparison. Further, protein-protein docking was executed with MDM2 and the experimentally validated X-ray crystallographic DHFR. Residual disclosure from the best suited simulated protein complex disclosed 18 side chain and 3 ionic interactions to strongly accommodate MDM2 protein into the pocket-like zone in DHFR due to the positive environment by charged residues. Lysine residues from MDM2 played a predominant role. Moreover, evaluation from varied energy calculations, folding rate, and net area for solvent accessibility implied the active participation of MDM2 with DHFR. Fascinatingly, conformational transitions from coils to helices and β-sheets after interaction with DHFR affirm the conformational strength and firmer interaction of human MDM2-DHFR. Therefore, this probe instigates near-future clinical research and interactive computational investigations with mutations.

  12. Do you see what I see? A comparative investigation of the Delboeuf illusion in humans (Homo sapiens), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Brosnan, Sarah F; Beran, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Studying visual illusions is critical to understanding typical visual perception. We investigated whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) perceived the Delboeuf illusion in a similar manner as human adults (Homo sapiens). To test this, in Experiment 1, we presented monkeys and humans with a relative discrimination task that required subjects to choose the larger of 2 central dots that were sometimes encircled by concentric rings. As predicted, humans demonstrated evidence of the Delboeuf illusion, overestimating central dots when small rings surrounded them and underestimating the size of central dots when large rings surrounded them. However, monkeys did not show evidence of the illusion. To rule out an alternate explanation, in Experiment 2, we presented all species with an absolute classification task that required them to classify a central dot as "small" or "large." We presented a range of ring sizes to determine whether the Delboeuf illusion would occur for any dot-to-ring ratios. Here, we found evidence of the Delboeuf illusion in all 3 species. Humans and monkeys underestimated central dot size to a progressively greater degree with progressively larger rings. The Delboeuf illusion now has been extended to include capuchin monkeys and rhesus monkeys, and through such comparative investigations we can better evaluate hypotheses regarding illusion perception among nonhuman animals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Tissue-Specific Methylation of Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 of Homo Sapiens (L1Hs) During Human Embryogenesis and Roles in Neural Tube Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Chang, S; Guan, J; Shangguan, S; Lu, X; Wang, Z; Wu, L; Zou, J; Zhao, H; Bao, Y; Qiu, Z; Niu, B; Zhang, T

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposition events plays crucial roles during early development. Previously we showed that LINE-1 hypomethylation in neuronal tissues is associated with pathogenesis of neural tube defect (NTD). Herein, we further evaluated LINE-1 Homo sapiens (L1Hs) methylation in tissues derived from three germ layers of stillborn NTD fetuses, to define patterns of tissue specific methylation and site-specific hypomethylation at CpG sites within an L1Hs promoter region. Stable, tissue-specific L1Hs methylation patterns throughout three germ layer lineages of the fetus, placenta, and maternal peripheral blood were observed. Samples from maternal peripheral blood exhibited the highest level of L1Hs methylation (64.95%) and that from placenta showed the lowest (26.82%). Between samples from NTDs and controls, decrease in L1Hs methylation was only significant in NTD-affected brain tissue at 7.35%, especially in females (8.98%). L1Hs hypomethylation in NTDs was also associated with a significant increase in expression level of an L1Hs-encoded transcript in females (r = -0.846, p = 0.004). This could be due to genomic DNA instability and alternation in chromatins accessibility resulted from abnormal L1Hs hypomethylation, as showed in this study with HCT-15 cells treated with methylation inhibitor 5-Aza.

  14. Demethylation-mediated miR-129-5p up-regulation inhibits malignant phenotype of osteogenic osteosarcoma by targeting Homo sapiens valosin-containing protein (VCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xin Hua; Zhou, Yun Fei; Peng, Ai Fen; Zhang, Zhi Hong; Chen, Xuan Yin; Chen, Wen Zhao; Liu, Jia Ming; Huang, Shan Hu; Liu, Zhi Li

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that increased Homo sapiens valosin-containing protein (VCP) may be involved in osteosarcoma (OS) metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism of VCP over-expression in OS remains unknown. In the present study, we found a significantly negative correlation between miR-129-5p and VCP protein expression in OS tissues with pulmonary metastasis (Spearman's rho, rs = -0.948). Bioinformatical prediction, Luciferase reporter assay, Western blot, and RT-PCR assays performed on OS cells indicated that VCP is a target of miR-129-5p. In addition, three CPG islands in the region of miR-129-5p promoter were detected by bioinformatical prediction, and significantly higher expression of miR-129-5p and lower methylation level of miR-129-2 gene in OS cells treated with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (a potent DNA demethylating agent) than in those untreated cells were observed. Furthermore, lower migratory and invasive ability was found in cells with elevated miR-129-5p than in those with decreased miR-129-5p. These findings indicated that increased miR-129-5p may be mediated by demethylation and inhibit OS cell migration and invasion by targeting VCP in OS, and targeting miR-129-5p/VCP signaling pathway may serve as a therapeutic strategy for OS management, although further studies will be necessary.

  15. Surface functionalization of PLGA nanoparticles by non-covalent insertion of a homo-bifunctional spacer for active targeting in cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamake, S I; Raut, S L [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Ranjan, A P; Vishwanatha, J K [Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Gryczynski, Z, E-mail: jamboor.vishwanatha@unthsc.edu [Center for Commercialization of Fluorescence Technology, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States)

    2011-01-21

    This work reports the surface functionalization of polymeric PLGA nanoparticles by non-covalent insertion of a homo-bifunctional chemical crosslinker, bis(sulfosuccinimidyl) suberate (BS3) for targeted cancer therapy. We dissolved BS3 in aqueous solution of PVA during formulation of nanoparticles by a modified solid/oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation method. The non-covalent insertion of BS3 was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Curcumin and annexin A2 were used as a model drug and a cell specific target, respectively. Nanoparticles were characterized for particle size, zeta potential and surface morphology. The qualitative assessment of antibody attachment was performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as confocal microscopy. The optimized formulation showed antibody attachment of 86%. However, antibody attachment was abolished upon blocking the functional groups of BS3. The availability of functional antibodies was evaluated by the presence of a light chain fraction after gel electrophoresis. We further evaluated the in vitro release kinetics of curcumin from antibody coated and uncoated nanoparticles. The release of curcumin is enhanced upon antibody attachment and followed an anomalous release pattern. We also observed that the cellular uptake of nanoparticles was significantly higher in annexin A2 positive cells than in negative cells. Therefore, these results demonstrate the potential use of this method for functionalization as well as to deliver chemotherapeutic agents for treating cancer.

  16. The 'partial resonance' of the ring in the NLO crystal melaminium formate: study using vibrational spectra, DFT, HOMO-LUMO and MESP mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binoy, J; Marchewka, M K; Jayakumar, V S

    2013-03-01

    The molecular geometry and vibrational spectral investigations of melaminium formate, a potential material known for toxicity and NLO activity, has been performed. The FT IR and FT Raman spectral investigations of melaminium formate is performed aided by the computed spectra of melaminium formate, triazine, melamine, melaminium and formate ion, along with bond orders and PED, computed using the density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-31G(d) basis set and XRD data, to reveal intermolecular interactions of amino groups with neighbor formula units in the crystal, intramolecular H⋯H repulsion of amino group hydrogen with protonating hydrogen, consequent loss of resonance in the melaminium ring, restriction of resonance to N(3)C(1)N(1) moiety leading to special type resonance of the ring and the resonance structure of CO(2) group of formate ion. The 3D matrix of hyperpolarizability tensor components has been computed to quantify NLO activity of melamine, melaminium and melaminium formate and the hyperpolarizability enhancement is analyzed using computed plots of HOMO and LUMO orbitals. A new mechanism of proton transfer responsible for NLO activity has been suggested, based on anomalous IR spectral bands in the high wavenumber region. The computed MEP contour maps have been used to analyze the interaction of melaminium and formate ions in the crystal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Phytophthora sojae effector PsCRN63 forms homo-/hetero-dimers to suppress plant immunity via an inverted association manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Zhang, Meixiang; Shen, Danyu; Liu, Tingli; Chen, Yanyu; Zhou, Jian-Min; Dou, Daolong

    2016-05-31

    Oomycete pathogens produce a large number of effectors to promote infection. Their mode of action are largely unknown. Here we show that a Phytophthora sojae effector, PsCRN63, suppresses flg22-induced expression of FRK1 gene, a molecular marker in pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). However, PsCRN63 does not suppress upstream signaling events including flg22-induced MAPK activation and BIK1 phosphorylation, indicating that it acts downstream of MAPK cascades. The PsCRN63-transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed increased susceptibility to bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst) DC3000 and oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici. The callose deposition were suppressed in PsCRN63-transgenic plants compared with the wild-type control plants. Genes involved in PTI were also down-regulated in PsCRN63-transgenic plants. Interestingly, we found that PsCRN63 forms an dimer that is mediated by inter-molecular interactions between N-terminal and C-terminal domains in an inverted association manner. Furthermore, the N-terminal and C-terminal domains required for the dimerization are widely conserved among CRN effectors, suggesting that homo-/hetero-dimerization of Phytophthora CRN effectors is required to exert biological functions. Indeed, the dimerization was required for PTI suppression and cell death-induction activities of PsCRN63.

  18. Perceived risk of female infidelity moderates the relationship between objective risk of female infidelity and sexual coercion in humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, William F; Starratt, Valerie G; Shackelford, Todd K; Goetz, Aaron T

    2011-08-01

    Female extrapair copulation (EPC) can be costly to a woman's long-term romantic partner. If a woman has copulated recently with a man other than her long-term partner, her reproductive tract may contain the sperm of both men, initiating sperm competition (whereby sperm from multiple males compete to fertilize an egg). Should the woman become pregnant, her long-term partner is at risk of cuckoldry-investing unwittingly in offspring to whom he is not genetically related. Previous research in humans (Homo sapiens) and in nonhuman animals suggests that males have evolved tactics such as partner-directed sexual coercion that reduce the risk of cuckoldry. The current research provides preliminary evidence that mated men (n = 223) at greater risk of partner EPC, measured as having spent a greater proportion of time apart from their partner since the couple's last in-pair copulation, more frequently perform partner-directed sexually coercive behaviors. This relationship is moderated, however, by men's perceived risk of partner EPC, such that the correlation between the proportion of time spent apart since last in-pair copulation and sexually coercive behaviors remains significant only for those men who perceive themselves to be at some risk of partner EPC. Discussion addresses limitations of this research and highlights directions for future research investigating the relationship between female EPC and men's partner-directed sexual coercion. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. From Elephant God to Man Dog: Hybridity, Mimicry, and the Homo Sacer in Salman Rushdie’s MIDNIGHT’S CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Arnds

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children is a work of pastiche. As such it is typically postmodern, literature patched together from other literary texts. Using Grass’s Tin Drum and the German postwar cultural-political situation as a model, Rushdie copies Grass in re-enchanting a secularized country grappling with the memory of genocide through a set of mythological paradigms. By drawing on postcolonial theory and the biopolitical concept of the homo sacer this essay analyses Rushdie’s particular brand of what I have termed as mythical realism in view of its close amalgamation of hybridity with mimicry, subversive mockery, and liminality between the human and the animal, typical features of the postmodern novel trying to come to terms with war and genocide. It is the aim of this study to examine the functions of these key features for Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children for lifting the corks of forgetting and disclosing the concealment of India’s past.

  20. The spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV and NMR) first order hyperpolarizability and HOMO-LUMO analysis of dansyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, M.; Cinar, M.; Kurt, M.; Poiyamozhi, A.; Sundaraganesan, N.

    2014-01-01

    The solid phase FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of dansyl chloride (DC) have been recorded in the regions 400-4000 and 50-4000 cm-1, respectively. The spectra have been interpreted in terms of fundamentals modes, combination and overtone bands. The structure of the molecule has been optimized and the structural characteristics have been determined by density functional theory (B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) as basis set. The vibrational frequencies were calculated for most stable conformer and were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. The infrared and Raman spectra have also been predicted from the calculated intensities. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. UV-Visible spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 200-600 nm and the electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured by time-dependent TD-DFT approach. Nonlinear optical and thermodynamic properties were interpreted. All the calculated results were compared with the available experimental data of the title molecule.

  1. Quantum chemical study, spectroscopic investigations, NBO and HOMO-LUMO analyses of 3-aminoquinoline (3AQ) and [Ag(3AQ)2(TCA)] complex (TCA = Trichloroacetate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Saied M.; Kassem, Taher S.; Badr, Ahmed M. A.; Abu Youssef, Morsy A.; Assem, Rania

    2014-09-01

    The new [Ag(3AQ)2(TCA)]; (3AQ = 3-aminoquinoline and TCA = Trichloroacetate) complex is synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, FTIR, NMR and mass spectroscopy. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) 1H chemical shift values of the free and coordinated 3AQ in the ground state have been calculated by using DFT/B3LYP method. The TD-DFT results of the [Ag(3AQ)2(TCA)] complex showed a π-π* transition band at 240.3-242.6 nm (f = 0.1334-0.1348) which has longer wavelength and lower absorption intensity than that for the free 3AQ (233.2 nm, f = 0.3958). Dipole moment, polarizability and HOMO-LUMO gap values predicted better nonlinear optical properties (NLO) for the [Ag(3AQ)2(TCA)] than the 3AQ ligand. NBO analysis has been used to predict the most accurate Lewis structure of the studied molecules. The energies of the different intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) interactions within the studied molecules were estimated using second order perturbation theory.

  2. Molecular structure, spectral studies, NBO, HOMO-LUMO profile, MEP and Mulliken analysis of 3β,6β-dichloro-5α-hydroxy-5α-cholestane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahboob; Park, Soonheum

    2018-05-01

    The synthesis of 3β,6β-dichloro-5α-hydroxy-5α-cholestane (in general, steroidal chlorohydrin or steroidal halohydrin) and theoretical study of the structure are reported in this paper. The individuality of chlorohydrin was confirmed by FT-IR, NMR, MS, CHN microanalysis and X-ray crystallography. DFT calculations on the titled molecule have been performed. The molecular structure and spectra explained by Gaussian hybrid computational analysis theory (B3LYP) are found to be in correlation with the experimental data obtained from the various spectrophotometric techniques. The theoretical geometry optimization data were compared with the X-ray data. The vibrational bands appearing in the FT-IR are assigned with accuracy using harmonic frequencies along with intensities and animated modes. Molecular properties like NBO, HOMO-LUMO analysis, chemical reactivity descriptors, MEP mapping and dipole moment have been dealt at same level of theory. The calculated electronic spectrum of chlorohydrin is interpreted on the basis of TD-DFT calculations.

  3. Vibrational spectroscopic studies, normal co-ordinate analysis, first order hyperpolarizability, HOMO-LUMO of midodrine by using density functional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidha, R; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A; Muthu, S

    2015-01-05

    The FTIR (4000-400 cm(-1)), FT-Raman (4000-100 cm(-1)) and UV-Visible (400-200 nm) spectra of midodrine were recorded in the condensed state. The complete vibrational frequencies, optimized geometry, intensity of vibrational bands and atomic charges were obtained by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) with the help of 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The first order hyperpolarizability (β) and related properties (μ, α and Δα) of this molecular system were calculated by using DFT/6-311++G(d,p) method based on the finite-field approach. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Normal Co-ordinate Analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force methodology. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. From the recorded UV-Visible spectrum, the electronic properties such as excitation energies, oscillator strength and wavelength are calculated by DFT in water and gas methods using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies confirm that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Besides MEP, NLO and thermodynamic properties were also calculated and interpreted. The electron density-based local reactivity descriptor such as Fukui functions was calculated to explain the chemical selectivity or reactivity site in midodrine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Conformational stability, spectroscopic and computational studies, HOMO-LUMO, NBO, ESP analysis, thermodynamic parameters of natural bioactive compound with anticancer potential of 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, V; Karpagam, V; Revathi, B; Kavimani, M; Ilango, G

    2015-11-05

    Natural product drugs play a dominant role in pharmaceutical care. Nature is an attractive source of new therapeutic candidate compounds as a tremendous chemical diversity is found in millions of species of plants, animals, marine organism and micro-organism. A antifungal activity against important opportunist micro-organism and against those involved in superficial mycosis, all from nosocomial origin. The acute in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of each anthraquinone (AQ) isolated from these bioactive extracts, on a mammalian eukaryotic cell line (Vero cells), allowed us to establish the non-cytotoxic concentration range, which was used to evaluate the anti-microbial effect. A comprehensive ab initio calculation using the DFT/6-31+G(d) level theory showed that 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone can exist in four possible conformations, which can interchange through the OH group on the five-membered ring. Density functional theory calculations were used to predict the vibrational frequencies and to help in normal mode, assignments. Furthermore, a natural bond orbital analysis was performed describing each hydrogen bond as donor accepter interaction. The Fourier transform infrared spectra (4000-400 cm(-1)) and the Fourier transform Raman spectra (3500-100 cm(-1)) of the HMA in the solid space have been recorded. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The calculated ESP contour map shows the electrophilic and nucleophilic region of the molecule. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of an anticoagulant 4-hydroxy-1-thiocoumarin by FTIR, FT-Raman, NMR, DFT, NBO and HOMO-LUMO analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Santhanam, R.; Sakiladevi, S.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.

    2013-04-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations on the molecular structural, electronic and the vibrational characteristics of 4-hydroxy-1-thiocoumarin are presented. Conformational analysis was carried out to obtain the more stable configuration of the compound. The vibrational frequencies were obtained by DFT/B3LYP calculations employing 6-311++G(d,p), 6-31G(d,p), cc-pVTZ basic sets and B3PW91 method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and are compared with FTIR and FT-Raman spectral data recorded in the region of 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces of the molecule were constructed to display electrostatic potential (electron + nuclei) distribution. The electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by using the Gauge-Independent Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method and analyzed. The picture of localized bonds and lone pairs, stabilization energy of the delocalization of electrons, the charge and hybridisation of the atoms of 4-hydroxy-1-thiocoumarin were clearly explained by NBO analysis.

  6. The `partial resonance' of the ring in the NLO crystal melaminium formate: Study using vibrational spectra, DFT, HOMO-LUMO and MESP mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binoy, J.; Marchewka, M. K.; Jayakumar, V. S.

    2013-03-01

    The molecular geometry and vibrational spectral investigations of melaminium formate, a potential material known for toxicity and NLO activity, has been performed. The FT IR and FT Raman spectral investigations of melaminium formate is performed aided by the computed spectra of melaminium formate, triazine, melamine, melaminium and formate ion, along with bond orders and PED, computed using the density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-31G(d) basis set and XRD data, to reveal intermolecular interactions of amino groups with neighbor formula units in the crystal, intramolecular H⋯H repulsion of amino group hydrogen with protonating hydrogen, consequent loss of resonance in the melaminium ring, restriction of resonance to N3C1N1 moiety leading to special type resonance of the ring and the resonance structure of CO2 group of formate ion. The 3D matrix of hyperpolarizability tensor components has been computed to quantify NLO activity of melamine, melaminium and melaminium formate and the hyperpolarizability enhancement is analyzed using computed plots of HOMO and LUMO orbitals. A new mechanism of proton transfer responsible for NLO activity has been suggested, based on anomalous IR spectral bands in the high wavenumber region. The computed MEP contour maps have been used to analyze the interaction of melaminium and formate ions in the crystal.

  7. Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber thinning and the homo-interface model: Influence of Mo back contact and 3-stage process on device characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, E.; Arzel, L.; Tomassini, M.; Barreau, N., E-mail: nicolas.barreau@univ-nantes.fr [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN)-UMR 6502, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Zabierowski, P. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, PL 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Fuertes Marrón, D. [Instituto de Energía Solar–ETSIT, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s.n., 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-21

    Thinning the absorber layer is one of the possibilities envisaged to further decrease the production costs of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) thin films solar cell technology. In the present study, the electronic transport in submicron CIGSe-based devices has been investigated and compared to that of standard devices. It is observed that when the absorber is around 0.5 μm-thick, tunnelling enhanced interface recombination dominates, which harms cells energy conversion efficiency. It is also shown that by varying either the properties of the Mo back contact or the characteristics of 3-stage growth processing, one can shift the dominating recombination mechanism from interface to space charge region and thereby improve the cells efficiency. Discussions on these experimental facts led to the conclusions that 3-stage process implies the formation of a CIGSe/CIGSe homo-interface, whose location as well as properties rule the device operation; its influence is enhanced in submicron CIGSe based solar cells.

  8. Cotton fibers encapsulated with homo- and block copolymers: synthesis by the atom transfer radical polymerization grafting-from technique and solid-state NMR dynamic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelvetro, Valter; Geppi, Marco; Giaiacopi, Simone; Mollica, Giulia

    2007-02-01

    Cotton fibers were modified by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of ethyl acrylate (EA) followed by copolymerization with styrene. Either ethyl 2-bromopropionate as a sacrificial free initiator or Cu(II) as a deactivator was used to optimize the EA grafting yield and to preserve the livingness of the chain ends for the subsequent growth of a poly(styrene) (PSty) block from the poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) grafts. The polymer-encapsulated cotton fibers were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis, and solid-state NMR (high-resolution 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning, 1H spin-lattice relaxation times, and 1H free induction decay analysis NMR). The latter allowed the detection of the dynamic modifications associated with the presence of homo- and block copolymer grafts. In particular, the results of the DSC and NMR investigations suggest a heterogeneous morphology of the g-PEA-b-PSty grafted skin, which could be described as an inner layer of g-PEA sandwiched between the semicrystalline cellulose of the core fiber and the high glass transition temperature PSty of the covalently linked outer layer. Such morphology results in a reduced molecular mobility of the PEA chains.

  9. La première mondialisation. Quelle place pour l’Afrique dans l’histoire évolutive et biogéographique du genre Homo ? The first globalization. Which role for Africa in the evolutionary and biogeographical history of genus Homo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Renaud Boisserie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available L’Afrique a hébergé notre évolution jusqu’à l’apparition du genre Homo et sa conquête de l’Eurasie il y a deux millions d’années environ. Et après, que s’est-il passé ? Les actes suivants ont-ils pris place en Eurasie, comme sous-entendu par l’expression « sortie d’Afrique » pour désigner cette conquête ? Dans cette contribution, les principales phases de cette « sortie » sont récapitulées sur la base des données fossiles, archéologiques et génétiques, et les différentes hypothèses sont brièvement discutées. Il apparaît que l’Afrique est restée le centre d’innovation et de dispersion de l’histoire évolutive humaine jusqu’à il y a quelques dizaines de milliers d’années.Africa hosted our evolution till the appearance of the genus Homo and its spreading over Eurasia about two million years ago. What happened afterwards? Did the following episodes take place in Eurasia, as suggested by the phrase “out of Africa” used to describe this conquest? The main phases of this “exit” are briefly described by using fossil, archeological, and genetic data; and alternative hypotheses, recapitulated. Africa apparently remained the center of innovation and dispersal in human evolutionary history up till a few tens of thousand years ago.

  10. Learning a weighted sequence model of the nucleosome core and linker yields more accurate predictions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila M Reynolds

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available DNA in eukaryotes is packaged into a chromatin complex, the most basic element of which is the nucleosome. The precise positioning of the nucleosome cores allows for selective access to the DNA, and the mechanisms that control this positioning are important pieces of the gene expression puzzle. We describe a large-scale nucleosome pattern that jointly characterizes the nucleosome core and the adjacent linkers and is predominantly characterized by long-range oscillations in the mono, di- and tri-nucleotide content of the DNA sequence, and we show that this pattern can be used to predict nucleosome positions in both Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae more accurately than previously published methods. Surprisingly, in both H. sapiens and S. cerevisiae, the most informative individual features are the mono-nucleotide patterns, although the inclusion of di- and tri-nucleotide features results in improved performance. Our approach combines a much longer pattern than has been previously used to predict nucleosome positioning from sequence-301 base pairs, centered at the position to be scored-with a novel discriminative classification approach that selectively weights the contributions from each of the input features. The resulting scores are relatively insensitive to local AT-content and can be used to accurately discriminate putative dyad positions from adjacent linker regions without requiring an additional dynamic programming step and without the attendant edge effects and assumptions about linker length modeling and overall nucleosome density. Our approach produces the best dyad-linker classification results published to date in H. sapiens, and outperforms two recently published models on a large set of S. cerevisiae nucleosome positions. Our results suggest that in both genomes, a comparable and relatively small fraction of nucleosomes are well-positioned and that these positions are predictable based on sequence alone. We believe that the

  11. Learning a weighted sequence model of the nucleosome core and linker yields more accurate predictions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sheila M; Bilmes, Jeff A; Noble, William Stafford

    2010-07-08

    DNA in eukaryotes is packaged into a chromatin complex, the most basic element of which is the nucleosome. The precise positioning of the nucleosome cores allows for selective access to the DNA, and the mechanisms that control this positioning are important pieces of the gene expression puzzle. We describe a large-scale nucleosome pattern that jointly characterizes the nucleosome core and the adjacent linkers and is predominantly characterized by long-range oscillations in the mono, di- and tri-nucleotide content of the DNA sequence, and we show that this pattern can be used to predict nucleosome positions in both Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae more accurately than previously published methods. Surprisingly, in both H. sapiens and S. cerevisiae, the most informative individual features are the mono-nucleotide patterns, although the inclusion of di- and tri-nucleotide features results in improved performance. Our approach combines a much longer pattern than has been previously used to predict nucleosome positioning from sequence-301 base pairs, centered at the position to be scored-with a novel discriminative classification approach that selectively weights the contributions from each of the input features. The resulting scores are relatively insensitive to local AT-content and can be used to accurately discriminate putative dyad positions from adjacent linker regions without requiring an additional dynamic programming step and without the attendant edge effects and assumptions about linker length modeling and overall nucleosome density. Our approach produces the best dyad-linker classification results published to date in H. sapiens, and outperforms two recently published models on a large set of S. cerevisiae nucleosome positions. Our results suggest that in both genomes, a comparable and relatively small fraction of nucleosomes are well-positioned and that these positions are predictable based on sequence alone. We believe that the bulk of the

  12. Has evolution ‘prepared’ us to deal with death? Paleoanthropological aspects of the enigma of Homo naledi’s disposal of their dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel W. du Toit

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Homo naledi discovery introduced questions that had not been previously posed regarding fossil finds. This is because, apart from their fascinating physiology, they seemingly deliberately disposed of their dead in a ritualised way. Although this theory may still be disproved in future, the present article provisionally accepts it. This evokes religious questions because it suggests the possibility of causal thinking, wilful and cooperative behaviour, and the possibility that this behaviour entails traces of proto-religious ideas. This poses the challenge to develop a hominin hermeneutics that endeavours to reconstruct the possible motivation behind this action. The relatively larger brain with its enlarged Broca’s area suggests the possibility of a sophisticated communication system and an enhanced way of dealing with emotion. We know that almost all life forms have some form of awareness and that more sophisticated degrees of consciousness may be present in the higher primates. Various ‘clues’ are investigated to try and understand the H. naledi phenomenon: lessons from chimpanzee studies, the implications of tool making for hominin development, the possibility of a proto-language and the role symbol formation may have played. The H. naledi case also indicates on a theological level that religion is natural. Some attention is given to this thesis. Biological and environmental factors come into play to illuminate biological factors like emotion and higher cognition without which religion would not be possible. Sophisticated cognition is coloured by affect (basic emotions are typical of all mammals and this makes some form of reflection on the fate of loved ones who have died a strong possibility.

  13. A comparative study of the UV–vis spectroelectrochemical behavior of 2- and 3-methylaniline during homo- and copolymerization with 1,2-diaminobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, Salma; Shah, Anwar-ul-Haq Ali; Holze, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates comparatively the behavior of 2-methylaniline (2-MA) and 3-methylaniline (3-MA) in a UV–vis spectroelectrochemical study of their homo- as well as copolymerization with 1,2-diaminobenzene (1,2-DAB). The homopolymers poly(2-methylaniline) (P2-MA) and poly(3-methylaniline) (P3-MA) show similar spectroelectrochemical properties. However, differences were observed in the properties between the copolymers of 2-MA and 3-MA with 1,2-DAB that could be due to the variation in the monomer units and orientation along the copolymer chains. The formation of head-to-tail coupled p-aminodiphenylamine (PPD) type of mixed dimers/oligomers, presumably resulting from the dimerization of 1,2-DAB and 2-MA or 3-MA cation radicals, is proposed. An absorption peak around λ = 497 nm in the UV–vis spectra is assigned to these intermediates. A mechanism is proposed for the growth of the copolymers. Characteristic UV–vis features of the copolymers have been identified and their dependencies on the electrode potential are discussed. Clear variations in spectroelectrochemical properties of the materials from mixed solutions can be observed just by varying the concentration of 1,2-DAB and by replacing 3-MA with 2-MA in the feed. One of the possible reason for the difference in the properties of the copolymers of 2-MA and 3-MA might be the effect of the electron-donating methyl group in meta-position resulting in an increased electron density in the second meta-position contributing to meta-coupling of radical cations

  14. Carabelli's trait revisited: an examination of mesiolingual features at the enamel-dentine junction and enamel surface of Pan and Homo sapiens upper molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Alejandra; Skinner, Matthew M; Bailey, Shara E; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2012-10-01

    Carabelli's trait is a morphological feature that frequently occurs on the mesiolingual aspect of Homo sapiens upper molars. Similar structures also referred to as Carabelli's trait have been reported in apes and fossil hominins. However, the morphological development and homology of these mesiolingual structures among hominoids are poorly understood. In this study, we employ micro-computed tomography to image the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) and outer enamel surface (OES) of Pan (n = 48) and H. sapiens (n = 52) upper molars. We investigate the developmental origin of mesiolingual features in these taxa and establish the relative contribution of the EDJ and enamel cap to feature expression. Results demonstrate that mesiolingual features of H. sapiens molars develop at the EDJ and are similarly expressed at the OES. Morphological variation at both surfaces in this taxon can satisfactorily be assessed using standards for Carabelli's trait developed by the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System (ASUDAS). Relative to H. sapiens, Pan has an even greater degree of correspondence in feature expression between the EDJ and OES. Morphological manifestations in Pan molars are not necessarily limited to the protocone and are best characterized by a lingual cingulum that cannot be captured by the ASUDAS. Cusp-like structures, similar to those seen in marked Carabelli's trait expressions in H. sapiens, were not found in Pan. This study provides a foundation for further analyses on the evolutionary history of mesiolingual dental traits within the hominoid lineage. It also highlights the wealth of morphological data that can be obtained at the EDJ for understanding tooth development and for characterizing tooth crown variation in worn fossil teeth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Learning a Weighted Sequence Model of the Nucleosome Core and Linker Yields More Accurate Predictions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sheila M.; Bilmes, Jeff A.; Noble, William Stafford

    2010-01-01

    DNA in eukaryotes is packaged into a chromatin complex, the most basic element of which is the nucleosome. The precise positioning of the nucleosome cores allows for selective access to the DNA, and the mechanisms that control this positioning are important pieces of the gene expression puzzle. We describe a large-scale nucleosome pattern that jointly characterizes the nucleosome core and the adjacent linkers and is predominantly characterized by long-range oscillations in the mono, di- and tri-nucleotide content of the DNA sequence, and we show that this pattern can be used to predict nucleosome positions in both Homo sapiens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae more accurately than previously published methods. Surprisingly, in both H. sapiens and S. cerevisiae, the most informative individual features are the mono-nucleotide patterns, although the inclusion of di- and tri-nucleotide features results in improved performance. Our approach combines a much longer pattern than has been previously used to predict nucleosome positioning from sequence—301 base pairs, centered at the position to be scored—with a novel discriminative classification approach that selectively weights the contributions from each of the input features. The resulting scores are relatively insensitive to local AT-content and can be used to accurately discriminate putative dyad positions from adjacent linker regions without requiring an additional dynamic programming step and without the attendant edge effects and assumptions about linker length modeling and overall nucleosome density. Our approach produces the best dyad-linker classification results published to date in H. sapiens, and outperforms two recently published models on a large set of S. cerevisiae nucleosome positions. Our results suggest that in both genomes, a comparable and relatively small fraction of nucleosomes are well-positioned and that these positions are predictable based on sequence alone. We believe that the bulk of the

  16. OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) interacts with Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5) and mediates oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Wenbin; Zhou, You; Li, Jiwei; Mysore, Raghavendra; Luo, Wei; Li, Shiqian; Chang, Mau-Sun; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Yan, Daoguang

    2014-01-01

    We earlier identified OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) as an endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope oxysterol-binding protein implicated in cellular lipid homeostasis, migration, and organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, a yeast two-hybrid screen identified Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5)/Astrin as interaction partner of ORP8. The putative interaction was further confirmed by pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. ORP8 did not colocalize with kinetochore-associated SPAG5 in mitotic HepG2 or HuH7 cells, but overexpressed ORP8 was capable of recruiting SPAG5 onto endoplasmic reticulum membranes in interphase cells. In our experiments, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OHC) retarded the HepG2 cell cycle, causing accumulation in G2/M phase; ORP8 overexpression resulted in the same phenotype. Importantly, ORP8 knock-down dramatically inhibited the oxysterol effect on HepG2 cell cycle, suggesting a mediating role of ORP8. Furthermore, knock-down of SPAG5 significantly reduced the effects of both ORP8 overexpression and 25OHC on the cell cycle, placing SPAG5 downstream of the two cell-cycle interfering factors. Taken together, the present results suggest that ORP8 may via SPAG5 mediate oxysterol interference of the HepG2 cell cycle. - Highlights: • The oxysterol-binding protein ORP8 was found to interact with the mitotic regulator SPAG5/Astrin. • Treatment of HepG2 cells with 25-hydroxycholesterol caused cell cycle retardation in G2/M. • ORP8 overexpression caused a similar G2/M accumulation, and ORP8 knock-down reversed the 25-hydroxycholesterol effect. • Reduction of cellular of SPAG5/Astrin reversed the cell cycle effects of both 25-hydroxycholesterol and ORP8 overexpression. • Our results suggest that ORP8 mediates via SPAG5/Astrin the oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle

  17. Nonocclusal dental microwear analysis of 300,000-year-old Homo heilderbergensis teeth from Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, A; Bermúdez De Castro, J M; Arsuaga, J L

    1999-04-01

    Casts of nonocclusal enamel surfaces of 190 teeth from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos have been micrographed by scanning electron microscopy. Microscopic analyses of striation density and length by orientation show distinct patterns of intrapopulation variability. Significant differences in the number and length of the striations by orientation are found between maxillary and mandibular teeth. This probably reflects differences in the mechanical forces involved in the process of chewing food. Significant differences are present between isolated and in situ teeth that could be caused by postdepositional processes differentially affecting the isolated teeth. In addition, a distinct and very unusual striation pattern is observed in a sample of teeth that can be explained only by a strong nondietary, most probably postmortem abrasion of the enamel surfaces. These teeth have a very high density of scratches, shorter in length than those found on other teeth, that are not indicative of dietary habits. No known depositional process may account for the presence of such postmortem wear since heavy transportation of materials within the clayish sediments has been discarded for the site. Despite this, a characteristic dietary striation pattern can be observed in most of the teeth analyzed. Most likely the diet of the Homo heidelbergensis hominids from Sima de los Huesos was highly abrasive, probably with a large dependence on hard, poorly processed plant foods, such as roots, stems, and seeds. A highly significant sex-related difference in the striation pattern can also be observed in the teeth analyzed, suggesting a differential consistency in the foods eaten by females and males.

  18. Electronic structure investigations of 4-aminophthal hydrazide by UV-visible, NMR spectral studies and HOMO-LUMO analysis by ab initio and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambathkumar, K; Jeyavijayan, S; Arivazhagan, M

    2015-08-05

    Combined experimental and theoretical studies were conducted on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 4-AminoPhthalhydrazide (APH). The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of APH were recorded in the solid phase. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of APH in the ground state have been calculated by using the ab initio HF (Hartree-Fock) and density functional methods (B3LYP) invoking 6-311+G(d,p) basis set. The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by HF and B3LYP method show best agreement with the experimental values. Comparison of the observed fundamental vibrational frequencies of APH with calculated results by HF and density functional methods indicates that B3LYP is superior to the scaled Hartree-Fock approach for molecular vibrational problems. The difference between the observed and scaled wave number values of most of the fundamentals is very small. A detailed interpretation of the NMR spectra of APH was also reported. The theoretical spectrograms for infrared and Raman spectra of the title molecule have been constructed. UV-vis spectrum of the compound was recorded and the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) approach. Finally the calculations results were applied to simulated infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound which show good agreement with observed spectra. And the temperature dependence of the thermodynamic properties of constant pressure (Cp), entropy (S) and enthalpy change (ΔH0→T) for APH were also determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantum chemical calculations and experimental investigations on 2-aminobenzoic acid-cyclodiphosph(V)azane derivative and its homo-binuclear Cu(II) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gogary, Tarek M.; Alaghaz, Abdel-Nasser M. A.; Ammar, Reda A. A.

    2012-03-01

    A novel 2-aminobenzoic acid-cyclodiphosph(V)azane ligand H4L and its homo-binuclear Cu(II) complex of the type [Cu2L(H2O)2].2.5 H2O in which L is 1,3-di(-o-pyridyl)-2,4-(dioxo)-2',4'-bis-(2-iminobenzoic acid) cyclodiphosph(V)azane, were synthesized and characterized by different physical techniques. Infrared spectra of the complex indicate deprotonation and coordination of the imine NH and carboxyl COOH groups. It also confirms that nitrogen atom of the pyridine ring contribute to the complexation. Electronic spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal square-planar geometry for the Cu(II) complex. The elemental analyses and thermogravimetric results have justified the [Cu2L(H2O)2]·2.5H2O composition of the complex. Quantum chemical calculations were utilized to explore the electronic structure and stability of the H4L as well as the binuclear Cu(II) complex. Computational studies have been carried out at the DFT-B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory on the structural and spectroscopic properties of H4L and its binuclear Cu(II) complex. Different tautomers and geometrical isomers of the ligand were optimized at the ab initio DFT level. Simulated IR frequencies were scaled and compared with that experimentally measured. TD-DFT method was used to compute the UV-VIS spectra which show good agreement with measured electronic spectra.

  20. OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) interacts with Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5) and mediates oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Wenbin [Department of Biotechnology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhou, You [Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki (Finland); Li, Jiwei [Department of Biotechnology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Mysore, Raghavendra [Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki (Finland); Luo, Wei; Li, Shiqian [Department of Biotechnology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chang, Mau-Sun [Institute of Biochemical Sciences, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Olkkonen, Vesa M. [Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, Helsinki (Finland); Yan, Daoguang, E-mail: tydg@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Biotechnology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-04-01

    We earlier identified OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) as an endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope oxysterol-binding protein implicated in cellular lipid homeostasis, migration, and organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Here, a yeast two-hybrid screen identified Homo sapiens sperm associated antigen 5 (SPAG5)/Astrin as interaction partner of ORP8. The putative interaction was further confirmed by pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. ORP8 did not colocalize with kinetochore-associated SPAG5 in mitotic HepG2 or HuH7 cells, but overexpressed ORP8 was capable of recruiting SPAG5 onto endoplasmic reticulum membranes in interphase cells. In our experiments, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OHC) retarded the HepG2 cell cycle, causing accumulation in G2/M phase; ORP8 overexpression resulted in the same phenotype. Importantly, ORP8 knock-down dramatically inhibited the oxysterol effect on HepG2 cell cycle, suggesting a mediating role of ORP8. Furthermore, knock-down of SPAG5 significantly reduced the effects of both ORP8 overexpression and 25OHC on the cell cycle, placing SPAG5 downstream of the two cell-cycle interfering factors. Taken together, the present results suggest that ORP8 may via SPAG5 mediate oxysterol interference of the HepG2 cell cycle. - Highlights: • The oxysterol-binding protein ORP8 was found to interact with the mitotic regulator SPAG5/Astrin. • Treatment of HepG2 cells with 25-hydroxycholesterol caused cell cycle retardation in G2/M. • ORP8 overexpression caused a similar G2/M accumulation, and ORP8 knock-down reversed the 25-hydroxycholesterol effect. • Reduction of cellular of SPAG5/Astrin reversed the cell cycle effects of both 25-hydroxycholesterol and ORP8 overexpression. • Our results suggest that ORP8 mediates via SPAG5/Astrin the oxysterol interference of HepG2 cell cycle.

  1. Highly sensitive colour change system within slight differences in metal ion concentrations based on homo-binuclear complex formation equilibrium for visual threshold detection of trace metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuguchi, Hitoshi; Atsumi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Keigo; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Kudo, Yuki; Endo, Masatoshi; Yokota, Fumihiko; Shida, Junichi; Yotsuyanagi, Takao

    2004-01-01

    A new technique of expressing slight differences in metal ion concentrations by clear difference in colour was established for visual threshold detection of trace metal ions. The proposed method is based on rapid change of the mole fraction of the homo-binuclear complex (M 2 L) about a ligand in a narrow range of the total metal ion concentration (M T ) in a small excess, in case the second metal ion is bound to the reagent molecule which can bind two metal ions. Theoretical simulations showed that the highly sensitive colour change within slight differences in metal ion concentrations would be realized under the following conditions: (i) both of the stepwise formation constants of complex species are sufficiently large; (ii) the stepwise formation constant of the 1:1 complex (ML) is larger than that of M 2 L; and (iii) the absorption spectrum of M 2 L is far apart from the other species in the visible region. Furthermore, the boundary of the colour region in M T would be readily controlled by the total ligand concentration (L T ). Based on this theory, the proposed model was verified with the 3,3'-bis[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]methyl derivatives of sulphonephthalein dyes such as xylenol orange (XO), methylthymol blue (MTB), and methylxylenol blue (MXB), which can bind two metal ions at both ends of a π-electron conjugated system. The above-mentioned model was proved with the iron(III)-XO system at pH 2. In addition, MTB and MXB were suitable reagents for the visual threshold detection of trivalent metal ions such as iron(III), aluminium(III), gallium(III) and indium(III) ion in slightly acidic media. The proposed method has been applied successfully as a screening test for aluminium(III) ion in river water sampled at the downstream area of an old mine

  2. The face of Olduvai Hominid 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Susan C

    2004-03-01

    Facial remains of Homo erectus are rare and their scarcity hinders our understanding of the variability and relationships in this taxon. Previously undescribed fragments of the peri-orbital region and unidentified matches between fragments of Olduvai Hominid 12 (OH 12) enhance comparison of the African H. erectus hypodigm. The newly reconstructed upper face and maxilla of OH 12 is most similar in size and shape to that of KNM-ER 3733, despite being as much as one million years younger than the Koobi Fora hominin. However, the posterior vault and mastoid region of OH 12 are most similar to OH 9. This combination of morphology suggests that the relationship between the Olduvai and Koobi Fora portions of the H. erectus hypodigm requires reconsideration.

  3. Preparation of Water-Soluble Homo and Copolymers of Bithiophene with 3,4-Ethylene Dioxythiophene and 3-Dodecylthiophene in Presence of Polystyrene Sulfonic Acid: Structure, Morphology, Thermal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhshali Massoumi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conductive polymers based on water-soluble polythiophenes were prepared. In this respect, alkylation reaction was carried out to synthesize the monomer 3-dodecylthiophene using 3-bromothiophene, bromododecane and magnesium. The monomer 2,2′-bithiophene was also prepared from 2-bromothiophene. Then, poly(2,2′-bithiophene, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene and poly(3-dodecylthiophene homopolymers were prepared at room temperature by successive chemical oxidation in the presence of polystyrene sulfonic acid and ammonium persulfate and water, as dopant, oxidant and solvent, respectively, under vigorous stirring. Under similar conditions, 2,2′-bithiophene copolymers with 3-dodecylthiophene and 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene, copolymers with 3-dodecylthiophene were prepared at different molar ratios. To purify and dry the prepared polymers, dialysis tubs and freezing dry processes were applied. Structure of homo and copolymers were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR. Conjugated and planar structures of polymers were studied by Ultravoilet (UV-vis spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of synthesized polymers was measured by four probe technique. The morphology and thermal stability of the products were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Finally, solubility of homo and copolymers were tested in some organic solvents and water. Electro- activity of the prepared polymers was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV on the glassy carbon (GC in LiClO4/CH3CN electrolyte solution and their electro-activity was confirmed. Electro-conductivity and electro-activity of homo and co polymers were low due topresence of polystyrene sulfonic acid which reduced the immobility of the polymers.

  4. Who's afraid of Homo sapiens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Todd M

    2006-11-29

    Understanding how humans differ from other animals, as well as how we are like them, requires comparative investigations. For the purpose of documenting the distinctive features of humans, the most informative research involves comparing humans to our closest relatives-the chimpanzees and other great apes. Psychology and anthropology have maintained a tradition of empirical comparative research on human specializations of cognition. The neurosciences, by contrast, have been dominated by the model-animal research paradigm, which presupposes the commonality of "basic" features of brain organization across species and discourages serious treatment of species differences. As a result, the neurosciences have made little progress in understanding human brain specializations. Recent developments in neuroimaging, genomics, and other non-invasive techniques make it possible to directly compare humans and nonhuman species at levels of organization that were previously inaccessible, offering the hope of gaining a better understanding of the species-specific features of the human brain. This hope will be dashed, however, if chimpanzees and other great ape species become unavailable for even non-invasive research.

  5. Homo cyborg: fifty years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hables Gray

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While the term “cyborg” is only 50 years old, the process that has produced cyborgization is much older: the evolution of the human. Humans have evolved to modify ourselves and our environment, especially through evolving culture and the technologies it creates. Culture is part of nature. Today’s mundane i-cyborgs, military drones, intimate human-machine merging and genetic engineering are a result of this; which in turn produce feelings of uncanniness, hubris, and fear. Contemporary politics must take this complex dynamic into account if we are to secure a sustainable, survivable, future for ourselves and our descendents. Social experiments such as Burning Man are a prefiguration of the kinds of (self conscious techno-social creativity needed.

  6. Comparative Genomics in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oti, Martin; Sammeth, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Genomes can be compared at different levels of divergence, either between species or within species. Within species genomes can be compared between different subpopulations, such as human subpopulations from different continents. Investigating the genomic differences between different human subpopulations is important when studying complex diseases that are affected by many genetic variants, as the variants involved can differ between populations. The 1000 Genomes Project collected genome-scale variation data for 2504 human individuals from 26 different populations, enabling a systematic comparison of variation between human subpopulations. In this chapter, we present step-by-step a basic protocol for the identification of population-specific variants employing the 1000 Genomes data. These variants are subsequently further investigated for those that affect the proteome or RNA splice sites, to investigate potentially biologically relevant differences between the populations.

  7. Homo Sapiens to Robo Sapiens

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083520

    1997-01-01

    Is it possible for engineers to build robots that will be more intelligent than humans?Could such robots become conscious?Could Artificial Life be engineered?If so,how long will it be before this is achieved?

  8. Homo Sapiens as Geological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.; Bedsworth, L. W.; Caldeira, K.; Rosenzweig, C.; Kelley, G.; Rosenzweig, C.; Caldeira, K.; Bedsworth, L. W.; Holloway, T.; Purdy, J. S.; Vince, G.; Syvitski, J. A.; Bondre, N. R.; Kelly, J.; Vince, G.; Seto, K. C.; Steffen, W.; Oreskes, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the 18th and 19th centuries, earth scientists came to understand the magnitude and power of geological and geophysical processes. In comparison, the activities of humans seemed paltry if not insignificant. With the development of radiometric dating in the 20th century, scientists realized that human history was but a miniscule part of Earth history. Metaphors to this effect abounded, and filled textbooks: If Earth history were a 24-hour day, human history would not occupy even the final second. If Earth history were a yardstick, the human portion would not even be visible to the naked eye. Generations of scientists were taught that one of the principal contributions of geology, qua science, was the demonstration of our insignificance. The Anthropocene concept disrupts this. To affirms its existence is to insist that human activities compete in scale and significance with other Earth processes, and may threaten to overwhelm them. It also inverts our relation to normative claims. For more than a century earth scientists and evolutionary biologists insisted that their theories were descriptive and not normative—that there was no moral conclusion to be drawn from either planetary or human evolution. Now, we confront the suggestion that there is a moral component to our new paradigm: we can scarcely claim that humans are disrupting the climate, destroying biodiversity, and acidifying the oceans without implying that there is something troubling about these developments. Thus, the Anthropocene concept suggests both a radical redefinition of the scope of Earth science, and a radical reconsideration of the place of normative judgments in scientific work.

  9. Homo EKAdemicus. Kunstiteadlane / Kaire Nurk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nurk, Kaire, 1960-

    2001-01-01

    Ants Juske 5. ideenäitusest "Lühike Eesti kunsti ajalugu" Tartu Kunstimajas, kus on väljas teosed eesti kunstikriitikutest ja -ajaloolastest ning rubriigis "Võim" poliitikutest. Kunstiteose rollist näitusel.

  10. Homo musicus palaeolithicus et Paleeocustica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Dauvois

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El reconocimiento del ámbito sonoro paleolítico basa su validez en el estudio acústico, mediante comparación etnomusicológica, tanto a través de la experimentación instrumental, in vivo, como la modelización de las formas reconocidas. La gruta de Isturitz es el único yacimiento que da flauta a cada nivel del Paleolítico superior, aportando una visión global de la factura de dichos instrumentos durante, prácticamente, veinticinco milenios.

  11. The association between mid-facial morphology and climate in northeast Europe differs from that in north Asia: Implications for understanding the morphology of Late Pleistocene Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evteev, Andrej A; Movsesian, Alla A; Grosheva, Alexandra N

    2017-06-01

    The climate of northeastern Europe is likely to resemble in many ways Late Pleistocene periglacial conditions in Europe, but there have been relatively few studies exploring the association between climate and morphology in the mid-face of modern northeastern European populations. To fill this gap, we sampled 540 male skulls from 22 European and Near Eastern groups, including 314 skulls from 11 populations from northeastern Europe, to test for possible climate-morphology association at the continental scale. Our results found a moderate and highly significant association (R = 0.48, p = 0.0013, Mantel test) between sets of 23 mid-facial measurements and eight climatic variables. A partial least squares analysis revealed this association to be mostly driven by differences between groups from northeastern Europe and populations from the Mediterranean and the Caucasus. Matrices of between-group genetic distances based on Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers, as well as cranial non-metric and geographic distance matrices, were used to control for the possible influence of shared population history. Irrespective of which measure of neutral between-population distances is taken into account, the association between cranial variables and climate remains significant. The pattern of association between climate and morphology of the mid-face in western Eurasia was then compared to that in east and north Asia. Although differences between the two were found, there were also similarities that support existing functional interpretations of morphology for the bony parts of the upper airways. Last, in a preliminary analysis using a reduced set of measurements, mid-facial morphology of several Upper Paleolithic European Homo sapiens specimens was found to be more similar to groups from northern and northeastern Europe than to southern European populations. Thus, the population of northeastern Europe rather than east and north Asian groups should be used as a model when studying

  12. Structural modeling and docking studies of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from Leishmania major and Homo sapiens: a comparative analysis for Leishmaniasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, Priscila V S Z; Baptista, Luiz Phillippe R; Guedes, Isabella A; Guimarães, Ana Carolina R; Custódio, Fabio L; Alves-Ferreira, Marcelo; Dardenne, Laurent E

    2015-02-01

    Leishmaniases are caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and are considered the second-highest cause of death worldwide by parasitic infection. The drugs available for treatment in humans are becoming ineffective mainly due to parasite resistance; therefore, it is extremely important to develop a new chemotherapy against these parasites. A crucial aspect of drug design development is the identification and characterization of novel molecular targets. In this work, through an in silico comparative analysis between the genomes of Leishmania major and Homo sapiens, the enzyme ribose 5-phosphate isomerase (R5PI) was indicated as a promising molecular target. R5PI is an important enzyme that acts in the pentose phosphate pathway and catalyzes the interconversion of d-ribose-5-phosphate (R5P) and d-ribulose-5-phosphate (5RP). R5PI activity is found in two analogous groups of enzymes called RpiA (found in H. sapiens) and RpiB (found in L. major). Here, we present the first report of the three-dimensional (3D) structures and active sites of RpiB from L. major (LmRpiB) and RpiA from H. sapiens (HsRpiA). Three-dimensional models were constructed by applying a hybrid methodology that combines comparative and ab initio modeling techniques, and the active site was characterized based on docking studies of the substrates R5P (furanose and ring-opened forms) and 5RP. Our comparative analyses show that these proteins are structural analogs and that distinct residues participate in the interconversion of R5P and 5RP. We propose two distinct reaction mechanisms for the reversible isomerization of R5P to 5RP, which is catalyzed by LmRpiB and HsRpiA. We expect that the present results will be important in guiding future molecular modeling studies to develop new drugs that are specially designed to inhibit the parasitic form of the enzyme without significant effects on the human analog. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular structure, vibrational spectroscopic analysis (IR & Raman), HOMO-LUMO and NBO analysis of anti-cancer drug sunitinib using DFT method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mıhçıokur, Özlem; Özpozan, Talat

    2017-12-01

    Oxindole and its derivatives have wide applications in different industries such as in synthetic & natural fibers, dyes for hair and plastic materials in addition to their biological importance. In the present study, one of the oxindole derivatives, N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-5-[(Z)-(5-fluoro-2-oxo-1H-indol-3-ylidene)methyl]-2,4-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxamide (Sunitinib), which is used as an anti-cancer drug, was investigated in terms of structural, vibrational spectroscopic and theoretical analysis. The calculations have been performed for gaseous, aqueous and DMSO phases, respectively. Potential Energy Surface (PES) scan has been carrried out to obtain the most stable structures of all the phases of the title molecule using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level and the geometrical variations among them are discussed. The solvent effect for Sunitinib in aqueous and DMSO phases have been performed by means of the self-consistent recognition reaction field (SCRF) method as implemented in the integral equation formalism polarized continuum model (IEFPCM). On the other hand, NBO analysis has been carried out to understand probable hydrogen bonding sites and charge transfers. Additionally, the HOMO and the LUMO energies are calculated using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) to determine the intra molecular charge transfers (ICT) within the molecule and the kinetic stabilities for each phases. The molecular electrostatic potential surface (MESP) has been plotted over the optimized structure to estimate the reactive sites of electrophilic and nucleophilic attacks regarding Sunitinib molecule. The potential energy distribution (PED) has been calculated using VEDA4 program and vibrational assignments of the experimental spectra (IR & Raman) have been elucidated by means of the calculated vibrational spectra. The observed vibrational spectra of Sunitinib is compared with the calculated spectra obtained by using B3LYP functional both with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. Theoretical results

  14. Homo sapiens, Homo demens e Homo degradandis: a psiquê humana e a crise ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Bortoni Ninis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a crise ambiental por meio de um diálogo entre a psicanálise, filosofia e ciências sociais. Busca-se introduzir um eixo comum de compreensão das relações entre a psiquê e a natureza, a partir de um texto reflexivo sobre a natureza humana, sua complexidade e suas sociopatias. A crise socioambiental em que vivemos é tratada a partir das seguintes proposições: (i a humanidade se distanciou da sua condição natural; (ii a humanidade pode estar psicologicamente doente; (iii a humanidade não está moralmente apta para delegar a superação da crise às futuras gerações, pois vivemos num simulacro que envolve consumismo e alienação. Conclui-se que há uma dimensão subjetiva na raiz da crise ambiental, de cuja análise depende a solução real do impasse civilizacional com o qual nos defrontamos.

  15. Structural, Spectroscopic (FT-IR, Raman and NMR, Non-linear Optical (NLO, HOMO-LUMO and Theoretical (DFT/CAM-B3LYP Analyses of N-Benzyloxycarbonyloxy-5-Norbornene-2,3-Dicarboximide Molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri ÖZTÜRK

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The experimental spectroscopic investigation of N-benzyloxycarbonyloxy-5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboximide (C17H15NO5 molecule has been done using 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. Conformational forms have been determined depending on orientation of N-benzyloxycarbonyloxy and 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboximide (NDI groups of the title compound. The structural geometric optimizations, vibrational wavenumbers, NMR chemical shifts (in vacuum and chloroform and HOMO-LUMO analyses for all conformers of the title molecule have been done with DFT/CAM-B3LYP method at the 6-311++G(d,p basis set. Additionally, based on the calculated HOMO and LUMO energy values, some molecular properties such as ionization potential (I, electron affinity (A, electronegativity (χ, chemical hardness (h, chemical softness (z, chemical potential (μ and electrophilicity index (w parameters are determined for all conformers. The non-linear optical (NLO properties have been studied for the title molecule. We can say that the experimental spectral data are in accordance with calculated values.

  16. Comparative morphological and morphometric description of the hominin calvaria from Bukuran (Sangiran, Central Java, Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud-Hervé, Dominique; Widianto, Harry; Détroit, Florent; Sémah, François

    2012-11-01

    We describe the hominin skull (called here "Bukuran") discovered in the lower Kabuh (or "Bapang") series near Sendangbusik, from the Bukuran area in the Sangiran dome. The fossil, heavily mineralized, consists of the parieto-occipital and the left temporal, and the frontal bones. When combined, those two cranial parts represent a rather complete and well-preserved calvaria. Its stratigraphic position was established after the discovery. A detailed description is presented of the morphological and metric features of the Bukuran calvaria, and comparisons are made with Asian Homo erectus from Indonesia and China. The estimated cranial capacity of Bukuran, the general shape of its cranial vault, its ectocranial structures, and its morphological and metrical characters are in the range of Asian Homo erectus, and show clear affinities with other Indonesian members of the species. We discuss the evolutionary status of the Bukuran calvaria and its implication for hominin history on Java. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tooth enamel stable isotopes of Holocene and Pleistocene fossil fauna reveal glacial and interglacial paleoenvironments of hominins in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Renée; Joordens, Josephine C. A.; Koutamanis, Dafne S.; Puspaningrum, Mika R.; de Vos, John; van der Lubbe, Jeroen H. J. L.; Reijmer, John J. G.; Hampe, Oliver; Vonhof, Hubert B.

    2016-07-01

    The carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope compositions of fossilized animal tissues have become important proxies of paleodiet and paleoenvironment, but such stable isotope studies have not yet been extensively applied to the fossil assemblages of Sundaland (the biogeographical region comprising most of the Indonesian Archipelago). Here, we use the isotope composition of tooth enamel to investigate the diet and habitat of bovids, cervids, and suids from several Holocene and Pleistocene sites on Java and Sumatra. Our carbon isotope results indicate that individual sites are strongly dominated by either C3-browsers or C4-grazers. Herbivores from the Padang Highlands (Sumatra) and Hoekgrot (Java) cave faunas were mainly C3-browsers, while herbivores from Homo erectus-bearing sites Trinil and Sangiran (Java) utilized an almost exclusive C4 diet. The suids from all sites show a wide range of δ13C values, corroborating their omnivorous diet. For the dataset as a whole, oxygen and carbon isotope values are positively correlated. This suggests that isotopic enrichment of rainwater and vegetation δ18O values coincides with an increase of C4-grasslands. We interpret this pattern to mainly reflect the environmental contrast between glacial (drier, more C4) and interglacial (wetter, more C3) conditions. Intermediate herbivore δ13C values indicating mixed C3/C4 feeding is relatively rare, which we believe to reflect the abruptness of the transition between glacial and interglacial precipitation regimes in Sundaland. For seven Homo erectus bone samples we were not able distinguish between diagenetic overprint and original isotope values, underlining the need to apply this isotopic approach to Homo erectus tooth enamel instead of bone. Importantly, our present results on herbivore and omnivore faunas provide the isotopic framework that will allow interpretation of such Homo erectus enamel isotope data.

  18. A Predominantly Indigenous Paternal Heritage for the Austronesian-Speaking Peoples of Insular Southeast Asia and Oceania

    OpenAIRE

    Capelli, Cristian; Wilson, James F.; Richards, Martin; Stumpf, Michael P. H.; Gratrix, Fiona; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Underhill, Peter; Pascali, Vincenzo L.; Ko, Tsang-Ming; Goldstein, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Modern humans reached Southeast Asia and Oceania in one of the first dispersals out of Africa. The resulting temporal overlap of modern and archaic humans-and the apparent morphological continuity between them-has led to claims of gene flow between Homo sapiens and H. erectus. Much more recently, an agricultural technology from mainland Asia spread into the region, possibly in association with Austronesian languages. Using detailed genealogical study of Y chromosome variation, we show that th...

  19. Quantum chemical investigations on the molecular structure, FTIR, UV-Vis and HOMO-LUMO analysis of 15-16-epoxy-7b, 9a dihydroxylabdane 13(16), 14-dien-6-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Anshul; Pathania, Kamni; Khajuria, Yugal

    2018-05-01

    The structural, spectroscopic (Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Ultra-Violet Visible (UV-VIS)) and thermodynamic properties of 15, 16-epoxy-7b, 9a dihydroxylabdane-13(16), 14-dien-6-one were studied by using both experimental techniques and theoretical methods. The FTIR spectrum of the title compound was recorded in the spectral range 4000-400 cm-1. The UV-VIS spectrum was measured in the spectral range 190-800 nm. The quantum chemistry calculations have been performed to compute optimized geometry, molecular parameters, vibrational frequencies along with intensities using Hartree Fock (HF) theory and Density Functional Theory (DFT) with 6-31G basis set. The calculated HOMO-LUMO energies show that the charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The temperature dependence of the thermodynamic properties like heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy of the optimized structure were obtained. Finally, a comparison between the experimental data and the calculated results presented a good agreement.

  20. Study on molecular structure, spectroscopic properties (FTIR and UV-Vis), NBO, QTAIM, HOMO-LUMO energies and docking studies of 5-fluorouracil, a substance used to treat cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Michell O; Barros, Daiane A S; Araujo, Sheila C; Faria, Sergio H D M; Maltarollo, Vinicius G; Honorio, Kathia M

    2017-09-05

    Cancer cells can expand to other parts of body through blood system and nodes from a mechanism known as metastasis. Due to the large annual growth of cancer cases, various biological targets have been studied and related to this disorder. A very interesting target related to cancer is human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). In this study, we analyzed the main intermolecular interactions between a drug used in the cancer treatment (5-fluorouracil) and HER2. Molecular modeling methods were also employed to assess the molecular structure, spectroscopic properties (FTIR and UV-Vis), NBO, QTAIM and HOMO-LUMO energies of 5-FU. From the docking simulations it was possible to analyze the interactions that occur between some residues in the binding site of HER2 and 5-FU. To validate the choice of basis set that was used in the NBO and QTAIM analyses, theoretical calculations were performed to obtain FT-IR and UV/Vis spectra, and the theoretical results are consistent with the experimental data, showing that the basis set chosen is suitable. For the maximum λ from the theoretical calculation (254.89nm) of UV/Vis, the electronic transition from HOMO to LUMO occurs at 4.89eV. From NBO analyses, we observed interactions between Asp863 and 5-FU, i.e. the orbitals with high transfer of electrons are LP O 15 (donor NBO) and BD* (π) N 1 -H 10 (acceptor NBO), being that the value of this interaction is 7.72kcal/mol. Results from QTAIM indicate one main intermolecular H bond, which is necessary to stabilize the complex formed between the ligands and the biological target. Therefore, this study allowed a careful evaluation on the main structural, spectroscopic and electronic properties involved in the interaction between 5-FU and HER2, an important biological complex related to the cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Study on molecular structure, spectroscopic properties (FTIR and UV-Vis), NBO, QTAIM, HOMO-LUMO energies and docking studies of 5-fluorouracil, a substance used to treat cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Michell O.; Barros, Daiane A. S.; Araujo, Sheila C.; Faria, Sergio H. D. M.; Maltarollo, Vinicius G.; Honorio, Kathia M.

    2017-09-01

    Cancer cells can expand to other parts of body through blood system and nodes from a mechanism known as metastasis. Due to the large annual growth of cancer cases, various biological targets have been studied and related to this disorder. A very interesting target related to cancer is human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). In this study, we analyzed the main intermolecular interactions between a drug used in the cancer treatment (5-fluorouracil) and HER2. Molecular modeling methods were also employed to assess the molecular structure, spectroscopic properties (FTIR and UV-Vis), NBO, QTAIM and HOMO-LUMO energies of 5-FU. From the docking simulations it was possible to analyze the interactions that occur between some residues in the binding site of HER2 and 5-FU. To validate the choice of basis set that was used in the NBO and QTAIM analyses, theoretical calculations were performed to obtain FT-IR and UV/Vis spectra, and the theoretical results are consistent with the experimental data, showing that the basis set chosen is suitable. For the maximum λ from the theoretical calculation (254.89 nm) of UV/Vis, the electronic transition from HOMO to LUMO occurs at 4.89 eV. From NBO analyses, we observed interactions between Asp863 and 5-FU, i.e. the orbitals with high transfer of electrons are LP O15 (donor NBO) and BD* (π) N1-H10 (acceptor NBO), being that the value of this interaction is 7.72 kcal/mol. Results from QTAIM indicate one main intermolecular H bond, which is necessary to stabilize the complex formed between the ligands and the biological target. Therefore, this study allowed a careful evaluation on the main structural, spectroscopic and electronic properties involved in the interaction between 5-FU and HER2, an important biological complex related to the cancer treatment.

  2. Bios Politikos’tan Homo Economicus’a: Karşılaştırmalı Bir Perspektifle Antik ve Modern Dönemde İnsan, Ekonomi ve Siyaset İlişkisi / From Bios Politikos to Homo Economicus: The Relationship Between Human, Economy and Politics in the Ancient and Modern Periods with a Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem ÇELİK

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı, Antik ve modern düşünürlerin siyaseti nasıl tanımladıklarını ortaya koyarak, tanımlar arasındaki farkların nedenini tartışmaktır. Antik dönemde, insanın doğası gereği politik bir varlık olarak tanımlanması, siyasetin bütün insani etkinlikler içerisinde en yücesi olarak görülmesine neden olmuştur. Antik düşünürler için siyaset, müşterek meselelerin eşitlerin gözü önünde tartışıldığı ve eşitsizliği dışlayan bir çoğulluk alanı olarak kavramıştır. Antik düşünür Aristoteles siyasetin amacının “iyi yaşam” olduğunu ifade etmektedir. Buna karşın Machiavelli ile başlayan modern siyasal düşünce, siyaseti, güç, iktidar ve şiddet kavramlarıyla tanımlamıştır. Machiavelli ve ardılları için siyaset, fiziksel şiddetin meşru örgütlenmesi, güç, değer ve kaynakların otorite eliyle dağıtılması şeklinde tanımlanmıştır. Antik Yunanda kamusal-siyasal alandan dışlanan şiddet, modern dünyada politik toplumu tanımlayan merkezi kavramlardan birisi haline gelmiştir. Antik dönemde siyasal varlık (zoon politikon olarak tanımlanan insan, modern dönemde ekonomik varlık (homo economicus olarak tanımlanmıştır. Antikler için yaşanmaya değer yaşam siyasete adanmış yaşam iken (bios politikos, modernler için ekonomik etkinlikle ilişkili hale gelmiştir. Çalışma, Antik ve modernlerin siyasal tanımları arasındaki farkın insan ve insan yaşamının amacı konusundaki farklılıklardan kaynaklandığını savunmaktadır. / The purpose of this study is to present how ancient and modern thinkers describe politics and to discuss reasons for differences seen in these definitions. In the ancient period, the identification of human being as a political entity by nature caused politics to be seen as the most supreme of all human activities. For the ancient thinkers, politics is conceptualized as a pluralist area in which the common

  3. Jong en anders. Onderzoek naar de aandacht voor lesbische, homo, bi-jongeren, transgenderjongeren en jongeren met een intersekse conditie in de jeugdsector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Emmen

    2015-09-01

    issue into suggestions for questions concerning sexual and gender diversity in the intake. At the level of professionals, further research would be useful: action research to determine what kinds of specific competences are needed to support LGBTi young people. Incorporating these competences into the curriculums of universities of applied science will ensure that future professionals know how to support LGBTi young people. SAMENVATTINGJong en anders. Onderzoek naar de aandacht voor lesbische, homo, bi-jongeren, transgenderjongeren en jongeren met een intersekse conditie in de jeugdsectorOmdat LHBT-jongeren een slechtere psychische gezondheid hebben en vaker suïcidaal zijn (Kuyper, 2015; Van Bergen & Van Lisdonk, 2010; Kuyper 2015; Collier, Bos & Sandfort, 2013; Van Beusekom, Collier, Bos & Sandfort, 2014; Keuzenkamp, 2012 ligt het voor de hand dat zij vaker in aanraking komen met professionals in de jeugdsector. In 2014 is voor het eerst in Nederland een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de mate waarin en op welke manier er onder professionals die werken met jongeren aandacht is voor het bestaan, de specifieke risico’s, behoeften en problemen van LHBT-jongeren en jongeren met een intersekse conditie (Rossenberg, 2013; Van Lisdonk, 2014. Het gaat om een beschrijvend vragenlijstonderzoek onder 421 professionals, aangevuld met kwalitatieve input uit een expertmeeting. Uit de resultaten blijkt dat aandacht van professionals voor seksuele voorkeur en genderidentiteit niet vanzelfsprekend is. Er is sprake van een gebrek aan kennis over deze jongeren: 41% weet niet hoe te signaleren dat een jongere worstelt met LHB-gevoelens en voor transgenderjongeren is dat 64%. Geen van de respondenten ontmoette ooit bewust een jongere met een intersekse conditie. Professionals brengen LHBT-gevoelens niet in verband met andere psychische en sociale problemen die deze jongeren hebben. Zij ervaren LHBT-gevoelens zelf niet als iets bijzonders en zien geen rol voor zichzelf in het ondersteunen van

  4. Versatility of {l_brace}M(30-crown-10){r_brace} (M = K{sup +}, Ba{sup 2+}) as a guest in UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} complexes of 3.1.3.1 - and 3.3.3 homo-oxa-calixarenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masci, B. [Univ Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento Chim, I-00185 Rome, (Italy); Thuery, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DRECAM/SCM, CNRS-URA 331, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)

    2007-07-01

    The reaction between p-R-[3.1.3.1]- or [3.3.3] homo-oxa-calixarenes and uranyl salts in the presence of 30-crown-10 and the alkali or alkaline-earth metal cations K{sup +} or Ba{sup 2+} gives various supramolecular assemblages characterized by 'complex-within-complex' architectures. These can be of the simple nesting or sandwich types, as in [{l_brace}Ba(30-crown-10){r_brace}{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(L{sup 1}){r_brace}]. 2H{sub 2}O.3CHCl{sub 3} (L{sup 1}H{sub 4} p-tert-butyl[3.1.3.1] homo-oxa-calixarene) and [{l_brace}Ba(30-crown-10){r_brace}{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(L{sup 4}){r_brace}{sub 2}].2CHCl{sub 3} (L{sup 4}H{sub 3} p-bromo[3.3.3]homo-oxa-calixarene), respectively, with the cation held in the cavity of the homo-oxa-calixarene complexes in cone conformation by weak interactions, but more original structures arise when uranyl-cation bonds are present. In [{l_brace}Ba(30-crown-10){r_brace}{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(L{sup 2}){r_brace}] (L{sup 2}H{sub 4} p-phenyl[3.1.3.1] homo-oxa-calixarene), the barium ion included in the crown ether is bound to the uranyl oxo group located out of the calixarene cavity, resulting in the formation of a neutral species which self-organizes to form a columnar assembly by auto-inclusion. In [{l_brace}K(30-crown-10){r_brace}{l_brace}UO{sub 2}K(L{sup 1})(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}{r_brace}]{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O, the nesting-type subunit dimerizes around two oxo-bound potassium ions. Finally, the use of the coordinating solvent dimethylsulfoxide leads to the neutral complex [UO{sub 2}Ba(L{sup 3})(dmso){sub 2}(MeOH)]{sub 2} (L{sup 3}H{sub 4} = p-methyl[3.1.3.1] homo-oxa-calixarene), in which the crown ether is absent and two oxo-, phenoxo- and ether-bound barium atoms ensure the dimerization of the uranyl complex. (authors)

  5. ESR/U-series study of teeth recovered from the palaeo-anthropological stratum of the Dali Man site (Shaanxi Province, China)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, G.; Han, F.; Bahain, J.J.; Tissoux, H.; Falgueres, Ch.; Han, F.; Shao, Q.; Shen, G.; Shao, Q.; Dolo, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Dali skull is a key fossil for understanding human evolution in China. It has been attributed either to an archaic Homo sapiens, an evolved Homo erectus or to other species of Homo, such as Homo heidelbergensis. The cranium was discovered in 1978 in Shaanxi Province in a fluvial terrace which was recovered by a loessic sequence including two interglacial palaeo-soils. ESR/U-series data analyses were carried out on several teeth recovered from the palaeo-anthropological level. Four samples exhibit different kinds of uranium-uptake behaviour, but the results seem to indicate that the cranium is coeval with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 8 and that some teeth might be reworked from older deposits. (authors)

  6. A comparative analysis of the categorization of multidimensional stimuli: I. Unidimensional classification does not necessarily imply analytic processing; evidence from pigeons (Columba livia), squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and humans (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, A J; Lea, Stephen E G; Leaver, Lisa A; Osthaus, Britta; Ryan, Catriona M E; Suret, Mark B; Bryant, Catherine M L; Chapman, Sue J A; Millar, Louise

    2009-11-01

    Pigeons (Columba livia), gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and undergraduates (Homo sapiens) learned discrimination tasks involving multiple mutually redundant dimensions. First, pigeons and undergraduates learned conditional discriminations between stimuli composed of three spatially separated dimensions, after first learning to discriminate the individual elements of the stimuli. When subsequently tested with stimuli in which one of the dimensions took an anomalous value, the majority of both species categorized test stimuli by their overall similarity to training stimuli. However some individuals of both species categorized them according to a single dimension. In a second set of experiments, squirrels, pigeons, and undergraduates learned go/no-go discriminations using multiple simultaneous presentations of stimuli composed of three spatially integrated, highly salient dimensions. The tendency to categorize test stimuli including anomalous dimension values unidimensionally was higher than in the first set of experiments and did not differ significantly between species. The authors conclude that unidimensional categorization of multidimensional stimuli is not diagnostic for analytic cognitive processing, and that any differences between human's and pigeons' behavior in such tasks are not due to special features of avian visual cognition.

  7. In Silico Molecular Modeling and Docking Studies on Novel Mutants (E229V, H225P and D230C) of the Nucleotide-Binding Domain of Homo sapiens Hsp70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elengoe, Asita; Hamdan, Salehhuddin

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we explored the possibility of determining the synergistic interactions between nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of Homo sapiens heat-shock 70 kDa protein (Hsp70) and E1A 32 kDa of adenovirus serotype 5 motif (PNLVP) in the efficiency of killing of tumor cells in cancer treatment. At present, the protein interaction between NBD and PNLVP motif is still unknown, but believed to enhance the rate of virus replication in tumor cells. Three mutant models (E229V, H225P and D230C) were built and simulated, and their interactions with PNLVP motif were studied. The PNLVP motif showed the binding energy and intermolecular energy values with the novel E229V mutant at -7.32 and -11.2 kcal/mol. The E229V mutant had the highest number of hydrogen bonds (7). Based on the root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuation, hydrogen bonds, salt bridge, secondary structure, surface-accessible solvent area, potential energy and distance matrices analyses, it was proved that the E229V had the strongest and most stable interaction with the PNLVP motif among all the four protein-ligand complex structures. The knowledge of this protein-ligand complex model would help in designing Hsp70 structure-based drug for cancer therapy.

  8. Discovery of human posterior head 20 (hPH20) and homo sapiens sperm acrosome associated 1 (hSPACA1) immunocontraceptive epitopes and their effects on fertility in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Liu, Xiaodong; Ren, Xiuhua; Li, Xuewu; Wang, Li; Zang, Weidong

    2016-03-01

    The key goals of immunocontraception research are to obtain full contraceptive effects using vaccines administered to both males and females. Current research concerning human anti-sperm contraceptive vaccines is focused on delineating infertility-related epitopes to avoid autoimmune disease. We constructed phage-display peptide libraries to select epitope peptides derived from human posterior head 20 (hPH20) and homo sapiens sperm acrosome associated 1 (hSPACA1) using sera collected from infertile women harbouring anti-sperm antibodies. Following five rounds of selection, positive colonies were reconfirmed for reactivity with the immunoinfertile sera. We biopanned and analysed the chemical properties of four epitope peptides, named P82, Sa6, Sa37 and Sa76. Synthetic peptides were made and coupled to either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or ovalbumin. We used the BSA-conjugated peptides to immunise BALB/c mice and examined the effects on fertility in female and male mice. The synthetic peptides generated a sperm-specific antibody response in female and male mice that caused a contraceptive state. The immunocontraceptive effect was reversible and, with the disappearance of peptide-specific antibodies, there was complete restoration of fertility. Vaccinations using P82, Sa6 and Sa76 peptides resulted in no apparent side effects. Thus, it is efficient and practical to identify epitope peptide candidates by phage display. These peptides may find clinical application in the specific diagnosis and treatment of male and female infertility and contraceptive vaccine development.

  9. Quantum mechanical and spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman) study, NBO analysis, HOMO-LUMO, first order hyperpolarizability and molecular docking study of methyl[(3R)-3-(2-methylphenoxy)-3-phenylpropyl]amine by density functional method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Tintu K.; Prasana, Johanan Christian; Muthu, S.; George, Jacob; Mathew, Sheril Ann

    2018-01-01

    Quantum chemical techniques such as density functional theory (DFT) have become a powerful tool in the investigation of the molecular structure and vibrational spectrum and are finding increasing use in application related to biological systems. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) techniques are employed to characterize the title compound. The vibrational frequencies were obtained by DFT/B3LYP calculations with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311 ++G(d,p) as basis sets. The geometry of the title compound was optimized. The vibrational assignments and the calculation of Potential Energy Distribution (PED) were carried out using the Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA) software. Molecular electrostatic potential was calculated for the title compound to predict the reactive sites for electrophilic and nucleophilic attack. In addition, the first-order hyperpolarizability, HOMO and LUMO energies, Fukui function and NBO were computed. The thermodynamic properties of the title compound were calculated at different temperatures, revealing the correlations between heat capacity (C), entropy (S) and enthalpy changes (H) with temperatures. Molecular docking studies were also conducted as part of this study. The paper further explains the experimental results which are in line with the theoretical calculations and provide optimistic evidence through molecular docking that the title compound can act as a good antidepressant. It also provides sufficient justification for the title compound to be selected as a good candidate for further studies related to NLO properties.

  10. Synthesis, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR, UV-Visible), NLO, NBO, HOMO-LUMO, Fukui function and molecular docking study of (E)-1-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene)semicarbazide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, M.; Raj Muhamed, R.; Muthu, S.; Suresh, M.

    2017-08-01

    The title compound, (E)-1-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene)semicarbazide (15BHS) was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, 1HNMR and 13CNMR spectral analysis. The optimized molecular geometry, the vibrational wavenumbers, the infrared intensities and the Raman scattering activities were calculated by using density functional theory(DFT) B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out by VEDA program. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer within the molecule. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization have been analyzed using natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). The first order hyperpolarizability, Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and Fukui functions were also performed. To study the biological activity of the investigation molecule, molecular docking was done to identify the hydrogen bond lengths and binding energy with different antifungal proteins. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) of the 15BHS at different temperatures have been calculated.

  11. Gas Phase Homo- and Co-polymerization of Ethylene over Mg(O Et){sub 2}/T HF/Si Cl{sub 4}/Ti Cl{sub 4}/ Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min-Chul, Chung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Techology., Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Il, Kim [Univ. of Ulsan., Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Jae-Ha, Kim [Korea Petrochemial Ind., Kyungnam (Korea, Republic of); Hong-Ki Choi [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology., Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seung-Ihl, Woo

    1994-08-01

    Homo- and co-polymerization of ethylene were carried out in both gas and slurry phases over Mg(O Et)2/T HF/Si Cl{sub 4}/Ti Cl{sub 4}-Al Et{sub 3} catalysts in the range of temperature 20-70{sup o} C and pressure 2-10 psig. In gas phase polymerization, maximum activity was measured at the Al/Ti mole ratio of 377, and reaction rate dependence on Al Et{sub 3} concentration could be explained with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption model. Even though maximum activities were obtained at the same temperature, 60{sup o} C in both gas and slurry phases, overall activation energy was higher for the slurry phase(13 kCal/mol) than for the gas phase(4.7 kCal/mol) polymerization. The molecular weight behavior has been examined by measuring intrinsic viscosity. The molecular weight was increased as the ethylene pressure increased, and as the temperature and the concentration of Al Et{sub 3} and hydrogen decreased. Using two different co monomers(propylene and butene-1), the copolymerization of ethylene was carried out. The intrinsic viscosity and the melt index were decreased as co monomer concentration increased, and the maximum activity was observed when the concentration of comonomer is about 20 mol%. (author). 28 refs. 6 tabs. 13 figs.

  12. Spectroscopic studies (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible), normal co-ordinate analysis, first-order hyperpolarizability and HOMO, LUMO studies of 3,4-dichlorobenzophenone by using Density Functional Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Prasad, K; Samatha, K; Jagadeeswara Rao, D; Santhamma, C; Muthu, S; Mark Heron, B

    2015-01-01

    The vibrational frequencies of 3,4-dichlorobenzophenone (DCLBP) were obtained from the FT-IR and Raman spectral data, and evaluated based on the Density Functional Theory using the standard method B3LYP with 6-311+G(d,p) as the basis set. On the basis of potential energy distribution together with the normal-co-ordinate analysis and following the scaled quantum mechanical force methodology, the assignments for the various frequencies were described. The values of the electric dipole moment (μ) and the first-order hyperpolarizability (β) of the molecule were computed. The UV-absorption spectrum was also recorded to study the electronic transitions. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The NBO analysis, to study the intramolecular hyperconjugative interactions, was carried out. Mulliken's net charges were evaluated. The MEP and thermodynamic properties were also calculated. The electron density-based local reactivity descriptor, such as Fukui functions, was calculated to explain the chemical selectivity or reactivity site in 3,4-dichlorobenzophenone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A morphometric and taxonomic assessment of a hominine femur from the lower member, Koobi Fora, Lake Turkana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, G E

    1983-08-01

    Previous research by this author and others has indicated that species-level differentiation within the hominines can be detected in the femur. The femoral shaft of Homo erectus, relative to H. sapiens, demonstrates small anteroposterior diameters, a distally placed point of minimum shaft breadth, and increased cortical thickness resulting in medullary stenosis. This pattern has been identified in specimens from Choukoutien (I and IV), Olduvai (OH 28), and Lake Turkana (KNM ER 737). Findings reported here include anatomical comparisons and univariate and multivariate analyses based on external and internal shaft morphology. These results indicate that the femoral pattern characteristic of H. erectus can be identified in KNM ER 1481a recovered at Lake Turkana below the KBS tuff. Recent dating of that tuff indicates a date of ca. 1.8 mya, thereby yielding a date for KNM ER 1481a of congruent to 2.0 mya. Known H. erectus femora extend over a broad span and yet show very low variability; this pronounced stasis would strongly suggest that, at least in this portion of the postcranium, H. erectus was in a period of profound morphological stasis.

  14. Brain Morphology of the Zhoukoudian H.erectus Half a Million Years Ago

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiujie

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the process of human evolution,how has the brain changed? When did it happen? Why did it happen?These questions are some of the hottest topics in paleoanthropology today.The study of brain evolution falls into the sub-discipline of paleoneurology and is based on direct examination of the fossil record of humans and their closest hominid relatives.Unfortunately,brains are not preserved in the fossil record.The most direct evidence of ancestral brains is available,however,from endocasts.An endocast is the impression taken from the inside of a cranium retaining the surface features of the brain.

  15. Simulating an infection growth model in certain healthy metabolic pathways of Homo sapiens for highlighting their role in Type I Diabetes mellitus using fire-spread strategy, feedbacks and sensitivities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Tagore

    Full Text Available Disease Systems Biology is an area of life sciences, which is not very well understood to date. Analyzing infections and their spread in healthy metabolite networks can be one of the focussed areas in this regard. We have proposed a theory based on the classical forest fire model for analyzing the path of infection spread in healthy metabolic pathways. The theory suggests that when fire erupts in a forest, it spreads, and the surrounding trees also catch fire. Similarly, when we consider a metabolic network, the infection caused in the metabolites of the network spreads like a fire. We have constructed a simulation model which is used to study the infection caused in the metabolic networks from the start of infection, to spread and ultimately combating it. For implementation, we have used two approaches, first, based on quantitative strategies using ordinary differential equations and second, using graph-theory based properties. Furthermore, we are using certain probabilistic scores to complete this task and for interpreting the harm caused in the network, given by a 'critical value' to check whether the infection can be cured or not. We have tested our simulation model on metabolic pathways involved in Type I Diabetes mellitus in Homo sapiens. For validating our results biologically, we have used sensitivity analysis, both local and global, as well as for identifying the role of feedbacks in spreading infection in metabolic pathways. Moreover, information in literature has also been used to validate the results. The metabolic network datasets have been collected from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG.

  16. A Model of an Integrated Immune System Pathway in Homo sapiens and Its Interaction with Superantigen Producing Expression Regulatory Pathway in Staphylococcus aureus: Comparing Behavior of Pathogen Perturbed and Unperturbed Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Namrata; De, Rajat K.

    2013-01-01

    Response of an immune system to a pathogen attack depends on the balance between the host immune defense and the virulence of the pathogen. Investigation of molecular interactions between the proteins of a host and a pathogen helps in identifying the pathogenic proteins. It is necessary to understand the dynamics of a normally behaved host system to evaluate the capacity of its immune system upon pathogen attack. In this study, we have compared the behavior of an unperturbed and pathogen perturbed host system. Moreover, we have developed a formalism under Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) for the optimization of conflicting objective functions. We have constructed an integrated pathway system, which includes Staphylococcal Superantigen (SAg) expression regulatory pathway and TCR signaling pathway of Homo sapiens. We have implemented the method on this pathway system and observed the behavior of host signaling molecules upon pathogen attack. The entire study has been divided into six different cases, based on the perturbed/unperturbed conditions. In other words, we have investigated unperturbed and pathogen perturbed human TCR signaling pathway, with different combinations of optimization of concentrations of regulatory and signaling molecules. One of these cases has aimed at finding out whether minimization of the toxin production in a pathogen leads to the change in the concentration levels of the proteins coded by TCR signaling pathway genes in the infected host. Based on the computed results, we have hypothesized that the balance between TCR signaling inhibitory and stimulatory molecules can keep TCR signaling system into resting/stimulating state, depending upon the perturbation. The proposed integrated host-pathogen interaction pathway model has accurately reflected the experimental evidences, which we have used for validation purpose. The significance of this kind of investigation lies in revealing the susceptible interaction points that can take back the

  17. Molecular modeling, dynamics studies and density functional theory approaches to identify potential inhibitors of SIRT4 protein from Homo sapiens : a novel target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Sanjay K; Prabhu, Dhamodharan; Nachiappan, Mutharasappan; Biswal, Jayshree; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman

    2017-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the biggest health challenges in the world and WHO projects it to be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030. It is a chronic condition affecting the way our body metabolizes sugar. Insulin resistance is high risk factor marked by expression of Lipoprotein Lipases and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor that predisposes to type 2 diabetes. AMP-dependent protein kinase in AMPK signaling pathway is a central sensor of energy status. Deregulation of AMPK signaling leads to inflammation, oxidative stress, and deactivation of autophagy which are implicated in pathogenesis of insulin resistance. SIRT4 protein deactivates AMPK as well as directly inhibits insulin secretion. SIRT4 overexpression leads to dyslipidimeia, decreased fatty acid oxidation, and lipogenesis which are the characteristic features of insulin resistance promoting type 2 diabetes. This makes SIRT4 a novel therapeutic target to control type 2 diabetes. Virtual screening and molecular docking studies were performed to obtain potential ligands. To further optimize the geometry of protein-ligand complexes Quantum Polarized Ligand Docking was performed. Binding Free Energy was calculated for the top three ligand molecules. In view of exploring the stereoelectronic features of the ligand, density functional theory approach was implemented at B3LYP/6-31G* level. 30 ns MD simulation studies of the protein-ligand complexes were done. The present research work proposes ZINC12421989 as potential inhibitor of SIRT4 with docking score (-7.54 kcal/mol), docking energy (-51.34 kcal/mol), binding free energy (-70.21 kcal/mol), and comparatively low energy gap (-0.1786 eV) for HOMO and LUMO indicating reactivity of the lead molecule.

  18. Simulating an Infection Growth Model in Certain Healthy Metabolic Pathways of Homo sapiens for Highlighting Their Role in Type I Diabetes mellitus Using Fire-Spread Strategy, Feedbacks and Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagore, Somnath; De, Rajat K.

    2013-01-01

    Disease Systems Biology is an area of life sciences, which is not very well understood to date. Analyzing infections and their spread in healthy metabolite networks can be one of the focussed areas in this regard. We have proposed a theory based on the classical forest fire model for analyzing the path of infection spread in healthy metabolic pathways. The theory suggests that when fire erupts in a forest, it spreads, and the surrounding trees also catch fire. Similarly, when we consider a metabolic network, the infection caused in the metabolites of the network spreads like a fire. We have constructed a simulation model which is used to study the infection caused in the metabolic networks from the start of infection, to spread and ultimately combating it. For implementation, we have used two approaches, first, based on quantitative strategies using ordinary differential equations and second, using graph-theory based properties. Furthermore, we are using certain probabilistic scores to complete this task and for interpreting the harm caused in the network, given by a ‘critical value’ to check whether the infection can be cured or not. We have tested our simulation model on metabolic pathways involved in Type I Diabetes mellitus in Homo sapiens. For validating our results biologically, we have used sensitivity analysis, both local and global, as well as for identifying the role of feedbacks in spreading infection in metabolic pathways. Moreover, information in literature has also been used to validate the results. The metabolic network datasets have been collected from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). PMID:24039701

  19. Quantum mechanical study and spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible) study, potential energy surface scan, Fukui function analysis and HOMO-LUMO analysis of 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol by DFT methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, S; Balachandran, V

    2014-09-15

    This study represents an integral approach towards understanding the electronic and structural aspects of 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol (TBMP). Fourier-transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Fourier-transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectra of TBMP was recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-100 cm(-1), respectively. The molecular structures, vibrational wavenumbers, infrared intensities and Raman activities were calculated using DFT (B3LYP and LSDA) methods using 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. The most stable conformer of TBMP was identified from the computational results. The assignments of vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology. The first order hyperpolarizability (β0) and related properties (β, α0 and Δα) of TBMP have been discussed. The stability and charge delocalization of the molecule was studied by Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. UV-Visible spectrum and effects of solvents have been discussed and the electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies were determined by time-dependent TD-DFT approach with B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory. The molecule orbital contributions are studied by density of energy states (DOSs). The reactivity sites are identified by mapping the electron density into electrostatic potential surface (MEP). Mulliken analysis of atomic charges is also calculated. The thermodynamic properties at different temperatures were calculated, revealing the correlations between standard heat capacities, standard entropy and standard enthalpy changes with temperatures. Global hardness, global softness, global electrophilicity and ionization potential of the title compound are determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. MID1 and MID2 homo- and heterodimerise to tether the rapamycin-sensitive PP2A regulatory subunit, Alpha 4, to microtubules: implications for the clinical variability of X-linked Opitz GBBB syndrome and other developmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Timothy C

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with Opitz GBBB syndrome present with a variable array of developmental defects including craniofacial, cardiac, and genital anomalies. Mutations in the X-linked MID1 gene, which encodes a microtubule-binding protein, have been found in ~50% of Opitz GBBB syndrome patients consistent with the genetically heterogeneous nature of the disorder. A protein highly related to MID1, called MID2, has also been described that similarly associates with microtubules. Results To identify protein partners of MID1 and MID2 we undertook two separate yeast two-hybrid screens. Using this system we identified Alpha 4, a regulatory subunit of PP2-type phosphatases and a key component of the rapamycin-sensitive signaling pathway, as a strong interactor of both proteins. Analysis of domain-specific deletions has shown that the B-boxes of both MID1 and MID2 mediate the interaction with Alpha 4, the first demonstration in an RBCC protein of a specific role for the B-box region. In addition, we show that the MID1/2 coiled-coil motifs mediate both homo- and hetero-dimerisation, and that dimerisation is a prerequisite for association of the MID-Alpha 4 complex with microtubules. Conclusions Our findings not only implicate Alpha 4 in the pathogenesis of Opitz GBBB syndrome but also support our earlier hypothesis that MID2 is a modifier of the X-linked phenotype. Of further note is the observation that Alpha 4 maps to Xq13 within the region showing linkage to FG (Opitz-Kaveggia syndrome. Overlap in the clinical features of FG and Opitz GBBB syndromes warrants investigation of Alpha 4 as a candidate for causing FG syndrome.

  1. Homo Ignorans: Deliberately Choosing Not to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Ralph; Engel, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Western history of thought abounds with claims that knowledge is valued and sought. Yet people often choose not to know. We call the conscious choice not to seek or use knowledge (or information) deliberate ignorance. Using examples from a wide range of domains, we demonstrate that deliberate ignorance has important functions. We systematize types of deliberate ignorance, describe their functions, discuss their normative desirability, and consider how they can be modeled. To date, psychologists have paid relatively little attention to the study of ignorance, let alone the deliberate kind. Yet the desire not to know is no anomaly. It is a choice to seek rather than reduce uncertainty whose reasons require nuanced cognitive and economic theories and whose consequences-for the individual and for society-require analyses of both actor and environment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Homo deus a brief history of tomorrow

    CERN Document Server

    Harari, Yuval Noah

    2017-01-01

    Yuval Noah Harari, author of the critically-acclaimed New York Times bestseller and international phenomenon Sapiens, returns with an equally original, compelling, and provocative book, turning his focus toward humanity’s future, and our quest to upgrade humans into gods. Over the past century humankind has managed to do the impossible and rein in famine, plague, and war. This may seem hard to accept, but, as Harari explains in his trademark style—thorough, yet riveting—famine, plague and war have been transformed from incomprehensible and uncontrollable forces of nature into manageable challenges. For the first time ever, more people die from eating too much than from eating too little; more people die from old age than from infectious diseases; and more people commit suicide than are killed by soldiers, terrorists and criminals put together. The average American is a thousand times more likely to die from binging at McDonalds than from being blown up by Al Qaeda. What then will replace famine, plagu...

  3. [Beyond eugenics: posthumanism as Homo patiens denials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros Llompart, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history there have been attempts to overcome human limitations by means of technique. The novelty of the 20th century has been to try to extirpate all the faults, the suffering, the disease, and even the death. This power has been attributed successively to machines (the futurism), to the genetic information (the eugenism) and to the electronic information (the posthumanism). In all cases, it's unknown the distinction between inevitable faults, ontological deficiencies, as the reality of death, and avoidable ones, sociological deficiencies, as the deaths due to circumstances as lack of drinkable water, of medicaments, wars or any other type of violence. The due way of confronting the human faults is to try to eradicate their avoidable causes and at the same time to understand the sense of those that cannot be avoided, as occasion of the self-overcoming and the opening to the Transcendence.

  4. Selection of Phototransduction Genes in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mark; Scheetz, Todd E; Mullins, Robert F; Abràmoff, Michael D

    2013-08-13

    We investigated the evidence of recent positive selection in the human phototransduction system at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and gene level. SNP genotyping data from the International HapMap Project for European, Eastern Asian, and African populations was used to discover differences in haplotype length and allele frequency between these populations. Numeric selection metrics were computed for each SNP and aggregated into gene-level metrics to measure evidence of recent positive selection. The level of recent positive selection in phototransduction genes was evaluated and compared to a set of genes shown previously to be under recent selection, and a set of highly conserved genes as positive and negative controls, respectively. Six of 20 phototransduction genes evaluated had gene-level selection metrics above the 90th percentile: RGS9, GNB1, RHO, PDE6G, GNAT1, and SLC24A1. The selection signal across these genes was found to be of similar magnitude to the positive control genes and much greater than the negative control genes. There is evidence for selective pressure in the genes involved in retinal phototransduction, and traces of this selective pressure can be demonstrated using SNP-level and gene-level metrics of allelic variation. We hypothesize that the selective pressure on these genes was related to their role in low light vision and retinal adaptation to ambient light changes. Uncovering the underlying genetics of evolutionary adaptations in phototransduction not only allows greater understanding of vision and visual diseases, but also the development of patient-specific diagnostic and intervention strategies.

  5. Homo soveticusest eesti inimeseni / Mart Niklus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niklus, Mart-Olav, 1934-

    2004-01-01

    Autori mõtisklused Eesti lipust, antikommunistlikust vastupanuliikumisest nõukogude ajal, Nõukogude okupatsiooni käsitlevatest muuseumidest. Sisaldab artiklit "Rahvuslipp "Vanemuise" katusel ja Aare Printsi kohtuasi", allikas : Lisandusi mõtete ja uudiste vabale levikule Eestis. I kogu. Stockholm, 1984

  6. From Purgatorius ceratops to Homo sapiens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    important stages in human evolution. Extan t primates ... with concomitant development of binocular, stereoscopic and .... phenomena as disparate as climatic changes, geological impacts and floral shifts. ... Global cooling and increased glacia- tion in the .... product of diffuse co-evolu tionary in teractions with angiosperms.

  7. Did Australopithecus and Homo co-exist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium series isotope dating of the tufas at Taung/Buxton suggests a considerably younger age for the Taung child (Australopithecus africanus) than has hitherto been accepted. If this later date is confirmed, it will necessitate a re-think of the evolutionary tree of Man and his ancestors

  8. Homo Voluntarius and the Rural Idyll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2016-01-01

    Based on Mancur Olson’s and Robert Putnam’s theories, this article discusses whether it is more difficult to recruit volunteers in urban than in rural areas. We use data from the Danish Rural-Urban Barometer (2011/12), which contains 2000 valid responses from urban and rural respondents. We show...

  9. The challenge of the abstract mind: symbols, signs and notational systems in European prehistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Haarmann

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the earliest manifestations of symbolic activity in modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens in the Upper Palaeolithic, there is evidence for two independent cognitive procedures, for the production of representational images (naturalistic pictures or sculptures and of abstract signs. The use of signs and symbols is attested for archaic humans (Homo neanderthalensis and for Homo erectus while art in naturalistic style is an innovation among modern humans. The symbiotic interaction of the two symbolic capacities is illustrated for the visual heritage of Palaeolithic cave paintings in Southwestern Europe, for rock engravings in the Italian Alps (Val Camonica and for the vivid use of signs and symbols in Southeastern Europe during the Neolithic. Around 5500 BC, sign use in Southeastern Europe reached a sophisticated stage of organization as to produce the earliest writing system of mankind. Since abstractness is the main theme in the visual heritage of the region, this script, not surprisingly, is composed of predominantly abstract signs.

  10. The early Pleistocene deciduous hominid molar FS-72 from the Sangiran Dome of Java, Indonesia: A taxonomic reappraisal based on its comparative endostructural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolli, Clément; Grine, Frederick E; Kullmer, Ottmar; Schrenk, Friedemann; Macchiarelli, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Among the ten fossil hominid deciduous teeth reported so far from the Pleistocene sediments of the Sangiran Dome of Java are two isolated lower second molars: specimens PCG.2 from the Kabuh Formation and FS-72 from the Pucangan Formation. While PCG.2 appears to be certainly attributable to Homo erectus, FS-72 is somewhat more problematic, even though it is commonly listed within the Indonesian H. erectus hypodigm. Largely because of its large size, it was originally attributed to Meganthropus paleojavanicus. Subsequent study highlighted a set of metric and nonmetric crown features also found in Australopith and African early Homo (notably H. habilis) homologues. An additional problem with the taxonomic assignment of isolated teeth from the Pleistocene of Java is the presence of Pongo in these same deposits. To assess the taxonomic affinity of FS-72, we investigated its inner structure (tissue proportions and enamel-dentine junction morphology) by using techniques of 2-3D virtual imaging coupled with geometric morphometric analyses. The results show that FS-72 has thinner enamel compared to fossil and recent humans and that its topographic repartition more closely follows the pongine pattern. It also exhibits a Pongo-like elongated morphology of the enamel-dentine junction, with proportionally lower and mesiodistally spaced dentine horns. Given the morphological and metric similarities between fossil orangutan and H. erectus molars, we tested the hypothesis that its internal morphology more closely resembles the patterns evinced by PCG.2 and modern humans than Pongo. Accordingly, we consider that FS-72 more likely represents a dm2 of Pongo rather than Homo. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. HomoTarget: a new algorithm for prediction of microRNA targets in Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Hamed; Ahmadi, Ali; Azimzadeh-Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Shoorehdeli, Mahdi Aliyari; Salehzadeh-Yazdi, Ali; Bidkhori, Gholamreza; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2013-02-01

    MiRNAs play an essential role in the networks of gene regulation by inhibiting the translation of target mRNAs. Several computational approaches have been proposed for the prediction of miRNA target-genes. Reports reveal a large fraction of under-predicted or falsely predicted target genes. Thus, there is an imperative need to develop a computational method by which the target mRNAs of existing miRNAs can be correctly identified. In this study, combined pattern recognition neural network (PRNN) and principle component analysis (PCA) architecture has been proposed in order to model the complicated relationship between miRNAs and their target mRNAs in humans. The results of several types of intelligent classifiers and our proposed model were compared, showing that our algorithm outperformed them with higher sensitivity and specificity. Using the recent release of the mirBase database to find potential targets of miRNAs, this model incorporated twelve structural, thermodynamic and positional features of miRNA:mRNA binding sites to select target candidates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Behaviour in commons dilemmas : Homo economicus and Homo psychologicus in an ecological-economic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.A; de Vries, H.J M; de Greef, J.; Vlek, C.A.J.; Jager, W.

    2000-01-01

    In mainstream economy, behaviour is often formalised following the rational actor-approach. However, in real life the behaviour of people is typified by multidimensional optimisation. To realise this, people engage in cognitive processes such as social comparison, imitation and repetitive behaviour

  13. Between Homo Sociologicus and Homo Biologicus: The Reflexive Self in the Age of Social Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickel, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    The social sciences rely on assumptions of a unified self for their explanatory logics. Recent work in the new multidisciplinary field of social neuroscience challenges precisely this unproblematic character of the subjective self as basic, well-defined entity. If disciplinary self-insulation is deemed unacceptable, the philosophical challenge arises of systematically bringing together neurological, psychological, sociological, and anthropological dimensions of analysis in one framework such as dynamic systems theory; and of finding bridging concepts such as memory, social cognition, and cultural scripts that can facilitate the cross disciplinary study of the reflexive self. Relying on the systemic philosophy of science developed by Mario Bunge, this paper takes some steps in this direction.

  14. Homo Sapiens, All Too Homo Sapiens: Wise Man, All Too Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcham, Amaris

    2015-01-01

    The emphasis on STEM education should not be interpreted as an omen of the death of humanities; art, literature, history, and philosophy can inform and enlighten STEM studies if the walls of academic silos are broken down and taught in combination. Where the physical universe collides with the fanciful and flawed human experience of life, there is…

  15. From Homo Sapiens to Homo Cosmicus - Astronautics, Darwinism abd Historical Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkowsky, G.

    Since its inception in late-nineteenth century, astronautics has been viewed as a historical outcome of human evolution as well as a future driver thereof. The history of astronautics-related, evolutionary thought reveals a tension between the Darwinian notion of natural selection and that of homocosmic predestination - be it of dialectical materialistic or theological nature. One can detect the influence of this ideological diversity on the American and Soviet space programs.

  16. Homo cyborg: fifty years old Homo Ciborg: Cincuenta años después

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hables Gray

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While the term “cyborg” is only 50 years old, the process that has produced cyborgization is much older: the evolution of the human. Humans have evolved to modify ourselves and our environment, especially through evolving culture and the technologies it creates. Culture is part of nature. Today’s mundane i-cyborgs, military drones, intimate human-machine merging and genetic engineering are a result of this; which in turn produce feelings of uncanniness, hubris, and fear. Contemporary politics must take this complex dynamic into account if we are to secure a sustainable, survivable, future for ourselves and our descendents. Social experiments such as Burning Man are a prefiguration of the kinds of (self conscious techno-social creativity needed.Mientras la terminología “ciborg” tiene apenas 50 años, son mucho más antiguos los procesos de “ciborgización”: la evolución humana. Los humanos evolucionaron para modificar su entorno y a sí mismos, especialmente a través de la cultura y las tecnologías. La cultura es parte de la naturaleza. De ella resultan los i-ciborgs mundanos de la actualidad,  los aviones militares no tripulados, la fusión íntima humano-máquina y la ingeniería genética: lo que a su vez produce sensaciones de inquietud, arrogancia y miedo. La política contemporánea debe de considerar si estamos asegurando un futuro sostenible y vivible para nuestros descendientes. Algunos experimentos sociales como el Burning Man son una prefiguración de esta necesidad creativa por la concienciación tecno-social.

  17. Behaviour in commons dilemmas: Homo Economicus and Homo Psychologicus in an ecological model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, W.; Janssen, M.A.; de Vries, H.J.M.; de Greef, J; Vlek, C.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    In mainstream economy, behaviour is often formalised following the rational actor-approach. However, in real life the behaviour of people is typified by multidimensional optimisation. To realise this, people engage in cognitive processes such as social comparison, imitation and repetitive behaviour

  18. Homo Politicus meets Homo Ludens: Public participation in serious life science games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchuk, Olga; Kerbe, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Markus

    2017-07-01

    Public participation in science and gamification of science are two strong contemporary trends, especially in the area of emerging techno-sciences. Involvement of the public in research-related activities is an integral part of public engagement with science and technologies, which can be successfully achieved through a participatory game design. Focusing on the participatory dimension of educational games, we have reviewed a number of existing participation heuristics in light of their suitability to characterize available mobile and browser science games. We analyzed 87 games with respect to their participatory and motivational elements and demonstrated that the majority of mobile games have only basic participative features. This review of the landscape of participative science games in the domain of life sciences highlights a number of major challenges present in the design of such applications. At the same time, it reveals a number of opportunities to enhance public engagement using science games.

  19. Do homo sapiens ao homo convergente. É tempo de coisas e pessoas integradas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Fernanda Feitosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A ubiquidade do mundo digital fornece a nós a possibilidade de uma transformação do estilo de vida, extensível à vida do consumo. Entendemos que esse processo já está consolidado, embora não esteja implantado, pois esse estilo de vida será exercido pela geração que já incorporou a computação ubíqua com parte integrante das suas vidas. Porém, uma tecnologia em fase de desenvolvimento promete integrar e digitalizar o planeta e muito do que há nele, construindo cidades inteligentes, espaços e coisas que dialogam continuamente para o câmbio de informações. Tudo indica que esta será a era pós-digital, dominada pela “Internet das Coisas”, mas sempre manipulada pelas habilidades e inteligência inerentes ao homem.

  20. Homologation of hexopyranosides: use of differential Overhauser nuclear effect, and homo- and heteronuclear correlations of chemical shift for characterization of the 1,6-anhydro-4-O-benzoyl-2,3-didesoky-3-C-trifluoroacetamidomethyl-{beta}-D-m = ethyl ribopyranoside (16a); Homologacao de hexopiranosideos: utilizacao de efeito nuclear overhauser diferencial e de correlacoes homo e heteronuclear de deslocamentos quimicos para a caracterizacao do 1,6-anidro-4-O-benzoil-2,3-didesoxi-3-C- trifluoroacetamidometil-{beta}-D-ribo piranosideo de metila (16a)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, J D; Silva, L.G. Fonseca e; Oliveira, A Braga de; Alves, R Jose [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lukacs, G [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Inst. de Chimie des Substances Naturelles

    1992-12-31

    The discovery of ramified sugars as various antibiotics constituents, leads to the development of various preparation technologies. In the framework of hexa pyranose analogues synthesis, the 1,6-anhydride -16a was one of the byproducts obtained in the attempt of bromide -16 derivative transformation in the iodate -6-1 derivative. The bromide -16 derivative was treated with 2 equivalents of Bu{sub 4} N I during 24 hours, acetonitrile reflux. 3 parts of 2 Bu{sub 4} N I equivalents were added each 24 hours. A unique pure substance was obtained from the formed products mixture, which the structural determination was proposed in accordance with: 1) disappearing of the C-13 signal and the two protons from the anomeric methoxy group, and 2) registering of the molecular ion with m/z 359D, corresponding to the loss of 94D (Br + C H{sub 3}), from the -16 (M{sup +}., m/z 453D). The 1,6-anhydride -16a structure was confirmed by experiments on homo- and heteronuclear correlations of chemical shifts (COSY H-H and COSY C-H), and by spectroscopy using the differential Overhauser nuclear effect. The spectrum obtained by C-H correlation identified the singlet at 5.65 ppm as due to the H-1 ([C-1 x H-1]) 2 refs., 6 figs.