WorldWideScience

Sample records for hexavalent uranium uvi

  1. Remediation of uranium contaminated soils with bicarbonate extraction and microbial U(VI) reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips , Elizabeth J.P.; Landa, Edward R.; Lovely, Derek R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for concentrating uranium from contaminated soils in which the uranium is first extracted with bicarbonate and then the extracted uranium is precipitated with U(VI)-reducing microorganisms was evaluated for a variety of uranuum-contaminated soils. Bicarbonate (100 mM) extracted 20–94% of the uranium that was extracted with nitric acid. The U(VI)-reducing microorganism,Desulfovibrio desulfuricans reduced the U(VI) to U(IV) in the bicarbonate extracts. In some instances unidentified dissolved extracted components, presumably organics, gave the extract a yellow color and inhibited U(VI) reduction and/or the precipitation of U(IV). Removal of the dissolved yellow material with the addition of hydrogen peroxide alleviated this inhibition. These results demonstrate that bicarbonate extraction of uranium from soil followed by microbial U(VI) reduction might be an effective mechanism for concentrating uranium from some contaminated soils.

  2. Bioreduction of U(VI) and stability of immobilized uranium under suboxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nan; Ding, De-xin; Li, Shi-mi; Tan, Xiang; Li, Guang-yue; Wang, Yong-dong; Xu, Fei

    2016-04-01

    In order to study the bioreduction of U(VI) and stability of immobilized uranium under suboxic conditions, microcosm were amended with ethanol, lactate and glucose, and incubated under suboxic conditions. During the incubation, total dissolved U in amended microcosms decreased from 0.95 mg/L to 0.03 mg/L. Pyrosequencing results showed that, the proportion of anaerobic microorganisms capable of reducing U(VI) under suboxic conditions was small compared with that under anoxic conditions; the proportion of aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms capable of consuming the dissolved oxygen was large; and some of the facultative anaerobic microorganisms could reduce U(VI). These results indicated that different microbial communities were responsible for the bioreduction of U(VI) under suboxic and anoxic conditions. After the electron donors were exhausted, total dissolved U in the amended microcosms remained unchanged, while the U(VI)/U(IV) ratio in the solid phase of sediments increased obviously. This implied that the performance of bioreduction of the U(VI) can be maintained under suboxic condition.

  3. Development of U isotope fractionation as an indictor or U(VI) reduction in uranium plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstrom, Craig [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Johnson, Thomas [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2016-02-16

    This is the final report for a university research project that advanced development of a new technology for identifying chemical reduction of uranium contamination in groundwater at the Rifle Field Challenge site. Reduction changes mobile hexavalent uranium into immobile U(IV). The stable isotope ratio (238U/235U) measurements of U using multicollector ICP-mass spectrometry were performed to understand the chemical reduction and sorption processes during various field experiments. In addition laboratory experiments were performed to better understand the isotopic fractionations. The main objectives of this project were completed during the project period and two peer-reviewed articles were published to disseminate the information gained.

  4. Uranium Redox Transformations after U(VI) Coprecipitation with Magnetite Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidchenko, Ivan; Kvashnina, Kristina O; Yokosawa, Tadahiro; Finck, Nicolas; Bahl, Sebastian; Schild, Dieter; Polly, Robert; Bohnert, Elke; Rossberg, André; Göttlicher, Jörg; Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Jörg; Schäfer, Thorsten; Geckeis, Horst; Vitova, Tonya

    2017-02-21

    Uranium redox states and speciation in magnetite nanoparticles coprecipitated with U(VI) for uranium loadings varying from 1000 to 10 000 ppm are investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). It is demonstrated that the U M4 high energy resolution X-ray absorption near edge structure (HR-XANES) method is capable to clearly characterize U(IV), U(V), and U(VI) existing simultaneously in the same sample. The contributions of the three different uranium redox states are quantified with the iterative transformation factor analysis (ITFA) method. U L3 XAS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal that initially sorbed U(VI) species recrystallize to nonstoichiometric UO2+x nanoparticles within 147 days when stored under anoxic conditions. These U(IV) species oxidize again when exposed to air. U M4 HR-XANES data demonstrate strong contribution of U(V) at day 10 and that U(V) remains stable over 142 days under ambient conditions as shown for magnetite nanoparticles containing 1000 ppm U. U L3 XAS indicates that this U(V) species is protected from oxidation likely incorporated into octahedral magnetite sites. XAS results are supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Further characterization of the samples include powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fe 2p X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  5. Carbonate effects on hexavalent uranium removal from water by nanocrystalline titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazne, Mahmoud; Meng, Xiaoguang; Korfiatis, George P; Christodoulatos, Christos

    2006-08-10

    A novel nanocrystalline titanium dioxide was used to treat depleted uranium (DU)-contaminated water under neutral and alkaline conditions. The novel material had a total surface area of 329 m(2)/g, total surface site density of 11.0 sites/nm(2), total pore volume of 0.415 cm(3)/g and crystallite size of 6.0 nm. It was used in batch tests to remove U(VI) from synthetic solutions and contaminated water. However, the capacity of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide to remove U(VI) from water decreased in the presence of inorganic carbonate at pH > 6.0. Adsorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and surface charge measurements were used to investigate the causes of the reduced capacity. The surface charge and the FTIR measurements suggested that the adsorbed U(VI) species was not complexed with carbonate at neutral pH values. The decreased capacity of titanium dioxide to remove U(VI) from water in the presence of carbonate at neutral to alkaline pH values was attributed to the aqueous complexation of U(VI) by inorganic carbonate. The nanocrystalline titanium dioxide had four times the capacity of commercially available titanium dixoide (Degussa P-25) to adsorb U(VI) from water at pH 6 and total inorganic carbonate concentration of 0.01 M. Consequently, the novel material was used to treat DU-contaminated water at a Department of Defense (DOD) site.

  6. Uranium isotopic fractionation factors during U(VI) reduction by bacterial isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Sanford, Robert A.; Johnson, Thomas M.; Lundstrom, Craig C.; Löffler, Frank E.

    2014-07-01

    We experimentally determined the magnitude of uranium isotopic fractionation induced by U(VI) reduction by metal reducing bacterial isolates. Our results indicate that microbial U(VI) reduction induces isotopic fractionation; heavier isotopes (i.e., 238U) partition into the solid U(IV) products. The magnitudes of isotopic fractionation (expressed as ε = 1000‰ * (α-1)) for 238U/235U were 0.68‰ ± 0.05‰ and 0.99‰ ± 0.12‰ for Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA and strain IFRC-N, respectively. The ε values for Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans strain FRC-W, strain FRC-R5, a novel Shewanella isolate, and Desulfitobacterium sp. strain Viet1 were 0.72‰ ± 0.15‰, 0.99‰ ± 0.12‰, 0.96‰ ± 0.16‰ and 0.86‰ ± 0.06‰, respectively. Our results show that the maximum ε values of ∼1.0‰ were obtained with low biomass (∼107 cells/mL) and low electron donor concentrations (∼500 μM). These results provide an initial assessment of 238U/235U shifts induced by microbially-mediated U(VI) reduction, which is needed as 238U/235U data are increasingly applied as redox indicators in various geochemical settings.

  7. The mechanism of uranium transformation from U(VI) into nano-uramphite by two indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhi [Key Lab of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Ministry of Education & Fujian–Taiwan Joint Center for Ecological Control of Crop Pests, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Chen, Fanbing [Key Lab of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Ministry of Education & Fujian–Taiwan Joint Center for Ecological Control of Crop Pests, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Cheng, Yangjian [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Lin, Zhang, E-mail: zlin@fjirsm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guan, Xiong, E-mail: guanxfafu@126.com [Key Lab of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Ministry of Education & Fujian–Taiwan Joint Center for Ecological Control of Crop Pests, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Indigenous B. thuringiensis exhibited highly accumulation ability to U(VI) in the absence of additional nutrients. • The amorphous uranium compound would transformed into crystalline nano-uramphite by B. thuringiensis. • The chemical nature of formed U-species were monitored. • The cell-free extracts of B. thuringiensis had better uranium-immobilization ability than its cell debris. • Provided the understanding of the uranium transformation mechanism. - Abstract: The mechanism of uranium transformation from U(VI) into nano-uramphite by two indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strains was investigated in the present work. Our data showed that the bacteria isolated from uranium mine possessed highly accumulation ability to U(VI), and the maximum accumulation capacity was around 400 mg U/g biomass (dry weight). X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analyzes indicated that the U(VI) was adsorbed on the bacterial surface firstly through coordinating with phosphate, −CH{sub 2} and amide groups, and then needle-like amorphous uranium compounds were formed. With the extension of time, the extracellular crystalline substances were disappeared, but some particles were appeared in the intracellular region, and these particles were characterized as tetragonal-uramphite. Moreover, the disrupted experiment indicated that the cell-free extracts had better uranium-immobilization ability than cell debris. Our findings provided the understanding of the uranium transformation process from amorphous uranium to crystalline uramphite, which would be useful in the regulation of uranium immobilization process.

  8. Detection of hexavalent uranium with inline and field-portable immunosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, Scott J.; Yu, Haini; Ali, Mehnaaz F.; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J.; Long, Philip E.; Blake, Diane A.

    2008-10-02

    An antibody that recognizes a chelated form of hexavalent uranium was used in the development of two different immunosensors for uranium detection. Specifically, these sensors were utilized for the analysis of groundwater samples collected during a 2007 field study of in situ bioremediation in a aquifer located at Rifle, CO. The antibody-based sensors provided data comparable to that obtained using Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA). Thus, these novel instruments and associated reagents should provide field researchers and resource managers with valuable new tools for on-site data acquisition.

  9. The mechanism of uranium transformation from U(VI) into nano-uramphite by two indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhi; Chen, Fanbing; Cheng, Yangjian; Lin, Zhang; Guan, Xiong

    2015-10-30

    The mechanism of uranium transformation from U(VI) into nano-uramphite by two indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strains was investigated in the present work. Our data showed that the bacteria isolated from uranium mine possessed highly accumulation ability to U(VI), and the maximum accumulation capacity was around 400 mg U/g biomass (dry weight). X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analyzes indicated that the U(VI) was adsorbed on the bacterial surface firstly through coordinating with phosphate, CH2 and amide groups, and then needle-like amorphous uranium compounds were formed. With the extension of time, the extracellular crystalline substances were disappeared, but some particles were appeared in the intracellular region, and these particles were characterized as tetragonal-uramphite. Moreover, the disrupted experiment indicated that the cell-free extracts had better uranium-immobilization ability than cell debris. Our findings provided the understanding of the uranium transformation process from amorphous uranium to crystalline uramphite, which would be useful in the regulation of uranium immobilization process.

  10. Non-enzymatic U(VI) interactions with biogenic mackinawite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeramani, H.; Qafoku, N. P.; Kukkadapu, R. K.; Murayama, M.; Hochella, M. F.

    2011-12-01

    Reductive immobilization of hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] by stimulation of dissimilatory metal and/or sulfate reducing bacteria (DMRB or DSRB) has been extensively researched as a remediation strategy for subsurface U(VI) contamination. These bacteria derive energy by reducing oxidized metals as terminal electron acceptors, often utilizing organic substrates as electron donors. Thus, when evaluating the potential for in-situ uranium remediation in heterogeneous subsurface media, it is important to understand how the presence of alternative electron acceptors such as Fe(III) and sulfate affect U(VI) remediation and the long term behavior and reactivity of reduced uranium. Iron, an abundant subsurface element, represents a substantial sink for electrons from DMRB, and the reduction of Fe(III) leads to the formation of dissolved Fe(II) or to reactive biogenic Fe(II)- and mixed Fe(II)/Fe(III)- mineral phases. Consequently, abiotic U(VI) reduction by reactive forms of biogenic Fe(II) minerals could be a potentially important process for uranium immobilization. In our study, the DMRB Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 was used to synthesize a biogenic Fe(II)-bearing sulfide mineral: mackinawite, that has been characterized by XRD, SEM, HRTEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Batch experiments involving treated biogenic mackinawite and uranium (50:1 molar ratio) were carried out at room temperature under strict anoxic conditions. Following complete removal of uranium from solution, the biogenic mackinawite was analyzed by a suite of analytical techniques including XAS, HRTEM and Mössbauer spectroscopy to determine the speciation of uranium and investigate concomitant Fe(II)-phase transformation. Determining the speciation of uranium is critical to success of a remediation strategy. The present work elucidates non-enzymatic/abiotic molecular scale redox interactions between biogenic mackinawite and uranium.

  11. Experimental Study of U(VI) Release Kinetics from Aquifer Sediments from a Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site (Rifle, Colorado, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.; Campbell, K. M.; Hayes, K. F.; Davis, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Uranium(VI) release kinetics from aquifer sediments from a former uranium mill tailings site in Rifle, Colorado was studied to understand uranium distribution within the sediments. The sediments were sampled at depths of 3.5-3.8 m in December 2004. The samples were air-dried, sieved, and the uranium content in the sediments, determined by gamma-radiometry, was 4.1 μg/g sediment. The labile fraction of U(VI) in the sediments was determined using carbonate/bicarbonate extractions, which should cause complete desorption of U(VI) in the absence of mass transfer limitations. Carbonate/bicarbonate extraction of the sediments showed very slow release kinetics, with only 12 % of the labile U(VI) in the sediments being released during the first 96 hours of extraction. This is much less than found in a previous study at a different mill tailings site (Naturita, Colorado), in which more than 80 % of labile U(VI) was released during the same period of extraction. Up to two months of carbonate/bicarbonate extraction released 1 μg U(VI) per gram of Rifle sediment, which is 25 % of the total U in the sediment. Extraction with an artificial groundwater prepared to simulate the field groundwater chemistry showed 0.26 μg U/g sediment was released during the initial 94 hours of extraction, with a gradual increase of released U(VI) with time, while other major and minor elements (except Si) rapidly reached steady-state concentrations during the first few hours of reaction. Two hypotheses are under consideration to explain the slow U(VI) release kinetics: 1) colloidal clay fraction particles cementing larger grains of the sediments are creating nanoscale interparticle pores that act as a diffusion barrier to U(VI) desorption, and 2) a U(IV) solid phase exists whose oxidation and dissolution control the U(VI) release rate. To test the hypotheses, oxidation and extraction of the sediments have been conducted using oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide. The results of this study are

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis of (C6N2H14)2(UVI2UIVO4F12), a mixed-valent one-dimensional uranium oxyfluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S; Barlow, S; Halasyamani, P S; Mosselmans, J F; O'Hare, D; Walker, S M; Walton, R I

    2000-08-21

    A new hybrid organic-inorganic mixed-valent uranium oxyfluoride, (C6N2H14)2(U3O4F12), UFO-17, has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions using uranium dioxide as the uranium source, hydrofluoric acid as mineralizer, and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane as template. The single-crystal X-ray structure was determined. Crystals of UFO-17 belonged to the orthorhombic space group Cmcm (no. 63), with a = 14.2660(15) A, b = 24.5130(10) A, c = 7.201(2) A, and Z = 4. The structure reveals parallel uranium-containing chains of two types: one type is composed of edge-sharing UO2F5 units; the other has a backbone of edge-sharing UF8 units, each sharing an edge with a pendant UO2F5 unit. Bond-valence calculations suggest the UF8 groups contain UIV, while the UO2F5 groups contain UVI. EXAFS data give results consistent with the single-crystal X-ray structure determination, while comparison of the uranium LIII-edge XANES of UFO-17 with that of related UIV and UVI compounds supports the oxidation-state assignment. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements on UFO-17 and a range of related hybrid organic-inorganic uranium(IV) and uranium(VI) fluorides and oxyfluorides further support the formulation of UFO-17 as a mixed-valent UIV/UVI compound.

  13. The effect of organic and inorganic aqueous uranium speciation on U(VI) bioavailability to an aquatic invertebrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C.; Croteau, M. N.; Campbell, K. M.; Cain, D.; Aiken, G.

    2015-12-01

    Growing world-wide demand for uranium (U) as an energy source has raised concerns of the human and ecological risks of U extraction and processing in the United States. Because of limited information on the relationship between U speciation and bioavailability, particularly in aquatic animals, we are characterizing U uptake by a model freshwater invertebrate (the snail Lymnaea stagnalis). This species grazes on biofilms and is thus key in the trophic transfer of contaminants through aquatic food webs. We determined the bioavailability of dissolved U(VI) over a range of water hardness, pH (6 to 8), and the presence of dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) as a competing ligand, to test the effect of aqueous speciation on uptake. Bioavailability was assessed using U uptake rate constants (kuw) derived from a kinetic bioaccumulation model. Dissolved U (1 to 1000 nM) was bioavailable over the range of geochemical conditions tested with kuw (L/g/d) decreasing with increasing dissolved Ca and with increasing pH. For example, kuw decreased from 1.6 to 0.3 as dissolved Ca was increased from 0.04 to 1.5 mM, suggesting competition between bioavailable U(VI) species and strong ternary calcium uranyl carbonato complexes. At pH 7.5 in synthetic moderately hard freshwater, kuw decreased from 0.22 in the absence of NOM to 0.07 in the presence of a hydrophobic acid NOM isolate of high aromaticity (SUVA = 5) consistent with strong aqueous complexation of U(VI) by the NOM. The co-variance of U uptake and aqueous U species distribution is being analyzed to determine which U species are bioavailable. U speciation in systems with NOM is calculated using conditional U-NOM binding constants derived by equilibrium dialysis ligand exchange methodology. The bioavailability of dietborne U is being tested since dietary metal uptake prevails for many aquatic species. These experiments include addition of ferrihydrite with U sorbed, both in the presence and absence of NOM, and mixed with diet.

  14. Persistent U(IV) and U(VI) following in-situ recovery (ISR) mining of a sandstone uranium deposit, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Campbell, Kate M.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Reimus, P.W.; J.T. Clay,; N. Janot,; J. J. Bargar,; Benzel, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Drill-core samples from a sandstone-hosted uranium (U) deposit in Wyoming were characterized to determine the abundance and distribution of uranium following in-situ recovery (ISR) mining with oxygen- and carbon dioxide-enriched water. Concentrations of uranium, collected from ten depth intervals, ranged from 5 to 1920 ppm. A composite sample contained 750 ppm uranium with an average oxidation state of 54% U(VI) and 46% U(IV). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated rare high uranium (∼1000 ppm U) in spatial association with P/Ca and Si/O attributed to relict uranium minerals, possibly coffinite, uraninite, and autunite, trapped within low permeability layers bypassed during ISR mining. Fission track analysis revealed lower but still elevated concentrations of U in the clay/silica matrix and organic matter (several 10 s ppm) and yet higher concentrations associated with Fe-rich/S-poor sites, likely iron oxides, on altered chlorite or euhedral pyrite surfaces (but not on framboidal pyrite). Organic C (samples. Although the uranium minerals persisting in low permeability areas in association with organic carbon were less affected by oxidizing solutions during mining, the likely sequestration of uranium within labile iron oxides following mining and sensitivity to changes in redox conditions requires careful attention during groundwater restoration.

  15. Post Audit of a Field Scale Reactive Transport Model of Uranium at a Former Mill Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    Reactive transport of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) in a shallow alluvial aquifer at a former uranium mill tailings site near Naturita CO has been monitored for nearly 30 years by the US Department of Energy and the US Geological Survey. Groundwater at the site has high concentrations of chloride, alkalinity and U(VI) as a owing to ore processing at the site from 1941 to 1974. We previously calibrated a multicomponent reactive transport model to data collected at the site from 1986 to 2001. A two dimensional nonreactive transport model used a uniform hydraulic conductivity which was estimated from observed chloride concentrations and tritium helium age dates. A reactive transport model for the 2km long site was developed by including an equilibrium U(VI) surface complexation model calibrated to laboratory data and calcite equilibrium. The calibrated model reproduced both nonreactive tracers as well as the observed U(VI), pH and alkalinity. Forward simulations for the period 2002-2015 conducted with the calibrated model predict significantly faster natural attenuation of U(VI) concentrations than has been observed by the persistent high U(VI) concentrations at the site. Alternative modeling approaches are being evaluating evaluated using recent data to determine if the persistence can be explained by multirate mass transfer models developed from experimental observations at the column scale(~0.2m), the laboratory tank scale (~2m), the field tracer test scale (~1-4m) or geophysical observation scale (~1-5m). Results of this comparison should provide insight into the persistence of U(VI) plumes and improved management options.

  16. Determining uranium speciation in contaminated soils by molecular spectroscopic methods: Examples from the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P.G.; Berg, J.M.; Chisholm-Brause, C.J.; Conradson, S.D.; Donohoe, R.J.; Morris, D.E.; Musgrave, J.A.; Tait, C.D.

    1994-03-01

    The US Department of Energy`s former uranium production facility located at Fernald, OH (18 mi NW of Cincinnati) is the host site for an Integrated Demonstration for remediation of uranium-contaminated soils. A wide variety of source terms for uranium contamination have been identified reflecting the diversity of operations at the facility. Most of the uranium contamination is contained in the top {approximately}1/2 m of soil, but uranium has been found in perched waters indicating substantial migration. In support of the development of remediation technologies and risk assessment, we are conducting uranium speciation studies on untreated and treated soils using molecular spectroscopies. Untreated soils from five discrete sites have been analyzed. We have found that {approximately}80--90% of the uranium exists as hexavalent UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} species even though many source terms consisted of tetravalent uranium species such as UO{sub 2}. Much of the uranium exists as microcrystalline precipitates (secondary minerals). There is also clear evidence for variations in uranium species from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale. However, similarities in speciation at sites having different source terms suggest that soil and groundwater chemistry may be as important as source term in defining the uranium speciation in these soils. Characterization of treated soils has focused on materials from two sites that have undergone leaching using conventional extractants (e.g., carbonate, citrate) or novel chelators such as Tiron. Redox reagents have also been used to facilitate the leaching process. Three different classes of treated soils have been identified based on the speciation of uranium remaining in the soils. In general, the effective treatments decrease the total uranium while increasing the ratio of U(IV) to U(VI) species.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF THE TRANSFORMATION OF URANIUM UNDER IRON-REDUCING CONDITIONS: REDUCTION OF UVI BY BIOGENIC FEII/FEIII HYDROXIDE (GREEN RUST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Loughlin, Edward J.; Scherer, Michelle M.; Kemner, Kenneth M.

    2006-12-31

    The recent identification of green rusts (GRs) as products of the reduction of FeIII oxyhydroxides by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria, coupled with the ability of synthetic (GR) to reduce UVI species to insoluble UO2, suggests that biogenic green rusts (BioGRs) may play an important role in the speciation (and thus mobility) of U in FeIII-reducing environments. The objective of our research was to examine the potential for BioGR to affect the speciation of U under FeIII-reducing conditions. To meet this objective, we designed and executed a hypothesis-driven experimental program to identify key factors leading to the formation of BioGRs as products of dissimilatory FeIII reduction, to determine the key factors controlling the reduction of UVI to UIV by GRs, and to identify the resulting U-bearing mineral phases. The results of this research significantly increase our understanding of the coupling of biotic and abiotic processes with respect to the speciation of U in iron-reducing environments. In particular, the reduction of UVI to UIV by BioGR with the subsequent formation of U-bearing mineral phases may be effective for immobilizing U in suboxic subsurface environments. This information has direct applications to contaminant transport modeling and bioremediation engineering for natural or enhanced in situ remediation of subsurface contamination.

  18. Importance of c-Type cytochromes for U(VI reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens

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    Leang Ching

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to study the mechanism of U(VI reduction, the effect of deleting c-type cytochrome genes on the capacity of Geobacter sulfurreducens to reduce U(VI with acetate serving as the electron donor was investigated. Results The ability of several c-type cytochrome deficient mutants to reduce U(VI was lower than that of the wild type strain. Elimination of two confirmed outer membrane cytochromes and two putative outer membrane cytochromes significantly decreased (ca. 50–60% the ability of G. sulfurreducens to reduce U(VI. Involvement in U(VI reduction did not appear to be a general property of outer membrane cytochromes, as elimination of two other confirmed outer membrane cytochromes, OmcB and OmcC, had very little impact on U(VI reduction. Among the periplasmic cytochromes, only MacA, proposed to transfer electrons from the inner membrane to the periplasm, appeared to play a significant role in U(VI reduction. A subpopulation of both wild type and U(VI reduction-impaired cells, 24–30%, accumulated amorphous uranium in the periplasm. Comparison of uranium-accumulating cells demonstrated a similar amount of periplasmic uranium accumulation in U(VI reduction-impaired and wild type G. sulfurreducens. Assessment of the ability of the various suspensions to reduce Fe(III revealed no correlation between the impact of cytochrome deletion on U(VI reduction and reduction of Fe(III hydroxide and chelated Fe(III. Conclusion This study indicates that c-type cytochromes are involved in U(VI reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens. The data provide new evidence for extracellular uranium reduction by G. sulfurreducens but do not rule out the possibility of periplasmic uranium reduction. Occurrence of U(VI reduction at the cell surface is supported by the significant impact of elimination of outer membrane cytochromes on U(VI reduction and the lack of correlation between periplasmic uranium accumulation and the capacity for uranium

  19. In Situ Biostimulation at a Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site: Multicomponent Biogeochemical Reactive Transport Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabusaki, S.; Fang, Y.; Long, P.

    2005-12-01

    In situ biostimulation at a Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site: Multicomponent Biogeochemical Reactive Transport Modeling Field experiments conducted at a former uranium mill tailings site in western Colorado are being used to investigate microbially mediated immobilization of uranium as a potential future remediation option for such sites. While the general principle of biostimulating microbial communities to reduce aqueous hexavalent uranium to immobile uraninite has been demonstrated in the laboratory and field, the ability to predictably engineer long lasting immobilization will require a more complete understanding of field-scale processes and properties. For this study, numerical simulation of the flow field, geochemical conditions, and micriobial communities is used to interpret field-scale biogeochemical reactive transport observed during experiments performed in 2002 to 2004. One key issue is identifying bioavailable Fe(III) oxide, which is the principal electron acceptor utilized by the acetate- oxidizing Geobacter sp. These organisms are responsible for uranium bioreduction that results in the removal of sufficient U(VI) to lower uranium groundwater concentrations to at or near applicable standards. The depletion of bioavailable Fe(III) leads to succession by sulfate reducers that are considerably less effective at uranium bioreduction. An important modeling consideration are the abiotic reactions (e.g., mineral precipitation and dissolution, aqueous and surface complexation) involving the Fe(II) and sulfide produced during biostimulation. These components, strongly associated with the solid phases, may play an important role in the evolving reactivity of the mineral surfaces that are likely to impact long-term uranium immobilization.

  20. Extracellular reduction of uranium via Geobacter conductive pili as a protective cellular mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cologgi, Dena L; Lampa-Pastirk, Sanela; Speers, Allison M; Kelly, Shelly D; Reguera, Gemma

    2011-09-13

    The in situ stimulation of Fe(III) oxide reduction by Geobacter bacteria leads to the concomitant precipitation of hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater. Despite its promise for the bioremediation of uranium contaminants, the biological mechanism behind this reaction remains elusive. Because Fe(III) oxide reduction requires the expression of Geobacter's conductive pili, we evaluated their contribution to uranium reduction in Geobacter sulfurreducens grown under pili-inducing or noninducing conditions. A pilin-deficient mutant and a genetically complemented strain with reduced outer membrane c-cytochrome content were used as controls. Pili expression significantly enhanced the rate and extent of uranium immobilization per cell and prevented periplasmic mineralization. As a result, pili expression also preserved the vital respiratory activities of the cell envelope and the cell's viability. Uranium preferentially precipitated along the pili and, to a lesser extent, on outer membrane redox-active foci. In contrast, the pilus-defective strains had different degrees of periplasmic mineralization matching well with their outer membrane c-cytochrome content. X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses demonstrated the extracellular reduction of U(VI) by the pili to mononuclear tetravalent uranium U(IV) complexed by carbon-containing ligands, consistent with a biological reduction. In contrast, the U(IV) in the pilin-deficient mutant cells also required an additional phosphorous ligand, in agreement with the predominantly periplasmic mineralization of uranium observed in this strain. These findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for Geobacter conductive pili in the extracellular reduction of uranium, and highlight its essential function as a catalytic and protective cellular mechanism that is of interest for the bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater.

  1. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U), i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. Additionally, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium. PMID:25902522

  2. TRLFS Studies on luminescence enhancement of U(VI) using oxidants for quencher species in samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Wansik; Jung, Euo Chang; Cho, Hye Ryun [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The pulse laser-based method detects photo luminescent emission of U(VI) so that it is highly sensitive for non-isotopic al determination of total uranium concentration. Thus, this method has been used for detection of trace quantity of uranium in the environmental, geological, and bioassay samples. One of widely-used pulse laser-based methods is kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA), of which instrument is commercially available. The intensity and lifetime of characteristic phosphorescence at 515-520 nm of hexavalent uranium are measured with an excitation wavelength of 425 nm. Particularly in KPA the use of phosphate-based luminescence enhancing agent (LEA) leading to the formation of uranyl-phosphate complexes extends the luminescence (LM) lifetime of uranium (> {approx} 200 {mu}s) and subsequently the overall luminescence intensity. In KPA, however, an extensive sample pretreatment procedure is required to reduce the luminescence quenching effects of ions and molecules present in samples. During such procedures the uranium species in low oxidation states are also oxidized to hexavalent uranium so that the measurement of the total uranium concentration can be achieved. In general, a series of high temperature dry and wet ashing procedures is implemented prior to the addition of LEA to decompose the interfering substances. The aim of this study is to examine the characteristics of the interfering species exhibiting significant quenching effects and to develop a way of minimizing the time required for the sample pretreatment step particularly for certain oxidizable quencher species. In fact, in a previous study we reported that significant LM quenching effects are observed from those possessing chemical reduction capability such as Fe(II) and cysteine. Under such sample conditions it is shown that the conventional KPA is not applicable due to the short lifetime (< {approx} 1 {mu}s), therefore a time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) capable

  3. Influence of U(VI) on the metabolism of plant cells studied by microcalorimetry and TRLFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, Susanne; Geipel, Gerhard [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry; Fahmy, Karim; Oertel, Jana [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biophysics; Bok, Frank [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes

    2017-06-01

    Uranium(VI) shows a concentration-dependent influence on the metabolic activity of plant cells. With increasing U(VI) concentration, the predominant U(VI) species in medium R{sub red} changes from UO{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}(s) to (UO{sub 2}){sub 3}(OH){sub 5}{sup +}, which may affect the bioavailability of U(VI).

  4. Uranium sorption on tezontle volcanic rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez M, B. E.; Duran B, J. M.; Iturbe G, J. L.; Olguin G, M. T., E-mail: beatriz.lopez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    It is described a study that demonstrates that hexavalent uranium ions were sorbed by the naturally occurring mineral using a batch technique. This mineral is found in abundant quantities in Mexico. Our study focused on the separation of U Vi from synthetic aqueous systems of both H{sub 2}O-UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O (acid) and H{sub 2}O-Na{sub 4}[UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}] (basic). The chemical speciation was performed by using high voltage electrophoresis, and the uranium content was determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The quantified U(Vi) sorption by tezontle from acidic and basic systems was 2.72 and 1.68 mumol/g, respectively, and the sorption behavior is discussed considering the surface charge of the tezontle at different ph values based on the point of zero charge characteristic of this material. (Author)

  5. Interaction of uranium with in situ anoxically generated magnetite on steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira, Miquel [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CTM Centre Tecnologic, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); El Aamrani, Souad [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Duro, Lara [ENVIROS-SPAIN S.L., Passeig de Rubi 29-31, 08197 Valldoreix (Spain); Gimenez, Javier [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: francisco.javier.gimenez@upc.edu; Pablo, Joan de [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CTM Centre Tecnologic, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Bruno, Jordi [ENVIROS-SPAIN S.L., Passeig de Rubi 29-31, 08197 Valldoreix (Spain)

    2007-08-25

    In the high level nuclear waste repository concept, spent nuclear fuel is designed to be encapsulated in steel canisters. Thus, it is necessary to study the influence of the steel and/or its corrosion products on the behaviour of the radionuclides released from the fuel. In this sense, the main objective of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of the influence of the steel and/or its corrosion products on the uranium(VI) retention. To this aim, magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) has been generated by anaerobic steel corrosion in an autoclave reactor at an overpressure of 8 atm of H{sub 2}(g). After characterisation by X-ray diffraction (XRD), the obtained corroded steel coupons were contacted, at two different H{sub 2}(g) pressures (1 atm and 7.6 atm), with a U(VI) solution. The evolution of the uranium concentration in solution is determined and a study of the composition of the coupons at the end of the experiments is carried out. The main conclusion obtained from this work is that magnetite generated on a steel coupon is able not only to retain uranium via sorption, but also to reduce hexavalent to tetravalent uranium in a higher extent than commercial magnetite, thus, providing an effective retardation path to the migration of uranium (and, potentially, other actinides) out of the repository.

  6. Effect of Phosphate on U(VI) Sorption to Montmorillonite: Ternary Complexation and Precipitation Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyer, Lyndsay D.; Maillot, Fabien; Wang, Zheming; Wang, Zimeng; Mehta, Vrajesh; Giammar, Daniel; Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2016-02-15

    Phosphate addition is a potential treatment method to lower the solubility of U(VI) in soil and groundwater systems by causing U(VI) phosphate precipitation as well as enhancing adsorption. Previous work has shown that iron oxide surfaces may facilitate the nucleation of U(VI) phosphate minerals and, that under weakly acidic conditions, phosphate also enhances U(VI) adsorption to such phases. Like iron oxides, clays are important reactive phases in the subsurface but little is known about the interaction of U(VI) and phosphate with these minerals. The effect of aqueous phosphate on U(VI) binding to Wyoming montmorillonite (SWy-2) in air-equilibrated systems was investigated. Equilibrium U(VI) uptake to montmorillonite was determined at pH 4, 6 and 8 at discrete initial phosphate concentrations between 0 and 100 μM. The observed behavior of U(VI) indicates a transition from adsorption to precipitation with increasing total uranium and phosphate concentrations at all pH values. At the highest phosphate concentration examined at each pH value, a barrier to U(VI) phosphate nucleation is observed. At lower concentrations, phosphate has no effect on macroscopic U(VI) adsorption. To assess the mechanisms of U(VI)-phosphate interactions on smectite surfaces, U(VI) speciation was investigated under selected conditions using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Samples above the precipitation threshold display EXAFS and LIFS spectral signatures consistent with the autunite family of U(VI) phosphate minerals. However, at lower U(VI) concentrations, changes in LIFS spectra upon phosphate addition suggest that U(VI)-phosphate ternary surface complexes form on the montmorillonite surface at pH 4 and 6 despite the lack of a macroscopic effect on adsorption. The speciation of solid-associated U(VI) below the precipitation threshold at pH 8 is dominated by U(VI)-carbonate surface complexes. This work

  7. Effect of phosphate on U(VI) sorption to montmorillonite: Ternary complexation and precipitation barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Lyndsay D.; Maillot, Fabien; Wang, Zheming; Wang, Zimeng; Mehta, Vrajesh S.; Giammar, Daniel E.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2016-02-01

    Phosphate addition is a potential treatment method to lower the solubility of U(VI) in soil and groundwater systems by causing U(VI) phosphate precipitation as well as enhancing adsorption. Previous work has shown that iron oxide surfaces may facilitate the nucleation of U(VI) phosphate minerals and, that under weakly acidic conditions, phosphate also enhances U(VI) adsorption to such phases. Like iron oxides, clays are important reactive phases in the subsurface but little is known about the interaction of U(VI) and phosphate with these minerals. The effect of aqueous phosphate on U(VI) binding to Wyoming montmorillonite (SWy-2) in air-equilibrated systems was investigated. Equilibrium U(VI) uptake to montmorillonite was determined at pH 4, 6 and 8 at discrete initial phosphate concentrations between 0 and 100 μM. The observed behavior of U(VI) indicates a transition from adsorption to precipitation with increasing total uranium and phosphate concentrations at all pH values. At the highest phosphate concentration examined at each pH value, a barrier to U(VI) phosphate nucleation is observed. At lower concentrations, phosphate has no effect on macroscopic U(VI) adsorption. To assess the mechanisms of U(VI)-phosphate interactions on smectite surfaces, U(VI) speciation was investigated under selected conditions using laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Samples above the precipitation threshold display EXAFS and LIFS spectral signatures consistent with the autunite family of U(VI) phosphate minerals. However, at lower U(VI) concentrations, changes in LIFS spectra upon phosphate addition suggest that U(VI)-phosphate ternary surface complexes form on the montmorillonite surface at pH 4 and 6 despite the lack of a macroscopic effect on adsorption. The speciation of solid-associated U(VI) below the precipitation threshold at pH 8 is dominated by U(VI)-carbonate surface complexes. This work

  8. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-01-29

    Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen

  9. UVIS G280 Wavelength Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushouse, Howard

    2009-07-01

    Wavelength calibration of the UVIS G280 grism will be established using observations of the Wolf Rayet star WR14. Accompanying direct exposures will provide wavelength zeropoints for dispersed exposures. The calibrations will be obtained at the central position of each CCD chip and at the center of the UVIS field. No additional field-dependent variations will be obtained.

  10. Long-term diffusion of U(VI) in bentonite: Dependence on density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Claudia; Mibus, Jens; Trepte, Paul; Müller, Christa; Brendler, Vinzenz; Park, Dan M; Jiao, Yongqin; Kersting, Annie B; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2017-01-01

    As a contribution to the safety assessment of nuclear waste repositories, U(VI) diffusion through the potential buffer material MX-80 bentonite was investigated at three clay dry densities over six years. Synthetic MX-80 model pore water was used as background electrolyte. Speciation calculations showed that Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq) was the main U(VI) species. The in- and out-diffusion of U(VI) was investigated separately. U(VI) diffused about 3mm, 1.5mm, and 1mm into the clay plug at ρ=1.3, 1.6, and 1.9g/cm(3), respectively. No through-diffusion of the U(VI) tracer was observed. However, leaching of natural uranium contained in the clay occurred and uranium was detected in all receiving reservoirs. As expected, the effective and apparent diffusion coefficients, De and Da, decreased with increasing dry density. The Da values for the out-diffusion of natural U(VI) were in good agreement with previously determined values. Surprisingly, Da values for the in-diffusion of U(VI) were about two orders of magnitude lower than values obtained in short-term in-diffusion experiments reported in the literature. Some potential reasons for this behavior that were evaluated are changes of the U(VI) speciation within the clay (precipitation, reduction) or changes of the clay porosity and pore connectivity with time. By applying Archie's law and the extended Archie's law, it was estimated that a significantly smaller effective porosity must be present for the long-term in-diffusion of U(VI). The results suggest that long-term studies of key transport phenomena may reveal additional processes that can directly impact long-term repository safety assessments.

  11. uVis Studio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas; Kuhail, Mohammad Amin; Lauesen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Vis Studio. Instead of programming, developers apply a Drag-Drop-Set-View-Interact approach. Developers bind controls to data, and the Studio gives immediate visual feedback in the Design Panel. This is a novel feature, called What-You-Bind-Is-What- You-Get. The Studio also provides Modes that allow....... We conducted a usability study with six developers to evaluate if the Studio and its features enhance cognition and facilitate the visualization development. The results show that developers appreciated the Drag-Drop-Set- View-Interact approach, the What-You-Bind-Is-What-You-Get, the Auto......A toolkit facilitates the visualization development process. The process can be further enhanced by integrating the toolkits in development environments. This paper describes how the uVis toolkit, a formula-based visualiza- tion toolkit, has been extended with a development environment, called u...

  12. Proteome of Geobacter sulfurreducens in the presence of U(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Roberto; Hixson, Kim K; Murphy, Sean; Mester, Tünde; Sharma, Manju L; Lipton, Mary S; Lovley, Derek R

    2014-12-01

    Geobacter species often play an important role in the in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater, but little is known about how these microbes avoid uranium toxicity. To evaluate this further, the proteome of Geobacter sulfurreducens exposed to 100 µM U(VI) acetate was compared to control cells not exposed to U(VI). Of the 1363 proteins detected from these cultures, 203 proteins had higher abundance during exposure to U(VI) compared with the control cells and 148 proteins had lower abundance. U(VI)-exposed cultures expressed lower levels of proteins involved in growth, protein and amino acid biosynthesis, as well as key central metabolism enzymes as a result of the deleterious effect of U(VI) on the growth of G. sulfurreducens. In contrast, proteins involved in detoxification, such as several efflux pumps belonging to the RND (resistance-nodulation-cell division) family, and membrane protection, and other proteins, such as chaperones and proteins involved in secretion systems, were found in higher abundance in cells exposed to U(VI). Exposing G. sulfurreducens to U(VI) resulted in a higher abundance of many proteins associated with the oxidative stress response, such as superoxide dismutase and superoxide reductase. A strain in which the gene for superoxide dismutase was deleted grew more slowly than the WT strain in the presence of U(VI), but not in its absence. The results suggested that there is no specific mechanism for uranium detoxification. Rather, multiple general stress responses are induced, which presumably enable Geobacter species to tolerate high uranium concentrations.

  13. Investigation of U(VI) adsorption in quartz-chlorite mineral mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M; Shang, Jianying; Jeon, Choong; Liu, Juan; Liu, Chongxuan

    2014-07-15

    A batch and cryogenic laser-induced time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy investigation of U(VI) adsorbed on quartz-chlorite mixtures with variable mass ratios have been performed under field-relevant uranium concentrations (5×10(-7) M and 5×10(-6) M) in pH 8.1 synthetic groundwater. The U(VI) adsorption Kd values steadily increased as the mass fraction of chlorite increased, indicating preferential sorption to chlorite. For all mineral mixtures, U(VI) adsorption Kd values were lower than that calculated from the assumption of component additivity possibly caused by surface modifications stemming from chlorite dissolution; The largest deviation occurred when the mass fractions of the two minerals were equal. U(VI) adsorbed on quartz and chlorite displayed characteristic individual luminescence spectra that were not affected by mineral mixing. The spectra of U(VI) adsorbed within the mixtures could be simulated by one surface U(VI) species on quartz and two on chlorite. The luminescence intensity decreased in a nonlinear manner as the adsorbed U(VI) concentration increased with increasing chlorite mass fraction-likely due to ill-defined luminescence quenching by both structural Fe/Cr in chlorite, and trace amounts of solubilized and reprecipitated Fe/Cr in the aqueous phase. However, the fractional spectral intensities of U(VI) adsorbed on quartz and chlorite followed the same trend of fractional adsorbed U(VI) concentration in each mineral phase with approximate linear correlations, offering a method to estimate of U(VI) concentration distribution between the mineral components with luminescence spectroscopy.

  14. UVIS G280 Flux Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushouse, Howard

    2009-07-01

    Flux calibration, image displacement, and spectral trace of the UVIS G280 grism will be established using observations of the HST flux standard start GD71. Accompanying direct exposures will provide the image displacement measurements and wavelength zeropoints for dispersed exposures. The calibrations will be obtained at the central position of each CCD chip and at the center of the UVIS field. No additional field-dependent variations will be derived.

  15. Bioaccumulation of U(VI) by Sulfolobus acidocaldarius under moderate acidic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, T.; Merroun, M.L.; Rossberg, A.; Steudtner, R.; Selenska-Pobell, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Radiochemistry

    2011-07-01

    U(VI) accumulation by the acidothermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius at a moderate acidic pH of 4.5 was investigated. This pH value is relevant for some heavy metal and uranium polluted environments where populations of S. acidocaldarius were found to persist. We demonstrate that U(VI) is rapidly complexed by the archaeal cells. A combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that at pH 4.5 organic phosphate and carboxylic groups are involved in the U(VI) complexation. These results are in contrast to those published for most bacteria which at this pH precipitate U(VI) mainly in inorganic uranyl phosphate phases. As demonstrated by TEM only a limited part of the added U(VI) was biomineralized extracellularly in the case of the studied archaeon. Most of the U(VI) accumulates were localized in a form of intracellular deposits which were associated with the inner side of the cytoplasma membrane. Observed differences in U(VI) bioaccumulation between the studied archaeon and bacteria can be explained by the significant differences in their cell wall structures as well as by their different physiological characteristics. (orig.)

  16. Bicarbonate Impact on U(VI) Bioreduction in a Shallow Alluvial Aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.; Berman, Elena S.; Gupta, Manish; Chandler, Darrell P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Giloteaux, L.; Handley, Kim M.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-02-01

    Field-scale biostimulation and desorption tracer experiments conducted in a uranium (U) contaminated, shallow alluvial aquifer have provided insight into the coupling of microbiology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology that control U mobility in the subsurface. Initial experiments successfully tested the concept that Fe-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter sp. could enzymatically reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) during in situ electron donor amendment (Anderson et al. 2003, Williams et al. 2011). In parallel, in situ desorption tracer tests using bicarbonate amendment demonstrated rate-limited U(VI) desorption (Fox et al. 2012). These results and prior laboratory studies underscored the importance of enzymatic U(VI)-reduction and suggested the ability to combine desorption and bioreduction of U(VI). Here we report the results of a new field experiment in which bicarbonate-promoted uranium desorption and acetate amendment were combined and compared to an acetate amendment-only experiment in the same experimental plot. Results confirm that bicarbonate amendment to alluvial aquifer desorbs U(VI) and increases the abundance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato complexes. At the same time, that the rate of acetate-promoted enzymatic U(VI) reduction was greater in the presence of added bicarbonate in spite of the increased dominance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato aqueous complexes. A model-simulated peak rate of U(VI) reduction was ~3.8 times higher during acetate-bicarbonate treatment than under acetate-only conditions. Lack of consistent differences in microbial community structure between acetate-bicarbonate and acetate-only treatments suggest that a significantly higher rate of U(VI) reduction the bicarbonate-impacted sediment may be due to a higher intrinsic rate of microbial reduction induced by elevated concentrations of the bicarbonate oxyanion. The findings indicate that bicarbonate amendment may be useful in improving the engineered bioremediation of uranium in aquifers.

  17. Sorption of U(VI) to G. uraniireducens and A. palmae under Old Rifle Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, J.; Cabaniss, S.; Howe, K.; Comolli, L.; Long, P.; Stucker, V.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial reduction as a remediation method for uranium contaminated Department of Energy (DOE) sites has been explored with promising results. Although transport models have been improved to include variations in geochemical concentration, reductive microbial processes and adsorption of uranium to minerals, they do not incorporate the presence of microbes as possible sorption surfaces that may influence the overall transport of uranium. Our overall objective is to examine U(VI) sorption to biomass by determining partition coefficients between U(VI) and the microbial species of Geobacter uraniireducens and Acholeplasma palmae. Once these partition coefficients are obtained, they will be incorporated into a thermodynamic model with the geochemical parameters of the Old Rifle Site. Preliminary results indicate that U(VI) sorbs 1000X more strongly to bacteria under atmospheric pCO2 conditions than under 2% pCO2 conditions. U(VI) sorption to the surface of G. uraniireducens is 4X stronger than to the surface of A. Palmae and in high-DIC waters is comparable in strength to reported U(VI)-mineral surface sorption. While the concentration of G. uraniireducens during and after remediation results in relatively small sorption site density, the possibility persists that sorption to G. uraniireducens may retard uranium transport at the geochemical gradients which exist in nature.

  18. Ex-situ bioremediation of U(VI from contaminated mine water using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eRomero-Gonzalez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ex-situ bioremoval of U(VI from contaminated water using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain 8455 and 13538 was studied under a range of pH and uranium concentrations. The effect of pH on the growth of bacteria was evaluated across the range 1.5 – 4.5 pH units. The respiration rate of At. ferrooxidans at different U(VI concentrations was quantified as a measure of the rate of metabolic activity over time using an oxygen electrode. The biosorption process was quantified using a uranyl nitrate solution, U-spiked growth media and U-contaminated mine water. The results showed that both strains of At. ferrooxidans are able to remove U(VI from solution at pH 2.5 – 4.5, exhibiting a buffering capacity at pH 3.5. The respiration rate of the micro-organism was affected at U(VI concentration of 30 mg L-1. The kinetics of the sorption fitted a pseudo-first order equation, and depended on the concentration of U(VI. The KD obtained from the biosorption experiments indicated that strain 8455 is more efficient for the removal of U(VI. A bioreactor designed to treat a solution of 100 mg U(VI L-1 removed at least 50% of the U(VI in water. The study demonstrated that At. ferrooxidans can be used for the ex-situ bioremediation of U(VI contaminated mine water.

  19. Efficient sorption and reduction of U(VI) on zero-valent iron-polyaniline-graphene aerogel ternary composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lili; Feng, Shaojie; Zhao, Donglin; Chen, Shaohua; Li, Feifei; Chen, Changlun

    2017-03-15

    In this work, zero-valent iron-polyaniline-graphene aerogel composite (Fe-PANI-GA) was prepared and applied in the removal of U(VI) from aqueous solutions by batch sorption experiments. The experimental results showed that the Fe-PANI-GA composite had an excellent removal capacity for the removal of U(VI) in acidic solutions. The results also showed that the maximum removal capacity of the Fe-PANI-GA toward U(VI) was 350.47mg/g at pH 5.5. The sorption kinetics data were well-described by pseudo-second-order. The sorption isotherms of U(VI) fitted well with Langmuir isotherm and exhibited better removal efficiency with the increase of temperature. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔS, ΔH) indicated that the sorption of U(VI) on the Fe-PANI-GA was an endothermic and spontaneous process. Moreover, removal mechanisms were studied based on the results of XRD, FTIR and XPS. Both U(VI) sorption and partially reductive precipitation of U(VI) to U(IV) contributed to the removal of U(VI) on Fe-PANI-GA. Therefore, Fe-PANI-GA was an economic and effective material for the removal of uranium from nuclear waste in practical application.

  20. Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite by plasma technique for U(VI) removal from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinghao; Cheng, Cheng; Xiao, Chengjian; Shao, Dadong; Xu, Zimu; Wang, Jiaquan; Hu, Shuheng; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Weijuan

    2017-07-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite (PANI/bentonie) was synthesized by plasma induced polymerization of aniline on bentonite surface, and applied to uptake of uranium(VI) ions from aqueous solution. The as-synthesized PANI/bentonie was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Batch adsorption technique was utilized to investigate the adsorption of U(VI) on bentonite and PANI/bentonite. The adsorption of U(VI) (10 mg/L) on PANI/bentonite surface is fairly depend on solution pH, ionic strength, and temperature in solution. The modified PANI on PANI/bentonite surface significantly enhances its adsorption capability for U(VI). The presence of humic acid (HA) can sound enhance U(VI) adsorption on PANI/bentonite at pH 6.5. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the adsorption of U(VI) on PANI/bentonite surface is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The results highlight the application of PANI/bentonite composites as candidate material for the uptake of trace U(VI) from aqueous solution.

  1. Redox chemistry of sulphate and uranium in a phosphogypsum tailings dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanicolaou, Fanos; Antoniou, Stella [Chemistry Department, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Pashalidis, Ioannis, E-mail: pspasch@ucy.ac.c [Chemistry Department, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2010-08-15

    The present study aims to assess the effect of redox conditions existing within the tailings dump on the stability of phosphogypsum (e.g. sulphate reduction) and uranium(VI). Phosphogypsum sampling and in-situ measurements were carried out at a coastal tailings dump in Vasiliko Cyprus, pH, E{sub H} and solubility experiments were performed in simulated laboratory systems and thermodynamic calculations using MINTEQA2. Generally, in the open tailings dump oxidizing conditions predominate stabilizing sulphur and uranium in their hexavalent oxidation states. On the other hand, after the application of a soil/vegetative cover and in the presence of natural organic matter, anoxic conditions prevail (E{sub H} < -70 mV) resulting in S(VI) and U(VI) reduction to S(-II) and U(IV), respectively. Although, the sulphide anion can form very insoluble compounds with heavy metal ions (e.g. Cd(II), Pb(II) etc.) and U(IV) oxide has very low solubility, partial reduction of sulphate to sulphide within gypsum may affect the stability of phosphogypsum resulting in enhanced erosion of the material by rain- and seawater and washing out of contaminants in particulate/colloidal form.

  2. Characterization of U(VI) reduction in contaminated sediments with slow-degrading electron donor source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W.; Watson, D. B.; Zhang, G.; Mehlhorn, T.; Lowe, K.; Earles, J.; Phillips, J.; Kelly, S. D.; Boyanov, M.; Kemner, K. M.; Schadt, C.; Criddle, C. S.; Jardine, P. M.; Brooks, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    In order to select sustainable, high efficiency and cost effective electron donor source, oleate and emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) were tested uranium (VI) reduction in comparison with ethanol in microcosms using uranium contaminated sediments and groundwater from the US DOE Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site. The effect of initial sulfate concentration on U(VI) reduction was also tested. Both oleate and EVO were effective electron donor sources for U(VI) reduction. Accumulation of acetate as a major product and the removal of aqueous U(VI) were observed and were associated with sulfate reduction. Both oleate and EVO supported U(VI) reduction but at slower rates with a comparable but slightly lower extent of reduction than ethanol. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis confirmed reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). The extent of U(VI) reduction in solid phase was negatively influenced by aqueous calcium concentration. The majority of electrons of the three substrates were consumed by sulfate reduction, Fe(III) reduction, and methanogenesis. Initial U(VI) concentration in the aqueous phase increased with increased sulfate concentration (1 versus 5 mM), likely due to U(VI) desorption from the solid phase. At the higher initial sulfate concentration more U(VI) was reduced and fewer electrons were used in methanogenesis. Analysis of bacterial and archeal populations using 16S rRNA gene libraries showed a significant increase in Deltaproteobacteria after biostimulation. The microbial community structures developed with oleate and EVO were significantly distinct from those developed with ethanol. Bacteria similar to Desulforegula spp. was predominant for oleate and EVO degradation but were not observed in ethanol-amended microcosms. Known U(VI)-reducing bacteria in the microcosms amended with the three electron donor sources included iron(III) reducing Geobacter spp. but in lower abundances than sulfate-reducing Desulfovibrio spp. The

  3. The Behavior of Uranium in the Environment: Bacterial Reduction of an Aqueous Uranium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    studies used Shewanella putrefaciens because of its ability to grow rapidly in aerobic conditions and reduce metals in anaerobic conditions. Under...anaerobic conditions, Shewanella putrefaciens use aqueous uranium as the electron acceptor in lieu of oxygen. The reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) removes uranium

  4. Mechanical investigation of U(VI) on pyrrhotite by batch, EXAFS and modeling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haibo; Zhu, Yuke; Xu, Bin; Li, Ping; Sun, Yubing; Chen, Tianhu

    2017-01-15

    The interaction mechanism of U(VI) on pyrrhotite was demonstrated by batch, spectroscopic and modeling techniques. Pyrite was selected as control group in this study. The removal of U(VI) on pyrite and pyrrhotite significantly decreased with increasing ionic strength from 0.001 to 0.1mol/L at pH 2.0-6.0, whereas the no effect of ionic strength was observed at pH >6.0. The maximum removal capacity of U(VI) on pyrite and pyrrhotite calculated from Langmuir model was 10.20 and 21.34mgg(-1) at pH 4.0 and 333K, respectively. The XPS analysis indicated the U(VI) was primarily adsorbed on pyrrhotite and pyrite and then approximately 15.5 and 9.8% of U(VI) were reduced to U(IV) by pyrrhotite and pyrite after 20 days, respectively. Based on the XANES analysis, the adsorption edge of uranium-containing pyrrhotite located between U(IV)O2(s) and U(VI)O2(2+) spectra. The EXAFS analysis demonstrated the inner-sphere surface complexation of U(VI) on pyrrhotite due to the occurrence of U-S shell, whereas the U-U shell revealed the reductive co-precipitates of U(VI) on pyrrhotite/pyrite with increasing reaction times. The surface complexation modeling showed that outer- and inner-surface complexation dominated the U(VI) removal at pH5.0, respectively. The findings presented herein play a crucial role in the removal of radionuclides on iron sulfide in environmental cleanup applications.

  5. Removal of U(VI) from aqueous solutions using Shewanella sp. RCRI7, isolated from Qurugoel Lake in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdehvand, Adib Zaheri; Keshtkar, Alireza; Fatemi, Faezeh [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research School; Tarhiz, Vahideh; Hejazi, Mohammad Saeid [Tabriz Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Molecular Medicine Research Center

    2017-04-01

    Isolation, genotypic and phenotypic characterization of an aqueous bacterium, Shewanella sp RCRI7, from Qurugoel Lake in Iran and uranium removal from aqueous solutions using the isolate is described. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and phylogenetic tree, strain RCRI7{sup T} falls into genus Shewanella. Closely related type strains include Shewanella xiamenensis S4{sup T} KJ542801, Shewanella profunda DSM15900{sup T} FR733713, Shewanella putrefaciens LMG 26268{sup T} X81623 and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1{sup T} AE014299. Anaerobic incubation of the bacteria in the presence of U(VI) led to uranium removal from the solution and formation of a black precipitate. Analysis of the precipitate using UV-vis confirmed the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). The effects of pH, temperature, U(VI) concentration and cell density on uranium removal were elucidated. The maximum uranium removal was 97%. As a conclusion, the findings revealed the ability of the local strain RCRI7 for U(VI) bioreduction as an effective bacterium for uranium immobilization.

  6. Effect of successive alkylation of N,N-dialkyl amides on the complexation behavior of uranium and thorium: solvent extraction, small angle neutron scattering, and computational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Parveen Kumar; Pathak, Priyanath N; Kumari, Neelam; Sadhu, Biswajit; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Aswal, Vinod Kumar; Mohapatra, Prasanta Kumar

    2014-12-11

    The effect of successive alkylation of the Cα atom adjacent to the carbonyl group in N,N-dialkyl amides (i.e., di(2-ethylhexyl)acetamide (D2EHAA), di(2-ethylhexyl)propionamide (D2EHPRA), di(2-ethylhexyl)isobutyramide (D2EHIBA), and di(2-ethylhexyl)pivalamide (D2EHPVA)) on the extraction behavior of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) and tetravalent thorium (Th(IV)) ions has been investigated. These studies show that the extraction of Th(IV) is significantly suppressed compared to that of U(VI) with increased branching at the Cα atom adjacent to the carbonyl group. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies showed an increased aggregation tendency in the presence of nitric acid and metal ions. D2EHAA showed more aggregation compared to its branched homologues, which explains its capacity for higher extraction of metal ions. These experimental observations were further supported by density function theory calculations, which provided structural evidence of differential binding affinities of these extractants for uranyl cations. The complexation process is primarily controlled by steric and electronic effects. Quantum chemical calculations showed that local hardness and polarizability can be extremely useful inputs for designing novel extractants relevant to a nuclear fuel cycle.

  7. Groundwater contaminant by hexavalent chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, C. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Oxidation of trivalent chromium to hexavalent chromium has been investigated as a function of total manganese in soils as well as various incubation conditions. Chromium and manganese contents were analyzed by atomic absorption (graphite furnace and flame emission respectively) following acid digestion. Total hexavalent chromium generation capacity was determined by addition of 0.001 M CrCL3, incubation, and analysis by s-diphenyl carbazide. Samples were then leached with CaSO{sub 4} and MgSO{sub 4} and incubated in various environments (oven, freeze-drier, field moist, ultrafreeze) to test for geogenic generation of Cr(IV). The degree of geogenic generation of hexavalent chromium was compared with total Mn and Cr content as well as hexavalent generational capacity.

  8. Upscaling of U(VI) Desorption and Transport from Decimeter-Scale Heterogeneity to Plume-Scale Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Gary P. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kohler, Matthias [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kannappan, Ramakrishnan [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Briggs, Martin [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Day-Lewis, Fred [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-02-24

    Scientifically defensible predictions of field scale U(VI) transport in groundwater requires an understanding of key processes at multiple scales. These scales range from smaller than the sediment grain scale (less than 10 μm) to as large as the field scale which can extend over several kilometers. The key processes that need to be considered include both geochemical reactions in solution and at sediment surfaces as well as physical transport processes including advection, dispersion, and pore-scale diffusion. The research summarized in this report includes both experimental and modeling results in batch, column and tracer tests. The objectives of this research were to: (1) quantify the rates of U(VI) desorption from sediments acquired from a uranium contaminated aquifer in batch experiments;(2) quantify rates of U(VI) desorption in column experiments with variable chemical conditions, and(3) quantify nonreactive tracer and U(VI) transport in field tests.

  9. U(VI) reduction by diverse outer surface c-type cytochromes of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Roberto; Leavitt, Janet J; Comolli, Luis R; Csencsits, Roseann; Janot, Noemie; Flanagan, Kelly A; Gray, Arianna S; Leang, Ching; Izallalen, Mounir; Mester, Tünde; Lovley, Derek R

    2013-10-01

    Early studies with Geobacter sulfurreducens suggested that outer-surface c-type cytochromes might play a role in U(VI) reduction, but it has recently been suggested that there is substantial U(VI) reduction at the surface of the electrically conductive pili known as microbial nanowires. This phenomenon was further investigated. A strain of G. sulfurreducens, known as Aro-5, which produces pili with substantially reduced conductivity reduced U(VI) nearly as well as the wild type, as did a strain in which the gene for PilA, the structural pilin protein, was deleted. In order to reduce rates of U(VI) reduction to levels less than 20% of the wild-type rates, it was necessary to delete the genes for the five most abundant outer surface c-type cytochromes of G. sulfurreducens. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy demonstrated that whereas 83% ± 10% of the uranium associated with wild-type cells correspond to U(IV) after 4 h of incubation, with the quintuple mutant, 89% ± 10% of uranium was U(VI). Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy revealed that wild-type cells did not precipitate uranium along pili as previously reported, but U(IV) was precipitated at the outer cell surface. These findings are consistent with those of previous studies, which have suggested that G. sulfurreducens requires outer-surface c-type cytochromes but not pili for the reduction of soluble extracellular electron acceptors.

  10. Products of abiotic U(VI) reduction by biogenic magnetite and vivianite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeramani, Harish; Alessi, Daniel S.; Suvorova, Elena I.; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Sharp, Jonathan O.; Dippon, Urs; Kappler, Andreas; Bargar, John R.; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2011-05-01

    Reductive immobilization of uranium by the stimulation of dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria (DMRB) has been investigated as a remediation strategy for subsurface U(VI) contamination. In those environments, DMRB may utilize a variety of electron acceptors, such as ferric iron which can lead to the formation of reactive biogenic Fe(II) phases. These biogenic phases could potentially mediate abiotic U(VI) reduction. In this work, the DMRB Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN32 was used to synthesize two biogenic Fe(II)-bearing minerals: magnetite (a mixed Fe(II)-Fe(III) oxide) and vivianite (an Fe(II)-phosphate). Analysis of abiotic redox interactions between these biogenic minerals and U(VI) showed that both biogenic minerals reduced U(VI) completely. XAS analysis indicates significant differences in speciation of the reduced uranium after reaction with the two biogenic Fe(II)-bearing minerals. While biogenic magnetite favored the formation of structurally ordered, crystalline UO 2, biogenic vivianite led to the formation of a monomeric U(IV) species lacking U-U associations in the corresponding EXAFS spectrum. To investigate the role of phosphate in the formation of monomeric U(IV) such as sorbed U(IV) species complexed by mineral surfaces, versus a U(IV) mineral, uranium was reduced by biogenic magnetite that was pre-sorbed with phosphate. XAS analysis of this sample also revealed the formation of monomeric U(IV) species suggesting that the presence of phosphate hinders formation of UO 2. This work shows that U(VI) reduction products formed during in situ biostimulation can be influenced by the mineralogical and geochemical composition of the surrounding environment, as well as by the interfacial solute-solid chemistry of the solid-phase reductant.

  11. Reduction of U(VI) Incorporated in the Structure of Hematite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilton, Eugene S.; Lazama Pacheco, Juan S.; Bargar, John R.; Shi, Zhi; Liu, Juan; Kovarik, Libor; Engelhard, Mark H.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-09-04

    U(VI) doped hematite was synthesized and exposed to two different organic reductants with E0 of 0.23 and 0.70 V. A combination of HAADF-TEM and EXAFS provided evidence that uranium was incorporated in hematite in uranate, likely octahedral coordination. XPS indicated that structurally incorporated U(VI) was reduced to U(V), whereas adsorbed U(VI) was reduced to U(IV). Specifically, the experiments indicate that U(V) was the dominant oxidation state of uranium in hematite around Eh -0.24 to -0.28 V and pH 7.7-8.6 for at least up to 5 weeks of reaction time. U(V), but not U(IV), was also detected in hematite at Eh +0.21 V (pH 7.1-7.3). The results support the hypothesis, based on previous experimental and theoretical work, that the stability field of U(V) is widened relative to U(IV) and U(VI) in uranate coordination environments where the coordination number of U is less than 8.

  12. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  13. Recovery of U(Vi) with unexpanded perlite; Recuperacion de U(VI) con perlita no expandida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas J, A.K.; Davila R, J. I.; Lopez del R, H.; Mireles G, F., E-mail: cuja2105@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Perlite is a glass volcanic rock that is hydrated by the addition of water during its formation. Is a natural material widely used in the chemical and construction industries, but recently beginning to be studied their adsorptive properties. In this paper the adsorption capacity of unexpanded perlite to remove U(Vi) in aqueous solution depending on the grain size of the material was investigated, as well as the contact time between the liquid and solid phases, ph of solution and initial concentration of uranium. The adsorption was dependent on the surface area of the material, recovering higher uranium percentage to smaller particle size. Meanwhile kinetics showed that the uranium adsorption is rapid, reaching equilibrium in 1 h. Adsorption to slightly acidic conditions was favored but dropped dramatically to ph highly acidic and basic; at a concentration of 1 x 10{sup -3} M UO{sub 2}{sup +2} the maximum uranium recovery was 46% at ph 6. In dilute solutions (1 x 10{sup -5} to 1 x 10{sup -3} M) the adsorption percentage reached values between 34 and 42%, but was reduced to 1% at a concentration of 1 x 10{sup -2} M. (Author)

  14. Enceladus: UVIS Constraints and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Candice; Esposito, Larry W.; Shemansky, Donald; Stewart, Ian; Hendrix, Amanda

    The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) will observe an occultation of the sun by Enceladus' water vapor plume on May 18, 2010. UVIS will use its extreme ultraviolet (EUV) channel for this new observation, to detect absorptions in the wavelength range 55 to 110 nm. Molecular nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas have absorptions in this range. The N2 b(3,0) line is at 97.2 nm, extinguishing the solar H Lyman gamma emission. Cassini's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) has detected a species with an atomic mass of 28 amu, at a 4.4 The identification of N2 is important for models of the interior and the source of the plume, as its presence would be consistent with liquid water in Enceladus' interior. N2 is not believed to be primordial in Saturn's system based on the lack of argon in Titan's N2 atmosphere [3] so its presence in Enceladus' plume implies thermal decomposition of NH3 [4] at temperatures above the melting point of water ice. Quantification of the amount of N2 in the plume will enable improved models of the possible aqueous geochemistry taking place in the interior [5]. UVIS will be able to detect N2 at a mixing ratio as low as 0.005 in the water vapor plume. If there is 4.4 Results of the two stellar occultations observed by UVIS in 2005 and 2007 in the far ultraviolet (FUV) channel gave the column density of water vapor in the plume, structure of the vapor jets, and allowed us to derive the flux of water into Saturn's system which ultimately supplies the neutral atomic oxygen that profoundly influences the processes in the magnetosphere [6, 7]. The new opportunity afforded by this solar occultation will be used to further model the structure and dynamics of the plume, allowing us to probe the source of the enigmatic activity below Enceladus' surface. References: 1. Waite, J. H. et al, Science 311:1419-1422 (2006). 2. Waite, J. H. et al, Nature 460:487-490 (2009). 3. Niemann, H. B. et al, Nature 438:779-784 (2005). 4. Matson, D. L. et al

  15. Uranium co-precipitation with iron oxide minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Martine C.; Coughlin, Jessica Urbanik; Hunter, Douglas B.

    2002-10-01

    In oxidizing environments, the toxic and radioactive element uranium (U) is most soluble and mobile in the hexavalent oxidation state. Sorption of U(VI) on Fe-oxides minerals (such as hematite [α-Fe 2O 3] and goethite [α-FeOOH]) and occlusion of U(VI) by Fe-oxide coatings are processes that can retard U transport in environments. In aged U-contaminated geologic materials, the transport and the biological availability of U toward reduction may be limited by coprecipitation with Fe-oxide minerals. These processes also affect the biological availability of U(VI) species toward reduction and precipitation as the less soluble U(IV) species by metal-reducing bacteria. To examine the dynamics of interactions between U(VI) and Fe oxides during crystallization, Fe-oxide phases (containing 0.5 to 5.4 mol% U/(U + Fe)) were synthesized by means of solutions of U(VI) and Fe(III). Wet chemical (digestions and chemical extractions) and spectroscopic techniques were used to characterize the synthesized Fe oxide coprecipitates after rinsing in deionized water. Leaching the high mol% U solids with concentrated carbonate solution (for sorbed and solid-phase U(VI) species) typically removed most of the U, leaving, on average, about 0.6 mol% U. Oxalate leaching of solids with low mol% U contents (about 1 mol% U or less) indicated that almost all of the Fe in these solids was crystalline and that most of the U was associated with these crystalline Fe oxides. X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic studies indicate that hematite formation is preferred over that of goethite when the amount of U in the Fe-oxides exceeds 1 mol% U (˜4 wt% U). FT-IR and room temperature continuous wave luminescence spectroscopic studies with unleached U/Fe solids indicate a relationship between the mol% U in the Fe oxide and the intensity or existence of the spectra features that can be assigned to UO 22+ species (such as the IR asymmetric υ 3 stretch for O = U = O for

  16. Modeling the effectiveness of U(VI) biomineralization in dual-porosity porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, B. E.; Barry, D. A.; Gerhard, J. I.; Small, J. S.

    2011-05-01

    SummaryUranium contamination is a serious environmental concern worldwide. Recent attention has focused on the in situ immobilization of uranium by stimulation of dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria (DMRB). The objective of this work was to investigate the effectiveness of this approach in heterogeneous and structured porous media, since such media may significantly affect the geochemical and microbial processes taking place in contaminated sites, impacting remediation efficiency during biostimulation. A biogeochemical reactive transport model was developed for uranium remediation by immobile-region-resident DMRB in two-region porous media. Simulations were used to investigate the parameter sensitivities of the system over wide-ranging geochemical, microbial and groundwater transport conditions. The results suggest that optimal biomineralization is generally likely to occur when the regional mass transfer timescale is less than one-thirtieth the value of the volumetric flux timescale, and/or the organic carbon fermentation timescale is less than one-thirtieth the value of the advective timescale, and/or the mobile region porosity ranges between equal to and four times the immobile region porosity. Simulations including U(VI) surface complexation to Fe oxides additionally suggest that, while systems exhibiting U(VI) surface complexation may be successfully remediated, they are likely to display different degrees of remediation efficiency over varying microbial efficiency, mobile-immobile mass transfer, and porosity ratios. Such information may aid experimental and field designs, allowing for optimized remediation in dual-porosity (two-region) biostimulated DMRB U(VI) remediation schemes.

  17. The Effect of Si and Al Concentration Ratios on the Removal of U(VI) under Hanford Site 200 Area Conditions-12115

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsenovich, Yelena; Gonzalez, Nathan; Moreno-Pastor, Carol; Lagos, Leonel [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Injection of reactive gases, such as NH{sub 3}, is an innovative technique to mitigate uranium contamination in soil for a vadose zone (VZ) contaminated with radionuclides. A series of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of the concentration ratio of silicon to aluminum in the presence of various bicarbonate concentrations on the coprecipitation process of U(VI). The concentration of Al in all tests remained unchanged at 2.8 mM. Experiments showed that the removal efficiency of uranium was not significantly affected by the different bicarbonate and U(VI) concentrations tested. For the lower Si:Al molar ratios of 2:1 and 18:1, the removal efficiency of uranium was relatively low (≤ 8%). For the Si:Al molar ratio of 35:1, the removal efficiency of uranium was increased to an average of ∼82% for all bicarbonate concentrations tested. At higher Si:Al molar ratios (53:1 and above), a relatively high removal efficiency of U(VI), approximately 85% and higher, was observed. These results demonstrate that the U(VI) removal efficiency is more affected by the Si:Al molar ratio than by the bicarbonate concentration in solution. The results of this experiment are promising for the potential implementation of NH{sub 3} gas injection for the remediation of U(VI) -contaminated VZ. (authors)

  18. Mitigating uranium in groundwater: prospects and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noubactep, C; Meinrath, G; Dietrich, P; Merkel, B

    2003-09-15

    Removal of uranium(VI) by zerovalent iron has been suggested as a feasible pathway to control uranium contaminations in seepage waters. Available information in the literature however presents discrepant evidence on the process responsible for the mitigation effect. On basis of an EH-pH diagram of uranium and iron, it is outlined that these discrepancies may be explained by the aqueous chemistry of uranium and iron. Additional effects contributing to the complexity of the system are given. Solubilization experiments using scrap iron together with water works sludge, MnO2, and pyrite indicate that U(VI) is immobilized by iron corrosion products after about 50 days.

  19. In Vivo Nanodetoxication for Acute Uranium Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzmán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accidental exposure to uranium is a matter of concern, as U(VI is nephrotoxic in both human and animal models, and its toxicity is associated to chemical toxicity instead of radioactivity. We synthesized different PAMAM G4 and G5 derivatives in order to prove their interaction with uranium and their effect on the viability of red blood cells in vitro. Furthermore, we prove the effectiveness of the selected dendrimers in an animal model of acute uranium intoxication. The dendrimer PAMAM G4-Lys-Fmoc-Cbz demonstrated the ability to chelate the uranyl ion in vivo, improving the biochemical and histopathologic features caused by acute intoxication with uranium.

  20. Bioreduction of U(VI) in the presence of phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanov, M. I.; Mishra, B.; Latta, D. E.; Rui, X.; Kwon, M.-J.; Fletcher, K. E.; Loeffler, F. E.; O'Loughlin, E. J.; Kemner, K. M.

    2012-04-01

    Phosphate/phosphoryl moieties are ubiquitous in biological and environmental systems and can potentially affect the speciation of uranium during natural attenuation or stimulated bioremediation processes. The reactivity between U(VI) and phosphate has been studied extensively, but the significant influence of phosphate groups on the formation of reduced U(IV) species has only recently been recognized. We will compare and contrast the bioreduction of dissolved and solid-phase U(VI) by Gram-positive and Gram-negative metal-reducing bacteria (Shewanella, Anaeromyxobacter, Geobacter, and Desulfitobacterium) in the presence and absence of phosphate, from the perspective of solid-phase U speciation as determined by U L-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS). In all cases examined, the presence of phosphate at concentrations of P/U > 1 led to the formation of reduced, inner-sphere complexed U(IV)-phosphate species that prevented the lowest-solubility U(IV) mineral uraninite (UO2) from forming over at least several months. In the absence of phosphate, nanoparticulate uraninite or complexed non-uraninite U(IV) species were observed (depending on the system and conditions), suggesting that the interplay between the chemical conditions at the location of electron transfer to U(VI) control the U(IV) product and subsequently the stability of reduced U. The importance of non-uraninite U(IV) species will be discussed in the context of their predominance in biostimulated sediments from the Oak Ridge field site in the United States.

  1. Surface complexation modeling of U(VI) adsorption by aquifer sediments from a former mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, S.P.; Fox, P.M.; Davis, J.A.; Campbell, K.M.; Hayes, K.F.; Long, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    A study of U(VI) adsorption by aquifer sediment samples from a former uranium mill tailings site at Rifle, Colorado, was conducted under oxic conditions as a function of pH, U(VI), Ca, and dissolved carbonate concentration. Batch adsorption experiments were performed using tailings site at Naturita, Colorado, indicated that possible calcite nonequilibrium of dissolved calcium concentration should be evaluated. The modeling results also illustrate the importance of the range of data used in deriving the best fit model parameters. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  2. Characterization of U(VI) Sorption-Desorption Processes and Model Upscaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Jing; Dong, Wenming; Ball, William P.

    2006-10-12

    The objectives of the overall collaborative EMSP effort (with which this project is associated) were to characterize sorption and desorption processes of U(VI) on pristine and contaminated Hanford sediments over a range of sediment facies and materials properties and to relate such characterization both to fundamental molecular-scale understanding and field-scale models of geochemistry and mass transfer. The research was intended to provide new insights on the mechanisms of U(VI) retardation at Hanford, and to allow the development of approaches by which laboratory-developed geochemical models could be upscaled for defensible field-scale predictions of uranium transport in the environment. Within this broader context, objectives of the JHU-based project were to test hypotheses regarding the coupled roles of adsorption and impermeable-zone diffusion in controlling the fate and transport of U(VI) species under conditions of comparatively short-term exposure. In particular, this work tested the following hypotheses: (1) the primary adsorption processes in the Hanford sediment over the pH range of 7 to 10 are surface complexation reactions of aqueous U(VI) hydroxycarbonate and carbonate complexes with amphoteric edge sites on detrital phyllosilicates in the silt/clay size fraction; (2) macroscopic adsorption intensity (at given aqueous conditions) is a function of mineral composition and aquatic chemistry; and (3) equilibrium sorption and desorption to apply in short-term, laboratory-spiked pristine sediments; and (4) interparticle diffusion can be fully understood in terms of a model that couples molecular diffusion of uranium species in the porewater with equilibrium sorption under the relevant aqueous conditions. The primary focus of the work was on developing and applying both models and experiments to test the applicability of "local equilibrium" assumptions in the modeling interpretation of sorption retarded interparticle diffusion, as relevant to processes of U(VI

  3. Interactions of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius with uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, T.; Merroun, M.L.; Rossberg, A.; Selenska-Pobell, S. [Inst. of Radiochemistry, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Interactions of the acidothermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM 639 with U(VI) were studied by using a combination of batch experiments, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). We demonstrated that at pH 2 this archaeal strain possesses a low tolerance to U(VI) and that its growth is limited to a uranium concentration below 1.1 mM. At similarly high acidic conditions (pH 1.5 and 3.0), covering the physiological pH growth optimum of S. acidocaldarius, at which U(VI) is soluble and highly toxic, rapid accumulation of the radionuclide by the cells of the strain occurred. About half of the uranium binding capacity was reached by the strain after an incubation of five minutes and nearly total saturation of the binding sites was achieved after 30 min. Both, EXAFS- and TRLF-spectroscopic analyses showed that the accumulated U(VI) was complexed mainly through organic phosphate groups. The EXAFS measurements revealed that U(VI) is coordinated to the organic phosphate ligands of the archaeal cells in a monodentate binding mode with an average U-P bond distance of 3.60 {+-} 0.02 A (orig.)

  4. Using proteomic data to assess a genome-scale "in silico" model of metal reducing bacteria in the simulation of field-scale uranium bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabusaki, S.; Fang, Y.; Wilkins, M. J.; Long, P.; Rifle IFRC Science Team

    2011-12-01

    A series of field experiments in a shallow alluvial aquifer at a former uranium mill tailings site have demonstrated that indigenous bacteria can be stimulated with acetate to catalyze the conversion of hexavalent uranium in a groundwater plume to immobile solid-associated uranium in the +4 oxidation state. While this bioreduction of uranium has been shown to lower groundwater concentrations below actionable standards, a viable remediation methodology will need a mechanistic, predictive and quantitative understanding of the microbially-mediated reactions that catalyze the reduction of uranium in the context of site-specific processes, properties, and conditions. At the Rifle IFRC site, we are investigating the impacts on uranium behavior of pulsed acetate amendment, acetate-oxidizing iron and sulfate reducing bacteria, seasonal water table variation, spatially-variable physical (hydraulic conductivity, porosity) and geochemical (reactive surface area) material properties. The simulation of three-dimensional, variably saturated flow and biogeochemical reactive transport during a uranium bioremediation field experiment includes a genome-scale in silico model of Geobacter sp. to represent the Fe(III) terminal electron accepting process (TEAP). The Geobacter in silico model of cell-scale physiological metabolic pathways is comprised of hundreds of intra-cellular and environmental exchange reactions. One advantage of this approach is that the TEAP reaction stoichiometry and rate are now functions of the metabolic status of the microorganism. The linkage of in silico model reactions to specific Geobacter proteins has enabled the use of groundwater proteomic analyses to assess the accuracy of the model under evolving hydrologic and biogeochemical conditions. In this case, the largest predicted fluxes through in silico model reactions generally correspond to high abundances of proteins linked to those reactions (e.g. the condensation reaction catalyzed by the protein

  5. Adsorption of U(VI from Aqueous Solution onto Hydrotalcite-Like Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Suc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uranium adsorption by the synthesized compound of magnesium aluminum hydroxide hydrate – layered double hydrotalcite (STH-like compounds was studied. The calcinated STH was proven to be a highly effective in U(VI adsorption in pH range from 6.5 to 7. The time dependent experimental data were found to be fit to the pseudo-second-oder model. The equilibrium data have been modeled using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results showed that both model provide the best correlation with equilibrium data. The highest adsorption capacity, approximated 62.5 mg/g, was observed in the calcinated STH at 500 °C. The positive value of enthalpy change indicated that adsorption reaction of U(VI on STH was endothermic process. The regeneration experiments of STH using 0.1M Na2CO3 solution was successfully demonstrated multiple times without any significant effect on the initial adsorption capacity.

  6. Potential Aquifer Vulnerability in Regions Down-Gradient from Uranium In Situ Recovery (ISR) Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstone-hosted roll-front uranium ore deposits originate when U(VI) dissolved in groundwater is reduced and precipitated as insoluble U(IV) minerals. Groundwater redox geochemistry, aqueous complexation, and solute migration are instrumental in leaching uranium from source rock...

  7. Potential Aquifer Vulnerability in Regions Down-Gradient from Uranium In Situ Recovery (ISR) Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstone-hosted roll-front uranium ore deposits originate when U(VI) dissolved in groundwater is reduced and precipitated as insoluble U(IV) minerals. Groundwater redox geochemistry, aqueous complexation, and solute migration are instrumental in leaching uranium from source rock...

  8. Efficacy of a novel chelator BPCBG for removing uranium and protecting against uranium-induced renal cell damage in rats and HK-2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Yizhong; Wang, Dan [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Li, Zhiming [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Hu, Yuxing; Xu, Aihong [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Quanrui [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shao, Chunlin [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen, Honghong, E-mail: hhchen@shmu.edu.cn [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Chelation therapy is a known effective method to increase the excretion of U(VI) from the body. Until now, no any uranium chelator has been approved for emergency medical use worldwide. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of new ligand BPCBG containing two catechol groups and two aminocarboxylic acid groups in decorporation of U(VI) and protection against acute U(VI) nephrotoxicity in rats, and further explored the detoxification mechanism of BPCBG for U(VI)-induced nephrotoxicity in HK-2 cells with comparison to DTPA-CaNa{sub 3}. Chelating agents were administered at various times before or after injections of U(VI) in rats. The U(VI) levels in urine, kidneys and femurs were measured 24 h after U(VI) injections. Histopathological changes in the kidney and serum urea and creatinine and urine protein were examined. After treatment of U(VI)-exposed HK-2 cells with chelating agent, the intracellular U(VI) contents, formation of micronuclei, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed. It was found that prompt, advanced or delayed injections of BPCBG effectively increased 24 h-urinary U(VI) excretion and decreased the levels of U(VI) in kidney and bone. Meanwhile, BPCBG injection obviously reduced the severity of the U(VI)-induced histological alterations in the kidney, which was in parallel with the amelioration noted in serum indicators, urea and creatinine, and urine protein of U(VI) nephrotoxicity. In U(VI)-exposed HK-2 cells, immediate and delayed treatment with BPCBG significantly decreased the formation of micronuclei and LDH release by inhibiting the cellular U(VI) intake, promoting the intracellular U(VI) release and inhibiting the production of intracellular ROS. Our data suggest that BPCBG is a novel bi-functional U(VI) decorporation agent with a better efficacy than DTPA-CaNa{sub 3}. - Highlights: ► BPCBG accelerated the urine U(VI) excretion and reduced the tissues U(VI) in rats.

  9. Photometric Repeatability of Scanned Imagery: UVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Clare E.; McCullough, Peter; Baggett, Sylvia

    2017-08-01

    We provide the preliminary results of a study on the photometric repeatability of spatial scans of bright, isolated white dwarf stars with the UVIS channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze straight-line scans from the first pair of identical orbits of HST program 14878 to assess if sub 0.1% repeatability can be attained with WFC3/UVIS. This study is motivated by the desire to achieve better signal-to-noise in the UVIS contamination and stability monitor, in which observations of standard stars in staring mode have been taken from the installation of WFC3 in 2009 to the present to assess temporal photometric stability. Higher signal to noise in this program would greatly benefit the sensitivity to detect contamination, and to better characterize the observed small throughput drifts over time. We find excellent repeatability between identical visits of program 14878, with sub 0.1% repeatability achieved in most filters. These! results support the initiative to transition the staring mode UVIS contamination and photometric stability monitor from staring mode images to spatial scans.

  10. WFC3 UVIS Image Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Linda

    2009-07-01

    The UVIS imaging performance over the detector will be assessed periodically {every 4 months} in two passbands {F275W and F621M} to check for image stability. The field around star 58 in the open cluster NGC188 is the chosen target because it is sufficiently dense to provide good sampling over the FOV while providing enough isolated stars to permit accurate PSF {point spread function} measurement. It is available year-round and used previously for ACS image quality assessment. The field is astrometric, and astrometric guide stars will be used, so that the plate scale and image orientation may also be determined if necessary {as in SMOV proposals 11436 and 11442}. Full frame images will be obtained at each of 4 POSTARG offset positions designed to improve sampling over the detector.This proposal is a periodic repeat {once every 4 months} of visits similar to those in SMOV proposal 11436 {activity ID WFC3-23}. The data will be analyzed using the code and techniques described in ISR WFC3 2008-40 {Hartig}. Profiles of encircled energy will be monitored and presented in an ISR. If an update to the SIAF is needed, {V2,V3} locations of stars will be obtained from the Flight Ops Sensors and Calibrations group at GSFC, the {V2,V3} of the reference pixel and the orientation of the detector will be determined by the WFC3 group, and the Telescopes group will update and deliver the SIAF to the PRDB branch.The specific PSF metrics to be examined are encircled energy for aperture diameter 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.35 arcsec, FWHM, and sharpness. {See ISR WFC3 2008-40 tables 2 and 3 and preceding text.} about 20 stars distributed over the detector will be measured in each exposure for each filter. The mean, rms, and rms of the mean will be determined for each metric. The values determined from each of the 4 exposures per filter within a visit will be compared to each other to see to what extent they are affected by "breathing". Values will be compared from visit to visit, starting

  11. Simultaneous adsorption and reduction of U(VI) on reduced graphene oxide-supported nanoscale zerovalent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yubing [School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 (China); Ding, Congcong; Cheng, Wencai [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 (China); Wang, Xiangke, E-mail: xkwang@ipp.ac.cn [School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sorption and in-situ reduction of U(VI) is observed. • The composites are more effective for U(VI) removal and solidification. • The inner-sphere surface complexes are observed. - Abstract: The reduced graphene oxide-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI/rGO) composites were synthesized by chemical deposition method and were characterized by SEM, high resolution TEM, Raman and potentiometric acid-base titrations. The characteristic results showed that the nZVI nanoparticles can be uniformly dispersed on the surface of rGO. The removal of U(VI) on nZVI/rGO composites as a function of contact time, pH and U(VI) initial concentration was investigated by batch technique. The removal kinetics of U(VI) on nZVI and nZVI/rGO were well simulated by a pseudo-first-order kinetic model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. The presence of rGO on nZVI nanoparticles increased the reaction rate and removal capacity of U(VI) significantly, which was attributed to the chemisorbed OH{sup −} groups of rGO and the massive enrichment of Fe{sup 2+} on rGO surface by XPS analysis. The XRD analysis revealed that the presence of rGO retarded the transformation of iron corrosion products from magnetite/maghemite to lepidocrocite. According to the fitting of EXAFS spectra, the U-C (at ∼2.9 Å) and U-Fe (at ∼3.2 Å) shells were observed, indicating the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes on nZVI/rGO composites. Therefore, the nZVI/rGO composites can be suitable as efficient materials for the in-situ remediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater in the environmental pollution management.

  12. Adsorption characteristics of U(VI) on Fe(III)Cr(III) (oxy)hydroxides synthesized at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyangsig; Jo, Ho Young; Lee, Young Jae; Kim, Geon-Young

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the adsorption behavior of U(VI) on (oxy)hydroxides synthesized at different temperatures (25 and 75 °C) was investigated. Four (oxy)hydroxides were synthesized by drying slurries of Fe(III) and Fe(III)Cr(III) (oxy)hydroxide in a vacuum desiccator (25 °C) or in an oven (75 °C). Batch adsorption tests were conducted using the (oxy)hydroxides thus synthesized and groundwater containing uranium ions. In general, the U(VI) removal fraction significantly increased with increasing pH from 3 to 5, remained constant with increasing pH from 5 to 9, and decreased at pH greater than 9, regardless of the type of (oxy)hydroxides and solid-to-liquid ratio. The effect of pH on the U(VI) removal fraction was more significant at a low solid-to-liquid ratio. The oven-dried Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxide exhibited a U(VI) removal fraction lower than that of the vacuum-dried one, whereas the oven-dried Fe(III)Cr(III) (oxy)hydroxide exhibited a U(VI) removal fraction higher than that exhibited by the vacuum-dried one. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis results indicated that the difference in the U(VI) removal fraction is attributed to the dissolution and precipitation of the Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxide during oven drying and dehydration of the Fe(III)Cr(III) (oxy)hydroxide during oven drying.

  13. Lithological and hydrochemical controls on distribution and speciation of uranium in groundwaters of hard-rock granitic aquifers of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivya, C; Chidambaram, S; Keesari, Tirumalesh; Prasanna, M V; Thilagavathi, R; Adithya, V S; Singaraja, C

    2016-04-01

    Uranium is a radioactive element normally present in hexavalent form as U(VI) in solution and elevated levels in drinking water cause health hazards. Representative groundwater samples were collected from different litho-units in this region and were analyzed for total U and major and minor ions. Results indicate that the highest U concentration (113 µg l(-1)) was found in granitic terrains of this region and about 10 % of the samples exceed the permissible limit for drinking water. Among different species of U in aqueous media, carbonate complexes [UO2(CO3)(2)(2-)] are found to be dominant. Groundwater with higher U has higher pCO2 values, indicating weathering by bicarbonate ions resulting in preferential mobilization of U in groundwater. The major minerals uraninite and coffinite were found to be supersaturated and are likely to control the distribution of U in the study area. Nature of U in groundwater, the effects of lithology on hydrochemistry and factors controlling its distribution in hard rock aquifers of Madurai district are highlighted in this paper.

  14. Hexavalent-Chrome Free Coatings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The replacement of hexavalent chrome [Cr (VI)] in the processing of aluminum for high-reliability electronics applications in the aviation and aerospace sector...

  15. Impact of Calcium on Bacterial Reduction of U(VI) Under Advective Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, J.; Nico, P. S.; Stewart, B. D.; Fendorf, S.

    2003-12-01

    Due to mining and nuclear-production activities, uranium is now an environmental contaminant of great concern, the hazard of which can be diminished through reduction of the oxidized species, uranyl, to reduced phases such as uraninite. Recent evidence, however, illustrates the importance of uranyl speciation on the extent of reduction. In the presence of calcium, a Ca-UO2-CO3 complex is the dominant aqueous species, greatly limiting abiotic and biotic reduction of uranium. This species is, in fact, the most stable form of U(VI) in waters equilibrated with atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and calcium concentrations > 0.4 mM from pH 5 to 8. Here we explore the impact of calcium on uranium reduction rates and the concomitant biomineralization products of uranium and hydrous ferric oxide under dynamic flow conditions by a metal reducing bacterium, Shewanella putrefaciens. Using x-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, we confirm the complete reduction of uranyl to the precipitated mineral uraninite in systems absent of calcium. While in contrast, minimal reduction transpires upon introduction of millimolar calcium concentration. Thus, calcium concentrations will have profound effects on bacterial reduction, and hence mobility, of uranium within surface and subsurface environments.

  16. Removal of Uranium (VI from aqueous solution by Uranium Benzamide Complex using AC_Fe3O4 Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Akbari Jonoush

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The removal of U(VI on AC_Fe3O4 nanocomposite with the aid of benzamide is a rapid and highly pH depended process. The maximum sorption capacity (15/87 mg/g of AC_Fe3O4 nanocomposite shows that this method is a suitable method for Uranium removal.

  17. Sorption of Cs, Eu and U(VI) onto rock samples from Nizhnekansky massive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, V.; Vlasova, I.; Kalmykov, S. [Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Kuzmenkova, N. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation); Petrov, V.; Poluektov, V. [Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences - IGEM RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The accepted in Russia concept for high level wastes (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal is based on their isolation into the deep underground crystalline rock formations. The 'Eniseysky' area (Nizhnekansky massive) is supposed as the most perspective location for the future HLW and SNF repository. Core materials from different areas of Nizhnekasnsky massive have been studied in terms of petrographic and mineralogical characterization; definition of filtration, elastic, petro-physical and strength properties; estimation of hydrothermal-metasomatic transformation of rocks. We used both undisturbed sliced cores and crushed material for the sorption experiments. Preliminary results of uranium sorption show some significant differences between used rock samples from different depth in sorption rate and pH-dependence. In all cases maximum sorption (more than 90%) is reached in 2-3 weeks. The pH-dependence of sorbed uranium fraction has typical hump-shape: increase of sorption percentage with increasing pH values to 6, plateau (90-98 % of uranium sorbed), decrease of sorption percentage with increasing pH values from 8 due to U(VI) hydrolysis. In the case of cesium the sorption maximum is reached within 10-12 days and in the case of europium - about 5 days. All radionuclides sorbed preferentially onto dark minerals. Local distribution and preferential sorption of cesium, europium and uranium (VI) onto different minerals within the sample were studied by radiography, SEM-EDX, etc. These data accompanying with rock sample composition will allow the development of quantitative model for Cs, Eu and U(VI) sorption onto investigated rocks. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  18. Cassini UVIS Auroral Observations in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Wayne R.; Jouchoux, Alain; Esposito, Larry W.; Radioti, Aikaterini; Grodent, Denis; Gustin, Jacques; Gerard, Jean-Claude; Lamy, Laurent; Badman, Sarah; Bunce, Emma; Cecconi, Baptiste; Clarke, John T.; Crary, Frank; Dougherty, Michele; Dyudina, Ulyana A.; Kurth, William; Mitchell, Don; Nichols, Jonathan; Prange, Renee; Schippers, Patricia; Zarka, Philippe; Cassini UVIS Team

    2016-10-01

    In June of 2016, the Cassini Saturn orbiter began a series of high inclination orbits that will continue until September 2017 when the mission ends as Cassini enters the Saturn atmosphere. These orbits present excellent views of Saturn's polar regions suitable for auroral imaging at the closest distances to date, with the additional prospect of simultaneous particle and fields measurements within the sources of Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) associated with ultraviolet auroral emissions and/or acceleration regions likely coinciding with them. We will present new Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) auroral images, spectra and movies obtained during the summer and fall of 2016 and put them in the context of auroral data collected since Cassini orbit insertion in 2004. Included in the new data will be UVIS south polar observations obtained simultaneously with Hubble Space Telescope observations of the north polar region on June 29, 2016 and August 19, 2016.

  19. Influence of dynamical conditions on the reduction of U(VI) at the magnetite-solution interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilton, Eugene S; Boily, Jean-François; Buck, Edgar C; Skomurski, Frances N; Rosso, Kevin M; Cahill, Christopher L; Bargar, John R; Felmy, Andrew R

    2010-01-01

    The heterogeneous reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) by ferrous iron is believed to be a key process influencing the fate and transport of U in the environment. The reactivity of both sorbed and structural Fe(II) has been studied for numerous substrates, including magnetite. Published results from U(VI)-magnetite experiments have been variable, ranging from no reduction to clear evidence for the formation of U(IV). In this contribution, we used XAS and high resolution (+/-cryogenic) XPS to study the interaction of U(VI) with nanoparticulate magnetite. The results indicated that U(VI) was partially reduced to U(V) with no evidence of U(IV). However, thermodynamic calculations indicated that U phases with average oxidation states below (V) should have been stable, indicating that the system was not in redox equilibrium. A reaction pathway that involves incorporation and stabilization of U(V) and U(VI) into secondary phases is invoked to explain the observations. The results suggest an important and previously unappreciated role of U(V) in the fate and transport of uranium in the environment.

  20. Technical Basis for Assessing Uranium Bioremediation Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PE Long; SB Yabusaki; PD Meyer; CJ Murray; AL N’Guessan

    2008-04-01

    In situ bioremediation of uranium holds significant promise for effective stabilization of U(VI) from groundwater at reduced cost compared to conventional pump and treat. This promise is unlikely to be realized unless researchers and practitioners successfully predict and demonstrate the long-term effectiveness of uranium bioremediation protocols. Field research to date has focused on both proof of principle and a mechanistic level of understanding. Current practice typically involves an engineering approach using proprietary amendments that focuses mainly on monitoring U(VI) concentration for a limited time period. Given the complexity of uranium biogeochemistry and uranium secondary minerals, and the lack of documented case studies, a systematic monitoring approach using multiple performance indicators is needed. This document provides an overview of uranium bioremediation, summarizes design considerations, and identifies and prioritizes field performance indicators for the application of uranium bioremediation. The performance indicators provided as part of this document are based on current biogeochemical understanding of uranium and will enable practitioners to monitor the performance of their system and make a strong case to clients, regulators, and the public that the future performance of the system can be assured and changes in performance addressed as needed. The performance indicators established by this document and the information gained by using these indicators do add to the cost of uranium bioremediation. However, they are vital to the long-term success of the application of uranium bioremediation and provide a significant assurance that regulatory goals will be met. The document also emphasizes the need for systematic development of key information from bench scale tests and pilot scales tests prior to full-scale implementation.

  1. Subsurface Biogeochemical Heterogeneity (Field-scale removal of U(VI) from groundwater in an alluvial aquifer by electron donor amendment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.; N' Guessan, A. L.; Nevin, Kelly; Resch, C. T.; Arntzen, Evan; Druhan, Jenny; Peacock, Aaron; Baldwin, Brett; Dayvault, Dick; Holmes, Dawn; Williams, Ken; Hubbard, Susan; Yabusaki, Steve; Fang, Yilin; White, D. C.; Komlos, John; Jaffe, Peter

    2006-06-01

    Determine if biostimulation of alluvial aquifers by electron donor amendment can effectively remove U(VI) from groundwater at the field scale. Uranium contamination in groundwater is a significant problem at several DOE sites. In this project, the possibility of accelerating bioreduction of U(VI) to U(IV) as a means of decreasing U(VI) concentrations in groundwater is directly addressed by conducting a series of field-scale experiments. Scientific goals include demonstrating the quantitative linkage between microbial activity and U loss from groundwater and relating the dominant terminal electron accepting processes to the rate of U loss. The project is currently focused on understanding the mechanisms for unexpected long-term ({approx}2 years) removal of U after stopping electron donor amendment. Results obtained in the project successfully position DOE and others to apply biostimulation broadly to U contamination in alluvial aquifers.

  2. Biomineralization of U(VI) phosphate promoted by microbially-mediated phytate hydrolysis in contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salome, Kathleen R.; Beazley, Melanie J.; Webb, Samuel M.; Sobecky, Patricia A.; Taillefert, Martial

    2017-01-01

    The bioreduction of uranium may immobilize a significant fraction of this toxic contaminant in reduced environments at circumneutral pH. In oxic and low pH environments, however, the low solubility of U(VI)-phosphate minerals also makes them good candidates for the immobilization of U(VI) in the solid phase. As inorganic phosphate is generally scarce in soils, the biomineralization of U(VI)-phosphate minerals via microbially-mediated organophosphate hydrolysis may represent the main immobilization process of uranium in these environments. In this study, contaminated sediments were incubated aerobically in two pH conditions to examine whether phytate, a naturally-occurring and abundant organophosphate in soils, could represent a potential phosphorous source to promote U(VI)-phosphate biomineralization by natural microbial communities. While phytate hydrolysis was not evident at pH 7.0, nearly complete hydrolysis was observed both with and without electron donor at pH 5.5, suggesting indigenous microorganisms express acidic phytases in these sediments. While the rate of hydrolysis of phytate generally increased in the presence of uranium, the net rate of inorganic phosphate production in solution was decreased and inositol phosphate intermediates were generated in contrast to similar incubations conducted without uranium. These findings suggest uranium stress enhanced the phytate-metabolism of the microbial community, while simultaneously inhibiting phosphatase production and/or activity by the indigenous population. Finally, phytate hydrolysis drastically decreased uranium solubility, likely due to formation of ternary sorption complexes, U(VI)-phytate precipitates, and U(VI)-phosphate minerals. Overall, the results of this study provide evidence for the ability of natural microbial communities to liberate phosphate from phytate in acidic sediments, possibly as a detoxification mechanism, and demonstrate the potential utility of phytate-promoted uranium

  3. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the adsorption of U(VI) ions on densely crosslinked poly(methacrylic acid) from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezeroglu, C.; Keceli, G. [Istanbul Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Avcilar Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-07-01

    In this study, densely crosslinked poly(methacrylie acid) was used to adsorb uranium(VI) ions from aqueous solution. For this purpose, the crosslinked copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) and methacrylic acid (MA) containing 25% (w/w) methacrylic acid (MA) was synthesized by using dibenzoyl peroxide-N,N-dimethylaniline (BPO-DMA) initiator system at room temperature. The adsorption of uranium(Vl) ions on the copolymer sample (0.02 g copolymer/5 mL solution of U(VI) ions) was carried out in a batch reactor. The parameters which effect the uranium adsorption process, such as, contact time. pH of solution, initial uranium(VI) concentration and temperature were investigated. It was observed that an increase in these parameters enhanced the removal of U(VI) ions from aqueous solution. The adsorption data were modelled by the Freundlich. Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The adsorption capacity of the crosslinked copolymer and free energy change were calculated by using D-R isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters ({delta}H , {delta}S and {delta}G ) were determined for the adsorption of U(VI) ions from aqueous solutions by the crosslinked copolymer bearing methacrylic acid functional groups. Experimental adsorption data were analyzed using sorption kinetic models of the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. It was observed that pseudo-second order kinetic model provided a high goodness of fit with experimental data for the adsorption of U(VI) ions on the crosslinked copolymer bearing methacrylic acid functional groups. The densely crosslinked poly(methacrylic acid) might be of interest in large scale uranium removals from aqueous solution, since it had high uranyl sorption capacities ranging from 0.16 to 2.37 mmol/g copolymer at pH 2.7 (293 K). (orig.)

  4. Ground-based measurements of UV Index (UVI at Helwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Farouk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On October 2010 UV Index (UVI ground-based measurements were carried out by weather station at solar laboratory in NRIAG. The daily variation has maximum values in spring and summer days, while minimum values in autumn and winter days. The low level of UVI between 2.55 and 2.825 was found in December, January and February. The moderate level of UVI between 3.075 and 5.6 was found in March, October and November. The high level of UVI between 6.7 and 7.65 was found in April, May and September. The very high level of UVI between 8 and 8.6 was found in June, July and August. High level of radiation over 6 months per year including 3 months with a very high level UVI. According to the equation {UVI=a[SZA]b} the UVI increases with decreasing SZA by 82% on a daily scale and 88% on a monthly scale. Helwan exposure to a high level of radiation over 6 months per year including 3 months with a very high level UVI, so it is advisable not to direct exposure to the sun from 11 am to 2:00 pm.

  5. Tolerance and bioaccumulation of U(VI) by Bacillus mojavensis and its solid phase preconcentration by Bacillus mojavensis immobilized multiwalled carbon nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Sadin; Oduncu, M Kadir; Kilinc, Ersin; Soylak, Mustafa

    2017-02-01

    In this study, uranium(VI) tolerance and bioaccumulation were investigated by using thermo -tolerant Bacillus mojavensis. The level of U(VI) was measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of U(VI) was experimented. Bacterial growth was not affected in the presence of 1.0 and 2.5 mg/L U(VI) at 36 h and the growth was partially affected in the presence of 5 mg/L U(VI) at 24 h. What was obtained from this study is that there was diversity in the various periods of the growth phases of metal bioaccumulation capacity, which was shown by B. mojavensis. The maximum bioaccumulation capacities were found to be 12.8, 22.7, and 48.2 mg/g dried bacteria, at 24th hours at concentration of 1.0, 2.5 and 5 mg/L U(VI), respectively. In addition to these, U(VI) has been preconcentrated on B. mojavensis immobilized MWCNT. Several factors such as pH, flow rate of solution, amount of biosorbent and support materials, eluent type, concentration and volume, the matrix interference effect on retention have been studied, and extraction conditions were optimized. Preconcentration factor was achieved as 60. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were calculated as 0.74 and 2.47 μg/L. The biosorption capacity of immobilized B. mojavensis was calculated for U(VI) as 25.8 mg/g. The results demonstrated that the immobilized biosorbent column could be reused at least 30 cycles of biosorption and desorption with the higher than 95% recovery. FT-IR and SEM analysis were performed to understand the surface properties of B. mojavensis.

  6. In Situ Microbial Community Control of the Stability of Bio-reduced Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, Brett, R.; Peacock, Aaron, D.; Resch, Charles, T.; Arntzen, Evan; Smithgall, Amanda, N.; Pfiffner, Susan; Gan, M.; McKinley, James, P.; Long, Philip, E.; White, David, C.

    2008-03-28

    In aerobic aquifers typical of many Department of Energy (DOE) legacy waste sites, uranium is present in the oxidized U(VI) form which is more soluble and thus more mobile. Field experiments at the Old Rifle UMTRA site have demonstrated that biostimulation by electron donor addition (acetate) promotes biological U(VI) reduction (2). However, U(VI) reduction is reversible and oxidative dissolution of precipitated U(IV) after the cessation of electron donor addition remains a critical issue for the application of biostimulation as a treatment technology. Despite the potential for oxidative dissolution, field experiments at the Old Rifle site have shown that rapid reoxidation of bio-reduced uranium does not occur and U(VI) concentrations can remain at approximately 20% of background levels for more than one year. The extent of post-amendment U(VI) removal and the maintenance of bioreduced uranium may result from many factors including U(VI) sorption to iron-containing mineral phases, generation of H2S or FeS0.9, or the preferential sorption of U(VI) by microbial cells or biopolymers, but the processes controlling the reduction and in situ reoxidation rates are not known. To investigate the role of microbial community composition in the maintenance of bioreduced uranium, in-well sediment incubators (ISIs) were developed allowing field deployment of amended and native sediments during on-going experiments at the site. Field deployment of the ISIs allows expedient interrogation of microbial community response to field environmental perturbations and varying geochemical conditions.

  7. The role of nanopores on U(VI) sorption and redox behavior in U(VI)-contaminated subsurface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Huifang; Roden, Eric E.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Jung, Hun-Bok; Konishi, Hiromi; Boyanov, Maxim; Sun, Yubing; Mishra, Bhoopesh

    2013-10-16

    Most reactive surfaces in clay-dominated sediments are present within nanopores (pores of nm dimension). The behavior of geological fluids and minerals in nanopores is significantly different from those in normal non-nanoporous environments. The effect of nanopore surfaces on U(VI) sorption/desorption and reduction is likely to be significant in clay-rich subsurface environments. Our research results from both model nanopore system and natural sediments from both model system (synthetic nanopore alumina) and sediments from the ORNL Field Research Center prove that U(VI) sorption on nanopore surfaces can be greatly enhanced by nanopore confinement environments. The results from the project provide advanced mechanistic, quantitative information on the physiochemical controls on uranium sorption and redox behavior in subsurface sediments. The influence of nanopore surfaces on coupled uranium sorption/desorption and reduction processes is significant in virtually all subsurface environments, because most reactive surfaces are in fact nanopore surfaces. The results will enhance transfer of our laboratory-based research to a major field research initiative where reductive uranium immobilization is being investigated. Our results will also provide the basic science for developing in-situ colloidal barrier of nanoporous alumina in support of environmental remediation and long term stewardship of DOE sites.

  8. Uranium Immobilization in Wetland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul G.; Li, Dien; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Scheckel, Kirk

    2014-05-01

    In wetlands, which are a major feature at the groundwater-surface water interface, plants deliver oxygen to the subsurface to keep root tissue aerobic. Some of this oxygen leaches into the rhizosphere where it will oxidize iron that typically precipitates on or near roots. Furthermore, plans provide carbon via root exudates and turnover, which in the presence of the iron oxides drives the activity of heterotrophic iron reducers in wetland soils. Oxidized iron is an important electron acceptor for many microbially-driven transformations, which can affect the fate and transport of several pollutants. It has been shown that heterotrophic iron reducing organisms, such as Geobacter sp., can reduce water soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). The goal of this study was to determine if and how iron cycling in the wetland rhizosphere affects uranium dynamics. For this purpose, we operated a series of small-scale wetland mesocosms in a greenhouse to simulate the discharge of uranium-contaminated groundwater to surface waters. The mesocosms were operated with two different Fe(II) loading rates, two plant types, and unplanted controls. The mesocosms contained zones of root exclusion to differentiate between the direct presence and absence of roots in the planted mesocosms. The mesocosms were operated for several month to get fully established, after which a U(VI) solution was fed for 80 days. The mesocosms were then sacrificed and analyzed for solid-associated chemical species, microbiological characterization, micro-X-ray florescence (µ-XRF) mapping of Fe and U on the root surface, and U speciation via X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). Results showed that bacterial numbers including Geobacter sp., Fe(III), as well as total uranium, were highest on roots, followed by sediments near roots, and lowest in zones without much root influence. Results from the µ-XRF mapping on root surfaces indicated a strong spatial correlation between Fe and U. This correlation was

  9. WFC3 UVIS Detector: Improved Flat Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Tomas; Mack, J.; Sabbi, E.; WFC3 Team

    2012-01-01

    We describe the improved flat field calibration for a set of UVIS broad-band filters that were delivered to MAST in August 2011. The total change peak-to-peak with respect to the previous pipeline flats ranges from 3.6% to 5.6%, increasing with wavelength. The flat-fields previously used in the pipeline were obtained during ground testing and contained a large reflection ghost (or flare) that affected 40% of the field. A simplified geometric model of the internal light reflections has been used to remove the flare from the ground flats. Residual low-frequency structures caused by differences in the ground-based and in-flight optical paths were then computed using photometry of Omega Centauri, observed at various roll angles and with large dithered steps. Furthermore, photometry in a range of apertures has been used to study the UVIS PSF in detail. For radii smaller than 0.4" (10 pixels) the PSF is strongly dependent on both the detector position and on the telescope focus at the time of observation. Therefore, the new pipeline flat fields have been normalized to "infinite" aperture by applying local aperture corrections to 10 pixels, making them more generally applicable.

  10. Final Report: Dominant Mechanisms of Uranium-Phosphate Reactions in Subsurface Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, Jeffrey G. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Giammar, Daniel E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Wang, Zheming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-08

    Phosphate addition is an in situ remediation approach that may enhance the sequestration of uranium without requiring sustained reducing conditions. However, the geochemical factors that determine the dominant immobilization mechanisms upon phosphate addition are insufficiently understood to design efficient remediation strategies or accurately predict U(VI) transport. The overall objective of our project is to determine the dominant mechanisms of U(VI)-phosphate reactions in subsurface environments. Our research approach seeks to determine the U(VI)-phosphate solid that form in the presence of different groundwater cations, characterize the effects of phosphate on U(VI) adsorption and precipitation on smectite and iron oxide minerals, examples of two major reactive mineral phases in contaminated sediments, and investigate how phosphate affects U(VI) speciation and fate during water flow through sediments from contaminated sites. The research activities conducted for this project have generated a series of major findings. U(VI) phosphate solids from the autunite mineral family are the sole phases to form during precipitation, with uranyl orthophosphate not occurring despite its predicted greater stability. Calcium phosphates may take up substantial quantities of U(VI) through three different removal processes (adsorption, coprecipitation, and precipitation) but the dominance of each process varies with the pathway of reaction. Phosphate co-adsorbs with U(VI) onto smectite mineral surfaces, forming a mixed uranium-phosphate surface complex over a wide range of conditions. However, this molecular-scale association of uranium and phosphate has not effect on the overall extent of uptake. In contrast, phosphate enhanced U(VI) adsorption to iron oxide minerals at acidic pH conditions but suppresses such adsorption at neutral and alkaline pH, despite forming mixed uranium-phosphate surface complexes during adsorption. Nucleation barriers exist that inhibit U(VI) phosphate

  11. Progress in neutron activation analysis for uranium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鸿善; 李贵群; 董桂芝; 李俊兰; K.H.Chiu; C.M.Wai

    1996-01-01

    A new type of extractant, sym-dibenzo-16-crown-5-oxyhydroxamic acid (HL) is introduced. The extractions of UO22+, Na+, K+, Sr2+, Ba2+ and Br- were studied with HL in chloroform. The results obtained show that UO22+ can be quantitatively extracted at pH values above 5, whereas the extractions of K+, Na+, Sr2+, Ba2+ and Br- are negligible in the pH range of 2 - 7. The dependence of the distribution ratio of U(VI) on both the concentration of the HL and pH are linear, and they have the same slope of 2. This suggests that U(VI) appears to form a 1:2 complex with ligand. Uranium(VI) can be selectively separated and concentrated from interfering elements such as Na, K, Sr and Br by solvent extraction with HL under specific conditions. The recovery of uranium is nearly 100% and the radionudear purity of uranium is greater than 99.99%. Therefore, neutron activation analysis has greatly improved the sensitivity and accuracy for the detection of trace uranium from seawater.

  12. Multistage bioassociation of uranium onto an extremely halophilic archaeon revealed by a unique combination of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Miriam; Müller, Katharina; Foerstendorf, Harald; Drobot, Björn [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Schmidt, Matthias; Musat, Niculina [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Swanson, Juliet S.; Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Repository Science and Operations, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM, 88220 (United States); Stumpf, Thorsten [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Cherkouk, Andrea, E-mail: a.cherkouk@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • First prolonged kinetics study of uranium to halophilic archaea was performed. • An atypical time-dependent bioassociation behavior of uranium was observed. • Unique combination of spectroscopic and microscopic methods was used. • In situ ATR FT-IR showed association of U(VI) to phosphoryl and carboxylate groups. • Time-dependent changes of U(VI) localization could be monitored by SEM/EDX. - Abstract: The interactions of two extremely halophilic archaea with uranium were investigated at high ionic strength as a function of time, pH and uranium concentration. Halobacterium noricense DSM-15987 and Halobacterium sp. putatively noricense, isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository, were used for these investigations. The kinetics of U(VI) bioassociation with both strains showed an atypical multistage behavior, meaning that after an initial phase of U(VI) sorption, an unexpected interim period of U(VI) release was observed, followed by a slow reassociation of uranium with the cells. By applying in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, the involvement of phosphoryl and carboxylate groups in U(VI) complexation during the first biosorption phase was shown. Differences in cell morphology and uranium localization become visible at different stages of the bioassociation process, as shown with scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Our results demonstrate for the first time that association of uranium with the extremely halophilic archaeon is a multistage process, beginning with sorption and followed by another process, probably biomineralization.

  13. Enhanced uranium immobilization and reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cologgi, Dena L; Speers, Allison M; Bullard, Blair A; Kelly, Shelly D; Reguera, Gemma

    2014-11-01

    Biofilms formed by dissimilatory metal reducers are of interest to develop permeable biobarriers for the immobilization of soluble contaminants such as uranium. Here we show that biofilms of the model uranium-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens immobilized substantially more U(VI) than planktonic cells and did so for longer periods of time, reductively precipitating it to a mononuclear U(IV) phase involving carbon ligands. The biofilms also tolerated high and otherwise toxic concentrations (up to 5 mM) of uranium, consistent with a respiratory strategy that also protected the cells from uranium toxicity. The enhanced ability of the biofilms to immobilize uranium correlated only partially with the biofilm biomass and thickness and depended greatly on the area of the biofilm exposed to the soluble contaminant. In contrast, uranium reduction depended on the expression of Geobacter conductive pili and, to a lesser extent, on the presence of the c cytochrome OmcZ in the biofilm matrix. The results support a model in which the electroactive biofilm matrix immobilizes and reduces the uranium in the top stratum. This mechanism prevents the permeation and mineralization of uranium in the cell envelope, thereby preserving essential cellular functions and enhancing the catalytic capacity of Geobacter cells to reduce uranium. Hence, the biofilms provide cells with a physically and chemically protected environment for the sustained immobilization and reduction of uranium that is of interest for the development of improved strategies for the in situ bioremediation of environments impacted by uranium contamination.

  14. Speciation and spectrophotometric determination of uranium in seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. KONSTANTINOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of ion-exchange and extraction procedures for the separation of uranium from seawater samples and subsequent spectrophotometric determination of uranium in seawater by means of arsenazo(III is described. According to the measurements performed by means of traced samples at every stage of separation, the yield of the pre-analytical procedures is generally over 90% and the separation of uranium very selective. The mean uranium concentration in seawater samples collected from five different coastal areas in Cyprus was found to be 3.2 ± 0.2 & micro; g L-1. Uranium in seawater is stable in its hexavalent oxidation state and UO2 (CO334- is the predominant species under normal coastal conditions (pH ≥ 8, EH ≥ 0.35 mV, 1 atm and 0.03% CO2.

  15. Uranium(VI) complexation in cell culture medium: influence of speciation on Normal Rat Kidney (NRK-52{sup E}) cell accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriere, M.; Khodja, H.; Avoscan, L.; Carrot, F.; Gouget, B. [Lab. Pierre Suee CEA-CNRS UMR 9956, Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2005-07-01

    Uranium bioavailability and toxicity are closely linked to the metal's speciation in solution. However in biological fluids or in media classically used for cell culture - and subsequently for in vitro cell exposure -, uranium is rarely present as free-ion since these media contain non-negligible concentrations of potential ligands such as phosphate and bicarbonate but also co-ions such as calcium which can cause U(VI) complexes precipitation. The chemical form of uranium that is internalized in cells and interferes with biological processes is of major concern. Uranium toxicity and accumulation were evaluated in vitro on NRK-52{sup E} cells, model for rat renal proximal tubule. Uranium intracellular accumulation begins after 12 h exposure to 600 {mu}M U(VI); toxicity appears as soon as cells accumulated 25 to 30 mg U/g protein. Modification of uranium speciation in the exposure medium induces great changes in toxicity and cell accumulation. Comparison of toxicity and accumulation results to theoretical uranium speciation, calculated with the J-Chess computer program, shows that free-ion concentration can not explain the total uranium intracellular accumulation. Low molecular weight U(VI) complexes, such as UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 4-} but also UO{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -} could be implicated in U(VI) cellular accumulation and toxicity. (orig.)

  16. Genome-Scale Metabolic Modeling in the Simulation of Field-Scale Uranium Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabusaki, S.; Wilkins, M.; Fang, Y.; Williams, K. H.; Waichler, S.; Long, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    Coupled variably saturated flow and biogeochemical reactive transport modeling is used to improve understanding of the processes, properties, and conditions controlling uranium bio-immobilization in a field experiment where uranium-contaminated groundwater was amended with acetate and bicarbonate. The acetate stimulates indigenous microorganisms that catalyze metal reduction, including the conversion of aqueous U(VI) to solid-phase U(IV), which effectively removes uranium from solution. The initiation of the bicarbonate amendment prior to biostimulation was designed to promote U(VI) desorption that would increase the aqueous U(VI) available for bioreduction. The three-dimensional simulations were able to largely reproduce the timing and magnitude of the physical, chemical and biological responses to the acetate and bicarbonate amendment in the context of changing water table elevation and gradient. A time series of groundwater proteomic samples exhibited correlations between the most abundant Geobacter metallireducens proteins and the genome-scale metabolic model-predicted fluxes of intra-cellular reactions associated with each of those proteins. The desorption of U(VI) induced by the bicarbonate amendment led to initially higher rates of bioreduction compared to locations with minimal bicarbonate exposure. After bicarbonate amendment ceased, bioreduction continued at these locations whereas U(VI) sorption was the dominant removal mechanism at the bicarbonate-impacted sites.

  17. Modulation of medium pH by Caulobacter crescentus facilitates recovery from uranium-induced growth arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dan M; Jiao, Yongqin

    2014-09-01

    The oxidized form of uranium [U(VI)] predominates in oxic environments and poses a major threat to ecosystems. Due to its ability to mineralize U(VI), the oligotroph Caulobacter crescentus is an attractive candidate for U(VI) bioremediation. However, the physiological basis for U(VI) tolerance is unclear. Here we demonstrated that U(VI) caused a temporary growth arrest in C. crescentus and three other bacterial species, although the duration of growth arrest was significantly shorter for C. crescentus. During the majority of the growth arrest period, cell morphology was unaltered and DNA replication initiation was inhibited. However, during the transition from growth arrest to exponential phase, cells with shorter stalks were observed, suggesting a decoupling between stalk development and the cell cycle. Upon recovery from growth arrest, C. crescentus proliferated with a growth rate comparable to that of a control without U(VI), although a fraction of these cells appeared filamentous with multiple replication start sites. Normal cell morphology was restored by the end of exponential phase. Cells did not accumulate U(VI) resistance mutations during the prolonged growth arrest, but rather, a reduction in U(VI) toxicity occurred concomitantly with an increase in medium pH. Together, these data suggest that C. crescentus recovers from U(VI)-induced growth arrest by reducing U(VI) toxicity through pH modulation. Our finding represents a unique U(VI) detoxification strategy and provides insight into how microbes cope with U(VI) under nongrowing conditions, a metabolic state that is prevalent in natural environments.

  18. Extraction of oxidized and reduced forms of uranium from contaminated soils: effects of carbonate concentration and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Gu, Baohua

    2005-06-15

    Uranium may present in soil as precipitated, sorbed, complexed, and reduced forms, which impact its mobility and fate in the subsurface soil environment. In this study, a uranium-contaminated soil was extracted with carbonate/ bicarbonate at varying concentrations (0-1 M), pHs, and redox conditions in an attempt to evaluate their effects on the extraction efficiency and selectivity for various forms of uranium in the soil. Results indicate that at least three differentforms of uranium existed in the contaminated soil: uranium(VI) phosphate minerals, reduced U(IV) phases, and U(VI) complexed with soil organic matter. A small fraction of U(VI) could be sorbed onto soil minerals. The mechanism involved in the leaching of U(VI) by carbonates appears to involve three processes which may act concurrently or independently: the dissolution of uranium(VI) phosphate and other mineral phases, the oxidation-complexation of U(IV) under oxic conditions, and the desorption of U(VI)-organic matter complexes at elevated pH conditions. This study suggests that, depending on site-specific geochemical conditions, the presence of small quantities of carbonate/bicarbonate could result in a rapid and greatly increased leaching and the mobilization of U(VI) from the contaminated soil. Even the reduced U(IV) phases (only sparingly soluble in water) are subjected to rapid oxidation and therefore potential leaching into the environment.

  19. Effects of aqueous uranyl speciation on the kinetics of microbial uranium reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Keaton M.; DiChristina, Thomas J.; Van Cappellen, Philippe; Taillefert, Martial

    2015-05-01

    The ability to predict the success of the microbial reduction of soluble U(VI) to highly insoluble U(IV) as an in situ bioremediation strategy is complicated by the wide range of geochemical conditions at contaminated sites and the strong influence of aqueous uranyl speciation on the bioavailability and toxicity of U(VI) to metal-reducing bacteria. To determine the effects of aqueous uranyl speciation on uranium bioreduction kinetics, incubations and viability assays with Shewanella putrefaciens strain 200 were conducted over a range of pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations. A speciation-dependent kinetic model was developed to reproduce the observed time series of total dissolved uranium concentration over the range of geochemical conditions tested. The kinetic model yielded the highest rate constant for the reduction of uranyl non-carbonate species (i.e., the 'free' hydrated uranyl ion, uranyl hydroxides, and other minor uranyl complexes), indicating that they represent the most readily reducible fraction of U(VI) despite being the least abundant uranyl species in solution. The presence of DIC, Ca2+, and Mg2+ suppressed the formation of more bioavailable uranyl non-carbonate species and resulted in slower bioreduction rates. At high concentrations of bioavailable U(VI), however, uranium toxicity to S. putrefaciens inhibited bioreduction, and viability assays confirmed that the concentration of non-carbonate uranyl species best predicts the degree of toxicity. The effect of uranium toxicity was accounted for by incorporating the free ion activity model of metal toxicity into the bioreduction rate law. Overall, these results demonstrate that, in the absence of competing terminal electron acceptors, uranium bioreduction kinetics can be predicted over a wide range of geochemical conditions based on the bioavailability and toxicity imparted on U(VI) by solution composition. These findings also imply that the concentration of uranyl non

  20. Sorption of environmentally relevant radionuclides (U(VI), Np(V)) and lanthanides (Nd(III)) on feldspar and mica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Constanze

    2015-11-05

    A safe storage of radioactive waste in repositories is an important task to protect humans and the environment from radio- and chemotoxicity. Long-term safety assessments predict the behavior of potential environmental contaminants like the actinides plutonium, uranium, or neptunium, in the near and far field of repositories. For such safety assessments, it is necessary to know the migration behavior of the contaminants in the environment, which is mainly dependent on the aquatic speciation, the solubility product of relevant solid phases, and the retardation due to sorption on surrounding minerals. Thus, an investigation of sorption processes of contaminants onto different minerals as well as the derivation of mineral specific surface complexation model (SCM) parameters is of great importance. Feldspar and mica are widely distributed in nature. They occur as components of granite, which is considered as a potential host rock for a repository in Germany, and in numerous other rocks, and thus also in the far field of nearly all repositories. However, their sorption behavior with actinides has only been scarcely investigated until now. In order to better characterize these systems and subsequently to integrate these minerals into the long-term safety assessments, this work focuses on the investigation of the sorption behavior of U(VI), Np(V), and Nd(III) as analogue for An(III) onto the minerals orthoclase and muscovite, representing feldspars and mica, respectively. All investigations were performed under conditions relevant to the far field of a repository. In addition to the extensive characterization of the minerals, batch sorption experiments, spectroscopic investigations, and surface complexation modeling were performed to elucidate the uptake and speciation of actinides on the mineral surfaces. In addition, the influence of microorganisms naturally occurring on the mineral surfaces and the effect of Ca{sup 2+} on U(VI) uptake on the minerals was studied. The

  1. Enzymatic iron and uranium reduction by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Roden, E.E.; Phillips, E.J.P.; Woodward, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The potential for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to enzymatically reduce Fe(III) and U(VI) was investigated. Five species of Desulfovibrio as well as Desulfobacterium autotrophicum and Desulfobulbus propionicus reduced Fe(III) chelated with nitrilotriacetic acid as well as insoluble Fe(III) oxide. Fe(III) oxide reduction resulted in the accumulation of magnetite and siderite. Desulfobacter postgatei reduced the chelated Fe(III) but not Fe(III) oxide. Desulfobacter curvatus, Desulfomonile tiedjei, and Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans did not reduce Fe(III). Only Desulfovibrio species reduced U(VI). U(VI) reduction resulted in the precipitation of uraninite. None of the SRB that reduced Fe(III) or U(VI) appeared to conserve enough energy to support growth from this reaction. However, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans metabolized H2 down to lower concentrations with Fe(III) or U(VI) as the electron acceptor than with sulfate, suggesting that these metals may be preferred electron acceptors at the low H2 concentrations present in most marine sediments. Molybdate did not inhibit Fe(III) reduction by D. desulfuricans. This indicates that the inability of molybdate to inhibit Fe(III) reduction in marine sediments does not rule out the possibility that SRB are important catalysts for Fe(III) reduction. The results demonstrate that although SRB were previously considered to reduce Fe(III) and U(VI) indirectly through the production of sulfide, they may also directly reduce Fe(III) and U(VI) through enzymatic mechanisms. These findings, as well as our recent discovery that the So-reducing microorganism Desulfuromonas acetoxidans can reduce Fe(III), demonstrate that there are close links between the microbial sulfur, iron, and uranium cycles in anaerobic marine sediments. ?? 1993.

  2. Bio-precipitation of uranium by two bacterial isolates recovered from extreme environments as estimated by potentiometric titration, TEM and X-ray absorption spectroscopic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merroun, Mohamed L., E-mail: merroun@ugr.es [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidad de Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n 18071, Granada (Spain); Nedelkova, Marta [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Ojeda, Jesus J. [Cell-Mineral Interface Research Programme, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Experimental Techniques Centre, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Reitz, Thomas [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Fernandez, Margarita Lopez; Arias, Jose M. [Departamento de Microbiologia, Universidad de Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n 18071, Granada (Spain); Romero-Gonzalez, Maria [Cell-Mineral Interface Research Programme, Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Selenska-Pobell, Sonja [Institute of Radiochemistry, Helmholtz Centre Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Precipitation of uranium as U phosphates by natural bacterial isolates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uranium biomineralization involves the activity of acidic phosphatase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uranium bioremediation could be achieved via the biomineralization of U(VI) in phosphate minerals. - Abstract: This work describes the mechanisms of uranium biomineralization at acidic conditions by Bacillus sphaericus JG-7B and Sphingomonas sp. S15-S1 both recovered from extreme environments. The U-bacterial interaction experiments were performed at low pH values (2.0-4.5) where the uranium aqueous speciation is dominated by highly mobile uranyl ions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed that the cells of the studied strains precipitated uranium at pH 3.0 and 4.5 as a uranium phosphate mineral phase belonging to the meta-autunite group. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses showed strain-specific localization of the uranium precipitates. In the case of B. sphaericus JG-7B, the U(VI) precipitate was bound to the cell wall. Whereas for Sphingomonas sp. S15-S1, the U(VI) precipitates were observed both on the cell surface and intracellularly. The observed U(VI) biomineralization was associated with the activity of indigenous acid phosphatase detected at these pH values in the absence of an organic phosphate substrate. The biomineralization of uranium was not observed at pH 2.0, and U(VI) formed complexes with organophosphate ligands from the cells. This study increases the number of bacterial strains that have been demonstrated to precipitate uranium phosphates at acidic conditions via the activity of acid phosphatase.

  3. Updated WFC3/UVIS Chip Dependent SYNPHOT/PYSYNPHOT Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deustua, S. E.

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this ISR is to document the changes to WFC3/UVIS component files that are used with SYNPHOT and PYSYNPHOT as a result of the implementation of the detector dependent photometric calibration in February 2016.

  4. WFC3/UVIS: Updates to SYNPHOT Reference Files and IMPHTTAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deustua, S. E.; Bajaj, V.

    2017-05-01

    Updates since February 2016 to SYNPHOT configuration reference files and the photometry lookup up table, IMPHTTAB, for WFC3/UVIS are described. We also document the history and description of changes implemented for previous versions of the same reference files.

  5. Electrolytic reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) in acidic chloride and acidic sulfate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majima, Hiroshi; Awakura, Yasuhiro; Hirono, Shuichiro

    1986-01-01

    In order to examine the applicability of the electrolytic reduction process of U(VI) (originally developed for the chloride system by PNC) to the sulfate solution system, a fundamental study was made. In this study, the concentrations of various chemical species in the catholytes were calculated at 298 K at various percentages of uranium reduction, taking the chloro-complex and sulfato-complex formation reactions of uranium into consideration. The polarization characteristics of the electrolytic reduction of uranyl chloride and uranyl sulfate were determined, using titanium and platinum cathodes, respectively, at 303 ± 1 K. In conjunction with this process, the electrical conductivity of the catholyte, the electrical resistivity of the cation exchange membrane, and the diffusion coefficient of uranyl sulfate were also determined.

  6. Diversity and Characterization of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Groundwater at a Uranium Mill Tailings Site

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yun-Juan; Peacock, Aaron D.; Long, Philip E; Stephen, John R.; McKinley, James P.; Macnaughton, Sarah J.; Hussain, A. K. M. Anwar; Saxton, Arnold M.; White, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Microbially mediated reduction and immobilization of U(VI) to U(IV) plays a role in both natural attenuation and accelerated bioremediation of uranium-contaminated sites. To realize bioremediation potential and accurately predict natural attenuation, it is important to first understand the microbial diversity of such sites. In this paper, the distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated groundwater associated with a uranium mill tailings disposal site at Shiprock, N.Mex., w...

  7. Uranium(VI) Binding Forms in Selected Human Body Fluids: Thermodynamic Calculations versus Spectroscopic Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Alfatih A A; Geipel, Gerhard; Barkleit, Astrid; Bernhard, Gert

    2015-02-16

    Human exposure to uranium increasingly becomes a subject of interest in many scientific disciplines such as environmental medicine, toxicology, and radiation protection. Knowledge about uranium chemical binding forms(speciation) in human body fluids can be of great importance to understand not only its biokinetics but also its relevance in risk assessment and in designing decorporation therapy in the case of accidental overexposure. In this study, thermodynamic calculations of uranium speciation in relevant simulated and original body fluids were compared with spectroscopic data after ex-situ uranium addition. For the first time, experimental data on U(VI) speciation in body fluids (saliva, sweat, urine) was obtained by means of cryogenic time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (cryo-TRLFS) at 153 K. By using the time dependency of fluorescence decay and the band positions of the emission spectra, various uranyl complexes were demonstrated in the studied samples. The variations of the body fluids in terms of chemical composition, pH, and ionic strength resulted in different binding forms of U(VI). The speciation of U(VI) in saliva and in urine was affected by the presence of bioorganic ligands, whereas in sweat, the distribution depends mainly on inorganic ligands. We also elucidated the role of biological buffers, i.e., phosphate (H(2)PO(4−)/HPO(4)(2−)) on U(VI) distribution, and the system Ca(2+)/UO(2)(2+)/PO(4)(3−) was discussed in detail in both saliva and urine. The theoretical speciation calculations of the main U(VI) species in the investigated body fluids were significantly consistent with the spectroscopic data. Laser fluorescence spectroscopy showed success and reliability for direct determination of U(VI) in such biological matrices with the possibility for further improvement.

  8. Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica for uranium adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Guo; Yurun, Feng; Li, Ma; Dezhi, Gao; Jie, Jing; Jincheng, Yu; Haibin, Sun; Hongyu, Gong; Yujun, Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Phosphoryl functionalized mesoporous silica (TBP-SBA-15) was synthesized by modified mesoporous silica with γ-amino propyl triethoxy silane and tributyl phosphate. The obtained samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXRD), thermo-gravimetric/differential thermalanalyzer (TG/DTA), N2 adsorption-desorption (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. Results showed that TBP-SBA-15 had large surface areas with ordered channel structure. Moreover, the effects of adsorption time, sorbent dose, solution pH, initial uranium concentration and temperature on the uranium adsorption behaviors were investigated. TBP-SBA-15 showed a high uranium adsorption capacity in a broad range of pH values. The U(VI) adsorption rate of TBP-SBA-15 was fast and nearly achieved completion in 10 min with the sorbent dose of 1 g/L. The U(VI) adsorption of TBP-SBA-15 followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model, indicating that the process was belonged to chemical adsorption. Furthermore, the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG0, ΔH0 and ΔS0) confirmed that the adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous.

  9. Uranium Biominerals Precipitated by an Environmental Isolate of Serratia under Anaerobic Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Newsome

    Full Text Available Stimulating the microbially-mediated precipitation of uranium biominerals may be used to treat groundwater contamination at nuclear sites. The majority of studies to date have focussed on the reductive precipitation of uranium as U(IV by U(VI- and Fe(III-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter and Shewanella species, although other mechanisms of uranium removal from solution can occur, including the precipitation of uranyl phosphates via bacterial phosphatase activity. Here we present the results of uranium biomineralisation experiments using an isolate of Serratia obtained from a sediment sample representative of the Sellafield nuclear site, UK. When supplied with glycerol phosphate, this Serratia strain was able to precipitate 1 mM of soluble U(VI as uranyl phosphate minerals from the autunite group, under anaerobic and fermentative conditions. Under phosphate-limited anaerobic conditions and with glycerol as the electron donor, non-growing Serratia cells could precipitate 0.5 mM of uranium supplied as soluble U(VI, via reduction to nano-crystalline U(IV uraninite. Some evidence for the reduction of solid phase uranyl(VI phosphate was also observed. This study highlights the potential for Serratia and related species to play a role in the bioremediation of uranium contamination, via a range of different metabolic pathways, dependent on culturing or in situ conditions.

  10. Thermodynamic stabilities of U(VI) minerals: Estimated and observed relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, R.J. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Gibbs free energies of formation ({Delta}G{degree}{sub f}) for several structurally related U(VI) minerals are estimated by summing the Gibbs energy contributions from component oxides. The estimated {Delta}G{degree}{sub f} values are used to construct activity-activity (stability) diagrams, and the predicted stability fields are compared with observed mineral occurrences and reaction pathways. With some exceptions, natural occurrences agree well with the mineral stability fields estimated for the systems SiO{sub 2}-CaO-UO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}-CaO-UO{sub 3}H{sub 2}O, providing confidence in the estimated thermodynamic values. Activity-activity diagrams are sensitive to small differences in {Delta}G{degree}{sub f} values, and mineral compositions must be known accurately, including structurally bound H{sub 2}O. The estimated {Delta}G{degree}{sub f} values are not considered reliable for a few minerals for two major reasons: (1) the structures of the minerals in question are not closely similar to those used to estimate the {Delta}G{sub f}* values of the component oxides, and/or (2) the minerals in question are exceptionally fine grained, leading to large surface energies that increase the effective mineral solubilities. The thermodynamic stabilities of uranium(VI) minerals are of interest for understanding the role of these minerals in controlling uranium concentrations in oxidizing groundwaters associated with uranium ore bodies, uranium mining and mill tailings and geological repositories for nuclear waste.

  11. Influence of uranium on bacterial communities: a comparison of natural uranium-rich soils with controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Mondani

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of uranium on the indigenous bacterial community structure in natural soils with high uranium content. Radioactive soil samples exhibiting 0.26% - 25.5% U in mass were analyzed and compared with nearby control soils containing trace uranium. EXAFS and XRD analyses of soils revealed the presence of U(VI and uranium-phosphate mineral phases, identified as sabugalite and meta-autunite. A comparative analysis of bacterial community fingerprints using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE revealed the presence of a complex population in both control and uranium-rich samples. However, bacterial communities inhabiting uraniferous soils exhibited specific fingerprints that were remarkably stable over time, in contrast to populations from nearby control samples. Representatives of Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and seven others phyla were detected in DGGE bands specific to uraniferous samples. In particular, sequences related to iron-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter and Geothrix were identified concomitantly with iron-oxidizing species such as Gallionella and Sideroxydans. All together, our results demonstrate that uranium exerts a permanent high pressure on soil bacterial communities and suggest the existence of a uranium redox cycle mediated by bacteria in the soil.

  12. A Uranium Bioremediation Reactive Transport Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabusaki, Steven B.; Sengor, Sevinc; Fang, Yilin

    2015-06-01

    A reactive transport benchmark problem set has been developed based on in situ uranium bio-immobilization experiments that have been performed at a former uranium mill tailings site in Rifle, Colorado, USA. Acetate-amended groundwater stimulates indigenous microorganisms to catalyze the reduction of U(VI) to a sparingly soluble U(IV) mineral. The interplay between the flow, acetate loading periods and rates, microbially-mediated and geochemical reactions leads to dynamic behavior in metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, pH, alkalinity, and reactive mineral surfaces. The benchmark is based on an 8.5 m long one-dimensional model domain with constant saturated flow and uniform porosity. The 159-day simulation introduces acetate and bromide through the upgradient boundary in 14-day and 85-day pulses separated by a 10 day interruption. Acetate loading is tripled during the second pulse, which is followed by a 50 day recovery period. Terminal electron accepting processes for goethite, phyllosilicate Fe(III), U(VI), and sulfate are modeled using Monod-type rate laws. Major ion geochemistry modeled includes mineral reactions, as well as aqueous and surface complexation reactions for UO2++, Fe++, and H+. In addition to the dynamics imparted by the transport of the acetate pulses, U(VI) behavior involves the interplay between bioreduction, which is dependent on acetate availability, and speciation-controlled surface complexation, which is dependent on pH, alkalinity and available surface complexation sites. The general difficulty of this benchmark is the large number of reactions (74), multiple rate law formulations, a multisite uranium surface complexation model, and the strong interdependency and sensitivity of the reaction processes. Results are presented for three simulators: HYDROGEOCHEM, PHT3D, and PHREEQC.

  13. Characterization of extracellular minerals produced during dissimilatory Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction at 100 degrees C by Pyrobaculum islandicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefi, K; Moskowitz, B M; Lovley, D R

    2008-03-01

    In order to gain insight into the significance of biotic metal reduction and mineral formation in hyperthermophilic environments, metal mineralization as a result of the dissimilatory reduction of poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide, and U(VI) reduction at 100 degrees C by Pyrobaculum islandicum was investigated. When P. islandicum was grown in a medium with poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide as an electron acceptor and hydrogen as an electron donor, the Fe(III) oxide was reduced to an extracellular, ultrafine-grained magnetite with characteristics similar to that found in some hot environments and that was previously thought to be of abiotic origin. Furthermore, cell suspensions of P. islandicum rapidly reduced the soluble and oxidized form of uranium, U(VI), to extracellular precipitates of the highly insoluble U(IV) mineral, uraninite (UO(2)). The reduction of U(VI) was dependent on the presence of hydrogen as the electron donor. These findings suggest that microbes may play a key role in metal deposition in hyperthermophilic environments and provide a plausible explanation for such phenomena as magnetite accumulation and formation of uranium deposits at ca. 100 degrees C.

  14. Uranium(VI) interactions with mackinawite in the presence and absence of bicarbonate and oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Webb, Samuel M.; Betterton, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Mackinawite, Fe(II)S, samples loaded with uranium (10-5, 10-4, and 10-3 mol U/g FeS) at pH 5, 7, and 9, were characterized using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction to determine the effects of pH, bicarbonate, and oxidation on uptake. Under anoxic conditions, a 5 g/L suspension of mackinawite lowered 5 × 10-5 M uranium(VI) to below 30 ppb (1.26 × 10-7 M) U. Between 82 and 88% of the uranium removed from solution by mackinawite was U(IV) and was nearly completely reduced to U(IV) when 0.012 M bicarbonate was added. Near-neighbor coordination consisting of uranium–oxygen and uranium-uranium distances indicates the formation of uraninite in the presence and absence of bicarbonate, suggesting reductive precipitation as the dominant removal mechanism. Following equilibration in air, mackinawite was oxidized to mainly goethite and sulfur and about 76% of U(IV) was reoxidized to U(VI) with coordination of uranium to axial and equatorial oxygen, similar to uranyl. Additionally, uranium-iron distances, typical of coprecipitation of uranium with iron oxides, and uranium-sulfur distances indicating bidentate coordination of U(VI) to sulfate were evident. The affinity of mackinawite and its oxidation products for U(VI) provides impetus for further study of mackinawite as a potential reactive medium for remediation of uranium-contaminated water.

  15. The effect of Si and Al concentrations on the removal of U(VI) in the alkaline conditions created by NH3 gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsenovich, Yelena P.; Cardona, Claudia; Lapierre, Robert; Szecsody, Jim; Lagos, Leonel E.

    2016-10-01

    Remediation of uranium in the deep unsaturated zone is a challenging task, especially in the presence of oxygenated, high-carbonate alkalinity soil and pore water composition typical for arid and semi-arid environments of the western regions of the U.S. This study evaluates the effect of various pore water constituencies on changes of uranium concentrations in alkaline conditions, created in the presence of reactive gases such as NH3 to effectively mitigate uranium contamination in the vadose zone sediments. This contaminant is a potential source for groundwater pollution through slow infiltration of soluble and highly mobile uranium species towards the water table. The objective of this research was to evaluate uranium sequestration efficiencies in the alkaline synthetic pore water solutions prepared in a broad range of Si, Al, and bicarbonate concentrations typically present in field systems of the western U.S. regions and identify solid uranium-bearing phases that result from ammonia gas treatment. In previous studies (Szecsody et al. 2012; Zhong et al. 2015), although uranium mobility was greatly decreased, solid phases could not be identified at the low uranium concentrations in field-contaminated sediments. The chemical composition of the synthetic pore water used in the experiments varied for silica (5–250 mM), Al3+ (2.8 or 5 mM), HCO3- (0–100 mM) and U(VI) (0.0021–0.0084 mM) in the solution mixture. Experiment results suggested that solutions with Si concentrations higher than 50 mM exhibited greater removal efficiencies of U(VI). Solutions with higher concentrations of bicarbonate also exhibited greater removal efficiencies for Si, Al, and U(VI). Overall, the silica polymerization reaction leading to the formation of Si gel correlated with the removal of U(VI), Si, and Al from the solution. If no Si polymerization was observed, there was no U removal from the supernatant solution. Speciation modeling indicated that the dominant uranium species in the

  16. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Robert J.; Beazley, Melanie J.; Wilson, Jarad J.; Taillefert, Martial; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2005-04-05

    The overall goal of this project is to examine the role of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}. During this phase of the project we have been conducting assays to determine the effects of pH, inorganic anions and organic ligands on U(VI) mineral formation and precipitation when FRC bacterial isolates were grown in simulated groundwater medium. The molecular characterization of FRC isolates has also been undertaken during this phase of the project. Analysis of a subset of gram-positive FRC isolates cultured from FRC soils (Areas 1, 2 and 3) and background sediments have indicated a higher percentage of isolates exhibiting phosphatase phenotypes (i.e., in particular those surmised to be PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible) relative to isolates from the reference site. A high percentage of strains that exhibited such putatively PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}-irrepressible phosphatase phenotypes were also resistant to the heavy metals lead and cadmium. Previous work on FRC strains, including Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella spp., has demonstrated differences in tolerance to U(VI) toxicity (200 {micro}M) in the absence of organophosphate substrates. For example, Arthrobacter spp. exhibited the greatest tolerance to U(VI) while the Rahnella spp. have been shown to facilitate the precipitation of U(VI) from solution and the Bacillus spp. demonstrate the greatest sensitivity to acidic conditions and high concentrations of U(VI). PCR-based detection of FRC strains are being conducted to determine if non-specific acid phosphatases of the known molecular classes [i.e., classes A, B and C] are present in these FRC isolates. Additionally, these

  17. Microbial reduction of uranium(VI) by anaerobic microorganisms isolated from a former uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Ulrike; Krawczyk-Baersch, Evelyn [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry; Arnold, Thuro [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Scheinost, Andreas C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Molecular Structures

    2017-06-01

    The former uranium mine Koenigstein (Germany) is currently in the process of controlled flooding by reason of remediation purposes. However, the flooding water still contains high concentrations of uranium and other heavy metals. For that reason the water has to be cleaned up by a conventional waste water treatment plant. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between anaerobic microorganisms and uranium for possible bioremediation approaches, which could be an great alternative for the intensive and expensive waste water treatment. EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) measurements were performed and revealed a complete reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) only by adding 10 mM glycerol.

  18. Uranium Biomineralization By Natural Microbial Phosphatase Activities in the Subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taillefert, Martial [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This project investigated the geochemical and microbial processes associated with the biomineralization of radionuclides in subsurface soils. During this study, it was determined that microbial communities from the Oak Ridge Field Research subsurface are able to express phosphatase activities that hydrolyze exogenous organophosphate compounds and result in the non-reductive bioimmobilization of U(VI) phosphate minerals in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The changes of the microbial community structure associated with the biomineralization of U(VI) was determined to identify the main organisms involved in the biomineralization process, and the complete genome of two isolates was sequenced. In addition, it was determined that both phytate, the main source of natural organophosphate compounds in natural environments, and polyphosphate accumulated in cells could also be hydrolyzed by native microbial population to liberate enough orthophosphate and precipitate uranium phosphate minerals. Finally, the minerals produced during this process are stable in low pH conditions or environments where the production of dissolved inorganic carbon is moderate. These findings suggest that the biomineralization of U(VI) phosphate minerals is an attractive bioremediation strategy to uranium bioreduction in low pH uranium-contaminated environments. These efforts support the goals of the SBR long-term performance measure by providing key information on "biological processes influencing the form and mobility of DOE contaminants in the subsurface".

  19. Decrease of U(VI immobilization capability of the facultative anaerobic strain Paenibacillus sp. JG-TB8 under anoxic conditions due to strongly reduced phosphatase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reitz

    Full Text Available Interactions of a facultative anaerobic bacterial isolate named Paenibacillus sp. JG-TB8 with U(VI were studied under oxic and anoxic conditions in order to assess the influence of the oxygen-dependent cell metabolism on microbial uranium mobilization and immobilization. We demonstrated that aerobically and anaerobically grown cells of Paenibacillus sp. JG-TB8 accumulate uranium from aqueous solutions under acidic conditions (pH 2 to 6, under oxic and anoxic conditions. A combination of spectroscopic and microscopic methods revealed that the speciation of U(VI associated with the cells of the strain depend on the pH as well as on the aeration conditions. At pH 2 and pH 3, uranium was exclusively bound by organic phosphate groups provided by cellular components, independently on the aeration conditions. At higher pH values, a part (pH 4.5 or the total amount (pH 6 of the dissolved uranium was precipitated under oxic conditions in a meta-autunite-like uranyl phosphate mineral phase without supplying an additional organic phosphate substrate. In contrast to that, under anoxic conditions no mineral formation was observed at pH 4.5 and pH 6, which was clearly assigned to decreased orthophosphate release by the cells. This in turn was caused by a suppression of the indigenous phosphatase activity of the strain. The results demonstrate that changes in the metabolism of facultative anaerobic microorganisms caused by the presence or absence of oxygen can decisively influence U(VI biomineralization.

  20. Uranium(VI) adsorption and surface complexation modeling onto background sediments from the F-Area Savannah River Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenming; Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Davis, James A; Wan, Jiamin

    2012-02-07

    The mobility of an acidic uranium waste plume in the F-Area of Savannah River Site is of great concern. In order to understand and predict uranium mobility, U(VI) adsorption experiments were performed as a function of pH using background F-Area aquifer sediments and reference goethite and kaolinite (major reactive phases of F-Area sediments), and a component-additivity (CA) based surface complexation model (SCM) was developed. Our experimental results indicate that the fine fractions (≤45 μm) in sediments control U(VI) adsorption due to their large surface area, although the quartz sands show a stronger adsorption ability per unit surface area than the fine fractions at pH 4.0. Our CA model combines an existing U(VI) SCM for goethite and a modified U(VI) SCM for kaolinite along with estimated relative surface area abundances of these component minerals. The modeling approach successfully predicts U(VI) adsorption behavior by the background F-Area sediments. The model suggests that exchange sites on kaolinite dominate U(VI) adsorption at pH 6.0.

  1. Investigating the thermodynamic stability of Bacillus subtilis spore-uranium(VI) adsorption though surface complexation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Z.; Hertel, M.; Gorman-Lewis, D.

    2012-12-01

    Dissolved uranium speciation, mobility, and remediation are increasingly important topics given continued and potential uranium (U) release from mining operations and nuclear waste. Vegetative bacterial cell surfaces are known to adsorb uranium and may influence uranium speciation in the environment. Previous investigations regarding U(VI) adsorption to bacterial spores, a differentiated and dormant cell type with a tough proteinaceous coat, include U adsorption affinity and XAFS data. We investigated the thermodynamic stability of aerobic, pH dependent uranium adsorption to bacterial spore surfaces using purified Bacillus subtilis spores in solution with 5ppm uranium. Adsorption reversibility and kinetic experiments indicate that uranium does not precipitate over the duration of the experiments and equilibrium is reached within 20 minutes. Uranium-spore adsorption edges exhibited adsorption at all pH measured between 2 and 10. Maximum adsorption was achieved around pH 7 and decreased as pH increased above 7. We used surface complexation modeling (SCM) to quantify uranium adsorption based on balanced chemical equations and derive thermodynamic stability constants for discrete uranium-spore adsorption reactions. Site specific thermodynamic stability constants provide insight on interactions occurring between aqueous uranium species and spore surface ligands. The uranium adsorption data and SCM parameters described herein, also provide a basis for predicting the influence of bacterial spores on uranium speciation in natural systems and investigating their potential as biosorption agents in engineered systems.

  2. Field-scale model for the natural attenuation of uranium at the Hanford 300 area using high performance computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtner, Peter C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hammond, Glenn E [PNNL

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional reactive flow and transport simulations are carried out to better understand the persistence of uranium [U(VI)] at the Hanford 300 Area bordering the Columbia River. The massively parallel code PFLOTRAN developed under a DOE SciDAC-2 project is employed in the simulations. The calculations were carried out on 4096 processor cores on ORNL's Jaguar XT4 & 5 Cray supercomputers with run times on the order of 6 hours, equivalent to several years if performed on a single processor with sufficient memory. A new conceptual model is presented for understanding present-day and future attenuation rates of U(VI) at the 300 Area site. Unique to the conceptual model is the recognition of three distinct phases in the evolution of the site corresponding to: (I) initial emplacement of waste; (II) present-day conditions of slow leaching of U(VI) from the Hanford sediments; and (III) the complete removal of non-labile U(VI) from the source region. This work focuses on Phase II. Both labile and non-labile forms of U(VI) are included in the model as sorbed and mineralized forms of U(VI), respectively. The non-labile form plays an important role in providing a long-term source of U(VI) as it slowly leaches out of the Hanford sediment. Rapid fluctuations in the Columbia River stage on hourly, weekly and seasonal time scales are found to' playa major role in determining the migration behavior of U(VI). The calculations demonstrate that U(VI) is released into the Columbia River at a highly fluctuating rate in a ratchet-like behavior with nonzero U(VI) flux occurring only during flow from contaminated sediment into the river. The cumulative flux, however, is found to increase approximately linearly with time. The flow rate and U(VI) flux into the Columbia River predicted by the model is highly sensitive to the value used in the conductance boundary condition at the river-sediment interface. By fitting the conductance to the measured piezometric head at well 399

  3. Contribution of extracellular polymeric substances from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms to U(VI) immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bin; Ahmed, Bulbul; Kennedy, David W; Wang, Zheming; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J; Fredrickson, Jim K; Isern, Nancy G; Majors, Paul D; Beyenal, Haluk

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to U(VI) immobilization by Shewanella sp. HRCR-1. Through comparison of U(VI) immobilization using cells with bound EPS (bEPS) and cells with minimal EPS, we show that (i) bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms contribute significantly to U(VI) immobilization, especially at low initial U(VI) concentrations, through both sorption and reduction; (ii) bEPS can be considered a functional extension of the cells for U(VI) immobilization and they likely play more important roles at lower initial U(VI) concentrations; and (iii) the U(VI) reduction efficiency is dependent upon the initial U(VI) concentration and decreases at lower concentrations. To quantify the relative contributions of sorption and reduction to U(VI) immobilization by EPS fractions, we isolated loosely associated EPS (laEPS) and bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms grown in a hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor and tested their reactivity with U(VI). We found that, when reduced, the isolated cell-free EPS fractions could reduce U(VI). Polysaccharides in the EPS likely contributed to U(VI) sorption and dominated the reactivity of laEPS, while redox active components (e.g., outer membrane c-type cytochromes), especially in bEPS, possibly facilitated U(VI) reduction.

  4. High resolution remote sensing image processing technology and its application to uranium geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie-lin

    2008-12-01

    Hyperspectral and high spatial resolution remote sensing technology take important role in uranium geological application, data mining and knowledge discovery methods are key to character spectral and spatial information of uranium mineralization factors. Based on curvelet transform algorithm, this paper developed the image fusion technology of hyperspectral (Hyperion) and high spatial data (SPOT5), and results demonstrated that fusion image had advantage in denoising, enhancing and information identification. Used discrete wavelet transform, the spectral parameters of uranium mineralization factors were acquired, the spectral identification pedigrees of typical quadrivalence and hexavalence uranium minerals were established. Furthermore, utilizing hyperspectral remote sensing observation technology, this paper developed hyperspectral logging of drill cores and trench, it can quickly processed lots of geological and spectral information, and the relationship between radioactive intensity and abnormal spectral characteristics of Fe3+ was established. All those provided remote sensing technical bases to uranium geology, and the better results have been achieved in Taoshan uranium deposits in south China.

  5. RAPID QUANTITATION OF URANIUM FROM MIXED FISSION PRODUCT SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, Morgan M.; Seiner, Brienne N.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.

    2016-03-09

    Chemical similarities between U(VI) and Mo(VI) create challenges for separation and quantification of uranium from a mixed fission product sample. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of using Eichrom’s® UTEVA resin in addition to a tellurium spontaneous deposition to improve the quantitation of 235U using gamma spectroscopy. The optimized method demonstrated a consistent chemical yield of 74 ± 3 % for uranium. This procedure was evaluated using 1.41x1012 fissions produced from an irradiated HEU sample. The uranium was isotopically yielded by HPGe, and the minimum detectable activity (MDA) determined from the gamma spectra. The MDA for 235U, 237U, and 238U was reduced by a factor of two. The chemical isolation of uranium was successfully achieved in less than four hours, with a separation factor of 1.41x105 from molybdenum.

  6. Proposal for a modification of the UVI risk scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaratti, Francesco; Piacentini, Rubén D; Guillén, Héctor A; Cabrera, Sergio H; Liley, J Ben; McKenzie, Richard L

    2014-07-01

    The standardisation of UV information to the public through the UV Index (UVI) has been hugely beneficial since its endorsement by multiple international agencies more than 10 years ago. It has now gained widespread acceptance, and UVI values are available throughout the world from satellite instruments, ground-based measurements, and from forecasts based on model calculations. These have been useful for atmospheric scientists, health professionals (skin and eye specialists), and the general public. But the descriptors and health messages associated with the UVI scale are targeted towards European skin types and UV regimes, and are not directly applicable to the population living closer to the equator, especially for those in the high-altitude Altiplano region of South America. This document arose from discussions at the Latin American Society of Photobiology and Photomedicine's Congress, which was held in Arequipa, Peru, in November 2013. A major outcome of the meeting was the Arequipa Accord, which is intended as a unifying document to ensure co-ordination of UV and health research decisions in Latin America. A plank of that agreement was the need to tailor the UVI scale to make it more relevant to the region and its population. Here we make some suggestions to improve the international applicability of the UVI scale.

  7. Influence of Reactive Transport on the Reduction of U(VI) in the Presence of Fe(III) and Nitrate: Implications for U(VI) Immobilization by Bioremediation / Biobarriers- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.D. Wood

    2007-01-01

    Subsurface contamination by metals and radionuclides represent some of the most challenging remediation problems confronting the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. In situ remediation of these contaminants by dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria (DMRB) has been proposed as a potential cost effective remediation strategy. The primary focus of this research is to determine the mechanisms by which the fluxes of electron acceptors, electron donors, and other species can be controlled to maximize the transfer of reductive equivalents to the aqueous and solid phases. The proposed research is unique in the NABIR portfolio in that it focuses on (i) the role of flow and transport in the initiation of biostimulation and the successful sequestration of metals and radionuclides [specifically U(VI)], (ii) the subsequent reductive capacity and stability of the reduced sediments produced by the biostimulation process, and (iii) the potential for altering the growth of biomass in the subsurface by the addition of specific metabolic uncoupling compounds. A scientifically-based understanding of these phenomena are critical to the ability to design successful bioremediation schemes. The laboratory research will employ Shewanella putrefaciens (CN32), a facultative DMRB that can use Fe(III) oxides as a terminal electron acceptor. Sediment-packed columns will be inoculated with this organism, and the reduction of U(VI) by the DMRB will be stimulated by the addition of a carbon and energy source in the presence of Fe(III). Separate column experiments will be conducted to independently examine: (1) the importance of the abiotic reduction of U(VI) by biogenic Fe(II); (2) the influence of the transport process on Fe(III) reduction and U(VI) immobilization, with emphasis on methods for controlling the fluxes of aqueous species to maximize uranium reduction; (3) the reductive capacity of biologically-reduced sediments (with respect to re-oxidation by convective fluxes of O2 and NO3-) and

  8. An improved extraction chromatographic resin for the separation of uranium from acidic nitrate media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Sajdak, L.R.; Chiarizia, R. [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 60439 Argonne, IL (United States)

    2001-07-06

    The preparation and characterization of a new extraction chromatographic resin exhibiting extraordinarily strong retention of hexavalent uranyl ion over a wide range of nitric acid concentrations and very high selectivity for U(VI) over Fe(III) and numerous other cations is described. This new material (designated U/TEVA-2) comprises a novel liquid stationary phase consisting of an equimolar mixture of diamyl amylphosphonate (DA[AP]) and Cyanex 923{sup registered} (a commercially available trialkyl-phosphine oxide, TRPO) sorbed on silanized silica or Amberchrom CG-71. Cyanex 923 is shown to be preferable to a related TRPO, Cyanex 925{sup registered}, due to its lower viscosity and higher selectivity for U(VI) over Fe(III). The retention of uranyl nitrate by the U/TEVA-2 resin, as measured by the k' values (number of free column values to peak maximum) is >5000 from approximately 0.1 to 8 M HNO{sub 3}. The ability of the new resin to strongly and selectively retain U(VI) from such a wide range of acid concentrations, along with its favorable physical properties, make it a good candidate for application in the separation and preconcentration of U(VI) from complex environmental, biological, and nuclear waste samples for subsequent determination.

  9. An improved extraction chromatographic resin for the separation of uranium from acidic nitrate media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, M L; Horwitz, E P; Sajdak, L R; Chiarizia, R

    2001-07-01

    The preparation and characterization of a new extraction chromatographic resin exhibiting extraordinarily strong retention of hexavalent uranyl ion over a wide range of nitric acid concentrations and very high selectivity for U(VI) over Fe(III) and numerous other cations is described. This new material (designated U/TEVA-2) comprises a novel liquid stationary phase consisting of an equimolar mixture of diamyl amylphosphonate (DA[AP]) and Cyanex 923((R)) (a commercially available trialkyl-phosphine oxide, TRPO) sorbed on silanized silica or Amberchrom CG-71. Cyanex 923 is shown to be preferable to a related TRPO, Cyanex 925((R)), due to its lower viscosity and higher selectivity for U(VI) over Fe(III). The retention of uranyl nitrate by the U/TEVA-2 resin, as measured by the k' values (number of free column values to peak maximum) is >5000 from approximately 0.1 to 8 M HNO(3). The ability of the new resin to strongly and selectively retain U(VI) from such a wide range of acid concentrations, along with its favorable physical properties, make it a good candidate for application in the separation and preconcentration of U(VI) from complex environmental, biological, and nuclear waste samples for subsequent determination.

  10. Fundamental study on decontamination of wastes contaminated by uranium fluorides by using ionic liquids - dissolution and electrochemistry of uranium in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noriko Asanuma [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Yusuke Ohhashi; Yukio Wada [Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency Kagamino-cho, Tomata-gun, Okayama 708-0698 (Japan); Masayuki Harada; Yasuhisa Ikeda [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1-N1-34 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Treatment method for wastes contaminated uranium fluorides by using ionic liquids as media of pyrochemical process instead of alkali metal chloride molten salts was proposed. In this method, uranium fluorides such as UF{sub 4} or NaF adsorbing UF{sub 6} are dissolved in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMICl) and dissolved uranium species are recovered as deposits by electrochemical reduction. Under the atmospheric condition, UF{sub 4} was completely dissolved in BMICl at 100 deg. C. UV-vis absorption spectra of the sample solution indicated that main species of uranium are U(VI) and a part of uranium exists as U(IV). Chemical form of uranium in the NaF adsorbents is Na{sub 3}UO{sub 2}F{sub 5}. Therefore, it was immediately dissolved to BMICl. However, complete dissolution was not achieved. Cyclic voltammetry of the solutions prepared by dissolution experiments was performed. Redox properties of uranium species in each sample were irreversible. It was assigned to reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). As a result of preliminary bulk electrolysis, it was expected that reduction products are deposited on the carbon cathode. (authors)

  11. Origin of hexavalent chromium in groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazakis, N.; Kantiranis, N.; Kalaitzidou, K.

    2017-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium constitutes a serious deterioration factor for the groundwater quality of several regions around the world. High concentrations of this contaminant have been also reported in the groundwater of the Sarigkiol hydrological basin (near Kozani city, NW Greece). Specific interest....... Accordingly, detailed geochemical, mineralogical, hydro-chemical, geophysical and hydrogeological studies were performed on the rocks, soils, sediments and water resources of this basin. Cr(VI) concentrations varied in the different aquifers, with the highest concentration (up to 120 μg L− 1) recorded...

  12. Uranium(VI) reduction by iron(II) monosulfide mackinawite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Sung Pil; Davis, James A; Sun, Kai; Hayes, Kim F

    2012-03-20

    Reaction of aqueous uranium(VI) with iron(II) monosulfide mackinawite in an O(2) and CO(2) free model system was studied by batch uptake measurements, equilibrium modeling, and L(III) edge U X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Batch uptake measurements showed that U(VI) removal was almost complete over the wide pH range between 5 and 11 at the initial U(VI) concentration of 5 × 10(-5) M. Extraction by a carbonate/bicarbonate solution indicated that most of the U(VI) removed from solution was reduced to nonextractable U(IV). Equilibrium modeling using Visual MINTEQ suggested that U was in equilibrium with uraninite under the experimental conditions. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy showed that the U(IV) phase associated with mackinawite was uraninite. Oxidation experiments with dissolved O(2) were performed by injecting air into the sealed reaction bottles containing mackinawite samples reacted with U(VI). Dissolved U measurement and XAS confirmed that the uraninite formed from the U(VI) reduction by mackinawite did not oxidize or dissolve under the experimental conditions. This study shows that redox reactions between U(VI) and mackinawite may occur to a significant extent, implying an important role of the ferrous sulfide mineral in the redox cycling of U under sulfate reducing conditions. This study also shows that the presence of mackinawite protects uraninite from oxidation by dissolved O(2). The findings of this study suggest that uraninite formation by abiotic reduction by the iron sulfide mineral under low temperature conditions is an important process in the redistribution and sequestration of U in the subsurface environments at U contaminated sites.

  13. Uranium(VI) Scavenging by Amorphous Iron Phosphate Encrusting Sphaerotilus natans Filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seder-Colomina, Marina; Morin, Guillaume; Brest, Jessica; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Gordien, Nilka; Pernelle, Jean-Jacques; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Mathon, Olivier; Esposito, Giovanni; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2015-12-15

    U(VI) sorption to iron oxyhydroxides, precipitation of phosphate minerals, as well as biosorption on bacterial biomass are among the most reported processes able to scavenge U(VI) under oxidizing conditions. Although phosphates significantly influence bacterially mediated as well as iron oxyhydroxide mediated scavenging of uranium, the sorption or coprecipitation of U(VI) with poorly crystalline nanosized iron phosphates has been scarcely documented, especially in the presence of microorganisms. Here we show that dissolved U(VI) can be bound to amorphous iron phosphate during their deposition on Sphaerotilus natans filamentous bacteria. Uranium LIII-edge EXAFS analysis reveals that the adsorbed uranyl ions share an equatorial oxygen atom with a phosphate tetrahedron of the amorphous iron phosphate, with a characteristic U-P distance of 3.6 Å. In addition, the uranyl ions are connected to FeO6 octahedra with U-Fe distances at ~3.4 Å and at ~4.0 Å. The shortest U-Fe distance corresponds to a bidentate edge-sharing complex often reported for uranyl adsorption onto iron oxyhydroxides, whereas the longest U-Fe and U-P distances can be interpreted as a bidentate corner-sharing complex, in which two adjacent equatorial oxygen atoms are shared with the vertices of a FeO6 octahedron and of a phosphate tetrahedron. Furthermore, based on these sorption reactions, we demonstrate the ability of an attached S. natans biofilm to remove uranium from solution without any filtration step.

  14. Biosorption of heavy metals and uranium by starfish and Pseudomonas putida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jaeyoung [Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jchoi@kist.re.kr; Lee, Ju Young; Yang, Jung-Seok [Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-01-15

    Biosorption of heavy metals and uranium from contaminated wastewaters may represent an innovative purification process. This study investigates the removal ability of unit mass of Pseudomonas putida and starfish for lead, cadmium, and uranium by quantifying the adsorption capacity. The adsorption of heavy metals and uranium by the samples was influenced by pH, and increased with increasing Pb, Cd, and U concentrations. Dead cells adsorbed the largest quantity of all heavy metals than live cells and starfish. The adsorption capacity followed the order: U(VI) > Pb > Cd. The results also suggest that bacterial membrane cells can be used successfully in the treatment of high strength metal-contaminated wastewaters.

  15. Genes for Uranium Bioremediation in the Anaerobic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2003-06-01

    Surprising results were obtained following an attempt to induce or derepress the machinery for U(VI) reduction by growing Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 in the presence of 1 mM uranyl acetate. G20 cells grown on lactate-sulfate medium amended with U(VI) reduced uranium at a slower rate than cells grown in the absence of this metal. When periplasmic extracts of these cells were prepared, Western analysis of the proteins revealed that the cytochrome c3 was absent. This observation has been further investigated.

  16. Contribution of Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 Biofilms to U(VI) Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Bin; Ahmed, B.; Kennedy, David W.; Wang, Zheming; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Isern, Nancy G.; Majors, Paul D.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2011-06-05

    The goal of this study was to quantify the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in U(VI) immobilization by Shewanella sp. HRCR-1. Through comparison of U(VI) immobilization using cells with bound EPS (bEPS) and cells without EPS, we showed that i) bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms contributed significantly to U(VI) immobilization, especially at low initial U(VI) concentrations, through both sorption and reduction; ii) bEPS could be considered as a functional extension of the cells for U(VI) immobilization and they likely play more important roles at initial U(VI) concentrations; and iii) U(VI) reduction efficiency was found to be dependent upon initial U(VI) concentration and the efficiency decreased at lower concentrations. To quantify relative contribution of sorption and reduction in U(VI) immobilization by EPS fractions, we isolated loosely associated EPS (laEPS) and bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms grown in a hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor and tested their reactivity with U(V). We found that, when in reduced form, the isolated cell-free EPS fractions could reduce U(VI). Polysaccharides in the EPS likely contributed to U(VI) sorption and dominated reactivity of laEPS while redox active components (e.g., outer membrane c-type cytochromes), especially in bEPS, might facilitate U(VI) reduction.

  17. Formation of stable uranium(VI) colloidal nanoparticles in conditions relevant to radioactive waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bots, Pieter; Morris, Katherine; Hibberd, Rosemary; Law, Gareth T W; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Brown, Andy P; Doutch, James; Smith, Andrew J; Shaw, Samuel

    2014-12-09

    The favored pathway for disposal of higher activity radioactive wastes is via deep geological disposal. Many geological disposal facility designs include cement in their engineering design. Over the long term, interaction of groundwater with the cement and waste will form a plume of a hyperalkaline leachate (pH 10-13), and the behavior of radionuclides needs to be constrained under these extreme conditions to minimize the environmental hazard from the wastes. For uranium, a key component of many radioactive wastes, thermodynamic modeling predicts that, at high pH, U(VI) solubility will be very low (nM or lower) and controlled by equilibrium with solid phase alkali and alkaline-earth uranates. However, the formation of U(VI) colloids could potentially enhance the mobility of U(VI) under these conditions, and characterizing the potential for formation and medium-term stability of U(VI) colloids is important in underpinning our understanding of U behavior in waste disposal. Reflecting this, we applied conventional geochemical and microscopy techniques combined with synchrotron based in situ and ex situ X-ray techniques (small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS)) to characterize colloidal U(VI) nanoparticles in a synthetic cement leachate (pH > 13) containing 4.2-252 μM U(VI). The results show that in cement leachates with 42 μM U(VI), colloids formed within hours and remained stable for several years. The colloids consisted of 1.5-1.8 nm nanoparticles with a proportion forming 20-60 nm aggregates. Using XAS and electron microscopy, we were able to determine that the colloidal nanoparticles had a clarkeite (sodium-uranate)-type crystallographic structure. The presented results have clear and hitherto unrecognized implications for the mobility of U(VI) in cementitious environments, in particular those associated with the geological disposal of nuclear waste.

  18. Influence of uranyl speciation and iron oxides on uranium biogeochemical redox reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, B.D.; Amos, R.T.; Nico, P.S.; Fendorf, S.

    2010-03-15

    Uranium is a pollutant of concern to both human and ecosystem health. Uranium's redox state often dictates its partitioning between the aqueous- and solid-phases, and thus controls its dissolved concentration and, coupled with groundwater flow, its migration within the environment. In anaerobic environments, the more oxidized and mobile form of uranium (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and associated species) may be reduced, directly or indirectly, by microorganisms to U(IV) with subsequent precipitation of UO{sub 2}. However, various factors within soils and sediments may limit biological reduction of U(VI), inclusive of alterations in U(VI) speciation and competitive electron acceptors. Here we elucidate the impact of U(VI) speciation on the extent and rate of reduction with specific emphasis on speciation changes induced by dissolved Ca, and we examine the impact of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides (ferrihydrite, goethite and hematite) varying in free energies of formation on U reduction. The amount of uranium removed from solution during 100 h of incubation with S. putrefaciens was 77% with no Ca or ferrihydrite present but only 24% (with ferrihydrite) and 14% (no ferrihydrite) were removed for systems with 0.8 mM Ca. Imparting an important criterion on uranium reduction, goethite and hematite decrease the dissolved concentration of calcium through adsorption and thus tend to diminish the effect of calcium on uranium reduction. Dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) can proceed through different enzyme pathways, even within a single organism, thus providing a potential second means by which Fe(III) bearing minerals may impact U(VI) reduction. We quantify rate coefficients for simultaneous dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) and U(VI) in systems varying in Ca concentration (0 to 0.8 mM), and using a mathematical construct implemented with the reactive transport code MIN3P, we reveal the predominant influence of uranyl speciation, specifically the formation of uranyl

  19. Uranium, depleted uranium, biological effects; Uranium, uranium appauvri, effets biologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Physicists, chemists and biologists at the CEA are developing scientific programs on the properties and uses of ionizing radiation. Since the CEA was created in 1945, a great deal of research has been carried out on the properties of natural, enriched and depleted uranium in cooperation with university laboratories and CNRS. There is a great deal of available data about uranium; thousands of analyses have been published in international reviews over more than 40 years. This presentation on uranium is a very brief summary of all these studies. (author)

  20. Effect of anthropogenic organic complexants on the solubility of Ni, Th, U(IV) and U(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe-Sotelo, M., E-mail: m.felipe-sotelo@lboro.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU Loughborough, Leicestershire (United Kingdom); Edgar, M. [Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU Loughborough, Leicestershire (United Kingdom); Beattie, T. [MCM Consulting. Täfernstrasse 11, CH 5405 Baden-Dättwil (Switzerland); Warwick, P. [Enviras Ltd., LE11 3TU Loughborough, Leicestershire (United Kingdom); Evans, N.D.M.; Read, D. [Department of Chemistry, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU Loughborough, Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Citrate increases the solubility of Ni, Th and U between 3 and 4 orders of magnitude. • Theophrastite is the solubility controlling phase of Ni in 95%-saturated Ca(OH){sub 2}. • U(VI) and Ni may form Metal-citrate-OH complexes stabilised by the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. - Abstract: The influence of anthropogenic organic complexants (citrate, EDTA and DTPA from 0.005 to 0.1 M) on the solubility of nickel(II), thorium(IV) and uranium (U(IV) and U(VI)) has been studied. Experiments were carried out in 95%-saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solutions, representing the high pH conditions anticipated in the near field of a cementitious intermediate level radioactive waste repository. Results showed that Ni(II) solubility increased by 2–4 orders of magnitude in the presence of EDTA and DTPA and from 3 to 4 orders of magnitude in the case of citrate. Citrate had the greatest effect on the solubility of Th(IV) and U(IV)/(VI). XRD and SEM analyses indicate that the precipitates are largely amorphous; only in the case of Ni(II), is there some evidence of incipient crystallinity, in the form of Ni(OH){sub 2} (theophrastite). A study of the effect of calcium suggests that U(VI) and Ni(II) may form metal-citrate-OH complexes stabilised by Ca{sup 2+}. Thermodynamic modelling underestimates the concentrations in solution in the presence of the ligands for all the elements considered here. Further investigation of the behaviour of organic ligands under hyperalkaline conditions is important because of the use of the thermodynamic constants in preparing the safety case for the geological disposal of radioactive wastes.

  1. Uranium Isotope Ratios in Modern and Precambrian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCorte, B.; Planavsky, N.; Wang, X.; Auerbach, D. J.; Knudsen, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Uranium isotopes (δ238U values) are an emerging paleoredox proxy that can help to better understand the redox evolution of Earth's surface environment. Recently, uranium isotopes have been used to reconstruct ocean and atmospheric redox conditions (Montoya-Pino et al., 2010; Brennecka et al., 2011; Kendall et al., 2013; Dahl et al., 2014). However, to date, there have not been studies on paleosols, despite that paleosols are, arguably better suited to directly tracking the redox conditions of the atmosphere. Sedimentary δ238U variability requires the formation of the soluble, oxidized form of U, U(VI). The formation of U(VI) is generally thought to require oxygen levels orders of magnitude higher than prebiotic levels. Without significant U mobility, it would have been impossible to develop isotopically distinct pools of uranium in ancient Earth environments. Conversely, an active U redox cycle leads to significant variability in δ238U values. Here we present a temporally and geographically expansive uranium isotope record from paleosols and modern soils to better constrain atmospheric oxygen levels during the Precambrian. Preliminary U isotope measurements of paleosols are unfractionated (relative to igneous rocks), possibly because of limited fractionation during oxidation (e.g., {Wang, 2015 #478}) or insufficient atmospheric oxygen levels to oxidize U(IV)-bearing minerals in the bedrock. Further U isotope measurements of paleosols with comparison to modern soils will resolve this issue.

  2. Uranium Detection - Technique Validation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Garduno, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Lujan, Elmer J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Mechler-Hickson, Alexandra Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); May, Iain [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Reilly, Sean Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-04-14

    As a LANL activity for DOE/NNSA in support of SHINE Medical Technologies™ ‘Accelerator Technology’ we have been investigating the application of UV-vis spectroscopy for uranium analysis in solution. While the technique has been developed specifically for sulfate solutions, the proposed SHINE target solutions, it can be adapted to a range of different solution matrixes. The FY15 work scope incorporated technical development that would improve accuracy, specificity, linearity & range, precision & ruggedness, and comparative analysis. Significant progress was achieved throughout FY 15 addressing these technical challenges, as is summarized in this report. In addition, comparative analysis of unknown samples using the Davies-Gray titration technique highlighted the importance of controlling temperature during analysis (impacting both technique accuracy and linearity/range). To fully understand the impact of temperature, additional experimentation and data analyses were performed during FY16. The results from this FY15/FY16 work were presented in a detailed presentation, LA-UR-16-21310, and an update of this presentation is included with this short report summarizing the key findings. The technique is based on analysis of the most intense U(VI) absorbance band in the visible region of the uranium spectra in 1 M H2SO4, at λmax = 419.5 nm.

  3. Chromium isotopes as indicators of hexavalent chromium reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Thomas M.

    2012-03-20

    This is the final report for a university research project which advanced development of a new technology for identifying chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium contamination in groundwater systems. Reduction renders mobile and toxic hexavalent chromium immobile and less toxic. The new method uses stable isotope ratio measurements, which are made using multicollector ICP-mass spectrometry. The main objectives of this project were completed during the project period and two peer-reviewed articles were published to disseminate the information gained.

  4. Reduction of nitrate and uranium by indigenous bacteria; Reduction des nitrates et de l'uranium par les bacteries indigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelouas, A. [Center for Research in Superconductivity and Superconductivity Electronics (United States); Lutze, W.; Nuttall, E. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering

    1998-07-01

    A bio-remediation concept has been developed to clean up ground water contaminated with nitrate (1200 mg.L{sup -1}) and uranium (0.25 mg.L{sup -1}). We studied the Tuba City mill tailings site, Arizona, USA. Indigenous bacteria capable of catalyzing the reduction of NO{sub 3}{sup -} and U(VI) were identified in the ground water and in the host rock, the Navajo sandstone. After complete reduction of O{sub 2} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} within one week, U(VI) was reduced and precipitated as uraninite. Final uranium concentrations < 15{mu}g.L{sup -1} were reached after a few weeks at 24 deg C. Iron sulfide also precipitated as a result of reduction of Fe(III) on the sand surface and sulfate in the ground water. U(VI) was not reduced by sulfide. It was found that enzymatic reduction of U(VI) is faster than abiotic reduction under the conditions given by the composition of the ground water. (authors)

  5. Aqueous U(VI) interaction with magnetite nanoparticles in a mixed flow reactor system: HR-XANES study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidchenko, I.; Heberling, F.; Kvashnina, KO; Finck, N.; Schild, D.; Bohnert, E.; Schäfer, T.; Rothe, J.; Geckeis, H.; Vitova, T.

    2016-05-01

    The redox variations and changes in local atomic environment of uranium (U) interacted with the magnetite nanoparticles were studied in a proof of principle experiment by the U L3 and M4 edges high energy resolution X-ray absorption near edge structure (HR-XANES) technique. We designed and applied a mixed flow reactor (MFR) set-up to maintain dynamic flow conditions during U-magnetite interactions. Formation of hydrolyzed, bi- and poly-nuclear U species were excluded by slow continuous injection of U(VI) (10-6 M) and pH control integrated in the MFR set-up. The applied U HR-XANES technique is more sensitive to minor changes in the U redox states and bonding compared to the conventional XANES method. Major U(VI) contribution in uranyl type of bonding is found in the magnetite nanoparticles after three days operation time of the MFR. Indications for shortening of the U-Oaxial bond length for the magnetite compared to the maghemite system are present too.

  6. U(VI) biosorption by bi-functionalized Pseudomonas putida @ chitosan bead: Modeling and optimization using RSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohbatzadeh, Hozhabr; Keshtkar, Ali Reza; Safdari, Jaber; Fatemi, Faezeh

    2016-08-01

    In this work, Pseudomonas putida cells immobilized into chitosan beads (PICB) were synthesized to investigate the impact of microorganism entrapment on biosorption capacity of prepared biosorbent for U(VI) biosorption from aqueous solutions. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Central Composite Design (CCD) was utilized to evaluate the performance of the PICB in comparison with chitosan beads (CB) under batch mode. Performing experiments under optimal condition sets viz. pH 5, initial U(VI) concentration 500mg/L, biosorbent dosage 0.4g/L and 20wt.% bacterial cells showed that the observed biosorption capacity enhanced by 1.27 times from 398mg/g (CB) to 504mg/g (PICB) that confirmed the effectiveness of cells immobilization process. FTIR and potentiometric titration were then utilized to characterize the prepared biosorbents. While the dominant functional group in the binding process was NH3(+) (4.78meq/g) in the CB, the functional groups of NH3(+), NH2, OH, COOH (6.00meq/g) were responsible for the PICB. The equilibrium and kinetic studies revealed that the Langmuir isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model were in better fitness with the CB and PICB experimental data. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the PICB could be a suitable biosorbent for uranium (VI) biosorption from aqueous solutions.

  7. Layered Double Hydroxides as Effective Adsorbents for U(VI and Toxic Heavy Metals Removal from Aqueous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Pshinko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacities of different synthesized Zn,Al-hydrotalcite-like adsorbents, including the initial carbonate [Zn4Al2(OH12]·CO3·8H2O and its forms intercalated with chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, and hexamethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (HMDTA and heat-treated form Zn4Al2O7, to adsorb uranium(VI and ions of toxic heavy metals have been compared. Metal sorption capacities of hydrotalcite-like adsorbents have been shown to correlate with the stability of their complexes with the mentioned chelating agents in a solution. The synthesized layered double hydroxides (LDHs containing chelating agents in the interlayer space are rather efficient for sorption purification of aqueous media free from U(VI irrespective of its forms of natural abundance (including water-soluble bi- and tricarbonate forms and from heavy metal ions. [Zn4Al2(OH12]·EDTA·nH2O is recommended for practical application as one of the most efficient and inexpensive synthetic adsorbents designed for recovery of both cationic and particularly important anionic forms of U(VI and other heavy metals from aqueous media. Carbonate forms of LDHs turned out to be most efficient for recovery of Cu(II from aqueous media with pH0≥7 owing to precipitation of Cu(II basic carbonates and Cu(II hydroxides. Chromate ions are efficiently adsorbed from water only by calcinated forms of LDHs.

  8. In Situ Bioreduction of Uranium (VI) to Submicromolar Levels and Reoxidation by Dissolved Oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weimin [ORNL; Carley, Jack M [ORNL; Luo, Jian [Stanford University; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew A. [Stanford University; Cardenas, Erick [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Leigh, Mary Beth [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Hwang, Chaichi [Miami University, Oxford, OH; Kelly, Shelly D [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ruan, Chuanmin [ORNL; Wu, Liyou [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Van Nostrand, Joy [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Gentry, Terry J [ORNL; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL; Mehlhorn, Tonia L [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Luo, Wensui [ORNL; Fields, Matthew Wayne [Miami University, Oxford, OH; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL; Kemner, Kenneth M [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Marsh, Terence [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tiedje, James [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Fendorf, Scott [Stanford University; Kitanidis, Peter K. [Stanford University; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Criddle, Craig [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater within Area 3 of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Field Research Center at Oak Ridge, TN (ORFRC) contains up to 135 {micro}M uranium as U(VI). Through a series of experiments at a pilot scale test facility, we explored the lower limits of groundwater U(VI) that can be achieved by in-situ biostimulation and the effects of dissolved oxygen on immobilized uranium. Weekly 2 day additions of ethanol over a 2-year period stimulated growth of denitrifying, Fe(III)-reducing, and sulfate-reducing bacteria, and immobilization of uranium as U(IV), with dissolved uranium concentrations decreasing to low levels. Following sulfite addition to remove dissolved oxygen, aqueous U(VI) concentrations fell below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant limit (MCL) for drinking water (<30 {micro}g L{sup -1} or 0.126 {micro}M). Under anaerobic conditions, these low concentrations were stable, even in the absence of added ethanol. However, when sulfite additions stopped, and dissolved oxygen (4.0-5.5 mg L{sup -1}) entered the injection well, spatially variable changes in aqueous U(VI) occurred over a 60 day period, with concentrations increasing rapidly from <0.13 to 2.0 {micro}M at a multilevel sampling (MLS) well located close to the injection well, but changing little at an MLS well located further away. Resumption of ethanol addition restored reduction of Fe(III), sulfate, and U(VI) within 36 h. After 2 years of ethanol addition, X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) analyses indicated that U(IV) comprised 60-80% of the total uranium in sediment samples. At the completion of the project (day 1260), U concentrations in MLS wells were less than 0.1 {micro}M. The microbial community at MLS wells with low U(VI) contained bacteria that are known to reduce uranium, including Desulfovibrio spp. and Geobacter spp., in both sediment and groundwater. The dominant Fe(III)-reducing species

  9. Hexavalent and trivalent chromium in leather: What should be done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Angelo

    2015-11-01

    Trivalent chromium compounds are used for leather tanning, and chromium may be released during use of leather goods. In certain instances, small amounts of hexavalent chromium can be formed and released. Both trivalent and hexavalent chromium can elicit allergic skin reaction in chromium sensitised subjects, the latter being significantly more potent. Induction of sensitisation only occurs after exposure to hexavalent chromium. A minority of subjects are sensitised to chromium, and in a fraction of these subjects allergic skin reaction have been described after wearing leather shoes or, less frequently, other leather goods. The evidence that in all these cases the reaction is related to hexavalent chromium is not always strong. The content of hexavalent chromium in leather is regulated in European Union, but rate of release rather than content is relevant for allergic skin reaction. The role of trivalent chromium appear much less relevant if at all. Modern tanning procedure do not pose significant risk due to either hexavalent or trivalent chromium. Dismissing bad quality and worn-off leather goods is relevant in reducing or eliminating the skin reaction. It should also be pointed out that shoe components or substances other than chromium in leather may cause allergic/irritative skin reactions.

  10. In Situ Community Control of the Stability of Bioreduced Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, David C.

    2006-06-01

    The overall objective of this research is to understand the mechanisms for maintenance of bio-reduced uranium in an aerobic to microaerophylic aquifer under actual field conditions after electron donor addition for biostimulation has ended. Primary Objectives: (1) Determine the relative importance of microbial communities and/or chemical and physical environments mediating uranium reduction/oxidation after cessation of donor addition in an aerobic aquifer. (2) Determine, after cessation of donor addition, the linkages between microbial functions and abiotic processes mediating. Initial Hypotheses: (1) The typical bio-reduced subsurface environments that maintain U(VI) reduction rates after biostimulation contain limited amounts of oxidized iron on mineral surfaces. Therefore, the non sulfate-reducing dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria will move to more conducive areas or be out-competed by more versatile microbes. (2) Microbes capable of sulfate reduction play an important role in the post-treatment maintenance of bio-reduced uranium because these bacteria either directly reduce U(VI) or generate H2S, and/or FeS0.9 which act as oxygen sinks maintaining U(IV) in a reduced state. (3) The presence of bioprecipitated amorphous FeS0.9 in sediments will maintain low U(IV) reoxidation rates under conditions of low biomass, but FeS0.9 by itself is not sufficient to remove U(VI) from groundwater by abiotic reduction. FIELD SCALE EXPERIMENTS: Field-scale electron donor amendment experiments were conducted in 2002, 2003, and 2004 at the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site in Rifle, Colorado.

  11. Uranium(VI) retention by Ca-bentonite under (hyper)alkaline conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, Thimo; Schmeide, Katja [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes

    2017-06-01

    The sorption behavior of U(VI) on Ca-bentonite was studied in saline, (hyper)alkaline solution via batch experiments. At pH 8.5-9.5 sorption is low in the presence of CO{sub 2} due to the formation of weakly sorbing uranyl carbonate species, which have been observed to dominate speciation up to pH 10 by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). In the pH region 10-12, U(VI) retention is almost complete. The retention can either be attributed to strongly sorbing uranyl hydroxo complexes or to a partial precipitation of uranium due to an altered solubility of U(VI) induced by ions leached out of the bentonite.

  12. Stability of uranium(VI) doped CSH phases in high saline water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolter, Jan-Martin; Schmeide, Katja [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the long-term stability of U(VI) doped calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) phases at high saline conditions, leaching experiments with NaCl, NaCl/Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaCl/NaHCO{sub 3} containing solutions were performed. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were applied to study the U(VI) binding onto the CSH phases and to get a deeper understanding of structural changes due to leaching. Results indicate that neither NaCl nor Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} affect the structural stability of CSH phases and their retention potential for U(VI). However, carbonate containing solutions lead to a decomposition of CSH phases and thus, to a release of incorporated uranium.

  13. Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farawila, Anne F.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

    2012-07-31

    , reductant or complexant used for selectivity, and ionic liquids used as supportive media. To complete the extraction and recovery cycle, we then demonstrate uranium back extraction from the TBP loaded sc-CO2 phase into an aqueous phase and the characterization of the uranium complex formed at the end of this process. Another aspect of this project was to limit proliferation risks by either co-extracting uranium and plutonium, or by leaving plutonium behind by selectively extracting uranium. We report that the former is easily achieved, since plutonium is in the tetravalent or hexavalent oxidation state in the oxidizing environment created by the TBP-nitric acid complex, and is therefore co-extracted. The latter is more challenging, as a reductant or complexant to plutonium has to be used to selectively extract uranium. After undertaking experiments on different reducing or complexing systems (e.g., AcetoHydroxamic Acid (AHA), Fe(II), ascorbic acid), oxalic acid was chosen as it can complex tetravalent actinides (Pu, Np, Th) in the aqueous phase while allowing the extraction of hexavalent uranium in the sc-CO2 phase. Finally, we show results using an alternative media to commonly used aqueous phases: ionic liquids. We show the dissolution of uranium in ionic liquids and its extraction using sc-CO2 with and without the presence of AHA. The possible separation of trivalent actinides from uranium is also demonstrated in ionic liquids using neodymium as a surrogate and diglycolamides as the extractant.

  14. Determination of kinetic coefficients for the simultaneous reduction of sulfate and uranium by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, M.D.

    1995-05-01

    Uranium contamination of groundwaters and surface waters near abandoned mill tailings piles is a serious concern in many areas of the western United States. Uranium usually exists in either the U(IV) or the U(VI) oxidation state. U(VI) is soluble in water and, as a result, is very mobile in the environment. U(IV), however, is generally insoluble in water and, therefore, is not subject to aqueous transport. In recent years, researchers have discovered that certain anaerobic microorganisms, such as the sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, can mediate the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). Although the ability of this microorganism to reduce U(VI) has been studied in some detail by previous researchers, the kinetics of the reactions have not been characterized. The purpose of this research was to perform kinetic studies on Desulfovibrio desulficans bacteria during simultaneous reduction of sulfate and uranium and to determine the phase in which uranium exists after it has been reduced and precipitated from solution. The studies were conducted in a laboratory-scale chemostat under substrate-limited growth conditions with pyruvate as the substrate. Kinetic coefficients for substrate utilization and cell growth were calculated using the Monod equation. The maximum rate of substrate utilization (k) was determined to be 4.70 days{sup {minus}1} while the half-velocity constant (K{sub s}) was 140 mg/l COD. The yield coefficient (Y) was determined to be 0.17 mg cells/mg COD while the endogenous decay coefficient (k{sub d}) was calculated as 0.072 days{sup {minus}1}. After reduction, U(IV) Precipitated from solution in the uraninite (UO{sub 2}) phase. Uranium removal efficiency as high as 90% was achieved in the chemostat.

  15. Sorption behavior of U(VI), 234U(VI) and 238U(VI) onto fracture-filling clays in Beishan granite, Gansu: Application to selecting the site of high-level radwaste repository in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN; Maozhong; LUO; Xingzhang; WANG; Ju; JIN; Yuanxin; WAN

    2005-01-01

    The first results of sorption experiments of U(VI), 234U(VI) and 238U(VI) onto original (unpurified) fracture-filling clays from No.1 monzonitic granite intrusion, Beishan area, Gansu Province, China are reported. The monzonitic granite intrusion is a potential location for a high-level radwaste (HLW) repository in China. The present experimental results show that the maximum U(VI) sorption reached 92% at near-neutral Ph and the distribution coefficient (Kd) was 1226 Ml/g. A high sorption capacity of the fracture-filling clays in host rock on radioactive elements is necessary for HLW deep geological disposal repository. No preferential sorption of 234U onto the clays was found. Finally, the sorption of U(VI) onto the clays was also modeled using a surface complexation model.

  16. The Nopal 1 Uranium Deposit: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, G.; Allard, T.; Galoisy, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal 1 natural analogue is located in the Pena Blanca uranium district, about 50 kms north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit is hosted in tertiary ignimbritic ash-flow tuffs, dated at 44 Ma (Nopal and Colorados formations), and overlying the Pozos conglomerate formation and a sequence of Cretaceous carbonate rocks. The deposit is exposed at the ground surface and consists of a near vertical zone extending over about 100 m with a diameter of 40 m. An interesting characteristic is that the primary mineralization has been exposed above the water table, as a result of the uplift of the Sierra Pena Blanca, and subsequently oxidized with a remobilization of hexavalent uranium. The primary mineralization has been explained by various genetic models. It is associated to an extensive hydrothermal alteration of the volcanic tuffs, locally associated to pyrite and preserved by an intense silicification. Several kaolinite parageneses occur in fissure fillings and feldspar pseudomorphs, within the mineralized breccia pipe and the barren surrounding rhyolitic tuffs. Smectites are mainly developed in the underlying weakly welded tuffs. Several radiation-induced defect centers have been found in these kaolinites providing a unique picture of the dynamics of uranium mobilization (see Allard et al., this session). Another evidence of this mobilization is given by the spectroscopy of uranium-bearing opals, which show characteristic fluorescence spectra of uranyl groups sorbed at the surface of silica. By comparison with the other uranium deposits of the Sierra Pena Blanca and the nearby Sierra de Gomez, the Nopal 1 deposit is original, as it is one of the few deposits hving retained a reduced uranium mineralization.

  17. Promoting Uranium Immobilization by the Activities of Microbial Phosphatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Martinez; Melanie J. Beazley; Samuel M. Webb; Martial Taillefert (co-PI); and Patricia A. Sobecky

    2007-04-19

    The overall objective of this project is to examine the activity of nonspecific phosphohydrolases present in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of radionuclides through the production of uranium [U(VI)] phosphate precipitates. Specifically, we hypothesize that the precipitation of U(VI) phosphate minerals may be promoted through the microbial release and/or accumulation of PO4 3- as a means to detoxify radionuclides and heavy metals. An experimental approach was designed to determine the extent of phosphatase activity in bacteria previously isolated from contaminated subsurface soils collected at the ERSP Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. Screening of 135 metal resistant isolates for phosphatase activity indicated the majority (75 of 135) exhibited a phosphatase-positive phenotype. During this phase of the project, a PCR based approach has also been designed to assay FRC isolates for the presence of one or more classes of the characterized non-specific acid phophastase (NSAP) genes likely to be involved in promoting U(VI) precipitation. Testing of a subset of Pb resistant (Pbr) Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Rahnella strains indicated 4 of the 9 Pbr isolates exhibited phosphatase phenotypes suggestive of the ability to bioprecipitate U(VI). Two FRC strains, a Rahnella sp. strain Y9602 and a Bacillus sp. strain Y9-2, were further characterized. The Rahnella sp. exhibited enhanced phosphatase activity relative to the Bacillus sp. Whole-cell enzyme assays identified a pH optimum of 5.5, and inorganic phosphate accumulated in pH 5.5 synthetic groundwater (designed to mimic FRC conditions) incubations of both strains in the presence of a model organophosphorus substrate provided as the sole C and P source. Kinetic experiments showed that these two organisms can grow in the presence of 200 μM dissolved uranium and that Rahnella is much more efficient in precipitating U(VI) than Bacillus sp. The

  18. Preparation and adsorption performance of 5-azacytosine-functionalized hydrothermal carbon for selective solid-phase extraction of uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiang; Ma, Lijian; Liu, Jun; Bai, Chiyao; Geng, Junxia; Wang, Hang; Li, Bo; Wang, Liyue; Li, Shoujian

    2012-11-15

    A new solid-phase extraction adsorbent was prepared by employing a two-step "grafting from" approach to anchor a multidentate N-donor ligand, 5-azacytosine onto hydrothermal carbon (HTC) microspheres for highly selective separation of U(VI) from multi-ion system. Fourier-transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical structure and properties of resultant HTC-based materials. The adsorption behavior of U(VI) onto the adsorbent was investigated as functions of pH, contact time, ionic strength, temperature, and initial U(VI) concentration using batch adsorption experiments. The U(VI) adsorption was of pH dependent. The adsorption achieved equilibrium within 30 min and followed a pseudo-second-order equation. The adsorption amount of U(VI) increased with raising the temperature from 283.15 to 333.15K. Remarkably, high ionic strength up to 5.0 mol L(-1) NaNO(3) had only slight effect on the adsorption. The maximum U(VI) adsorption capacity reached 408.36 mg g(-1) at 333.15K and pH 4.5. Results from batch experiments in a simulated nuclear industrial effluent, containing 13 co-existing cations including uranyl ion, showed a high adsorption capacity and selectivity of the adsorbent for uranium (0.63 mmol U g(-1), accounting for about 67% of the total adsorption amount).

  19. Coumarin-modified microporous-mesoporous Zn-MOF-74 showing ultra-high uptake capacity and photo-switched storage/release of U(VI) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Wang, Lin Lin; Gong, Le Le; Feng, Xue Feng; Luo, Ming Biao; Luo, Feng

    2016-07-05

    Driven by an energy crisis but consequently puzzled by various environmental problems, uranium, as the basic material of nuclear energy, is now receiving extensive attentions. In contrast to numerous sorbents applied in this field, metal-organic framework (MOFs), as a renovated material platform, has only recently been developed. How to improve the adsorption capacity of MOF materials towards U(VI) ions, as well as taking advantage of the nature of these MOFs to design photo-switched behaviour for photo-triggered storage/release of U(VI) ions are at present urgent problems and great challenges to be solved. Herein, we show a simple and facile method to target the goal. Through coordination-based post-synthetic strategy, microporous- mesoporous Zn-MOF-74 was easily functionalized by grafting coumarin on coordinatively unsaturated Zn(II) centers, yielding a series of coumarin-modified Zn-MOF-74 materials. The obtained samples displayed ultra-high adsorption capacity for U(VI) ions from water at pH value of 4 with maximum adsorption capacities as high as 360 mg/g (the record value in MOFs) and a remarkable photo-switched capability of 50 mg/g at pH value of 4. To the best of knowledge, and in contrast to the well-known photo-switched behaviour towards CO2, dye (propidium iodide), as well as fluorescence observed in MOFs, this is the first study that shows a photo-switched behaviour towards radioactive U(VI) ions in aqueous solution.

  20. Stimulating the In Situ Activity of Geobacter Species to Remove Uranium from the Groundwater of a Uranium-Contaminated Aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R. T.; Vrionis, Helen A.; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; Resch, Charles T.; Long, Philip E.; Dayvault, R. D.; Karp, Ken; Marutzky, Sammy J.; Metzler, Donald R.; Peacock, Aaron D.; White, David C.; Lowe, Mary; Lovley, Derek R.

    2003-10-01

    The potential for removing uranium from contaminated groundwater by stimulating the in situ activity of dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms was evaluated in a uranium-contaminated aquifer located in Rifle, Colo. Acetate (1 to 3 mM) was injected into the subsurface over a 3-month period via an injection gallery composed of 20 injection wells, which was installed upgradient from a series of 15 monitoring wells. U(VI) concentrations decreased in as little as 9 days after acetate injection was initiated, and within 50 days uranium had declined below the prescribed treatment level of 0.18 _M in some of the monitoring wells. Analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences and phospholipid fatty acid profiles demonstrated that the initial loss of uranium from the groundwater was associated with an enrichment of Geobacter species in the treatment zone. Fe(II) in the groundwater also increased during this period, suggesting that U(VI) reduction was coincident with Fe(III) reduction. As the acetate injection continued over 50 days there was a loss of sulfate from the groundwater and an accumulation of sulfide and the composition of the microbial community changed. Organisms with 16S rDNA sequences most closely related to those of sulfate reducers became predominant, and Geobacter species became a minor component of the community. This apparent switch from Fe(III) reduction to sulfate reduction as the terminal electron accepting process for the oxidation of the injected acetate was associated with an increase in uranium concentration in the groundwater. These results demonstrate that in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater is feasible but suggest that the strategy should be optimized to better maintain long-term activity of Geobacter species.

  1. Evaluating chemical extraction techniques for the determination of uranium oxidation state in reduced aquifer sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliker, Deborah L.; Campbell, Kate M.; Fox, Patricia M.; Singer, David M.; Kaviani, Nazila; Carey, Minna; Peck, Nicole E.; Barger, John R.; Kent, Douglas B.; Davis, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Extraction techniques utilizing high pH and (bi)carbonate concentrations were evaluated for their efficacy in determining the oxidation state of uranium (U) in reduced sediments collected from Rifle, CO. Differences in dissolved concentrations between oxic and anoxic extractions have been proposed as a means to quantify the U(VI) and U(IV) content of sediments. An additional step was added to anoxic extractions using a strong anion exchange resin to separate dissolved U(IV) and U(VI). X-ray spectroscopy showed that U(IV) in the sediments was present as polymerized precipitates similar to uraninite and/or less ordered U(IV), referred to as non-uraninite U(IV) species associated with biomass (NUSAB). Extractions of sediment containing both uraninite and NUSAB displayed higher dissolved uranium concentrations under oxic than anoxic conditions while extractions of sediment dominated by NUSAB resulted in identical dissolved U concentrations. Dissolved U(IV) was rapidly oxidized under anoxic conditions in all experiments. Uraninite reacted minimally under anoxic conditions but thermodynamic calculations show that its propensity to oxidize is sensitive to solution chemistry and sediment mineralogy. A universal method for quantification of U(IV) and U(VI) in sediments has not yet been developed but the chemical extractions, when combined with solid-phase characterization, have a narrow range of applicability for sediments without U(VI).

  2. Evaluating chemical extraction techniques for the determination of uranium oxidation state in reduced aquifer sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliker, Deborah L; Campbell, Kate M; Fox, Patricia M; Singer, David M; Kaviani, Nazila; Carey, Minna; Peck, Nicole E; Bargar, John R; Kent, Douglas B; Davis, James A

    2013-08-20

    Extraction techniques utilizing high pH and (bi)carbonate concentrations were evaluated for their efficacy in determining the oxidation state of uranium (U) in reduced sediments collected from Rifle, CO. Differences in dissolved concentrations between oxic and anoxic extractions have been proposed as a means to quantify the U(VI) and U(IV) content of sediments. An additional step was added to anoxic extractions using a strong anion exchange resin to separate dissolved U(IV) and U(VI). X-ray spectroscopy showed that U(IV) in the sediments was present as polymerized precipitates similar to uraninite and/or less ordered U(IV), referred to as non-uraninite U(IV) species associated with biomass (NUSAB). Extractions of sediment containing both uraninite and NUSAB displayed higher dissolved uranium concentrations under oxic than anoxic conditions while extractions of sediment dominated by NUSAB resulted in identical dissolved U concentrations. Dissolved U(IV) was rapidly oxidized under anoxic conditions in all experiments. Uraninite reacted minimally under anoxic conditions but thermodynamic calculations show that its propensity to oxidize is sensitive to solution chemistry and sediment mineralogy. A universal method for quantification of U(IV) and U(VI) in sediments has not yet been developed but the chemical extractions, when combined with solid-phase characterization, have a narrow range of applicability for sediments without U(VI).

  3. Potential aquifer vulnerability in regions down-gradient from uranium in situ recovery (ISR) sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, James A; Pivetz, Bruce E; Voorhies, Nathan; Wilkin, Richard T

    2016-12-01

    Sandstone-hosted roll-front uranium ore deposits originate when U(VI) dissolved in groundwater is reduced and precipitated as insoluble U(IV) minerals. Groundwater redox geochemistry, aqueous complexation, and solute migration are important in leaching uranium from source rocks and transporting it in low concentrations to a chemical redox interface where it is deposited in an ore zone typically containing the uranium minerals uraninite, pitchblende, and/or coffinite; various iron sulfides; native selenium; clays; and calcite. In situ recovery (ISR) of uranium ores is a process of contacting the uranium mineral deposit with leaching and oxidizing (lixiviant) fluids via injection of the lixiviant into wells drilled into the subsurface aquifer that hosts uranium ore, while other extraction wells pump the dissolved uranium after dissolution of the uranium minerals. Environmental concerns during and after ISR include water quality degradation from: 1) potential excursions of leaching solutions away from the injection zone into down-gradient, underlying, or overlying aquifers; 2) potential migration of uranium and its decay products (e.g., Ra, Rn, Pb); and, 3) potential mobilization and migration of redox-sensitive trace metals (e.g., Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, V), metalloids (e.g., As), and anions (e.g., sulfate). This review describes the geochemical processes that control roll-front uranium transport and fate in groundwater systems, identifies potential aquifer vulnerabilities to ISR operations, identifies data gaps in mitigating these vulnerabilities, and discusses the hydrogeological characterization involved in developing a monitoring program.

  4. Immobilization of uranium by biomaterial stabilized FeS nanoparticles: Effects of stabilizer and enrichment mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dadong; Ren, Xuemei; Wen, Jun; Hu, Sheng; Xiong, Jie; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Xiaolin; Wang, Xiangke

    2016-01-25

    Iron sulfide (FeS) nanoparticles have been recognized as effective scavengers for multi-valent metal ions. However, the aggregation of FeS nanoparticles in aqueous solution greatly restricts their application in real work. Herein, different biomaterial-FeS nanoparticles were developed for the in-situ immobilization of uranium(VI) in radioactive waste management. TEM images suggested that sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and gelatin can effectively suppress the aggregation of FeS nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. The resulting CMC-FeS and gelatin-FeS were stable in aqueous solutions and showed high adsorption capacity for U(VI). Specially, gelatin-FeS showed the best performance in U(VI) adsorption-reduction immobilization under experimental conditions. The maximum enrichment capacity of U(VI) on CMC-FeS and gelatin-FeS at pH 5.0 and 20 °C achieved to ∼430 and ∼556 mg/g, respectively. Additionally, gelatin-FeS and CMC-FeS nanoparticles presented excellent tolerance to environmental salinity. The immobilized U(VI) on the surfaces of CMC-FeS and gelatin-FeS remained stable more than one year. These findings highlight the possibility of using ggelatin-FeS for efficient immobilization of U(VI) from radioactive wastewater.

  5. A first principles investigation of electron transfer between Fe(II) and U(VI) on insulating Al- vs. semiconducting Fe-oxide surfaces via the proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. D.; Marcano, M. C.; Becker, U.

    2017-01-01

    (II) to travel through the hematite surface and reach U(VI). The progression and extent of ET occurring on the semiconducting hematite (0 0 1) surface via the proximity effect depends on the electronic properties of the surface. ET between the spatially separated U(VI) and Fe(II) occurs most readily when orbitals between the Fe and U adsorbates overlap with those of neighboring O and Fe ions at the hematite surface, as shown by calculations without the Hubbard U correction. Analyses of the spins densities confirm that the U and Fe adsorbates were reduced and oxidized, respectively, (acquiring 0.33 μB and 0.11-0.20 μB, respectively), while Fe cations at the hematite surface were reduced (losing ⩽0.6 μB). If electrons are highly localized, the amount of orbital mixing and electronic coupling through the hematite surface decreases and in turn leads to a lower degree of spin transfer, as predicted by calculations with the Hubbard U correction. Thus, the proximity effect is a potential mechanism on semiconducting surfaces facilitating surface-mediated redox reactions, although its significance varies depending on the electronic properties and subsequent charge-carrying ability of the surface. These results provide insight into ET pathways and mechanisms on insulating Al- and semiconducting Fe oxide surfaces influencing the reduction U(VI) by Fe(II) that may subsequently limit uranium's transport in the subsurface.

  6. DBC solvent extraction of U(VI) from thiocyanate medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The extraction behavior of uranium(VI) from thiocyanate medium with dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DBC) in nitrobenzene and the effects of alkali cations on the extraction were investigated. The results showed that the uranium (VI) can be effectively extracted in the presence of potassium cation, uranium (VI) is extracted as complex anionic species UO2(SCN)-3, and the stoichiometry of the extracted complex is KUO2(SCN)32DBC(o).

  7. WFC3 TV2 Testing: UVIS Channel Glint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas M.

    2007-10-01

    The UVIS spare detector (UVIS build 2) was housed in WFC3 during the most recent epoch of thermal vaccum ground testing. We scanned the chip gap with a HeNe laser, to look for scattering from any material in the CCD chip gap or the edges of the CCD chips themselves. Although we found no such scattering issues, we did find a significant glint problem involving reflection from the surface of the CCD to the CCD housing and back down to the CCD. The glint appears as a large streak, ~10,000 pixels in area, containing anywhere from 1% to 30% of the energy within the source itself, depending upon the wavelength and position of the source. Approximately 10% of the detector area leads to glint when a source is placed in that area. Although any one glint comprises a tiny fraction of the detector area, the glint sweeps over a large area as the source is moved, implying that approximately 15% of the detector could be significantly illuminated by glint when observing a crowded field. As a result, the UVIS detectors currently not installed in the instrument have been modified to mask the surfaces responsible for the glint, to avoid this issue on orbit.

  8. In situ mobility of uranium in the presence of nitrate following sulfate-reducing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Charles J; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Watson, David B; McKay, Larry D; Hazen, Terry C; Park, Melora; Istok, Jonathan D

    2016-04-01

    Reoxidation and mobilization of previously reduced and immobilized uranium by dissolved-phase oxidants poses a significant challenge for remediating uranium-contaminated groundwater. Preferential oxidation of reduced sulfur-bearing species, as opposed to reduced uranium-bearing species, has been demonstrated to limit the mobility of uranium at the laboratory scale yet field-scale investigations are lacking. In this study, the mobility of uranium in the presence of nitrate oxidant was investigated in a shallow groundwater system after establishing conditions conducive to uranium reduction and the formation of reduced sulfur-bearing species. A series of three injections of groundwater (200 L) containing U(VI) (5 μM) and amended with ethanol (40 mM) and sulfate (20 mM) were conducted in ten test wells in order to stimulate microbial-mediated reduction of uranium and the formation of reduced sulfur-bearing species. Simultaneous push-pull tests were then conducted in triplicate well clusters to investigate the mobility of U(VI) under three conditions: 1) high nitrate (120 mM), 2) high nitrate (120 mM) with ethanol (30 mM), and 3) low nitrate (2 mM) with ethanol (30 mM). Dilution-adjusted breakthrough curves of ethanol, nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, and U(VI) suggested that nitrate reduction was predominantly coupled to the oxidation of reduced-sulfur bearing species, as opposed to the reoxidation of U(IV), under all three conditions for the duration of the 36-day tests. The amount of sulfate, but not U(VI), recovered during the push-pull tests was substantially more than injected, relative to bromide tracer, under all three conditions and further suggested that reduced sulfur-bearing species were preferentially oxidized under nitrate-reducing conditions. However, some reoxidation of U(IV) was observed under nitrate-reducing conditions and in the absence of detectable nitrate and/or nitrite. This suggested that reduced sulfur-bearing species may not be fully effective at

  9. Trace and Wavelength Calibrations of the UVIS G280 +1/-1 Grism Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzkal, Norbert; Hilbert, Bryan; Rothberg, Barry

    2017-06-01

    We present new calibrations of the UVIS G280 grism dispersions for the -1 and +1 orders. The new calibration is based on in-flight observations of the star WR14 which was observed at multiple positions on the UVIS detector. This allowed us to derive a first estimate of the field dependence of the UVIS G280 dispersion. While previous, TV3 ground test based calibration, were only able to calibrate spectra obtained at the center of the UVIS CHIP1, our new solutions allow for the extraction and wavelength calibration of spectra over the entire UVIS field-of-view. We estimate the accuracy of the wavelength calibration using the new V2.0 dispersion solutions to be ± 7Å, or about half of a UVIS resolution element.

  10. In Situ Immobilization of Uranium in Structured Porous Media (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S. C.; Gu, B.; Wu, W.; Spalding, B. P.; Watson, D. B.; Jardine, P.

    2009-12-01

    Defense related activities have resulted in broad areas of uranium contaminated groundwater across the U. S. Department of Energy complex. For example, past waste disposal practices at the DOE’s Y-12 site generated a plume of uranium and nitrate contamination in the underlying vadose and saturated zones which extends more than 120 meters deep and thousands of meters along geologic strike. Several DOE sponsored research programs have enabled the study of multiple biotic and abiotic methods of immobilizing uranium in situ at the site. These include biostimulation of metal reducing bacteria to promote reduction of the more soluble U(VI) to the sparingly soluble U(IV) and pH manipulation to immobilize U(VI) through its interactions (e.g., sorption, coprecipitation) with incipient aluminum oxyhydroxide minerals. The application of laboratory based results to the field site must also account for (i) the structured media which can impose incomplete mixing conditions and (ii) steep geochemical gradients or transition zones which differ significantly from the typically well mixed laboratory conditions. In this presentation results of several of these studies will be reviewed and lessons learned summarized.

  11. Efficient uranium immobilization on red clay with phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabias, Ewelina; Gładysz-Płaska, Agnieszka; Książek, Anna; Majdan, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Uranium is a very toxic and radioactive element. Removal of uranium from wastewaters requires remediation technologies. Actual methods are costly and ineffective when uranium concentration is very low. Little is known about the enhancement of sorption of uranyl ions by phosphate ions on aluminosilicates. Here, we studied sorption of uranyl acetate on red clay in the presence of phosphates. The concentration of U(VI) ranged 0.0001-0.001 mol/L, whereas the concentration of PO4(3-) was constant at 0.0001 mol/L. We designed a new method for the analysis of ternary surface complexes. We observed for the first time a remarkable improvement of U(VI) sorption on red clay under the influence of phosphates. We also found that at least two different ternary surface complexes U(VI)-phosphate-clay are formed in the sorbent phase. The complexation of UO2(2+) cations by phosphate ligands in the sorbent phase was confirmed by the X-ray photoelectron spectra of U 4f electrons.

  12. Uranium Biomineralization by Natural Microbial Phosphatase Activities in the Subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobecky, Patricia A. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2015-04-06

    In this project, inter-disciplinary research activities were conducted in collaboration among investigators at The University of Alabama (UA), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light source (SSRL) to: (i) confirm that phosphatase activities of subsurface bacteria in Area 2 and 3 from the Oak Ridge Field Research Center result in solid U-phosphate precipitation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions; (ii) investigate the eventual competition between uranium biomineralization via U-phosphate precipitation and uranium bioreduction; (iii) determine subsurface microbial community structure changes of Area 2 soils following organophosphate amendments; (iv) obtain the complete genome sequences of the Rahnella sp. Y9-602 and the type-strain Rahnella aquatilis ATCC 33071 isolated from these soils; (v) determine if polyphosphate accumulation and phytate hydrolysis can be used to promote U(VI) biomineralization in subsurface sediments; (vi) characterize the effect of uranium on phytate hydrolysis by a new microorganism isolated from uranium-contaminated sediments; (vii) utilize positron-emission tomography to label and track metabolically-active bacteria in soil columns, and (viii) study the stability of the uranium phosphate mineral product. Microarray analyses and mineral precipitation characterizations were conducted in collaboration with DOE SBR-funded investigators at LBNL. Thus, microbial phosphorus metabolism has been shown to have a contributing role to uranium immobilization in the subsurface.

  13. Efficient removal of uranium from aqueous solution by zero-valent iron nanoparticle and its graphene composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zi-Jie; Wang, Lin; Yuan, Li-Yong [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology and Key Laboratory For Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Xiao, Cheng-Liang [School of Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Mei, Lei [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology and Key Laboratory For Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zheng, Li-Rong; Zhang, Jing [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing100049 (China); Yang, Ju-Hua; Zhao, Yu-Liang [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology and Key Laboratory For Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhu, Zhen-Tai [State Key Laboratory of NBC Protection for Civilian, Beijing 102205 (China); Chai, Zhi-Fang, E-mail: zfchai@suda.edu.cn [School of Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Shi, Wei-Qun, E-mail: shiwq@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology and Key Laboratory For Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Uranium removal by ZVI-nps: independent of pH, the presence of CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}, humic acid, or mimic groundwater constituents. • Rapid removal kinetics and sorption capacity of ZVI-nps is 8173 mg U/g. • Two reaction mechanisms: sufficient Fe{sup 0} → reductive precipitation as U{sub 3}O{sub 7}; insufficient Fe{sup 0} → hydrolysis precipitation of U(VI). • Fe/graphene composites: improved kinetics and higher U(VI) reduction ratio. - Abstract: Zero-valent iron nanoparticle (ZVI-np) and its graphene composites were prepared and applied in the removal of uranium under anoxic conditions. It was found that solutions containing 24 ppm U(VI) could be completely cleaned up by ZVI-nps, regardless of the presence of NaHCO{sub 3}, humic acid, mimic groundwater constituents or the change of solution pH from 5 to 9, manifesting the promising potential of this reactive material in permeable reactive barrier (PRB) to remediate uranium-contaminated groundwater. In the measurement of maximum sorption capacity, removal efficiency of uranium kept at 100% until C{sub 0}(U) = 643 ppm, and the saturation sorption of 8173 mg U/g ZVI-nps was achieved at C{sub 0}(U) = 714 ppm. In addition, reaction mechanisms were clarified based on the results of SEM, XRD, XANES, and chemical leaching in (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. Partially reductive precipitation of U(VI) as U{sub 3}O{sub 7} was prevalent when sufficient iron was available; nevertheless, hydrolysis precipitation of U(VI) on surface would be predominant as iron got insufficient, characterized by releases of Fe{sup 2+} ions. The dissolution of Fe{sup 0} cores was assigned to be the driving force of continuous formation of U(VI) (hydr)oxide. The incorporation of graphene supporting matrix was found to facilitate faster removal rate and higher U(VI) reduction ratio, thus benefitting the long-term immobilization of uranium in geochemical environment.

  14. An experimental and modeling study of grain-scale uranium desorption from field-contaminated sediments and the potential influence of microporosity on mass-transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliker, D.; Liu, C.; Kent, D. B.; Zachara, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The aquifer below the 300-Area of the Hanford site (Richland, WA, USA) is plagued by a persistent plume of dissolved uranium (U(VI)) in excess of the Environmental Protection Agency drinking water maximum contamination level even after the removal of highly contaminated sediments. The aquifer sediments in the seasonally saturated lower vadose zone act as both a source and sink for uranium during stage changes in the nearby Columbia River. Diffusion limitation of uranium mass-transfer within these sediments has been cited as a potential cause of the plume's persistence. Equilibrium U(VI) sorption is a strong function of variable chemical conditions, especially carbonate, hydrogen, and uranyl ion activities. Field-contaminated sediments from the site require up to 1,000 hours to reach equilibrium in static batch reactors. Increases in U(VI) concentrations over longer time-scales result from changes in chemical conditions, which drive reactions with sediments that favor U(VI) desorption. Grain-scale U(VI) sorption/desorption rates are slow, likely owing to diffusion of U(VI) and other solutes through intra-granular pore domains. In order to improve understanding of the impact of intra-granular diffusion and chemical reactions controlling grain-scale U(VI) release, experiments were conducted on individual particle size fractions of a displacement from equilibrium and multiple diffusion domains were described with a two-parameter lognormal distribution of mass-transfer rate coefficients. Parameters describing mass transfer were the same for all size fractions <2 mm but differed for the largest (2-8 mm) size fraction. The evolution of pH, along with dissolved cation and carbonate concentrations, was modeled using equilibrium cation exchange, rate-limited calcite dissolution, aerobic respiration, and silica dissolution. Desorption and chemical reaction models calibrated with individual size fractions predicted U(VI) and chemical composition as a function of time for the

  15. Uranium industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  16. Subcellular distribution of uranium in the roots of Spirodela punctata and surface interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Xiaoqin, E-mail: xiaoqin_nie@163.com [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety Laboratory, Mianyang 621010 (China); Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Dong, Faqin, E-mail: fqdong2004@163.com [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety Laboratory, Mianyang 621010 (China); Liu, Ning [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Liu, Mingxue [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety Laboratory, Mianyang 621010 (China); Zhang, Dong; Kang, Wu [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry,China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Sun, Shiyong; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Jie [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety Laboratory, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The proportion of uranium concentration approximate as 8:2:1 in the cell wall organelle and cytosol fractions of roots of S. punctata. • The particles including 35% Fe (wt%) released from the cells after 100 mg/L U treatment 48 h. • Most of the uranium bound onto the root surface and contacted with phosphorus ligands and formed as nano-scales U-P lamellar crystal. • FTIR and XPS analyses result indicates the uranium changed the band position and shapes of phosphate group, and the region of characteristic peak belongs to U(VI) and U(IV) were also observed. - Abstract: The subcellular distribution of uranium in roots of Spirodela punctata (duckweed) and the process of surface interaction were studied upon exposure to U (0, 5–200 mg/L) at pH 5. The concentration of uranium in each subcelluar fraction increased significantly with increasing solution U level, after 200 mg/L uranium solution treatment 120 h, the proportion of uranium concentration approximate as 8:2:1 in the cell wall organelle and cytosol fractions of roots of S. punctata. OM SEM and EDS showed after 5–200 mg/L U treatment 4–24 h, some intracellular fluid released from the root cells, after 100 mg/L U treatment 48 h, the particles including 35% Fe (wt%) and other organic matters such as EPS released from the cells, most of the uranium bound onto the root surface and contacted with phosphorus ligands and formed as nano-scales U-P lamellar crystal, similar crystal has been found in the cell wall and organelle fractions after 50 mg/L U treatment 120 h. FTIR and XPS analyses result indicates the uranium changed the band position and shapes of phosphate group, and the region of characteristic peak belongs to U(VI) and U(IV) were also observed.

  17. Long-term dynamics of uranium reduction/reoxidation under low sulfate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlos, John; Peacock, Aaron; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Jaffé, Peter R.

    2008-08-01

    The biological reduction and precipitation of uranium in groundwater has the potential to prevent uranium migration from contaminated sites. Although previous research has shown that uranium bioremediation is maximized during iron reduction, little is known on how long-term iron/uranium reducing conditions can be maintained. Questions also remain about the stability of uranium and other reduced species after a long-term biostimulation scheme is discontinued and oxidants (i.e., oxygen) re-enter the bioreduced zone. To gain further insights into these processes, four columns, packed with sediment containing iron as Fe-oxides (mainly Al-goethite) and silicate Fe (Fe-containing clays), were operated in the laboratory under field-relevant flow conditions to measure the long-term (>200 day) removal efficiency of uranium from a simulated groundwater during biostimulation with an electron donor (3 mM acetate) under low sulfate conditions. The biostimulation experiments were then followed by reoxidation of the reduced sediments with oxygen. During biostimulation, Fe(III) reduction occurred simultaneously with U(VI) reduction. Both Fe-oxides and silicate Fe(III) were partly reduced, and silicate Fe(III) reduction was detected only during the first half of the biostimulation phase while Fe-oxide reduction occurred throughout the whole biostimulation period. Mössbauer measurements indicated that the biogenic Fe(II) precipitate resulting from Fe-oxide reduction was neither siderite nor FeS 0.09 (mackinawite). U(VI) reduction efficiency increased throughout the bioreduction period, while the Fe(III) reduction gradually decreased with time. Effluent Fe(II) concentrations decreased linearly by only 30% over the final 100 days of biostimulation, indicating that bioreducible Fe(III) in the sediment was not exhausted at the termination of the experiment. Even though Fe(III) reduction did not change substantially with time, microorganisms not typically associated with Fe(III) and U(VI

  18. GSDO Program Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives: Final Pretreatments Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent chrome free pretreatments should be considered for use on Ground Support Equipment (OSE) and Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EOSE). Both of the hexavalent chrome free pretreatments (Metalast TCP HF and SurTec 650C) evaluated by this project met, and in some instances exceeded, the requirements ofMIL-DTL-5541 "Chemical Conversion Coatings on Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys". For DC resistance measurements, both Metalast TCP HF and SurTec (!50C met initial requirements following assembly and in many cases continued to maintain passing readings for the duration of testing.

  19. Virus-mediated FCC iron nanoparticle induced synthesis of uranium dioxide nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tao; Yu, Huimin; Shen, Zhongyao; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Jing

    2008-03-19

    A reducing system involving M13 virus-mediated FCC Fe nanoparticles was employed to achieve uranium reduction and synthesize uranium dioxide nanocrystals. Here we show that metastable face-centered cubic (FCC) Fe nanoparticles were fabricated around the surface of the M13 virus during the specific adsorption of the virus towards Fe ions under a reduced environment. The FCC phase of these Fe nanoparticles was confirmed by careful TEM characterization. Moreover, this virus-mediated FCC Fe nanoparticle system successfully reduced contaminable U(VI) into UO(2) crystals with diameters of 2-5 nm by a green and convenient route.

  20. Solid phase extraction using silica gel modified with murexide for preconcentration of uranium (VI) ions from water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Birjand University, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: ssadeghi@birjand.ac.ir; Sheikhzadeh, E. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Birjand University, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-04-30

    Murexide was chemically bonded to silica gel surface immobilized 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APMS) to produce the new sorbent. A solid phase extraction method using the new sorbent has been developed to separate and concentrate trace amount of uranium (VI) from aqueous samples for the measurement by spectrophotometry method using Arsenazo III reagent. The influences of some analytical parameters on the quantitative recoveries of the analyte were investigated both in batch and column methods. Quantitative recovery of U(VI) was achieved by stripping with 0.1 mol L{sup -1} HCl. The maximum sorption capacity of the modified silica gel was 1.13 mmol g{sup -1} U(VI). A high preconcentration factor value of 400 with a lower limit of detection of 1 {mu}g L{sup -1} was obtained for U(VI). The practical applicability of the developed sorbent was examined using synthetic and real samples such as sea/ground water samples.

  1. Solid phase extraction using silica gel modified with murexide for preconcentration of uranium (VI) ions from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, S; Sheikhzadeh, E

    2009-04-30

    Murexide was chemically bonded to silica gel surface immobilized 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APMS) to produce the new sorbent. A solid phase extraction method using the new sorbent has been developed to separate and concentrate trace amount of uranium (VI) from aqueous samples for the measurement by spectrophotometry method using Arsenazo III reagent. The influences of some analytical parameters on the quantitative recoveries of the analyte were investigated both in batch and column methods. Quantitative recovery of U(VI) was achieved by stripping with 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl. The maximum sorption capacity of the modified silica gel was 1.13 mmol g(-1) U(VI). A high preconcentration factor value of 400 with a lower limit of detection of 1 microg L(-1) was obtained for U(VI). The practical applicability of the developed sorbent was examined using synthetic and real samples such as sea/ground water samples.

  2. Performance and Mechanism of Uranium Adsorption from Seawater to Poly(dopamine)-Inspired Sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fengcheng; Pu, Ning; Ye, Gang; Sun, Taoxiang; Wang, Zhe; Song, Yang; Wang, Wenqing; Huo, Xiaomei; Lu, Yuexiang; Chen, Jing

    2017-04-18

    Developing facile and robust technologies for effective enrichment of uranium from seawater is of great significance for resource sustainability and environmental safety. By exploiting mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) chemistry, diverse types of PDA-functionalized sorbents including magnetic nanoparticle (MNP), ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC), and glass fiber carpet (GFC) were synthesized. The PDA functional layers with abundant catechol and amine/imine groups provided an excellent platform for binding to uranium. Due to the distinctive structure of PDA, the sorbents exhibited multistage kinetics which was simultaneously controlled by chemisorption and intralayer diffusion. Applying the diverse PDA-modified sorbents for enrichment of low concentration (parts per billion) uranium in laboratory-prepared solutions and unpurified seawater was fully evaluated under different scenarios: that is, by batch adsorption for MNP and OMC and by selective filtration for GFC. Moreover, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies were performed for probing the underlying coordination mechanism between PDA and U(VI). The catechol hydroxyls of PDA were identified as the main bidentate ligands to coordinate U(VI) at the equatorial plane. This study assessed the potential of versatile PDA chemistry for development of efficient uranium sorbents and provided new insights into the interaction mechanism between PDA and uranium.

  3. Uranium industry in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    Current state of uranium industry in Canada has been considered. It is shown that in Canada, which is the major supplier of uranium, new methods of prospecting, mining and processing of uranium are developed and the old ones are improved. Owing to automation and mechanization a higher labour productivity in uranium ore mining is achieved. The uranium industry of Canada can satisfy the future demands in uranium but introduction of any new improvement will depend completely on the rate of nuclear power development.

  4. uVis: A Formula-Based Visualization Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantazos, Kostas; Xu, Shangjin; Kuhail, Mohammad Amin;

    Several tools use programming approaches for developing advanced visualizations. Others can with a few steps create simple visualizations with built-in patterns, and users with limited IT experience can use them. However, it is programming and time demanding to create and customize...... these visualizations. We introduce uVis, a tool that allows users with advanced spreadsheet-like IT knowledge and basic database understanding to create simple as well as advanced visualizations. These users construct visualizations by combining building blocks (i.e. controls, shapes). They specify spreadsheet...

  5. Optimization of a bioremediation system of soluble uranium based on the biostimulation of an indigenous bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleke, Maleke; Williams, Peter; Castillo, Julio; Botes, Elsabe; Ojo, Abidemi; DeFlaun, Mary; van Heerden, Esta

    2015-06-01

    High concentrations of uranium(VI) in the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa from mining leachate is a serious environmental concern. Treatment systems are often ineffective. Therefore, optimization of a bioremediation system that facilitates the bioreduction of U(VI) based on biostimulation of indigenous bacterial communities can be a viable alternative. Tolerance of the indigenous bacteria to high concentrations of U and the amount of citric acid required for U removal was optimized. Two bioreactor studies which showed effective U(VI) removal more than 99 % from low (0.0037 mg L(-1)) and high (10 mg L(-1)) concentrations of U to below the limit allowed by South African National Standards for drinking water (0.0015 mg L(-1)). The second bioreactor was able to successfully adapt even with increasing levels of U(VI) feed water up to 10 mg L(-1), provided that enough electron donor was available. Molecular biology analyses identified Desulfovibrio sp. and Geobacter sp. among known species, which are known to reduce U(VI). The mineralogical analysis determined that part of the uranium precipitated intracellularly, which meant that the remaining U(VI) was precipitated as U(IV) oxides and TEM-EDS also confirmed this analysis. This was predicted with the geochemical model from the chemical data, which demonstrated that the treated drainage was supersaturated with respect to uraninite > U4O9 > U3O8 > UO2(am). Therefore, the tolerance of the indigenous bacterial community could be optimized to remediate up to 10 mg L(-1), and the system can thus be upscaled and employed for remediation of U(VI) impacted sites.

  6. Transient groundwater chemistry near a river: Effects on U(VI) transport in laboratory column experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Haggerty, Roy; Stoliker, Deborah L.; Kent, Douglas B.; Istok, Jonathan D.; Greskowiak, Janek; Zachara, John M.

    2011-01-01

    In the 300 Area of a U(VI)-contaminated aquifer at Hanford, Washington, USA, inorganic carbon and major cations, which have large impacts on U(VI) transport, change on an hourly and seasonal basis near the Columbia River. Batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate the factors controlling U(VI) adsorption/desorption by changing chemical conditions over time. Low alkalinity and low Ca concentrations (Columbia River water) enhanced adsorption and reduced aqueous concentrations. Conversely, high alkalinity and high Ca concentrations (Hanford groundwater) reduced adsorption and increased aqueous concentrations of U(VI). An equilibrium surface complexation model calibrated using laboratory batch experiments accounted for the decrease in U(VI) adsorption observed with increasing (bi)carbonate concentrations and other aqueous chemical conditions. In the column experiment, alternating pulses of river and groundwater caused swings in aqueous U(VI) concentration. A multispecies multirate surface complexation reactive transport model simulated most of the major U(VI) changes in two column experiments. The modeling results also indicated that U(VI) transport in the studied sediment could be simulated by using a single kinetic rate without loss of accuracy in the simulations. Moreover, the capability of the model to predict U(VI) transport in Hanford groundwater under transient chemical conditions depends significantly on the knowledge of real-time change of local groundwater chemistry.

  7. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-28

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  8. Influence of Dynamical Conditions on the Reduction of UVI at the Magnetite-Solution Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilton, Eugene S.; Boily, Jean F.; Buck, Edgar C.; Skomurski, Frances N.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Cahill, Christopher L.; Bargar, John R.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2010-01-14

    The heterogeneous reduction of UVI to UIV by ferrous iron is a potentially key process influencing the fate and transport of U in the environment. The reactivity of both sorbed and structural FeII has been studied for numerous substrates, including magnetite. The results from UVI-magnetite experiments have been variable, ranging from no reduction to clear evidence for the formation of UIV. In this contribution, we used XAS and high resolution (+cryogenic) XPS to study the interaction of UVI with nano-particulate magnetite. The results indicated that UVI was partially reduced to UV with no evidence of UIV. However, thermodynamic calculations indicated that mixed-valence U phases with average oxidation states below (V) should have been stable, indicating that the system was not in redox equilibrium. A reaction pathway that involves incorporation of U and stabilization of UV and UVI in secondary phases is invoked to explain the observations.

  9. Silica with immobilized phosphinic acid-derivative for uranium extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnyak, Tetyana M., E-mail: tetyanabudnyak@yahoo.com [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 17 General Naumov Str., 03164 Kyiv (Ukraine); Strizhak, Alexander V. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Street, 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine); Gładysz-Płaska, Agnieszka; Sternik, Dariusz [Maria Curie Skłodowska University, 2 M. Curie Skłodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Komarov, Igor V. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Street, 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kołodyńska, Dorota; Majdan, Marek [Maria Curie Skłodowska University, 2 M. Curie Skłodowska Sq., 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Tertykh, Valentin A. [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 17 General Naumov Str., 03164 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A novel benzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid-silica gel material was prepared. • U(VI) ions are sorbed on the studied adsorbent from the acidic solution. • U(VI) ions form a stable complex with the grafted phosphinic ligand. - Abstract: A novel adsorbent benzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid/aminosilica adsorbent (BImPhP(O)(OH)/SiO{sub 2}NH{sub 2}) was prepared by carbonyldiimidazole-mediated coupling of aminosilica with 1-carboxymethylbenzoimidazol-2-yl-phenylphosphinic acid. It was obtained through direct phosphorylation of 1-cyanomethylbenzoimidazole by phenylphosphonic dichloride followed by basic hydrolysis of the nitrile. The obtained sorbent was well characterized by physicochemical methods, such as differential scanning calorimetry-mass spectrometry (DSC-MS), surface area and pore distribution analysis (ASAP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. The adsorption behavior of the sorbent and initial silica gel as well as aminosilica gel with respect to uranium(VI) from the aqueous media has been studied under varying operating conditions of pH, concentration of uranium(VI), contact time, and desorption in different media. The synthesized material was found to show an increase in adsorption activity with respect to uranyl ions in comparison with the initial compounds. In particular, the highest adsorption capacity for the obtained modified silica was found at the neutral pH, where one gram of the adsorbent can extract 176 mg of uranium. Under the same conditions the aminosilica extracts 166 mg/g, and the silica – 144 mg/g of uranium. In the acidic medium, which is common for uranium nuclear wastes, the synthesized adsorbent extracts 27 mg/g, the aminosilica – 16 mg/g, and the silica – 14 mg/g of uranium. It was found that 15% of uranium ions leached from the prepared material in acidic solutions, while 4% of uranium can be removed in a phosphate

  10. Microbiological, Geochemical and Hydrologic Processes Controlling Uranium Mobility: An Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site at Rifle, Colorado, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-01-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cleaning up and/or monitoring large, dilute plumes contaminated by metals, such as uranium and chromium, whose mobility and solubility change with redox status. Field-scale experiments with acetate as the electron donor have stimulated metal-reducing bacteria to effectively remove uranium [U(VI)] from groundwater at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Rifle, Colorado. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a multidisciplinary team of national laboratory and academic collaborators has embarked on a research proposed for the Rifle site, the object of which is to gain a comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the microbial factors and associated geochemistry controlling uranium mobility so that DOE can confidently remediate uranium plumes as well as support stewardship of uranium-contaminated sites. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the Rifle Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Project.

  11. Thermodynamic Insight into the Solvation and Complexation Behavior of U(VI) in Ionic Liquid: Binding of CMPO with U(VI) Studied by Optical Spectroscopy and Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Sun, Taoxiang; Meng, Xianghai; Chen, Jing; Xu, Chao

    2017-03-06

    The complexation of U(VI) with octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO, denoted as L) in ionic liquid (IL) C4mimNTf2 was investigated by UV-vis absorption spectrophotometry and isothermal titration calorimetry. Spectro-photometric titration suggests that three successive complexes, UO2Lj(2+) (j = 1-3), formed both in "dry" (water content U(VI) is much stronger, with stability constants of the respective complexes more than 1 order of magnitude higher than that in wet IL. Energetically, the complexation of U(VI) with CMPO in dry IL is mainly driven by negative enthalpies. In contrast, the complexation in wet IL is overwhelmingly driven by highly positive entropies as a result of the release of a large amount of water molecules from the solvation sphere of U(VI). Moreover, comparisons between the fitted absorption spectra of complexes in wet IL and that of extractive samples from solvent extraction have identified the speciation involved in the extraction of U(VI) by CMPO in ionic liquid. The results from this study not only offer a thermodynamic insight into the complexation behavior of U(VI) with CMPO in IL but also provide valuable information for understanding the extraction behavior in the corresponding solvent extraction system.

  12. Spectroscopic investigations on sorption of uranium onto suspended bentonite. Effects of pH, ionic strength and complexing anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Parveen Kumar; Pathak, Priyanath; Mohapatra, Manoj; Mohapatra, Prasanta Kumar [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.; Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Jha, Sambhunath; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Atomic and Molecular Physics Div.

    2015-06-01

    Batch sorption experiments were carried out under aerobic conditions to understand the sorption behavior of U(VI) onto bentonite clay under varying pH (2-8) and ionic strength (I = 0.01 - 1 M (NaClO{sub 4})) conditions. The influences of different complexing anions (1 x 10{sup -4} M) such as oxalic acid (ox), carbonate (CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}), citric acid (cit), and humic acid (HA, 10 mg/L) on the sorption behavior were also investigated. The sorption of U(VI) increased with increasing pH up to pH 6 beyond which a decrease was attributed to the formation of anionic carbonate species. Marginal influence of the change in the ionic strength of the medium on the sorption profile of uranium suggested inner-sphere complexation onto the bentonite surface. The presence of humic acid showed interesting sorption profile with varying pH. Initially, there was an enhancement in the sorption with increased pH followed by a plateau and finally a decrease thereafter due to the formation of aqueous U(VI)-humate complexes. Spectroscopic studies such as UV spectrophotometry, luminescence and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements were also performed to understand the changes in aqueous speciation of U(VI) ion. The luminescence yields of different aqueous U(VI) species followed the order: U(VI){sub Hydroxy} > U(VI){sub HumicAcid} > U(VI){sub carbonate} > U(VI){sub citrate}. The lower luminescence yield of U(VI)carbonate complex can be attributed to the strong dynamic quenching by carbonate at room temperature. The U(VI) samples shows two distinct life-time suggesting the presence of the different luminescent U(VI) species. Similar trend was observed for U(VI)-bentonite suspension in presence/absence of the complexing ligands. There was luminescence quenching for the sorbed U(VI) due to surface complexation. These observations were further supported by spectrophotometric measurements. EXAFS spectra of U(VI) samples were recorded in luminescence mode at the U L{sub 3

  13. Electron transfer at the cell-uranium interface in Geobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    The in situ stimulation of Fe(III) oxide reduction in the subsurface stimulates the growth of Geobacter spp. and the precipitation of U(VI) from groundwater. As with Fe(III) oxide reduction, the reduction of uranium by Geobacter spp. requires the expression of their conductive pili. The pili bind the soluble uranium and catalyse its extracellular reductive precipitation along the pili filaments as a mononuclear U(IV) complexed by carbon-containing ligands. Although most of the uranium is immobilized by the pili, some uranium deposits are also observed in discreet regions of the outer membrane, consistent with the participation of redox-active foci, presumably c-type cytochromes, in the extracellular reduction of uranium. It is unlikely that cytochromes released from the outer membrane could associate with the pili and contribute to the catalysis, because scanning tunnelling microscopy spectroscopy did not reveal any haem-specific electronic features in the pili, but, rather, showed topographic and electronic features intrinsic to the pilus shaft. Pili not only enhance the rate and extent of uranium reduction per cell, but also prevent the uranium from traversing the outer membrane and mineralizing the cell envelope. As a result, pili expression preserves the essential respiratory activities of the cell envelope and the cell's viability. Hence the results support a model in which the conductive pili function as the primary mechanism for the reduction of uranium and cellular protection in Geobacter spp.

  14. Uranium conversion; Urankonvertering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 4} are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material.

  15. Uranium processing and properties

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Covers a broad spectrum of topics and applications that deal with uranium processing and the properties of uranium Offers extensive coverage of both new and established practices for dealing with uranium supplies in nuclear engineering Promotes the documentation of the state-of-the-art processing techniques utilized for uranium and other specialty metals

  16. Study of new complexes of uranium and comba radical. I.- Complexes defective in sodium carbonate; Estudio de nuevos complejos entre el uranio y el radical CDMBA. I. Complejos con defectos de carbonato sodico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Palomino, J.; Galiano Sedano, J. A.; Parellada Bellod, R.; Bellido Gonzalez, A.

    1975-07-01

    Some complexes formed in presence of defect of sodium carbonate with respect to the stoichiometric ratio (U): (C0{sub 3}) = 1:3 are studied. This ratio corresponds to the main complex which is responsible for the uranium extraction with CDMBAC organic solutions and from U(VI) aqueous solutions with an excess of sodium carbonate. (Author) 10 refs.

  17. 300 Area Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Mark D.

    2009-06-30

    The objective of the treatability test was to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. A test site consisting of an injection well and 15 monitoring wells was installed in the 300 Area near the process trenches that had previously received uranium-bearing effluents. This report summarizes the work on the polyphosphate injection project, including bench-scale laboratory studies, a field injection test, and the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the results. Previous laboratory tests have demonstrated that when a soluble form of polyphosphate is injected into uranium-bearing saturated porous media, immobilization of uranium occurs due to formation of an insoluble uranyl phosphate, autunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•nH2O]. These tests were conducted at conditions expected for the aquifer and used Hanford soils and groundwater containing very low concentrations of uranium (10-6 M). Because autunite sequesters uranium in the oxidized form U(VI) rather than forcing reduction to U(IV), the possibility of re-oxidation and subsequent re-mobilization is negated. Extensive testing demonstrated the very low solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of autunite. In addition to autunite, excess phosphorous may result in apatite mineral formation, which provides a long-term source of treatment capacity. Phosphate arrival response data indicate that, under site conditions, the polyphosphate amendment could be effectively distributed over a relatively large lateral extent, with wells located at a radial distance of 23 m (75 ft) reaching from between 40% and 60% of the injection concentration. Given these phosphate transport characteristics, direct treatment of uranium through the formation of uranyl-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., autunite) could likely be effectively implemented at full field scale. However, formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases using the selected three-phase approach was problematic. Although

  18. Biomineralization of Uranium by PhoY Phosphatase Activity Aids Cell Survival in Caulobacter crescentus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yung, M C [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jiao, Y [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-07-22

    Caulobacter crescentus is known to tolerate high levels of uranium [U(VI)], but its detoxification mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that C. crescentus is able to facilitate U(VI) biomineralization through the formation of U-Pi precipitates via its native alkaline phosphatase activity. The U-Pi precipitates, deposited on the cell surface in the form of meta-autunite structures, have a lower U/Pi ratio than do chemically produced precipitates. The enzyme that is responsible for the phosphatase activity and thus the biomineralization process is identified as PhoY, a periplasmic alkaline phosphatase with broad substrate specificity. Furthermore, PhoY is shown to confer a survival advantage on C. crescentus toward U(VI) under both growth and nongrowth conditions. Results obtained in this study thus highlight U(VI) biomineralization as a resistance mechanism in microbes, which not only improves our understanding of bacterium-mineral interactions but also aids in defining potential ecological niches for metal-resistant bacteria.

  19. Biomineralization of uranium by PhoY phosphatase activity aids cell survival in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Mimi C; Jiao, Yongqin

    2014-08-01

    Caulobacter crescentus is known to tolerate high levels of uranium [U(VI)], but its detoxification mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that C. crescentus is able to facilitate U(VI) biomineralization through the formation of U-Pi precipitates via its native alkaline phosphatase activity. The U-Pi precipitates, deposited on the cell surface in the form of meta-autunite structures, have a lower U/Pi ratio than do chemically produced precipitates. The enzyme that is responsible for the phosphatase activity and thus the biomineralization process is identified as PhoY, a periplasmic alkaline phosphatase with broad substrate specificity. Furthermore, PhoY is shown to confer a survival advantage on C. crescentus toward U(VI) under both growth and nongrowth conditions. Results obtained in this study thus highlight U(VI) biomineralization as a resistance mechanism in microbes, which not only improves our understanding of bacterium-mineral interactions but also aids in defining potential ecological niches for metal-resistant bacteria.

  20. Validation of the WATEQ4 geochemical model for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, K.M.; Jenne, E.A.; Deutsch, W.J.

    1983-09-01

    As part of the Geochemical Modeling and Nuclide/Rock/Groundwater Interactions Studies Program, a study was conducted to partially validate the WATEQ4 aqueous speciation-solubility geochemical model for uranium. The solubility controls determined with the WATEQ4 geochemical model were in excellent agreement with those laboratory studies in which the solids schoepite (UO/sub 2/(OH)/sub 2/ . H/sub 2/O), UO/sub 2/(OH)/sub 2/, and rutherfordine ((UO/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) were identified as actual solubility controls for uranium. The results of modeling solution analyses from laboratory studies of uranyl phosphate solids, however, identified possible errors in the characterization of solids in the original solubility experiments. As part of this study, significant deficiencies in the WATEQ4 thermodynamic data base for uranium solutes and solids were corrected. Revisions included recalculation of selected uranium reactions. Additionally, thermodynamic data for the hydroxyl complexes of U(VI), including anionic (VI) species, were evaluated (to the extent permitted by the available data). Vanadium reactions were also added to the thermodynamic data base because uranium-vanadium solids can exist in natural ground-water systems. This study is only a partial validation of the WATEQ4 geochemical model because the available laboratory solubility studies do not cover the range of solid phases, alkaline pH values, and concentrations of inorganic complexing ligands needed to evaluate the potential solubility of uranium in ground waters associated with various proposed nuclear waste repositories. Further validation of this or other geochemical models for uranium will require careful determinations of uraninite solubility over the pH range of 7 to 10 under highly reducing conditions and of uranyl hydroxide and phosphate solubilities over the pH range of 7 to 10 under oxygenated conditions.

  1. Model-based analysis of the role of biological, hydrological and geochemical factors affecting uranium bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiao; Scheibe, Timothy D; Mahadevan, R

    2011-07-01

    Uranium contamination is a serious concern at several sites motivating the development of novel treatment strategies such as the Geobacter-mediated reductive immobilization of uranium. However, this bioremediation strategy has not yet been optimized for the sustained uranium removal. While several reactive-transport models have been developed to represent Geobacter-mediated bioremediation of uranium, these models often lack the detailed quantitative description of the microbial process (e.g., biomass build-up in both groundwater and sediments, electron transport system, etc.) and the interaction between biogeochemical and hydrological process. In this study, a novel multi-scale model was developed by integrating our recent model on electron capacitance of Geobacter (Zhao et al., 2010) with a comprehensive simulator of coupled fluid flow, hydrologic transport, heat transfer, and biogeochemical reactions. This mechanistic reactive-transport model accurately reproduces the experimental data for the bioremediation of uranium with acetate amendment. We subsequently performed global sensitivity analysis with the reactive-transport model in order to identify the main sources of prediction uncertainty caused by synergistic effects of biological, geochemical, and hydrological processes. The proposed approach successfully captured significant contributing factors across time and space, thereby improving the structure and parameterization of the comprehensive reactive-transport model. The global sensitivity analysis also provides a potentially useful tool to evaluate uranium bioremediation strategy. The simulations suggest that under difficult environments (e.g., highly contaminated with U(VI) at a high migration rate of solutes), the efficiency of uranium removal can be improved by adding Geobacter species to the contaminated site (bioaugmentation) in conjunction with the addition of electron donor (biostimulation). The simulations also highlight the interactive effect of

  2. Biodegradation of the metallic carcinogen hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) by an indigenously isolated bacterial strain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Das, Alok Prasad; Mishra, Susmita

    2010-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], a potential mutagen and carcinogen, is regularly introduced into the environment through diverse anthropogenic activities, including electroplating, leather tanning, and pigment manufacturing...

  3. Adsorption of uranium from aqueous solution by PAMAM dendron functionalized styrene divinylbenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaiyaraja, P., E-mail: chemila07@gmail.com [Radiological Safety Division, Radiological Safety and Environmental Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India); Singha Deb, Ashish Kumar; Sivasubramanian, K. [Radiological Safety Division, Radiological Safety and Environmental Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India); Ponraju, D. [Safety Engineering Division, Reactor Design Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India); Venkatraman, B. [Radiological Safety Division, Radiological Safety and Environmental Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamilnadu (India)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► A new chelating resin PAMAMG{sub 3} -SDB has been synthesized for uranium adsorption. ► The maximum adsorption capacity was determined to be 130.25 mg g{sup −1} at pH 5.5. ► Adsorption capacity increases linearly with increasing dendron generation. ► The adsorbed uranium shall be easily desorbed by simply adjusting the pH < 3. ► Quantitative adsorption of uranium was observed even at high ionic strength. -- Abstract: A new polymeric chelating resin was prepared by growing third generation poly(amido)amine (PAMAMG{sub 3}) dendron on the surface of styrene divinylbenzene (SDB) and characterized by FTIR, TGA and SEM. The ideal branching of dendron in the chelating resin was determined from potentiometric titration. Adsorption of uranium (VI) from aqueous solution using PAMAMG{sub 3}-SDB chelating resin was studied in a series of batch experiments. Effect of contact time, pH, ionic strength, adsorbent dose, initial U(VI) concentration, dendron generation and temperature on adsorption of U(VI) were investigated. Kinetic experiments showed that U(VI) adsorption on PAMAMG{sub 3}-SDB followed pseudo-second-order kinetics model appropriately and equilibrium data agreed well with the Langmuir isotherm model. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔH°, ΔS°, ΔG°) were evaluated from temperature dependent adsorption data and the uranium adsorption on PAMAMG{sub 3}-SDB was found to be endothermic and spontaneous in nature. The sticking probability value (5.303 × 10{sup −9}), kinetic and isotherm data reveal the chemisorption of uranium on PAMAMG{sub 3}-SDB and adsorption capacity of the chelating resin was estimated to be 130.25 mg g{sup −1} at 298 K. About 99% of adsorbed U(VI) can be desorbed from PAMAMG{sub 3}-SDB by a simple acid treatment suggesting that the chelating resin is reusable.

  4. Morphology Characterization of Uranium Particles From Laser Ablated Uranium Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the study, metallic uranium and uranium dioxide material were ablated by laser beam in order to simulate the process of forming the uranium particles in pyrochemical process. The morphology characteristic of uranium particles and the surface of

  5. Persistence of uranium groundwater plumes: Contrasting mechanisms at two DOE sites in the groundwater-river interaction zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M.; Long, Philip E.; Bargar, John; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Freshley, Mark D.; Konopka, Allan; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2013-04-01

    We examine subsurface uranium (U) plumes at two U.S. Department of Energy sites that are located near large river systems and that are influenced by groundwater-river hydrologic interaction. Following surface excavation of contaminated materials, both sites were projected to naturally flush remnant uranium contamination to levels below regulatory limits (e.g., 30 µg/L or 0.126 µmol/L; U.S. EPA drinking water standard), with 10 years projected for the Hanford 300 Area (Columbia River) and 12 years for the Rifle site (Colorado River). The rate of observed uranium decrease was much lower than expected at both sites. While uncertainty remains, a comparison of current understanding suggests that the two sites have common, but also different mechanisms controlling plume persistence. At the Hanford 300 A, the persistent source is adsorbed U(VI) in the vadose zone that is released to the aquifer during spring water table excursions. The release of U(VI) from the vadose zone and its transport within the oxic, coarse-textured aquifer sediments is dominated by kinetically-limited surface complexation. Modeling implies that annual plume discharge volumes to the Columbia River are small (< one pore volume). At the Rifle site, slow oxidation of naturally reduced, contaminant U(IV) in the saturated zone and a continuous influx of U(VI) from natural, up-gradient sources influences plume persistence. Rate-limited mass transfer and surface complexation also control U(VI) migration velocity in the sub-oxic Rifle groundwater. Flux of U(VI) from the vadose zone at the Rifle site may be locally important, but it is not the dominant process that sustains the plume. A wide range in microbiologic functional diversity exists at both sites. Strains of Geobacter and other metal reducing bacteria are present at low natural abundance that are capable of enzymatic U(VI) reduction in localized zones of accumulated detrital organic carbon or after organic carbon amendment. Major differences

  6. A Site Wide Perspective on Uranium Geochemistry at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Christensen, J. N.; Davis, Jim A.; Dresel, P. Evan; Liu, Chongxuan; Kelly, S. D.; McKinley, James P.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Um, Wooyong

    2007-10-26

    Uranium (U) is an important risk-driving contaminant at the Hanford Site. Over 200,000 kg have been released to the vadose zone over the course of site operations, and a number of vadose zone and groundwater plumes containing the uranyl cation [UO22+, U(VI)] have been identified. U is recognized to be of moderate-to-high mobility, conditions dependent. The site is currently making decisions on several of these plumes with long-lasting implications, and others are soon to come. Uranium is one of nature’s most intriguing and chemically complex elements. The fate and transport of U(VI) has been studied over the long lifetime of the Hanford Site by various contractors, along with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and its collaborators. Significant research has more recently been contributed by the national scientific community with support from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Science through its Environmental Remediation Sciences Division (ERSD). This report represents a first attempt to integrate these findings into a cohesive view of the subsurface geochemistry of U at the Hanford Site. The objective is to inform all interested Hanford parties about the in-ground inventory of U and its geochemical behavior. This report also comments on the prospects for the development of a robust generic model to more accurately forecast future U(VI) migration at different Hanford waste sites, along with further research necessary to reach this goal.

  7. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto sisal pulp/polypyrrole composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y. Y.; Wei, C.; Gong, Y. Y.; Du, L. L.

    2017-02-01

    Sisal pulp/polypyrrole composites(SP/PPy) utilized for the removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from wastewater, were prepared via in-situ chemical oxidation polymerization approach. The structure and morphology of the SP/PPy were analyzed by polarizing optical microscopy (POM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM)), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the results indicated SP could be efficient dispersion of PPy. The hexavalent chromium adsorption results indicate adsorption capacity of the SP/PPy were dependent on the initial pH, with an optimum pH of 2.0. The sorption kinetic data fitted well to the pseudo-second order model and isotherm data fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity determined from the Langmuir isotherm is 336.70 mg/g at 25° C.

  8. Uranium industry annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-05

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

  9. Uranium Provinces in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three uranium provinces are recognized in China, the Southeast China uranium province, the Northeast China-lnner Mongolia uranium province and the Northwest China (Xinjiang) uranium province. The latter two promise good potential for uranium resources and are major exploration target areas in recent years. There are two major types of uranium deposits: the Phanerozoic hydrothermal type (vein type) and the Meso-Cenozoic sandstone type in different proportions in the three uranium provinces. The most important reason or prerequisite for the formation of these uranium provinces is that Precambrian uranium-enriched old basement or its broken parts (median massifs) exists or once existed in these regions, and underwent strong tectonomagmatic activation during Phanerozoic time. Uranium was mobilized from the old basement and migrated upwards to the upper structural level together with the acidic magma originating from anatexis and the primary fluids, which were then mixed with meteoric water and resulted in the formation of Phanerozoic hydrothermal uranium deposits under extensional tectonic environments. Erosion of uraniferous rocks and pre-existing uranium deposits during the Meso-Cenozoic brought about the removal of uranium into young sedimentary basins. When those basins were uplifted and slightly deformed by later tectonic activity, roll-type uranium deposits were formed as a result of redox in permeable sandstone strata.

  10. Uranium industry annual 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  11. Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics Applications: Joint Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Regardless of the corrosivity of the environment, all metals require periodic maintenance activity to guard against the insidious effects of corrosion and thus ensure that alloys meet or exceed design or performance life. The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates is the application of a coating system. Applied coating systems work via a variety of methods (barrier, galvanic, and/or inhibitor) and adhere to the substrate through a combination of chemical and physical bonds. For years hexavalent chromium has been a widely used element within applied coating systems because of its self healing and corrosion resistant properties. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) studies have concluded that hexavalent chromium (hex chrome) is carcinogenic and poses significant risk to human health. On May 5, 2011 amendments to the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) were issued in the Federal Register. Subpart 223.73 prohibits contracts from requiring hexavalent chromium in deliverables unless certain exceptions apply. These exceptions include authorization from a general or flag officer and members of the Senior Executive Service from a Program Executive Office, and unmodified legacy systems. Otherwise, Subpart 252.223-7008 provides the contract clause prohibiting contractors from using or delivering hexavalent chromium in a concentration greater than 0.1 percent by weight for all new contracts and to be included down to subcontractors for supplies, maintenance and repair services, and construction materials. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Department of Defense (DoD), and industry stakeholders continue to search for alternatives to hex chrome in coatings applications that meet their performance requirements in corrosion protection, cost, operability, and health and safety, while typically specifying that performance must be equal to or greater than existing systems.

  12. Influence of ammonium availability on expression of nifD and amtB genes during biostimulation of a U(VI) contaminated aquifer: implications for U(VI) removal and monitoring the metabolic state of Geobacteraceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouser, Paula J.; N' Guessan, A. Lucie; Elifantz, Hila; Holmes, Dawn E.; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J.; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2009-03-25

    The influence of ammonium availability on bacterial community structure and the physiological status of Geobacter species during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater was evaluated. Ammonium concentrations varied by 2 orders of magnitude (<4 to 400 ?M) across the study site. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences suggested that ammonium may have been one factor influencing the community composition prior to acetate amendment with Rhodoferax species predominating over Geobacter species with higher ammonium and Dechloromonas species dominating at the site with lowest ammonium. However, once acetate was added and dissimilatory metal reduction was stimulated, Geobacter species became the predominant organisms at all locations. Rates of U(VI) reduction appeared to be more related to acetate concentrations rather than ammonium levels. In situ mRNA transcript abundance of the nitrogen fixation gene, nifD, and the ammonium transporter gene, amtB, in Geobacter species indicated that ammonium was the primary source of nitrogen during uranium reduction. The abundance of amtB was inversely correlated to ammonium levels, whereas nifD transcript levels were similar across all sites examined. These results suggest that nifD and amtB expression are closely regulated in response to ammonium availability to ensure an adequate supply of nitrogen while conserving cell resources. Thus, quantifying nifD and amtB transcript expression appears to be a useful approach for monitoring the nitrogen-related physiological status of subsurface Geobacter species. This study also emphasizes the need for more detailed analysis of geochemical and physiological interactions at the field scale in order to adequately model subsurface microbial processes during bioremediation.

  13. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.; Olson, R.S.; Kerlinger, H.O.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for recovering uranium values from uranium bearing phosphate solutions such as are encountered in the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. The solution is first treated with a reducing agent to obtain all the uranium in the tetravalent state. Following this reduction, the solution is treated to co-precipitate the rcduced uranium as a fluoride, together with other insoluble fluorides, thereby accomplishing a substantially complete recovery of even trace amounts of uranium from the phosphate solution. This precipitate usually takes the form of a complex fluoride precipitate, and after appropriate pre-treatment, the uranium fluorides are leached from this precipitate and rccovered from the leach solution.

  14. Uranium Biomineralization by Caulobacter crescentus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y.; Yung, M.; Park, D.

    2014-12-01

    It is well known that microorganisms are able to mediate removal of U(VI) from solution through reduction to insoluble U(IV) oxides under anaerobic conditions, but microbial transformation of U(VI) under aerobic conditions are less well understood. Here, we describe two processes of U(VI) transformation by the aerobic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, known for its ubiquitous presence in aquatic systems and high U(VI) tolerance. U(VI) causes a temporary growth arrest in Caulobacter and growth recovery is not due to a decrease in U solubility, a common detoxification strategy employed by other microorganisms. Through functional reporter assays, we discovered that Caulobacter is able to reduce U(VI) bioavailability through a metabolism-dependent increase of medium pH, representing a novel U detoxification strategy. Upon recovery from growth arrest, Caulobacter proliferates with normal growth kinetics, accompanied by active U(VI) biomineralization. We found that phosphate metabolism is actively involved in the formation of U-P precipitates that are similar to autunite-group minerals. Comparisons of growth and U(VI) precipitation by wild type versus a phosphatase mutant indicates that extra-cytoplasmic phosphatase activity is not only responsible for the formation of cell-surface-bound U-P precipitates, but also plays an important role in cell survival under U stress. Our results highlight the importance of aerobic bacterial metabolism for U biogeochemistry.

  15. Tetra- and hexavalent uranium forms bidentate-mononuclear complexes with particulate organic matter in a naturally uranium-enriched peatland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikutta, Christian; Langner, Peggy; Bargar, John R.

    2016-01-01

    of bidentate-mononuclear U(IV/VI) complexes with carboxyl groups. We neither found evidence for U shells at ∼3.9 Å, indicative of mineral-associated U or multinuclear U(IV) species, nor for a substantial P/Fe coordination of U. Our data indicates that U(IV/VI) complexation by natural organic matter prevents...

  16. UVI31+ is a DNA endonuclease that dynamically localizes to chloroplast pyrenoids in C. reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Shukla

    Full Text Available UVI31+ is an evolutionarily conserved BolA family protein. In this study we examine the presence, localization and possible functions of this protein in the context of a unicellular alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. UVI31+ in C. reinhardtii exhibits DNA endonuclease activity and is induced upon UV stress. Further, UVI31+ that normally localizes to the cell wall and pyrenoid regions gets redistributed into punctate foci within the whole chloroplast, away from the pyrenoid, upon UV stress. The observed induction upon UV-stress as well as the endonuclease activity suggests plausible role of this protein in DNA repair. We have also observed that UV31+ is induced in C. reinhardtii grown in dark conditions, whereby the protein localization is enhanced in the pyrenoid. Biomolecular interaction between the purified pyrenoids and UVI31+ studied by NMR demonstrates the involvement of the disordered loop domain of the protein in its interaction.

  17. Determination of {sup 234}U and {sup 238}U in seawater samples by alpha spectrometry after concentration of U(VI) onto hydrotalcite and co-precipitation with LaF{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suc, N.V. [University of Technical Education Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Bich, T.T. [Center for Nuclear Techniques, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a simple and accurate method for determination of uranium isotopes ({sup 234}U and {sup 238}U) in seawater samples using alpha spectrometry. Uranium is pre-concentrated from seawater samples via adsorption on hydrotalcite at pH 6.5. The absorbent is dissolved into 50 ml of 8M HNO{sub 3}; then filtered through a Dowex-1 column. U(VI) in the elution solution is reduced to U(IV) using zinc metal in 4M solution of HCl and then co-precipitated with LaF{sub 3}. The chemical separation efficiency is found to be 97.12 {+-} 2.68%, eliminating the need of using {sup 232}U tracer in other published methods. This method is validated via comparison with results obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) for three seawater samples. (orig.)

  18. Uranium immobilization by sulfate-reducing biofilms grown on hematite, dolomite, and calcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsili, Enrico; Beyenal, Haluk; Di Palma, Luca; Merli, Carlo; Dohnalkova, Alice; Amonette, James E; Lewandowski, Zbigniew

    2007-12-15

    Biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 were used to reduce dissolved U(VI) and subsequently immobilize U(IV) in the presence of uranium-complexing carbonates. The biofilms were grown in three identically operated fixed bed reactors, filled with three types of minerals: one noncarbonate-bearing mineral (hematite) and two carbonate-bearing minerals (calcite and dolomite). The source of carbonates in the reactors filled with calcite and dolomite were the minerals, while in the reactor filled with hematite it was a 10 mM carbonate buffer, pH 7.2, which we added to the growth medium. Our five-month study demonstrated that the sulfate-reducing biofilms grown in all reactors were able to immobilize/reduce uranium efficiently, despite the presence of uranium-complexing carbonates.

  19. Extraction of uranium (VI) from nitric acid solutions with N,N,-di-n-butyloctanamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, W.; Gasparini, G.M.

    1980-12-01

    N,N-dialkylamides show interesting properties as new extracting agents of actinides. This report presents the data concerning the N,N-di-n-butyloctanamide: CH/sub 3/-(CH/sub 2/)/sub 5/-CH/sub 2/-C(O)N (C/sub 4/H/sub 9/)/sub 2/. In particular the following have been studied: the formation of a third phase with n-dodecane and mesitylene as diluents; the influence of the concentration of the uranium of the nitric acid and of the extractant on the distribution coeffcient, of uranium(VI); the radiation stability of this amide and the influence of the absorbed dose on the distribution coefficient for U(VI). The general properties of the di-n-butyloctanamide as potential extractant of uranium are discussed.

  20. Biosorption and Biomineralization of U(VI by the marine bacterium Idiomarina loihiensis MAH1: effect of background electrolyte and pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Morcillo

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to compare the effects of pH, uranium concentration, and background electrolyte (seawater and NaClO4 solution on the speciation of uranium(VI associated with the marine bacterium Idiomarina loihiensis MAH1. This was done at the molecular level using a multidisciplinary approach combining X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS, Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS, and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM. We showed that the U(VI/bacterium interaction mechanism is highly dependent upon pH but also the nature of the used background electrolyte played a role. At neutral conditions and a U concentration ranging from 5·10(-4 to 10(-5 M (environmentally relevant concentrations, XAS analysis revealed that uranyl phosphate mineral phases, structurally resembling meta-autunite [Ca(UO22(PO42 2-6H2O] are precipitated at the cell surfaces of the strain MAH1. The formation of this mineral phase is independent of the background solution but U(VI luminescence lifetime analyses demonstrated that the U(VI speciation in seawater samples is more intricate, i.e., different complexes were formed under natural conditions. At acidic conditions, pH 2, 3 and 4.3 ([U] = 5·10(-4 M, background electrolyte  = 0.1 M NaClO4, the removal of U from solution was due to biosorption to Extracellular Polysaccharides (EPS and cell wall components as evident from TEM analysis. The LIII-edge XAS and TRLFS studies showed that the biosorption process observed is dependent of pH. The bacterial cell forms a complex with U through organic phosphate groups at pH 2 and via phosphate and carboxyl groups at pH 3 and 4.3, respectively. The differences in the complexes formed between uranium and bacteria on seawater compared to NaClO4 solution demonstrates that the actinide/microbe interactions are influenced by the three studied factors, i.e., the pH, the uranium concentration and the chemical composition of the

  1. Use of combined microscopic and spectroscopic techniques to reveal interactions between uranium and Microbacterium sp. A9, a strain isolated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, LIPM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CNRS, UMR 7265, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Université d' Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/L2BT, bat 183, B.P. 3, F-13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chapon, Virginie [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, LIPM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CNRS, UMR 7265, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Université d' Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Coppin, Fréderic; Floriani, Magali [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/L2BT, bat 183, B.P. 3, F-13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vercouter, Thomas [CEA, DEN, DANS, DPC SEARS, LANIE, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sergeant, Claire [Univ Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Camilleri, Virginie [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/L2BT, bat 183, B.P. 3, F-13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Berthomieu, Catherine [CEA, DSV, IBEB, SBVME, LIPM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); CNRS, UMR 7265, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Université d' Aix-Marseille, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Février, Laureline, E-mail: laureline.fevrier@irsn.fr [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/L2BT, bat 183, B.P. 3, F-13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Microbacterium sp. A9 develops various detoxification mechanisms. • Microbacterium sp. A9 promotes metal efflux from the cells. • Microbacterium sp. A9 releases phosphate to prevent uranium entrance in the cells. • Microbacterium sp. A9 stores U intracellularly as autunite. - Abstract: Although uranium (U) is naturally found in the environment, soil remediation programs will become increasingly important in light of certain human activities. This work aimed to identify U(VI) detoxification mechanisms employed by a bacteria strain isolated from a Chernobyl soil sample, and to distinguish its active from passive mechanisms of interaction. The ability of the Microbacterium sp. A9 strain to remove U(VI) from aqueous solutions at 4 °C and 25 °C was evaluated, as well as its survival capacity upon U(VI) exposure. The subcellular localisation of U was determined by TEM/EDX microscopy, while functional groups involved in the interaction with U were further evaluated by FTIR; finally, the speciation of U was analysed by TRLFS. We have revealed, for the first time, an active mechanism promoting metal efflux from the cells, during the early steps following U(VI) exposure at 25 °C. The Microbacterium sp. A9 strain also stores U intracellularly, as needle-like structures that have been identified as an autunite group mineral. Taken together, our results demonstrate that this strain exhibits a high U(VI) tolerance based on multiple detoxification mechanisms. These findings support the potential role of the genus Microbacterium in the remediation of aqueous environments contaminated with U(VI) under aerobic conditions.

  2. Upscaling of U(VI) Desorption and Transport Using Decimeter-Scale Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Derrick

    2015-01-28

    Experimental work was used to validate modeling studies and develop multicontinuum models of U(VI) transport in a contaminated aquifer. At the bench scale, it has been shown that U(VI) desorption is rate-limited and that rates are dependent on the bicarbonate concentration. Two decimeter-scale experiments were conducted in order to help establish rigorous upscaling approaches that could be tested at the tracer test and plume scales.

  3. Upscaling of U(VI) Desorption and Transport Using Decimeter-Scale Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Derrick [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-12-22

    Experimental work was used to validate modeling studies and develop multicontinuum models of U(VI) transport in a contaminated aquifer. At the bench scale, it has been shown that U(VI) desorption is rate-limited and that rates are dependent on the bicarbonate concentration. Two decimeter-scale experiments were conducted in order to help establish rigorous upscaling approaches that could be tested at the tracer test and plume scales.

  4. Biostimulated uranium immobilization within aquifers – from bench scale to field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Kai-Uwe; Veeramani, Harish; Schofield, Eleanor J.; Sharp, Jonathan O.; Suvorova, Elena; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S.; Barrows, Charles J.; Cerrato, Jose M.; Campbell, Kate M.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Long, Philip E.; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan; Giammar, Daniel E.; Bargar, John R.

    2011-12-29

    In situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated aquifers through microbially catalyzed reduction of mobile U(VI) species can only be successful if the U(IV) products are immobilized over long time-scales. Although uraninite is known for its low solubility and has been produced in nano-particulate form by several species of metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in laboratory studies, little is known about the stability of biogenic U(IV) in the subsurface. Using an up-scaling approach, we investigated the chemical and environmental stability of biogenic UO₂ nano-solids. Our results show that diffusive limitations due to aquifer porosity and microstructure may retard uraninite corrosion. Corrosion was also retarded by adsorption or incorporation of manganese. On the other hand, U(VI) bioreduction in field sediments generated U(IV) that was more labile than biogenic UO₂.

  5. Extraction and separation of U(VI and Th(IV from hydrobromic acid media using Cyanex-923 extractant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghag Snehal M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study of the solvent extraction of uranium(VI and thorium(IV from hydrobromic acid media was performed using the neutral phosphine oxide extractant Cyanex-923 in toluene. These metal ions were found to be quantitatively extracted with Cyanex-923 in toluene in the acidity range 5x10-5-1x10-4 M and 5x10-5-5x10-3 M, respectively, and they are stripped from the organic phase with 7.0 M HClO4 and 2.0- 4.0 M HCl, respectively. The effect of the equilibrium period, diluents, diverse ions and stripping agent on the extraction of U(VI and Th(IV was studied. The stoichiometry of the extracted species of these metal ions was determined based on the slope analysis method. The extraction reactions proceed by solvation and their probable extracted species found in the organic phase were UO2Br2•2Cyanex-923 and ThBr4•2Cyanex-923. Based on these results, a sequential procedure for their separation from each other was developed.

  6. Fate of Adsorbed U(VI) during Sulfidization of Lepidocrocite and Hematite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandratos, Vasso G; Behrends, Thilo; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2017-02-21

    The impact on U(VI) adsorbed to lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) and hematite (α-Fe2O3) was assessed when exposed to aqueous sulfide (S(-II)aq) at pH 8.0. With both minerals, competition between S(-II) and U(VI) for surface sites caused instantaneous release of adsorbed U(VI). Compared to lepidocrocite, consumption of S(-II)aq proceeded slower with hematite, but yielded maximum dissolved U concentrations that were more than 10 times higher, representing about one-third of the initially adsorbed U. Prolonged presence of S(-II)aq in experiments with hematite in combination with a larger release of adsorbed U(VI), enhanced the reduction of U(VI): after 24 h of reaction about 60-70% of U was in the form of U(IV), much higher than the 25% detected in the lepidocrocite suspensions. X-ray absorption spectra indicated that U(IV) in both hematite and lepidocrocite suspensions was not in the form of uraninite (UO2). Upon exposure to oxygen only part of U(IV) reoxidized, suggesting that monomeric U(IV) might have become incorporated in newly formed iron precipitates. Hence, sulfidization of Fe oxides can have diverse consequences for U mobility: in short-term, desorption of U(VI) increases U mobility, while reduction to U(IV) and its possible incorporation in Fe transformation products may lead to long-term U immobilization.

  7. Cathodoluminescence of uranium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winer, K.; Colmenares, C.; Wooten, F.

    1984-08-09

    The cathodoluminescence of uranium oxide surfaces prepared in-situ from clean uranium exposed to dry oxygen was studied. The broad asymmetric peak observed at 470 nm is attributed to F-center excitation.

  8. Uranium Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — An integral part of Y‑12's transformation efforts and a key component of the National Nuclear Security Administration's Uranium Center of Excellence, the Uranium...

  9. PHASE ANALYSES OF URANIUM-BEARING MINERALS FROM THE HIGH GRADE ORE, NOPAL I, PENA BLANCA, MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ren; P. Goodell; A. Kelts; E.Y. Anthony; M. Fayek; C. Fan; C. Beshears

    2005-07-11

    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Pena Blanca district, approximately 40 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit was formed by hydrothermal processes within the fracture zone of welded silicic volcanic tuff. The ages of volcanic formations are between 35 to 44 m.y. and there was secondary silicification of most of the formations. After the formation of at least part of the uranium deposit, the ore body was uplifted above the water table and is presently exposed at the surface. Detailed petrographic characterization, electron microprobe backscatter electron (BSE) imagery, and selected x-ray maps for the samples from Nopal I high-grade ore document different uranium phases in the ore. There are at least two stages of uranium precipitation. A small amount of uraninite is encapsulated in silica. Hexavalent uranium may also have been a primary precipitant. The uranium phases were precipitated along cleavages of feldspars, and along fractures in the tuff. Energy dispersive spectrometer data and x-ray maps suggest that the major uranium phases are uranophane and weeksite. Substitutions of Ca and K occur in both phases, implying that conditions were variable during the mineralization/alteration process, and that compositions of the original minerals have a major influence on later stage alteration. Continued study is needed to fully characterize uranium behavior in these semi-arid to arid conditions.

  10. 40 CFR 749.68 - Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexavalent chromium-based water treatment chemicals in cooling systems. 749.68 Section 749.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS Air Conditioning and Cooling Systems § 749.68 Hexavalent...

  11. Uranium bioprecipitation mediated by yeasts utilizing organic phosphorus substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xinjin; Csetenyi, Laszlo; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2016-06-01

    In this research, we have demonstrated the ability of several yeast species to mediate U(VI) biomineralization through uranium phosphate biomineral formation when utilizing an organic source of phosphorus (glycerol 2-phosphate disodium salt hydrate (C3H7Na2O6P·xH2O (G2P)) or phytic acid sodium salt hydrate (C6H18O24P6·xNa(+)·yH2O (PyA))) in the presence of soluble UO2(NO3)2. The formation of meta-ankoleite (K2(UO2)2(PO4)2·6(H2O)), chernikovite ((H3O)2(UO2)2(PO4)2·6(H2O)), bassetite (Fe(++)(UO2)2(PO4)2·8(H2O)), and uramphite ((NH4)(UO2)(PO4)·3(H2O)) on cell surfaces was confirmed by X-ray diffraction in yeasts grown in a defined liquid medium amended with uranium and an organic phosphorus source, as well as in yeasts pre-grown in organic phosphorus-containing media and then subsequently exposed to UO2(NO3)2. The resulting minerals depended on the yeast species as well as physico-chemical conditions. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that phosphatase-mediated uranium biomineralization can occur in yeasts supplied with an organic phosphate substrate as sole source of phosphorus. Further understanding of yeast interactions with uranium may be relevant to development of potential treatment methods for uranium waste and utilization of organic phosphate sources and for prediction of microbial impacts on the fate of uranium in the environment.

  12. Fate of Uranium During Transport Across the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, Peter R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-30

    Discharge of contaminated groundwater to surface waters is of concern at many DOE facilities. For example, at F-Area and TNX-Area on the Savannah River Site, contaminated groundwater, including uranium, is already discharging into natural wetlands. It is at this interface where contaminants come into contact with the biosphere. These this research addressed a critical knowledge gap focusing on the geochemistry of uranium (or for that matter, any redox-active contaminant) in wetland systems. Understanding the interactions between hydrological, microbial, and chemical processes will make it possible to provide a more accurate conceptual and quantitative understanding of radionuclide fate and transport under these unique conditions. Understanding these processes will permit better long-term management and the necessary technical justification for invoking Monitored Natural Attenuation of contaminated wetland areas. Specifically, this research did provide new insights on how plant-induced alterations to the sediment biogeochemical processes affect the key uranium reducing microorganisms, the uranium reduction, its spatial distribution, the speciation of the immobilized uranium, and its long-term stability. This was achieved by conducting laboratory mesocosm wetland experiments as well as field measurements at the SRNL. Results have shown that uranium can be immobilized in wetland systems. To a degree some of the soluble U(VI) was reduced to insoluble U(IV), but the majority of the immobilized U was incorporated into iron oxyhydroxides that precipitated onto the root surfaces of wetland plants. This U was immobilized mostly as U(VI). Because it was immobilized in its oxidized form, results showed that dry spells, resulting in the lowering of the water table and the exposure of the U to oxic conditions, did not result in U remobilization.

  13. Ship-in-a-bottle CMPO in MIL-101(Cr) for selective uranium recovery from aqueous streams through adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Decker, Jeroen [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Center for Ordered Materials, Organometallics, and Catalysis (COMOC), Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Folens, Karel [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Clercq, Jeriffa [Department of Materials, Textiles, and Chemical Engineering, Industrial Catalysis and Adsorption Technology (INCAT), Ghent University, Valentin, Vaerwyckweg 1, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Meledina, Maria; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Du Laing, Gijs [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Der Voort, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.vandervoort@ugent.be [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Center for Ordered Materials, Organometallics, and Catalysis (COMOC), Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2017-08-05

    Highlights: • Highly stable metal-organic framework, MIL-101(Cr), for uses in aqueous, acidic adsorption. • Uranium recovery from low concentration acidic solutions. • One-step ship-around-the-bottle synthetic approach to incorporate CMPO in MIL-101(Cr). • Highly selective U(VI) adsorbent in competition with a high variety of metals, incl. rare earths and transition metals. • Regenerable and reusable adsorbent via 0.1 M nitric acid stripping. - Abstract: Mesoporous MIL-101(Cr) is used as host for a ship-in-a-bottle type adsorbent for selective U(VI) recovery from aqueous environments. The acid-resistant cage-type MOF is built in-situ around N,N-Diisobutyl-2-(octylphenylphosphoryl)acetamide (CMPO), a sterically demanding ligand with high U(VI) affinity. This one-step procedure yields an adsorbent which is an ideal compromise between homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, where the ligand can act freely within the pores of MIL-101, without leaching, while the adsorbent is easy separable and reusable. The adsorbent was characterized by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, XRF, ADF-STEM and EDX, to confirm and quantify the successful encapsulation of the CMPO in MIL-101, and the preservation of the host. Adsorption experiments with a central focus on U(VI) recovery were performed. Very high selectivity for U(VI) was observed, while competitive metal adsorption (rare earths, transition metals...) was almost negligible. The adsorption capacity was calculated at 5.32 mg U/g (pH 3) and 27.99 mg U/g (pH 4), by fitting equilibrium data to the Langmuir model. Adsorption kinetics correlated to the pseudo-second-order model, where more than 95% of maximum uptake is achieved within 375 min. The adsorbed U(VI) is easily recovered by desorption in 0.1 M HNO{sub 3}. Three adsorption/desorption cycles were performed.

  14. Uranium industry annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1995 (UIA 1995) provides current statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1995 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the period 1986 through 2005 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey``. Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1995, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1986 through 1995 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2005, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1995 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. For the reader`s convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix D along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  15. The effect of pH and natural microbial phosphatase activity on the speciation of uranium in subsurface soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley, Melanie J.; Martinez, Robert J.; Webb, Samuel M.; Sobecky, Patricia A.; Taillefert, Martial

    2011-10-01

    The biomineralization of U(VI) phosphate as a result of microbial phosphatase activity is a promising new bioremediation approach to immobilize uranium in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In contrast to reduced uranium minerals such as uraninite, uranium phosphate precipitates are not susceptible to changes in oxidation conditions and may represent a long-term sink for uranium in contaminated environments. So far, the biomineralization of U(VI) phosphate has been demonstrated with pure cultures only. In this study, two uranium contaminated soils from the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Research Center (ORFRC) were amended with glycerol phosphate as model organophosphate source in small flow-through columns under aerobic conditions to determine whether natural phosphatase activity of indigenous soil bacteria was able to promote the precipitation of uranium(VI) at pH 5.5 and 7.0. High concentrations of phosphate (1-3 mM) were detected in the effluent of these columns at both pH compared to control columns amended with U(VI) only, suggesting that phosphatase-liberating microorganisms were readily stimulated by the organophosphate substrate. Net phosphate production rates were higher in the low pH soil (0.73 ± 0.17 mM d -1) compared to the circumneutral pH soil (0.43 ± 0.31 mM d -1), suggesting that non-specific acid phosphatase activity was expressed constitutively in these soils. A sequential solid-phase extraction scheme and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements were combined to demonstrate that U(VI) was primarily precipitated as uranyl phosphate minerals at low pH, whereas it was mainly adsorbed to iron oxides and partially precipitated as uranyl phosphate at circumneutral pH. These findings suggest that, in the presence of organophosphates, microbial phosphatase activity can contribute to uranium immobilization in both low and circumneutral pH soils through the formation of stable uranyl phosphate minerals.

  16. Speciation-Dependent Microbial Reduction of Uranium Within Iron-Coated Sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiss, J.; Stewart, B.D.; Nico, P.S.; Fendorf, S.

    2009-06-03

    Transport of uranium within surface and subsurface environments is predicated largely on its redox state. Uranyl reduction may transpire through either biotic (enzymatic) or abiotic pathways; in either case, reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) results in the formation of sparingly soluble UO{sub 2} precipitates. Biological reduction of U(VI), while demonstrated as prolific under both laboratory and field conditions, is influenced by competing electron acceptors (such as nitrate, manganese oxides, or iron oxides) and uranyl speciation. Formation of Ca-UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} ternary complexes, often the predominate uranyl species in carbonate-bearing soils and sediments, decreases the rate of dissimilatory U(VI) reduction. The combined influence of uranyl speciation within a mineralogical matrix comparable to natural environments and under hydrodynamic conditions, however, remains unresolved. We therefore examined uranyl reduction by Shewanella putrefaciens within packed mineral columns of ferrihydrite-coated quartz sand under conditions conducive or nonconducive to Ca-UO{sub 2}-CO{sub 3} species formation. The results are dramatic. In the absence of Ca, where uranyl carbonato complexes dominate, U(VI) reduction transpires and consumes all of the U(VI) within the influent solution (0.166 mM) over the first 2.5 cm of the flow field for the entirety of the 54 d experiment. Over 2 g of U is deposited during this reaction period, and despite ferrihydrite being a competitive electron acceptor, uranium reduction appears unabated for the duration of our experiments. By contrast, in columns with 4 mM Ca in the influent solution (0.166 mM uranyl), reduction (enzymatic or surface-bound Fe(ll) mediated) appears absent and breakthrough occurs within 18 d (at a flow rate of 3 pore volumes per day). Uranyl speciation, and in particular the formation of ternary Ca-UO2-CO3 complexes, has a profound impact on U(VI) reduction and thus transport within anaerobic systems.

  17. Improved performance of a biomaterial-based cation exchanger for the adsorption of uranium(VI) from water and nuclear industry wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anirudhan, T.S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695 581, Kerala (India)], E-mail: tsani@rediffmail.com; Radhakrishnan, P.G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695 581, Kerala (India)

    2009-03-15

    The amine-modified polyhydroxyethylmethacrylate (poly(HEMA))-grafted biomaterial (tamarind fruit shell, TFS) carrying carboxyl functional groups at the chain end (PGTFS-COOH) was prepared and used as an adsorbent for the removal of uranium(VI) from water and nuclear industry wastewater. FTIR spectral analysis revealed that U(VI) ions and PGTFS-COOH formed a chelate complex. The adsorption process was relatively fast, requiring only 120 min to attain equilibrium. The adsorption kinetic data were best described by the pseudo-second-order equation. The equilibrium adsorption data were correlated with the Sips isotherm model. The maximum U(VI) ions uptake with PGTFS-COOH was estimated to be 100.79 mg/g. The complete removal of 10 mg/L U(VI) from simulated nuclear industry wastewater was achieved by 3.5 g/L PGTFS-COOH. The reusability of the adsorbent was demonstrated over 4 cycles using NaCl (1.0 M) + HCl (0.5 M) solution mixture to de-extract the U(VI). The results show that the PGTFS-COOH tested is very promising for the recovery of U(VI) from water and wastewater.

  18. Effect of Reaction Pathway on the Extent and Mechanism of Uranium(VI) Immobilization with Calcium and Phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Vrajesh S.; Maillot, Fabien; Wang, Zheming; Catalano, Jeffrey G.; Giammar, Daniel E.

    2016-03-15

    Phosphate addition to subsurface environments contaminated with uranium can be used as an in situ remediation approach. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the dependence of the extent and mechanism of uranium uptake on the pathway for reaction with calcium phosphates. At pH 4.0 and 6.0 uranium uptake occurred via autunite (Ca(UO2)(PO4)3) precipitation irrespective of the starting forms of calcium and phosphate. At pH 7.5, the uptake mechanism depended on the nature of the calcium and phosphate. When dissolved uranium, calcium, and phosphate were added simultaneously, uranium was structurally incorporated into a newly formed amorphous calcium phosphate solid. Adsorption was the dominant removal mechanism for uranium contacted with pre-formed amorphous calcium phosphate solids,. When U(VI) was added to a suspension containing amorphous calcium phosphate solids as well as dissolved calcium and phosphate, then removal occurred through precipitation (57±4 %) of autunite and adsorption (43±4 %) onto calcium phosphate. The solid phase speciation of the uranium was determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Dissolved uranium, calcium, and phosphate concentrations with saturation index calculations helped identify removal mechanisms and determine thermodynamically favorable solid phases.

  19. Physico-Chemical Heterogeneity of Organic-Rich Sediments in the Rifle Aquifer, CO: Impact on Uranium Biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot, Noémie; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Pham, Don Q; O'Brien, Timothy M; Hausladen, Debra; Noël, Vincent; Lallier, Florent; Maher, Kate; Fendorf, Scott; Williams, Kenneth H; Long, Philip E; Bargar, John R

    2016-01-01

    The Rifle alluvial aquifer along the Colorado River in west central Colorado contains fine-grained, diffusion-limited sediment lenses that are substantially enriched in organic carbon and sulfides, as well as uranium, from previous milling operations. These naturally reduced zones (NRZs) coincide spatially with a persistent uranium groundwater plume. There is concern that uranium release from NRZs is contributing to plume persistence or will do so in the future. To better define the physical extent, heterogeneity and biogeochemistry of these NRZs, we investigated sediment cores from five neighboring wells. The main NRZ body exhibited uranium concentrations up to 100 mg/kg U as U(IV) and contains ca. 286 g of U in total. Uranium accumulated only in areas where organic carbon and reduced sulfur (as iron sulfides) were present, emphasizing the importance of sulfate-reducing conditions to uranium retention and the essential role of organic matter. NRZs further exhibited centimeter-scale variations in both redox status and particle size. Mackinawite, greigite, pyrite and sulfate coexist in the sediments, indicating that dynamic redox cycling occurs within NRZs and that their internal portions can be seasonally oxidized. We show that oxidative U(VI) release to the aquifer has the potential to sustain a groundwater contaminant plume for centuries. NRZs, known to exist in other uranium-contaminated aquifers, may be regionally important to uranium persistence.

  20. Persistence of uranium groundwater plumes: Contrasting mechanisms at two DOE sites in the groundwater-river interaction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachara, John M.; Long, Philip E.; Bargar, John; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Freshley, Mark D.; Konopka, Allan E.; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Yabusaki, Steve B.

    2013-04-01

    We examine subsurface uranium (U) plumes at two U.S. Department of Energy sites that are located near large river systems and are influenced by groundwater-river hydrologic interaction. Following surface excavation of contaminated materials, both sites were projected to naturally flush remnant uranium contamination to levels below regulatory limits (e.g., 30 μg/L or 0.126 μmol/L; U.S. EPA drinking water standard), with 10 years projected for the Hanford 300 Area (Columbia River) and 12 years for the Rifle site (Colorado River). The rate of observed uranium decrease was much lower than expected at both sites. While uncertainty remains, a comparison of current understanding suggests that the two sites have common, but also different mechanisms controlling plume persistence. At the Hanford 300 A, the persistent source is adsorbed U(VI) in the vadose zone that is released to the aquifer during spring water table excursions. The release of U(VI) from the vadose zone and its transport within the oxic, coarse-textured aquifer sediments is dominated by kinetically-limited surface complexation. Modeling implies that annual plume discharge volumes to the Columbia River are small (metal reducing bacteria are present at low natural abundance that are capable of enzymatic U(VI) reduction in localized zones of accumulated detrital organic carbon or after organic carbon amendment. Major differences between the sites include the geochemical nature of residual, contaminant U; the rates of current kinetic processes (both biotic and abiotic) influencing U(VI) solid-liquid distribution; the presence of detrital organic matter and the resulting spatial heterogeneity in microbially-driven redox properties; and the magnitude of groundwater hydrologic dynamics controlled by river-stage fluctuations, geologic structures, and aquifer hydraulic properties. The comparative analysis of these sites provides important guidance to the characterization, understanding, modeling, and remediation

  1. Analysis of Cassini UVIS Image Cube Vectors of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemansky, D. E.; Yoshii, J.; Hansen, Candice; Hendrix, Amanda R.; Liu, X.; Yung, Yuk

    2016-10-01

    Cassini UVIS image cubes of Enceladus from a spacecraft range of image cube matrix discussed here is a virtual 20 X 20 RE structure centered on the satellite body with pixel size 0.2 X 0.2 RE. The pixels are composed of FUV spectral vectors accumulated from multiple exposures by the Cassini experiments in the years 2005 - 2015. In spite of the multiple year exposure, the matrix structure is significantly non-uniform in brightness and spectral content. The features that can be presented at this time are: 1) The pixels at the center of the body show a strong solar reflection that over the 1500 – 1900 A region indicates a spectrally structureless albedo. 2) The central pixels show no discrete emissions other than a weak optically thick atomic hydrogen resonance line (HLya) at 1216 A. 3) Above the limb the solar reflection spectrum appears at irregular locations. One of these is recognized as the south polar plume. The plume solar reflection albedo shows a multiply scattered spectrum dominantly composed of hydrocarbon absorbers, primarily C2H4. 4) Above the limb, the HLya line shows spatially irregular structure with emission peaks in the north 50X brighter than the signal from body center. No discrete emissions other than HLya are observed in the < 2RE region above the limb. The neutral torus at the Enceladus orbit shows only the OI 1304 A line emission. Limits on the presence of other species, H2 in particular, will be presented.

  2. Monitoring the WFC3/UVIS Relative Gain with Internal Flatfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, J.; Baggett, S.

    2017-03-01

    The WFC3/UVIS gain stability has been monitored twice yearly. This project provides a new examination of gain stability, making use of the existing internal flatfield observations taken every three days (for the Bowtie monitor) for a regular look at relative gain stability. Amplifiers are examined for consistency both in comparison to each other and over time, by normalizing the B, C, and D amplifiers to A, and then plotting statistics for each of the three normalized amplifiers with time. We find minimal trends in these statistics, with a 0.02 - 0.2% change in mean amplifier ratio over 7.5 years. The trends in the amplifiers are well-behaved with the exception of the B/A ratio, which shows increased scatter in mean, median, and standard deviation. The cause of the scatter remains unclear though we find it is not dependent upon detector defects, filter features, or shutter effects, and is only observable after pixel flagging (both from the data quality arrays and outlier values) has been applied.

  3. Characterization of the holographic imaging grating of GOMOS UVIS spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeffe, Jussi; Saari, Heikki K.; Astola, Heikki; Rainio, Kari; Mazuray, Lorand; Pierot, Dominique; Craen, Pierre; Gruslin, Michel; Lecat, Jean-Herve; Bonnemason, Francis; Flamand, Jean; Thevenon, Alain

    1996-11-01

    A Finnish-French group has proposed an imaging spectrometer- based instrument for the ENVISAT Earth observation satellite of ESA, which yields a global mapping of the vertical profile of ozone and other related atmospheric gases. The GOMOS instrument works by measuring the UV-visible spectrum of a star that is occulting behind the Earth's atmosphere. The prime contractor of GOMOS is Matra Marconi Space France. The focal plane optics are designed and manufactured by Spacebel Instrumentation S.A. and the holographic grating by Jobin-Yvon. VTT Automation, Measurement Technology has participated in the GOMOS studies since 1989 and is presently responsible for the verification tests of the imaging quality and opto-mechanical interfaces of the holographic imaging grating of GOMOS. The UVIS spectrometer of GOMOS consists of a holographic, aberration corrected grating and of a CCD detector. The alignment of the holographic grating needs as an input very accurate knowledge of the mechanical interfaces. VTT Automation has designed, built and tested a characterization system for the holographic grating. This system combines the accurate optical imaging measurements with the absolute knowledge of the geometrical parameters at the accuracy of plus or minus 10 micrometers which makes the system unique. The developed system has been used for two breadboard gratings and the qualification model grating. The imaging quality results and their analysis together with alignment procedure utilizing of the knowledge of mechanical interfaces is described.

  4. Behavior of uranium under conditions of interaction of rocks and ores with subsurface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omel'Yanenko, B. I.; Petrov, V. A.; Poluektov, V. V.

    2007-10-01

    increases by orders of magnitude and subsurface water is commonly undersaturated with uranium. Uranium absorbed by secondary minerals, particularly by iron hydroxides and leucoxene, is its single stable species under oxidizing conditions. The impact of oxygen-bearing water leads to destruction of uranium ore. This process is realized simultaneously at different hypsometric levels even if the permeability of the medium is variable in both the lateral and vertical directions. As a result, intervals containing uranyl minerals and relics of primary uranium ore are combined in ore-bearing zones with intervals of completely dissolved uranium minerals. A wide halo of elevated uranium contents caused by sorption is always retained at the location of uranium ore entirely destroyed by weathering. Uranium ore commonly finds itself in the aeration zone due to technogenic subsidence of the groundwater table caused by open-pit mining or pumping out of water from underground mines. The capillary and film waters that interact with rocks and ores in this zone are supplemented by free water filtering along fractures when rain falls or snow is thawing. The interaction of uranium ore with capillary water results in oxidation of uraninite, accompanied by loosening of the mineral surface, formation of microfractures, and an increase in solubility with enrichment of capillary water in uranium up to 10-4 mol/l. Secondary U(VI) minerals, first of all, uranyl hydroxides and silicates, replace uraninite, and uranium undergoes local diffusion redistribution with its sorption by secondary minerals of host rocks. The influx of free water facilitates the complete dissolution of primary and secondary uranium minerals, the removal of uranium at the sites of groundwater discharge, and its redeposition under reducing conditions at a greater depth. It is evident that the conditions of the upper hydrodynamic zone and the aeration zone are unfit for long-term insulation of SNF and high-level wastes because

  5. Study of the reaction of uranium and plutonium with bone char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.; Koenst, J.W.

    1977-01-17

    A study of the reaction of plutonium with a commercial bone char indicates that this bone char has a high capacity for removing plutonium from aqueous wastes. The adsorption of plutonium by bone char is pH dependent, and for plutonium(IV) polymer appears to be maximized near pH 7.3 for plutonium concentrations typical of some waste streams. Adsorption is affected by dissolved salts, especially calcium and phosphate salts. Freundlich isotherms representing the adsorption of uranium and plutonium have been prepared. The low potential imposed upon aqueous solutions by commercial bone char is adequate for reduction of hexavalent plutonium to a lower plutonium oxidation state.

  6. Uranium and free trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    This report was prepared by a working group of the Committee on International Trade in Uranium of the Uranium Institute. The report describes the general benefits of free trade and their relevance in the uranium market, and compares government restrictions on Western world uranium trade with those in other commodity markets. It is not directly concerned with restrictions designed to discourage nuclear weapons proliferation. The Uranium Institute and its members fully support the objective of nuclear non-proliferation. The report takes as given the current non-proliferation regime and focuses on economic and commercial restrictions imposed by governments on international trade in uranium, recognising that governments will always have a special interest in uranium trade owing to its potential weapons use. (author).

  7. Performance Indicators for Uranium Bioremediation in the Subsurface: Basis and Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yabusaki, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2006-12-29

    The purpose of this letter report is to identify performance indicators for in situ engineered bioremediation of subsurface uranium (U) contamination. This report focuses on in situ treatment of groundwater by biostimulation of extant in situ microbial populations (see http://128.3.7.51/NABIR/generalinfo/primers_guides/03_NABIR_primer.pdf for background information on bioremediation of metals and radionuclides). The treatment process involves amendment of the subsurface with an electron donor such as acetate, lactate, ethanol or other organic compound such that in situ microorganisms mediate the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV). U(VI) precipitates as uraninite or other insoluble U phase. Uranium is thus immobilized in place by such processes and is subject to reoxidation that may remobilize the reduced uranium. Related processes include augmenting the extant subsurface microbial populations, addition of electron acceptors, and introduction of chemically reducing materials such as zero-valent Fe. While metrics for such processes may be similar to those for in situ biostimulation, these related processes are not directly in the scope of this letter report.

  8. Anaerobic bio-removal of uranium (VI) and chromium (VI): comparison of microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mónica; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogério; Santos, Erika; Costa, Maria Clara

    2010-04-15

    Several microbial communities, obtained from uranium contaminated and non-contaminated samples, were investigated for their ability to remove uranium (VI) and the cultures capable for this removal were further assessed on their efficiency for chromium (VI) removal. The highest efficiency for removal of both metals was observed on a consortium from a non-contaminated soil collected in Monchique thermal place, which was capable to remove 91% of 22 mg L(-1) U(VI) and 99% of 13 mg L(-1) Cr(VI). This study revealed that uranium (VI) removing communities have also ability to remove chromium (VI), but when uranium (VI) was replaced by chromium (VI) several differences in the structure of all bacterial communities were observed. TGGE and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that the uranium (VI) removing bacterial consortia are mainly composed by members of Rhodocyclaceae family and Clostridium genus. On the other hand, bacteria from Enterobacteriaceae family were detected in the community with ability for chromium (VI) removal. The existence of members of Enterobacteriaceae and Rhodocyclaceae families never reported as chromium or uranium removing bacteria, respectively, is also a relevant finding, encouraging the exploitation of microorganisms with new abilities that can be useful for bioremediation.

  9. Anaerobic bio-removal of uranium (VI) and chromium (VI): Comparison of microbial community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Monica [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Faleiro, Maria Leonor [IBB - Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e Estrutural, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biodiversidade, Genomica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Campus de FCUL, Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Erika [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Costa, Maria Clara, E-mail: mcorada@ualg.pt [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-04-15

    Several microbial communities, obtained from uranium contaminated and non-contaminated samples, were investigated for their ability to remove uranium (VI) and the cultures capable for this removal were further assessed on their efficiency for chromium (VI) removal. The highest efficiency for removal of both metals was observed on a consortium from a non-contaminated soil collected in Monchique thermal place, which was capable to remove 91% of 22 mg L{sup -1} U(VI) and 99% of 13 mg L{sup -1} Cr(VI). This study revealed that uranium (VI) removing communities have also ability to remove chromium (VI), but when uranium (VI) was replaced by chromium (VI) several differences in the structure of all bacterial communities were observed. TGGE and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that the uranium (VI) removing bacterial consortia are mainly composed by members of Rhodocyclaceae family and Clostridium genus. On the other hand, bacteria from Enterobacteriaceae family were detected in the community with ability for chromium (VI) removal. The existence of members of Enterobacteriaceae and Rhodocyclaceae families never reported as chromium or uranium removing bacteria, respectively, is also a relevant finding, encouraging the exploitation of microorganisms with new abilities that can be useful for bioremediation.

  10. Characteristics of uranium biosorption from aqueous solutions on fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changsong; Liu, Jun; Tu, Hong; Li, Feize; Li, Xiyang; Yang, Jijun; Liao, Jiali; Yang, Yuanyou; Liu, Ning; Sun, Qun

    2016-12-01

    Uranium(VI) biosorption from aqueous solutions was investigated in batch studies by using fungus Pleurotus ostreatus biomass. The optimal biosorption conditions were examined by investigating the reaction time, biomass dosage, pH, temperature, and uranium initial concentration. The interaction between fungus biomass and uranium was confirmed using Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR), scanning electronic microscopy energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Results exhibited that the maximum biosorption capacity of uranium on P. ostreatus was 19.95 ± 1.17 mg/g at pH 4.0. Carboxylic, amine, as well as hydroxyl groups were involved in uranium biosorption according to FT-IR analysis. The pseudo-second-order model properly evaluated the U(VI) biosorption on fungus P. ostreatus biomass. The Langmuir equation provided better fitting in comparison with Freundlich isotherm models. The obtained thermodynamic parameters suggested that biosorption is feasible, endothermic, and spontaneous. SEM-EDX and XPS were additionally conducted to comprehend the biosorption process that could be described as a complex process involving several mechanisms of physical adsorption, chemisorptions, and ion exchange. Results obtained from this work indicated that fungus P. ostreatus biomass can be used as potential biosorbent to eliminate uranium or other radionuclides from aqueous solutions.

  11. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  12. Study on anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing hexavalent chromium*

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yan-Bin; Xiao, Hua-hua; Sun, Shui-yu

    2005-01-01

    A self-made anaerobic bio-filter bed which was inoculated with special sludge showed high efficiency in removing hexavalent chromium. When pump flow was 47 ml/min and CODCr of wastewater was about 140 mg/L, it took 4 h to decrease the Cr6+ concentrations from about 60 mg/L to under 0.5 mg/L, compared with 14 h without carbon source addition. Cr6+ concentrations ranged from 64.66 mg/L to 75.53 mg/L, the system efficiency was excellent. When Cr6+ concentration reached 95.47 mg/L, the treatment ...

  13. Interaction and transport of actinides in natural clay rock with consideration of humic substances and clay organics. Characterization and quantification of the influence of clay organics on the interaction and diffusion of uranium and americium in the clay. Joint project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, Gert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (Germany). Inst. of Radiochemistry; Schmeide, Katja; Joseph, Claudia; Sachs, Susanne; Steudtner, Robin; Raditzky, Bianca; Guenther, Alix

    2011-07-01

    , was found to be endothermic and entropy-driven. In contrast, the complex stability constants determined for U(VI) humate complexation at 20 and 40 C are comparable, however, decrease at 60 C. For aqueous U(IV) citrate, succinate, mandelate and glycolate species stability constants were determined. These ligands, especially citrate, increase solubility and mobility of U(IV) in solution due to complexation. The U(VI) sorption onto crushed Opalinus Clay (OPA, Mont Terri, Switzerland) was studied in the absence and presence of HA or low molecular weight organic acids, in dependence on temperature and CO2 presence using OPA pore water as background electrolyte. Distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) were determined for the sorption of U(VI) and HA onto OPA with (0.0222 {+-} 0.0004) m{sup 3}/kg and (0.129 {+-} 0.006) m{sup 3}/kg, respectively. The U(VI) sorption is not influenced by HA ({<=}50 mg/L), however, decreased by low molecular weight organic acids ({>=} 1 x 10{sup -5} M), especially by citrate and tartrate. With increasing temperature, the U(VI) sorption increases both in the absence and in the presence of clay organics. The U(VI) diffusion in compacted OPA is not influenced by HA at 25 and 60 C. Predictions of the U(VI) diffusion show that an increase of the temperature to 60 C does not accelerate the migration of U(VI). With regard to uranium-containing waste, it is concluded that OPA is suitable as host rock for a future nuclear waste repository since OPA has a good retardation potential for U(VI). (orig.)

  14. Integrative analysis of the interactions between Geobacter spp. and sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Lovley

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing microbial U(VI reduction with the addition of organic electron donors is a promising strategy for immobilizing uranium in contaminated groundwaters, but has yet to be optimized because of a poor understanding of the factors controlling the growth of various microbial communities during bioremediation. In previous field trials in which acetate was added to the subsurface, there were two distinct phases: an initial phase in which acetate-oxidizing, U(VI-reducing Geobacter predominated and U(VI was effectively reduced and a second phase in which acetate-oxidizing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB predominated and U(VI reduction was poor. The interaction of Geobacter and SRB was investigated both in sediment incubations that mimicked in situ bioremediation and with in silico metabolic modeling. In sediment incubations, Geobacter grew quickly but then declined in numbers as the microbially reducible Fe(III was depleted whereas the SRB grow more slowly and reached dominance after 30–40 days. Modeling predicted a similar outcome. Additional modeling in which the relative initial percentages of the Geobacter and SRB were varied indicated that there was little to no competitive interaction between Geobacter and SRB when acetate was abundant. Further simulations suggested that the addition of Fe(III would revive the Geobacter, but have little to no effect on the SRB. This result was confirmed experimentally. The results demonstrate that it is possible to predict the impact of amendments on important components of the subsurface microbial community during groundwater bioremediation. The finding that Fe(III availability, rather than competition with SRB, is the key factor limiting the activity of Geobacter during in situ uranium bioremediation will aid in the design of improved uranium bioremediation strategies.

  15. Integrative analysis of Geobacter spp. and sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, M.; Zhuang, K.; Mahadevan, R.; Lovley, D.

    2012-03-01

    Enhancing microbial U(VI) reduction with the addition of organic electron donors is a promising strategy for immobilizing uranium in contaminated groundwaters, but has yet to be optimized because of a poor understanding of the factors controlling the growth of various microbial communities during bioremediation. In previous field trials in which acetate was added to the subsurface, there were two distinct phases: an initial phase in which acetate-oxidizing, U(VI)-reducing Geobacter predominated and U(VI) was effectively reduced and a second phase in which acetate-oxidizing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) predominated and U(VI) reduction was poor. The interaction of Geobacter and SRB was investigated both in sediment incubations that mimicked in situ bioremediation and with in silico metabolic modeling. In sediment incubations, Geobacter grew quickly but then declined in numbers as the microbially reducible Fe(III) was depleted whereas the SRB grow more slowly and reached dominance after 30-40 days. Modeling predicted a similar outcome. Additional modeling in which the relative initial percentages of the Geobacter and SRB were varied indicated that there was little to no competitive interaction between Geobacter and SRB when acetate was abundant. Further simulations suggested that the addition of Fe(III) would revive the Geobacter, but have little to no effect on the SRB. This result was confirmed experimentally. The results demonstrate that it is possible to predict the impact of amendments on important components of the subsurface microbial community during groundwater bioremediation. The finding that Fe(III) availability, rather than competition with SRB, is the key factor limiting the activity of Geobacter during in situ uranium bioremediation will aid in the design of improved uranium bioremediation strategies.

  16. Integrative analysis of the interactions between Geobacter spp. and sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, M.; Zhuang, K.; Mahadevan, R.; Lovley, D. R.

    2011-11-01

    Enhancing microbial U(VI) reduction with the addition of organic electron donors is a promising strategy for immobilizing uranium in contaminated groundwaters, but has yet to be optimized because of a poor understanding of the factors controlling the growth of various microbial communities during bioremediation. In previous field trials in which acetate was added to the subsurface, there were two distinct phases: an initial phase in which acetate-oxidizing, U(VI)-reducing Geobacter predominated and U(VI) was effectively reduced and a second phase in which acetate-oxidizing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) predominated and U(VI) reduction was poor. The interaction of Geobacter and SRB was investigated both in sediment incubations that mimicked in situ bioremediation and with in silico metabolic modeling. In sediment incubations, Geobacter grew quickly but then declined in numbers as the microbially reducible Fe(III) was depleted whereas the SRB grow more slowly and reached dominance after 30-40 days. Modeling predicted a similar outcome. Additional modeling in which the relative initial percentages of the Geobacter and SRB were varied indicated that there was little to no competitive interaction between Geobacter and SRB when acetate was abundant. Further simulations suggested that the addition of Fe(III) would revive the Geobacter, but have little to no effect on the SRB. This result was confirmed experimentally. The results demonstrate that it is possible to predict the impact of amendments on important components of the subsurface microbial community during groundwater bioremediation. The finding that Fe(III) availability, rather than competition with SRB, is the key factor limiting the activity of Geobacter during in situ uranium bioremediation will aid in the design of improved uranium bioremediation strategies.

  17. Integrative analysis of Geobacter spp. and sulfate-reducing bacteria during uranium bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lovley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing microbial U(VI reduction with the addition of organic electron donors is a promising strategy for immobilizing uranium in contaminated groundwaters, but has yet to be optimized because of a poor understanding of the factors controlling the growth of various microbial communities during bioremediation. In previous field trials in which acetate was added to the subsurface, there were two distinct phases: an initial phase in which acetate-oxidizing, U(VI-reducing Geobacter predominated and U(VI was effectively reduced and a second phase in which acetate-oxidizing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB predominated and U(VI reduction was poor. The interaction of Geobacter and SRB was investigated both in sediment incubations that mimicked in situ bioremediation and with in silico metabolic modeling. In sediment incubations, Geobacter grew quickly but then declined in numbers as the microbially reducible Fe(III was depleted whereas the SRB grow more slowly and reached dominance after 30–40 days. Modeling predicted a similar outcome. Additional modeling in which the relative initial percentages of the Geobacter and SRB were varied indicated that there was little to no competitive interaction between Geobacter and SRB when acetate was abundant. Further simulations suggested that the addition of Fe(III would revive the Geobacter, but have little to no effect on the SRB. This result was confirmed experimentally. The results demonstrate that it is possible to predict the impact of amendments on important components of the subsurface microbial community during groundwater bioremediation. The finding that Fe(III availability, rather than competition with SRB, is the key factor limiting the activity of Geobacter during in situ uranium bioremediation will aid in the design of improved uranium bioremediation strategies.

  18. Uranium Bio-accumulation and Cycling as revealed by Uranium Isotopes in Naturally Reduced Sediments from the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Pierre; Noël, Vincent; Jemison, Noah; Weaver, Karrie; Bargar, John; Maher, Kate

    2016-04-01

    Uranium (U) groundwater contamination following oxidized U(VI) releases from weathering of mine tailings is a major concern at numerous sites across the Upper Colorado River Basin (CRB), USA. Uranium(IV)-bearing solids accumulated within naturally reduced zones (NRZs) characterized by elevated organic carbon and iron sulfide compounds. Subsequent re-oxidation of U(IV)solid to U(VI)aqueous then controls the release to groundwater and surface water, resulting in plume persistence and raising public health concerns. Thus, understanding the extent of uranium oxidation and reduction within NRZs is critical for assessing the persistence of the groundwater contamination. In this study, we measured solid-phase uranium isotope fractionation (δ238/235U) of sedimentary core samples from four study sites (Shiprock, NM, Grand Junction, Rifle and Naturita, CO) using a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS). We observe a strong correlation between U accumulation and the extent of isotopic fractionation, with Δ238U up to +1.8 ‰ between uranium-enriched and low concentration zones. The enrichment in the heavy isotopes within the NRZs appears to be especially important in the vadose zone, which is subject to variations in water table depth. According to previous studies, this isotopic signature is consistent with biotic reduction processes associated with metal-reducing bacteria. Positive correlations between the amount of iron sulfides and the accumulation of reduced uranium underline the importance of sulfate-reducing conditions for U(IV) retention. Furthermore, the positive fractionation associated with U reduction observed across all sites despite some variations in magnitude due to site characteristics, shows a regional trend across the Colorado River Basin. The maximum extent of 238U enrichment observed in the NRZ proximal to the water table further suggests that the redox cycling of uranium, with net release of U(VI) to the groundwater by

  19. Uranium hexafluoride public risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R.; Hui, T.E.; Yurconic, M.; Johnson, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    The limiting value for uranium toxicity in a human being should be based on the concentration of uranium (U) in the kidneys. The threshold for nephrotoxicity appears to lie very near 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissue. There does not appear to be strong scientific support for any other improved estimate, either higher or lower than this, of the threshold for uranium nephrotoxicity in a human being. The value 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney is the concentration that results from a single intake of about 30 mg soluble uranium by inhalation (assuming the metabolism of a standard person). The concentration of uranium continues to increase in the kidneys after long-term, continuous (or chronic) exposure. After chronic intakes of soluble uranium by workers at the rate of 10 mg U per week, the concentration of uranium in the kidneys approaches and may even exceed the nephrotoxic limit of 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissue. Precise values of the kidney concentration depend on the biokinetic model and model parameters assumed for such a calculation. Since it is possible for the concentration of uranium in the kidneys to exceed 3 {mu}g per gram tissue at an intake rate of 10 mg U per week over long periods of time, we believe that the kidneys are protected from injury when intakes of soluble uranium at the rate of 10 mg U per week do not continue for more than two consecutive weeks. For long-term, continuous occupational exposure to low-level, soluble uranium, we recommend a reduced weekly intake limit of 5 mg uranium to prevent nephrotoxicity in workers. Our analysis shows that the nephrotoxic limit of 3 {mu}g U per gram kidney tissues is not exceeded after long-term, continuous uranium intake at the intake rate of 5 mg soluble uranium per week.

  20. Bioremediation of uranium contamination with enzymatic uranium reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Enzymatic uranium reduction by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans readily removed uranium from solution in a batch system or when D. desulfuricans was separated from the bulk of the uranium-containing water by a semipermeable membrane. Uranium reduction continued at concentrations as high as 24 mM. Of a variety of potentially inhibiting anions and metals evaluated, only high concentrations of copper inhibited uranium reduction. Freeze-dried cells, stored aerobically, reduced uranium as fast as fresh cells. D. desulfuricans reduced uranium in pH 4 and pH 7.4 mine drainage waters and in uraniumcontaining groundwaters from a contaminated Department of Energy site. Enzymatic uranium reduction has several potential advantages over other bioprocessing techniques for uranium removal, the most important of which are as follows: the ability to precipitate uranium that is in the form of a uranyl carbonate complex; high capacity for uranium removal per cell; the formation of a compact, relatively pure, uranium precipitate.

  1. Uranium Bioreduction Rates across Scales: Biogeochemical Hot Moments and Hot Spots during a Biostimulation Experiment at Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Chen; Wu, Hongfei; Li, Li; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2014-09-02

    We aim to understand the scale-dependent evolution of uranium bioreduction during a field experiment at a former uranium mill site near Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and to immobilize aqueous U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Bicarbonate was coinjected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI). We used reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic and geochemical data and to quantify rates at the grid block (0.25 m) and experimental field scale (tens of meters). Although local rates varied by orders of magnitude in conjunction with biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, field-scale rates were dominated by those orders of magnitude higher rates at a few selected hot spots where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maxima in the vicinity of the injection wells. At particular locations, the hot moments with maximum rates negatively corresponded to their distance from the injection wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced local rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 39.4%, its effect at the field scale was limited to a maximum of 10.0%. We propose a rate-versus-measurement-length relationship (log R' = -0.63

  2. Investigation on Microbial Dissolution of Uranium (VI) from Autunite Mineral - 13421

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda, Paola; Katsenovich, Yelena; Lagos, Leonel [Applied Research Center, Florida International University. 10555 West Flagler St. Suite 2100, Miami Fl 33175 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Precipitating autunite minerals by polyphosphate injection was identified as a feasible remediation strategy for sequestering uranium in contaminated groundwater and soil in situ at the Hanford Site. Autunite stability under vadose and saturated zone environmental conditions can help to determine the long-term effectiveness of this remediation strategy. The Arthrobacter bacteria are one of the most common groups in soils and are found in large numbers in Hanford soil as well as other subsurface environments contaminated with radionuclides. Ubiquitous in subsurface microbial communities, these bacteria can play a significant role in the dissolution of minerals and the formation of secondary minerals. The main objective of this investigation was to study the bacterial interactions under oxidizing conditions with uranium (VI); study the potential role of bicarbonate, which is an integral complexing ligand for U(VI) and a major ion in groundwater compositions; and present data from autunite dissolution experiments using Arthrobacter strain G968, a less U(VI)-tolerant strain. Sterile 100 mL glass mixed reactors served as the major bioreactor for initial experimentation. These autunite-containing bioreactors were injected with bacterial cells after the autunite equilibrated with the media solution amended with 0 mM, 3 mM 5 mM and 10 mM concentrations of bicarbonate. G968 Arthrobacter cells in the amount of 10{sup 6} cells/mL were injected into the reactors after 27 days, giving time for the autunite to reach steady state. Abiotic non-carbonate controls were kept without bacterial inoculation to provide a control for the biotic samples. Samples of the solution were analyzed for dissolved U(VI) by means of kinetic phosphorescence analyzer KPA-11 (Chemcheck Instruments, Richland, WA). Analysis showed that as [HCO{sub 3}{sup -}] increases, a diminishing trend on the effect of bacteria on autunite leaching is observed. Viability of cells was conducted after 24 hours of cell

  3. Synthesis and structural study of new metallasilsesquioxanes of potassium and uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gießmann, Stephan; Lorenz, Volker; Liebing, Phil; Hilfert, Liane; Fischer, Axel; Edelmann, Frank T

    2017-02-21

    The first metallasilsesquioxanes comprising potassium and uranium have been synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. (Cy7Si7O12)2K6(DME)4 (2; Cy = cyclohexyl) is a centrosymmetric dimer, in which the two silsesquioxide ligands are interconnected by μ3- and μ4-bridging siloxide moieties. (Cy7Si7O12)2U(VI) (3) represents the first metallasilsesquioxane complex of an actinide element, featuring a U atom that is coordinated by two tridentate silsesquioxide ligands in a distorted octahedral fashion. The different structural effects of the large metal atomic radii are discussed.

  4. Biogeochemical controls of uranium bioavailability from the dissolved phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Marie-Noele; Fuller, Christopher C.; Cain, Daniel J.; Campbell, Kate M.; Aiken, George R.

    2016-01-01

    To gain insights into the risks associated with uranium (U) mining and processing, we investigated the biogeochemical controls of U bioavailability in the model freshwater speciesLymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda). Bioavailability of dissolved U(VI) was characterized in controlled laboratory experiments over a range of water hardness, pH, and in the presence of complexing ligands in the form of dissolved natural organic matter (DOM). Results show that dissolved U is bioavailable under all the geochemical conditions tested. Uranium uptake rates follow first order kinetics over a range encompassing most environmental concentrations. Uranium uptake rates in L. stagnalis ultimately demonstrate saturation uptake kinetics when exposure concentrations exceed 100 nM, suggesting uptake via a finite number of carriers or ion channels. The lack of a relationship between U uptake rate constants and Ca uptake rates suggest that U does not exclusively use Ca membrane transporters. In general, U bioavailability decreases with increasing pH, increasing Ca and Mg concentrations, and when DOM is present. Competing ions did not affect U uptake rates. Speciation modeling that includes formation constants for U ternary complexes reveals that the aqueous concentration of dicarbonato U species (UO2(CO3)2–2) best predicts U bioavailability to L. stagnalis, challenging the free-ion activity model postulate

  5. Final Report - Phase II - Biogeochemistry of Uranium Under Reducing and Re-oxidizing Conditions: An Integrated Laboratory and Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, Brent; Sani, Rajesh

    2006-09-28

    Our understanding of subsurface microbiology is hindered by the inaccessibility of this environment, particularly when the hydrogeologic medium is contaminated with toxic substances. Past research in our labs indicated that the composition of the growth medium (e.g., bicarbonate complexation of U(VI)) and the underlying mineral phase (e.g., hematite) significantly affects the rate and extent of U(VI) reduction and immobilization through a variety of effects. Our research was aimed at elucidating those effects to a much greater extent, while exploring the potential for U(IV) reoxidation and subsequent re-mobilization, which also appears to depend on the mineral phases present in the system. The project reported on here was an extension ($20,575) of the prior (much larger) project. This report is focused only on the work completed during the extension period. Further information on the larger impacts of our research, including 28 publications, can be found in the final report for the following projects: 1) Biogeochemistry of Uranium Under Reducing and Re-oxidizing Conditions: An Integrated Laboratory and Field Study Grant # DE-FG03-01ER63270, and 2) Acceptable Endpoints for Metals and Radionuclides: Quantifying the Stability of Uranium and Lead Immobilized Under Sulfate Reducing Conditions Grant # DE-FG03-98ER62630/A001 In this Phase II project, the toxic effects of uranium(VI) were studied using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 in a medium containing bicarbonate or 1, 4-piperazinediethane sulfonic acid disodium salt monohydrate (PIPES) buffer (each at 30 mM, pH 7). The toxicity of uranium(VI) was dependent on the medium buffer and was observed in terms of longer lag times and in some cases, no measurable growth. The minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) was 140 M U(VI) in PIPES buffered medium. This is 36 times lower than previously reported for D. desulfuricans. These results suggest that U(VI) toxicity and the detoxification mechanisms of G20 depend greatly on the

  6. Meeting of the French geological society - Uranium: geology, geophysics, chemistry. Book of abstracts; Reunion de la Societe Geologique de France - Uranium: geologie, geophysique, chimie. Recueil des resumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakari, A.A.; Mima, S.; Bidaud, A.; Criqui, P.; Menanteau, P.; David, S.; Pagel, M.; Chagnes, A.; Cote, G.; Courtaud, B.; Thiry, J.; Miehe, J.M.; Gilbert, F.; Cuney, M.; Bruneton, P.; Ewington, D.; Vautrin-Ul, C.; Cannizzo, C.; Betelu, S.; Chausse, A.; Ly, J.; Bourgeois, D.; Maynadie, J.; Meyer, D.; Clavier, N.; Costin, D.T.; Cretaz, F.; Szenknect, S.; Ravaux, J.; Poinssot, C.; Dacheux, N.; Durupt, N.; Blanvillain, J.J.; Geffroy, F.; Aparicio, B.; Dubessy, J.; Nguyen-Trung, C.; Robert, P.; Uri, F.; Beaufort, D.; Lescuyer, J.L.; Morichon, E.; Allard, T.; Milesi, J.P.; Richard, A.; Rozsypal, C.; Mercadier, J.; Banks, D.A.; Boiron, M.C.; Cathelineau, M.; Dardel, J.; Billon, S.; Patrier, P.; Wattinne, A.; Vanderhaeghe, O.; Fabre, C.; Castillo, M.; Salvi, S.; Beziat, D.; Williams-Jones, A.E.; Trap, P.; Durand, C.; Goncalves, P.; Marquer, D.; Feybesse, J.L.; Richard, Y.; Orberger, B.; Hofmann, A.; Megneng, M.; Orberger, B.; Bouttemy, M.; Vigneron, J.; Etcheberry, A.; Perdicakis, M.; Prignon, N.; Toe, W.; Andre-Mayer, A.S.; Eglinger, A.; Jordaan, T.; Hocquet, S.; Ledru, P.; Selezneva, V.; Vendryes, G.; Lach, P.; Cuney, M.; Mercadier, J.; Brouand, M.; Duran, C.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A.M.; Bingen, B.; Parseval, P. de; Guillaume, D.; Bosse, V.; Paquette, J.L.; Ingrin, J.; Montel, J.M.; Giot, R.; Maucotel, F.; Hubert, S.; Gautheron, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Pagel, M.; Barbarand, J.; Cuney, M.; Lach, P.; Bonhoure, J.; Leisen, M.; Kister, P.; Salaun, A.; Villemant, B.; Gerard, M.; Komorowski, J.C.; Michel, A.; Riegler, T.; Tartese, R.; Boulvais, P.; Poujols, M.; Gloaguen, E.; Mazzanti, M.; Mougel, V.; Nocton, G.; Biswas, B.; Pecaut, J.; Othmane, G.; Menguy, N.; Vercouter, T.; Morin, G.; Galoisy, L.; Calas, G.; Fayek, M.

    2010-11-15

    -temperature, and metallogenic provinces; 21 - Magmatic-hydrothermal transition in the Roessing pegmatite: implications for uranium mineralisation; 22 - Deformation and partial fusion of a Archean-paleo-Proterozoic crust: implication on uraniferous ores mobilization and deposition, Torngats orogenesis, Ungava bay; 23 - Black chert pebbles of the Pongola basin conglomerates ({approx}2, 9 Ga - South Africa): a potential uranium source?; 24 - origin and evolution of detrital pyrites in meso-Archean conglomerates (3.08-2.64 Ga) of South Africa: uranium source or trap?; 25 - Experimental study of U(VI) carbonates with respect to 3 parameters: pH, carbonate concentration, temperature, using vibrational (Raman, FTIR, ATR) and optical (UV-visible) spectroscopy; 26 - Nature and significance of the contact between the Abbabis gneiss complex and the meta-sedimentary sequences of the Damara orogenic belt; 27 - Metallogenic potentialities of Proterozoic orogenic belts accreted to Archean basements: the Damara/Lufilien orogen - Namibia and Zambia; 28 - Contribution of the Geological Exploration to the development of the KATCO ISR mine - Chu-Sarysu basin, Kazakhstan; 29 - Remarks about some remarkable events which occurred during the Francevillien formation; 30 - Geochemical signature of different mineral phases obtained by ICP-MS laser ablation (trace elements and rare earths): Application Uranium deposits; 31 - Role of fluids and irradiation in complex pegmatite euxenite/zircon assemblies from Norway and their U-Pb geochronological consequences; 32 - Mechanical modeling of rupture around metamictic minerals; 33 - Helium diffusion in apatite: Effect alpha recoil-linked damages; 34 - Rare earth spectra in uranium oxides: a marker of the uranium deposit type; 35 - Rare earths: tracers of uranium behaviour during acid sulphated hydrothermal weathering - the Guadeloupe example; 36 - What metallogenic model for the Kiggavik-Andrew Lake trend? Nunavut, Canada; 37 - Uranium mobility in the Southern

  7. Uranium conversion; Conversion de l`uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This booklet is a presentation of the activities of the Comurhex company, created in 1971 and which became a 100% Cogema`s daughter company in 1992. The Comurhex company is in charge of the conversion of natural uranium into gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). The two steps of the conversion operation are performed in the Malvesi and Pierrelatte (France) industrial sites and represent 31% (14000 t/year) of the uranium conversion capacity of western countries. The refining and UF{sub 4} production (Malvesi) and the UF{sub 6} fabrication (Pierrelatte) processes are described. Comurhex is also one of the few companies in the world which produces UF{sub 6} from the uranium of spent fuels. (J.S.)

  8. The extraction of uranium using graphene aerogel loading organic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mumei; Li, Zheng; Li, Jihao; Li, Jingye; Li, Qingnuan; Zhang, Lan

    2017-05-01

    A new approach for uranium extraction employing graphene aerogel (GA) as a skeleton loading organic solution (GA-LOS) is proposed and investigated. Firstly, the GA with super-hydrophobicity and high organic solution absorption capacity was fabricated by one-step reduction and self-assembly of graphene oxide with ethylenediamine. By adsorbing Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane solution to prepare GA-LOS, the extraction of U(VI) from nitric acid medium using GA-LOS was investigated and compared with conventional solvent extraction. It is found that the GA-LOS method can provide several advantages over conventional solvent extraction and adsorption due to the elimination of aqueous-organic mixing-separation procedures and easy solid-liquid separation. Furthermore, it also possesses higher extraction capacity (the saturated extraction capacity of GA loading TBP for U(VI) was 316.3mgg(-1) ) and lower consumption of organic diluents, leading to less organic waste. Moreover, the stability of GA-LOS in aqueous solution and cycling test were also studied, and it shows a remarkable regeneration capability, making it an ideal candidate for metal extraction from aqueous solution.

  9. Interactions of Ionic Liquids with Uranium and its Bioreduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.; Francis, A.

    2012-09-18

    We investigated the influence of ionic liquids (ILs) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM]{sup +}[PF{sub 6}]{sup -}, N-ethylpyridinium trifluoroacetate [EtPy]{sup +}[CF{sub 3}COO]{sup -} and N-ethylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [Et-Py]{sup +}[BF{sub 4}]{sup -} on uranium reduction by Clostridium sp. under anaerobic conditions. Potentiometric titration, UV-vis spectrophotometry, LC-MS and EXAFS analyses showed monodentate complexation between uranyl and BF{sub 4}{sup -} PF{sub 6}{sup -}; and bidentate complexation with CF{sub 3}COO{sup -}. Ionic liquids affected the growth of Clostridium sp. as evidenced by decrease in optical density, changes in pH, gas production, and the extent of U(VI) reduction and precipitation of U(IV) from solution. Reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was observed in the presence of [EtPy][BF{sub 4}] and [BMIM][PF{sub 6}] but not with [EtPy][CF{sub 3}COO].

  10. Study on anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing hexavalent chromium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yan-bin; XIAO Hua-hua; SUN Shui-yu

    2005-01-01

    A self-made anaerobic bio-filter bed which was inoculated with special sludge showed high efficiency in removing hexavalent chromium. When pump flow was 47 ml/min and CODCr ofwastewater was about 140 mg/L, it took 4 h to decrease the Cr6+ concentrations from about 60 mg/L to under 0.5 mg/L, compared with 14 h without carbon source addition. Cr6+ concentrations ranged from 64.66 mg/L to 75.53 mg/L, the system efficiency was excellent. When Cr6+ concentration reached 95.47 mg/L,the treatment time was prolonged to 7.5 h. Compared with the contrast system, the system with trace metals showed clear superiority in that the Cr6+ removal rate increased by 21.26%. Some analyses also showed that hexavalent chromium could probably be bio-reduced to trivalent chromium, and that as a result, the chrome hydroxide sediment was formed on the surface of microorganisms.

  11. Study on anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-bin; Xiao, Hua-hua; Sun, Shui-yu

    2005-06-01

    A self-made anaerobic bio-filter bed which was inoculated with special sludge showed high efficiency in removing hexavalent chromium. When pump flow was 47 ml/min and COD(Cr) of wastewater was about 140 mg/L, it took 4 h to decrease the Cr6+ concentrations from about 60 mg/L to under 0.5 mg/L, compared with 14 h without carbon source addition. Cr6+ concentrations ranged from 64.66 mg/L to 75.53 mg/L, the system efficiency was excellent. When Cr6+ concentration reached 95.47 mg/L, the treatment time was prolonged to 7.5 h. Compared with the contrast system, the system with trace metals showed clear superiority in that the Cr6+ removal rate increased by 21.26%. Some analyses also showed that hexavalent chromium could probably be bio-reduced to trivalent chromium, and that as a result, the chrome hydroxide sediment was formed on the surface of microorganisms.

  12. Study on anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing hexavalent chromium*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-bin; Xiao, Hua-hua; Sun, Shui-yu

    2005-01-01

    A self-made anaerobic bio-filter bed which was inoculated with special sludge showed high efficiency in removing hexavalent chromium. When pump flow was 47 ml/min and CODCr of wastewater was about 140 mg/L, it took 4 h to decrease the Cr6+ concentrations from about 60 mg/L to under 0.5 mg/L, compared with 14 h without carbon source addition. Cr6+ concentrations ranged from 64.66 mg/L to 75.53 mg/L, the system efficiency was excellent. When Cr6+ concentration reached 95.47 mg/L, the treatment time was prolonged to 7.5 h. Compared with the contrast system, the system with trace metals showed clear superiority in that the Cr6+ removal rate increased by 21.26%. Some analyses also showed that hexavalent chromium could probably be bio-reduced to trivalent chromium, and that as a result, the chrome hydroxide sediment was formed on the surface of microorganisms. PMID:15909347

  13. Evaluation of adsorption of uranium from aqueous solution using biochar materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Wagner Clayton; Guilhen, Sabine Neusatz; Ortiz, Nilce; Fungaro, Denise Alves, E-mail: wcorrea@ipen.br, E-mail: snguilhen@ipen.br, E-mail: notriz@ipen.br, E-mail: dfungaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Uranium is present in the environment as a result of leaching from natural deposits and activities associated with nuclear fuel, copper mining, uranium mining, milling industry, etc. For the purpose of protecting ecosystem stability and public health, it is crucial to eliminate uranium from aqueous solutions before they are discharged into the environment. Various technologies have been used for removing U(VI) ions from aqueous systems. Among these methods, adsorption has been applied in wastewater because of simple operation procedure and high removal efficiency. Brazil is the largest producer of charcoal in the world, with nearly half of the woody biomass harvested for energy in Brazil being transformed into charcoal. Biochar exhibits a great potential as an adsorbent because of favorable physical/chemical surface characteristics. The objective of this work was to evaluate the adsorption potential of biochar materials prepared from pyrolysis of Bamboo (CBM), Eucalyptus (CEM) and Macauba (CMA) nuts for the removal of uranium from solutions. Adsorption experiments were carried out by a batch technique. Equilibrium adsorption experiments were performed by shaking a known amount of biochar material with 100 mL of U(VI) solution in Erlenmeyer flasks in a shaker at 120 rpm and room temperature (25 deg C) for 24 h. The adsorbent was separated by centrifugation from the solution. The U(VI) concentration remaining in the supernatant solution was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The influences of different experimental parameters such as solution pH and bioadsorbent dose on adsorption were investigated. The highest uranium adsorption capacity were obtained at pH 3.0 and 16 g/L biomass dosage for CMA, pH 3.0 and 12 g/L biomass dosage for CBM and pH 2.0 and 10 g/L biomass dosage for CEM. The results demonstrated that the biomass derived char can be used as a low-cost adsorbent for removal of uranium from wastewater. (author)

  14. Uranium: A Dentist's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Toor, R. S. S.; Brar, G. S.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium is a naturally occurring radionuclide found in granite and other mineral deposits. In its natural state, it consists of three isotopes (U-234, U-235 and U-238). On an average, 1% – 2% of ingested uranium is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract in adults. The absorbed uranium rapidly enters the bloodstream and forms a diffusible ionic uranyl hydrogen carbonate complex (UO2HCO3+) which is in equilibrium with a nondiffusible uranyl albumin complex. In the skeleton, the uranyl ion repla...

  15. Chemical thermodynamics of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenthe, I.; Fuger, J.; Lemire, R.J.; Muller, A.B.; Nguyen-Trung Cregu, C.; Wanner, H.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive overview on the chemical thermodynamics of those elements that are of particular importance in the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems is provided. This is the first volume in a series of critical reviews to be published on this subject. The book provides an extensive compilation of chemical thermodynamic data for uranium. A description of procedures for activity corrections and uncertainty estimates is given. A critical discussion of data needed for nuclear waste management assessments, including areas where significant gaps of knowledge exist is presented. A detailed inventory of chemical thermodynamic data for inorganic compounds and complexes of uranium is listed. Data and their uncertainty limits are recommended for 74 aqueous complexes and 199 solid and 31 gaseous compounds containing uranium, and on 52 aqueous and 17 solid auxiliary species containing no uranium. The data are internally consistent and compatible with the CODATA Key Values. The book contains a detailed discussion of procedures used for activity factor corrections in aqueous solution, as well as including methods for making uncertainty estimates. The recommended data have been prepared for use in environmental geochemistry. Containing contributions written by experts the chapters cover various subject areas such a s: oxide and hydroxide compounds and complexes, the uranium nitrides, the solid uranium nitrates and the arsenic-containing uranium compounds, uranates, procedures for consistent estimation of entropies, gaseous and solid uranium halides, gaseous uranium oxides, solid phosphorous-containing uranium compounds, alkali metal uranates, uncertainties, standards and conventions, aqueous complexes, uranium minerals dealing with solubility products and ionic strength corrections. The book is intended for nuclear research establishments and consulting firms dealing with uranium mining and nuclear waste disposal, as well as academic and research institutes.

  16. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehle, A.E.; Stevenson, J.W.

    1957-11-12

    An improved process is described for the magnesium reduction of UF/sub 4/ to produce uranium metal. In the past, there have been undesirable premature reactions between the Mg and the bomb liner or the UF/sub 4/ before the actual ignition of the bomb reaction. Since these premature reactions impair the yield of uranium metal, they have been inhibited by forming a protective film upon the particles of Mg by reacting it with hydrated uranium tetrafluoride, sodium bifluoride, uranyl fluoride, or uranium trioxide. This may be accomplished by adding about 0.5 to 2% of the additive to the bomb charge.

  17. METHOD OF ROLLING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.S.

    1959-08-01

    A method is described for rolling uranium metal at relatively low temperatures and under non-oxidizing conditions. The method involves the steps of heating the uranium to 200 deg C in an oil bath, withdrawing the uranium and permitting the oil to drain so that only a thin protective coating remains and rolling the oil coated uranium at a temperature of 200 deg C to give about a 15% reduction in thickness at each pass. The operation may be repeated to accomplish about a 90% reduction without edge cracking, checking or any appreciable increase in brittleness.

  18. CHEMICAL TOXICITY OF URANIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Cam

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Uranium, occurs naturally in the earth’s crust, is an alpha emitter radioactive element from the actinide group. For this reason, U-235 and U-238, are uranium isotopes with long half lives, have got radiological toxicity. But, for natural-isotopic-composition uranium (NatU, there is greater risk from chemical toxicity than radiological toxicity. When uranium is get into the body with anyway, also its chemical toxicity must be thought. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 215-220

  19. Combining thermodynamic simulations, element and surface analytics to study U(VI) retention in corroded cement monoliths upon >20 years of leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bube, C.; Metz, V.; Schild, D.; Rothe, J.; Dardenne, K.; Lagos, M.; Plaschke, M.; Kienzler, B.

    Retention or release of radionuclides in a deep geological repository for radioactive wastes strongly depends on the geochemical environment and on the interaction with near-field components, e.g. waste packages and backfill materials. Deep geological disposal in rock salt is one of the concepts considered for cemented low- and intermediate-level wastes. Long-term experiments were performed to observe the evolution of full-scale cemented waste simulates (doped with (NH4)2U2O7) upon reaction with relevant salt brines, e.g. MgCl2-rich and saturated NaCl solutions, and to examine the binding mechanisms of uranium. Throughout the experiments, concentrations of major solution components, uranium and pH values were monitored regularly and compared to thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, which indicate that close-to-equilibrium conditions have been achieved after 13-14 years duration of the leaching experiments. Two of the full-scale cemented waste simulates were recovered from the solutions after 17-18 years and studied by different analytical methods to characterize the solids, especially with respect to uranium incorporation. In drill core fragments of various lateral and horizontal positions of the corroded monoliths, U-rich aggregates were detected and analyzed by means of space-resolved techniques. Raman, μ-XANES and μ-XRD analyses of several aggregates demonstrate that they consist of an amorphous diuranate-type solid. Within error, calculated U solubilities controlled by Na-diuranate (Na2U2O7·H2O) are consistent with measured U concentrations in both, the NaCl and the MgCl2-system. Since uranophane occurs also in the corroded monoliths, it is proposed that a transition towards the thermodynamic equilibrium U(VI) phase is kinetically hindered.

  20. Comparing different Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) occultation observations using modeling of water vapor jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portyankina, Ganna; Esposito, Larry W.; Hansen, Candice; Aye, Klaus-Michael

    2016-10-01

    Motivation: On March 11, 2016 the Cassini UVIS observed its 6th star occultation by Enceladus' plume. This observation was aimed to determine variability in the total gas flux from the Enceladus' southern polar region. The analysis of the received data suggests that the total gas flux is moderately increased comparing to the average gas flux observed by UVIS from 2005 to 2011 [1]. However, UVIS detected variability in individual jets. In particular, Baghdad 1 is more collimated in 2016 than in 2005, meaning its gas escapes at higher velocity.Model and fits: We use 3D DSMC model for water vapor jets to compare different UVIS occultation observations from 2005 to 2016. The model traces test articles from jets' sources [2] into space and results in coordinates and velocities for a set of test particles. We convert particle positions into the particle number density and integrate along UVIS line of sight (LoS) for each time step of the UVIS observation using precise observational geometry derived from SPICE [3]. We integrate all jets that are crossed by the LoS and perform constrained least-squares fit of resulting modeled opacities to the observed data to solved for relative strengths of jets. The geometry of each occultation is specific, for example, during solar occultation in 2010 UVIS LoS was almost parallel to tiger stripes, which made it possible to distinguish jets venting from different tiger stripes. In 2011 Eps Orionis occultation LoS was perpendicular to tiger stripes and thus many of the jets were geometrically overlapping. Solar occultation provided us with the largest inventory of active jets - our model fit detects at least 43 non-zero jet contributions. Stellar occultations generally have lower temporal resolution and observe only a sub-set of these jets: 2011 Eps Orionis needs minimum 25 non-zero jets to fit UVIS data. We will discuss different occultations and models fits, including the most recent Epsilon Orionis occultation of 2016.[1] Hansen et al

  1. Making the invisible visible: UViRCO, an innovation success story

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wallis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Wallis_2015.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 12091 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Wallis_2015.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Making the Invisible Visible: UVi...RCO, An Innovation Success Story Jeremy Wallis Contents • The Innovation • The Eskom / CSIR Story • UViRCO – A CSIR high tech start up • Where did it happen at CSIR? • Key ingredients in making innovation happen • The future The Innovation 1991 2008 2015...

  2. Redox chemistry of sulphate and uranium in a phosphogypsum tailings dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou, Fanos; Antoniou, Stella; Pashalidis, Ioannis

    2010-08-01

    The present study aims to assess the effect of redox conditions existing within the tailings dump on the stability of phosphogypsum (e.g. sulphate reduction) and uranium(VI). Phosphogypsum sampling and in-situ measurements were carried out at a coastal tailings dump in Vasiliko Cyprus, pH, E(H) and solubility experiments were performed in simulated laboratory systems and thermodynamic calculations using MINTEQA2. Generally, in the open tailings dump oxidizing conditions predominate stabilizing sulphur and uranium in their hexavalent oxidation states. On the other hand, after the application of a soil/vegetative cover and in the presence of natural organic matter, anoxic conditions prevail (E(H) phosphogypsum resulting in enhanced erosion of the material by rain- and seawater and washing out of contaminants in particulate/colloidal form.

  3. Bacterial Community Succession During in situ Uranium Bioremediation: Spatial Similarities Along Controlled Flow Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Chiachi; Wu, Weimin; Gentry, Terry J.; Carley, Jack; Corbin, Gail A.; Carroll, Sue L.; Watson, David B.; Jardine, Phil M.; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2009-05-22

    Bacterial community succession was investigated in a field-scale subsurface reactor formed by a series of wells that received weekly ethanol additions to re-circulating groundwater. Ethanol additions stimulated denitrification, metal reduction, sulfate reduction, and U(VI) reduction to sparingly soluble U(IV). Clone libraries of SSU rRNA gene sequences from groundwater samples enabled tracking of spatial and temporal changes over a 1.5 y period. Analyses showed that the communities changed in a manner consistent with geochemical variations that occurred along temporal and spatial scales. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the levels of nitrate, uranium, sulfide, sulfate, and ethanol strongly correlated with particular bacterial populations. As sulfate and U(VI) levels declined, sequences representative of sulfate-reducers and metal-reducers were detected at high levels. Ultimately, sequences associated with sulfate-reducing populations predominated, and sulfate levels declined as U(VI) remained at low levels. When engineering controls were compared to the population variation via canonical ordination, changes could be related to dissolved oxygen control and ethanol addition. The data also indicated that the indigenous populations responded differently to stimulation for bio-reduction; however, the two bio-stimulated communities became more similar after different transitions in an idiosyncratic manner. The strong associations between particular environmental variables and certain populations provide insight into the establishment of practical and successful remediation strategies in radionuclide-contaminated environments with respect to engineering controls and microbial ecology.

  4. Removal of uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions by CMK-3 and its polymer composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunhai; Li, Qin; Cao, Xiaohong; Wang, Youqun; Jiang, Xiaohui; Li, Min; Hua, Ming; Zhang, Zhibin

    2013-11-01

    The ability of PANI-CMK-3 composite (PANI-CMK-3) by in site polymerizing aniline onto the surface of mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) has been explored for the removal and recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions. The results of FTIR, SEM, TG/DTA and N2 adsorption-desorption demonstrated that aniline was successfully polymerized onto the inside and outside surface of CMK-3 rather than occupying the mesopore. The U(VI) sorption on PANI-CMK-3 was well fitted to the Langmuir adsorption isothermal and pseudo-second kinetics models. The monolayer maximum capacity of PANI-CMK-3 was improved from 50.12 mg g-1 of CMK-3 to 118.30 mg g-1 at 298 K due to the imine and amine groups in PANI. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) showed the U(VI) adsorption on CMK-3-PANI and CMK-3 were all endothermic and spontaneous in nature. Selective adsorption experiments (co-existing ions, Na+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Ni2+ and Sr2+) show that the selectivity of CMK-3 was enhanced after aniline polymerization. Moreover, the U(VI) adsorbed on the surface of PANI-CMK-3 can be eluated by 1.0 mol L-1 HCl solution with high desorption rate of 98%.

  5. A Highly Expressed High-Molecular-Weight S-Layer Complex of Pelosinus sp. Strain UFO1 Binds Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorgersen, Michael P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Lancaster, W. Andrew [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Rajeev, Lara [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Ge, Xiaoxuan [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Vaccaro, Brian J. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Poole, Farris L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Arkin, Adam P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Adams, Michael W. W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    2016-12-02

    Cell suspensions of Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1 were previously shown, using spectroscopic analysis, to sequester uranium as U(IV) complexed with carboxyl and phosphoryl group ligands on proteins. The goal of our present study was to characterize the proteins involved in uranium binding. Virtually all of the uranium in UFO1 cells was associated with a heterodimeric protein, which was termed the uranium-binding complex (UBC). The UBC was composed of two S-layer domain proteins encoded by UFO1_4202 and UFO1_4203. Samples of UBC purified from the membrane fraction contained 3.3 U atoms/heterodimer, but significant amounts of phosphate were not detected. The UBC had an estimated molecular mass by gel filtration chromatography of 15 MDa, and it was proposed to contain 150 heterodimers (UFO1_4203 and UFO1_4202) and about 500 uranium atoms. The UBC was also the dominant extracellular protein, but when purified from the growth medium, it contained only 0.3 U atoms/heterodimer. The two genes encoding the UBC were among the most highly expressed genes within the UFO1 genome, and their expressions were unchanged by the presence or absence of uranium. Therefore, the UBC appears to be constitutively expressed and is the first line of defense against uranium, including by secretion into the extracellular medium. Although S-layer proteins were previously shown to bind U(VI), here we showed that U(IV) binds to S-layer proteins, we identified the proteins involved, and we quantitated the amount of uranium bound. Widespread uranium contamination from industrial sources poses hazards to human health and to the environment. Here in this paper, we identified a highly abundant uranium-binding complex (UBC) from Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1. The complex makes up the primary protein component of the S-layer of strain UFO1 and binds 3.3 atoms of U(IV) per heterodimer. Finally, while other bacteria have been shown to bind U(VI) on their S-layer, we demonstrate here an example of U(IV) bound by

  6. 238U and 235U isotope fractionation upon oxidation of uranium-bearing rocks by fracture waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshev, I. V.; Golubev, V. N.; Chugaev, A. V.; Mandzhieva, G. V.

    2016-10-01

    The variations in 238U/235U values accompanying mobilization of U by fracture waters from uranium-bearing rocks, in which U occurs as a fine impregnation of oxides and silicates, were studied by the high-precision (±0.07‰) MC-ICP-MS method. Transition of U into the aqueous phase in the oxidized state U(VI) is accompanied by its isotope fractionation with enrichment of dissolved U(VI) in the heavy isotope 238U up to 0.32‰ in relation to the composition of the solid phases. According to the sign, this effect is consistent with the tendency of the behavior of 238U and 235U upon interaction of river waters with rocks of the catchment areas [11] and with the effect observed during oxidation of uraninite by the oxygen-bearing NaHCO3 solution [12].

  7. Uranium in Hanford Site 300 Area: Extraction Data on Borehole Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Lindberg, Michael J.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Kutynakov, I. V.; Wang, Zheming; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2012-11-26

    In this study, sediments collected from boreholes drilled in 2010 and 2011 as part of a remedial investigation/feasibility study were characterized. The wells, located within or around two process ponds and one process trench waste site, were characterized in terms of total uranium concentration, mobile fraction of uranium, particle size, and moisture content along the borehole depth. In general, the gravel-dominated sediments of the vadose zone Hanford formation in all investigated boreholes had low moisture contents. Based on total uranium content, a total of 48 vadose zone and periodically rewetted zone sediment samples were selected for more detailed characterization, including measuring the concentration of uranium extracted with 8 M nitric acid, and leached using bicarbonate mixed solutions to determine the liable uranium (U(VI)) contents. In addition, water extraction was conducted on 17 selected sediments. Results from the sediment acid and bicarbonate extractions indicated the total concentrations of anthropogenic labile uranium in the sediments varied among the investigated boreholes. The peak uranium concentration (114.84 µg/g, acid extract) in <2-mm size fractions was found in borehole 399 1-55, which was drilled directly in the southwest corner of the North Process Pond. Lower uranium concentrations (~0.3–2.5 µg/g, acid extract) in <2-mm size fractions were found in boreholes 399-1-57, 399-1-58, and 399-1-59, which were drilled either near the Columbia River or inland and upgradient of any waste process ponds or trenches. A general trend of “total” uranium concentrations was observed that increased as the particle size decreased when relating the sediment particle size and acid extractable uranium concentrations in two selected sediment samples. The labile uranium bicarbonate leaching kinetic experiments on three selected sediments indicated a two-step leaching rate: an initial rapid release, followed by a slow continual release of uranium from

  8. Effects of nitrate on the stability of uranium in a bioreduced region of the subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weimin [Stanford University; Carley, Jack M [ORNL; Green, Stefan [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Luo, Jian [Georgia Institute of Technology; Kelly, Shelly D [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Van Nostrand, Joy [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL; Mehlhorn, Tonia L [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Boonchayanant, Dr. Benjaporn [Stanford University; Loeffler, Frank E [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Criddle, Craig [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    The effects of nitrate on the stability of reduced, immobilized uranium were evaluated in field experiments at a U.S. Department of Energy site in Oak Ridge, TN. Nitrate (2.0 mM) was injected into a reduced region of the subsurface containing high levels of previously immobilized U(IV). The nitrate was reduced to nitrite, ammonium, and nitrogen gas; sulfide levels decreased; and Fe(II) levels increased then deceased. Uranium remobilization occurred concomitant with nitrite formation, suggesting nitrate-dependent, iron-accelerated oxidation of U(IV). Bromide tracer results indicated changes in subsurface flowpaths likely due to gas formation and/or precipitate. Desorption-adsorption of uranium by the iron-rich sediment impacted uranium mobilization and sequestration. After rereduction of the subsurface through ethanol additions, background groundwater containing high levels of nitrate was allowed to enter the reduced test zone. Aqueous uranium concentrations increased then decreased. Clone library analyses of sediment samples revealed the presence of denitrifying bacteria that can oxidize elemental sulfur, H{sub 2}S, Fe(II), and U(IV) (e.g., Thiobacillus spp.), and a decrease in relative abundance of bacteria that can reduce Fe(III) and sulfate. XANES analyses of sediment samples confirmed changes in uranium oxidation state. Addition of ethanol restored reduced conditions and triggered a short-term increase in Fe(II) and aqueous uranium, likely due to reductive dissolution of Fe(III) oxides and release of sorbed U(VI). After two months of intermittent ethanol addition, sulfide levels increased, and aqueous uranium concentrations gradually decreased to <0.1 {mu}M.

  9. Uranium industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    Uranium production in the United States has declined dramatically from a peak of 43.7 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (16.8 thousand metric tons uranium (U)) in 1980 to 3.1 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (1.2 thousand metric tons U) in 1993. This decline is attributed to the world uranium market experiencing oversupply and intense competition. Large inventories of uranium accumulated when optimistic forecasts for growth in nuclear power generation were not realized. The other factor which is affecting U.S. uranium production is that some other countries, notably Australia and Canada, possess higher quality uranium reserves that can be mined at lower costs than those of the United States. Realizing its competitive advantage, Canada was the world`s largest producer in 1993 with an output of 23.9 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (9.2 thousand metric tons U). The U.S. uranium industry, responding to over a decade of declining market prices, has downsized and adopted less costly and more efficient production methods. The main result has been a suspension of production from conventional mines and mills. Since mid-1992, only nonconventional production facilities, chiefly in situ leach (ISL) mining and byproduct recovery, have operated in the United States. In contrast, nonconventional sources provided only 13 percent of the uranium produced in 1980. ISL mining has developed into the most cost efficient and environmentally acceptable method for producing uranium in the United States. The process, also known as solution mining, differs from conventional mining in that solutions are used to recover uranium from the ground without excavating the ore and generating associated solid waste. This article describes the current ISL Yang technology and its regulatory approval process, and provides an analysis of the factors favoring ISL mining over conventional methods in a declining uranium market.

  10. Acetate availability and its influence on sustainable bioremediation of Uranium-contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; Davis, J.A.; Wilkins, M.J.; N'Guessan, A. L.; Steefel, Carl; Yang, L.; Newcomer, D.; Spane, F.A.; Kerkhof, L.J.; Mcguinness, L.; Dayvault, R.; Lovley, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Field biostimulation experiments at the U.S. Department of Energy's Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site in Rifle, Colorado, have demonstrated that uranium concentrations in groundwater can be decreased to levels below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) drinking water standard (0.126??M).During successive summer experiments - referred to as "Winchester" (2007) and "Big Rusty" (2008) - acetate was added to the aquifer to stimulate the activity of indigenous dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria capable of reductively immobilizing uranium. The two experiments differed in the length of injection (31 vs. 110 days), the maximum concentration of acetate (5 vs. 30 mM),and the extent to which iron reduction ("Winchester") or sulfate reduction("Big Rusty") was the predominant metabolic process. In both cases, rapid removal of U(VI) from groundwater occurred at calcium concentrations (6 mM) and carbonate alkalinities (8 meq/L) where Ca-UO2-CO3 ternary complexes constitute >90% of uranyl species in groundwater. Complete consumption of acetate and increased alkalinity (>30 meq/L) accompanying the onset of sulfate reduction corresponded to temporary increases in U(VI);however, by increasing acetate concentrations in excess of available sulfate (10 mM), low U(VI) concentrations (0.1-0.05 ??M) were achieved for extended periods of time (>140 days). Uniform delivery of acetate during "Big Rusty" was impeded due to decreases in injection well permeability, likely resulting from biomass accumulation and carbonate and sulfide mineral precipitation. Such decreases were not observed during the short-duration "Winchester" experiment. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that Geobacter sp. and Geobacter-like strains dominated the groundwater community profile during iron reduction, with 13C stable isotope probing (SIP) results confirming these strains were actively utilizing acetate to replicate their

  11. Mineral transformations during the dissolution of uranium ore minerals by dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasauer, S.; Weidler, P.; Fakra, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shuh, D.

    2011-12-01

    Carnotite minerals [X2(UO2)2(VO4)2]; X = K, Ca, Ba, Mn, Na, Cu or Pb] form the major ore of uranium in the Colorado Plateau. These deposits are highly oxidized and contain U(VI) and V(IV). The biotransformation of U(VI) bound in carnotite by bacteria during dissimilatory metal reduction presents a complex puzzle in mineral chemistry. Both U(VI) and V(V) can be respired by metal reducing bacteria, and the mineral structure can change depending on the associated counterion. We incubated anaerobic cultures of S. putrefaciens CN32 with natural carnotite minerals from southeastern Utah in a nutrient-limited defined medium. Strain CN32 is a gram negative bacterium and a terrestrial isolate from New Mexico. The mineral and metal transformations were compared to a system that contained similar concentrations of soluble U(VI) and V(V). Electron (SEM, TEM) microscopies and x-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) were used in conjunction with XRD to track mineral changes, and bacterial survival was monitored throughout the incubations. Slow rates of metal reduction over 10 months for the treatment with carnotite minerals revealed distinct biotic and abiotic processes, providing insight on mineral transformation and bacteria-metal interactions. The bacteria existed as small flocs or individual cells attached to the mineral phase, but did not adsorb soluble U or V, and accumulated very little of the biominerals. Reduction of mineral V(V) necessarily led to a dismantling of the carnotite structure. Bioreduction of V(V) by CN32 contributed small but profound changes to the mineral system, resulting in new minerals. Abiotic cation exchange within the carnotite group minerals induced the rearrangement of the mineral structures, leading to further mineral transformation. In contrast, bacteria survival was poor for treatments with soluble U(VI) and V(V), although both metals were reduced completely and formed solid UO2 and VO2; we also detected V(III). For these treatments, the bacteria

  12. Replacement for Cadmium Plating and Hexavalent Chromium on Fasteners and Electrical Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    radioactive materials, hexavalent chromium, (electroplating and coatings), cadmium (electroplating), mercury, or other highly toxic or carcinogenic...eliminate both UNCLASSIFIED: Dist A. Approved for public release Background - Alternative Choices • Numerous alternatives – Zinc nickel (Zn/Ni) – Tin...Plating • Aluminum Corrosion Performance –equivalent at same thickness • Heat Resistance – Trivalent Chrome protects up to about 400 F; Hexavalent

  13. Effective Management of Hexavalent Chromium (Cr+6) in DoD Organic and Inorganic Coatings Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-19

    Vinay V. Gadkari Battelle gadkariv@battelle.org 614-424-5751 Effective Management of Hexavalent Chromium (Cr+6) in DoD Organic and Inorganic...Coatings Operations Enhancing worker safety by minimizing health risks in hexavalent chromium environment 1 11/19/2014 John T. Stropki Battelle ...ADDRESS(ES) Battelle ,505 King Avenue,Columbus,OH,43201 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  14. Spatial Distribution of an Uranium-Respiring Betaproteobacterium at the Rifle, CO Field Research Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koribanics, Nicole M.; Tuorto, Steven J.; Lopez-Chiaffarelli, Nora; McGuinness, Lora R.; Häggblom, Max M.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Kerkhof, Lee J.

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge Site (IFRC) at Rifle, Colorado was created to address the gaps in knowledge on the mechanisms and rates of U(VI) bioreduction in alluvial sediments. Previous studies at the Rifle IFRC have linked microbial processes to uranium immobilization during acetate amendment. Several key bacteria believed to be involved in radionuclide containment have been described; however, most of the evidence implicating uranium reduction with specific microbiota has been indirect. Here, we report on the cultivation of a microorganism from the Rifle IFRC that reduces uranium and appears to utilize it as a terminal electron acceptor for respiration with acetate as electron donor. Furthermore, this bacterium constitutes a significant proportion of the subsurface sediment community prior to biostimulation based on TRFLP profiling of 16S rRNA genes. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicates that the microorganism is a betaproteobacterium with a high similarity to Burkholderia fungorum. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a betaproteobacterium capable of uranium respiration. Our results indicate that this microorganism occurs commonly in alluvial sediments located between 3-6 m below ground surface at Rifle and may play a role in the initial reduction of uranium at the site. PMID:25874721

  15. Elucidating Bioreductive Transformations within Physically Complex Media: Impact on the Fate and Transport of Uranium and Chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Fendorf; Chris Francis; Phil Jardine; Shawn Benner

    2009-03-01

    In situ stabilization (inclusive of natural attenuation) of toxic metals and radionuclides is an attractive approach for remediating many contaminated DOE sites. By immobilizing toxic metals and radionuclides in place, the removal of contaminated water to the surface for treatment as well as the associated disposal costs are avoided. To enhance in situ remediaton, microbiological reductive stabilization of contaminant metals has been, and continues to be, actively explored. It is likely that surface and subsurface microbial activity can alter the redox state of toxic metals and radionuclides, either directly or indirectly, so they are rendered immobile. Furthermore, anaerobic bacterial metabolic products will help to buffer pulses of oxidation, typically from fluxes of nitrate or molecular oxygen, and thus may stabilize reduced contaminants from oxidative mobilization. Uranium and chromium are two elements of particular concern within the DOE complex that, owing to their abundance and toxicity, appear well suited for biologically mediated reductive stabilization. Subsurface microbial activity can alter the redox state of toxic metals and radionuclides, rending them immobile. Imparting an important criterion on the probability that contaminants will undergo reductive stabilization, however, is the chemical and physical heterogeneity of the media. Our research first examined microbially induced transformation of iron (hydr)oxide minerals and their impact on contaminant attenuation. We revealed that in intricate cascade of geochemical reactions is induced by microbially produced Fe(II), and that during transformation contaminants such as U(VI) can be incorporated into the structure, and a set of Fe(II) bearing solids capable of reducing Cr(VI) and stabilizing resulting Cr(III). We also note, however, that common subsurface constituents such as phosphate can modify iron oxide transformation pathways and thus impact contaminant sequestration—affecting both Cr and U

  16. Final Report, Elucidating Bioreductive Transformations within Physically Complex Media: Impact on the Fate and Transport of Uranium and Chromium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, Shawn G.; Fendorf, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In situ stabilization (inclusive of natural attenuation) of toxic metals and radionuclides is an attractive approach for remediating many contaminated DOE sites. By immobilizing toxic metals and radionuclides in place, the removal of contaminated water to the surface for treatment as well as the associated disposal costs are avoided. To enhance in situ remediaton, microbiological reductive stabilization of contaminant metals has been, and continues to be, actively explored. It is likely that surface and subsurface microbial activity can alter the redox state of toxic metals and radionuclides, either directly or indirectly, so they are rendered immobile. Furthermore, anaerobic bacterial metabolic products will help to buffer pulses of oxidation, typically from fluxes of nitrate or molecular oxygen, and thus may stabilize reduced contaminants from oxidative mobilization. Uranium and chromium are two elements of particular concern within the DOE complex that, owing to their abundance and toxicity, appear well suited for biologically mediated reductive stabilization. Subsurface microbial activity can alter the redox state of toxic metals and radionuclides, rending them immobile. Imparting an important criterion on the probability that contaminants will undergo reductive stabilization, however, is the chemical and physical heterogeneity of the media. Our research first examined microbially induced transformation of iron (hydr)oxide minerals and their impact on contaminant attenuation. We revealed that in intricate cascade of geochemical reactions is induced by microbially produced Fe(II), and that during transformation contaminants such as U(VI) can be incorporated into the structure, and a set of Fe(II) bearing solids capable of reducing Cr(VI) and stabilizing resulting Cr(III). We also note, however, that common subsurface constituents such as phosphate can modify iron oxide transformation pathways and thus impact contaminant sequestration—affecting both Cr and U

  17. Uranium Desorption From Contaminated Sediments at the USDOE IFC Research Site in Rifle, CO: From Batch to Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P. M.; Hyun, S. P.; Davis, J. A.; Hayes, K.; Dayvault, R.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Uranium contamination in the subsurface is a part of the legacy of nuclear weapons and energy production, resulting from both mining activities and nuclear waste disposal. The Rifle IFC project focuses on gaining a better mechanistic understanding of U mobility in the subsurface and the use of bioremediation to achieve groundwater U concentrations below the MCL at a former U mill tailings site, integrating biological, geochemical, and hydrological studies. As a part of this project we have performed a series of experiments to better understand the U(VI) sorption-desorption and transport behavior under oxidizing conditions at this site. A series of U(VI) desorption experiments on aquifer sediment was conducted at the batch, column, and field scales. As one proceeds from the batch to the field scale, there is an increase in complexity and heterogeneity in both the geochemical and hydrological conditions. A surface-complexation model for U(VI) developed using batch adsorption and desorption experiments on homogenized sediments was applied to describe U(VI) desorption and transport behavior under high alkalinity conditions in a column experiment with the same sediments. An array of multi-level samplers was installed at the Rifle field site in order to investigate U behavior in both 3-dimensional spatial and temporal scales. A high degree of geochemical and hydrological heterogeneity was observed through the investigation of sediment core samples, nonreactive tracer tests, and geochemical groundwater sampling. A U(VI) desorption tracer test was performed in the field under high alkalinity conditions to compare with the batch and column work. The results from these multiple scales investigations are being integrated to assess the impact of the observed field-scale heterogeneities on U reactive transport in contaminated aquifers.

  18. Quantification of total chromium and hexavalent chromium in UHT milk by ETAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameiras, J; Soares, M E; Bastos, M L; Ferreira, M

    1998-10-01

    Procedures for the quantification of total chromium and hexavalent chromium in UHT milk samples are presented. Total chromium was determined directly in milk with the addition of a surfactant and a mixture of Pd and Mg as a chemical modifier. For the selective separation of hexavalent chromium, the sample pre-treatment consisted in precipitation of proteins and elution of the supernatant through a Chromabond NH2 column. The metal was eluted with nitric acid. Both total chromium and hexavalent chromium were evaluated by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization using the same instrumental conditions. The detection limits were 0.2 and 0.15 microgram l-1 for total chromium and hexavalent chromium, respectively. The linearity ranges under the optimized conditions were 0.2-20 and 0.15-50 micrograms l-1. For total chromium the precision was 4.9 and 5.7% for the analytical and the over-all procedure, respectively, and for hexavalent chromium 4.3 and 4.9%, respectively. The validation of both procedures was performed by the standard additions method and the recoveries were higher than 93% in all cases. For total chromium, a certified reference material was also used to validate the methodology. The methods were applied to the determination of total chromium and hexavalent chromium in 60 UHT milk samples.

  19. Hexavalent Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics: Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding Effectiveness (SE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2016-01-01

    Determine the suitability of trivalent chromium conversion coatings that meet the requirements of MIL-DTL-5541, Type II, for use in applications where high-frequency electrical performance is important. Evaluate the ability of hexavalent chrome free pretreated aluminum to form adequate EMI seals, and maintain that seal while being subjected to harsh environmental conditions. Assess the performance of trivalent chromium pretreatments against a known control hexavalent chrome pretreatment before and after they have been exposed to a set of environmental conditions. It is known that environmental testing causes a decrease in shielding effectiveness when hexavalent chrome pretreatments are used (Alodine 1200s). Need to determine how shielding effectiveness will be affected with the use of hexavalent chrome free pretreatments. Performance will be assessed by evaluating shielding effectiveness (SE) test data from a variety of test samples comprised of different aluminum types and/or conversion coatings. The formation of corrosion will be evaluated between the mating surfaces and gasket to assess the corrosion resistant properties of the pretreatments, comparing the hexavalent control to the hexavalent chrome free pretreatments.

  20. Fabrication of Unique Magnetic Bionanocomposite for Highly Efficient Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yunlei; Qiu, Xun; Chen, Dongyun; Li, Najun; Xu, Qingfeng; Li, Hua; He, Jinghui; Lu, Jianmei

    2016-08-01

    Biotreatment of hexavalent chromium has attracted widespread interest due to its cost effective and environmental friendliness. However, the difficult separation of biomass from aqueous solution and the slow hexavalent chromium bioreduction rate are bottlenecks for biotechnology application. In this approach, a core-shell structured functional polymer coated magnetic nanocomposite was prepared for enriching the hexavalent chromium. Then the nanocomposite was connected to the bacteria via amines on bacterial (Bacillus subtilis ATCC-6633) surface. Under optimal conditions, a series of experiments were launched to degrade hexavalent chromium from the aqueous solution using the as-prepared bionanocomposite. Results showed that B. subtilis@Fe3O4@mSiO2@MANHE (BFSM) can degrade hexavalent chromium from the water more effectively (a respectable degradation efficiency of about 94%) when compared with pristine B. subtilis and Fe3O4@mSiO2@MANHE (FSM). Moreover, the BFSM could be separated from the wastewater by magnetic separation technology conveniently due to the Fe3O4 core of FSM. These results indicate that the application of BFSM is a promising strategy for effective treating wastewater containing hexavalent chromium.

  1. Uranium: abundance or shortage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyn, J. [Energy Resources International, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-09-01

    With large uranium stockpiles, particularly in the form of HEU, continuing to be the dominant factor in the world uranium market, buyers should be able to enter into attractive long-term commitments for the future. Nevertheless, producers are now able to see forward with some degree of certainty and are expected to meet their planned levels of production and demand. (author).

  2. Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup +6}) to its trivalent state (Cr{sup +3}) is showing promising results in treating ground water at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Main Site. An electrolytic cell using stainless-steel and brass electrodes has been found to offer the most efficient reduction while yielding the least amount of precipitate. Trials have successfully lowered concentrations of Cr{sup +6} to below 11 parts per billion (micrograms/liter), the California state standard. We ran several trials to determine optimal voltage for running the cell; each trial consisted of applying a voltage between 6V and 48V for ten minutes through samples obtained at Treatment Facility C(TFC). No conclusive data has been obtained yet.

  3. A study of the process of desorption of hexavalent chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Amorim

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the process of desorption of hexavalent chromium, a toxic metal ion, from the marine algae Sargassum sp, following biosorption experiments 2³ factorial design was studied. A technique was applied to three eluents: HCl, H2SO4 and EDTA. Three factors of importance were evaluated: concentration of eluent, the ratio between mass of biosorbent and volume of eluent (S/L and process time. A statistical analysis of the experimental results showed that the three variables evaluated are significant for all three eluents. The models for chromium desorption were validated, as the results agreed well with the observed values. Through use of the response surface methodology, a factorial design based optimization technique; it was possible to identify the most suitable eluent and the interval of values for the process variables that resulted in the most significant desorption of chromium, which is relevant information for work aiming at process optimization.

  4. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium by graphite–chitosan binary composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAJENDRA S DONGRE

    2016-06-01

    Graphite chitosan binary (GCB) composite was prepared for hexavalent chromium adsorption from studied water. GCB was characterized by TGA, FTIR, SEM and X-ray diffraction techniques.Wide porous sorptive surface of 3.89 m$^2$ g$^{−1}$ and absorptive functionalities of GCB was due to 20% (w/w) graphite support on chitosan evidenced from FTIR and SEM that impart maximum adsorption at pH 4, agitation with 200 rpm for 180 min. Adsorption studies revealed intraparticle diffusion models and best-fitted kinetics was pseudo 2nd order one. A wellfitted Langmuir isotherm model suggested monolayer adsorption with an adsorption capacity ($q_m$) of 105.6 mg g$^{−1}$ and $R^2 = 0.945$. Sorption mechanisms based on metal ionic interactions, intrusion/diffusion and chemisorptions onto composite. This graphite chitosan binary composite improve sorbent capacity for Cr(VI).

  5. Microbial reduction of hexavalent chromium by landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yarong; Low, Gary K-C; Scott, Jason A; Amal, Rose

    2007-04-02

    The reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in municipal landfill leachates (MLL) and a non-putrescible landfill leachate (NPLL) was investigated. Complete Cr(VI) reduction was achieved within 17 days in a MLL when spiked with 100 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) or less. In the same period, negligible Cr(VI) reduction was observed in NPLL. In MLL, Cr(VI) reduction was demonstrated to be a function of initial Cr(VI) concentration and bacterial biomass and organic matter concentrations. The bacteria were observed to tolerate 250 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) in MLL and had an optimal growth activity at pH 7.4 in a growth medium. The MLL also possessed an ability to sequentially reduce Cr(VI) over three consecutive spiking cycles.

  6. Polyaniline coating with various substrates for hexavalent chromium removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bin; Xu, Cuixia; Sun, Dezhi; Wang, Qiang; Gu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xin; Weeks, Brandon L.; Hopper, Jack; Ho, Thomas C.; Guo, Zhanhu; Wei, Suying

    2015-04-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) contamination is increasingly serious in surface water and groundwater, therefore, its removal attracts increasing attention due to its highly toxic to human health. The cost effective and sustainable adsorbents are urgently needed for the remediation of Cr(VI) pollution. Polyanline (PANI), a conductive polymer, has demonstrated a great performance on Cr(VI) removal. But the recycling is the challenge for its application due to its small size. The PANI coating with various substrates is an effective approach to solve this problem. The synthesis methods and applications of the PANI coated magnetic Fe3O4, carbon fabric and cellulose composites for the Cr(VI) removal were reviewed. Finally, this review analyzed the Cr(VI) removal mechanisms by the PANI composites considering the substrate and the PANI coating.

  7. Investigation of hexavalent chromium sorption in serpentine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpouras, Thanasis; Chrysochoou, Maria; Dermatas, Dimitris

    2017-02-01

    In this study the removal of hexavalent chromium (Cr6 +) by serpentine sediments was investigated in order to delineate Cr6 + sorption behavior in aquifers with ultramafic geologic background. Batch experiments were conducted in order to determine the influence of several parameters on Cr6 + removal, including the pH of the sediment solution, mineralogy, sediment's particle size and Cr6 + initial concentration. The results showed that Cr6 + removal was due to both adsorption and reduction phenomena. Reduction was attributed to the presence of a magnetic fraction in the sediment, mostly related to magnetite, which contributed almost 50% of the total removal in the pH range 3-7. Adsorption behavior was dominated by the finer sediment fraction (d transport modeling.

  8. Behavior of Uranium(VI) during HEDPA Leaching for AluminumDissolution in Tank Waste Sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Brian A.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Martin, Leigh

    2006-01-04

    Batch adsorption/dissolution experiments were conducted toexamine the interactions between 233U(VI) and a synthetic aluminumoxyhydroxide (boehmite, g-AlOOH) in 1.0M NaCl suspensions containing1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA). In the pH range 4 to 9,complexation of Al(III) by HEDPA significantly enhanced dissolution ofboehmite. This phenomenon was especially pronounced in the neutral pHregion where the solubility of aluminum, in the absence of complexants,is limited by the formation of sparsely soluble aluminum hydroxides. Athigh pH levels, dissolution of synthetic boehmite was inhibited by HEDPA,likely due to sorption of Al(III)/HEDPA complexes. Addition of HEDPA toequilibrated U(VI)-synthetic boehmite suspensions yielded an increase inthe aqueous phase uranium concentration. The concentration of uraniumcontinually increased over 59 days. Partitioning of uranium between thesolid and aqueous phase was found to correlate well with HEDPApartitioning.

  9. EXAFS investigation on U(VI) immobilization in hardened cement paste. Influence of experimental conditions on speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, N.; Wieland, E.; Daehn, R.; Tits, J. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Waste Management; Scheinost, A.C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Rossendorf Beamline (ROBL), Grenoble (France). ESRF

    2013-08-01

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the coordination environment of U(VI) in cementitious materials. The EXAFS measurements were carried out on U(VI)-doped samples prepared under varying conditions, such as samples from sorption, hydration and diffusion experiments, and using different cementitious materials, such as crushed hydrated hardened cement paste (HCP) and calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H). The samples had U(VI) loadings ranging from 1700 {mu}g/g to 45000 {mu}g/g. Applying principal component analysis (PCA) on 13 EXAFS spectra (each spectra corresponding to a minimum of five different scans) of the low loading samples, one single species is obtained indicating a similar U(VI) coordination environment for both HCP and C-S-H samples. This result confirms that C-S-H phases control the uptake of U(VI) in the complex cement matrix. The coordination environment structure of this species is similar to a U(VI) surface complex or to U(VI) in uranyl silicate minerals (two axial O atoms at 1.82 {+-} 0.02 A; four equatorial O atoms at 2.25 {+-} 0.01 A; one Si atom at 3.10 {+-} 0.03 A). At high U(VI) loading, PCA revealed a second U(VI) species, with a coordination environment similar to that of U(VI) in calcium uranate (two axial O atoms at 1.94 {+-} 0.04 A; five equatorial O atoms at 2.26 {+-} 0.01 A; four Ca atoms at 3.69 {+-} 0.05 A and five U atoms at 3.85 {+-} 0.04 A). This study suggest that, at low U(VI) loading, U(VI) is bound to C-S-H phases in HCP while at high U(VI) loading, the immobilization of U(VI) in cementitious materials is mainly controlled by the precipitation of a calcium uranate-type phase. (orig.)

  10. Uranium triamidoamine chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benedict M; Liddle, Stephen T

    2015-07-01

    Triamidoamine (Tren) complexes of the p- and d-block elements have been well-studied, and they display a diverse array of chemistry of academic, industrial and biological significance. Such in-depth investigations are not as widespread for Tren complexes of uranium, despite the general drive to better understand the chemical behaviour of uranium by virtue of its fundamental position within the nuclear sector. However, the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes is characterised by the ability to stabilise otherwise reactive, multiply bonded main group donor atom ligands, construct uranium-metal bonds, promote small molecule activation, and support single molecule magnetism, all of which exploit the steric, electronic, thermodynamic and kinetic features of the Tren ligand system. This Feature Article presents a current account of the chemistry of Tren-uranium complexes.

  11. Uranium dioxide electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willit, James L [Batavia, IL; Ackerman, John P [Prescott, AZ; Williamson, Mark A [Naperville, IL

    2009-12-29

    This is a single stage process for treating spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors. The spent nuclear fuel, uranium oxide, UO.sub.2, is added to a solution of UCl.sub.4 dissolved in molten LiCl. A carbon anode and a metallic cathode is positioned in the molten salt bath. A power source is connected to the electrodes and a voltage greater than or equal to 1.3 volts is applied to the bath. At the anode, the carbon is oxidized to form carbon dioxide and uranium chloride. At the cathode, uranium is electroplated. The uranium chloride at the cathode reacts with more uranium oxide to continue the reaction. The process may also be used with other transuranic oxides and rare earth metal oxides.

  12. Hexavalent Americium Recovery Using Copper(III) Periodate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Kevin; Brigham, Derek M.; Morrison, Samuel; Braley, Jenifer C.

    2016-11-21

    Separation of americium from the lanthanides is considered one of the most difficult separation steps in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. One approach to this separation could involve oxidizing americium to the hexavalent state to form a linear dioxo cation while the lanthanides remain as trivalent ions. This work considers aqueous soluble Cu3+ periodate as an oxidant under molar nitric acid conditions to separate hexavalent Am with diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP) in n-dodecane. Initial studies assessed the kinetics of Cu3+ periodate auto-reduction in acidic media to aid in development of the solvent extraction system. Following characterization of the Cu3+ periodate oxidant, solvent extraction studies optimized the recovery of Am from varied nitric acid media and in the presence of other fission product, or fission product surrogate, species. Short aqueous/organic contact times encouraged successful recovery of Am (distribution values as high as 2) from nitric acid media in the absence of redox active fission products. In the presence of a post-PUREX simulant aqueous feed, precipitation of tetravalent species (Ce, Ru, Zr) occurred and the distribution values of 241Am were suppressed, suggesting some oxidizing capacity of the Cu3+ periodate is significantly consumed by other redox active metals in the simulant. The manuscript demonstrates Cu3+ periodate as a potentially viable oxidant for Am oxidation and recovery and notes the consumption of oxidizing capacity observed in the presence of the post-PUREX simulant feed will need to be addressed for any approach seeking to oxidize Am for separations relevant to the nuclear fuel cycle.

  13. Understanding the solid phase chemical fractionation of uranium in soil and effect of ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, Sabyasachi, E-mail: srout.barc@gmail.com [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Kumar, Ajay [Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M. [Homi Bhabha National Institute Anushaktinagar, Mumbai (India)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Apart of U(VI) converted to U(IV) during adsorption to soil. • Ageing leads to rearrangement of chemical fractionation of U in soil. • Organic matter and carbonate minerals responsible for Surface enrichment of U. • There occurs Occlusion of U-Fe-Oxides (Hydroxide) in to silica. - Abstract: The aim of the present work is to understand the solid phase chemical fractionation of Uranium (U) in soil and the mechanism involved. This study integrated batch experiments of U(VI) adsorption to soil, study of U in different soil fractions, ageing impact on fractionation of U and spectroscopic investigation of adsorbed U(VI) using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). For the study three soils, pedogenically different (S1: Igneous, S2: Sedimentary and S3: Metamorphic) were amended with U(VI) and chemical fractionation of U was studied by sequential extraction after an interval of one month and 12 months. It was found that there occurs a significant rearrangement of U in different fractions with ageing and no correlation was observed between the U content in different fractions and the adsorbents of respective fractions such as soil organic matter (SOM), Fe/Mn oxides (hydroxides) carbonates, soil cation exchange capacity (CEC). XPS study revealed that surface enrichment of U mainly governed by the carbonate minerals and SOM, whereas bulk concentration was controlled by the oxides (hydroxides) of Si and Al. Occlusion of U-Fe-oxides (hydroxides) on silica was identified as an important mechanism for bulk enrichment (Increase in residual fraction) and depletion of U concentration in reducible fraction.

  14. Cassini UVIS observations of the Io plasma torus. II. Radial variations

    CERN Document Server

    Steffl, Andrew J; Stewart, A Ian F; 10.1016/j.icarus.2004.04.016

    2013-01-01

    On January 14, 2001, shortly after the Cassini spacecraft's closest approach to Jupiter, the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (UVIS) made a radial scan through the midnight sector of Io plasma torus. The Io torus has not been previously observed at this local time. The UVIS data consist of 2-D spectrally dispersed images of the Io plasma torus in the wavelength range of 561{\\AA}-1912{\\AA}. We developed a spectral emissions model that incorporates the latest atomic physics data contained in the CHIANTI database in order to derive the composition of the torus plasma as a function of radial distance. Electron temperatures derived from the UVIS torus spectra are generally less than those observed during the Voyager era. We find the torus ion composition derived from the UVIS spectra to be significantly different from the composition during the Voyager era. Notably, the torus contains substantially less oxygen, with a total oxygen-to-sulfur ion ratio of 0.9. The average ion charge state has increased to 1.7. We de...

  15. The product of microbial uranium reduction includes multiple species with U(IV)-phosphate coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Daniel S.; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S.; Stubbs, Joanne E.; Janousch, Markus; Bargar, John R.; Persson, Per; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2014-04-01

    Until recently, the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) during bioremediation was assumed to produce solely the sparingly soluble mineral uraninite, UO2(s). However, results from several laboratories reveal other species of U(IV) characterized by the absence of an EXAFS U-U pair correlation (referred to here as noncrystalline U(IV)). Because it lacks the crystalline structure of uraninite, this species is likely to be more labile and susceptible to reoxidation. In the case of single species cultures, analyses of U extended X-ray fine structure (EXAFS) spectra have previously suggested U(IV) coordination to carboxyl, phosphoryl or carbonate groups. In spite of this evidence, little is understood about the species that make up noncrystalline U(IV), their structural chemistry and the nature of the U(IV)-ligand interactions. Here, we use infrared spectroscopy (IR), uranium LIII-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and phosphorus K-edge XAS analyses to constrain the binding environments of phosphate and uranium associated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 bacterial cells. Systems tested as a function of pH included: cells under metal-reducing conditions without uranium, cells under reducing conditions that produced primarily uraninite, and cells under reducing conditions that produced primarily biomass-associated noncrystalline U(IV). P X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) results provided clear and direct evidence of U(IV) coordination to phosphate. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy revealed a pronounced perturbation of phosphate functional groups in the presence of uranium. Analysis of these data provides evidence that U(IV) is coordinated to a range of phosphate species, including monomers and polymerized networks. U EXAFS analyses and a chemical extraction measurements support these conclusions. The results of this study provide new insights into the binding mechanisms of biomass-associated U(IV) species which in turn sheds light on the mechanisms of biological U(VI

  16. The design of long-term effective uranium bioremediation strategy using a community metabolic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, K; Ma, E; Lovley, Derek R; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan

    2012-10-01

    Acetate amendment at uranium contaminated sites in Rifle, CO. leads to an initial bloom of Geobacter accompanied by the removal of U(VI) from the groundwater, followed by an increase of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) which are poor reducers of U(VI). One of the challenges associated with bioremediation is the decay in Geobacter abundance, which has been attributed to the depletion of bio-accessible Fe(III), motivating the investigation of simultaneous amendments of acetate and Fe(III) as an alternative bioremediation strategy. In order to understand the community metabolism of Geobacter and SRBs during artificial substrate amendment, we have created a genome-scale dynamic community model of Geobacter and SRBs using the previously described Dynamic Multi-species Metabolic Modeling framework. Optimization techniques are used to determine the optimal acetate and Fe(III) addition profile. Field-scale simulation of acetate addition accurately predicted the in situ data. The simulations suggest that batch amendment of Fe(III) along with continuous acetate addition is insufficient to promote long-term bioremediation, while continuous amendment of Fe(III) along with continuous acetate addition is sufficient to promote long-term bioremediation. By computationally minimizing the acetate and Fe(III) addition rates as well as the difference between the predicted and target uranium concentration, we showed that it is possible to maintain the uranium concentration below the environmental safety standard while minimizing the cost of chemical additions. These simulations show that simultaneous addition of acetate and Fe(III) has the potential to be an effective uranium bioremediation strategy. They also show that computational modeling of microbial community is an important tool to design effective strategies for practical applications in environmental biotechnology.

  17. Identification of the uranium speciation in an underground acid mine drainage environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Thuro; Baumann, Nils; Krawczyk-Bärsch, Evelyn; Brockmann, Sina; Zimmermann, Udo; Jenk, Ulf; Weiß, Stephan

    2011-04-01

    spectroscopy analyses and centrifugation experiments at different centrifugal accelerations between 500 g and 46000 g revealed. Thus transport and uranium speciation at the investigated AMD sites is neither influenced by U(IV) or U(VI) eigencolloids nor by uranium adsorbed on colloidal particles. This study shows that TRLFS is a suitable spectroscopic technique to identify the uranium speciation in bulk solutions of AMD environments.

  18. Speciation of uranium and doping induced defects in Gd1.98U0.02Zr2O7: Photoluminescence, X-ray photoelectron and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Santosh K.; Reghukumar, C.; Pathak, Nimai; Sudarshan, K.; Tyagi, D.; Mohapatra, M.; Pujari, P. K.; Kadam, R. M.

    2017-02-01

    Based on photoluminescence spectroscopy it was inferred that uranium stabilizes as both U(IV) as well as U(VI) in Gd2Zr2O7 which was also corroborated using X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS). Absence of equidistant vibronic structure in emission spectrum of Gd1.98U0.02Zr2O7 confirmed that U(VI) stabilizes in the form of UO66-. Based on luminescence lifetime it was inferred that majority of UO66- stabilizes at both Gd3+/Zr4+ whereas U4+ stabilizes only at Zr4+ sites. The positron lifetime doesn't change on uranium doping indicating the formation of antisite defect. Infact it is this antisite defect in Gd1.98U0.02Zr2O7 which favours the stabilization of its fluorite phase.

  19. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of uranium, thorium, and zirconium using the partial least squares method after their preconcentration by alpha-benzoin oxime modified Amberlite XAD-2000 resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Jahan B; Zolfonoun, E

    2010-01-15

    A new solid phase extraction method for separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of uranium, thorium, and zirconium in water samples is proposed. The procedure is based on the adsorption of U(VI), Th(IV) and Zr(IV) ions on a column of Amberlite XAD-2000 resin loaded with alpha-benzoin oxime prior to their simultaneous spectrophotometric determination with Arsenazo III using orthogonal signal correction partial least squares method. The enrichment factor for preconcentration of uranium, thorium, and zirconium was found to be 100. The detection limits for U(VI), Th(IV) and Zr(IV) were 0.50, 0.54, and 0.48microgL(-1), respectively. The precision of the method, evaluated as the relative standard deviation obtained by analyzing a series of 10 replicates, was below 4% for all elements. The practical applicability of the developed sorbent was examined using synthetic seawater, natural waters and ceramic samples.

  20. Probing the interaction of U(vi) with phosphonate-functionalized mesoporous silica using solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Eva C; Mason, Harris E; Shusterman, Jennifer A; Bruchet, Anthony; Nitsche, Heino

    2016-06-21

    The fundamental interaction of U(vi) with diethylphosphatoethyl triethoxysilane functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous silica is studied by macroscopic batch experiments and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. DPTS-functionalized silica has been shown to extract U(vi) from nitric acid solutions at or above pH 3. Extraction is dependent on pH and ionic strength. Single-pulse (31)P NMR on U(vi) contacted samples revealed that U(vi) only interacts with a fraction of the ligands present on the surface. At pH 4 the U(vi) extraction capacity of the material is limited to 27-37% of the theoretical capacity, based on ligand loading. We combined single pulse (31)P NMR on U(vi)-contacted samples with batch studies to measure a ligand-to-metal ratio of approximately 2 : 1 at pH 3 and 4. Batch studies and cross-polarization NMR measurements reveal that U(vi) binds to deprotonated phosphonate and/or silanol sites. We use (31)P-(31)P DQ-DRENAR NMR studies to compare the average dipolar coupling between phosphorus spins for both U(vi)-complexed and non-complexed ligand environments. These measurements reveal that U(vi) extraction is not limited by inadequate surface distribution of ligands, but rather by low stability of the surface phosphonate complex.

  1. Effect of Humic Substances on the Trapping and Transformations of U(VI) by Ferrihydrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublet, G.; Brown, G. E.; Bargar, J.; Fendorf, S. E.; Janot, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Old Rifle DOE site in Colorado was a major site for milling uranium ore. U concentrations up to 1.8 uM persist in the Rifle aquifer, even after 'cleaning' the waste source of contaminations [1]. Understanding the behavior of U(VI) in this anthropogenically perturbed system is crucial for controlling the level of U contamination. Direct investigations of U speciation at this site have shown that U is associated with a wide variety of minerals as well as with natural organic matter (NOM) [2]. NOM has multiple functional groups which can be highly reactive with respect to aqueous metal ions, including actinides. Such interactions result in the formation of organo-mineral-metal (ternary) complexes and catalyze redox transformations; in addition, they can enhance mineral dissolution and metal transport [3,4,5]. In the complex soil/sediment system, aqueous, mineral, and organic phases are intimately mixed and their interactions are difficult to characterize by direct investigation [1]. The nanoparticulate iron hydroxide ferrihydrite (Fh), which is ubiquitous in many natural soils and highly reactive toward metal ions, is expected to significantly influence the fate of U in natural soils and is abundant in the subsurface at the Rifle site. NOM is also abundant at this site; however, little is known about the effect of NOM associated with ferrihydrite on the fate of U in such subsurface environments. To date, simple model systems composed mainly of two components (Fh and NOM) [6], (U and NOM or simple organic molecules) [7], or (Fh and U) [8,9], and more rarely composed of three components [10,11] have been studied in an effort to understand interactions among these components. In order to extend this earlier work to ternary systems, we have carried out batch reactions of U, a humic acid standard - Eliott soil humic acid (ESHA), and Fh under conditions that mimic those in the subsurface at Rifle. We have used U L3- and Fe K-edge XANES and EXAFS spectroscopy coupled

  2. Effects of aqueous complexation on reductive precipitation of uranium by Shewanella putrefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Northup Abraham

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the effects of aqueous complexation on rates of dissimilatory reductive precipitation of uranium by Shewanella putrefaciens. Uranium(VI was supplied as sole terminal electron acceptor to Shewanella putrefaciens (strain 200R in defined laboratory media under strictly anaerobic conditions. Media were amended with different multidentate organic acids, and experiments were performed at different U(VI and ligand concentrations. Organic acids used as complexing agents were oxalic, malonic, succinic, glutaric, adipic, pimelic, maleic, citric, and nitrilotriacetic acids, tiron, EDTA, and Aldrich humic acid. Reductive precipitation of U(VI, resulting in removal of insoluble amorphous UO2 from solution, was measured as a function of time by determination of total dissolved U. Reductive precipitation was measured, rather than net U(VI reduction to U(IV, to assess overall U removal rates from solution, which may be used to gauge the influence of chelation on microbial U mineralization. Initial linear rates of U reductive precipitation were found to correlate with stability constants of 1:1 aqueous U(VI:ligand and U(IV:ligand complexes. In the presence of strongly complexing ligands (e.g., NTA, Tiron, EDTA, UO2 precipitation did not occur. Our results are consistent with ligand-retarded precipitation of UO2, which is analogous to ligand-assisted solid phase dissolution but in reverse: ligand exchange with the U4+ aquo cation acts as a rate-limiting reaction moderating coordination of water molecules with U4+, which is a necessary step in UO2 precipitation. Ligand exchange kinetics governing dissociation rates of ligands from U(VI-organic complexes may also influence overall UO2 production rates, although the magnitude of this effect is unclear relative to the effects of U(IV-organic complexation. Our results indicate that natural microbial-aqueous systems containing abundant organic matter can inhibit the formation of biogenic amorphous UO2.

  3. Retention and chemical speciation of uranium in an oxidized wetland sediment from the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dien; Seaman, John C.; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul; Jiang, De-Tong; Chen, Ning; Lin, Jinru; Arthur, Zachary; Pan, Yuanming; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Newville, Matthew; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Kaplan, Daniel I.

    2014-05-01

    Uranium speciation and retention mechanism onto Savannah River Site (SRS) wetland sediments was studied using batch (ad)sorption experiments, sequential extraction desorption tests and U L{sub 3}-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy of contaminated wetland sediments. U was highly retained by the SRS wetland sediments. In contrast to other similar but much lower natural organic matter (NOM) sediments, significant sorption of U onto the SRS sediments was observed at pH <4 and pH >8. Sequential extraction tests indicated that the U(VI) species were primarily associated with the acid soluble fraction (weak acetic acid extractable) and NOM fraction (Na-pyrophosphate extractable). Uranium L3- edge XANES spectra of the U-retained sediments were nearly identical to that of uranyl acetate. The primary oxidation state of U in these sediments was as U(VI), and there was little evidence that the high sorptive capacity of the sediments could be ascribed to abiotic or biotic reduction to the less soluble U(IV) species. The molecular mechanism responsible for the high U retention in the SRS wetland sediments is likely related to the chemical bonding of U to organic carbon.

  4. Speciation and Reactivity of Uranium Products Formed during in Situ Bioremediation in a Shallow Alluvial Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the results of in situ U(VI) bioreduction experiments at the Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Rifle, Colorado, USA. Columns filled with sediments were deployed into a groundwater well at the site and, after a period of conditioning with groundwater, were amended with a mixture of groundwater, soluble U(VI), and acetate to stimulate the growth of indigenous microorganisms. Individual reactors were collected as various redox regimes in the column sediments were achieved: (i) during iron reduction, (ii) just after the onset of sulfate reduction, and (iii) later into sulfate reduction. The speciation of U retained in the sediments was studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and chemical extractions. Circa 90% of the total uranium was reduced to U(IV) in each reactor. Noncrystalline U(IV) comprised about two-thirds of the U(IV) pool, across large changes in microbial community structure, redox regime, total uranium accumulation, and reaction time. A significant body of recent research has demonstrated that noncrystalline U(IV) species are more suceptible to remobilization and reoxidation than crystalline U(IV) phases such as uraninite. Our results highlight the importance of considering noncrystalline U(IV) formation across a wide range of aquifer parameters when designing in situ remediation plans. PMID:25265543

  5. Speciation and reactivity of uranium products formed during in situ bioremediation in a shallow alluvial aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Daniel S; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S; Janot, Noémie; Suvorova, Elena I; Cerrato, José M; Giammar, Daniel E; Davis, James A; Fox, Patricia M; Williams, Kenneth H; Long, Philip E; Handley, Kim M; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan; Bargar, John R

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we report the results of in situ U(VI) bioreduction experiments at the Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Rifle, Colorado, USA. Columns filled with sediments were deployed into a groundwater well at the site and, after a period of conditioning with groundwater, were amended with a mixture of groundwater, soluble U(VI), and acetate to stimulate the growth of indigenous microorganisms. Individual reactors were collected as various redox regimes in the column sediments were achieved: (i) during iron reduction, (ii) just after the onset of sulfate reduction, and (iii) later into sulfate reduction. The speciation of U retained in the sediments was studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and chemical extractions. Circa 90% of the total uranium was reduced to U(IV) in each reactor. Noncrystalline U(IV) comprised about two-thirds of the U(IV) pool, across large changes in microbial community structure, redox regime, total uranium accumulation, and reaction time. A significant body of recent research has demonstrated that noncrystalline U(IV) species are more suceptible to remobilization and reoxidation than crystalline U(IV) phases such as uraninite. Our results highlight the importance of considering noncrystalline U(IV) formation across a wide range of aquifer parameters when designing in situ remediation plans.

  6. Co-extraction and co-stripping of U(VI) and Pu(IV) using tri-iso-amyl phosphate and tri-n-butyl phosphate in n-dodecane from nitric acid media under high loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasulu, Balija; Suresh, Ammath; Sivaraman, Nagarajan; Rao, P.R. Vasudeva [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Chemistry Group

    2016-08-01

    The extraction of Pu(IV) using 1.1 M solution of tri-iso-amyl phosphate (TiAP)/n-dodecane (DD) from plutonium nitrate solutions in nitric acid media was examined as a function of equilibrium aqueous phase metal ion concentration and equilibrium aqueous phase acidity at 303 K. The nitric acid concentration in the organic phase was measured as a function of equilibrium organic phase plutonium concentration. The co-extraction of U(VI) and Pu(IV) was studied using 1.1 M TiAP/DD system as a function of their equilibrium aqueous phase metal ion concentration and compared with 1.1 M tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/n-DD system under identical conditions. Co-extraction and co-stripping of U(VI) and Pu(IV) were studied using 1.1 M TiAP/DD and 1.1 M TBP/DD systems in cross current mode to evaluate the number of stages required for the extraction and stripping of heavy metal ions (uranium and plutonium). The extraction and stripping efficiencies were calculated for both the systems. The saturation limit of the organic phase was also established in these studies.

  7. Abiotic Reductive Immobilization of U(VI) by Biogenic Mackinawite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeramani, Harish; Scheinost, Andreas; Monsegue, Niven; Qafoku, Nikolla; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Newville, Mathew; Lanzirotti, Anthony; Pruden, Amy; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Hochella, Michael F.

    2013-03-01

    During subsurface bioremediation of uranium-contaminated sites, indigenous metal and sulfate-reducing bacteria may utilize a variety of electron acceptors, including ferric iron and sulfate that could lead to the formation of various biogenic minerals in-situ. Sulfides, as well as structural and adsorbed Fe(II) associated with biogenic Fe(II)-sulfide phases, can potentially catalyze abiotic U6+ reduction via direct electron transfer processes. In the present work, the propensity of biogenic mackinawite (Fe1+xS, x = 0 to 0.11) to reduce U6+ abiotically was investigated. The biogenic mackinawite produced by Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN32 was characterized by employing a suite of analytical techniques including TEM, SEM, XAS and Mössbauer analyses. Nanoscale and bulk analyses (microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, respectively) of biogenic mackinawite after exposure to U6+ indicate the formation of nanoparticulate UO2. This study suggests the relevance of Fe(II) and sulfide bearing biogenic minerals in mediating abiotic U6+ reduction, an alternative pathway in addition to direct enzymatic U6+ reduction.

  8. Ethyl thiosemicarbazide intercalated organophilic calcined hydrotalcite as a potential sorbent for the removal of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) ions from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anirudhan, T S; Jalajamony, S

    2013-04-01

    This work was conducted to determine the practicability of using a new adsorbent 4-ethyl thiosemicarbazide intercalated, organophilic calcined hydrotalcite (ETSC-OHTC) for the removal of uranium (U(VI)), and thorium (Th(IV)) from water and wastewater. The FTIR analysis helped in realizing the involvement of nitrogen and sulphur atoms of ETSC in binding the metal ions through complex formation. Parameters like adsorbent dosage, solution pH, initial metal ions concentration, contact time and ionic strength, that influence adsorption phenomenon, were studied. The optimum pH for maximum adsorption of U(VI) and Th(IV) was found to be in the range 4.0-6.0. The contact time required for reaching equilibrium was 4 hr. The pseudo second-order kinetic model was the best fit to represent the kinetic data. Analysis of the equilibrium adsorption data using Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips models showed that the Freundlich model was well suited to describe the metal ions adsorption. The K(F) values were 25.43 and 29.11 mg/g for U(VI) and Th(IV), respectively, at 30 degrees C. The adsorbent can be regenerated effectively from U(VI) and Th(IV) loaded ones using 0.01 mol/L HCl. The new adsorbent was quite stable for many cycles, without much reduction in its adsorption capacity towards the metals.

  9. Diversity and characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in groundwater at a uranium mill tailings site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y J; Peacock, A D; Long, P E; Stephen, J R; McKinley, J P; Macnaughton, S J; Hussain, A K; Saxton, A M; White, D C

    2001-07-01

    Microbially mediated reduction and immobilization of U(VI) to U(IV) plays a role in both natural attenuation and accelerated bioremediation of uranium-contaminated sites. To realize bioremediation potential and accurately predict natural attenuation, it is important to first understand the microbial diversity of such sites. In this paper, the distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated groundwater associated with a uranium mill tailings disposal site at Shiprock, N.Mex., was investigated. Two culture-independent analyses were employed: sequencing of clone libraries of PCR-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) gene fragments and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarker analysis. A remarkable diversity among the DSR sequences was revealed, including sequences from delta-Proteobacteria, gram-positive organisms, and the Nitrospira division. PLFA analysis detected at least 52 different mid-chain-branched saturate PLFA and included a high proportion of 10me16:0. Desulfotomaculum and Desulfotomaculum-like sequences were the most dominant DSR genes detected. Those belonging to SRB within delta-Proteobacteria were mainly recovered from low-uranium (1,500 ppb) sites. Logistic regression showed a significant influence of uranium concentration over the dominance of this cluster of sequences (P = 0.0001). This strong association indicates that Desulfotomaculum has remarkable tolerance and adaptation to high levels of uranium and suggests the organism's possible involvement in natural attenuation of uranium. The in situ activity level of Desulfotomaculum in uranium-contaminated environments and its comparison to the activities of other SRB and other functional groups should be an important area for future research.

  10. Extraction of Fe(III) and U(VI) with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-acyl-pyrazolones-5 from aqueous solutions of different acids and complexing agents. Separation of Fe(III) from U(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okafor, E.C. (Nigeria Univ., Nsukka (Nigeria). Dept. of Pure and Industrial Chemistry); Uzoukwu, B.A. (Port Harcourt Univ. (Nigeria). Dept. of Pure and Industrial Chemistry)

    1990-01-01

    Solvent extraction behaviour of Fe(III) and U(VI) in aqueous media containing various mineral acids or complexing agents, using 4-butyryl, 4-palmitoyl and 4-trichloroacetyl derivatives of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-pyrazolone-5 in xylene as extraction reagents have been studied. The possible extraction mechanism has been investigated. Solid complexes of Fe(III) and U(VI) with the chelating agents have been isolated and analysed. Separation factors of Fe(III) and U(VI) using these chelating agents are reported and methods suggested for separation of Fe(III) from U(VI) in an aqueous medium containing 0.1 M HCl or 5x10{sup -4} M EDTA. (orig.).

  11. Uranium Location Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata...

  12. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  13. Natural and induced reduction of hexavalent chromium in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leita, Liviana; Margon, Alja; Sinicco, Tania; Mondini, Claudio; Valentini, Massimiliano; Cantone, Pierpaolo

    2013-04-01

    Even though naturally elevated levels of chromium can be found naturally in some soils, distressing amounts of the hexavalent form (CrVI) are largely restricted to sites contaminated by anthropogenic activities. In fact, the widespread use of chromium in various industries and the frequently associated inadequate disposal of its by-products and wastes have created serious environmental pollution problems in many parts of the world. CrVI is toxic to plants, animals and humans and exhibits also mutagenic effects. However, being a strong oxidant, CrVI can be readily reduced to the much less harmful trivalent form (CrIII) when suitable electron donors are present in the environment. CrIII is relatively insoluble, less available for biological uptake, and thus definitely less toxic for web-biota. Various electron donors in soil can be involved in CrVI reduction in soil. The efficiency of CrVI reducing abiotic agents such as ferrous iron and sulphur compounds is well documented. Furthermore, CrVI reduction is also known to be significantly enhanced by a wide variety of cell-produced monosaccharides, including glucose. In this study we evaluated the dynamics of hexavalent chromium (CrVI) reduction in contaminated soil amended or not with iron sulphate or/and glucose and assessed the effects of CrVI on native or glucose-induced soil microbial biomass size and activity. CrVI negatively affected both soil microbial activity and the size of the microbial biomass. During the incubation period, the concentration of CrVI in soil decreased over time whether iron sulphate or/and glucose was added or not, but with different reduction rates. Soil therefore displayed a natural attenuation capacity towards chromate reduction. Addition of iron sulphate or/and glucose, however, increased the reduction rate by both abiotic and biotic mechanisms. Our data suggest that glucose is likely to have exerted an indirect role in the increased rate of CrVI reduction by promoting growth of

  14. Enhanced Photocatalytic Removal of Uranium(VI) from Aqueous Solution by Magnetic TiO2/Fe3O4 and Its Graphene Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zijie; Huang, Zhiwei; Guo, Wenlu; Wang, Lin; Zheng, Lirong; Chai, Zhifang; Shi, Weiqun

    2017-04-14

    The separation and recovery of uranium from radioactive wastewater is important from the standpoints of environmental protection and uranium reuse. In the present work, magnetically collectable TiO2/Fe3O4 and its graphene composites were fabricated and utilized for the photocatalytical removal of U(VI) from aqueous solutions. It was found that, under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, the photoreactivity of TiO2/Fe3O4 for the reduction of U(VI) was 19.3 times higher than that of pure TiO2, which is strongly correlated with the Fe0 and additional Fe(II) generated from the reduction of Fe3O4 by TiO2 photoelectrons. The effects of initial uranium concentration, solution pH, ionic strength, the composition of wastewater, and organic pollutants on the U(VI) removal by TiO2/Fe3O4 were systematically investigated. The results demonstrated its excellent performance in the cleanup of uranium contamination. As graphene can efficiently attract the TiO2 photoelectrons and thus decrease their transfer to Fe3O4, the photodissolution of Fe3O4 in the TiO2/graphene/Fe3O4 composite can be largely alleviated compared to that of the TiO2/Fe3O4, rendering this ternary composite a much higher stability. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to explore the reaction mechanisms.

  15. In situ bioremediation of uranium with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David B; Wu, Wei-Min; Mehlhorn, Tonia; Tang, Guoping; Earles, Jennifer; Lowe, Kenneth; Gihring, Thomas M; Zhang, Gengxin; Phillips, Jana; Boyanov, Maxim I; Spalding, Brian P; Schadt, Christopher; Kemner, Kenneth M; Criddle, Craig S; Jardine, Philip M; Brooks, Scott C

    2013-06-18

    A field test with a one-time emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) injection was conducted to assess the capacity of EVO to sustain uranium bioreduction in a high-permeability gravel layer with groundwater concentrations of (mM) U, 0.0055; Ca, 2.98; NO3(-), 0.11; HCO3(-), 5.07; and SO4(2-), 1.23. Comparison of bromide and EVO migration and distribution indicated that a majority of the injected EVO was retained in the subsurface from the injection wells to 50 m downgradient. Nitrate, uranium, and sulfate were sequentially removed from the groundwater within 1-2 weeks, accompanied by an increase in acetate, Mn, Fe, and methane concentrations. Due to the slow release and degradation of EVO with time, reducing conditions were sustained for approximately one year, and daily U discharge to a creek, located approximately 50 m from the injection wells, decreased by 80% within 100 days. Total U discharge was reduced by 50% over the one-year period. Reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was confirmed by synchrotron analysis of recovered aquifer solids. Oxidants (e.g., dissolved oxygen, nitrate) flowing in from upgradient appeared to reoxidize and remobilize uranium after the EVO was exhausted as evidenced by a transient increase of U concentration above ambient values. Occasional (e.g., annual) EVO injection into a permeable Ca and bicarbonate-containing aquifer can sustain uranium bioreduction/immobilization and decrease U migration/discharge.

  16. Uranium delivery and uptake in a montane wetland, north-central Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Zielinski, Robert A.; Otton, James K.; Pantea, Michael P.; Orem, William H.

    2017-01-01

    Comprehensive sampling of peat, underlying lakebed sediments, and coexisting waters of a naturally uraniferous montane wetland are combined with hydrologic measurements to define the important controls on uranium (U) supply and uptake. The major source of U to the wetland is groundwater flowing through locally fractured and faulted granite gneiss of Proterozoic age. Dissolved U concentrations in four springs and one seep ranged from 20 to 83 ppb (μg/l). Maximum U concentrations are ∼300 ppm (mg/kg) in lakebed sediments and >3000 ppm in peat. Uranium in lakebed sediments is primarily stratabound in the more organic-rich layers, but samples of similar organic content display variable U concentrations. Post-depositional modifications include variable additions of U delivered by groundwater. Uranium distribution in peat is heterogeneous and primarily controlled by proximity to groundwater-fed springs and seeps that act as local point sources of U, and by proximity to groundwater directed along the peat/lakebeds contact. Uranium is initially sorbed on various organic components of peat as oxidized U(VI) present in groundwater. Selective extractions indicate that the majority of sorbed U remains as the oxidized species despite reducing conditions that should favor formation of U(IV). Possible explanations are kinetic hindrances related to strong complex formation between uranyl and humic substances, inhibition of anaerobic bacterial activity by low supply of dissolved iron and sulfate, and by cold temperatures.

  17. Structure and thermodynamics of uranium-containing iron garnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matthew; Ilton, Eugene S.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Xu, Hongwu

    2016-09-01

    Use of crystalline garnet as a waste form phase appears to be advantageous for accommodating actinides from nuclear waste. Previous studies show that large amounts of uranium (U) and its analogues such as cerium (Ce) and thorium (Th) can be incorporated into the garnet structure. In this study, we synthesized U loaded garnet phases, Ca3UxZr2-xFe3O12 (x = 0.5 - 0.7), along with the endmember phase, Ca3(Zr2)SiFe3+2O12, for comparison. The oxidation states of U were determined by X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopies, revealing the presence of mixed pentavalent and hexavalent uranium in the phases with x = 0.6 and 0.7. The oxidation states and coordination environments of Fe were measured using transmission 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, which shows that all iron is tetrahedrally coordinated Fe3+ (x = 0 and substituted sample), U substitution had a significant effect on local environments, the extent of U isubstitution within this range had a minimal effect on the structure, and unlike in the x = 0 sample, Fe exists in two different environments in the substituted garnets. The enthalpies of formation of garnet phases from constituent oxides and elements were determined by high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. The results indicate that these substituted garnets are thermodynamically stable under reducing conditions. Our structural and thermodynamic analysis further provides explanation for the formation of natural uranium garnet, elbrusite-(Zr), and supports the potential use of Ca3UxZr2-xFe3O12 as viable waste form phases for U and other actinides.

  18. Structure and thermodynamics of uranium-containing iron garnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matthew; Ilton, Eugene S.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Xu, Hongwu

    2016-09-01

    Use of crystalline garnet as a waste form phase appears to be advantageous for accommodating actinides from nuclear waste. Previous studies show that large amounts of uranium (U) and its analogues such as cerium (Ce) and thorium (Th) can be incorporated into the garnet structure. In this study, we synthesized U loaded garnet phases, Ca3UxZr2-xFe3O12 (x = 0.5-0.7), along with the endmember phase, Ca3(Zr2)SiFe3+2O12, for comparison. The oxidation states of U were determined by X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopies, revealing the presence of mixed pentavalent and hexavalent uranium in the phases with x = 0.6 and 0.7. The oxidation states and coordination environments of Fe were measured using transmission 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, which shows that all iron is tetrahedrally coordinated Fe3+. U substitution had a significant effect on local environments, the extent of U substitution within this range had a minimal effect on the structure, and unlike in the x = 0 sample, Fe exists in two different environments in the substituted garnets. The enthalpies of formation of garnet phases from constituent oxides and elements were first time determined by high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. The results indicate that these substituted garnets are thermodynamically stable under reducing conditions. Our structural and thermodynamic analysis further provides explanation for the formation of natural uranium garnet, elbrusite-(Zr), and supports the potential use of Ca3UxZr2-xFe3O12 as viable waste form phases for U and other actinides.

  19. DANGER OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM AND STRATEGY FOR THE REMEDITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Roy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Some metals as micronutrients have a major role in the life and growth process of plants and animals. However, certain forms of some metals may also act as toxic material even in relatively small quantities. Chromium is such a metal, whose concentration above a certain limit may cause a serious problem to the health of living organisms. Chromium (Cr may occur in several chemical forms in organic and inorganic systems. In biological systems only Cr (III and Cr (VI are significant. Among these two states, trivalent chromium (Cr-III is considered as an essential component, while hexavalent Chromium (Cr-VI in biological system has been detected as responsible for so many diseases, even some specific forms of cancer. This paper intends to present the adverse effect of Cr(VI on environment as well as on human beings and also try to find a way out to dissolve the problem by a newly developed efficient and cost effective technique.

  20. Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium Using Sorbaria sorbifolia Aqueous Leaf Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Prabha Dubey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous plant leaves extract (PLE of an abundant shrub, Sorbaria sorbifolia, was explored for the reduction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI, to trivalent chromium, Cr(III. The effect of contact time, pH, PLE quantity, ionic strength, hardness, temperature and effective initial Cr(VI ion concentration were tested; Cr(VI reduction followed the pseudo-first order rate kinetics and maximum reduction was observed at pH 2. Significantly, Cr(VI reduction efficacies varied from 97 to 66% over the pH range of 2 to 10, which bodes well for PLE to be used for the reduction of Cr(VI also at a higher pH. PLE-mediated Cr(VI reduction displays considerable efficiency at various ionic strengths; however, hardness strongly affects the reduction ability. Higher temperature significantly enhances the Cr(VI reduction. This study reveals the potential use of PLE as a green reducing agent in aqueous extract for the efficient reduction of Cr(VI to Cr(III.

  1. Cassini UVIS observations of Titan ultraviolet airglow intensity dependence with solar zenith angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, E. M.; Ajello, J. M.; Holsclaw, G. M.; West, R. A.; Esposito, L. W.; Bradley, E. T.

    2017-01-01

    The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (UVIS) observed the airglow (dayglow and nightglow) of Titan over a range of solar zenith angles (SZA) from 14 to 150° on five separate observations obtained between 2008 and 2012. The modeling of the solar cycle normalized UVIS observations indicates that a Chapman layer function provides a satisfactory fit to the intensity of the EUV and FUV airglow molecular emissions of the N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield band system (LBH a1Πg→X1>∑g+), the Carroll-Yoshino band system (c4'1>∑u+→X1>∑g+), and of several atomic multiplets of nitrogen (NI, II) as a function of SZA. This result shows that the strongest contribution to the Titan dayglow occurs by processes (photoelectrons and photodissociation) involving the solar EUV flux rather than magnetospheric particle precipitation that dominates emission excitation in the nightglow.

  2. The effect of uranium on bacterial viability and cell surface morphology using atomic force microscopy in the presence of bicarbonate ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda-Medina, Paola; Katsenovich, Yelena; Musaramthota, Vishal; Lee, Michelle; Lee, Brady; Dua, Rupak; Lagos, Leonel

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear production facilities during the Cold War have caused liquid waste to leak and soak into the ground creating multiple radionuclide plumes. The Arthrobacter bacteria are one of the most common groups in soils and are found in large numbers in subsurface environments contaminated with radionuclides. This study experimentally analyzed changes on the bacteria surface after uranium exposure and evaluated the effect of bicarbonate ions on U(VI) toxicity of a less uranium tolerant Arthrobacter strain, G968, by investigating changes in adhesion forces and cells dimensions via atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM and viability studies showed that samples containing bicarbonate are able to acclimate and withstand uranium toxicity. Samples containing no bicarbonate exhibited deformed surfaces and a low height profile, which might be an indication that the cells are not alive.

  3. Interactions of quercetin-uranium complexes with biomembranes and DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, Enas Mohammed Hassan

    2014-07-21

    Uranium decontamination gains a great importance with the spread of nuclear waste in both soil and water systems across the planet. All known remediation methods of uranium can be exclusively based either on synthetic materials with high adsorbent power and known physical chemistry or life organisms by which the uranium eventually accumulated inside their tissues. In the present thesis, it was attempted to design a rational approach for uranyl removal primarily from waters using the reducing potential of quercetin, which is a plant-derived small organic molecules, along with its photochemical activities. Such approach, which is neither a fully synthetic nor an organism-based approach, was chosen here to avoid disadvantages with both traditional strategies. Here, complexation experiments were designed to assess the use of uranyl-quercetin complexes for the photoreduction of water-soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) by comparing absorption properties of uranyl-quercetin complexes in acetone, water, and hydrophobic bilayer lipid vesicles. The UV-vis data show that uranyl quercetin complex can form in both hydrophobic and hydrophilic environments. In both cases the B-ring band in quercetin structure becomes reduced, red shifted and a pronounced absorption arises in the 400-500 nm range. Such data suggests that U(VI) binds at the 3-OH and 4-carbonyl of ring C of quercetin. Interestingly, the results of UV-Vis spectroscopy part hint at a crucial role of a stable or transiently ionized hydroxyl for the efficient uranyl-dependent photodegradation of quercetin. FTIR spectroscopy absorption changes further demonstrates that the UV-vis-spectroscopic changes are indeed accompanied by changes in the chemical structure of the complex as expected for a uranyl-dependent photodegradation. IR data thus suggest that U(VI) becomes reduced by the photoreaction, rather than merely changing its coordination shell. The frequency shifts in the C=C and C=O absorption range on the other hand

  4. Mechanisms of Chromium and Uranium Toxicity in Pseudomonas stutzeri RCH2 Grown under Anaerobic Nitrate-Reducing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Thorgersen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromium and uranium are highly toxic metals that contaminate many natural environments. We investigated their mechanisms of toxicity under anaerobic conditions using nitrate-reducing Pseudomonas stutzeri RCH2, which was originally isolated from a chromium-contaminated aquifer. A random barcode transposon site sequencing library of RCH2 was grown in the presence of the chromate oxyanion (Cr[VI]O42− or uranyl oxycation (U[VI]O22+. Strains lacking genes required for a functional nitrate reductase had decreased fitness as both metals interacted with heme-containing enzymes required for the later steps in the denitrification pathway after nitrate is reduced to nitrite. Cr[VI]-resistance also required genes in the homologous recombination and nucleotide excision DNA repair pathways, showing that DNA is a target of Cr[VI] even under anaerobic conditions. The reduced thiol pool was also identified as a target of Cr[VI] toxicity and psest_2088, a gene of previously unknown function, was shown to have a role in the reduction of sulfite to sulfide. U[VI] resistance mechanisms involved exopolysaccharide synthesis and the universal stress protein UspA. As the first genome-wide fitness analysis of Cr[VI] and U[VI] toxicity under anaerobic conditions, this study provides new insight into the impact of Cr[VI] and U[VI] on an environmental isolate from a chromium contaminated site, as well as into the role of a ubiquitous protein, Psest_2088.

  5. U(VI) extraction by 8-hydroxyquinoline. A comparison study in ionic liquid and in dichloromethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Li-Yong; Shi, Wei-Qun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Lab. of Nuclear Energy Chemistry; Liao, Xiang-Hong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Lab. of Nuclear Energy Chemistry; East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang (China). School of Nuclear Engineering and Geophysics; Liu, Zhi-Rong [East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang (China). School of Nuclear Engineering and Geophysics; Chai, Zhi-Fang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Lab. of Nuclear Energy Chemistry; Soochow Univ., Suzhou (China). School of Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine

    2017-08-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) represent a recent new class of solvents with potential application in liquid/liquid extraction based nuclear fuel reprocessing due to their unique physical and chemical properties. The work herein provides a comparison of U(VI) extraction by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HOX) in a commonly used RTIL, i.e. 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}]) and in conventional solvent, i.e. dichloromethane (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}). The effect of HOX concentration, solution acidity and nitrate ions on the extraction were discussed in detail, and the speciation analyses of the extracted U(VI) were performed. One of the main emphasis of this work is the extraction mechanism of U(VI) extracted from aqueous phase into RTILs and conventional solvent. In CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, the extraction occurs through a combination of ion change and neutral complexation, and the extracted complex is proposed as UO{sub 2}(OX){sub 2}HOX. In [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}], although a cation-change mechanism as previously reported for RTILs-based system was involved, the extracted complex of UO{sub 2}(OX){sub 1.5}(HOX){sub 1.5}(PF6){sub 0.5} gave a clear indication that the usage of HOX as an acidic extractant markedly inhibited the solubility loss of [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}] during the extraction by leaching H{sup +} to aqueous phase. Moreover, the extracted U(VI) in [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}] can be easily stripped by using 0.01 M nitric acid, which provides a simple way of the ionic liquid recycling.

  6. A Highly Expressed High-Molecular-Weight S-Layer Complex of Pelosinus sp. Strain UFO1 Binds Uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorgersen, Michael P; Lancaster, W Andrew; Rajeev, Lara; Ge, Xiaoxuan; Vaccaro, Brian J; Poole, Farris L; Arkin, Adam P; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Adams, Michael W W

    2017-02-15

    Cell suspensions of Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1 were previously shown, using spectroscopic analysis, to sequester uranium as U(IV) complexed with carboxyl and phosphoryl group ligands on proteins. The goal of our present study was to characterize the proteins involved in uranium binding. Virtually all of the uranium in UFO1 cells was associated with a heterodimeric protein, which was termed the uranium-binding complex (UBC). The UBC was composed of two S-layer domain proteins encoded by UFO1_4202 and UFO1_4203. Samples of UBC purified from the membrane fraction contained 3.3 U atoms/heterodimer, but significant amounts of phosphate were not detected. The UBC had an estimated molecular mass by gel filtration chromatography of 15 MDa, and it was proposed to contain 150 heterodimers (UFO1_4203 and UFO1_4202) and about 500 uranium atoms. The UBC was also the dominant extracellular protein, but when purified from the growth medium, it contained only 0.3 U atoms/heterodimer. The two genes encoding the UBC were among the most highly expressed genes within the UFO1 genome, and their expressions were unchanged by the presence or absence of uranium. Therefore, the UBC appears to be constitutively expressed and is the first line of defense against uranium, including by secretion into the extracellular medium. Although S-layer proteins were previously shown to bind U(VI), here we showed that U(IV) binds to S-layer proteins, we identified the proteins involved, and we quantitated the amount of uranium bound.

  7. Secondary Uranium-Phase Paragenesis and Incorporation of Radionuclides into Secondary Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Finch

    2001-06-05

    The purpose of this analysis/model report (AMR) is to assess the potential for uranium (U) (VI) compounds, formed during the oxidative corrosion of spent uranium-oxide (UO{sub 2}) fuels, to sequester certain radionuclides and, thereby, limit their release. The ''unsaturated drip tests'' being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provide the basis of this AMR (Table 1). The ANL drip tests on spent fuel are the only experiments on fuel corrosion from which solids have been analyzed for trace levels of radionuclides. Brief summaries are provided of the results from other selected corrosion and dissolution experiments on spent UO{sub 2} fuels, specifically those conducted under nominally oxidizing conditions. Discussions of the current understanding of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of U(VI) compounds is provided in order to outline the scientific basis for modeling precipitation and dissolution of potential radionuclide-bearing phases under repository-relevant conditions. Attachment I provides additional information on corrosion mechanisms and behaviors of radionuclides in the tests at ANL. Attachment II reviews occurrence, formation, and alteration (collectively known as paragenesis) of naturally occurring U(VI) minerals because natural mineral occurrences can be used to assess the possible long-term behaviors of U(VI) compounds formed in short-term laboratory experiments and to extrapolate experimental results to repository-relevant time scales. This AMR develops a model for calculating dissolved concentrations of radionuclides that are incorporated into U(VI) compounds, which is an alternative to models currently used in TSPA to calculate dissolved concentration limits for certain radionuclides. In particular, the model developed in this AMR applies to Np (neptunium) concentrations being controlled by solid uranyl oxyhydroxides that are known to contain trace levels of Np. The results of this AMR and the conceptual model

  8. Uranium Bioreduction Rates Across Scales During a Biostimulation Field Experiments at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehikhoo, F.; Bao, C.; Li, L.; Wu, H.; Williams, K. H.; Newcomer, D.; Long, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding temporal and spatial evolution of biogeochemical processes at different spatial scales is important (and challenging) for complex, heterogeneous subsurface systems. In this work, we aim to understand the dynamic propagation of uranium bioreduction rates across scales during a field biostimulation experiment at Rifle, Colorado. Acetate was injected as an electron donor to stimulate Fe-reducing bacteria (FeRB) and reduce mobile U(VI) to immobile U(IV). Bicarbonate was co-injected in half of the domain to mobilize sorbed U(VI) to investigate the impact of bicarbonate on the bioreduction of mobile U(VI). We use reactive transport modeling to integrate hydraulic conductivity and aqueous geochemistry data and to quantify bioreduction rates from the local grid block scale (approximately 0.25 meters) to the field scale (10s of meters). The modeling results showed good agreement with the geochemical measurements in the 17 monitoring wells. The good match indicates that the model has captured the dynamics of the system given our conceptual model of an inverse relationship between bioavailable oxidized Fe and permeability, providing constraints for the estimation of aqueous species, mineral precipitates, and biomass. Our results shows that although the local rates varied by more than two orders of magnitude with the biostimulation fronts propagating downstream, the maximum rates remained at the a few 'hot spots' right at the down gradient of the injection wells where Fe(III), U(VI), and FeRB were at their maximum. These local rates dominated the ';field-scale' rates (10's of m2). At particular locations, the 'hot moments' with maximum bioreduction rates positively corresponded to their distance from the wells. Although bicarbonate injection enhanced the local bioreduction rates near the injection wells by a maximum of 41.9%, its effect at the field-scale was limited to a maximum of 15.7%, with majority of the domain unaffected. The field-scale rates calculated

  9. Influences of Organic Carbon Supply Rate on Uranium Bioreduction in Initially Oxidizing, Contaminated Sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Kim, Yongman; Daly, Rebecca A.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Herman, Don; Firestone, Mary K.

    2008-06-10

    Remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sediments through in-situ stimulation of bioreduction to insoluble UO{sub 2} is a potential treatment strategy under active investigation. Previously, we found that newly reduced U(IV) can be reoxidized under reducing conditions sustained by a continuous supply of organic carbon (OC) because of residual reactive Fe(III) and enhanced U(VI) solubility through complexation with carbonate generated through OC oxidation. That finding motivated this investigation directed at identifying a range of OC supply rates that is optimal for establishing U bioreduction and immobilization in initially oxidizing sediments. The effects of OC supply rate, from 0 to 580 mmol OC (kg sediment){sup -1} year{sup -1}, and OC form (lactate and acetate) on U bioreduction were tested in flow-through columns containing U-contaminated sediments. An intermediate supply rate on the order of 150 mmol OC (kg sediment){sup -1} year{sup -1} was determined to be most effective at immobilizing U. At lower OC supply rates, U bioreduction was not achieved, and U(VI) solubility was enhanced by complexation with carbonate (from OC oxidation). At the highest OC supply rate, resulting highly carbonate-enriched solutions also supported elevated levels of U(VI), even though strongly reducing conditions were established. Lactate and acetate were found to have very similar geochemical impacts on effluent U concentrations (and other measured chemical species), when compared at equivalent OC supply rates. While the catalysts of U(VI) reduction to U(IV) are presumably bacteria, the composition of the bacterial community, the Fe reducing community, and the sulfate reducing community had no direct relationship with effluent U concentrations. The OC supply rate has competing effects of driving reduction of U(VI) to low solubility U(IV) solids, as well as causing formation of highly soluble U(VI)-carbonato complexes. These offsetting influences will require careful control of OC

  10. Natural uranium and thorium isotopes in sediment cores off Malaysian ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Abdul Hafidz; Sabuti, Asnor Azrin; Mohamed, Che Abd Rahim

    2015-06-01

    Sediment cores collected from three Malaysian marine ports, namely, Kota Kinabalu, Labuan and Klang were analyzed to determine the radioactivities of 234U, 238U, 230Th, 232Th and total organic carbon (TOC) content. The objectives of this study were to determine the factors that control the activity of uranium isotopes and identify the possible origin of uranium and thorium in these areas. The activities of 234U and 238U show high positive correlation with TOC at the middle of sediment core from Kota Kinabalu port. This result suggests that activity of uranium at Kota Kinabalu port was influenced by organic carbon. The 234U/238U value at the upper layer of Kota Kinabalu port was ≥1.14 while the ratio value at Labuan and Klang port was ≤ 1.14. These results suggest a reduction process occurred at Kota Kinabalu port where mobile U(VI) was converted to immobile U(IV) by organic carbon. Therefore, it can be concluded that the major input of uranium at Kota Kinabalu port is by sorptive uptake of authigenic uranium from the water column whereas the major inputs of uranium to Labuan and Klang port are of detrital origin. The ratio of 230Th/232Th was used to estimate the origin of thorium. Low ratio value (lt; 1.5) at Labuan and Klang ports support the suggestion that thorium from both areas were come from detrital input while the high ratio (> 1.5) of 230Th/232Th at Kota Kinabalu port suggest the anthropogenic input of 230Th to this area. The source of 230Th is probably from phosphate fertilizers used in the oil-palm cultivation in Kota Kinabalu that is adjacent to the Kota Kinabalu port.

  11. Uranium hexafluoride handling. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Field Office, and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are co-sponsoring this Second International Conference on Uranium Hexafluoride Handling. The conference is offered as a forum for the exchange of information and concepts regarding the technical and regulatory issues and the safety aspects which relate to the handling of uranium hexafluoride. Through the papers presented here, we attempt not only to share technological advances and lessons learned, but also to demonstrate that we are concerned about the health and safety of our workers and the public, and are good stewards of the environment in which we all work and live. These proceedings are a compilation of the work of many experts in that phase of world-wide industry which comprises the nuclear fuel cycle. Their experience spans the entire range over which uranium hexafluoride is involved in the fuel cycle, from the production of UF{sub 6} from the naturally-occurring oxide to its re-conversion to oxide for reactor fuels. The papers furnish insights into the chemical, physical, and nuclear properties of uranium hexafluoride as they influence its transport, storage, and the design and operation of plant-scale facilities for production, processing, and conversion to oxide. The papers demonstrate, in an industry often cited for its excellent safety record, continuing efforts to further improve safety in all areas of handling uranium hexafluoride. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Uranium Speciation and Bioavailability in Aquatic Systems: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. Markich

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The speciation of uranium (U in relation to its bioavailability is reviewed for surface waters (fresh- and seawater and their sediments. A summary of available analytical and modeling techniques for determining U speciation is also presented. U(VI is the major form of U in oxic surface waters, while U(IV is the major form in anoxic waters. The bioavailability of U (i.e., its ability to bind to or traverse the cell surface of an organism is dependent on its speciation, or physicochemical form. U occurs in surface waters in a variety of physicochemical forms, including the free metal ion (U4+ or UO22+ and complexes with inorganic ligands (e.g., uranyl carbonate or uranyl phosphate, and humic substances (HS (e.g., uranyl fulvate in dissolved, colloidal, and/or particulate forms. Although the relationship between U speciation and bioavailability is complex, there is reasonable evidence to indicate that UO22+ and UO2OH+ are the major forms of U(VI available to organisms, rather than U in strong complexes (e.g., uranyl fulvate or adsorbed to colloidal and/or particulate matter. U(VI complexes with inorganic ligands (e.g., carbonate or phosphate and HS apparently reduce the bioavailability of U by reducing the activity of UO22+ and UO2OH+. The majority of studies have used the results from thermodynamic speciation modeling to support these conclusions. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy is the only analytical technique able to directly determine specific U species, but is limited in use to freshwaters of low pH and ionic strength. Nearly all of the available information relating the speciation of U to its bioavailability has been derived using simple, chemically defined experimental freshwaters, rather than natural waters. No data are available for estuarine or seawater. Furthermore, there are no available data on the relationship between U speciation and bioavailability in sediments. An understanding of this relationship has been

  13. Uranium and radium activities in samples of aquifers of the main cities of the Estado de Chihuahua; Actividades de uranio y radio en muestras de agua subterranea de las principales ciudades del Estado de Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, L.; Colmenero S, L.; Montero C, M.E. [CIMAV, Av. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 120, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)]. e-mail: lourdes.villalba@cimav.edu.mx

    2003-07-01

    The natural uranium is in four valence states +3, +4, +5 and +6 being the hexavalent state the more soluble, which plays an important role in the transport of the uranium in the environment. The high concentrations of uranium in water not only in near waters to uranium mines, but also are in some mineral waters or in waters that are extracted of deep wells as it happens in the State of Chihuahua, where the underground waters are the fundamental source of consumption. The radium is a disintegration product of the uranium, the radio content in water is considered the second source of natural radioactivity. The distribution of radium in water is in function of the uranium content present in the aquifer. It was determined the uranium and radium content in samples of underground water of the main cities of the State of Chihuahua according to their number of inhabitants. The extraction methods for uranium and sulfates precipitation of Ba-Ra by means of the addition of barium carriers for the radium were used. The measures of the activities of uranium and radium were carried out by means of a portable liquid scintillation detector trade mark Thiathler-OY HIDEX. The obtained results have demonstrated that the content of uranium and radium in dissolution are in most of the sampling wells above the permissible maximum levels that manage the Mexican regulations. The high contents of uranium and radio can be attributed since to the influence of the geologic substrate characteristic of the zone in the State of Chihuahua they exist but of 50 uranium deposits. (Author)

  14. Interaction of uranium(VI) with bioligands present in human biological fluids. The case study of urea and uric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, A.A.A.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2013-05-01

    The complexation of uranium(VI) with bioligands found in human biological fluids, viz, urea and uric acid in aqueous solutions, has been investigated using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) at room temperature, I = 0.1 M (NaClO4) and pH (3 for uric acid; 4 for urea). In both complex systems a static quench effect with increasing ligand concentration and no peaks shift upon complexation were observed. With uranium(VI) both ligands formed a fairly weak 1:1 complex with average stability constants of log {beta}{sub 110} = 4.67 {+-} 0.29 for uric acid and log {beta}{sub 110} = 3.79 {+-} 0.15 and 2.12 {+-} 0.18 for relatively low and relatively high urea concentrations, respectively. Application of the newly generated data on the U(VI) speciation modelling in biofluids, e.g., human urine was also discussed.

  15. Study of polyethyleneimine- and amidoxime-functionalized hybrid biomass of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis for adsorption of uranium (VI) ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Akbulut, Aydin; Arica, M Yakup

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the potential application of the polyethyleneimine- (PEI) and amidoxime-modified Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis biomasses for the removal of uranium ion in batch mode using the native biomass as a control system. The uranium ion adsorption was also characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra, zeta potential analysis, and surface area measurement studies. The effects of pH, biomass amount, contact time, initial uranium ion concentration, and ionic strength were evaluated by using native and modified algal biomass preparations. The uranium ion removal was rapid, with more than 70% of total adsorption taking place in 40 min, and equilibrium was established within 60 min. From the experimental data, it was found that the amount of adsorption uranium ion on the algal preparations decreased in the following series: amidoxime-modified algal biomass > PEI-modified algal biomass > native algal biomass. Maximum adsorption capacities of amidoxime- and PEI-modified, and native algal biomasses were found to be 366.8, 279.5, and 194.6 mg/g, respectively, in batchwise studies. The adsorption rate of U(VI) ion by amidoxime-modified algal biomass was higher than those of the native and PEI-modified counterparts. The adsorption processes on all the algal biomass preparations followed by the Dubinin-Radushkevitch (D-R) and Temkin isotherms and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The thermodynamic parameters were determined at four different temperatures (i.e., 15, 25, 35, and 45 °C) using the thermodynamics constant of the Temkin isotherm model. The ΔH° and ΔG° values of U(VI) ion adsorption on algal preparations show endothermic heat of adsorption; higher temperatures favor the process. The native and modified algal biomass preparations were regenerated using 10 mM HNO3. These results show that amidoxime-modified algal biomass can be a potential candidate for effective removal of U(VI) ion from

  16. In situ Bioreduction of Uranium (VI) in Groundwater and Sediments with Edible Oil as the Electron Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W.; Watson, D. B.; Mehlhorn, T.; Zhang, G.; Earles, J.; Lowe, K.; Phillips, J.; Boyanov, M.; Kemner, K. M.; Schadt, C. W.; Brooks, S. C.; Criddle, C.; Jardine, P.

    2009-12-01

    In situ bioremediation of a uranium-contaminated aquifer was conducted at the US DOE Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, in Oak Ridge, TN. Edible oil was tested as a slow-release electron donor for microbially mediated U (VI) reduction. Uranium contaminated sediments from the site were used in laboratory microcosm tests to study the feasibility of using this electron donor under anaerobic, ambient temperature conditions. Parallel microcosms were established using ethanol as electron donor for comparison. The tests also examined the impact of sulfate concentrations on U (VI) reduction. The oil was degraded by indigenous microorganisms with acetate as a major product but at a much slower rate than ethanol. The rapid removal of U (VI) from the aqueous phase occurred concurrently with acetate production and sulfate reduction. Initial U(VI) concentration in the aqueous phase increased with increased sulfate concentration (1 vs. 5 mM), likely due to U(VI) desorption from the solid phase, but more U(VI) was reduced with higher initial sulfate level. Finally, the bioreaction in microcosms progressed to methanogenesis. Subsequently, a field test with the edible oil was conducted in a highly permeable gravelly layer (hydraulic conductivity 0.076 cm/sec). Groundwater at the site contained 5-6 μM U; 1.0-1.2 mM sulfate; 3-4 mM Ca; pH 6.8. Diluted emulsified oil (20% solution) was injected into three injection wells within 2 hrs. Geochemical analysis of site groundwater demonstrated the sequential reduction of nitrate, Mn, Fe(III) and sulfate. Transient accumulation of acetate was observed as an intermediate in the oil degradation. Reduction and removal of uranium from groundwater was observed in all wells connected to the injection wells after 2-4 weeks. Uranium concentrations in groundwater were reduced to below 0.126 μM (EPA drinking water standard), at some well locations. Rebound of U in groundwater was

  17. Predicting equilibrium uranium isotope fractionation in crystals and solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauble, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the rapidly growing interest in using 238U/235U measurements as a proxy for changes in oxygen abundance in surface and near-surface environments, the present theoretical understanding of uranium isotope fractionation is limited to a few simple gas-phase molecules and analogues of dissolved species (e.g., 1,2,3). Understanding uranium isotope fractionation behavior in more complicated species, such as crystals and adsorption complexes, will help in the design and interpretation of experiments and field studies, and may suggest other uses for 38U/235U measurements. In this study, a recently developed first-principles method for estimating the nuclear volume component of field shift fractionation in crystals and complex molecular species (4) is combined with mass-dependent fractionation theory to predict equilibrium 38U/235U fractionations in aqueous and crystalline uranium compounds, including uraninite (UO2). The nuclear field shift effect, caused by the interaction of electrons with the finite volume of the positive charge distribution in uranium nuclei, is estimated using Density Functional Theory and the Projector Augmented Wave method (DFT-PAW). Tests against relativistic electronic structure calculations and Mössbauer isomer shift data indicate that the DFT-PAW method is reasonably accurate, while being much better suited to models of complex and crystalline species. Initial results confirm previous predictions that the nuclear volume effect overwhelms mass depdendent fractionation in U(VI)-U(IV) exchange reactions, leading to higher 238U/235U in U(IV) species (i.e., for UO2 xtal vs. UO22+aq, ln αNV ≈ +1.8‰ , ln αMD ≈ -0.8‰, ln αTotal ≈ +1.0‰ at 25ºC). UO2 and U(H2O)94+, are within ~0.4‰ of each other, while U(VI) species appear to be more variable. This suggests that speciation is likely to significantly affect natural uranium isotope fractionations, in addition to oxidation state. Tentatively, it appears that uranyl-type (UO22

  18. Microbial reduction of hexavalent chromium under vadose zone conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Douglas S; Brockman, Fred J; Bowman, Robert S; Kieft, Thomas L

    2003-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a common contaminant associated with nuclear reactors and fuel processing. Improper disposal at facilities in and and semiarid regions has contaminated underlying vadose zones and aquifers. The objectives of this study were to assess the potential for immobilizing Cr(VI) using a native microbial community to reduce soluble Cr(VI) to insoluble Cr(III) under conditions similar to those in the vadose zone, and to evaluate the potential for enhancing biological Cr(VI) reduction through nutrient addition. Batch microcosm and unsaturated flow column experiments were performed. Native microbial communities in subsurface sediments with no prior Cr(VI) exposure were shown to be capable of Cr(VI) reduction. In both the batch and column experiments, Cr(VI) reduction and loss from the aqueous phase were enhanced by adding high levels of both nitrate (NO3-) and organic C (molasses). Nutrient amendments resulted in up to 87% reduction of the initial 67 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) in an unsaturated batch experiment. Molasses and nitrate additions to 15 cm long unsaturated flow columns receiving 65 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) resulted in microbially mediated reduction and immobilization of 10% of the Cr during a 45-d experiment. All of the immobilized Cr was in the form of Cr(III), as shown by XANES analysis. This suggests that biostimulation of microbial Cr(VI) reduction in vadose zones by nutrient amendment is a promising strategy, and that immobilization of close to 100% of Cr contamination could be achieved in a thick vadose zone with longer flow paths and longer contact times than in this experiment.

  19. Microbial reduction of hexavalent Chromium under vadose zone conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, D S.(unknown); Brockman, Fred J.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Bowman, Robert (VISITORS); Kieft, Thomas L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium[Cr(VI)] is a common constituent of wastes associated with nuclear reactor operation and fuel processing. Improper disposal at facilities in arid and semi-arid regions has led to contamination of underlying vadose zones and aquifers. The objectives of this study were to assess the potential for immobilizing Cr(VI) contamination using a native microbial community to reduce soluble Cr(VI) to insoluble Cr(III) under conditions similar to those found in the vadose zone, and to evaluate the potential for enhancing biological reduction of Cr(VI) through the addition of nutrients. Batch microcosm and unsaturated flow column experiments were performed. Native microbial communities in subsurface sediments with no prior Cr(VI) exposure were shown to be capable of Cr(VI) reduction. In both the batch and column experiments, Cr(VI) reduction and loss from the aqueous phase were enhanced by adding high levels of both nitrate (NO3-) and organic carbon (molasses). Nutrient amendments resulted in up to 87% Cr(VI) reduction in unsaturated batch experiments. Molasses and nitrate additions to 15-cm length unsaturated flow columns receiving 65 mg L-1 Cr(VI) resulted in microbially mediated reduction and immobilization of 10% of the Cr during a 45-day experiment. All of the immobilized Cr was in the form of Cr (III), as shown by XANES analysis. This suggests that biostimulation of microbial Cr(VI) reduction in vadose zones by nutrient amendment is a promising strategy; and that immobilization of close to 100% of Cr contamination could be achieved in a thick vadose zone with longer flow paths and longer contact times than in this experiment.

  20. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Brent C. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Constant, Stephanie L. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Patierno, Steven R. [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); GW Cancer Institute, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Jurjus, Rosalyn A. [Department of Anatomy and Regenerative Biology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Ceryak, Susan M., E-mail: phmsmc@gwumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  1. Understanding uranium behaviour at the Askola uranium mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokelainen, L.; Siitari-Kauppi, M. [Univ. of Helsinki, Helsinki Univ. (Finland); Markovaara-Koivisto, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, TKK (Finland); Read, D. [Enterpris, The Old Library, Lower Shott, Great Bookham, Surrey (United Kingdom); Lindberg, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hellmuth, K.H. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-07-01

    Understanding the behaviour of uranium is essential when assessing the safety of a spent nuclear fuel repository. The geochemical behaviour of uranium, including its reactive transport chemistry, is also a matter of concern when assessing the environmental impact of uranium mining. Subsurface uranium mobility is believed to be primarily controlled by dissolution and (co)-precipitation of uranium mineral solids and adsorption to mineral surfaces. This paper describes a modelling exercise based on characterisation of samples taken from drilled cores at the uranium mineralization at Askola, Southern Finland. In the modelling exercise, current conditions are assumed to be oxidizing and saturated with groundwater. PHREEQC was used for modelling in conjunction with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory database, chosen for its extensive coverage of uranium species and mineral phases. It is postulated that weathering processes near the surface have led to uranium dissolution from the primary ore, leaching out from the matrix and migrating along water-conducting fractures with subsequent re-diffusion into the rock matrix. Electron microscopy studies show that precipitated uranium occupies intra-granular fractures in feldspars and quartz. In addition, secondary uranium was found to be distributed within goethite nodules as well as around the margins of iron-containing minerals in the form of silicate and phosphate precipitates. Equilibrium modelling calculations predict that uranium would be precipitated as uranyl silicates, most likely soddyite and uranophane, in the prevailing chemical conditions beneath Lakeakallio hill. (orig.)

  2. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  3. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, V.M. Jr.; Pullen, W.C.; Kollie, T.G.; Bell, R.T.

    1981-10-21

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  4. Adsorption and desorption of U(VI) on functionalized graphene oxides: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubing; Yang, Shubin; Chen, Yue; Ding, Congcong; Cheng, Wencai; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-04-01

    The adsorption and desorption of U(VI) on graphene oxides (GOs), carboxylated GOs (HOOC-GOs), and reduced GOs (rGOs) were investigated by batch experiments, EXAFS technique, and computational theoretical calculations. Isothermal adsorptions showed that the adsorption capacities of U(VI) were GOs > HOOC-GOs > rGOs, whereas the desorbed amounts of U(VI) were rGOs > GOs > HOOC-GOs by desorption kinetics. According to EXAFS analysis, inner-sphere surface complexation dominated the adsorption of U(VI) on GOs and HOOC-GOs at pH 4.0, whereas outer-sphere surface complexation of U(VI) on rGO was observed at pH 4.0, which was consistent with surface complexation modeling. Based on the theoretical calculations, the binding energy of [G(···)UO2](2+) (8.1 kcal/mol) was significantly lower than those of [HOOC-GOs(···)UO2](2+) (12.1 kcal/mol) and [GOs-O(···)UO2](2+) (10.2 kcal/mol), suggesting the physisorption of UO2(2+) on rGOs. Such high binding energy of [GOs-COO(···)UO2](+) (50.5 kcal/mol) revealed that the desorption of U(VI) from the -COOH groups was much more difficult. This paper highlights the effect of the hydroxyl, epoxy, and carboxyl groups on the adsorption and desorption of U(VI), which plays an important role in designing GOs for the preconcentration and removal of radionuclides in environmental pollution cleanup applications.

  5. Adsorption of U(VI) on sericite in the presence of Bacillus subtilis: A combined batch, EXAFS and modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubing; Zhang, Rui; Ding, Congcong; Wang, Xiangxue; Cheng, Wencai; Chen, Changlun; Wang, Xiangke

    2016-05-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) on the adsorption of U(VI) onto sericite was investigated using batch, EXAFS and modeling techniques. The batch adsorption indicated that the increased adsorption of U(VI) on sericite + B. subtilis systems at pH 6.0 due to the combination of deprotonated carboxyl groups of B. subtilis with the hydroxyl of sericite. The slightly enhanced adsorption of U(VI) on sericite + B. subtilis with increasing CO2 contents at pH 7.0 owing to electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged sericite + B. subtilis and negatively charged U(VI) species such as UO2(OH)3- or UO2(CO3)22- species. According to EXAFS analysis, the increased adsorption mechanism of U(VI) on sericite + B. subtilis at pH 4.0 was attributed to the formation of U-P shell, whereas the bidentate inner-sphere surface complexes was also observed at pH 7.0 due to the formation of U-C shell (2.92 Å) and/or U-Si/Al (3.18 Å) shell. Under the range of allowable error, the pH-dependent and isothermal adsorption of U(VI) on sericite + B. subtilis can be fitted by surface complexation modeling using ion exchange and surface complexation reaction by using equilibrium parameters obtained from each binary systems. These findings are important to understand the fate and transport of U(VI) on the mineral-bacteria ternary systems in the near-surface environment.

  6. Uranium removal from drinking water by adsorption onto granular ferric hydroxide (GEH); Entfernung von Uran aus Trinkwasser durch Adsorption an Granuliertem Eisenhydroxid (GEH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahr, Carsten

    2012-07-01

    Uranium contamination of groundwater is encountered in many regions worldwide. Effective and simple removal technologies are required by waterworks faced with this problem, particularly in Germany which set a specification for maximum permissible uranium content in drinking water in November 2011. The present thesis examines the suitability of Granular Ferric Hydroxide (GEH) as a water treatment adsorbent for uranium removal. Adsorption isotherms generated in the studies showed that GEH is capable of adsorbing uranium, in fact achieving highest loading levels as compared to other oxide-based absorbents. Experimental data for uranium adsorption as a function of pH for the model systems U(VI) / H{sub 2}O and U(VI) / H{sub 2}O / CO{sub 2} successfully fits the Surface Complexation Model using the adjusted parameter set for ferrihydrite. Test findings showed that adsorption capacity varies substantially depending on the water matrix processed and is significantly reduced when real ground water or drinking water is processed. The main parameters influencing adsorption capacity were found to be pH and the associated carbonate concentration, as well as the concentrations of calcium and phosphate and to a lesser extent of sulfate and humic substances. The reduced capacity is caused by adsorption competition and changes in chemical speciation of uranium brought about by the water matrix at hand. Both the kinetics and the dynamics of adsorption can be successfully described by the Homogeneous Surface Diffusion Model (HSDM). The characteristic transport coefficients for film diffusion and particle diffusion were determined using empirical correlations and lab testing. The comparatively slow kinetics of adsorption are caused by the rate-determining particle diffusion and lead to a relatively flat breakthrough curve. Experiments on small adsorber columns (RSSCT method) were used to simulate uranium breakthrough in GEH fixed-bed filters on a laboratory scale, permitting accurate

  7. Release of U(VI) from spent biosorbent immobilized in cement concrete blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkobachar, C.; Iyengar, L.; Mishra, U.K.; Chauhan, M.S. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Kanpur (India)

    1995-12-01

    This paper deals with cementation as the method for the disposal of spent biosorbent, Ganoderma lucidum (a wood rotting macrofungi) after it is used for the removal of Uranium. Results on the uranium release during the curing of cement-concrete (CC) blocks indicated that placing the spent sorbent at the center of the blocks during their casting yields better immobilization of uranium as compared to the homogeneous mixing of the spent sorbent with the cement. Short term leach tests indicated that the uranium release was negligible in simulated seawater, 1.8% in 0.2 N sodium carbonate and 6.0% in 0.2 N HCl. The latter two leachates were used to represent the extreme environmental conditions. It was observed that the presence of the spent biosorbent up to 5% by weight did not affect the compressive strength of CC blocks. Thus cementation technique is suitable for the immobilization of uranium loaded biosorbent for its ultimate disposal.

  8. Influence of Carbon and Microbial Community Priming on the Attenuation of Uranium in a Contaminated Floodplain Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, P J; N'Guessan, L A; Qafoku, N P; Sinha, M; Williams, K H; Dangelmayr, M; Resch, C T; Peacock, A; Wang, Z; Figueroa, L; Long, P E

    2015-01-01

    The capacity for subsurface sediments to sequester radionuclide contaminants, such as uranium (U), and retain them after bioremediation efforts are completed is critical to the long-term stewardship of re-mediated sites. In U bioremediation strategies, carbon amendment stimulates bioreduction of U(VI) to U(IV), immobilizing it within the sediments. Sediments enriched in natural organic matter are naturally capable of sequestering significant U, but may serve as sources to the aquifer, contributing to plume persistence. Two types of organic-rich sediments were compared to better understand U release mechanisms. Sediments that were artificially primed for U removal were retrieved from an area previously biostimulated while detrital-rich sediments were collected from a location never subject to amendment. Batch incubations demonstrated that primed sediments rapidly removed uranium from the groundwater, whereas naturally reduced sediments released a sizeable portion of U before U(VI)-reduction commenced. Column experiments confirmed that U release persisted for 65 pore volumes in naturally reduced sediments, demonstrating their sink-source behavior. Acetate addition to primed sediments shifted the microbial community from sulfate-reducing bacteria within Desulfobacteraceae to the iron-reducing Geobacteraceae and Firmicutes, associated with efficient U(VI) removal and retention, respectively. In contrast, Geobacteraceae communities in naturally reduced sediments were replaced by sequences with similarity to Pseudomonas spp. during U release, while U(VI) removal only occurred with enrichment of Firmicutes. These investigations stress the importance of characterizing zones with heterogeneous carbon pools at U-contaminated sites prior to the determination of a remedial strategy to identify areas, which may contribute to long-term sourcing of the contaminants. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  9. Isolation, identification and characterization of indigenous fungi for bioremediation of hexavalent chromium, nickel and cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernahadini, Nelis; Suhandono, Sony; Choesin, Devi N.; Chaerun, Siti K.; Kadarusman, Ade

    2014-03-01

    Waste from nickel mining of Sorowako in South Sulawesi contains hexavalent chromium, nickel and cobalt metals in high concentration and may have a negative impact to the environment. Common waste treatment systems such as chemical treatment using a reducing reagent may still have a negative impact. Bioremediation using fungi or bacteria becomes more popular because it is an environmentally friendly alternative. The purposes of this study are to isolate and identify indigenous fungi that are resistant to heavy metals (hexavalent chromium, nickel, and cobalt) and are capable of reducing the concentration of metals in mining wastes. Ten fungal isolates were successfully isolated from the soils and pond sediments in the area of nickel mining in Sorowako. Selection of superior isolate was carried out by growing all the isolates on PDA medium, which contained all of the three metals. One superior isolate was identified to be able to grow on medium with concentrations of 6400 ppm hexavalent chromium, 200 ppm nickel and 50 ppm cobalt. Molecular identification and phylogenetic studies of the isolate using fungal PCR primers developed to amplify the ITS (internal transcribed spacer) region showed that the isolate sequence was very close to Trichoderma atroviride with 99.8% similarity. Optimum incubation time for the uptake of hexavalent chromium was 3 days, nickel and cobalt was 5 days, respectively, with an optimum pH of 4.

  10. An assessment of the environmental toxicity of hexavalent chromium in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putte, van der I.

    1981-01-01

    At present chromium is a common contaminant in surface waters in many countries. In water the metal may be present in the trivalent form (CrIII) or in the hexavalent form (CrVI), the latter of which is more toxic to aquatic organisms.The investigations presented in this thesis were aimed at a thorou

  11. An assessment of the environmental toxicity of hexavalent chromium in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putte, van der I.

    1981-01-01

    At present chromium is a common contaminant in surface waters in many countries. In water the metal may be present in the trivalent form (CrIII) or in the hexavalent form (CrVI), the latter of which is more toxic to aquatic organisms.
    The investigations presented in this thesis

  12. On the uptake and binding of uranium (VI) by the green alga Chlorella Vulgaris; Zur Aufnahme und Bindung von Uran(VI) durch die Gruenalge Chlorella Vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Manja

    2011-07-01

    Uranium could be released into the environment from geogenic deposits and from former mining and milling areas by weathering and anthropogenic activities. The elucidation of uranium behavior in geo- and biosphere is necessary for a reliable risk assessment of radionuclide migration in the environment. Algae are widespread in nature and the most important group of organisms in the aquatic habitat. Because of their ubiquitous occurrence in nature the influence of algae on the migration process of uranium in the environment is of fundamental interest e.g. for the development of effective and economical remediation strategies for contaminated waters. Besides, algae are standing at the beginning of the food chain and play an economically relevant role as food and food additive. Therefore the transfer of algae-bound uranium along the food chain could arise to a serious threat to human health. Aim of this work was the quantitative and structural characterization of the interaction between U(VI) and the green alga Chlorella vulgaris in environmental relevant concentration and pH range with special emphasis on metabolic activity. Therefore a defined medium was created which assures the survival/growth of the algae as well as the possibility to predict the uranium speciation. The speciation of uranium in the mineral medium was calculated and experimentally verified by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The results of the sorption experiments showed that both metabolic active and inactive algal cells bind uranium in significant amounts of around 14 mg U/g dry biomass and 28 mg U/g dry biomass, respectively. Another interesting observation was made during the growth of Chlorella cells in mineral medium at the environmental relevant uranium concentration of 5 {mu}M. Under these conditions and during ongoing cultivation a mobilization of the algae-bound uranium occurred. At higher uranium concentrations this effect was not observed due to the die off

  13. The neurotoxicology of uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinocourt, Céline; Legrand, Marie; Dublineau, Isabelle; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The brain is a target of environmental toxic pollutants that impair cerebral functions. Uranium is present in the environment as a result of natural deposits and release by human applications. The first part of this review describes the passage of uranium into the brain, and its effects on neurological functions and cognitive abilities. Very few human studies have looked at its cognitive effects. Experimental studies show that after exposure, uranium can reach the brain and lead to neurobehavioral impairments, including increased locomotor activity, perturbation of the sleep-wake cycle, decreased memory, and increased anxiety. The mechanisms underlying these neurobehavioral disturbances are not clearly understood. It is evident that there must be more than one toxic mechanism and that it might include different targets in the brain. In the second part, we therefore review the principal mechanisms that have been investigated in experimental models: imbalance of the anti/pro-oxidant system and neurochemical and neurophysiological pathways. Uranium effects are clearly specific according to brain area, dose, and time. Nonetheless, this review demonstrates the paucity of data about its effects on developmental processes and the need for more attention to the consequences of exposure during development.

  14. Subsurface Conditions Controlling Uranium Incorporation in Iron Oxides: A Redox Stable Sink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendorf, Scott [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Toxic metals and radionuclides throughout the U.S. Department of Energy Complex pose a serious threat to ecosystems and to human health. Of particular concern is the redox-sensitive radionuclide uranium, which is classified as a priority pollutant in soils and groundwaters at most DOE sites owing to its large inventory, its health risks, and its mobility with respect to primary waste sources. The goal of this research was to contribute to the long-term mission of the Subsurface Biogeochemistry Program by determining reactions of uranium with iron (hydr)oxides that lead to long-term stabilization of this pervasive contaminant. The research objectives of this project were thus to (1) identify the (bio)geochemical conditions, including those of the solid-phase, promoting uranium incorporation in Fe (hydr)oxides, (2) determine the magnitude of uranium incorporation under a variety of relevant subsurface conditions in order to quantify the importance of this pathway when in competition with reduction or adsorption; (3) identify the mechanism(s) of U(VI/V) incorporation in Fe (hydr)oxides; and (4) determine the stability of these phases under different biogeochemical (inclusive of redox) conditions. Our research demonstrates that redox transformations are capable of achieving U incorporation into goethite at ambient temperatures, and that this transformation occurs within days at U and Fe(II) concentrations that are common in subsurface geochemical environments with natural ferrihydrites—inclusive of those with natural impurities. Increasing Fe(II) or U concentration, or initial pH, made U(VI) reduction to U(IV) a more competitive sequestration pathway in this system, presumably by increasing the relative rate of U reduction. Uranium concentrations commonly found in contaminated subsurface environments are often on the order of 1-10 μM, and groundwater Fe(II) concentrations can reach exceed 1 mM in reduced zones of the subsurface. The redox-driven U(V) incorporation

  15. Uranium from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, D.; Folkendt, M.

    1982-09-21

    A novel process for recovering uranium from seawater is proposed and some of the critical technical parameters are evaluated. The process, in summary, consists of two different options for contacting adsorbant pellets with seawater without pumping the seawater. It is expected that this will reduce the mass handling requirements, compared to pumped seawater systems, by a factor of approximately 10/sup 5/, which should also result in a large reduction in initial capital investment. Activated carbon, possibly in combination with a small amount of dissolved titanium hydroxide, is expected to be the preferred adsorbant material instead of the commonly assumed titanium hydroxide alone. The activated carbon, after exposure to seawater, can be stripped of uranium with an appropriate eluant (probably an acid) or can be burned for its heating value (possible in a power plant) leaving the uranium further enriched in its ash. The uranium, representing about 1% of the ash, is then a rich ore and would be recovered in a conventional manner. Experimental results have indicated that activated carbon, acting alone, is not adequately effective in adsorbing the uranium from seawater. We measured partition coefficients (concentration ratios) of approximately 10/sup 3/ in seawater instead of the reported values of 10/sup 5/. However, preliminary tests carried out in fresh water show considerable promise for an extraction system that uses a combination of dissolved titanium hydroxide (in minute amounts) which forms an insoluble compound with the uranyl ion, and the insoluble compound then being sorbed out on activated carbon. Such a system showed partition coefficients in excess of 10/sup 5/ in fresh water. However, the system was not tested in seawater.

  16. Quantum mechanical calculation of aqueuous uranium complexes: carbonate, phosphate, organic and biomolecular species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Prashant

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantum mechanical calculations were performed on a variety of uranium species representing U(VI, U(V, U(IV, U-carbonates, U-phosphates, U-oxalates, U-catecholates, U-phosphodiesters, U-phosphorylated N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG, and U-2-Keto-3-doxyoctanoate (KDO with explicit solvation by H2O molecules. These models represent major U species in natural waters and complexes on bacterial surfaces. The model results are compared to observed EXAFS, IR, Raman and NMR spectra. Results Agreement between experiment and theory is acceptable in most cases, and the reasons for discrepancies are discussed. Calculated Gibbs free energies are used to constrain which configurations are most likely to be stable under circumneutral pH conditions. Reduction of U(VI to U(IV is examined for the U-carbonate and U-catechol complexes. Conclusion Results on the potential energy differences between U(V- and U(IV-carbonate complexes suggest that the cause of slower disproportionation in this system is electrostatic repulsion between UO2 [CO3]35- ions that must approach one another to form U(VI and U(IV rather than a change in thermodynamic stability. Calculations on U-catechol species are consistent with the observation that UO22+ can oxidize catechol and form quinone-like species. In addition, outer-sphere complexation is predicted to be the most stable for U-catechol interactions based on calculated energies and comparison to 13C NMR spectra. Outer-sphere complexes (i.e., ion pairs bridged by water molecules are predicted to be comparable in Gibbs free energy to inner-sphere complexes for a model carboxylic acid. Complexation of uranyl to phosphorus-containing groups in extracellular polymeric substances is predicted to favor phosphonate groups, such as that found in phosphorylated NAG, rather than phosphodiesters, such as those in nucleic acids.

  17. Responses of microbial community functional structures to pilot-scale uranium in situ bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, M.; Wu, W.-M.; Wu, L.; He, Z.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Deng, Y.; Luo, J.; Carley, J.; Ginder-Vogel, M.; Gentry, T.J.; Gu, B.; Watson, D.; Jardine, P.M.; Marsh, T.L.; Tiedje, J.M.; Hazen, T.C.; Criddle, C.S.; Zhou, J.

    2010-02-15

    A pilot-scale field test system with an inner loop nested within an outer loop was constructed for in situ U(VI) bioremediation at a US Department of Energy site, Oak Ridge, TN. The outer loop was used for hydrological protection of the inner loop where ethanol was injected for biostimulation of microorganisms for U(VI) reduction/immobilization. After 2 years of biostimulation with ethanol, U(VI) levels were reduced to below drinking water standard (<30 {micro}gl{sup -1}) in the inner loop monitoring wells. To elucidate the microbial community structure and functions under in situ uranium bioremediation conditions, we used a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip) to examine the microbial functional gene composition of the sediment samples collected from both inner and outer loop wells. Our study results showed that distinct microbial communities were established in the inner loop wells. Also, higher microbial functional gene number, diversity and abundance were observed in the inner loop wells than the outer loop wells. In addition, metal-reducing bacteria, such as Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter and Shewanella, and other bacteria, for example, Rhodopseudomonas and Pseudomonas, are highly abundant in the inner loop wells. Finally, the richness and abundance of microbial functional genes were highly correlated with the mean travel time of groundwater from the inner loop injection well, pH and sulfate concentration in groundwater. These results suggest that the indigenous microbial communities can be successfully stimulated for U bioremediation in the groundwater ecosystem, and their structure and performance can be manipulated or optimized by adjusting geochemical and hydrological conditions.

  18. Removal of uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions by CMK-3 and its polymer composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yunhai; Li, Qin; Cao, Xiaohong; Wang, Youqun [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nuclear Resources and Environment, East China Institute of Technology, Ministry of Education, Nanchang 330013 (China); Department of Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences, East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou 344000 (China); Jiang, Xiaohui [Department of Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences, East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou 344000 (China); Tianshan Uranium Co., Ltd., China National Nuclear Corporation, Yining 835000 (China); Li, Min; Hua, Ming [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nuclear Resources and Environment, East China Institute of Technology, Ministry of Education, Nanchang 330013 (China); Zhang, Zhibin, E-mail: zhangnjut@163.com [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nuclear Resources and Environment, East China Institute of Technology, Ministry of Education, Nanchang 330013 (China); Department of Chemistry, Biological and Materials Sciences, East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou 344000 (China)

    2013-11-15

    The ability of PANI–CMK-3 composite (PANI–CMK-3) by in site polymerizing aniline onto the surface of mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) has been explored for the removal and recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions. The results of FTIR, SEM, TG/DTA and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption demonstrated that aniline was successfully polymerized onto the inside and outside surface of CMK-3 rather than occupying the mesopore. The U(VI) sorption on PANI–CMK-3 was well fitted to the Langmuir adsorption isothermal and pseudo-second kinetics models. The monolayer maximum capacity of PANI–CMK-3 was improved from 50.12 mg g{sup −1} of CMK-3 to 118.30 mg g{sup −1} at 298 K due to the imine and amine groups in PANI. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS and ΔG) showed the U(VI) adsorption on CMK-3–PANI and CMK-3 were all endothermic and spontaneous in nature. Selective adsorption experiments (co-existing ions, Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Sr{sup 2+}) show that the selectivity of CMK-3 was enhanced after aniline polymerization. Moreover, the U(VI) adsorbed on the surface of PANI–CMK-3 can be eluated by 1.0 mol L{sup −1} HCl solution with high desorption rate of 98%.

  19. Uranium Potential and Regional Metallogeny in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jindai; LI Ziying

    2008-01-01

    This paper is briefly involved in distributions of China's uranium metallogenic types,provinces, regions and belts. Eight target regions have been pointed out to be worthy of prospectingfor uranium resources. The regional uranium metallogeny is discussed and great uranium potentialpointed out from many aspects. Generally speaking, there are favorable conditions for uraniummineralization and good perspective to explore for uranium resources.

  20. Method of preparation of uranium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline Loetsch; Thomson, Robert Kenneth James

    2013-07-09

    Method for producing terminal uranium nitride complexes comprising providing a suitable starting material comprising uranium; oxidizing the starting material with a suitable oxidant to produce one or more uranium(IV)-azide complexes; and, sufficiently irradiating the uranium(IV)-azide complexes to produce the terminal uranium nitride complexes.

  1. 31 CFR 540.309 - Natural uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Natural uranium. 540.309 Section 540... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.309 Natural uranium. The term natural uranium means uranium found...

  2. Hexavalent chromium exposure and control in welding tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D; Susi, Pam; Flynn, Michael R

    2010-11-01

    Studies of exposure to the lung carcinogen hexavalent chromium (CrVI) from welding tasks are limited, especially within the construction industry where overexposure may be common. In addition, despite the OSHA requirement that the use of engineering controls such as local exhaust ventilation (LEV) first be considered before relying on other strategies to reduce worker exposure to CrVI, data on the effectiveness of LEV to reduce CrVI exposures from welding are lacking. The goal of the present study was to characterize breathing zone air concentrations of CrVI during welding tasks and primary contributing factors in four datasets: (1) OSHA compliance data; (2) a publicly available database from The Welding Institute (TWI); (3) field survey data of construction welders collected by the Center for Construction Research and Training (CPWR); and (4) controlled welding trials conducted by CPWR to assess the effectiveness of a portable LEV unit to reduce CrVI exposure. In the OSHA (n = 181) and TWI (n = 124) datasets, which included very few samples from the construction industry, the OSHA permissible exposure level (PEL) for CrVI (5 μg/m(3)) was exceeded in 9% and 13% of samples, respectively. CrVI concentrations measured in the CPWR field surveys (n = 43) were considerably higher, and 25% of samples exceeded the PEL. In the TWI and CPWR datasets, base metal, welding process, and LEV use were important predictors of CrVI concentrations. Only weak-to-moderate correlations were found between total particulate matter and CrVI, suggesting that total particulate matter concentrations are not a good surrogate for CrVI exposure in retrospective studies. Finally, in the controlled welding trials, LEV reduced median CrVI concentrations by 68% (p = 0.02). In conclusion, overexposure to CrVI in stainless steel welding is likely widespread, especially in certain operations such as shielded metal arc welding, which is commonly used in construction. However, exposure could be

  3. Sub-cm Particles in Saturn's Rings from VIMS, UVIS, and RSS occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerousek, Richard Gregory; Colwell, Josh E.; Hedman, Matthew M.; Marouf, Essam A.; Esposito, Larry W.; Nicholson, Philip D.; French, Richard G.

    2016-10-01

    Particles sizes in Saturn's rings roughly follow a truncated power law. One way to determine the governing parameters of the size distribution is through the analysis of differential optical depths (Zebker et al. 1983). Non-axisymmetric self-gravity wakes complicate this approach when optical depth measurements at different wavelengths are not made at same viewing geometry. Using occultations spanning a wide range of viewing angles and from multiple instruments onboard Cassini (the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS), the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), and the Radio Science Subsystem (RSS)), we forward-model the properties of the self-gravity wakes in Saturn's A and B rings while simultaneously constraining the parameters of the cm – sub-cm particle size distribution. In the absence of wakes, and in regions where particles smaller than ~ 8.86 mm are present, VIMS stellar occultations measure larger optical depths than UVIS stellar occultations due to the diffraction of 2.9 μm light out of the small (0.25 × 0.5 mrad) VIMS field of view compared with UVIS which measures shorter wavelength (0.15 μm) light over a much larger (6.4 × 6.0 mrad) field of view. This excess optical depth combined with RSS X-band (λ = 3.6 cm) optical depths provides a way to probe both the power law slope and the minimum particle size. In the A and B rings where self-gravity wakes are prevalent, we use the wake model of Colwell et al. (2006, 2007) with an additional free parameter representing the excess optical depth which would be measured through the gaps between opaque wakes, by VIMS compared to UVIS. In the B ring and inner A ring we find and absence of sub-cm particles and power law slopes of q ~ 2.8. In the trans-Encke region, where there are a multitude of satellite driven resonances, we find an increasing abundance of sub-cm particles as the outer edge of the A ring is approached. In the C Ring and the Cassini Division, where self-gravity wakes are absent

  4. Three novel triazine-based materials with different O/S/N set of donor atoms: One-step preparation and comparison of their capability in selective separation of uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chiyao; Zhang, Meicheng; Li, Bo; Tian, Yin; Zhang, Shuang; Zhao, Xiaosheng; Li, Yang; Wang, Lei; Ma, Lijian; Li, Shoujian

    2015-12-30

    Cyanuric chloride was chosen as a core skeleton which reacted with desired linker molecules, urea, thiourea and thiosemicarbazide, to prepare three novel functional covalent triazine-based frameworks, CCU (O-donor set), CCTU (S-donor set) and CCTS (S, N-donor set) respectively, designed for selective adsorption of U(VI). The products have high nitrogen concentration (>30 wt%), regular structure, relatively high chemical and thermal stability. Adsorption behaviors of the products on U(VI) were examined by batch experiments. CCU and CCTU can extract U(VI) from simulated nuclear industrial effluent containing 12 co-existing cations with relatively high selectivity (54.4% and 54.2%, respectively). Especially, effects of donor atoms O/S on adsorption were investigated, and the outcomes indicate that the difference in coordinating ability between the donor atoms is weakened in large conjugated systems, and the related functional groups with originally very strong coordination abilities may not be the best choice for the application in selective adsorption of uranium and also other metals. The as-proposed approach can easily be expanded into design and preparation of new highly efficient adsorbents for selective separation and recovery of uranium through adjusting the structures, types and amounts of functional groups of adsorbents by choosing suitable linkers.

  5. From Nanowires to Biofilms: An Exploration of Novel Mechanisms of Uranium Transformation Mediated by Geobacter Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REGUERA, GEMMA [Michigan State University

    2014-01-16

    One promising strategy for the in situ bioremediation of radioactive groundwater contaminants that has been identified by the SBR Program is to stimulate the activity of dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms to reductively precipitate uranium and other soluble toxic metals. The reduction of U(VI) and other soluble contaminants by Geobacteraceae is directly dependent on the reduction of Fe(III) oxides, their natural electron acceptor, a process that requires the expression of Geobacter’s conductive pili (pilus nanowires). Expression of conductive pili by Geobacter cells leads to biofilm development on surfaces and to the formation of suspended biogranules, which may be physiological closer to biofilms than to planktonic cells. Biofilm development is often assumed in the subsurface, particularly at the matrix-well screen interface, but evidence of biofilms in the bulk aquifer matrix is scarce. Our preliminary results suggest, however, that biofilms develop in the subsurface and contribute to uranium transformations via sorption and reductive mechanisms. In this project we elucidated the mechanism(s) for uranium immobilization mediated by Geobacter biofilms and identified molecular markers to investigate if biofilm development is happening in the contaminated subsurface. The results provided novel insights needed in order to understand the metabolic potential and physiology of microorganisms with a known role in contaminant transformation in situ, thus having a significant positive impact in the SBR Program and providing novel concept to monitor, model, and predict biological behavior during in situ treatments.

  6. Surface complexation modeling of U(VI) sorption on GMZ bentonite in the presence of fulvic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jie [Lanzhou Univ. (China). Radiochemistry Laboratory; Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Guangzhou (China). The 5th Electronics Research Inst.; Luo, Daojun [Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Guangzhou (China). The 5th Electronics Research Inst.; Qiao, Yahua; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Chunming [Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing (China). Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center; Wu, Wangsuo [Lanzhou Univ. (China). Radiochemistry Laboratory; Ye, Yuanlv [Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing (China). Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center; Lanzhou Univ. (China). Radiochemistry Laboratory

    2017-03-01

    In this work, experiments and modeling for the interactions between uranyl ion and GMZ bentonite in the presence of fulvic acid are presented. The results demonstrated that FA is strongly bound to GMZ bentonite, and these molecules have a very large effect on the U(VI) sorption. The results also demonstrated that U(VI) sorption to GMZ bentonite in the presence and absence of sorbed FA can be well predicted by combining SHM and DLM. According to the model calculations, the nature of the interactions between FA with U(VI) at GMZ bentonite surface is mainly surface complex. The first attempt to simulate clay interaction with humus by the SHM model.

  7. Surface complexation modeling of U(VI) sorption on TiO{sub 2} in the presence of fulvic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Yuanlv [Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing (China). Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center; Univ. Lanzhou (China). Radiochemistry Lab.; Qiao, Yahua; Wang, Liang; Liu, Fudong; Zhang, Chunming [Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing (China). Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center; Guo, Zhijun; Wu, Wangsuo [Univ. Lanzhou (China). Radiochemistry Lab.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, experiments and modeling for the interactions between uranyl ion and TiO{sub 2} in the presence of fulvic acid are presented. The results demonstrated that FA is strongly bound to TiO{sub 2}, and these molecules have a very large effect on the U(VI) sorption, and vice versa. The results also demonstrated that U(VI) sorption to TiO{sub 2} in the presence and absence of sorbed FA can be well predicted with the SCD model (surface and complex distribution). According to the model calculations, the nature of the interactions between FA with U(VI) at TiO{sub 2} surface is mainly surface complex and electrostatic potential.

  8. Sensitivity of geological, geochemical and hydrologic parameters in complex reactive transport systems for in-situ uranium bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G.; Maher, K.; Caers, J.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater contamination associated with remediated uranium mill tailings is a challenging environmental problem, particularly within the Colorado River Basin. To examine the effectiveness of in-situ bioremediation of U(VI), acetate injection has been proposed and tested at the Rifle pilot site. There have been several geologic modeling and simulated contaminant transport investigations, to evaluate the potential outcomes of the process and identify crucial factors for successful uranium reduction. Ultimately, findings from these studies would contribute to accurate predictions of the efficacy of uranium reduction. However, all these previous studies have considered limited model complexities, either because of the concern that data is too sparse to resolve such complex systems or because some parameters are assumed to be less important. Such simplified initial modeling, however, limits the predictive power of the model. Moreover, previous studies have not yet focused on spatial heterogeneity of various modeling components and its impact on the spatial distribution of the immobilized uranium (U(IV)). In this study, we study the impact of uncertainty on 21 parameters on model responses by means of recently developed distance-based global sensitivity analysis (DGSA), to study the main effects and interactions of parameters of various types. The 21 parameters include, for example, spatial variability of initial uranium concentration, mean hydraulic conductivity, and variogram structures of hydraulic conductivity. DGSA allows for studying multi-variate model responses based on spatial and non-spatial model parameters. When calculating the distances between model responses, in addition to the overall uranium reduction efficacy, we also considered the spatial profiles of the immobilized uranium concentration as target response. Results show that the mean hydraulic conductivity and the mineral reaction rate are the two most sensitive parameters with regard to the overall

  9. Effect of some non functional surfactants and electrolytes on the hexavalent chromium reduction by glycerol. A mechanistic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, A.; Ghosh, S.K.; Saha, R.; Nandi, R.; Saha, B. [Burdwan Univ., WB (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Gosh, T. [A.B.N. Seal College, Coochbehar, WB (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-11-15

    Hexavalent chromium is a widespread environmental contaminant and a known human carcinogen. Kinetics of reduction of hexavalent chromium by bio-molecule glycerol in micellar media have been studied spectrophotometrically. The cytoplasmic reduction of hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium occurs in micro-heterogeneous systems. In vitro, the micelles are considered to mimic the cellular membranes. The electron transfer processes occurring in the micellar systems is considered as model to obtain insight into the electron transport process prevailing in biological systems. Micellar media is also a probe to establish the mechanistic paths of reduction of hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium. Effects of electrolytes common to biological system are studied to establish the proposed reaction mechanism strongly. (orig.)

  10. Pilot Study to Evaluate Hydrogen Injection for Stimulating Reduction and Immobilization of Uranium in Groundwater at an ISR Mining Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, L. W.; Cabezas, J.; Gamboa, Y.; Fernandez, W.

    2011-12-01

    State and federal regulations require that groundwater at in-situ recovery (ISR) uranium mining operations be restored to pre-mining conditions. Reverse osmosis (RO) filtration of several pore volumes of the post-leached groundwater and reinjection of the clean permeate is the most common technology currently used for restoring groundwater at uranium ISR sites. However, this approach does not revert the formation back to its initial reducing conditions, which can potentially impede timely groundwater restoration. In-situ biostimulation of indigenous iron- and sulfate reducing bacteria by injection of organic electron donors (e.g., ethanol, acetate, and lactate) to promote soluble uranium reduction and immobilization has been the subject of previous studies. However, injection of organic substrates has been observed to cause aquifer clogging near the injection point. In addition, U(VI) solubility may be enhanced through complexation with carbonate generated by organic carbon oxidation. An alternative approach that may overcome these problems involves the use of hydrogen as a reductant to promote microbial reduction and immobilization of U(VI) in situ. To test this approach, approximately 100,000 scf of compressed hydrogen gas was injected into a leached unconsolidated sand zone over two months at an ISR mining site. During this time groundwater was recirculated between injection and extraction wells (separated by 130 ft) at a rate of about 40 gpm and bromide was coinjected as a conservative tracer. A well monitoring program has been executed since June 2009 to evaluate the performance of the hydrogen injection. Current results show that U(VI) has been reduced from 4.2 to 0.05 ppm in the area surrounding the injection well and to 2.0 ± 0.3 ppm in the area surrounding the extraction well and two intermediate monitoring wells. Other water quality changes near the injection well include significant decreases in concentrations of Mo, sulfate, Fe, Mn, bicarbonate, Ca

  11. ELECTROLYSIS OF THORIUM AND URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W.N.

    1960-09-01

    An electrolytic method is given for obtaining pure thorium, uranium, and thorium-uranium alloys. The electrolytic cell comprises a cathode composed of a metal selected from the class consisting of zinc, cadmium, tin, lead, antimony, and bismuth, an anode composed of at least one of the metals selected from the group consisting of thorium and uranium in an impure state, and an electrolyte composed of a fused salt containing at least one of the salts of the metals selected from the class consisting of thorium, uranium. zinc, cadmium, tin, lead, antimony, and bismuth. Electrolysis of the fused salt while the cathode is maintained in the molten condition deposits thorium, uranium, or thorium-uranium alloys in pure form in the molten cathode which thereafter may be separated from the molten cathode product by distillation.

  12. Synergistic extraction of U(VI) and Th(IV) from nitric acid media withHBMPPT and TBP in toluene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The synergistic extraction of U(VI) and Th(IV) from nitric acid solutionby HBMPPT (4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione) andTBP (tributylphosphate ) in toluene was studied. The extraction abilityof HBMPPT for U(VI) and Th(IV) was not so high, but when a little TBP was added in, theability to extract U(VI) and Th(IV) was improved. The extracted complexes may be presented as UO2NO3.BMPPT.TBP and UO2(BMPPT)2 .TBP for U(VI), and Th(NO3)3.BMPPT.TBP andTh(NO3)2 (BMPPT)2.TBP for Th(IV),respectively, in the synergisticextraction system. The synergistic effect of HBMPPT and TBP makes the separationcoefficient of U(VI) /Th(IV) or U(VI)/Eu(III) reach a high value.

  13. [Study on solid phase extraction and spectrophotometric determination of uranium in water with 2-(2-quinolylazo)-5-dimthylaminophenol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Yuan, Zhuo-Bin; Hu, Qiu-Fen; Yang, Guang-Yu; Yin, Jia-Yuan

    2005-05-01

    A new chromogenic reagent 2-(2-quinolylazo)-5-Dimthylaminophenol (QADMAP) was synthesized, and its structure was verified by elemental analysis, infrared spectrum, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum, mass spectrumand UV-spectrum. The color reaction of QADMAP with uranium was studied. In the presence of pH 7.8 buffer solution, when fluorin ion and TritonX-100 medium exist, QADMAP can react with uranium and fluorin to form a stable 1 : 1 : 1 stable complex [F- :QADMAP : U(VI)]. The molar absorptivity is 1.05 x 10(5) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1) at 590 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in range of 0-20 microg/10 mL. The uranium in samples can be enriched and separated by solid phase extraction with TBP resin cartridge. This method is applied to the determination of uranium in water sample. The relative standard deviations are 2.2%-3.6%, and the recoveries are 94%-105%.

  14. Uranium Critical Point Location Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Iosilevskiy, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Significant uncertainty of our present knowledge for uranium critical point parameters is under consideration. Present paper is devoted to comparative analysis of possible resolutions for the problem of uranium critical point location, as well as to discussion of plausible scheme of decisive experiment, which could resolve existing uncertainty. New calculations of gas-liquid coexistence in uranium by modern thermodynamic code are included in the analysis.

  15. Reduction of U(VI) and Toxic Metals by Desulfovibrio Cytochrome C3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D

    2013-04-11

    The central objective of our proposed research was twofold: 1) to investigate the structure-function relationship of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (now Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20) cytochrome c3 with uranium and 2) to elucidate the mechanism for uranium reduction in vitro and in vivo. Physiological analysis of a mutant of D. desulfuricans with a mutation of the gene encoding the type 1 tetraheme cytochrome c3 had demonstrated that uranium reduction was negatively impacted while sulfate reduction was not if lactate were the electron donor. This was thought to be due to the presence of a branched pathway of electron flow from lactate leading to sulfate reduction. Our experimental plan was to elucidate the structural and mechanistic details of uranium reduction involving cytochrome c3.

  16. Reduction of U(VI) and Toxic Metals by Desulfovibrio Cytochrome C3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D

    2013-04-11

    The central objective of our proposed research was twofold: 1) to investigate the structure-function relationship of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (now Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20) cytochrome c3 with uranium and 2) to elucidate the mechanism for uranium reduction in vitro and in vivo. Physiological analysis of a mutant of D. desulfuricans with a mutation of the gene encoding the type 1 tetraheme cytochrome c3 had demonstrated that uranium reduction was negatively impacted while sulfate reduction was not if lactate were the electron donor. This was thought to be due to the presence of a branched pathway of electron flow from lactate leading to sulfate reduction. Our experimental plan was to elucidate the structural and mechanistic details of uranium reduction involving cytochrome c3.

  17. Radiochemistry of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gindler, J.E.

    1962-03-01

    This volume which deals with the radiochemistry of uranium is one of a series of monographs on radiochemistry of the elements. There is included a review of the nuclear and chemical features of particular interest to the radiochemist, a discussion of problems of dissolution of a sample and counting technique, and finally, a collection of radiochemical procedures for the element as found in the literature.

  18. METHOD FOR RECOVERING URANIUM FROM OILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, L.H.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for recovering uranium from hydrocarbon oils, wherein the uranium is principally present as UF/sub 4/. According to the invention, substantially complete removal of the uranium from the hydrocarbon oil may be effected by intimately mixing one part of acetone to about 2 to 12 parts of the hydrocarbon oil containing uranium and separating the resulting cake of uranium from the resulting mixture. The uranium in the cake may be readily recovered by burning to the oxide.

  19. URANIUM MARKET TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei MĂRGULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent UN Climate Talks in Paris have put forward the goal of limiting the global temperature rise to two degrees Celsius by the end of the century. This is providing a strong political base for expanding the nuclear power capacity because of the critical role that nuclear power plants play in the production of electricity without emissions of greenhouse gases. In all, more than a dozen countries get over 25% of their energy from nuclear power, with 437 nuclear reactors operating around the world. On top of that, there are another 71 reactors under construction, 165 planned, and 315 proposed. Global uranium demand is expected to rise 40% by 2025 and 81% by 2035. Mined supply of uranium will struggle to keep pace amid rising demand and falling secondary supplies. A cumulative supply deficit is expected to emerge by 2021 while 2016 marks a huge inflection point for the industry, beeing the first year that demand will actually exceed supplies, creating a 60,000-tonne shortfall by 2018. Over the next 10 years, we're going to see uranium prices more than double while the bull run will begin in earnest in 2016.

  20. TITAN’S UPPER ATMOSPHERE FROM CASSINI/UVIS SOLAR OCCULTATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capalbo, Fernando J.; Bénilan, Yves [Laboratoire Inter-Universitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques (LISA), UMR 7583 du CNRS, Universités Paris Est Créteil (UPEC) and Paris Diderot - UPD, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, F-94010, Créteil Cédex (France); Yelle, Roger V.; Koskinen, Tommi T., E-mail: fernando.capalbo@lisa.u-pec.fr [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Titan’s atmosphere is composed mainly of molecular nitrogen, methane being the principal trace gas. From the analysis of 8 solar occultations measured by the Extreme Ultraviolet channel of the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) on board Cassini, we derived vertical profiles of N{sub 2} in the range 1100–1600 km and vertical profiles of CH{sub 4} in the range 850–1300 km. The correction of instrument effects and observational effects applied to the data are described. We present CH{sub 4} mole fractions, and average temperatures for the upper atmosphere obtained from the N{sub 2} profiles. The occultations correspond to different times and locations, and an analysis of variability of density and temperature is presented. The temperatures were analyzed as a function of geographical and temporal variables, without finding a clear correlation with any of them, although a trend of decreasing temperature toward the north pole was observed. The globally averaged temperature obtained is (150 ± 1) K. We compared our results from solar occultations with those derived from other UVIS observations, as well as studies performed with other instruments. The observational data we present confirm the atmospheric variability previously observed, add new information to the global picture of Titan’s upper atmosphere composition, variability, and dynamics, and provide new constraints to photochemical models.

  1. Analysis of Dragon's Breath and Scattered Light Detector Anomalies on WFC3/UVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Julia; Markwardt, Larissa; Bourque, Matthew; Anderson, Jay

    2017-02-01

    We summarize the examination of the light anomalies known as Dragon's Breath and Scattered Light for the UVIS channel of Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We present three methods for WFC3 users to help avoid these effects during observation planning. We analyzed all of the full-frame wide and long pass filters with exposure times ≥ 300 seconds, comprising ∼13% of WFC3/UVIS on-orbit data (∼20% of all full-frame data, and ∼35% of all full-frame ≥300 second exposures.) We find that stars producing Dragon's Breath peak at specific orientations to the detector and V-band magnitudes. The bulk of these stars fall along the vertical and horizontal edges, within ∼490 pixels of the image frame. The corners of the detector show significantly fewer instances of Dragon's Breath and Scattered Light, though still a few occurrences. Furthermore, matching stars outside the field of the image to V-band magnitude data from the Hubble Guide Star Catalog II (GSC-II) shows that stars causing the anomaly consistently peak around a V-band magnitude of 11.9 or 14.6, whereas the general trend of objects lying outside the field instead peaks around a magnitude of 16.5 within our exposure time and filter selection.

  2. Aspartic acid complexation of Am(III) and U(VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, A.; Choppin, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    Stability constants of Am(III) and U(VI) with L-aspartic acid have been determined at pH 8.00 by means of the solvent extraction technique. It was found that Am(III) forms 1:1 and 1:2 complexes while U(VI) formed only the 1:1 complex under these conditions. The stability constants were: Am/sup +3/: I = 0.10 M; log ..beta../sub 1/ = 4.81 +- 0.03, log ..beta../sub 2/ = 6.75 +- 0.03 I = 0.70 M; log ..beta../sub 1/ = 4.53 +- 0.08 log ..beta../sub 2/ = 6.65 +- 0.06 UO/sup +2//sub 2/: I = 0.70 M; log ..beta../sub 1/ = 3.32 +- 0.04. Comparison of these stability constants with corresponding values of some dicarboxylate ligands suggests that at pH 8 the binding of Am/sup +3/ and UO/sup +2//sub 2/ involves both carboxylates. In the Am-aspartate complex, the data indicate the possibility of weak interaction between the Am/sup +3/ and the amino group.

  3. WFC3/UVIS Dark Calibration: Monitoring Results and Improvements to Dark Reference Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, M.; Baggett, S.

    2016-04-01

    The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) UVIS detector possesses an intrinsic signal during exposures, even in the absence of light, known as dark current. A daily monitor program is employed every HST cycle to characterize and measure this current as well as to create calibration files which serve to subtract the dark current from science data. We summarize the results of the daily monitor program for all on-orbit data. We also introduce a new algorithm for generating the dark reference files that provides several improvements to their overall quality. Key features to the new algorithm include correcting the dark frames for Charge Transfer Efficiency (CTE) losses, using an anneal-cycle average value to measure the dark current, and generating reference files on a daily basis. This new algorithm is part of the release of the CALWF3 v3.3 calibration pipeline on February 23, 2016 (also known as "UVIS 2.0"). Improved dark reference files have been regenerated and re-delivered to the Calibration Reference Data System (CRDS) for all on-orbit data. Observers with science data taken prior to the release of CALWF3 v3.3 may request their data through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) to obtain the improved products.

  4. SEPARATION OF THORIUM FROM URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bane, R.W.

    1959-09-01

    A description is given for the separation of thorium from uranium by forming an aqueous acidic solution containing ionic species of thorium, uranyl uranium, and hydroxylamine, flowing the solution through a column containing the phenol-formaldehyde type cation exchange resin to selectively adsorb substantially all the thorium values and a portion of the uranium values, flowing a dilute solution of hydrochloric acid through the column to desorb the uranium values, and then flowing a dilute aqueous acidic solution containing an ion, such as bisulfate, which has a complexing effect upon thortum through the column to desorb substantially all of the thorium.

  5. Characterization of the Structure of Cation-DopedBacteriogenic Uranium Oxides using X-Ray Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahlman, Jonathan M.; /Carnegie Mellon U. /SLAC

    2007-08-29

    Remediation of uranium contamination in subsurface groundwater has become imperative as previous research and manufacturing involving radionuclides has led to contamination of groundwater sources. A possible in situ solution for sequestration of uranium is a bacterial process in which Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 reduces the soluble (and thus mobile) U(VI) oxidation state into the less mobile UO{sub 2} crystalline phase. However, the long term stability of the UO2 compound must be studied as oxidative conditions could return it back into the U(VI) state. Incorporation of other cations into the structure during manufacture of the UO{sub 2} could alter the dissolution behavior. A wide angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) experiment was performed to determine whether or not calcium, manganese, and magnesium are incorporated into this structure. If so, the substituted atoms would cause a contraction or expansion in the lattice because of their differing size, causing the lattice constant to be altered. After several stages of data reduction, the WAXS diffraction peaks were fit using the Le Bail fit method in order to determine the lattice constant. Initial results suggest that there may be incorporation of manganese into the UO{sub 2} structure due to a .03 Angstrom decrease in lattice constant, but more data is needed to confirm this. The calcium and magnesium doped samples showed little to no change in the lattice constant, indicating no significant incorporation into the structure. Most importantly, this experiment revealed an artifact of the cleaning process used to remove the bacteria from the sample. It appears the NaOH used to clean the samples is contracting the lattice also by {approx} .03 Angstroms, but no physical explanation is offered as of yet.

  6. Microbiological and geochemical heterogeneity in an in situ uranium bioremediation field site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrionis, Helen A; Anderson, Robert T; Ortiz-Bernad, Irene; O'Neill, Kathleen R; Resch, Charles T; Peacock, Aaron D; Dayvault, Richard; White, David C; Long, Philip E; Lovley, Derek R

    2005-10-01

    The geochemistry and microbiology of a uranium-contaminated subsurface environment that had undergone two seasons of acetate addition to stimulate microbial U(VI) reduction was examined. There were distinct horizontal and vertical geochemical gradients that could be attributed in large part to the manner in which acetate was distributed in the aquifer, with more reduction of Fe(III) and sulfate occurring at greater depths and closer to the point of acetate injection. Clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes derived from sediments and groundwater indicated an enrichment of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the order Desulfobacterales in sediment and groundwater samples. These samples were collected nearest the injection gallery where microbially reducible Fe(III) oxides were highly depleted, groundwater sulfate concentrations were low, and increases in acid volatile sulfide were observed in the sediment. Further down-gradient, metal-reducing conditions were present as indicated by intermediate Fe(II)/Fe(total) ratios, lower acid volatile sulfide values, and increased abundance of 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the dissimilatory Fe(III)- and U(VI)-reducing family Geobacteraceae. Maximal Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction correlated with maximal recovery of Geobacteraceae 16S rRNA gene sequences in both groundwater and sediment; however, the sites at which these maxima occurred were spatially separated within the aquifer. The substantial microbial and geochemical heterogeneity at this site demonstrates that attempts should be made to deliver acetate in a more uniform manner and that closely spaced sampling intervals, horizontally and vertically, in both sediment and groundwater are necessary in order to obtain a more in-depth understanding of microbial processes and the relative contribution of attached and planktonic populations to in situ uranium bioremediation.

  7. Characterization of microbial activities and U reduction in a shallow aquifer contaminated by uranium mill tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, D A; Krumholz, L R; Wong, D; Long, P E; Suflita, J M

    2003-07-01

    A characterization of the Shiprock, NM, uranium mill tailing site focused on the geochemical and microbiological factors governing in-situ uranium-redox reactions. Groundwater and aqueous extracts of sediment samples contained a wide concentration range of sulfate, nitrate, and U(VI) with median values of 21.2 mM, 16.1 micro M, and 2.7 micro M, respectively. Iron(III) was not detected in groundwater, but a median value of 0.3 mM in sediment extracts was measured. Bacterial diversity down gradient from the disposal pile reflected the predominant geochemistry with relatively high numbers of sulfate- and nitrate-reducing microorganisms, and smaller numbers of acetogenic, methanogenic, nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing, Fe(III)-reducing, and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. In aquifer slurry incubations, nitrate reduction was always preferred and had a negative impact on sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U-reduction rates. We also found that sulfate-reduction rates decreased sharply in the presence of clay, while Fe(III)-reduction increased with no clear impact on U reduction. In the absence of clay, iron and sulfate reduction correlated with concentrations of Fe(III) and sulfate, respectively. Rates of U(VI) loss did not correlate with the concentration of any electron acceptor. With the exception of Fe(III), electron donor amendment was largely unsuccessful in stimulating electron acceptor loss over a 2-week incubation period, suggesting that endogenous forms of organic matter were sufficient to support microbial activity. Our findings suggest that efforts to accelerate biological U reduction should initially focus on stimulating nitrate removal.

  8. Biostimulation of Metal-Reducing Microbes at a Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, A. D.; Anderson, R. T.; Chang, J.; Long, P. E.; White, D. C.

    2002-12-01

    In situ biological treatment strategies are currently being used or considered to address groundwater contamination at hundreds and perhaps thousands of sites in the United States. A key to demonstrating the effectiveness of biological treatment strategies at a site is establishing cause and effect relationships, which provide evidence that the desired bioprocesses are occurring, or are likely to occur. These methods involve directly measuring various biochemical constituents of the bacteria themselves (i.e. "biomarkers"), which are indicative of their metabolic processes, and therefore provide direct, relevant information regarding the environment in which they are growing. These biomarkers include the presence and viability of biomass, the ability of the organisms to degrade or transform target contaminant(s), the presence of nutrients to promote bacterial growth and activity, and the oxidation/reduction (redox) status of the system. Using these tools we monitored an in situ biostimulation test at the field scale at the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, a former uranium ore processing facility located approximately 0.3 mile east of the city of Rifle in Garfield County, Colorado. The purpose of the study was to investigate if the addition of low concentrations of acetate (approx. 1 millimolar) as an electron donor into the subsurface would create anaerobic conditions that would stimulate growth of metal reducing bacteria capable of reducing soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), respiratory quinone, and DNA data showed that addition of acetate into the subsurface increased the microbial biomass and altered the microbial community structure to one that contained more anaerobic microorganisms (i.e. Geobacter sp.) capable of the reduction of U(VI).

  9. The Composition and Structure of Enceladus' Plume from a Cassini UVIS Observation of a Solar Occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C. J.; Shemansky, D. E.; Esposito, L. W.; Stewart, I.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed an occultation of the sun by Enceladus’ water vapor plume on May 18, 2010. UVIS used its extreme ultraviolet (EUV) channel for this new observation, to detect absorptions in the wavelength range 55 to 110 nm. Molecular nitrogen and water vapor have absorptions in this range. The N2 b(3,0) line is at 97.2 nm, extinguishing the solar H Lyman gamma emission. Cassini’s Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) detected a species with an atomic mass of 28 amu, which could be CO, C2H4 or N2 [1, 2]. Definitive UVIS detection of N2 was important to clear up this ambiguity, and this was an important goal of the observation, as the presence or lack of N2 is key to models of the geochemistry in the interior [3, 4, 5]. UVIS did not detect N2 and we set an upper limit for the column density of 3 x 10^13 cm^-2. The absorption features in the spectrum are best fit by a water vapor column density of 0.9 x 10^16 cm^-2. This column density is in family with previous UVIS measurements from stellar occultations in 2005 and 2007 at far ultraviolet wavelengths, suggesting that Enceladus’ activity has been stable for the last 5 years [6, 7]. We used fluctuations in the signal to probe the structure of the gas jets again, as was analyzed in the 2007 occultation of zeta Orionis [7]. Gas jets are correlated to the dust jets detected by Cassini’s Imaging Science Subsystem [8]. The path of the sun cut through the jets horizontally at an altitude above the limb of ~15 km at the closest point. The resolution of the solar occultation is higher than the stellar occultation, and collimation of the gas jets observed in the solar occultation is greater than estimated in 2007. The observed collimation allows us to derive a mach number of ~4 for the ratio of the vertical velocity in the jet to the thermal velocity of the plume gas. The new opportunity afforded by this solar occultation is used to further model the structure and

  10. Proteogenomic monitoring of Geobacter physiology during stimulated uranium bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, Mike [University of California, Berkeley; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Williams, Ken [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Callister, Stephen J [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Mouser, Paula J [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Elifantz, Hila [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; N' Guessan, A. Lucie [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Thomas, Brian [University of California, Berkeley; Nicora, Carrie D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Abraham, Paul E [ORNL; Lipton, Mary S [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Lovley, Derek [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Long, Phil [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Banfield, Jillian F. [University of California, Berkeley

    2009-01-01

    Implementation of uranium bioremediation requires methods to monitor the membership and activities of the subsurface microbial communities that are responsible for reduction of soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Here we report a proteomics-based approach to simultaneously document strain membership and microbial physiology of the dominant Geobacter community members during in situ acetate amendment of the U-contaminated Rifle, CO aquifer. Three planktonic Geobacter-dominated samples were obtained from two wells down-gradient of acetate addition. Over 2,500 proteins from each of these samples were identified by matching LC MS/MS spectra to peptides predicted from 7 isolate Geobacter genomes. Genome-specific peptides indicate early proliferation of multiple M21 and G. bemidjiensis like strains and later possible emergence of M21 and G. bemidjiensis like strains more closely related to G. lovleyi. Throughout biostimulation, the proteome is dominated by enzymes that convert acetate to acetyl-CoA and pyruvate for central metabolism while abundant peptides matching TCA cycle proteins and ATP synthase subunits were also detected, indicating the importance of energy generation during the period of rapid growth following the start of biostimulation. Evolving Geobacter strain composition may be linked to changes in protein abundance over the course of biostimulation and may reflect changes in metabolic functioning. Thus, metagenomics independent community proteogenomics can be used to diagnose the status of the subsurface consortia upon which remediation biotechnology relies.

  11. Proteogenomic monitoring of Geobacter physiology during stimulated uranium bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, Michael J.; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Callister, Stephen J.; Mouser, Paula; Elifantz, H.; N' Guessan, A. Lucie; Thomas, Brian C.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Shah, Manesh B.; Abraham, Paul; Lipton, Mary S.; Lovely, Derek R.; Hettich, Robert L.; Long, Philip E.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2009-10-01

    Implementation of uranium bioremediation requires methods to monitor the membership and activities of the subsurface microbial communities that are responsible for reduction of soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Here we report a proteomics-based approach to simultaneously document strain membership and microbial physiology of the dominant Geobacter community members during in situ acetate amendment of the U-contaminated Rifle, CO aquifer. Three planktonic Geobacter-dominated samples were obtained from two wells down-gradient of acetate addition. Over 2,500 proteins from each of these samples were identified by matching LC MS/MS spectra to peptides predicted from 7 isolate Geobacter genomes. Genome-specific peptides indicate early proliferation of multiple M21 and G. bemidjiensis–like strains and later possible emergence of M21 and G. bemidjiensis–like strains more closely related to G. lovleyi. Throughout biostimulation, the proteome is dominated by enzymes that convert acetate to acetyl-CoA and pyruvate for central metabolism while abundant peptides matching TCA cycle proteins and ATP synthase subunits were also detected, indicating the importance of energy generation during the period of rapid growth following the start of biostimulation. Evolving Geobacter strain composition may be linked to changes in protein abundance over the course of biostimulation and may reflect changes in metabolic functioning. Thus, metagenomics independent community proteogenomics can be used to diagnose the status of the subsurface consortia upon which remediation biotechnology relies.

  12. Proteogenomic monitoring of Geobacter physiology during stimulated uranium bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Michael J; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Williams, Kenneth H; Callister, Stephen J; Mouser, Paula J; Elifantz, Hila; N'guessan, A Lucie; Thomas, Brian C; Nicora, Carrie D; Shah, Manesh B; Abraham, Paul; Lipton, Mary S; Lovley, Derek R; Hettich, Robert L; Long, Philip E; Banfield, Jillian F

    2009-10-01

    Implementation of uranium bioremediation requires methods for monitoring the membership and activities of the subsurface microbial communities that are responsible for reduction of soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Here, we report a proteomics-based approach for simultaneously documenting the strain membership and microbial physiology of the dominant Geobacter community members during in situ acetate amendment of the U-contaminated Rifle, CO, aquifer. Three planktonic Geobacter-dominated samples were obtained from two wells down-gradient of acetate addition. Over 2,500 proteins from each of these samples were identified by matching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry spectra to peptides predicted from seven isolate Geobacter genomes. Genome-specific peptides indicate early proliferation of multiple M21 and Geobacter bemidjiensis-like strains and later possible emergence of M21 and G. bemidjiensis-like strains more closely related to Geobacter lovleyi. Throughout biostimulation, the proteome is dominated by enzymes that convert acetate to acetyl-coenzyme A and pyruvate for central metabolism, while abundant peptides matching tricarboxylic acid cycle proteins and ATP synthase subunits were also detected, indicating the importance of energy generation during the period of rapid growth following the start of biostimulation. Evolving Geobacter strain composition may be linked to changes in protein abundance over the course of biostimulation and may reflect changes in metabolic functioning. Thus, metagenomics-independent community proteogenomics can be used to diagnose the status of the subsurface consortia upon which remediation biotechnology relies.

  13. Proteogenomic monitoring of Geobacter physiology during stimulated uranium bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, M.J.; VerBerkmoes, N.C.; Williams, K.H.; Callister, S.J.; Mouser, P.J.; Elifantz, H.; N' Guessan, A.L.; Thomas, B.C.; Nicora, C.D.; Shah, M.B.; Lipton, M.S.; Lovley, D.R.; Hettich, R.L.; Long, P.E.; Banfield, J.F.; Abraham, P.

    2009-08-01

    Implementation of uranium bioremediation requires methods for monitoring the membership and activities of the subsurface microbial communities that are responsible for reduction of soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). Here, we report a proteomics-based approach for simultaneously documenting the strain membership and microbial physiology of the dominant Geobacter community members during in situ acetate amendment of the U-contaminated Rifle, CO, aquifer. Three planktonic Geobacter-dominated samples were obtained from two wells down-gradient of acetate addition. Over 2,500 proteins from each of these samples were identified by matching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry spectra to peptides predicted from seven isolate Geobacter genomes. Genome-specific peptides indicate early proliferation of multiple M21 and Geobacter bemidjiensis-like strains and later possible emergence of M21 and G. bemidjiensis-like strains more closely related to Geobacter lovleyi. Throughout biostimulation, the proteome is dominated by enzymes that convert acetate to acetyl-coenzyme A and pyruvate for central metabolism, while abundant peptides matching tricarboxylic acid cycle proteins and ATP synthase subunits were also detected, indicating the importance of energy generation during the period of rapid growth following the start of biostimulation. Evolving Geobacter strain composition may be linked to changes in protein abundance over the course of biostimulation and may reflect changes in metabolic functioning. Thus, metagenomics-independent community proteogenomics can be used to diagnose the status of the subsurface consortia upon which remediation biotechnology relies.

  14. Kinetics of Uranium Extraction from Uranium Tailings by Oxidative Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Biao; Li, Mi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Huang, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Extraction of uranium from uranium tailings by oxidative leaching with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was studied. The effects of various extraction factors were investigated to optimize the dissolution conditions, as well as to determine the leaching kinetic parameters. The behavior of H2O2 in the leaching process was determined through scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and x-ray diffraction analysis of leaching residues. Results suggest that H2O2 can significantly improve uranium extraction by decomposing the complex gangue structures in uranium tailings and by enhancing the reaction rate between uranium phases and the leaching agent. The extraction kinetics expression was changed from 1 - 3(1 - α)2/3 + 2(1 - α) = K 0(H2SO4)-0.14903(S/L)-1.80435( R o)0.20023 e -1670.93/T t ( t ≥ 5) to 1 - 3(1 - α)2/3 + 2(1 - α) = K 0(H2SO4)0.01382(S/L)-1.83275( R o)0.25763 e -1654.59/T t ( t ≥ 5) by the addition of H2O2 in the leaching process. The use of H2O2 in uranium leaching may help in extracting uranium more efficiently and rapidly from low-uranium-containing ores or tailings.

  15. Mechanisms and Rates of U(VI) Reduction by Fe(II) in Homogeneous Aqueous Solution and the Role of U(V) Disproportionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Richard N; Rosso, Kevin M

    2017-09-07

    Molecular-level pathways in the aqueous redox transformation of uranium by iron remain unclear, despite the importance of this knowledge for predicting uranium transport and distribution in natural and engineered environments. As the relative importance of homogeneous versus heterogeneous pathways is difficult to probe experimentally, here we apply computational molecular simulation to isolate rates of key one electron transfer reactions in the homogeneous pathway. By comparison to experimental observations the role of the heterogeneous pathway also becomes clear. Density functional theory (DFT) and Marcus theory calculations for all primary monomeric species at pH values ≤7 show for UO2(2+) and its hydrolysis species UO2OH(+) and UO2(OH)2(0) that reduction by Fe(2+) is thermodynamically favorable, though kinetically limited for UO2(2+). An inner-sphere encounter complex between UO2OH(+) and Fe(2+) was the most stable for the first hydrolysis species and displayed an electron transfer rate constant ket = 4.3 × 10(3) s(-1). Three stable inner- and outer-sphere encounter complexes between UO2(OH)2(0) and Fe(2+) were found, with electron transfer rate constants ranging from ket = 7.6 × 10(2) to 7.2 × 10(4) s(-1). Homogeneous reduction of these U(VI) hydrolysis species to U(V) is, therefore, predicted to be facile. In contrast, homogeneous reduction of UO2(+) by Fe(2+) was found to be thermodynamically unfavorable, suggesting the possible importance of U(V)-U(V) disproportionation as a route to U(IV). Calculations on homogeneous disproportionation, however, while yielding a stable outer-sphere U(V)-U(V) encounter complex, indicate that this electron transfer reaction is not feasible at circumneutral pH. Protonation of both axial O atoms of acceptor U(V) (i.e., by H3O(+)) was found to be a prerequisite to stabilize U(IV), consistent with the experimental observation that the rate of this reaction is inversely correlated with pH. Thus, despite prevailing notions

  16. The terrestrial uranium isotope cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Morten B; Elliott, Tim; Freymuth, Heye; Sims, Kenneth W W; Niu, Yaoling; Kelley, Katherine A

    2015-01-15

    Changing conditions on the Earth's surface can have a remarkable influence on the composition of its overwhelmingly more massive interior. The global distribution of uranium is a notable example. In early Earth history, the continental crust was enriched in uranium. Yet after the initial rise in atmospheric oxygen, about 2.4 billion years ago, the aqueous mobility of oxidized uranium resulted in its significant transport to the oceans and, ultimately, by means of subduction, back to the mantle. Here we explore the isotopic characteristics of this global uranium cycle. We show that the subducted flux of uranium is isotopically distinct, with high (238)U/(235)U ratios, as a result of alteration processes at the bottom of an oxic ocean. We also find that mid-ocean-ridge basalts (MORBs) have (238)U/(235)U ratios higher than does the bulk Earth, confirming the widespread pollution of the upper mantle with this recycled uranium. Although many ocean island basalts (OIBs) are argued to contain a recycled component, their uranium isotopic compositions do not differ from those of the bulk Earth. Because subducted uranium was probably isotopically unfractionated before full oceanic oxidation, about 600 million years ago, this observation reflects the greater antiquity of OIB sources. Elemental and isotope systematics of uranium in OIBs are strikingly consistent with previous OIB lead model ages, indicating that these mantle reservoirs formed between 2.4 and 1.8 billion years ago. In contrast, the uranium isotopic composition of MORB requires the convective stirring of recycled uranium throughout the upper mantle within the past 600 million years.

  17. Spatially resolved analyses of uranium species using a coupled system made up of confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS); Ortsaufgeloeste Analyse von Uranspezies mittels einem Gekoppelten System aus Konfokaler Laser-Scanning Mikroskopie (CLSM) und Laser Induzierter Fluoreszenzspektroskopie (LIFS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockmann, S. [Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e.V. (VKTA), Dresden (Germany); Grossmann, K.; Arnold, T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (Germany). Inst. fuer Ressourcenoekologie

    2014-01-15

    The fluorescent properties of uranium when excited by UV light are used increasingly for spectroscope analyses of uranium species within watery samples. Here, alongside the fluorescent properties of the hexavalent oxidation phases, the tetra and pentavalent oxidation phases also play an increasingly important role. The detection of fluorescent emission spectrums on solid and biological samples using (time-resolved) laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS or LIFS respectively) has, however, the disadvantage that no statements regarding the spatial localisation of the uranium can be made. However, particularly in complex, biological samples, such statements on the localisation of the uranium enrichment in the sample are desired, in order to e.g. be able to distinguish between intra and extra-cellular uranium bonds. The fluorescent properties of uranium (VI) compounds and minerals can also be used to detect their localisation within complex samples. So the application of fluorescent microscopic methods represents one possibility to localise and visualise uranium precipitates and enrichments in biological samples, such as biofilms or cells. The confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) is especially well suited to this purpose. Coupling confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) with laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) makes it possible to localise and visualise fluorescent signals spatially and three-dimensionally, while at the same time being able to detect spatially resolved, fluorescent-spectroscopic data. This technology is characterised by relatively low detection limits from up to 1.10{sup -6} M for uranium (VI) compounds within the confocal volume. (orig.)

  18. Microorganisms of radionuclides-contaminated soils of Chernobyl: in depth analysis of diversity and study of uranium-bacteria interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapon, V.; Berthomieu, C. [LIPM-CEA-CNRS-Universite d' Aix Marseille (France); Theodorakopoulos, N. [CEA-CNRS-Universite d' Aix Marseille-IRSN (France); Christen, R. [CNRS-Universite de Nice (France); Vercouter, T. [CEA-DEN-LANIE (France); Coppin, F.; Fevrier, L. [IRSN-L2BT (France); Sergeant, C. [CENBG-CNRS-Universite de Bordeaux (France)

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we explored the microbial diversity of Bacteria and Archaea evolving since 25 years in a radioactive-waste repository trench located in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. To assess the effect of long-term RNs exposure on diversity, microbial assemblages of soil samples highly contaminated with radionuclides (RNs) such as {sup 137}Cs and uranium were compared with nearby controls using high throughput pyro-sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The analysis of 690,023 sequences evidenced high diversity in all samples with 34 bacterial and 2 archaeal phylum represented. Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia were the most consistently detected phyla, representing 90% of all sequences.This result demonstrates that a long term exposure did not lead to the decrease of microbial diversity. Furthermore, principal component analysis of pyro-sequencing data showed that microbial communities of RNs contaminated samples differed significantly from that of controls, suggesting the presence of RNs adapted species in the contaminated samples. Several heterotrophic aerobic bacteria have been cultured from the contaminated samples. Among them, the strain Microbacterium sp. A9 exhibited high uranium tolerance. The interaction between this strain and uranium was investigated by a combination of spectroscopic (FTIR and TRLFS) and microscopic (TEM/EDX) approaches. Comparison of data obtained at 4 and 25 deg. C evidenced active and passive mechanisms of uranium uptake and release. We demonstrated that after a first step of uranium and phosphate release via an active efflux mechanism, Microbacterium sp. A9 accumulates U(VI) as intracellular needle-like structures composed of autunite. The functional groups involved in the interactions with uranium were identified. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  19. Uranium in soils and water; Uran in Boden und Wasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dienemann, Claudia; Utermann, Jens

    2012-07-15

    The report of the Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Agency) on uranium in soils and water covers the following chapters: (1) Introduction. (2) Deposits and properties: Use of uranium; toxic effects on human beings, uranium in ground water and drinking water, uranium in surface waters, uranium in soils, uranium in the air. (3) Legal regulations. (4) Uranium deposits, uranium mining, polluted area recultivation. (5) Diffuse uranium entry in soils and water: uranium insertion due to fertilizers, uranium insertion due to atmospheric precipitation, uranium insertion from the air. (6) Diffuse uranium release from soils and transfer in to the food chain. (7) Conclusions and recommendations.

  20. Hexavalent Chromium Reduction under Fermentative Conditions with Lactate Stimulated Native Microbial Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Somenahally, Anil C.; Mosher, Jennifer J; Tong Yuan; Mircea Podar; Phelps, Tommy J.; Brown, Steven D.; Yang, Zamin K.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Joy D Van Nostrand; Jizhong Zhou; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial reduction of toxic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) in-situ is a plausible bioremediation strategy in electron-acceptor limited environments. However, higher [Cr(VI)] may impose stress on syntrophic communities and impact community structure and function. The study objectives were to understand the impacts of Cr(VI) concentrations on community structure and on the Cr(VI)-reduction potential of groundwater communities at Hanford, WA. Steady state continuous flow bioreactors were used to ...

  1. Exploring Bioelectrochemical Systems for Removal and Recovery of Hexavalent Chromium or Nutrients

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) is a platform technology that is able to realize versatile engineering functions and recover valuable resources in an energy-efficient manner. One of the potential applications of BES is to remove and recover nutrients simultaneously from nutrient-rich wastewater, such as digested manure from livestock. A four-chamber BES was developed and used in this study to explore the potential to remove and recover hexavalent Chromium from synthetic wastewater, and ammon...

  2. Influence of Calcite Solids and Dissolved Calcium on U(VI) Sorption and Desorption in Hanford Subsurface Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Wenming; Ball, William P.; Stone, Alan T.; Bai, Jing; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming

    2004-03-29

    We have investigated U(VI) sorption and desorption with batch experiments conducted on core samples from the Hanford, WA, site as well as on sub-fractions of these materials and laboratory-grade calcite. In these studies, [U(VI)] was varied between 10- 7 and 10-5 and pH between 7.2 to 10, at constant I (=0.05) and constant PCO2 (10-3.5 atm), using water that was saturated with respect to calcite. A carbonate-free (acetic acid- treated) fraction of silt/clay material showed higher sorption than untreated material, suggesting that carbonates block access to higher affinity sites. Of particular interest was that U(VI) sorption on untreated material was maximum at pH=8.4, with substantially less sorption at lower and higher pH and in contrast to results from calcite free studies, which show strong sorption at pH {approx} 5 to 8. U(VI) speciation results suggest that aqueous-phase Ca2UO2(CO3)3 was the source of the otherwise unexpectedly low sorption at pH <8.4.

  3. Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration of Uranium by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Kim F.; Bi, Yuqiang; Carpenter, Julian; Hyng, Sung Pil; Rittmann, Bruce E.; Zhou, Chen; Vannela, Raveender; Davis, James A.

    2014-01-01

    This overarching aim of this project was to identify the role of biogenic and synthetic iron-sulfide minerals in the long-term sequestration of reduced U(IV) formed under sulfate-reducing conditions when subjected to re-oxidizing conditions. The work reported herein was achieved through the collaborative research effort conducted at Arizona State University (ASU) and the University of Michigan (UM). Research at ASU, focused on the biogenesis aspects, examined the biogeochemical bases for iron-sulfide production by Desulfovibrio vulgaris, a Gram-negative bacterium that is one of the most-studied strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A series of experimental studies were performed to investigate comprehensively important metabolic and environmental factors that affect the rates of sulfate reduction and iron-sulfide precipitation, the mineralogical characteristics of the iron sulfides, and how uranium is reduced or co-reduced by D. vulagaris. FeS production studies revealed that controlling the pH affected the growth of D. vulgaris and strongly influenced the formation and growth of FeS solids. In particular, lower pH produced larger-sized mackinawite (Fe1+xS). Greater accumulation of free sulfide, from more sulfate reduction by D. vulgaris, also led to larger-sized mackinawite and stimulated mackinawite transformation to greigite (Fe3S4) when the free sulfide concentration was 29.3 mM. On the other hand, using solid Fe(III) (hydr)oxides as the iron source led to less productivity of FeS due to their slow and incomplete dissolution and scavenging of sulfide. Furthermore, sufficient free Fe2+, particularly during Fe(III) (hydr)oxide reductions, led to the additional formation of vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2•8(H2O)]. The U(VI) reduction studies revealed that D. vulgaris reduced U(VI) fastest when accumulating sulfide from concomitant sulfate reduction, since direct enzymatic and sulfide-based reductions of U(VI) occurred in parallel. The UO2 produced in presence of ferrous

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  5. Sequential extraction method for determination of Fe(II/III) and U(IV/VI) in suspensions of iron-bearing phyllosilicates and uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Fubo; Burgos, William D

    2012-11-06

    Iron-bearing phyllosilicates strongly influence the redox state and mobility of uranium because of their limited hydraulic conductivity, high specific surface area, and redox reactivity. Standard extraction procedures cannot be accurately applied for the determination of clay-Fe(II/III) and U(IV/VI) in clay mineral-U suspensions such that advanced spectroscopic techniques are required. Instead, we developed and validated a sequential extraction method for determination of clay-Fe(II/III) and U(IV/VI) in clay-U suspensions. In our so-called "H(3)PO(4)-HF-H(2)SO(4) sequential extraction" method, H(3)PO(4)-H(2)SO(4) is used first to solubilize and remove U, and the remaining clay pellet is subject to HF-H(2)SO(4) digestion. Physical separation of U and clay eliminates valence cycling between U(IV/VI) and clay-Fe(II/III) that otherwise occurred in the extraction solutions and caused analytical discrepancies. We further developed an "automated anoxic KPA" method to measure soluble U(VI) and total U (calculate U(IV) by difference) and modified the conventional HF-H(2)SO(4) digestion method to eliminate a series of time-consuming weighing steps. We measured the kinetics of uraninite oxidation by nontronite using this sequential extraction method and anoxic KPA method and measured a stoichiometric ratio of 2.19 ± 0.05 mol clay-Fe(II) produced per mol U(VI) produced (theoretical value of 2.0). We found that we were able to recover 98.0-98.5% of the clay Fe and 98.1-98.5% of the U through the sequential extractions. Compared to the theoretical stoichiometric ratio of 2.0, the parallel extractions of 0.5 M HCl for clay-Fe(II) and 1 M NaHCO(3) for U(VI) leached two-times more Fe(II) than U(VI). The parallel extractions of HF-H(2)SO(4) for clay Fe(II) and 1 M NaHCO(3) for U(VI) leached six-times more Fe(II) than U(VI).

  6. Optimization and Modeling of Hexavalent Chromium Removal from Aqueous Solution Via Adsorption on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Gholipour

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hexavalent chromium and its derivatives are potential pollutant due to their mortal affects. Therefore, It is essential to remove these components from wastewaters before disposal. Adsorption can be effective and versatile method for removing of hexavalent chromium. In this article, removal of hexavalent chromium via adsorption on multiwalled carbon nanotubes was investigated as a function of adsorbent dosage, initial solution pH, initial Cr(VI concentrations, contact time and temperature. The batch experiments were conducted at 3 different temperatures (17, 27 and 37ºC and shows that Cr (VI removal obeys pseudo-second order rate equation. Rate constant (K values in 3 temperatures, pre-exponential factor and adsorption activation energy (E was also obtained. The sorption data fitted well with Freundlich isotherm adsorption model. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy (ΔGº, enthalpy (ΔHº and entropy (ΔSº for Cr(VI adsorption were estimated and Results suggest that the adsorption process is a spontaneous and endothermic.

  7. Biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) in wastewater using Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qasim, Muhammad [Department of Chemical Engineering, American University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    2013-07-01

    The recovery of toxic metal compounds is a deep concern in all industries. Hexavalent chromium is particularly worrying because of its toxic influence on human health. In this paper, biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) present in wastewater has been studied using two different bacterial strains; Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. A chemostat (with and without recycle of cells) with 10 L liquid culture volume was used to study the substrate and the biomass cell concentrations with time. Also, the degree of substrate conversion was studied by the varying the dilution rate as an independent parameter. The dilution rate (ratio of feed flow rate to the culture volume) was varied by varying the feed volumetric rate from 110-170 mL/h for inlet hexavalent chromium concentrations of 70 mg/dm3. The results show that a chemostat with recycle gives a better performance in terms of substrate conversion than a chemostat without a recycle. Moreover, the degree of substrate conversion decreases as the dilution rate is increased. Also, Bacillus sp. was found to give higher conversions compared to pseudomonas sp.

  8. HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM REMOVAL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS SPENT BIOMASS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.CAROL

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pleurotus ostreatus spent biomass after the harvest, is a waste which was used as a potential sorbent after coating it with chitosan an deacetylated derivative from chitin the most abundant carbohydratesecond to cellulose .The study is an attempt to elaborate and justify the optional utility of Spent Pleurotus ostreatus biomass for hexavalent chromium removal from aqueous industrial effluents. The effect of experimental parameters such as pH, biosorbent dosage, biosorbent dosage, initial metal concentration, temperature and sorption time is very striking from the obtained results .The Freundlich isotherm and Langmuir isotherm fitted well to the data of Cr (VI sorption capacity of Spent Pleurotus biomass. The intraparticle diffusion plot suggest that the sorption process proceeds by surface adsorption alone in case of activated spentbiomass but when coated with chitosan the process is sorption along with intra particle diffusion or pore diffusion. The overall adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous innature.EDX analysis indicated the presence of hexavalent chromium ions on the surface of chitosan coated spent Pleurotus biomass. The resultssuggest that the enhanced spent biomass could be employed as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of hexavalent chromium from industrial effluents as well as from contaminated water sources.

  9. Simulating adsorption of U(VI) under transient groundwater flow and hydrochemistry: Physical versus chemical nonequilibrium model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greskowiak, J.; Hay, M.B.; Prommer, H.; Liu, C.; Post, V.E.A.; Ma, R.; Davis, J.A.; Zheng, C.; Zachara, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Coupled intragrain diffusional mass transfer and nonlinear surface complexation processes play an important role in the transport behavior of U(VI) in contaminated aquifers. Two alternative model approaches for simulating these coupled processes were analyzed and compared: (1) the physical nonequilibrium approach that explicitly accounts for aqueous speciation and instantaneous surface complexation reactions in the intragrain regions and approximates the diffusive mass exchange between the immobile intragrain pore water and the advective pore water as multirate first-order mass transfer and (2) the chemical nonequilibrium approach that approximates the diffusion-limited intragrain surface complexation reactions by a set of multiple first-order surface complexation reaction kinetics, thereby eliminating the explicit treatment of aqueous speciation in the intragrain pore water. A model comparison has been carried out for column and field scale scenarios, representing the highly transient hydrological and geochemical conditions in the U(VI)-contaminated aquifer at the Hanford 300A site, Washington, USA. It was found that the response of U(VI) mass transfer behavior to hydrogeochemically induced changes in U(VI) adsorption strength was more pronounced in the physical than in the chemical nonequilibrium model. The magnitude of the differences in model behavior depended particularly on the degree of disequilibrium between the advective and immobile phase U(VI) concentrations. While a clear difference in U(VI) transport behavior between the two models was noticeable for the column-scale scenarios, only minor differences were found for the Hanford 300A field scale scenarios, where the model-generated disequilibrium conditions were less pronounced as a result of frequent groundwater flow reversals. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Uranium Mobility During In Situ Redox Manipulation of the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CT Resch; JE Szecsody; JS Fruchter; KJ Cantrell; KM Krupka; MD Williams

    1998-12-03

    A series of laboratory experiments and computer simulations was conducted to assess the extent of uranium remobilization that is likely to occur at the end of the life cycle of an in situ sediment reduction process. The process is being tested for subsurface remediation of chromate- and chlorinated solvent-contaminated sediments at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Uranium species that occur naturally in the +6 valence state {approximately}(VI) at 10 ppb in groundwater at Hanford will accumulate as U(N) through the reduction and subsequent precipitation conditions of the permeable barrier created by in situ redox manipulation. The precipitated uranium will W remobilized when the reductive capacity of the barrier is exhausted and the sediment is oxidized by the groundwater containing dissolved oxygen and other oxidants such as chromate. Although U(N) accumulates from years or decades of reduction/precipitation within the reduced zone, U(W) concentrations in solution are only somewhat elevated during aquifer oxidation because oxidation and dissolution reactions that release U(N) precipitate to solution are slow. The release rate of uranium into solution was found to be controlled mainly by the oxidation/dissolution rate of the U(IV) precipitate (half-life 200 hours) and partially by the fast oxidation of adsorbed Fe(II) (half- life 5 hours) and the slow oxidation of Fe(II)CO{sub 3} (half-life 120 hours) in the reduced sediment. Simulations of uranium transport that incorporated these and other reactions under site-relevant conditions indicated that 35 ppb U(VI) is the maximum concentration likely to result from mobilization of the precipitated U(IV) species. Experiments also indicated that increasing the contact time between the U(IV) precipitates and the reduced sediment, which is likely to occur in the field, results in a slower U(IV) oxidation rate, which, in turn, would lower the maximum concentration of mobilized U(W). A six-month-long column

  11. Environmental behaviour and bioavailability of Depleted Uranium (DU) material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeh, U.; Gerstmann, U.; Schimmack, W.; Szymczak, W.; Li, W.B.; Hoellriegl, V.; Roth, P.; Paretzke, H.G. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, Inst. of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    This work was performed to assess a possible health risk of depleted uranium (DU) for residents and KFOR personnel serving on the Balkans. Therefore, the environmental behaviour and bioavailability of DU material have been explored. In order to investigate the environmental impact of DU ammunition, leaching experiments were carried out. DU penetrators were buried in soil filled in columns. The soil was irrigated (16 mm/week) and the uranium isotopes {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U which were washed out and transported into the eluate were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). After one year, an average of 1.7% of the original DU material corroded. About 40% of the corrosion products were located on the surface of the penetrator, 60% were recovered in the soil. On the other hand, only very small amounts of the DU material could be found in the eluate (about 1 ppm per year) suggesting a low solubility of DU and the corrosion products and/or a strong sorption to the soil. In another part of the study, the solubility of DU material in human body fluids was investigated to assess the bioavailability after oral intake and inhalation of DU particles. Therefore, DU corrosion products were powdered and incubated in artificial gastric juice and simulated lung fluid. About three-fourths of the DU material was dissolved in artificial gastric juice after 30 minutes. This fraction could not be increased, even when the incubation time was extended to 120 minutes. The dissolution of DU material in artificial lung fluid showed a distinct bi-phasic course with a readily soluble fraction and a fraction of very low solubility. These findings suggest that the DU corrosion products consist mainly of two types of uranium oxides, hexavalent and fast soluble compounds and tetravalent compounds with low solubility. Additional measurements with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) of DU corrosion material support this conclusion. The resulting

  12. Manhattan Project Technical Series: The Chemistry of Uranium (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinowitch, E. I. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Katz, J. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    1947-03-10

    This constitutes Chapters 11 through 16, inclusive, of the Survey Volume on Uranium Chemistry prepared for the Manhattan Project Technical Series. Chapters are titled: Uranium Oxides, Sulfides, Selenides, and Tellurides; The Non-Volatile Fluorides of Uranium; Uranium Hexafluoride; Uranium-Chlorine Compounds; Bromides, Iodides, and Pseudo-Halides of Uranium; and Oxyhalides of Uranium.

  13. Synthesis of Uranium nitride powders using metal uranium powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong Joo; Oh, Jang Soo; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Keon Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Uranium nitride (UN) is a potential fuel material for advanced nuclear reactors because of their high fuel density, high thermal conductivity, high melting temperature, and considerable breeding capability in LWRs. Uranium nitride powders can be fabricated by a carbothermic reduction of the oxide powders, or the nitriding of metal uranium. The carbothermic reduction has an advantage in the production of fine powders. However it has many drawbacks such as an inevitable engagement of impurities, process burden, and difficulties in reusing of expensive N{sup 15} gas. Manufacturing concerns issued in the carbothermic reduction process can be solved by changing the starting materials from oxide powder to metals. However, in nitriding process of metal, it is difficult to obtain fine nitride powders because metal uranium is usually fabricated in the form of bulk ingots. In this study, a simple reaction method was tested to fabricate uranium nitride powders directly from uranium metal powders. We fabricated uranium metal spherical powder and flake using a centrifugal atomization method. The nitride powders were obtained by thermal treating those metal particles under nitrogen containing gas. We investigated the phase and morphology evolutions of powders during the nitriding process. A phase analysis of nitride powders was also a part of the present work.

  14. A multi-instrumental geochemical study of anomalous uranium enrichment in coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelcová, Martina; Machovič, Vladimír; Mizera, Jiří; Sýkorová, Ivana; Borecká, Lenka; Kopecký, Lubomír

    2014-11-01

    Contents of uranium in coals from Odeř in the northernmost part of the Sokolov Basin, Czech Republic, in the vicinity of the well known St. Joachimsthal uranium ore deposits, reach extremely high values. In the present work, coal samples with contents of uranium ranging from 0.02 to 6 wt.% were studied. The study employing a whole complex of analytical techniques has been aimed at identification of changes in the structure of coal organic matter, which are associated with the high contents of uranium in coal. The study includes proximate and ultimate analyses, multielement analysis by instrumental neutron and photon activation analyses, micropetrographic analysis by optical microscopy, ESEM/EDX analysis of mineral matter, infrared and Raman spectroscopies, solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), and analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS). The study has confirmed previously proposed explanation of uraniferous mineralization in sedimentary carboniferous substances by the mechanism of reduction and fixation of soluble U(VI) (uranyl, UO2(2+)) species (e.g., humic, carbonate/hydroxo/phosphate complexes) by sedimentary organic matter under diagenetic or hydrothermal conditions, and formation of insoluble U(IV) species as phosphate minerals and uraninite. The process is accompanied with alteration and destruction of the coal organic matter. The changes in the structure of coal organic matter involve dehydrogenation and oxidation mainly in the aliphatic, aromatic and hydroxyl structures, and an increase in aromaticity, content of ether bonds, and the degree of coalification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  16. Cassini UVIS Observations of the Io Plasma Torus. IV. Modeling Temporal and Azimuthal Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Steffl, A J; Bagenal, F

    2007-01-01

    In this fourth paper in a series, we present the results of our efforts to model the remarkable temporal and azimuthal variability of the Io plasma torus during the Cassini encounter with Jupiter. The long-term (months) temporal variation in the average torus composition observed by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) can be modeled by supposing a factor of ~4 increase in the amount of material supplied to the extended neutral clouds that are the source of torus plasma, followed by a gradual decay to more "typical" values. On shorter timescales, the observed 10.07-hour torus periodicity and azimuthal variation in plasma composition, including its surprising modulation with System III longitude, is reproduced by our model using the superposition of two azimuthal variations of suprathermal electrons: a primary hot electron variation that slips 12.5 degrees/day relative to the Jovian magnetic field and a secondary variation that remains fixed in System III longitude.

  17. Reduction of the U(VI) ion. A fast conductimetry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broszkiewicz, R.K. (Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)); Vojnovic, B.; Michael, B.D. (Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood (UK). Gray Lab.)

    1991-01-01

    The reduction of U(VI) by e{sub aq}{sup -} was followed by means of fast conductimetry in acid and conductimetry and spectrophotometry in alkaline solutions. In alkaline solutions, the biomolecular rate constant of reaction between UO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and e{sub aq}{sup -} was determined. Analytical methods applied in this work were too fast to follow the slow disproportionation of produced U(V)-ion, but it has been observed that in alkaline solutions it probably goes via a dimeric ion (U(V)){sub 2}, which protonates with a rate {kappa}{sub 7} = 1.30 x 10{sup 5}s{sup -1}. (author).

  18. Separation and preconcentration of U(VI) on XAD-4 modified with 8-hydroxy quinoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B N; Maiti, B

    2006-04-15

    Amberlite XAD-4 adsorber resin was modified with 8-hydroxy quinoline (Oxine) by equilibrating with methanol solution of the reagent and the modified resin was used as a support material for the solid phase extraction and preconcentration of UO(2)(2+) from aqueous solution at pH between 4 and 5.5. Ten micrograms of uranium from 300 ml of aqueous phase could be quantitatively extracted in to 1g of the modified resin giving an enrichment of 200. Uranium collected in the column could be eluted out with methanol-HCl mixture and determined spectrophotometrically using arsenazo(III) as the chromogenic reagent. The preconcentration could be made selective to uranium by using EDTA as a masking agent for transition metal ions and Th(IV).

  19. OXYGEN ISOTOPE FRACTION ATION IN URANIUM OXIDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永飞

    1995-01-01

    Thermodynamic oxygen isotope factors for uranium oxides have been calculated by means of the modified increment method.The sequence of 18O-enrichment in the uranium oxides with respect to the common rock-forming minerals is predicted as follows:spineluranium blacks≤coffiniteuranium oxides and water and between the uranium oxides and the other minerals have been obtained for 0-1200℃.The theoretical results are applicable to the isotopic geothermometry of uranium ores when pairing with other gangue minerals in hydrothermal uranium deposits.

  20. 2017 Update on the WFC3/UVIS Stability and Contamination Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, C. E.; Gosmeyer, C. M.; Baggett, S.

    2017-06-01

    The photometric throughput of the UVIS detector on WFC3 is monitored each cycle for its stability as a function of time, wavelength, as well as to check for any evidence of contamination on the CCD windows, which would manifest as a decrease in throughput strongest in the bluest filters. This program has been in place since the installation of WFC3 in 2009, historically making periodic observations of the spectrophotometric standard GRW+70d5824 (GRW70) in several key filters from 200 nm to 600 nm, with red filters acting as a control. This is a follow up report to the last analysis of the temporal stability of UVIS (Gosmeyer et al., 2014), since which several major changes to the program and data analysis have been implemented. Due to recent work suggesting a low-level, long-term variability for GRW70, another spectrophotometric standard star - GD153 - has been added to the program and is now analyzed in conjunction with GRW70. Data are now processed with the latest version of the CALWF3 calibration pipeline (v. 3.4), which has several new features that represent a paradigm shift in calibration methodology. Finally, the data analysis software, which was previously entirely IRAF based, was re-written in Python. We find a steady decline in the count rate for most filters but no evidence for contamination, which would manifest as a wavelength-dependent effect, impacting bluer filters more strongly. These declines range from 0.01% to 0.3% per year, and are stronger in longer wavelength filters. Similar temporal changes are found for both stars, and the long-term trends in throughput agree with previous trends derived in 2014.

  1. PURIFICATION OF URANIUM FROM URANIUM/MOLYBDENUM ALLOY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, R; Ann Visser, A; James Laurinat, J

    2007-10-15

    The Savannah River Site will recycle a nuclear fuel comprised of 90% uranium-10% molybdenum by weight. The process flowsheet calls for dissolution of the material in nitric acid to a uranium concentration of 15-20 g/L without the formation of precipitates. The dissolution will be followed by separation of uranium from molybdenum using solvent extraction with 7.5% tributylphosphate in n-paraffin. Testing with the fuel validated dissolution and solubility data reported in the literature. Batch distribution coefficient measurements were performed for the extraction, strip and wash stages with particular focus on the distribution of molybdenum.

  2. The effect of pH and time on the extractability and speciation of uranium(VI) sorbed to SiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilton, Eugene S; Wang, Zheming; Boily, Jean-François; Qafoku, Odeta; Rosso, Kevin M; Smith, Steven C

    2012-06-19

    The effect of pH and contact time on uranium extractability from quartz surfaces was investigated using either acidic or carbonate (CARB) extraction solutions, time-delayed spikes of different U isotopes ((238)U and (233)U), and liquid helium temperature time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Quartz powders were reacted with (238)U(VI) bearing solutions equilibrated with atmospheric CO(2) at pH 6, 7, and 8. After 42 days, the suspensions were spiked with (233)U(VI) and reacted for an additional 7 days. Sorbed U was then extracted with either dilute nitric acid or CARB. For the CARB, but not the acid, extraction there was a systematic decrease in extraction efficiency for both isotopes from pH 6 to 8, which was mimicked by less desorption of (238)U, after the (233)U spike, from pH 6 to 8. The efficiency of (233)U extraction was consistently greater than that of (238)U, indicating a strong temporal component to the strength of U association with the surface that was accentuated with increasing pH. TRLFS revealed a strong correlation between CARB extraction efficiency and sorbed U speciation as a function of pH and time. Collectively, the observations show that aging and pH are critical factors in determining the form and strength of uranium-silica interactions.

  3. A study of uranium uptake in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, A.; Singh, Surinder; Virk, H.S. (Guru Nanak Dev Univ., Amritsar (India). Dept. of Physics)

    1988-01-01

    A fission track technique has been used to study the uptake of uranium in Tomato Plant. Lexan plastic has been employed as the external detector for recording induced fission tracks due to uranium. The uranium uptake rate is found to increase as the growth proceeds. The uranium concentration is also determined in Phlox, Calendula and Dog Flower, grown under normal conditions. The uranium content is found to vary in different parts of the plants. (author).

  4. Studying uranium migration in natural environment: experimental approach and geochemical modeling; Etude de la migration de l'uranium en milieu naturel: approche experimentale et modelisation geochimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phrommavanh, V.

    2008-10-15

    The present study deals with characterizing uranium migration in a limited zone of Le Bouchet site, a former uranium ore treatment facility, which is dismantled and the rehabilitation of which is under process. Some wastes are packed in a rehabilitated disposal nearby, called the Itteville site. In the framework of the monitoring of the deposit environment (air, water, sediment) set by prefectorial decrees, a piezometer (PZPK) located downstream to the latter, has shown total dissolved uranium peaks each winter since the 1990's. PZPK collects both the interstitial water of a calcareous peat formation, between the surface and 3 m, and an alluvial aquifer near 6 m of depth. Firstly, a hydrogeochemical characterization of the site has evidenced the uranium source term, which is present in the peat soil near 0.8 m, hence excluding any leaching from the waste disposal. Actually, a few microparticles of uranium oxide and mixed uranium-thorium oxide have been detected, but they do not represent the major part of the source term. Secondly, water chemistry of the peat soil water and PZPK has been monitored every two months from 2004 to 2007 in order to understand the reasons of the seasonal fluctuations of [U]tot.diss.. Completed with geochemical modeling and a bacterial identification by 16S rDNA sequence analysis, water chemistry data showed an important sulfate-reducing bacterial activity in summertime, leading to reducing conditions and therefore, a total dissolved uranium content limited by the low solubility of uraninite U{sup IV}O{sub 2}(s). In wintertime, the latter bacterial activity being minimal and the effective pluviometry more important, conditions are more oxidant, which favors U(VI), more soluble, notably as the Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}(aq) complex, evidenced by TRLFS. Finally, bacterial activity has been reproduced in laboratory in order to better characterize its impact on uranium solubility in the peat soil. Various parameters were tested

  5. SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM THORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, N.N.

    1959-07-01

    A process is presented for separating uranium from thorium wherein the ratio of thorium to uranium is between 100 to 10,000. According to the invention the thoriumuranium mixture is dissolved in nitric acid, and the solution is prepared so as to obtain the desired concentration within a critical range of from 4 to 8 N with regard to the total nitrate due to thorium nitrate, with or without nitric acid or any nitrate salting out agent. The solution is then contacted with an ether, such as diethyl ether, whereby uranium is extracted into ihe organic phase while thorium remains in the aqueous phase.

  6. Pyrophoric behaviour of uranium hydride and uranium powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guyadec, F., E-mail: fabienne.leguyadec@cea.f [CEA Marcoule DEN/DTEC/SDTC, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze, BP 17171 (France); Genin, X.; Bayle, J.P. [CEA Marcoule DEN/DTEC/SDTC, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze, BP 17171 (France); Dugne, O. [DEN/DTEC/SGCS, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze, BP 17171 (France); Duhart-Barone, A.; Ablitzer, C. [CEA Cadarache DEN/DEC/SPUA, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance (France)

    2010-01-31

    Thermal stability and spontaneous ignition conditions of uranium hydride and uranium metal fine powders have been studied and observed in an original and dedicated experimental device placed inside a glove box under flowing pure argon. Pure uranium hydride powder with low amount of oxide (<0.5 wt.%) was obtained by heat treatment at low temperature in flowing Ar/5%H{sub 2}. Pure uranium powder was obtained by dehydration in flowing pure argon. Those fine powders showed spontaneous ignition at room temperature in air. An in situ CCD-camera displayed ignition associated with powder temperature measurement. Characterization of powders before and after ignition was performed by XRD measurements and SEM observations. Oxidation mechanisms are proposed.

  7. Uranium hexafluoride bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports written about the transportation, handling, safety, and processing of uranium hexafluoride. An on-line literature search was executed using the DOE Energy files and the Nuclear Science Abstracts file to identify pertinent reports. The DOE Energy files contain unclassified information that is processed at the Office of Scientific and Technical Information of the US Department of Energy. The reports selected from these files were published between 1974 and 1983. Nuclear Science Abstracts contains unclassified international nuclear science and technology literature published from 1948 to 1976. In addition, scientific and technical reports published by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the US Energy Research and Development Administration, as well as those published by other agencies, universities, and industrial and research organizations, are included in the Nuclear Science Abstracts file. An alphabetical listing of the acronyms used to denote the corporate sponsors follows the bibliography.

  8. Anticlastogenic Effect of Redistilled Cow's Urine Distillate in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes Challenged With Manganese Dioxide and Hexavalent Chromium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DIPANWITA DUTTA; S.SARAVANA DEVI; K. KRISHNAMURTHI; T. CHAKRABARTI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the anticlastogenic effect of redistilled cow's urine distillate (RCUD) in human peripheral lymphocytes (HLC) challenged with manganese dioxide and hexavalent chromium. Methods The anticlastogenic activity of redistilled cow's urine distillate was studied in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (HPNLs) and human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro challenged with manganese dioxide and hexavalent chromium as established genotoxicants and clastogens which could cause induction of DNA strand break, chromosomal aberration and micronucleus. Three different levels of RCUD: 1 μL/mL, 50 μL/mL and 100μL/mL, were used in the study. Results Manganese dioxide and hexavalent chromium caused statistically significant DNA strand break, chromosomal aberration and micronucleus formation, which could be protected by redistilled cow's urine distillate. Conclusion The redistilled cow's urine distillate posseses strong antigenotoxic and anticlastogenic properties against HPNLs and HLC treated with Cr+6 and MnO2. This property is mainly due to the antioxidants present in RCUD.

  9. Investigation of total and hexavalent chromium in filtered and unfiltered groundwater samples at the Tucson International Airport Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hermosillo, Edyth

    2016-01-01

    Potential health effects from hexavalent chromium in groundwater have recently become a concern to regulators at the Tucson International Airport Area Superfund site. In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 46 wells in the area to characterize the nature and extent of chromium in groundwater, to understand what proportion of total chromium is in the hexavalent state, and to determine if substantial differences are present between filtered and unfiltered chromium concentrations. Results indicate detectable chromium concentrations in all wells, over 75 % of total chromium is in the hexavalent state in a majority of wells, and filtered and unfiltered results differ substantially in only a few high-turbidity total chromium samples.

  10. Groundwater geochemistry near the storage sites of low-level radioactive waste: Implications for uranium migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskova, Olga L.; Boguslavsky, Anatoly E. [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS, Ac. Koptyug prosp. 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents results of detailed sampling of groundwater and surface water near the storage sites of radioactive waste from the Electrochemical Plant ECP (Zelenogorsk, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia) and the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Complex AEC (Angarsk, Irkutsk region, Russia), both of which have produced enriched uranium since 1960's. The liquid (LRW) and solid (SRW) radioactive wastes belong to the category of low-level activity waste. The main result is that the uranium is below the recommended MPC for drinking waters in all types of groundwater around the sludge of ECP and AEC. But alkaline nitrate solutions have been penetrating and spreading into the aquifers under the LRW sludge pits. According to our calculations, redox conditions in the groundwater influenced by discharge are controlled by the couple NO{sub 3}{sup -}/NO{sub 2}{sup -} that facilitates U(VI) migration. The groundwater under SRW repositories is distinguished by its low mineralization and neutral pH. Co-contaminants, such as Mo, V, and Zr may serve as markers of techno-genous contamination in storage sites of the LRW sludge. (authors)

  11. Examination of Uranium(VI) Leaching During Ligand Promoted Diss