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Sample records for hevea

  1. De groei van jonge Hevea-oculaties = The growth of young Hevea buddings

    Ostendorf, F.W.

    1933-01-01

    Results were presented of studies on the initial growth of Hevea buddings, at the Proefstation West-Java, Buitenzorg (now Bogor). The time elapsing between cutting off the stock above the union and sprouting of the implanted bud was a clonal character; so also was the angle between the young sprout

  2. Glyoxalase I expression pattern in Hevea brasiliensis seedlings ...

    sunny t

    2016-03-16

    Mar 16, 2016 ... developing tolerance to drought stress in Hevea brasiliensis. In the present study, a partial .... First strand cDNA was synthesized from total RNA by reverse transcription with oligo (dT) ..... Genetic engineering of the glyoxalase ...

  3. Glyoxalase I expression pattern in Hevea brasiliensis seedlings ...

    Glyoxalase I expression pattern in Hevea brasiliensis seedlings under varied stress conditions. MVP Siraj, A Thulaseedharan, Anu Augustine. Abstract. Drought is one of the most important stress factors which adversely affect plants' growth and productivity. Global climate change may make this situation more serious in the ...

  4. In vitro culture method of powdery mildew (Oidium heveae ...

    ELOHO

    2012-08-23

    Aug 23, 2012 ... A method for culturing powdery mildew (Oidium heveae) from isolated leaves of ... solution; d, Colour phase leaves with nutrient solution in culture dish; e, in vitro ... Plant and fungus materials .... same change trend during whole culture period. ... consistent with the field resistance identification results of.

  5. Studies in the genus Hevea. VIII. Notes on Infraspecific variants of Hevea brasiliensis (Euphorbiaceae)

    Schultes, R.E.

    Supplying 98% of the world's natural rubber, Hevea brasiliensis has transformed life around the world in only a century. This species - one of 10 in its genus - gives the best natural rubber, but much more remains to be studied concerning the numerous localized strains of the species. The British introduced to the orient seeds from the lower Amazon - representatives of a not superior ecotype of the species but, at that time a century ago, the only available germ plasm. The time for study of the intraspecific variants of H. brasiliensis and their use in programs of genetic manipulation of the genus is long overdue. But basic to this desired program is a clear taxonomic understanding of infraspecific variants, still awaiting evaluation. Although numerous taxonomic treatments of subspecific variants have been offered, there is little available to give genetic programs concrete information.

  6. Heavy metals phytoremediation potential of Hevea brasiliensis in Bentong, Malaysia

    Yusof, Muhammad Jefri Mohd; Latif, Mohd Talip; Yusoff, Siti Fairus Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Biomonitoring uses living organisms to assess environmental quality and being preferred over conventional methods that use fully or semi-automatic gauges for its lower cost and practicality. Recently, higher plants are widely used for biomonitoring purposes by means of their species identification simplicity, larger availability of biological substantial, and easy to sample. In this study, samples of Hevea brasiliensis (i.e leaves, barks, and latex as well as surrounding soils) from outskirts of Pelangai, Bentong were tested for heavy metals by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Enrichment factor of soils indicated that some metals (B, Ca, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, As and Na) were anthropogenic which most likely originated from traffic emissions. In addition, leaves trapped the most heavy metals compared to barks and latex. The accumulation of pollutants in those samples has identified biomonitoring abilities of Hevea brasiliensis.

  7. Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    Rahman Ahmad Yamin Abdul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR. NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Results Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. Conclusions The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber.

  8. Estudio Preliminar del Género Hevea en Colombia

    Evans Schultes Richard

    1946-04-01

    Full Text Available Aunque en el territorio colombiano se han venido explotando los árboles caucheros del género Hevea durante casi medio siglo, solo ha sido en los últimos años cuando los botánicos han podido estudiar científicamente las especies en este país. En el presente artículo me limito a exponer de manera suscinta la identificación específica y la distribución geográfica del género Hevea en Colombia, valiéndome de las identificaciones botánicas preliminares que se han hecho hasta ahora, así como de los datos que he recogido personalmente y las informaciones que me han sido suministradas en fuentes fidedignas. Es de lamentarse la falta de exploración botánica en la hoya del río Inírida y sus afluentes que por ser, junto con el Guaviare, la región situada más al noreste de la zona de extensión del género Hevea, deja una laguna en los conocimientos que actualmente poseemos sobre la distribución geográfica de este género botánico. Igualmente carecemos de datos botánicos respecto de los ríos de menor importancia tales como el Yarí, el Cahuinarí y el Cotuhé, aunque sí los tenemos de las regiones mencionadas, lo mismo de otras vastas extensiones de la Amazonía Colombiana, podremos completar a satisfacción el estudio cuyo esbozo provisional presento en este trabajo.

  9. Diallel analysis of fruit set in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Kenneth O. Omokhafe

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The clonal and inter-clonal combining ability of fruit set in a Hevea brasiliensis four-parent diallel mating was evaluated using a randomized complete block experimental design with three replicates. Twelve main and reciprocal crosses were hand pollinated and percentage fruit set was recorded. The raw data were subjected to an arc-sine transformation for analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability. There was significant variation of each of fruit set for the various crosses, general combining ability and reciprocal effect. The breeding implications of these results are also discussed.

  10. Enzymatic synthesis of rubber polymer in Hevea brasiliensis

    Tang, F.; Hu, S.; Benedict, C.R. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Light and Dennis purified serum soluble rubber transferase from Hevea latex to homogeneity. Prenyl transferase co-purified with rubber transferase. In the absence of washed rubber particles (WRP) the prenyl transferase catalyzed the formation of trans FPP from DMAPP and IPP. In the presence of WRP the transferase catalyzed cis additions of IPP to pre-existing rubber chains. Control mixtures of WRP, Mg{sup 2+} and FPP were not included to test for the contributions of the bound rubber transferase on WRP to the incorporation of IPP into polyisoprene. Bound rubber transferase catalyzes the repetitive addition of IPP to allylic-PP starter molecules to form polyisoprene. The order of utilization of allylic-PP starters was GGPP > FPP > GPP > DMAPP. The authors have shown that the polyisoprene enzymatically synthesized on WRP is a bimodal polymer consisting of different mol wt rubber chains similar to the polymeric characteristics of natural rubber. The bound rubber transferase was solubilized with Chaps and purified on DEAE-cellulose. The polymerization reaction catalyzed by the purified preparation showed a 98% requirement for pre-existing rubber chains. Results suggest that the prenyl transferase from Hevea serum may be part of the polymer starter system furnishing allylic-PP for the bound rubber transferase.

  11. Magnesium affects rubber biosynthesis and particle stability in Ficus elastica, Hevea brasiliensis and Parthenium argentatum

    Natural rubber biosynthesis occurs in laticifers of Ficus elastica and Hevea brasiliensis, and in parenchyma cells of Parthenium argentatum. Natural rubber is synthesized by rubber transferase using allylic pyrophosphates as initiators, isopentenyl pyrophosphate as monomeric substrate and magnesium ...

  12. Distribuição espacial e plano de amostragem de Calacarus heveae (Acari em seringueira Spatial distribution and sampling plan for Calacarus heveae (Acari on rubber trees

    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992 é um eriofídeo descrito de espécimes coletados em plantas de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbiaceae na região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo. Esse ácaro prefere a face adaxial dos folíolos e pode causar a perda do brilho, amarelecimento, bronzeamento dessa região e a subseqüente queda prematura das folhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a distribuição de C. heveae em seringueira, selecionar a unidade de amostragem mais representativa e desenvolver um plano de amostragem para o estudo de sua flutuação populacional. O trabalho foi conduzido com os clones PB 260 e IAN 873, respectivamente nos municípios de Itiquira e de Pontes e Lacerda, ambos no Mato Grosso. Em Itiquira, diferenças significativas foram observadas em quatro ocasiões em relação ao número médio de ácaros por folha nos diferentes estratos das plantas. Nas amostragens realizadas em Pontes e Lacerda, nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada entre os estratos em relação àquele parâmetro. Apenas em Itiquira, em uma ocasião de amostragem, foi verificada diferença entre os três estratos, em relação à proporção de folhas infestadas. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi verificada em relação ao número médio de ácaros por folha e proporção de folhas infestadas por C. heveae a diferentes distâncias da periferia da copa. Calacarus heveae exibe distribuição agregada no campo. Para estimar a densidade de C. heveae, um plano numérico e um plano binomial de amostragem foram desenvolvidos.Calacarus heveae Feres, 1992 (Eriophyidae is a mite described from specimens collected on rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbiaceae in the northwest region of the state of São Paulo. This mite prefers the adaxial face of the folioles which it can turn dry, yellowish and brownish; it can also cause leaf fall. The aim of this work was to analyze the distribution of C. heveae on rubber trees, to select the most

  13. Applications of volatile compounds acquired from Muscodor heveae against white root rot disease in rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) and relevant allelopathy effects.

    Siri-Udom, Sakuntala; Suwannarach, Nakarin; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    The bioactive compounds of the volatile metabolite-producing endophytic fungus, Muscodor heveae, were examined by the process of biofumigation for the purposes of controlling white root rot disease in rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of M. heveae possess antimicrobial activity against Rigidoporus microporus in vitro with 100 % growth inhibition. The synthetic volatile compounds test confirmed that the major component, 3-methylbutan-1-ol, and the minor compounds, 3-methylbutyl acetate and 2-methylpropanoic acid, inhibited root and shoot growth in the tested plants 3-methylbutan-1-ol showed ED 50 value and MIQ value on seed germination of ruzi grass, Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 and tomato at 10, 5 and 5 μL -1 airspace, respectively. In vivo tests were carried out under greenhouse conditions using M. heveae inoculum fumigated soil that had been inoculated with R. microporus inoculum. After which, all seven treatments were compared. Significant differences were observed with a disease score at 150 d after treatment. Biofumigation by M. heveae showed great suppression of the disease. Biocontrol treatments; RMH40 (40 g kg -1 M. heveae inoculum) and RMH80 (80 g kg -1 M. heveae inoculum) were not found to be significantly different when compared with fungicide treatment (RT) and the non-infected control, but results were found to be significantly different from R. microporus infested (R) treatment. RMH40 and RMH80 revealed a low disease scores with a high survival rate of rubber tree seedling at 100 %, while R treatment showed the highest disease score of 4.8 ± 0.5 with a survival rate of rubber tree seedling at 25 %. The infected roots, appearing as a white colour. We have concluded that the bioactive VOCs of M. heveae would be an alternative method for the control of white root rot disease in rubber trees. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of Sugar Contents and Sucrose Metabolizing Enzymes in Developing Leaves of Hevea brasiliensis

    Jinheng Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in plant leaves have hitherto been investigated mainly in temperate plants, and rarely conducted in tandem with gene expression and sugar analysis. Here, we investigated the sugar content, gene expression, and the activity of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in the leaves of Hevea brasiliensis, a tropical tree widely cultivated for natural rubber. Sucrose, fructose and glucose were the major sugars detected in Hevea leaves at four developmental stages (I to IV, with starch and quebrachitol as minor saccharides. Fructose and glucose contents increased until stage III, but decreased strongly at stage IV (mature leaves. On the other hand, sucrose increased continuously throughout leaf development. Activities of all sucrose-cleaving enzymes decreased markedly at maturation, consistent with transcript decline for most of their encoding genes. Activity of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS was low in spite of its high transcript levels at maturation. Hence, the high sucrose content in mature leaves was not due to increased sucrose-synthesizing activity, but more to the decline in sucrose cleavage. Gene expression and activities of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in Hevea leaves showed striking differences compared with other plants. Unlike in most other species where vacuolar invertase predominates in sucrose cleavage in developing leaves, cytoplasmic invertase and sucrose synthase (cleavage direction also featured prominently in Hevea. Whereas SPS is normally responsible for sucrose synthesis in plant leaves, sucrose synthase (synthesis direction was comparable or higher than that of SPS in Hevea leaves. Mature Hevea leaves had an unusually high sucrose:starch ratio of about 11, the highest reported to date in plants.

  15. CDNA library from the Latex of Hevea brasiliensis

    Wilaiwan Chotigeat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Latex from Hevea brasiliensis contains 30-50% (w/w of natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene, the important rawmaterial for many rubber industries. We have constructed a cDNA library from the latex of H. brasiliensis to investigate theexpressed genes and molecular events in the latex. We analyzed 412 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. More than 90% of theEST clones showed homology to previously described sequences in public databases. Functional classification of the ESTsshowed that the largest category were proteins of unknown function (30.1%, 11.4% of ESTs encoded for rubber synthesisrelatedproteins (RS and 8.5% for defense or stress related proteins (DS. Those with no significant homology to knownsequences (NSH accounted for 8.7%, primary metabolism (PM and gene expression and RNA metabolism were 7.8% and6.6%, respectively. Other categories included, protein synthesis-related proteins (6.6%, chromatin and DNA metabolism(CDM 3.9%, energy metabolism (EM 3.4%, cellular transport (CT 3.2%, cell structure (CS 3.2%, signal transduction (ST2.2%, secondary metabolism (SM 1.7%, protein fate (PF 2.2%, and reproductive proteins (RP 0.7%.

  16. Parasitism of Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) in Leptopharsa heveae Drake and Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae) eggs, in rubber tree plantation (Hevea brasiliensis Mueell. Arg.)

    Santos, Rodrigo S.; Freitas, Sergio de

    2008-01-01

    The rubber tree lace bug, Leptopharsa heveae Drake and Poor occurs in high populations in rubber tree plantations and it is a limiting factor in rubber production due to the loss of photosynthetic tissue. The control of the pest has been made mainly with chemical products, which cause environmental contamination. The alternative would be the use of biological control agents, however, information about L. heveae natural enemies are scarce. The parasitoid Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares) parasitize eggs of the rubber tree lace bug. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of E. tingitiphagus in plantations of several rubber tree clones, located in Itiquira town, Mato Grosso State. The plant leaflets of the clones RRIM 600, PR 255, GT 1, PB 235 and PB 217 were collected weekly from October 2005 to February 2006. Parasitism was recorded during the entire study period. The parasitism rate of L. heveae eggs in the different clones ranged from 16.8 to 20.6%. (author)

  17. Co-extraction of high-quality RNA and DNA from rubber tree (Hevea ...

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... method was also evaluated, and the results show that it was suitable for a variety of plants. Key words: Hevea ... Southeast Asia, where it covers more than 90% of the .... After air drying for. 10 min, it was ..... and cost-effective.

  18. Crystallization of Hevamine, an Enzyme with Lysozyme/Chitinase Activity from Hevea brasiliensis Latex

    ROZEBOOM, HJ; BUDIANI, A; BEINTEMA, JJ

    1990-01-01

    Hevamine, an enzyme with both lysozyme and chitinase activity, was isolated and purified from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) latex. The enzyme (molecular weight 29,000) is homologous to certain “pathogenesis-related” proteins from plants, but not to hen egg-white or phage T4 lysozyme. To

  19. Black thread disease, control measures and yield stimulation in Hevea brasiliensis in Liberia

    Schreurs, J.

    1972-01-01

    Described are investigations, carried out in 1963 to 1971 in Hevea brasiliensis at the Firestone Plantation at Harbel in Liberia. Studied was the tapping panel disease, black thread, caused by the fungus Phytophthora palmivora. The emphasis of the

  20. THE PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF HEVAMINE, AN ENZYME WITH LYSOZYME CHITINASE ACTIVITY FROM HEVEA-BRASILIENSIS LATEX

    JEKEL, PA; HARTMANN, JBH; BEINTEMA, JJ

    1991-01-01

    The primary structure of hevamine, an enzyme with lysozyme/chitinase activity from Hevea brasiliensis latex, has been determined predominantly with conventional non-automatic methods. The positions of three disulfide bridges have been determined. The sequence has about 60% identity with that of a

  1. Revision of Annesijoa, Elateriospermum and the introduced species of Hevea in Malesia (Euphorbiaceae)

    Sam, Hoang Van; Welzen, van P.C.

    2004-01-01

    Annesijoa is an endemic monotypic genus from New Guinea with as single species A. novoguineensis. Elateriospermum is also monotypic (E. tapos) and found in West Malesia. The South American genus Hevea comprises about 10 species. One species (H. brasiliensis) is presently cultivated worldwide in

  2. Enzyme kinetics of hevamine, a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    Bokma, Evert; Barends, Thomas; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Beintema, Jaap J.

    2000-01-01

    The enzyme kinetics of hevamine, a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, were studied in detail with a new enzyme assay. In this assay, the enzyme reaction products were derivatized by reductive coupling to a chromophore, Products mere separated by HPLC and the amount of product was

  3. Trichoderma amazonicum, a new endophytic species on Hevea brasiliensis and H. guianensis from the Amazon basin

    A new species of Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae), T. amazonicum, endophytic on the living sapwood and leaves of Hevea spp. trees is described. Trichoderma amazonicum is distinguished from closely related species in the Harzianum clade (e.g. ...

  4. Aspectos Técnicos en la Producción de Caucho Hevea

    Uribe Henao Alfonso

    1950-09-01

    Full Text Available El propósito primordial de este trabajo es el de hacer una exposición de los principales factores o aspectos técnicos que deben tenerse en cuenta en el planeamiento y desarrollo del cultivo de la Hevea, para poder obtener de él en la forma más económica el máximo beneficio. Se ha dacio preferencia a los aspectos técnicos concernientes al Hevea de mayor importancia, sin pretender exponerlos todos. No es pues su objetivo dar a conocer todos aquellos detalles y sistemas aconsejables y necesarios en su explotación que pudieran considerarse como principios elementales, y que más bien vienen a ser prácticas corrientes del cultivo.

  5. Sequence and expression analyses of ethylene response factors highly expressed in latex cells from Hevea brasiliensis.

    Piyanuch Piyatrakul

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the Gene Ontology database and were assigned to 3 main categories. The AP2/ERF superfamily is the third most represented compared with other transcription factor families. A comparison with genomic scaffolds led to an estimation of 114 AP2/ERF genes and 1 soloist in Hevea brasiliensis. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, functions were predicted for 26 HbERF genes. A relative transcript abundance analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR in various tissues. Transcripts of ERFs from group I and VIII were very abundant in all tissues while those of group VII were highly accumulated in latex cells. Seven of the thirty-five ERF expression marker genes were highly expressed in latex. Subcellular localization and transactivation analyses suggested that HbERF-VII candidate genes encoded functional transcription factors.

  6. Parasitism of Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) in Leptopharsa heveae Drake and Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae) eggs, in rubber tree plantation (Hevea brasiliensis Mueell. Arg.); Parasitismo de Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) em ovos de Leptopharsa heveae Drake and Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae), em plantios de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Mueell. Arg.)

    Santos, Rodrigo S.; Freitas, Sergio de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: santos_rss@hotmail.com; serfre@fcav.unesp.br

    2008-09-15

    The rubber tree lace bug, Leptopharsa heveae Drake and Poor occurs in high populations in rubber tree plantations and it is a limiting factor in rubber production due to the loss of photosynthetic tissue. The control of the pest has been made mainly with chemical products, which cause environmental contamination. The alternative would be the use of biological control agents, however, information about L. heveae natural enemies are scarce. The parasitoid Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares) parasitize eggs of the rubber tree lace bug. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of E. tingitiphagus in plantations of several rubber tree clones, located in Itiquira town, Mato Grosso State. The plant leaflets of the clones RRIM 600, PR 255, GT 1, PB 235 and PB 217 were collected weekly from October 2005 to February 2006. Parasitism was recorded during the entire study period. The parasitism rate of L. heveae eggs in the different clones ranged from 16.8 to 20.6%. (author)

  7. Controle de oídio em seringueira e sua interferência na população do ácaro Calacarus heveae Feres Control of Oidium on rubber tree and it's interference on the mite Calacarus heveae Feres population

    Marineide Rosa Vieira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da seringueira, Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss. Müell. Arg., pode ser atacada pelo fungo Oidium heveae Steinm e pelo ácaro Calacarus heveae Feres, causadores de desfolha em seringais paulistas. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito do fungicida sistêmico fenarimol no controle do fungo e a sua interferência na população de C. heveae. Comparou-se a sua aplicação em quatro momentos: 1- uma aplicação no reenfolhamento das plantas (agosto; 2- uma aplicação em janeiro; 3- duas aplicações, uma no reenfolhamento e uma em março; 4 - quatro aplicações durante o ciclo da cultura. Nas quatro situações, o fungicida reduziu os sintomas da doença, entretanto houve ressurgência dos ácaros. Considerando-se o manejo conjunto de O. heveae e C. heveae o melhor resultado foi obtido com duas aplicações do fungicida.The rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss. Müell. Arg., can be attacked by the Oidium heveae Steinm fungus and the Calacarus heveae Feres mite, which cause leaf fall in areas of the São Paulo State. This study had as objective the evaluation of the effect of the systemic fungicide fenarimol, in the fungus control and its interference on C. heveae population. Four ways of application were compared: one application during the new leaves growth period (August; one application in January; two applications: one in the new leaves growth period and one in March; four applications during the cycle of the culture. The fungicide reduced the disease symptoms in all the treatments; however mite resurgence was detected. Considering the integrated management of O. heveae and C. heveae the best result was obtained by using two applications of the fungicide.

  8. ADUBAÇÃO NPK E PRODUÇÃO DE BORRACHA SECA PELA SERINGUEIRA (Hevea brasiliensis NPK FERTILIZATION AND DRY RUBBER PRODUCTION BY Hevea brasiliensis TREES

    Marcos Roberto Murbach

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento, na região de Garça, SP, em um solo Latossolo Vermelho escuro, A moderado, textura arenosa, com o objetivo de se avaliar a influência da adubação NPK sobre a produtividade de borracha seca da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis clone "PB 235", com 13 anos de idade. O experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial fracionário (1/443, totalizando 16 tratamentos e 4 repetições, onde se utilizaram 4 níveis de N (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1, 4 de K2O (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1 e 4 de P2O5 (0, 40, 80, 160 kg ha-1. A produção foi avaliada entre os mêses de outubro de 1995 a junho de 1996. Conclui-se que a adubação potássica aumentou a produtividade de borracha seca, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a adubação nitrogenada e fosfatada.An experiment was carried out to study the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizations on dry rubber yield of Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg., clone PB 235 growing on a Dark Red-Yellow Latosol, in Garça-SP, Brazil. The experiment consisted of a (1/443 fractional factorial of randomized block design, with 16 treatments and 4 replicates, utilizing 4 levels of N (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1, 4 of P2O5 (0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 and 4 of K (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1. The rubber yield was evaluated monthly from October 1995 to June 1996. Results showed that potassium fertilization increased dry rubber yield, which was not affected by nitrogen and phosphate fertilizations.

  9. Radiation induced male sterility in Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. De Juss. ) muell. arg

    Saraswathy Amma, C K; Panikkar, A O.N.; Sethuraj, M R [Rubber Research Inst. of India, Kottayam, Kerala (India). Botany Div.; Namboodiri, A N

    1990-12-01

    A plant exhibiting semi-dwarf stature was identified from a gamma ray induced VM{sub 7} population. Cytomixis was observed in 30 % of the meiocytes. Cytoplasmic connections were observed in all stages of PMCs ranging from early prophase stage to microspore stage. Movement of chromatin materials was also observed. A wide spectrum of cytokinetic aberrations was also noted. As a result of these abnormalities the plant showed total male sterility. In Hevea, male sterility can be exploited for the production of hybrid seeds and dwarf stature in breeding programme. (author).

  10. Etude de la sensibilité des clones d' Hevea brasiliensis (Muell. Arg ...

    Chez Hevea brasiliensis, la production de latex est affectée par l'encoche sèche qui se manifeste par l'arrêt de l'écoulement de latex après la saignée. La sensibilité clonale à cette maladie est mal connue. La présente étude a pour objectif d'établir une classification des clones les plus plantés en Côte d'Ivoire selon leur ...

  11. Radiation induced male sterility in Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. De Juss.) muell. arg

    Saraswathy Amma, C.K.; Panikkar, A.O.N.; Sethuraj, M.R.; Namboodiri, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    A plant exhibiting semi-dwarf stature was identified from a gamma ray induced VM 7 population. Cytomixis was observed in 30 % of the meiocytes. Cytoplasmic connections were observed in all stages of PMCs ranging from early prophase stage to microspore stage. Movement of chromatin materials was also observed. A wide spectrum of cytokinetic aberrations was also noted. As a result of these abnormalities the plant showed total male sterility. In Hevea, male sterility can be exploited for the production of hybrid seeds and dwarf stature in breeding programme. (author)

  12. Karakteristik Pembakaran Biobriket Kulit dan Cangkang Karet (Hevea Brasiliensis) dengan Perekat Glyserin

    I Wayan Wawan Mariki; Slamet Wahyudi; Denny Widhiyanuriyawan

    2017-01-01

    Some studies have been done on utilizing biomass from agriculture such as the leather and shell of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) were not used optimally in Indonesia as an alternative energy which developed by making biobriquet to achieved the higher energy that could be used in the combustion process. In this study, the biobriquet was made of the leather and the shell of rubber by comparisson of the leather and shell were: 0%: 91%; 45.5%: 45.5%; 55%: 36%; 64%: 27%; 91%: 0%.Glyserin 9% for each...

  13. Karakteristik Pembakaran Biobriket Kulit Dan Cangkang Karet (Hevea Brasiliensis) Dengan Perekat Glyserin

    Mariki, I Wayan Wawan; Wahyudi, Slamet; Widhiyanuriyawan, Denny

    2017-01-01

    Some studies have been done on utilizing biomass from agriculture such as the leather and shell of rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) were not used optimally in Indonesia as an alternative energy which developed by making biobriquet to achieved the higher energy that could be used in the combustion process. In this study, the biobriquet was made of the leather and the shell of rubber by comparisson of the leather and shell were: 0%: 91%; 45.5%: 45.5%; 55%: 36%; 64%: 27%; 91%: 0%.Glyserin 9% for each...

  14. No significant transfer of N and P from Pueraria Phaseoloides to Hevea Brasiliensis via Hyphal links of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza

    Ikram, A.; Jensen, E.S.; Jakobsen, I.

    1994-01-01

    The possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the transfer of nitrogen and phosphorus from Pueraria phaseoloides (donor) to Hevea brasiliensis (receiver) was examined. P. phaseoloides is used as a cover crop in rubber tree (H. brasiliensis) plantations. Roots of donor and receiver plants...

  15. Determination of cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of hevamine, a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    Bokma, E; Spiering, M; Chow, KS; Mulder, PPMFA; Subroto, T; Beintema, JJ

    Hevamine is a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis and belongs to the family 18 glycosyl hydrolases. This paper describes the cloning of hevamine DNA and cDNA sequences. Hevamine contains a signal peptide at the N-terminus and a putative vacuolar targeting sequence at the C-terminus

  16. Expression and characterization of active site mutants of hevamine, a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    Bokma, Evert; Rozeboom, Henriëtte J.; Sibbald, Mark; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Beintema, Jaap J.

    Hevamine is a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis. Its active site contains Asp125, Glu127, and Tyr183, which interact with the -1 sugar residue of the substrate. To investigate their role in catalysis, we have successfully expressed wild-type enzyme and mutants of these residues as

  17. Enzymic and structural studies on processed proteins from the vacuolar (lutoid-body) fraction of latex of Hevea brasiliensis

    Subroto, T; de Vries, H; Schuringa, JJ; Soedjanaatmadja, UMS; Hofsteenge, J; Jekel, PA; Beintema, JJ

    2001-01-01

    The lutoid-body (bottom) fraction of latex from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) contains a limited number of major proteins. These are the chitin-binding protein hevein, its precursor and C-terminal fragment of the precursor, a basic chitinase/lysozyme, and a beta-1,3-glucanase. The content and

  18. Involvement of Ethylene in the Latex Metabolism and Tapping Panel Dryness of Hevea brasiliensis

    Putranto, Riza-Arief; Herlinawati, Eva; Rio, Maryannick; Leclercq, Julie; Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Gohet, Eric; Sanier, Christine; Oktavia, Fetrina; Pirrello, Julien; Kuswanhadi; Montoro, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Ethephon, an ethylene releaser, is used to stimulate latex production in Hevea brasiliensis. Ethylene induces many functions in latex cells including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The accumulation of ROS is responsible for the coagulation of rubber particles in latex cells, resulting in the partial or complete stoppage of latex flow. This study set out to assess biochemical and histological changes as well as changes in gene expression in latex and phloem tissues from trees grown under various harvesting systems. The Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) susceptibility of Hevea clones was found to be related to some biochemical parameters, such as low sucrose and high inorganic phosphorus contents. A high tapping frequency and ethephon stimulation induced early TPD occurrence in a high latex metabolism clone and late occurrence in a low latex metabolism clone. TPD-affected trees had smaller number of laticifer vessels compared to healthy trees, suggesting a modification of cambial activity. The differential transcript abundance was observed for twenty-seven candidate genes related to TPD occurrence in latex and phloem tissues for ROS-scavenging, ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes. The predicted function for some Ethylene Response Factor genes suggested that these candidate genes should play an important role in regulating susceptibility to TPD. PMID:26247941

  19. Production of Particleboards from Hevea brasiliensis Clones and Castor Oil-based Polyurethane Resin

    Maristela Gava

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic exploitation of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis usage is primarily directed toward latex extraction. After the productive life of the rubber tree forest, the managed area is harvested for planting reformulation. The harvested wood is most often used for energy generation purposes. The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of using rubberwood waste and castor oil-based polyurethane resin in the production of particleboards. Homogeneous and heterogeneous panels were made with nominal dimensions of 500 x 500 mm and thicknesses of 10 mm using particles from GT1 and RRIM600 clones of the rubber tree and 12% castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive. The panels were pressed at 140 °C for 12 min with 40 kgf/cm2 specific pressure. Density, moisture content, thickness swelling, water absorption for 2 and 24 h, static bending, and internal bonding determinations were performed according to the Brazilian Standard (NBR 14810-3 (2006 for the physical-mechanical panel characterization. The results show that using Hevea brasiliensis in particleboard production is viable. However, multilayer boards exhibited better results.

  20. Identification of Powdery Mildew Responsive Genes in Hevea brasiliensis through mRNA Differential Display

    Li, Xiang; Bi, Zhenghong; Di, Rong; Liang, Peng; He, Qiguang; Liu, Wenbo; Miao, Weiguo; Zheng, Fucong

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew is an important disease of rubber trees caused by Oidium heveae B. A. Steinmann. As far as we know, none of the resistance genes related to powdery mildew have been isolated from the rubber tree. There is little information available at the molecular level regarding how a rubber tree develops defense mechanisms against this pathogen. We have studied rubber tree mRNA transcripts from the resistant RRIC52 cultivar by differential display analysis. Leaves inoculated with the spores of O. heveae were collected from 0 to 120 hpi in order to identify pathogen-regulated genes at different infection stages. We identified 78 rubber tree genes that were differentially expressed during the plant–pathogen interaction. BLAST analysis for these 78 ESTs classified them into seven functional groups: cell wall and membrane pathways, transcription factor and regulatory proteins, transporters, signal transduction, phytoalexin biosynthesis, other metabolism functions, and unknown functions. The gene expression for eight of these genes was validated by qRT-PCR in both RRIC52 and the partially susceptible Reyan 7-33-97 cultivars, revealing the similar or differential changes of gene expressions between these two cultivars. This study has improved our overall understanding of the molecular mechanisms of rubber tree resistance to powdery mildew. PMID:26840302

  1. Chapa aglomerada de cimento-madeira de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. Cement-bonded particleboard of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.

    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Chapas de partículas de cimento-madeira foram confeccionadas com a madeira de quatro clones de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (seringueira: IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 e AVROS 1301. Confeccionaram-se as chapas na proporção de 1:4:1 (madeira:cimento:água por peso e nas dimensões de 450 x 450 x 13 mm e densidade nominal de 1,4 g/cm³, com a adição de 4% de cloreto de cálcio di-hidratado (CaCl2.2H2O como acelerador. Foram testadas partículas fervidas e não-fervidas dos quatro clones, totalizando oito tratamentos, sendo em cada um destes, com quatro repetições, avaliadas as propriedades mecânicas e físicas das chapas, segundo a norma ASTM D 1037 - 96a. De forma geral, os melhores resultados de propriedades físicas e mecânicas foram obtidos nas chapas com partículas do clone AVROS 1301. No teste de hidratação do cimento, a madeira de seringueira in natura foi classificada como de "inibição extrema", porém com a adição de CaCl2 o foi como de "baixa inibição". Essa madeira se mostrou tecnicamente viável à produção de chapas de cimento-madeira, independentemente do clone.Cement-bonded particleboards of rubberwood were manufactured with four clones of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (rubberwood: IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 and AVROS 1301. Boards of 450 x 450 x 13 mm were manufactured in a ratio of 1:4:1 (wood/cement/water, weight basis, with 1.4 g/cm³ density and 4% calcium chloride dihydrated - CaCl2.2H2O as accelerator. The particles of four clones were tested in treated and untreated conditions, totaling eight treatments. In each treatment with four replicates, the physical and mechanical properties were evaluated according to ASTM D 1037 - 96a standard. Overall, the best mechanical and physical results were obtained with the cement-bonded particleboard made with particles from clone AVROS 1301. Rubberwood has shown to be "highly inhibitory" in the hydration test, however when CaCl2 was added the inhibition index decreased and

  2. Performance of new Hevea clones from IAC 400 series Perfomance de novos clones de Hevea da série IAC 400

    Paulo de Souza Gonçalves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hevea breeding program of Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC has completed clonal evaluation on the following series: IAC 100, IAC 200 and IAC 300. The performance of 22 clones of Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell.-Arg., evolved at IAC, over a period of eleven years was evaluated in the Western Central part of the São Paulo State, Brazil. Among these 22 new clones, six were intraspecific hybrid clones (IAC 400, IAC 404, IAC 405, IAC 406, IAC 410, IAC 412 and the remaining are primary those resulted from selected ortets within half-sib progenies. An old popular clone RRIM 600, of Malaysian origin, was used as the control. The trial was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. Yield performance over a period of four years, mean girth at the 11th year, girth increment before tapping and on tapping, thermal property of natural rubber produced, bark thickness, number of latex vessel rows in seven year virgin bark, percentage incidence of tapping panel dryness, wind damage and diseases like leaf and panel anthracnose have been observed. Sixty one percent of the clones were superior in relation to the control for yield. The clone IAC 400 recorded the highest yield (97.40 g tree-1 tap-1 over four years of tapping, followed by IAC 411 (78.87 tree-1 tap-1, whereas the control clone RRIM 600 recorded 50.86 g tree-1 tap-1. All selected clones were vigorous in growth. Girth increment of these clones was average to above average. Except for IAC 423, other clones had thick virgin bark at opening ranging from 4.84 mm for IAC 401 to 6.38 mm for IAC 416. The natural rubbers from IAC clones have shown good thermal stability up to 300ºC and no differences in the thermal behavior among rubber from clones of the IAC series and the clone RRIM 600 were found in inert atmosphere.O programa de melhoramento de Hevea do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC completou a avaliação dos clones da série IAC 100, IAC 200 e IAC

  3. Chapa aglomerada de cimento-madeira de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.

    Okino,Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki; Souza,Mário Rabelo de; Santana,Marcos Antonio Eduardo; Sousa,Maria Eliete de; Teixeira,Divino Eterno

    2004-01-01

    Chapas de partículas de cimento-madeira foram confeccionadas com a madeira de quatro clones de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (seringueira): IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 e AVROS 1301. Confeccionaram-se as chapas na proporção de 1:4:1 (madeira:cimento:água) por peso e nas dimensões de 450 x 450 x 13 mm e densidade nominal de 1,4 g/cm³, com a adição de 4% de cloreto de cálcio di-hidratado (CaCl2.2H2O) como acelerador. Foram testadas partículas fervidas e não-fervidas dos quatro clones, totaliza...

  4. Finite Element Analysis of Simple Rectangular Microstrip Sensor for Determination Moisture Content of Hevea Rubber Latex

    Yahaya, NZ; Ramli, MR; Razak, NNANA; Abbas, Z.

    2018-04-01

    The Finite Element Method, FEM has been successfully used to model a simple rectangular microstrip sensor to determine the moisture content of Hevea rubber latex. The FEM simulation of sensor and samples was implemented by using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The simulation includes the calculation of magnitude and phase of reflection coefficient and was compared to analytical method. The results show a good agreement in finding the magnitude and phase of reflection coefficient when compared with analytical results. Field distributions of both the unloaded sensor as well as the sensor loaded with different percentages of moisture content were visualized using FEM in conjunction with COMSOL software. The higher the amount of moisture content in the sample the more the electric loops were observed.

  5. Hermaphroditism in the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg. - II

    Silvia Marina Cuco

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Flowers of three Hevea brasiliensis clones, RRIM 527, RRIM 600 and GT 1, were analyzed under stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope, aiming to observe hermaphroditism rates. Results showed 71.49% hermaphrodite flowers, 29.83% of which exhibited incompletely developed, residual anthers. The scanning electron microscope analysis did not detect differences in anther epidermis of male and bisexual flowers of RRIM 600 and RRIM 527. In GT 1 clone (sterile male, the anther epidermis was already weak at the beginning of floral development and completely wrinkled at the end of maturation. Consequently, the anthers were empty by this stage.Flores de três clones de Hevea brasiliensis, RRIM 527, RRIM 600 e GT 1, foram analisadas, sob lupa e microscopia eletrônica de varredura, a fim de se observar as taxas de ocorrência de hermafroditismo. Os resultados mostraram um total de 71,49% de flores hermafroditas, sendo que destas 29,83% apresentaram anteras residuais, não completamente desenvolvidas. As análises ao microscópio de varredura não mostraram diferença ao nível de epiderme de anteras em flores masculinas e hermafroditas de RRIM 527 e RRIM 600. No clone GT 1 (macho estéril a epiderme das anteras mostrou-se frouxa já no início do desenvolvimento floral e completamente enrugada ao final da maturação, demonstrando que as anteras estão vazias neste estádio.

  6. Some ethylene biosynthesis and AP2/ERF genes reveal a specific pattern of expression during somatic embryogenesis in Hevea brasiliensis

    Piyatrakul Piyanuch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethylene production and signalling play an important role in somatic embryogenesis, especially for species that are recalcitrant in in vitro culture. The AP2/ERF superfamily has been identified and classified in Hevea brasiliensis. This superfamily includes the ERFs involved in response to ethylene. The relative transcript abundance of ethylene biosynthesis genes and of AP2/ERF genes was analysed during somatic embryogenesis for callus lines with different regeneration potential, in order to identify genes regulated during that process. Results The analysis of relative transcript abundance was carried out by real-time RT-PCR for 142 genes. The transcripts of ERFs from group I, VII and VIII were abundant at all stages of the somatic embryogenesis process. Forty genetic expression markers for callus regeneration capacity were identified. Fourteen markers were found for proliferating calli and 35 markers for calli at the end of the embryogenesis induction phase. Sixteen markers discriminated between normal and abnormal embryos and, lastly, there were 36 markers of conversion into plantlets. A phylogenetic analysis comparing the sequences of the AP2 domains of Hevea and Arabidopsis genes enabled us to predict the function of 13 expression marker genes. Conclusions This first characterization of the AP2/ERF superfamily in Hevea revealed dramatic regulation of the expression of AP2/ERF genes during the somatic embryogenesis process. The gene expression markers of proliferating callus capacity to regenerate plants by somatic embryogenesis should make it possible to predict callus lines suitable to be used for multiplication. Further functional characterization of these markers opens up prospects for discovering specific AP2/ERF functions in the Hevea species for which somatic embryogenesis is difficult.

  7. The SWEET gene family in Hevea brasiliensis - its evolution and expression compared with four other plant species.

    Sui, Jin-Lei; Xiao, Xiao-Hu; Qi, Ji-Yan; Fang, Yong-Jun; Tang, Chao-Rong

    2017-12-01

    SWEET proteins play an indispensable role as a sugar efflux transporter in plant development and stress responses. The SWEET genes have previously been characterized in several plants. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of this gene family in the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis . There are 36 members of the SWEET gene family in this species, making it one of the largest families in plant genomes sequenced so far. Structure and phylogeny analyses of these genes in Hevea and in other species demonstrated broad evolutionary conservation. RNA-seq analyses revealed that SWEET2, 16, and 17 might represent the main evolutionary direction of SWEET genes in plants. Our results in Hevea suggested the involvement of HbSWEET1a , 2e , 2f , and 3b in phloem loading, HbSWEET10a and 16b in laticifer sugar transport , and HbSWEET9a in nectary-specific sugar transport. Parallel studies of RNA-seq analyses extended to three other plant species ( Manihot esculenta , Populus trichocarpa , and Arabidopsis thaliana ) produced findings which implicated MeSWEET10a, 3a, and 15b in M. esculenta storage root development, and the involvement of PtSWEET16b and PtSWEET16d in P. trichocarpa xylem development. RT-qPCR results further revealed that HbSWEET10a, 16b, and 1a play important roles in phloem sugar transport. The results from this study provide a foundation not only for further investigation into the functionality of the SWEET gene family in Hevea, especially in its sugar transport for latex production, but also for related studies of this gene family in the plant kingdom.

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 ...

  9. Responses of seedlings of tropical woody plants to environmental stresses with emphasis on Theobroma cacao and Hevea brasiliensis

    Sena Gomes, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    Relative humidity, flooding, temperature, wind, and SO/sub 2/ variously influenced physiological processes and growth of tropical woody plants, with emphasis on three Theobroma cacao varieties and three Hevea brasiliensis families. Stomata were smaller and more numerous in Theobroma than in Hevea. In Theobroma, but not Heavea, stomatal frequency decreased from the leaf base to the apex and from the midrib outward. Stomata of Theobroma cacao var. Catongo opened in high relative humidity (RH) and closed in low RH. The more open stomata in high RH were associated with high rates of photosynthesis, low leaf water potential, high water use efficiency (WUE), and low transpiration rate (TR). Variations in TR and WUE were correlated with changes in vapor pressure deficit. Other responses included stomatal closure, decreased chlorophyll content, leaf epinasty, production of hypertrophied lenticels and adventitious roots, and acceleration of ethylene production. Responses to flooding varied with species, Theobroma varieties and Hevea families. Effects of temperature regimes on growth varied with species, varieties and families, plant parts, growth parameters, and time of harvesting. Optimal temperatures for dry weight increase of stems or roots of Theobroma cacao var. Comum were 22.2 C; and 33.3 C for dry weight increase or relative growth rates of leaves or seedlings. Optimal temperatures for growth varied for Hevea families. Wind injured leaves of Theobroma cacao, with more injury by wind of 6.0 than 3.0 m s/sup -1/. Stomata were more open on windy than on calm days, but tended to close at high wind speeds. Wind lowered transpiration rate but the reduction was not correlated with leaf dehydration. SO/sub 2/ at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm for 24 h did not injure Theobroma leaves but reduced dry weight increment of leaves of var. Catongo but not Catongo/Sial.

  10. Decomposition of the Rubber Tree Hevea brasiliensis Litter at Two Depths Descomposición del Mantillo del Árbol del Caucho Hevea brasiliensis en Dos Profundidades

    Thiago Claudino Gréggio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of soil litter contributes to maintaining agricultural sustainability, since the nutrients released by microbial activity are determinants of the net productivity of the agroecosystem. The decomposition of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis [Willd. ex A. Juss.] Müll. Arg. leaves located on the surface and buried in at 10 cm depth in Forest and Savannah (Cerradão soils (Oxisols was studied, with emphasis on the production of CO2 and the monthly variation of the remaining amounts of litter mass, soluble substances, cellulose and lignin. To evaluate CO2 production, H. brasiliensis leaves were incubated for 30 days in soils from the 0-2 cm and 10-12 cm layers. CO2 production increased in the 0-2 cm layer in comparison to the 10-12 cm layer. Litter mass and soluble substance loss was of 62 and 72% at the end of nine months of incubation, and of 38 and 65%, respectively, in the first three months, being greater in the deeper (71-74% than in surface layer (48-55%. Forest soil stimulated more litter mass loss and cellulose decomposition (only in the surface layer than Savannah soil. The cellulose (25% content decreased and lignin (30% increased in the initial months of incubation, however, at the end of the period of this study the same content (29% was found.La descomposición del mantillo del suelo contribuye a mantener la sostenibilidad agrícola, puesto que los nutrientes liberados por la actividad microbiana son determinantes para la productividad del ecosistema. La descomposición de hojas del árbol del caucho (Hevea brasiliensis [Willd. ex A. Juss.] Müll. Arg. colocadas en la superficie y enterradas en la profundidad de 10 cm en los suelos de Bosque y Cerradão (Oxisols se estudió con énfasis en la producción de CO2 y la variación mensual de las cantidades remanentes de masa foliar (MF, substancias solubles (SS, celulosa y lignina. Para evaluar la producción de CO2, se incubaron hojas del H. brasiliensis por 30 días en

  11. Microsporogênese em clones normais e tetraplóides de Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg Microsporo genesis in normal and tetraploid Hevea brasiliensis (Muell.-Arg.

    Cândida H. T. M. Conagin

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas sôbre o efeito da colquicina em Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. realizadas anteriormente levaram à obtenção de clones com número duplicado de cromossomos; tais clones, atualmente em fase de amplas e detalhadas observações (6, floresceram em 1969, pela primeira vez. Foi então realizado um estudo citológico comparativo da microsporo-gènese de duas plantas, uma pertencente ao clone normal n.° 3064, com 2n = 36 cromossomos, e outra pertencente ao clone duplicado n.° 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos. Ambos são considerados clones gêmeos, porque foram obtidos de uma mesma semente, por técnica especial (7. Na planta com 2n = 36 cromossomos, o processo meiótico é normal, dando tétrades perfeitas e grãos de pólen aparentemente funcionais. A planta 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos, apresenta, além de células-mães de pólen que se dividem normalmente, outras que no final da meiose produzem tétrades anormais, com micrócitos excedentes e grãos de pólen vazios. Caracteriza-se também por grãos de pólen que não passam pelas divisões mitóticas, isto é, apresentam sempre um núcleo só, que não se divide. Em virtude destas primeiras observações pode-se formular uma hipótese de esterilidade masculina para o clone em estudo.Previous works on Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. produced several pairs of twin clones, one member having the normal chromosome number and the other the duplicated set after colchicine treatment. Plants of normal clone 3064 are fertile and have 32 chromosomes. Microsporogenesis is normal, producing only normal tetrads of four microsporocytes. The resulting pollen grains have three germinal pores. Grains in different stages of development could be noticed, from one-nucleated cytoplasm to the two-nucleated reproductive cell, which undoubtedly means normal game to genesis. On the other hand plants of the duplicated twin clone 3065, blossomed during the year of 1969 for the first time. Microsporogenesis studied

  12. Similaridade genética entre clones de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, por meio de marcadores RAPD Genetic similarity among rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis clones using RAPD markers

    Karine Cristina Bicalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.] é uma espécie nativa da região amazônica e compreende a maior fonte produtora de borracha natural do mundo. Na busca de condições mais favoráveis ao cultivo, além da busca pela auto-suficiência na produção de borracha natural, o cultivo da seringueira migrou para outras regiões do país. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, estimar a similaridade genética de genótipos de seringueira, provenientes de regiões distintas do país, Lavras-MG (UFLA e Campinas-SP (IAC, por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD. A análise foi efetuada em 41 indivíduos, representados por 17 genótipos diferentes, com base em 19 primers, que geraram 121 fragmentos polimórficos. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o software NTSYS-pc - 2.1, por meio do coeficiente de Dice e pelo método das médias (UPGMA. A similaridade genética entre o material analisado variou de 0,56 a 1,00. Na análise do dendrograma, foram observados 18 grupos. Os clones (RRIM600, GT1, PB235, PL PIM e FX2261, utilizados em diferentes repetições, foram idênticos, quando comparados entre si, entretanto o mesmo não foi observado para os clones identificados como RRIM 701. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o material avaliado na UFLA é o mesmo implantado no IAC, exceto o RRIM 701, mostrando uma ampla variabilidade genética, disponível para estudos e propagação da cultura.The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.] is a native species from Amazon region, and represents the biggest source of natural rubber in the world.. However, the rubber tree culture has had an expansion to other brazilian regions, in search of more favorable conditions for its cultivation and self-sufficiency in natural rubber. The aim of this work was to estimate genetic similarity among rubber tree clones, from different Brazilian regions, Lavras (UFLA and Campinas (IAC, by using RAPD molecular markers

  13. Propagation and molecular characterisation of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg) in Ghana

    Antwi-wiredu, A.

    2015-07-01

    The study was aimed at the propagation and molecular characterisation of some introduced clones of Hevea brasiliensis in Ghana. Propagation of H. brasiliensis by stem cuttings and in vitro techniques was used to study alternative procedures for mass production of rubber planting materials. Brown and green stem cuttings of Clone I and Clone II were soaked for 6 hours in 0.0-22.5g/L NAA followed by propagation in a nursery bag filled with nutrient-rich soil. Only the brown stem cuttings of H. brasiliensis survived. The % survival, length of shoots, number of roots as well as length of roots of Clone II was significantly (P<0.05) higher than Clone I. Stem cuttings treated with 15.0g/L NAA significantly (P<0.05) developed higher shoots (83.33%), number of roots (6.167), length of shoots (15.38cm) and length of roots (6.00cm) than the remaining treatments. There was significant (P<0.05) effects of NAA and Clone II in sprouting and rooting growth of the brown stem cuttings. The addition of 5.0mg/L kinetin in the MS culture medium significantly (P<0.05) enhanced higher shoot development (84.00%), number of shoots (3.60) and leaves (23.40) of the shoot-tip explants compared to other treatments. In nodal explants cultured on a medium without kinetin developed higher shoots (94.00%), height of shoot (4.80cm), number of leaves (19.20), number of shoots (6.00) and number of roots (7.00) than those with kinetin treatments. However, 7.5mg/L kinetin of the nodal culture also performed significantly after the controls. A dendrogram derived from the UPGMA distinguished the rubber clones from four areas of Ghana into two clusters. The five SSR markers showed high degree of relatedness among the rubber clones which suggested high genetic similarity (IRCA317-5, IRCA41-2, IRCA331-6, IRCA230-4, IRCA109-3, B8-23) and some degree of diversity/variation (K2-18,IRCA840-7, PB217-8, PB217-10, IRCA317-16) among the clones. Thus, clones of interest could be selected for future breeding and

  14. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis seed oil toxicity effect and Linamarin compound analysis

    Salimon Jumat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lipid fraction of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (kunth. Muell seed was extracted and analyzed for toxicological effect. The toxicological compound such as linamarin in rubber seed oil (RSO extracted using different solvents, such as hexane (RSOh, mixture of chloroform + methanol (RSOchl+mth and ethanol (RSOeth were also studied. Various methods analysis such as Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and colorimetric methods were carried out to determine the present of such compounds. Results FTIR spectrum of RSO did not show any presence of cyanide peak. The determination of cyanide by using colorimetric method was demonstrated no response of the cyanide in RSO and didn’t show any colored comparing with commercial cyanide which observed blue color. The results showed that no functional groups such as cyanide (C ≡ N associated with linamarin were observed. Toxicological test using rats was also conducted to further confirm the absence of such compounds. RSO did not show any toxic potential to the rats. Bioassay experiments using shrimps had been used as test organisms to evaluate the toxicity of linamarin extract from RSOh, RSOchl+mth and RSOeth and LC50 were found to be (211.70 %, 139.40 %, and 117.41 %, respectively. Conclusions This can be attributed no hazardous linamarin were found in RSO.

  15. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seed oil toxicity effect and Linamarin compound analysis.

    Salimon, Jumat; Abdullah, Bashar Mudhaffar; Salih, Nadia

    2012-06-13

    The lipid fraction of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (kunth. Muell)) seed was extracted and analyzed for toxicological effect. The toxicological compound such as linamarin in rubber seed oil (RSO) extracted using different solvents, such as hexane (RSOh), mixture of chloroform + methanol (RSOchl+mth) and ethanol (RSOeth) were also studied. Various methods analysis such as Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and colorimetric methods were carried out to determine the present of such compounds. FTIR spectrum of RSO did not show any presence of cyanide peak. The determination of cyanide by using colorimetric method was demonstrated no response of the cyanide in RSO and didn't show any colored comparing with commercial cyanide which observed blue color. The results showed that no functional groups such as cyanide (C ≡ N) associated with linamarin were observed. Toxicological test using rats was also conducted to further confirm the absence of such compounds. RSO did not show any toxic potential to the rats. Bioassay experiments using shrimps had been used as test organisms to evaluate the toxicity of linamarin extract from RSO(h,) RSO(chl+mth) and RSO(eth) and LC50 were found to be (211.70 %, 139.40 %, and 117.41 %, respectively). This can be attributed no hazardous linamarin were found in RSO.

  16. Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Physicochemical Evaluation of Oil from Hevea brasiliensis Seeds

    Evelyn C. Creencia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis is exploited mainly for latex in view of its economic importance. However, one of its auxiliary products, the rubber seed, does not find any major applications, and hence, even the natural production of seeds itself remains underutilized. In this study, microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction is used as a green alternative to extract the oil from seeds at a reaction time of 90 min and microwave power of 300 W. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the processing conditions, including drying time, temperature, solid–solvent ratio, and extraction solvent, on the yield of rubber seed oil. Moreover, the microwave-assisted aqueous extraction (MAAE under acidic conditions is also investigated. Based on the results, n-hexane gave the best yield at an optimized 1:20 seed–hexane ratio at 72 °C compared with the conventional Soxhlet method and the acidic MAAE. Furthermore, the chemical characteristics of the oil showed a high value of free fatty acids (% FFA (1.15–7.61% and an iodine value (IV that ranges from 100–150. As a semi-drying oil, rubber seed oil (RSO can be used as an ingredient for surface coating and in the formulation of products where the presence of unsaturation is important.

  17. Dicer-like Proteins Regulate the Growth, Conidiation, and Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Hevea brasiliensis

    Qiannan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Hevea brasiliensis is the hemibiotrophic fungi which could cause anthracnose in rubber trees. Dicer like proteins (DCL were the core enzymes for generation of small RNAs. In the present study, the knocking-out mutants of two dicer like proteins encoding genes of C. gloeosporioides were constructed; and functions of two proteins were investigated. The results showed that DCL play important roles in regulating the growth, conidiation and pathogenicity of C. gloeosporioides; and there is a functional redundancy between DCL1 and DCL2. Microscopy analysis and DAB staining revealed that loss of penetration ability into the host cells, instead of the decreased growth rate, was the main cause for the impaired pathogenicity of the ΔDcl1ΔDcl2 double mutant. Proteomics analysis suggested that DCL proteins affected the expression of functional proteins to regulating multiple biological processes of C. gloeosporioides. These data lead to a better understanding of the functions of DCL proteins in regulating the development and pathogenesis of C. gloeosporioides.

  18. Phenotypic stability and genetic gains in six-year girth growth of Hevea clones

    Paulo de Souza Gonçalves

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Müell. Arg.] budgrafts of seven clones were evaluated on five contrasting sites in the plateau region of the São Paulo State, Brazil. The objective of this work was to study the phenotypic stability for girth growth. The experimental design was a randomized block design with three replications and seven treatments. Analysis of variance of girth at six-year plant growth indicated a highly significant clone x site interaction. Only linear sites and clone x site components of clone x year interaction were significant, indicating that the performance of clones over sites for this trait could be predicted. The clones GT 1 and PB 235 showed the greatest stability in relation to girth growth, with foreseen responses to change, introduced in the sites. The clones PB 235 and IAN 873 showed significative difference in relation to regression coefficient, representing clones with specific adaptability on favorable and unfavorable sites respectively. The clone GT 1 became the most promissory one in the study of stability and adaptability even showing low girth growth. Expected genetic gains from planting sites, along with estimates of clonal variance and repeatability of clonal means are generally greatest or close to the greatest when selection is done at the same site.

  19. Natural membranes of Hevea brasiliensis latex as delivery system for Casearia sylvestris leaf components

    Flávio A. Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Natural latex from Hevea brasiliensis (Wild. ex A.Juss Müll.Arg., Euphorbiaceae, showed angiogenic action and Casearia sylvestris Sw., Salicaceae, leaf derivatives presented anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities. Therefore, an association of these effects was interesting for wound healing applications. The aims of this study were the development of membranes of natural latex incorporated with C. sylvestris leaf derivatives (ethanolic extract, diterpene concentrated fraction and casearin J, their chemical and physical characterization, and the evaluation of in vitro skin permeation and retention of C. sylvestris bioactive secondary metabolites (diterpenes and phenolic compounds. The membranes were developed mixing hydroethanolic solutions of C. sylvestris derivatives with latex and drying them in a desiccator. They were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, water vapor permeability and mechanical resistance assays, demonstrating that all membranes were permeable, resistant and homogeneous in surfaces. The permeation and retention assays demonstrated dermal penetration of phenolic compounds for ethanolic extract membrane and of casearin-like clerodane diterpenes for all membranes, indicating that these membranes have great potential for therapeutical application as a topical system for C. sylvestris components releasing.

  20. Clonal stability of latex yield in eleven clones of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    K.O. Omokhafe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven Hevea brasiliensis clones were evaluated for clonal stability of latex yield. A randomized complete block design was used with four replicates, two locations, seven years and three periods per year. Stability analysis was based on clone x year and clone x year x location interactions. Five stability parameters viz environmental variance, shukla's stability variance, regression of clonal latex yield on environmental index, variance due to regression and variance due to deviation from regression were applied. There was significant clone x environment effect at the two levels of interaction. Among the eleven clones, C 162 was outstanding for clonal stability and it can serve as donor parent for stability alleles. Three clones (C 76, C 150 and C 154 were also stable. The four stable clones (C 76, C 150, C 154 and C 162 are suitable for broad-spectrum recommendation for latex yield. Five clones (C 83, C 143, C 163, C 202 and RRIM 600 will require environment-specific recommendation because of their unstable phenotype. The stability feature of two clones (C 145 and C 159 was not clear and this will be investigated in subsequent studies.

  1. Efectividad de siete productos antimancha contra ceratocystis sp. en madera de hevea brasiliensis muell arg. (hule

    M. Fuentes Salinas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó con el objeto de conocer la eficacia de siete productos antimancha que se comercializan en México, contra el hongo manchador Ceratocystis sp. en madera aserrada de Hevea brasiliensis (hule, mediante el método de los discos, conjuntamente con la norma ASTM D 4445-91. Los productos están elaborados a partir de pentaclorofenato de sodio, tres de ellos, siendo Osmotox, Pentatox y Biotox; tres más están hechos a base de metil bistiocianato y 2-tiocianometiltio benzotiazol y son Busan 1009, Busan 1450 y Busan 1071, y el séptimo solamente contiene 2-tiocianometiltio benzotiazol, siendo el Busan 1118. La concentración mínima observada para evitar el manchado de la madera (crecimiento cero en un tiempo de 4 semanas, para cada uno de los productos ensayados se obtuvo para Osmotox de 4.68 %, para Pentatox de 2.82 %, para Biotox de 3.24 %, para Busan 1118 de 2.00 % y para Busan 1009, Busan 1450 y Busan 1071 una concentración menor a 0.25%. Tomando en cuenta los precios comerciales de cada producto y de acuerdo con las concentraciones mínimas efectivas para crecimiento cero obtenidas, el tratamiento con Busan 1071 es el más económico y más efectivo.

  2. Green synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using natural rubber latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis.

    Guidelli, Eder José; Ramos, Ana Paula; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2011-11-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an easy green method using thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and natural rubber latex (NRL) extracted from Hevea brasiliensis. The UV-Vis spectra detected the characteristic surface plasmonic absorption band around 435 nm. Both NRL and AgNO(3) contents in the reaction medium have influence in the Ag nanoparticles formation. Lower AgNO(3) concentration led to decreased particle size. The silver nanoparticles presented diameters ranging from 2 nm to 100 nm and had spherical shape. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicated that the silver nanoparticles have face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. FTIR spectra suggest that reduction of the silver ions are facilitated by their interaction with the amine groups from ammonia, which is used for conservation of the NRL, whereas the stability of the particles results from cis-isoprene binding onto the surface of nanoparticles. Therefore natural rubber latex extracted from H. brasiliensis can be employed in the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles acting as a dispersing and/or capping agent. Moreover, this work provides a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rubber elongation factor (REF, a major allergen component in Hevea brasiliensis latex has amyloid properties.

    Karine Berthelot

    Full Text Available REF (Hevb1 and SRPP (Hevb3 are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of β-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monomembrane surrounding the rubber particles. Ellipsometry experiments showed that REF seems to penetrate deeply into the monolayer and SRPP only binds to the lipid surface. These results could therefore clarify the role of these two paralogous proteins in latex production, either in the coagulation of natural rubber or in stress-related responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amyloid formed from a plant protein. This suggests also the presence of functional amyloid in the plant kingdom.

  4. Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis in Peninsular Malaysia

    A. I. C. Nyaka Ngobisa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations – Selangor, Perak, and Johor states – in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15 containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis.

  5. Karakteristik Pembakaran Biobriket Kulit dan Cangkang Karet (Hevea Brasiliensis dengan Perekat Glyserin

    I Wayan Wawan Mariki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have been done on utilizing biomass from agriculture such as the leather and shell of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis were not used optimally in Indonesia as an alternative energy which developed by making biobriquet to achieved the higher energy that could be used in the combustion process. In this study, the biobriquet was made of the leather and the shell of rubber by comparisson of the leather and shell were: 0%: 91%; 45.5%: 45.5%; 55%: 36%; 64%: 27%; 91%: 0%.Glyserin 9% for each percentage of biobriquet was used as adhesive material and the drying temperature of 110 C. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of biobriquet combustion which made of the leather and shell of rubber. The results shows that the biobriquet combustion process which made of 64% rubber leather and 27% rubber shell has a calorific value of 5313,923 Kal/gr. In 20 seconds of initial ignition, the combustion process shows the improvement such as increased concentrations of the flammable leather, bluish red fire.

  6. Genomic validation of PB 260 clone of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) at Cikumpay Plantation by SSR marker

    Royani, J. I.; Safarrida, A.; Rachmawati, I.; Khairiyah, H.; Mustika, I. P.; Suyono, A.; Rudiyana, Y.; Kubil; Nurjaya; Arianto, A.

    2017-05-01

    Rubber from Hevea brasiliensis is the only commercial natural rubber in the world. Propagation of rubber trees usually done by grafting and seed germination. BPPT had been producing rubber tree by in vitro technique with embryo somatic methods. Validation of mother plant for in vitro propagation is important to compare between mother plant and propagated plants. The aim for this research was to validation of PB 260 clone that planted at Cikumpay Plantation by SSR marker. Sampling of 10 rubber leaves were done at Cikumpay Plantation based on GPS position from the area of PB 260 clone. Rubber leaves were isolated with CTAB modification method to obtained DNA. Four of SSR primers from rubber, i.e.: hmac 4, hmac 5, hmct 1, and hmct 5, were used as primers to amplification of rubber DNA. The result showed that no band that different from 10 rubber of PB 260 clone at Cikumpay Plantation. This research will continue to compare genomic validation between mother plant and propagated plants that had been produced from BPPT.

  7. Gas exchange in young Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Ex A. Juss. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae plants in Antioquia (Colombia

    Oscar de Jesús Cordoba Gaona

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the behavior of Hevea brasiliensis from a study of photosynthetic performance in the environmental conditions of the rubber regions in northeast and lower Cauca of the department of Antioquia (Colombia as a baseline for future studies of clonal performance between different environments. Photosynthetic parameters were recorded by an infrared gas analysis, and for each of the photosynthetic parameters was estimated the area under the curve (AUC from 7 Hevea genotypes (clones. The maximum value of photosynthetic rates was reached at 8 hours in San Roque (10.97 µmol [CO2] m-2s-1 and 9 hours in Caucasia (7.84 µmol [CO2] m-2s-1. The maximum transpiration rates was 3.55 mmol [H2O] m-2s-1, in San Roque, and 5.16 mmol [H2O] m-2s-1 in Caucasia, while the maximum stomatal conductance was 0.18 mol [H2O] m-2s-1 y 0.16 mol [H2O] m-2s-1 in San Roque, and Caucasia respectively. The Caucasia-based rubber plants had higher cumulative net assimilation rates 271,934 µmol [CO2] m-2day-1, being higher than San Roque 226,287 µmol [CO2] m-2day-1. The mean carbon accumulation was obtained in San Roque (697,638 µmol [CO2] µmol photon-1day1. Hevea brasiliensis showed greater environmental adaptation with respect to gas exchange and the use of light energy in San Roque.

  8. Biological cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae on leaflets of three rubber tree clones Ciclo de vida de Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae em folíolos de três clones de seringueira

    Reinaldo José Fazzio Feres

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae on leaflets from three rubber tree clones. The biological cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae, a potential rubber tree pest mite, was studied by the observation of individuals reared on leaflets of the clones GT 1, PB 235 and RRIM 600, in controlled environmental conditions. Three daily observations were done of 60 eggs on leaflets from each clone in order to verify the development of immature stages and the female oviposition. The fertility life table was constructed based in the collected data. Mites reared on PB 235 had faster rate of development, requiring less time in days, to double its population in number (TD, and had the highest values for egg production, female longevity, net reproductive rate (Ro, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m and finite rate of increase (λ. Lower reproductive values and the longest time necessary to reach adult stage were recorded for the mites on GT 1. In all studied clones, the deutonymphal phase had the highest viability, while the larval phase had the lowest, highlighted by the survivorship curve that indicated high mortality during this life stage. The clone PB 235 allowed the most suitable conditions for the development of T. heveae, followed by RRIM 600, while GT 1 was the less suitable substratum to rear this mite species.O ciclo de vida de Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae, um potencial ácaro-praga da seringueira, foi estudado a partir de indivíduos criados sobre folíolos destacados dos clones GT 1, PB 235 e RRIM 600, em condições controladas. Três observações diárias foram realizadas, acompanhando-se o desenvolvimento de 60 ovos e de sua prole em folíolos de cada um dos clones, para verificação da oviposição das fêmeas e dos estágios de desenvolvimento. A partir dos dados obtidos, foi elaborada uma tabela de vida de fertilidade. Os ácaros criados sobre folíolos de PB 235 apresentaram r

  9. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil to Liquid Fuels

    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reaction kinetics of catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil to liquid fuels has been investigated. The reac-tion was performed with sulfuric acid as catalyst at temperatures of 350-450 oC and the ratio of oil-catalyst of 0-2 wt.% for 30-90 minutes. Kinetics was studied using the model of 6-lump parameters. The parameters were rubber seed oil, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, gas, and coke. Analysis of experimen-tal data using regression models to obtain reaction rate constants. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors were then calculated based on the Arrhenius equation. The simulation result illus-trated that the six-lump kinetic model can well predict the product yields of rubber seed oil catalytic cracking. The product has high selectivity for gasoline fraction as liquid fuel and the smallest amount of coke. The constant indicates that secondary reactions occurred in diesel products compared to gaso-line and kerosene. The predicted results indicate that catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil had better be conducted at 450 oC for 90 minutes using 0.5 wt.% catalyst. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 3rd December 2013; Revised: 5th December 2014; Accepted: 7th December 2014How to Cite: Rengga, W.D.P., Handayani, P.A., Kadarwati, S., Feinnudin, A.(2015. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil  to Liquid Fuels. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 50-60. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60

  10. Gas exchange and hydraulics in seedlings of Hevea brasiliensis during water stress and recovery.

    Chen, Jun-Wen; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Shuang; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2010-07-01

    The response of plants to drought has received significant attention, but far less attention has been given to the dynamic response of plants during recovery from drought. Photosynthetic performance and hydraulic capacity were monitored in seedlings of Hevea brasiliensis under water stress and during recovery following rewatering. Leaf water relation, gas exchange rate and hydraulic conductivity decreased gradually after water stress fell below a threshold, whereas instantaneous water use efficiency and osmolytes increased significantly. After 5 days of rewatering, leaf water relation, maximum stomatal conductance (g(s-max)) and plant hydraulic conductivity had recovered to the control levels except for sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity, photosynthetic assimilation rate and osmolytes. During the phase of water stress, stomata were almost completely closed before water transport efficiency decreased substantially, and moreover, the leaf hydraulic pathway was more vulnerable to water stress-induced embolism than the stem hydraulic pathway. Meanwhile, g(s-max) was linearly correlated with hydraulic capacity when water stress exceeded a threshold. In addition, a positive relationship was shown to occur between the recovery of g(s-max) and of hydraulic capacity during the phase of rewatering. Our results suggest (i) that stomatal closure effectively reduces the risk of xylem dysfunction in water-stressed plants at the cost of gas exchange, (ii) that the leaf functions as a safety valve to protect the hydraulic pathway from water stress-induced dysfunction to a larger extent than does the stem and (iii) that the full drought recovery of gas exchange is restricted by not only hydraulic factors but also non-hydraulic factors.

  11. Assembly and Analysis of Differential Transcriptome Responses of Hevea brasiliensis on Interaction with Microcyclus ulei.

    Uriel Alonso Hurtado Páez

    Full Text Available Natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis is a tropical tree used commercially for the production of latex, from which 40,000 products are generated. The fungus Microcyclus ulei infects this tree, causing South American leaf blight (SALB disease. This disease causes developmental delays and significant crop losses, thereby decreasing the production of latex. Currently several groups are working on obtaining clones of rubber tree with durable resistance to SALB through the use of extensive molecular biology techniques. In this study, we used a secondary clone that was resistant to M. ulei isolate GCL012. This clone, FX 3864 was obtained by crossing between clones PB 86 and B 38 (H. brasiliensis x H. brasiliensis. RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differential expression of the FX 3864 clone transcriptome at 0 and 48 h post infection (hpi with the M. ulei isolate GCL012. A total of 158,134,220 reads were assembled using the de novo assembly strategy to generate 90,775 contigs with an N50 of 1672. Using a reference-based assembly, 76,278 contigs were generated with an N50 of 1324. We identified 86 differentially expressed genes associated with the defense response of FX 3864 to GCL012. Seven putative genes members of the AP2/ERF ethylene (ET-dependent superfamily were found to be down-regulated. An increase in salicylic acid (SA was associated with the up-regulation of three genes involved in cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as in the down-regulation of the putative gene CPR5. The defense response of FX 3864 against the GCL012 isolate was associated with the antagonistic SA, ET and jasmonic acid (JA pathways. These responses are characteristic of plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens.

  12. PROBLEMATIC IN THE PROCESSES OF PRODUCTION IN RUBBER PLANTATIONS (Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. IN TABASCO, MEXICO

    Heyra Izquierdo-Bautista

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify some of the basic problems presented in the production process in rubber plantations Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. in Tabasco, Mexico. The applied diagnosis technique was the randomized survey for 68 producers in plantations under rubber production. ANOVA and Duncan analyses were done (P< 0.05. Plantations under production were between 7 to 46 years old. The 24% of these are considered as young plantations (7 to 18 years old, 34% mature (19 to 30 years old, and 12% old growth (31 to 46 years old, according to the level of latex production. Latex collection is realized by 85% men and 15% women. An important detected problem is the incidence of insects and diseases over the 82% of the plantations. In Tabasco State, two types of raw material are generated: clot (solid and latex (liquid. The tapping systems are ½ S d/1 6d/7 (one cuts in an average spiral with daily tapping over the 49% of the plantations, and the system ½ S d/2 6d/7, cuts in semi-spirals with alternating tapping over 51% of the plantations. The producers that practiced daily tapped obtained yields of 1.588 kg per ha/yr of dry rubber, in the other hand, those that tapped every other day obtained a yield of 1.647 kg per ha/year of dry rubber. The yield in daily tapping was 3.54% lower than the system with alternating tapping. The income obtained by the producers of fresh rubber varied from $8.750, 00 (810, 2 USD ha/year to $27.870, 00 (2.580 USD ha/year in 2006 and the production of latex from $5.955, 00 (551, 4 USD to 16.568,00 (1.534 USD per ha/year.

  13. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivated at two plantation sites in Southeast Asia

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Mudd, Ryan G.; Liu, Wen; Ziegler, Alan D.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of expanding rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation on water cycling in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), evapotranspiration (ET) was measured within rubber plantations at Bueng Kan, Thailand, and Kampong Cham, Cambodia. After energy closure adjustment, mean annual rubber ET was 1211 and 1459 mm yr-1 at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively, higher than that of other tree-dominated land covers in the region, including tropical seasonal forest (812-1140 mm yr-1), and savanna (538-1060 mm yr-1). The mean proportion of net radiation used for ET by rubber (0.725) is similar to that of tropical rainforest (0.729) and much higher than that of tropical seasonal forest (0.595) and savanna (0.548). Plant area index (varies with leaf area changes), explains 88.2% and 73.1% of the variance in the ratio of latent energy flux (energy equivalent of ET) to potential latent energy flux (LE/LEpot) for midday rain-free periods at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. High annual rubber ET results from high late dry season water use, associated with rapid refoliation by this brevideciduous species, facilitated by tapping of deep soil water, and by very high wet season ET, a characteristic of deciduous trees. Spatially, mean annual rubber ET increases strongly with increasing net radiation (Rn) across the three available rubber plantation observation sites, unlike nonrubber tropical ecosystems, which reduce canopy conductance at high Rn sites. High water use by rubber raises concerns about potential effects of continued expansion of tree plantations on water and food security in MSEA.

  14. In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

    2013-05-01

    The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species.

  15. Rubber particle proteins REF1 and SRPP1 interact differently with native lipids extracted from Hevea brasiliensis latex.

    Wadeesirisak, Kanthida; Castano, Sabine; Berthelot, Karine; Vaysse, Laurent; Bonfils, Frédéric; Peruch, Frédéric; Rattanaporn, Kittipong; Liengprayoon, Siriluck; Lecomte, Sophie; Bottier, Céline

    2017-02-01

    Rubber particle membranes from the Hevea latex contain predominantly two proteins, REF1 and SRPP1 involved in poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) synthesis or rubber quality. The repartition of both proteins on the small or large rubber particles seems to differ, but their role in the irreversible coagulation of the rubber particle is still unknown. In this study we highlighted the different modes of interactions of both recombinant proteins with different classes of lipids extracted from Hevea brasiliensis latex, and defined as phospholipids (PL), glycolipids (GL) and neutral lipids (NL). We combined two biophysical methods, polarization modulated-infrared reflection adsorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and ellipsometry to elucidate their interactions with monolayers of each class of lipids. REF1 and SRPP1 interactions with native lipids are clearly different; SRPP1 interacts mostly in surface with PL, GL or NL, without modification of its structure. In contrast REF1 inserts deeply in the lipid monolayers with all lipid classes. With NL, REF1 is even able to switch from α-helice conformation to β-sheet structure, as in its aggregated form (amyloid form). Interaction between REF1 and NL may therefore have a specific role in the irreversible coagulation of rubber particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of Hevea brasiliensis clones Propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural de clones de Hevea brasiliensis

    Rogério Manoel Biagi Moreno

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Rubber industry has increased the requirements for quality and uniformity of natural rubber produced in Brazil. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of clones GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 and RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Former Adr. de Juss. Muell.- Arg] were evaluated by standard methods of the dry rubber content (DRC%, percentage of nitrogen (N% and percentage of ashes (ASH% in two consecutive years; data were correlated with temperature and precipitation. Properties of latex and natural rubber varied (P A indústria da borracha está cada vez mais exigente em relação à qualidade e a uniformidade da borracha natural produzida no Brasil. Neste trabalho as propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural dos clones de seringueira GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 e RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell.-.Arg] foram avaliadas pelos ensaios padrões do conteúdo de borracha seca (DRC%, porcentagem de nitrogênio (N% e porcentagem de cinzas (CNZ% por dois anos consecutivos; os dados obtidos foram correlacionados com dados de temperatura e precipitação. As propriedades do látex e da borracha natural variaram (P < 0.01 em função do tipo de clone e entre coletas. O DRC% diminuiu no início da estação seca (maio a junho, enquanto N% e CNZ% aumentaram. O período de abril a junho revelou ser crítico, pois os valores da N% oscilaram acima 0,60%, fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela norma técnica brasileira ABNT/NBR. O clone RRIM 600 foi menos suscetível às variações climáticas.

  17. Intercomparison of Methods for Determination of Resonant Frequency Shift of a Microstrip Patch Antenna Loaded with Hevea Rubber Latex

    Nor Zakiah Yahaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intercomparison between the finite element method, method of moment, and the variational method to determine the effect of moisture content on the resonant frequency shift of a microstrip patch loaded with wet material. The samples selected for this study were Hevea rubber latex with different percentages of moisture content from 35% to 85%. The results were compared with the measurement data in the frequency range between 1 GHz and 4 GHz. It was found that the finite element method is the most accurate among all the three computational techniques with 0.1 mean error when compared to the measured resonant frequency shift. A calibration equation was obtained to predict moisture content from the measured frequency shift with an accuracy of 2%.

  18. Effect of rootstock on the scion of Hevea brasiliensis through metabolic analysis of latex samples by 1H NMR

    Eduardo Sanches Pereira do Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of rootstock on grafting through metabolomic analysis of latex (Hevea brasiliensis samples was verified by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and multivariate data analysis. Sixteen metabolites present in the latex cytosol were characterized by NMR. PCA analysis showed that the latex samples of the RR and GR groups can be differentiated. The GR group samples present a metabolic profile similar to the RR group samples, while the RG group is in an intermediate position between RR and GG groups. Sucrose and formate contributed greatly to the separation obtained by PCA, presenting a good correlation between the results. 1H NMR was an efficient technique to differentiate latex samples from different types of rootstocks and grafting and in the future could be used to predict rubber production by latex analysis.

  19. Morphology-Property relationship of high density Polyethylene/Hevea Brasiliensis Leaves/Imperata cylindrica hybrid composite: Impact strength

    Rashidi, A. R.; Muhammad, A.; Roslan, A.

    2017-09-01

    This research studies about the Hevea Brasiliensis Leaves and Imperata Cylindrica that was used as filler in High Density Polyethylene (HDPE). The fillers content were varied in the composite by 5 wt%, 15 wt% and 25 wt% respectively. This polymer composite are being studied by using Impact Test and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The analysis show that the impact strength value increased when the percent of bio filler used is low. The result between pure HDPE and the composites shows an outcome of significant changes in impact energy values, while the values between different composite change slightly. A composite that contained 5 wt% of fillers is the better energy absorber than 15 wt% and 25 wt% according to impact testing. In addition, the morphology studies on the composite sample show that the bio-filler was successfully embedded. Overall, these finding suggest that HBL and IC can be an alternative filler to be incorporated in polymer matrix.

  20. KETERSEDIAAN TEPUNGSARI DALAM MENOPANG PERKEMBANGAN ANAKAN LEBAH MADU Apis mellifera DI AREAL RANDU (Ceiba pentandra DAN KARET (Hevea brasilliensis

    Sri Minarti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi lebah madu Apis mellifera ditinjau dari intensitas kerja lebah madu dalam mengumpulkan tepung sari, kemampuan lebah madu dalam mengumpulkan tepungsari ke dalam sarang  dan pembentukan anakan selama penggembalaan di areal tanaman randu (Ceiba pentandra dan tanaman karet (Hevea brasilliensis. Materi yang digunakan adalah 7 (tujuh koloni lebah madu Apis mellifera dengan umur ratu 3 bulan yang  masing-masing didukung oleh 9 frame aktif.  Pengamatan dilakukan selama musim bunga randu dan karet dengan total waktu selama 4 bulan.  Selama penelitian, semua koloni tidak mendapatkan pakan tambahan/buatan dalam bentuk apapun sehingga sepenuhnya hanya mengandalkan pakan alam dari sumber tanaman utama maupun tanaman lain di sekitar areal penggembalaan. Parameter yang diamati meliputi : jumlah pekerja pembawa tepungsari, luasan tepungsari sarang dan luasan anakan (brood, Data yang diperoleh dari hasil penelitian ini dianalisis menggunakan  uji t tidak berpasangan untuk membedakan semua variable yang diukur. Untuk mengetahui tingkat keeratan hubungan antara jumlah lebah pekerja  pembawa tepungsari terhadap luasan tepungsari sarang dan luasan anakan, digunakan analisa regresi sederhana (Sudjana, 1994.. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas puncak lebah pekerja pembawa tepungsari di areal randu terjadi pada pukul 07.00 – 07.30 (97,64 ± 19,96 ekor, sedangkan di areal karet pada pukul 09.00 – 09.30 (267,12 ± 113,76 ekor, luasan sisiran  tepungsari di areal karet (64,7152  ±  28,1153 cm2 nyata lebih kecil dibandingkan di areal randu (275,1080  ±  91,95 cm2, sedangkan luasan anakan masing-masing 1527.78 ± 575,57 cm2 dan 1765.79± 384,84 cm2. Kata kunci : Lebah madu, tepungsari, brood,  randu (Ceiba pentandra dan karet (Hevea brasiliensis THE AVAILABILITY  OF POLLEN IN SUPPORT DEVELOPMENT OF BROOD OF HONEY BEE IN KAPUK (Ceiba pentandra AND RUBBER (Hevea brasilliensis PLANTATION

  1. Optimization of oil yield from Hevea brasiliensis seeds through ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction via response surface methodology

    Val Irvin F. Mabayo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for oil has been increasing vastly over time, and the source of this has slowly been diminishing. The use of non-food feedstock is seen as a promising alternative source for the production of bio-based fuel. In this study, rubber (Hevea brasiliensis seeds were utilized as biomass in bio-oil production considering that these are non-edible and considered wastes in rubber tree plantations. In the oil extraction process, the rubber seed kernels were oven dried at 100 °C for 24 h, powdered and then dried further at 105 °C for 4 h. After characterization, optimization study was done using Design Expert 7.0 software through central composite design of the response surface methodology. Ultrasonication technology was employed in the oil extraction process which significantly reduced the reaction time needed for extraction to 15 min compared the conventional extraction method of at least 8 h. An optimum rubber seed oil (RSO yield of 30.3 ± 0.3% was obtained using 15 g biomass, 5:1 n-hexane to biomass (mL g−1 ratio, 50 μm resonance amplitude and 60 ± 5 °C temperature at 15 min reaction time. The oil yield at optimum condition was found to have 0.89 g mL−1 density at room temperature, 26.7 cSt kinematic viscosity at 40 °C and high heating value of 39.2 MJ kg−1. The Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation spectroscopy analysis of the RSO, at optimum condition, showed the presence of carboxylic acid and ester carbonyl functional groups which are good indicators as a potential source of biodiesel. Keywords: Hevea brasiliensis, Oil extraction, Optimization, Response surface methodology, Rubber seed oil, Ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction

  2. The examination of Hevea brasiliensis plants produced by in vitro culture and mutagenesis by DNA fingerprinting techniques

    Low, F.C.; Atan, S.; Jaafar, H.

    1998-01-01

    Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plants derived from anther and ovule culture as well as gamma-irradiated plants were examined by several DNA marker techniques. These include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence tagged microsatellite sites (STMS), DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Compared to control plants produced by vegetative propagation (cutting and budding), plants produced by in vitro culture appeared to have a reduction in the number of rDNA loci. Two RAPD protocols were compared and found to be similar in amplification of the major DNA bands. After confirmation that the RAPD method adopted was reproducible, the technique was applied to the present studies. Eight out of the 60 primers screened were able to elicit polymorphisms between pooled DNA from in vitro culture plants. Variations in DNA patterns were observed between pooled DNA samples of anther-derived plants as well as between anther-derived and ovule-derived plants. Comparisons of RAPD patterns obtained between anther-derived plants exposed to increasing dosages of gamma-irradiation with non irradiated anther-derived plants revealed distinct DNA polymorphisms. The changes in DNA profiles did not appear to be correlated to the dosage of irradiation. Since somaclonal variation was detected, it was difficult to identify changes which were specifically caused by irradiation. Application of the STMS technique to tag micro satellite sequences (GA) n , (TA) n and (TTA) n in the hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-1 (hmgr-1) gene failed to detect differences between plants derived from anther and ovule culture. Although restriction endonuclease digestions with methylation sensitive enzymes suggested that four in vitro culture plants examined exhibited similar digestion patterns as the controls, a change in cytosine methylation in one anther-derived plant was detected. Examination of

  3. Aprovechamiento de semillas de hule (Hevea brasiliensis L. para alimentación de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Gustavo Adolfo Elías-Ogaldez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Se elaboró un concentrado artesanal para tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. con la finalidad de contribuir al aprovechamiento de los subproductos del cultivo de hule (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg y de reducir los costos de producción de la tilapia. La investigación fue tipo aplicada y experimental, realizándose en la zona costera del Pacifico guatemalteco. Se concluyó que la harina de semilla de hule es un insumo apropiado para sustituir parcial o totalmente la harina de semilla de soya, en la formulación de concentrados artesanales para tilapia. Todos los tratamientos donde se utilizó harina de semilla de hule presentaron una mejor supervivencia y FCA frente al testigo. El tratamiento T3 presentó la mejor tasa de retorno marginal frente al testigo y los demás tratamientos. Por último, se recomienda continuar la investigación tomando en cuenta que la semilla de hule es deficiente en aminoácidos esenciales, los cuales se pueden adicionar para mejorar su rendimiento nutricional.

  4. Morpho-Molecular Characterization of Two Ampelomyces spp. (Pleosporales) Strains Mycoparasites of Powdery Mildew of Hevea brasiliensis.

    Liyanage, Kapila K; Khan, Sehroon; Brooks, Siraprapa; Mortimer, Peter E; Karunarathna, Samantha C; Xu, Jianchu; Hyde, Kevin D

    2018-01-01

    Powdery mildew disease of rubber affects immature green leaves, buds, inflorescences, and other immature tissues of rubber trees, resulting in up to 45% losses in rubber latex yield worldwide. The disease is often controlled by dusting the diseased plants with powdered sulfur, which can have long-term negative effects on the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to search for alternative and environmentally friendly control methods for this disease. This study aimed to identify mycoparasites associated with rubber powdery mildew species, and characterize them on the basis of morpho-molecular characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of ITS rDNA regions. We observed that the Ampelomyces fungus parasitizes rubber powdery mildew, and eventually destroys it. Furthermore, on the basis of phylogenetic analyses and morphological characteristics we confirmed that the Ampelomyces mycoparasite isolated from rubber powdery mildew is closely related to other mycohost taxa in the Erysiphe genus. A total of 73 (71 retrieved from GenBank and two obtained from fresh collections of rubber powdery mildew fungi) Ampelomyces spp. were analyzed using ITS rDNA sequences and 153 polymorphic sites were identified through haplotypic analyses. A total of 28 haplotypes (H1-H28) were identified to have a complex network of mutation events. The results from phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of maximum likelihood analyses, and the haplotype network tree revealed similar relationships of clustering pattern. This work presents the first report on morpho-molecular characterization of Ampelomyces species that are mycoparasites of powdery mildew of Hevea brasiliensis .

  5. Adsorption of Bismark Brown dye on activated carbons prepared from rubberwood sawdust (Hevea brasiliensis) using different activation methods

    Prakash Kumar, B.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Miranda, Lima Rose [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Velan, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India)]. E-mail: velan@annauniv.edu

    2005-11-11

    Hevea brasiliensis or rubberwood tree, as it is commonly known finds limited use once the latex has been tapped. The sawdust of this tree is chosen to ascertain it viability as a precursor for activation. The carbons thus obtained were characterized in terms of iodine, methylene blue number and surface area. The best carbon in each method was utilized to study the adsorption of Bismark Brown, a dye used in the leather industry. Adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out with the synthetic solutions of the dye, at room temperature (298 K). Equilibrium data are fitted with the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms models for the system. The effects of contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial dye concentrations on sorption capacity were carried out. Excellent adsorption capacities of 2000 and 1111 mg g{sup -1} were obtained for steam and chemical followed by steam-activated carbons, respectively. Pilot-plant experimental studies have been performed using packed-bed column with different feed concentrations, flow rates and bed heights, to evaluate sorption of Bismark Brown on steam-activated carbon. Bed depth service time (BDST) design model have been used to analyze the data.

  6. Selection and genetic gains for juvenile traits in progenies of Hevea in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Paulo de Souza Gonçalves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Five yield traits were investigated in three-year-old progenies from open-pollinated rubber trees [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.]. Twenty progenies were evaluated in a randomized, complete block design replicated three times using 10 plants per linear plot at the North Central Experimental Station in Pindorama, São Paulo State, Brazil. The characters evaluated included the average yield of rubber, growth vigor, bark thickness, total number of latex vessel rings and latex vessel size. Highly significant (p were 37%, 35%, 69%, 10% and 16%, respectively. Significant positive genotypic and phenotypic correlations were found between the yield of rubber and growth vigor (r g = 0.73, r p = 0.70, bark thickness (r g = 0.70**, r p = 0.75** and the total number of latex vessel rings (r g = 0.64, r p = 0.80. There was no relationship between yield and latex vessel size, growth vigor or total number of latex vessel rings. Based on these data, selecting the best two out of 20 progenies would result in a genetic gain of 12.3% and 6.8% for yield of rubber and growth vigor, respectively. The two best individual ortets within each progeny would result in a genetic gain of 27.7% and 9.1%, with a total gain of 40% and 16% for these two traits, respectively.

  7. Seleção de clones de Hevea brasiliensis para a região de Mococa, estado de São Paulo. Clone selection of Hevea brasiliensis to Mococa region, state of São Paulo.

    Israel Luiz de LIMA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. Juss., a seringueira, é utilizada para a produção de látex e, ao final do ciclo produtivo, a madeira também pode ser aproveitada. Dessa maneira, o melhoramento genético visa aumentar a produção tanto de látex quanto de madeira. Este estudo teve por objetivo determinar a variabilidade genética, o controle genético de caracteres de crescimento e a seleção de clones para a região de Mococa, Estado de São Paulo. Um teste clonal foi instalado no município de Mococa, com delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos (clones, três repetições e 12 plantas por parcela, utilizando-se o espaçamento entre plantas de 7 x 2 m. Os caracteres avaliados foram: diâmetro à altura do peito – DAP, altura total – ALT, altura da bifurcação – AB e volume real individual de madeira – VOL. Diferenças significativas foram detectadas entre os clones para todos os caracteres, o que indica a possibilidade de melhoramento pela seleção. O coeficiente de herdabilidade no sentido amplo foi alto (0,72 para AB e baixo para DAP e VOL. O coeficiente de correlação genética foi alto, positivo e significativo para os caracteres DAP x ALT, DAP x VOL e ALT x VOL, o que indica que a seleção em um caráter pode trazer ganhos indiretos em outro. Os resultados mostraram que a seleção de clones com maior DAP pode resultar no aumento da ALT e VOL de plantios comerciais da espécie. Pode-se destacar o clone RRIM701, proveniente da Malásia, como o mais indicado para todos os caracteres de crescimento, bem como para o cultivo em Mococa-SP. Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. Juss., locally known as seringueira, is used for latex production and at the end of production cycle, wood may be used for furniture. Thus, the breeding aimed at increasing the production of latex and wood. Our goal was to determine the genetic variability, genetic growth control of traits and selection of clones from Mococa

  8. Hevamine, a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, cleaves peptidoglycan between the C-1 of N-acetylglucosamine and C-4 of N-acetylmuramic acid and therefore is not a lysozyme

    Bokma, E; vanKoningsveld, GA; JeronimusStratingh, M; Beintema, JJ

    1997-01-01

    Hevamine is a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis and belongs to the family 18 glycosyl hydrolases. In this paper the cleavage specificity of hevamine for peptidoglycan was studied by HPLC and mass-spectrometry analysis of enzymatic digests. The results clearly showed that the enzyme

  9. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones.

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones.

  10. Identification, Functional Study, and Promoter Analysis of HbMFT1, a Homolog of MFT from Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis

    Zhenghong Bi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A homolog of MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis and its biological function was investigated. Protein multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that HbMFT1 conserved critical amino acid residues to distinguish MFT, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1-like proteins and showed a closer genetic relationship to the MFT-like group. The accumulation of HbMFT1 was generally detected in various tissues except pericarps, with the highest expression in embryos and relatively higher expression in roots and stems of seedlings, flowering inflorescences, and male and female flowers. HbMFT1 putative promoter analysis showed that tissue-specific, environmental change responsive and hormone-signaling responsive elements were generally present. HbMFT1 was strongly induced under a short-day condition at 28 °C, with the highest expression after the onset of a day. Overexpression of HbMFT1 inhibited seed germination, seedling growth, and flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis. The qRT-PCR further confirmed that APETALA1 (AP1 and FRUITFULL (FUL were drastically down-regulated in 35S::HbMFT1 plants. A histochemical β-glucuronidase (GUS assay showed that HbMFT1::GUS activity was mainly detected in stamens and mature seeds coinciding with its original expression and notably induced in rosette leaves and seedlings of transgenic Arabidopsis by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA due to the presence of ABA cis-elements in HbMFT1 promoter. These results suggested that HbMFT1 was mainly involved in maintenance of seed maturation and stamen development, but negatively controlled germination, growth and development of seedlings and flowering. In addition, the HbMFT1 promoter can be utilized in controlling transgene expression in stamens and seeds of rubber tree or other plant species.

  11. Genotype-environment interaction and phenotypic stability for girth growth and rubber yield of Hevea clones in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Gonçalves Paulo de Souza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The best-yielding, best vigour and most stable Hevea clones are identified by growing clones in different environments. However, research on the stability in Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Adr. ex Juss. Muell.-Arg. is scarce. The objectives of this work were to assess genotype-environment interaction and determine stable genotypes. Stability analysis were performed on results for girth growth and rubber yield of seven clones from five comparative trials conducted over 10 years (girth growth and four years (rubber yield in São Paulo State, Brazil. Stability was estimated using the Eberhart and Russell (1966 method. Year by location and location variability were the dominant sources of interactions. The stability analysis identified GT 1 and IAN 873 as the most stable clones for girth growth and rubber yield respectively since their regression coefficients were almost the unity (b = 1 and they had one of the lowest deviations from regressions (S2di. Their coefficient of determination (R² was as high as 89.5% and 89.8% confirming their stability. In contrast, clones such as PB 235, PR 261, and RRIM 701 for girth growth and clones such as GT 1 for rubber yield with regression coefficients greater than one were regarded as sensitive to environment changes.

  12. Efecto de la testa sobre la germinación de semillas de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.

    Moreno Fernando

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La producción comercial de caucho  (Hevea brasiliensis M. presenta limitantes desde su fase de semilla, como son la consecución, la calidad y el bajo porcentaje de germinación, lo que trae como consecuencia la adquisición de grandes cantidades de semilla para el establecimiento de un huerto. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar el efecto de la testa en el proceso de germinación a nivel interno, con el fin de  proyectar futuras investigaciones que solucionen la problemática de  la semilla en el cultivo de caucho. El efecto de las testas se evaluó, mediante la remoción total y parcial y sin remoción, a través de las variables  índice de velocidad de germinación (IVG y porcentaje de germinación (PG, manejado bajo diseño experimental completamente al azar (DCA; además, se obtuvo la curva de imbibición. Los mayores valores de germinación e índice de velocidad de germinación se presentaron en las semillas con tratamiento escarificado mecánico total. Los valores de imbibición permiten apreciar el

  13. Análisis de la variación genética en clones de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis de Asia, Suramérica y Centroamérica usando marcadores RAPD Analysis of genetic variation in clones of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis from Asían, South and Central American origin using RAPDs markers

    Lobo Arias Mario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El caucho natural (Hevea brasiliensis representa a especies potenciales para reforestación y programas de explo­tación comercial en ciudades tropicales como Colombia. La variabilidad genética de una colección de caucho que se encuentra en la Estación experimental de Paraguaycito en Buenavista, departamento del Quindio en Colom­bia fue estudiada para aumentar el conocimiento en cuanto a las especies y realizar un mejor uso de los árboles disponibles. Un total de 25 clones, seis de Sur América, 17 de Asia y 2 de América Central fueron seleccionados y analizados usando RAPDs. Las muestras aisladas de ADN de los árboles fueron con 102 primers, 23 de los cuales mostraron polimorfismos. Aunque se encontró un alto grado de similaridad, los análisis grupales de datos llevaron a diferenciar los árboles de de caucho en términos de su origen geográfico. Por lo tanto, las relaciones genéticas que se encontraron entre los clones podrían ayudar a seleccionar parentales para uso en programas de reproducción y diseño de estrategias para la conservación de los clones que tengan características agronómicas deseables. Palabras clave: identificación de cultivos, distancia genética, diversidad genética, Hevea brasiliensis, marcadores RAPD.Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis represents a potential species for reforestation and commercial exploitation programmes in tropical countries such as Colombia. The genetic variability of a rubber collection kept at the Paraguaicito Experimental Station in Buenavista in the Quindio department of Colombia was studied to improve knowledge regarding this species and make better use of the trees available. A total of 25 clones, six from South-America, 17 from Asia and two from Central-América were selected and analysed using RAPDs. DNA samples isolated from the trees were screened with 102 primers, 23 of which revealed polymorphism. Although a high degree of similarity was found, clustering analysis of the data led

  14. From rubber tree homeland to rubber tree plantation: Jacques Huber and his studies on the culture of heveas in the East (1911-1912

    Anna Raquel de Matos Castro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the trip of the Swiss botanist Jacques Huber (1867-1914 to the main eastern rubber producing countries between 1911 and 1912. This trip was intended to develop studies on the cultivation of Hevea brasiliensis in that region. Huber was commissioned with the task by the State of Pará governor João Coelho, who wanted to find solutions to the downfall of the regional economy. The economy of Amazonia was primarily based on rubber extractivism and was seriously endangered due the market controlled by England from eastern plantations. Back to Brazil, Huber published a report with information about the society, economy and environment where the rubber trees were cultivated. The report compiles scientific observations and the topics that motivated the regional elites in that context. In addition to the brief analyses of the report, photographs took by Huber in the East of rubber trees plantations, tree tapping and local workers are published.

  15. Premilinary studies for optimiziing a protocol for obtaining embryogenic calluses in two rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Mull. Arg clones from different geographical origins

    Santiago Cadavid Ruiz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of growth regulators on obtaining friable rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. calluses with no plant regeneration as investigated. Two clones having different geographical origin were used in all trails carried out in this study: FX 3864 (South-American and PB 254 (Asian. Young leaves and eight- to ten-week-old seed integument from both clones were used as explants in several experiments; they were initially cultured in MH medium (Carron, et ál., 1989, modified MH medium (Montoro, et ál., 1993, 2000 and modified MS medium (Carron, et at,. 1992, no positive response being obtained by days 25 or 50. However, other trials were carried out with the integument in modified MS medium (1962, 0.67 mg/L BAP and 0.66 mg/L 2-4 D being added as medium for initiating embryogenesis, the formation of white, friable calluses being observed by day 25 in the two selected clones. These calluses were sub-cultured in MS supplemented with 0.35 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L 2-4 D as callogenesis expression medium, embryogenic expression being observed in both clones by day 50. Equally friable white calluses were obtained from young leaves in the two clones in MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L BAP, 1.0 mg/L ANA but without IBA and kinetin by day 25. Calluses sub-cultured in the same medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L ANA began to show increased friability after 50 days. culture. This work is a partial report of a macro-project for optimising a protocol for rubber (Hevea brasiliensis  multiplication by somatic embryogenesis.

  16. Distribuição espacial de Calacarus Heveae feres na cultura da seringueira em Marinópolis - São Paulo

    Gustavo Luís Mamoré Martins

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a distribuição espacial de Calacarus heveae Feres (Acari: Eriophyidae na cultura da seringueira, tendo como base um monitoramento realizado com lupa de bolso. A área experimental, localizada em Marinópolis, São Paulo, com 1.000 plantas do clone RRIM 600, foi dividida em 100 parcelas de 10 plantas cada uma. Foram realizadas 16 coletas no período de dezembro de 2007 a junho de 2008. Nas coletas foram amostradas duas plantas por parcela, retirando-se de cada uma extremidade de ramo com 30 cm de comprimento. No laboratório, os ácaros foram avaliados com o uso de lupa de bolso de 20X de aumento, em seis folíolos por parcela, sendo três de cada ramo. A contagem dos ácaros foi realizada em duas áreas de 1 cm² na página superior dos folíolos, uma de cada lado da nervura principal. Os índices de dispersão estudados foram: razão variância/média (I, índice de Morisita (Id, coeficiente de Green (Cx e expoente k da distribuição binomial negativa. C. heveae apresenta distribuição agregada em área de cultivo de seringueira. A distribuição espacial do ácaro ajusta-se ao modelo de distribuição binomial negativa.

  17. Cloning and characterization of HbMT2a, a metallothionein gene from Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg differently responds to abiotic stress and heavy metals

    Li, Yan; Chen, Yue Yi; Yang, Shu Guang; Tian, Wei Min, E-mail: wmtian9110@126.com

    2015-05-22

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are of low molecular mass, cysteine-rich proteins. They play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals and homeostasis of intracellular metal ions, and protecting against intracellular oxidative damages. In this study a full-length cDNA of type 2 plant metallothioneins, HbMT2a, was isolated from 25 mM Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) stressed leaves of Hevea brasiliensis by RACE. The HbMT2a was 372 bp in length and had a 237 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for a protein of 78 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 7.772 kDa. The expression of HbMT2a in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone RY7-33-97 was up-regulated by Me-JA, ABA, PEG, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}, but down-regulated by water. The role of HbMT2a protein in protecting against metal toxicity was demonstrated in vitro. PET-28a-HbMT2-beared Escherichia coli. Differential expression of HbMT2a upon treatment with 10 °C was observed in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone 93-114 which is cold-resistant and Reken501 which is cold-sensitive. The expression patterns of HbMT2a in the two rubber tree clones may be ascribed to a change in the level of endogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Cloning an HbMT2a gene from rubber tree. • Analyzing expression patterns of HbMT2a upon abiotic stress and heavy metal stress. • Finding different expression patterns of HbMT2a among two Hevea germplasm. • The expressed protein of HbMT2a enhances copper and zinc tolerance in Escherichia coli.

  18. Cultura experimental de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-arg. na fazenda "unidas do sul", em Juquiá Experimental results from a rubber planting at the coast of the state of São Paulo

    João Ferreira da Cunha

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados do estudo do plantio de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. Tj-1 x Tj-16, com o fim de pesquisar a adaptação dessa planta ao ambiente situado a 24°10' de latitude sul, no litoral do Estado de São Paulo, a baixa altitude e próximo da Serra do Mar. A plantação é uma das primeiras da região, tendo demonstrado regular desenvolvimento das árvores. A produção de borracha obtida pelo teste Morris-Mann não foi elevada, presumindo-se que a falta de tratos culturais oportunamente dispensados tivesse exercido influência desfavorável sôbre o crescimento normal das plantas e rendimento na produtividade.This paper reports on the results obtained in an experimental planting of Hevea rubber (H. brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. made with the Tj-1 X Tj-16 hybrid at Fazendas Unidas do Sul, Juquiá, São Paulo. This planting was made to test the adaptability of the Hevea plant to a low elevation area near the Serra do Mar range, located at 24°10' south. Growth of the Hevea plants in this experimental planting was fair, but yield data obtained by means of the Morris-Mann test indicated that it was rather low. The unsatisfactory growth as well as the poor yield are attributed to the poor handling of the rubber planting rather than to an unfavorable effect of the environment.

  19. Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... ... of a 5-day-old pure culture using a cork borer and plated 20 mm apart respectively on PDA .... cause explosive hyphal lysis or coagulation of cytoplasm, often penetrating the hyphae ... Igeleke CL (1988). Disease of Rubber ...

  20. Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg.

    AISA

    Sucrose and inorganic phosphorus exhibited best tendencies to predict yield potential of rubber tree clones at old age. .... molybdate d'ammonium (Mo), puis le complexe est lui-même réduit par du sulfate .... Pi : inorganic phosphorus ; Prod : Production ; Sac : Sucrose ; Exs: Dry rubber R-SH : thiols. "0" : without stimulation ;.

  1. POTENTIAL OF CARBON STORAGE OF RUBBER (Hevea brasiliensis MÃœLL. ARG. PLANTATIONS IN MONOCULTURE AND AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS IN THE COLOMBIAN AMAZON

    Hernán Jair Andrade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon sequestration potential of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis plantations was estimated in two production systems: monoculture and agroforestry system with copoazú (Theobroma grandiflorum, on farms of Florencia, El Doncello and Belén de los Andaquíes, in northeastern Colombian Amazon, department of Caquetá. The plantations were classified into three age classes, according to their productive stage: 1-7, 8-20 and > 20 years. The carbon storage was estimated using the methodology proposed by Andrade and Ibrahim (2003 and recommended by IPCC (2003. Tree carbon sinks were evaluated: above and below ground biomass, and necromass. The highest proportion of carbon storage was found in biomass, with 95 and 92% in monoculture plantations and agroforestry systems, respectively. In both types of production systems, carbon storage is a function of tree age and density. The carbon stored in monoculture plantations was higher than in agroforestry systems, due to a greater density of rubber trees in the first production system. This study confirms that rubber plantations have potential to capture and store atmospheric carbon. With this information, the issue of participating in carbon markets of the rubber production chain can be addressed, and therefore strengthen in the region’s competitiveness and sustainability.

  2. Early growth of promising rubber tree clones of Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss. Müll. Arg. in an agroforestry system in Caquetá, Colombia

    Armando Sterling Cuéllar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the early growth of three rubber tree clones (Hevea brasiliensis (FX 4098, FDR 5788, and control IAN 873 in four planting systems with cupuasu (Theobroma grandiflorum and banana trees (Musa AAB at two localities in Caquetá (Colombian Amazonia. A completely randomized block design with three replications and split-plot arrangement, analyzed with a general linear mixed model, was used at each locality. Total height (AT, trunk circumference (CT, canopy area (AC and leaf area index (IAF were evaluated one and two years after establishment of rubber trees. Trunk circumference was the variable most correlated with different growth indices (r ≥ 0.94. Four growth indices were strongly influenced by temporal and clonal variation and by planting system (p < 0.01. The only significant differences between the two localities were for AC (p < 0.05. System x clone interaction was significant for IAF (p < 0.01. After two years, the highest growth indices were observed in rubber tree clone FX 4098 (AT = 4.43 m; CT = 13.00 cm, AC = 4.62 m2; LAI = 1.37, and in two of the three agroforestry systems (AT ≥ 4.08 m, CT ≥ 11.43 cm, AC ≥ 4.01 m2; IAF ≥ 1.54 compared with the control system (monoculture.

  3. Efecto de inclusión de anticoagulantes durante el beneficio de Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A.Juss. Müll.Arg.

    Lina Paola Mendoza Vargas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de un agente anticoagulante del látex en el árbol de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis. Se caracterizó el contenido de solidos totales (TSC y contenido de caucho seco (DRC del látex, se evaluaron cuatro tratamientos de anticoagulantes en campo: (T1 amoniaco, (T2 bórax, (T3 amoniaco-bórax y (T0 sin anticoagulante. En las láminas se evaluaron cinco diluciones (v/v de látex en agua D1 (100 %, D2 (75 %, D3 (50 %, D4 (25 % y D5 (0 %, a estas se hicieron pruebas de tensión, compresión y espesor. El látex caracterizado obtuvo TSC (37.1 %+0.27, DRC (34.3 %+0.19. Encontrándose en T3D1 mayor resistencia de tensión hasta punto de ruptura de 13.37 KgF, compresión de 5 KgF, y menor espesor de 1.52 mm, sin diferencia significativa entre los tratamientos T3 y T2 y las diluciones D1 a D2, posibilitando reducir el consumo de agua (25 %, y la producción de ripio (38 % con anticoagulantes, sin afectar negativamente sus propiedades mecánicas.

  4. Análisis Financiero del Estudio de Factibilidad para la Siembra de 1990 Hectáreas de Caucho (Hevea brasiliensis

    González González Humberto

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available El análisis financiero del estudio de factibilidad para la siembra de 1990 hectáreas de caucho (Hevea Brasiliensis, presenta en los costos del cultivo claras complementariedades en las distintas actividades agronómicas, análogas al concepto de valor añadido. La construcción de los precios del látex no centrifugado se hizo mediante un método indirecto; los de la lámina y del látex centrifugado a partir de datos del mercado y del INCORA. La TIR y el VPN se calcularon para cuatro escenarios de ingresos y para dos modalidades: proyecto puro y proyecto financiado. También se determinó el precio del producto que hace el VPN igual a cero. Finalmente, el proyecto presenta claros beneficios así: 1 en la producción nacional; 2 para la reducción de importaciones; 3 en la generación de empleo en la zona; 4 en la conservación de los recursos agua y suelo y ; 5 para el adelanto de investigaciones sobre este cultivo.

  5. Producción y propiedades químicas del caucho en clones de Hevea según los estados fenológicos

    Juliano Quarteroli Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el desempeño productivo y el contenido de macronutrientes del caucho extraído de cuatro clones de Hevea brasiliensis, en diferentes sistemas de sangría y estados fenológicos de las plantas. El experimento fue realizado en los años agrícolas de 2010 y 2011, en diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, en parcelas subdivididas, con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos principales - clones GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 e RRIM 600 - fueron ubicados en las parcelas, y los subtratamientos, que fueron los sistemas de sangría ½S d/2, ½S d/4 ET 2,5% y ½S d/7 ET 2,5%, se ubicaron en las subparcelas. Las variables analizadas fueron producción y contenido de macronutrientes. Las muestras fueron obtenidas en los estados fenológicos de brotación foliar, hojas maduras y senescencia foliar. La producción y los contenidos de macronutrientes del caucho son más influenciados por la práctica de sangría que por el material genético en los estados fenológicos más restrictivos para el follaje de caucho.

  6. Clones de Hevea brasiliensis de alta productividad caracterizados por resistencia a Microcyclus ulei en jardin clonal en el magdalena medio colombiano

    Yeirme Yaneth Jaimes Suarez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de introducir en la región del magdalena medio de Colombia nuevos clones de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss. Müll. Arg. de alta productividad y con resistencia al Mal de las Hojas, se evaluaron materiales un jardín clonal establecido en Cimitarra, Colombia en la región del magdalena medio. Se evaluó la incidencia y la severidad del ataque de Microcyclus ulei (P. Henn. von Arx. según Garcia et al. (1. Se encontró resistencia completa al mal de las hojas para los clones CDC 312, FDR 4575, FDR 5597, FDR 5788 y MDF 180 y resistencia parcial para los clones FX 3864 y CDC 32. Los clones RRIM 901, PB 235 y PB 260 se mostraron como susceptibles. De acuerdo con los resultados, los clones con resistencia total y parcial se podrán recomendar para zonas preferenciales con restricción para el cultivo, una vez este comportamiento se corroboré en campo clonal. En cuanto a los clones susceptibles se pueden recomendar para zonas de escape al mal de las hojas en el Magdalena Medio Colombiano.

  7. Whole-transcriptome survey of the putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family genes in the latex-producing laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis.

    Zhiyi, Nie; Guijuan, Kang; Yu, Li; Longjun, Dai; Rizhong, Zeng

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins or transporters constitute a large protein family in plants and are involved in many different cellular functions and processes, including solute transportation, channel regulation and molecular switches, etc. Through transcriptome sequencing, a transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC protein genes were carried out using the laticiferous latex from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). A total of 46 putative ABC family proteins were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex. These consisted of 12 'full-size', 21 'half-size' and 13 other putative ABC proteins, and all of them showed strong conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. This study indicated that all eight plant ABC protein paralog subfamilies were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex, of which ABCB, ABCG and ABCI were the most abundant. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrated that gene expression of several latex ABC proteins was regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid or bark tapping (a wound stress) stimulation, and that HbABCB15, HbABCB19, HbABCD1 and HbABCG21 responded most significantly of all to the abiotic stresses. The identification and expression analysis of the latex ABC family proteins could facilitate further investigation into their physiological involvement in latex metabolism and rubber biosynthesis by H. brasiliensis.

  8. Temporal stability of growth and yield among Hevea genotypes introduced to a non-traditional rubber growing region of peninsular India

    K.K. Vinod

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Extensive cultivation of Hevea brasiliensis in India now focus on non-traditional regions for rubber cultivation. As a prelude for selection of genotypes for commercial cultivation, many introduced genotypes are being tested in genotype adaptation experiments in these regions. Present study, reports for the first time, growth and yield adaptation of 28 genotypes in a non-traditional rubber growing region of peninsular India viz., the coastal Karnataka region. Agroclimate of this region was found favoring growth and establishment of all the genotypes evaluated. However, not all the genotypes grew and yielded well. Only four genotypes, RRII 203, KRS 25, PB 260 and PB 235 showed good growth and yield. On grouping, the genotypes fell into categories of moderate high yielders, moderate low yielders and low yielders. The most popular variety of the traditional region, RRII 105 did not perform well in this region. Biological stability in growth and yield of RRII 203 and PB 260 was identified as stable and these genotypes were the best adapted. KRS 25 and PB 235 had unstable yielding pattern. The best identified genotypes can be considered for extensive culture as single clone plantations or as major constituent of clone blends as well as parents in future breeding programmes. Other moderate stable yielders may be used for clone blending in smaller proportions and may be subjected to yield improvement.

  9. Temporal stability of growth and yield among Hevea genotypes introduced to a non-traditional rubber growing region of peninsular India

    K.K. Vinod

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Extensive cultivation of Hevea brasiliensis in India now focus onnon-traditional regions for rubber cultivation. As a prelude for selection of genotypes for commercial cultivation, many introduced genotypes are being tested in genotype adaptation experiments in these regions. Present study,reports for the first time, growth and yield adaptation of 28 genotypes in a non-traditional rubber growing region of peninsular India viz., the coastal Karnataka region. Agroclimate of this region was found favoring growth andestablishment of all the genotypes evaluated. However, not all the genotypes grew and yielded well. Only four genotypes, RRII 203, KRS 25, PB 260 and PB 235 showed good growth and yield. On grouping, the genotypes fell into categories of moderate high yielders, moderate low yielders and low yielders. The most popular variety of the traditional region, RRII 105 did not perform well in this region. Biological stability in growth and yield of RRII 203 and PB 260 was identified as stable and these genotypes were the best adapted. KRS 25 and PB 235 had unstable yielding pattern. The best identifiedgenotypes can be considered for extensive culture as single clone plantations or as major constituent of clone blends as well as parents in future breeding programmes. Other moderate stable yielders may be used for clone blending in smaller proportions and may be subjected to yield improvement.

  10. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    Kumagai, Tomo' omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  11. Preliminary Investigation into Tree Dryness in Hevea brasiliensis (Wild. Ex Adr. De Juss Muell. Arg. by Path Analysis of Tree Dryness and Latex Parameters

    Omokhafe, KO.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlative path analysis between tree dryness and four latex parameters was studied in eleven clones of Hevea brasiliensis. The latex parameters used for evaluation were initial volume, initial flow rate, final volume and plugging index with tree dryness as the dependent factor. Estimates of direct and indirect effects of each of the latex parameters on tree dryness were calculated through linear correlation and path analysis. The correlation coefficient between initial volume and initial flow rate was 1.00 and both characters had the same correlation coefficients with other latex parameters and tree dryness. This implies that initial volume and initial flow rate are alternatives for evaluation of correlation between latex parameters and tree dryness. There was significant correlation between initial volume, initial flow rate and tree dryness at V = -0.52 and high indirect effect of initial volume and initial flow rate through final volume. In addition, despite the low correlation coefficient of V = -0.20 between final volume and tree dryness, the direct effect of final volume on tree dryness was high at 0.812. Final volume is therefore an important factor in the incidence of tree dryness.

  12. Growth trends, genotype-environment interaction and genetic gains in six-year-old rubber tree clones (Hevea in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Gonçalves Paulo de Souza

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Budwood from seven different clones of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Müell. Arg.] was planted in replicated trials in four different test sites in the plateau region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The clones represented a range of imported germplasm, whereas the locations were selected to represent a range of rubber growing areas. Girths were measured for six years consecutively, before the initiation of tapping for latex. Total number of latex vessel rings (lvr and bark thickness (bt were measured at six years. The largest average for all characters was observed in Matão. Overall means for girth, total number of latex vessel rings and bark thickness at six years were 35.26 cm, 11.30 units and 4.83 mm, respectively. Both the test sites and clones showed statistically significant differences in girth, lvr and bt values. There were significant clone x site interactions. Girth at one year was not a reliable predictor of future field performance. Broad sense heritability for girth was 0.16, and for lvr and bt it was 0.28 and 0.40, respectively, at six years. Repeatability was quite high, from 0.52 to 0.75 for all characters in all years. When two clones out of seven were selected, expected genetic gain in girth was about 2.0%; for lvr and bt it was 7.0% and 14.6%, respectively.

  13. Assessment of six tapping systems for four Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell.-Arg.,clones in the Colombian High Plains

    Quesada Mendez, Isaac; Aristizabal Gutierrez, Fabio Ancizar; Chaves Cordoba, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    The rubber yield of four Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell.-Arg. clones was evaluated on the Colombian high plains in the Meta department: IAN 873 and RRIM 600 (third year of tapping being done) and PB 260 and GT 1 (first year of tapping). Six tapping systems were used, including a combination of different tapping frequencies (d/4 and d/5), Ethephon concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 3.3% and 5%) and a number of applications per year (4 to 8) were also used depending on the clone. The production figures for one commercial year were obtained from assays, using a completely random- block design (having four repetitions) independently defined for each clone: having on average 4446 g rubber/tree of produce per year for the RRIM 600 clone within a system 1/2S, d/4, 6d/7, 10m/12, ET 2.5%, Pa 7/y; 2696 g rubber/tree for the PB 260 clone with 1/2S, d/4, 6d/7, 10m/12, ET 2.5%, Pa 5/y; 3822 g rubber/tree for the IAN 873 clone, 1/2S, d/4, 6d/7, 10m/12, ET 3.3%, Pa 8/y, and 3472 g rubber/ tree for the GT 1 clone, 1/2S, d/4, 6d/7, 10m/12, ET 2.5%, Pa 5/y. The highest produce was obtained with a four-day tapping frequency.

  14. Expression Profiling of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Genes Reveals Their Evolutionary and Functional Diversity in Different Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis Cultivars

    Xiang Jin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis is the only commercially cultivated plant for producing natural rubber, one of the most essential industrial raw materials. Knowledge of the evolutionary and functional characteristics of kinases in H. brasiliensis is limited because of the long growth period and lack of well annotated genome information. Here, we reported mitogen-activated protein kinases in H. brasiliensis (HbMPKs by manually checking and correcting the rubber tree genome. Of the 20 identified HbMPKs, four members were validated by proteomic data. Protein motif and phylogenetic analyses classified these members into four known groups comprising Thr-Glu-Tyr (TEY and Thr-Asp-Tyr (TDY domains, respectively. Evolutionary and syntenic analyses suggested four duplication events: HbMPK3/HbMPK6, HbMPK8/HbMPK9/HbMPK15, HbMPK10/HbMPK12 and HbMPK11/HbMPK16/HbMPK19. Expression profiling of the identified HbMPKs in roots, stems, leaves and latex obtained from three cultivars with different latex yield ability revealed tissue- and variety-expression specificity of HbMPK paralogues. Gene expression patterns under osmotic, oxidative, salt and cold stresses, combined with cis-element distribution analyses, indicated different regulation patterns of HbMPK paralogues. Further, Ka/Ks and Tajima analyses suggested an accelerated evolutionary rate in paralogues HbMPK10/12. These results revealed HbMPKs have diverse functions in natural rubber biosynthesis, and highlighted the potential possibility of using MPKs to improve stress tolerance in future rubber tree breeding.

  15. Evapotranspiration of rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis ) cultivated at two plantation sites in Southeast Asia: RUBBER EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN SE ASIA

    Giambelluca, Thomas W. [Department of Geography, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu Hawai' i USA; Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya Japan; Mudd, Ryan G. [Department of Geography, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu Hawai' i USA; Liu, Wen [Department of Geography, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu Hawai' i USA; Ziegler, Alan D. [Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, Singapore Singapore; Kobayashi, Nakako [Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya Japan; Kumagai, Tomo' omi [Hydrospheric Atmospheric Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya Japan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki [Department of Geography, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu Hawai' i USA; Research Institute of East Asia Environments, Kyushu University, Fukuoka Japan; Lim, Tiva Khan [Cambodian Rubber Research Institute, Phnom Penh Cambodia; Huang, Maoyi [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Fox, Jefferson [East-West Center, Honolulu Hawai' i USA; Yin, Song [Cambodian Rubber Research Institute, Phnom Penh Cambodia; Mak, Sophea Veasna [Cambodian Rubber Research Institute, Phnom Penh Cambodia; Kasemsap, Poonpipope [Department of Horticulture, Kasetsart University, Bangkok Thailand

    2016-02-01

    The expansion of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation to higher latitudes and higher elevations in southeast Asia is part of a dramatic shift in the direction of rural land cover change in the region toward more tree covered landscapes. To investigate the possible effects of increasing rubber cultivation in the region on ecosystem services including water cycling, eddy covariance towers were established to measure ecosystem fluxes within two rubber plantations, one each in Bueng Kan, northeastern Thailand, and Kampong Cham, central Cambodia. The results show that evapotranspiration (ET) at both sites is strongly related to variations in available energy and leaf area, and moderately controlled by soil moisture. Measured mean annual ET was 1128 and 1272 mm for the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. After adjustment for energy closure, mean annual was estimated to be 1211 and 1459 mm yr at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. Based on these estimates and that of another site in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China, it appears that of rubber is higher than that of other tree dominated land covers in the region, including forest. While measurements by others in non rubber tropical ecosystems indicate that at high net radiation sites is at most only slightly higher than for sites with lower net radiation, mean annual rubber increases strongl with increasing net radiation across the three available rubber plantation observation sites. With the continued expansion of tree dominated land covers, including rubber cultivation, in southeast Asia, the possible association between commercially viable, fast growing tree crop species Giambelluca et al. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Havea brasiliensis) cultivated at two sites in southeast Asia and their relatively high water use raises concerns about potential effects on water and food security.

  16. Antifungal property of chili, shallot and garlic extracts against pathogenic fungi, Phomopsis spp., isolated from infected leaves of para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Patcharawan Sittisart

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal property of extracts of chili, shallot and garlic (local varieties in Sisaket, Thailand against pathogenic fungi, Phomopsis spp., which were isolated from infected leaves of para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. Seven isolates of Phomopsis spp. namely Phomopsis sp. SSK1.1, SSK1.2, SSK3.1, SSK4.1, SSK5.1, SSK5.2 and SSK7.1 were identified on the basis of morphological characteristics. Fresh plants were extracted with water to obtain crude extracts and their antifungal properties were tested on potato dextrose agar (PDA media. The study demonstrated that increasing the concentrations (20%, 40%, 60% or 80% of the chili extract exhibited a dependent increase in the inhibitory level on mycelial growth of Phomopsis spp. SSK3.1, SSK4.1 and SSK5.2. The inhibitory level on mycelial growth of shallot extract also increased in a dose-dependent manner in all isolates of Phomopsis. The garlic extract had significant inhibition on the growth of all isolates with complete inhibition at 80% concentration. The highest levels of percentage inhibition of mycelial growth were with garlic extract followed by shallot and chili extracts, respectively. The study also showed that these plant extracts contained some polyphenols (apigenin, gallic acid, catechin, quercetin, kaempferol and tannic acid which are well-known compounds possessing antifungal activity. Therefore, it is possible that the antifungal properties of these plant extracts were partly due to these polyphenols or unknown active compounds which could not be analyzed in this study. Collectively, these results suggest that local varieties of both shallot and garlic possess strong antifungal properties. Keywords: Chili, Garlic, Para rubber, Phomopsis, Shallot

  17. Central composite design approach towards optimization of flamboyant pods derived steam activated carbon for its use as heterogeneous catalyst in transesterification of Hevea brasiliensis oil

    Dhawane, Sumit H.; Kumar, Tarkeshwar; Halder, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Activated carbon was prepared from novel precursor flamboyant pods (Delonix regia). • Activation process was optimized using central composite design approach. • Prepared activated carbon at optimized condition was used as support for KOH. • Carbon based heterogeneous catalyst was used in transesterification of HBO. • Effect of catalyst loading and alcohol ratio on biodiesel yield was studied. - Abstract: The present investigation emphasises the preparation of carbon based KOH impregnated heterogeneous catalyst from flamboyant pods (Delonix regia) for the production of biodiesel from novel feedstock Hevea brasiliensis oil (HBO). Initially, carbonized char was physically activated by superheated steam and the process was optimized to study the effects of activation time and temperature by central composite design approach (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM). Activated carbon was impregnated with KOH at four different ratios. Biodiesel production process was carried out at constant temperature 60 °C, reaction time 1 h, and 5 g of carbon based catalyst at varying quantities of catalyst loading (0.5, 2, 3.5, 5 wt%) and methanol to oil ratio (5:1–20:1). The influence of parameters on the biodiesel yield at varied condition was studied. Maximum yield of 89.3% was obtained at methanol to oil ratio 15:1 and catalyst loading 3.5 wt% and corresponding yield at same process parameters was observed to be 88.7% implying the significant activity of catalyst in reutilization. Produced biodiesel was characterized following ASTM standards. The experimental analysis confirmed that the carbonaceous catalyst developed from flamboyant pods under optimized condition is capable of transesterifying HBO into biodiesel

  18. Structural analysis of the endogenous glycoallergen Hev b 2 (endo-β-1,3-glucanase) from Hevea brasiliensis and its recognition by human basophils

    Rodríguez-Romero, Adela, E-mail: adela@unam.mx; Hernández-Santoyo, Alejandra; Fuentes-Silva, Deyanira [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, CU, 04310 Coyoacán, DF (Mexico); Palomares, Laura A. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 510-3, 62250 Cuernavaca, MOR (Mexico); Muñoz-Cruz, Samira; Yépez-Mulia, Lilian [Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS, Avenida Cuauhtémoc 330, Colonia Doctores, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Orozco-Martínez, Socorro [Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Insurgentes Sur 3700C, 04530 Cuicuilco, DF (Mexico); Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, CU, 04310 Coyoacán, DF (Mexico)

    2014-02-01

    This study describes the three-dimensional structure of the endogenous glycosylated allergen Hev b 2 (endo-β-1,3-glucanase), which exhibits three post-translational modifications that form a patch on the surface of the molecule that is proposed to be an allergenic IgE epitope. Endogenous glycosylated Hev b 2 (endo-β-1,3-glucanase) from Hevea brasiliensis is an important latex allergen that is recognized by IgE antibodies from patients who suffer from latex allergy. The carbohydrate moieties of Hev b 2 constitute a potentially important IgE-binding epitope that could be responsible for its cross-reactivity. Here, the structure of the endogenous isoform II of Hev b 2 that exhibits three post-translational modifications, including an N-terminal pyroglutamate and two glycosylation sites at Asn27 and at Asn314, is reported from two crystal polymorphs. These modifications form a patch on the surface of the molecule that is proposed to be one of the binding sites for IgE. A structure is also proposed for the most important N-glycan present in this protein as determined by digestion with specific enzymes. To analyze the role of the carbohydrate moieties in IgE antibody binding and in human basophil activation, the glycoallergen was enzymatically deglycosylated and evaluated. Time-lapse automated video microscopy of basophils stimulated with glycosylated Hev b 2 revealed basophil activation and degranulation. Immunological studies suggested that carbohydrates on Hev b 2 represent an allergenic IgE epitope. In addition, a dimer was found in each asymmetric unit that may reflect a regulatory mechanism of this plant defence protein.

  19. Genome-wide identification of Jatropha curcas aquaporin genes and the comparative analysis provides insights into the gene family expansion and evolution in Hevea brasiliensis

    Zhi eZou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are channel-forming integral membrane proteins that transport water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Despite the vital role of AQPs, to date, little is known in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, an important non-edible oilseed crop with great potential for the production of biodiesel. In this study, 32 AQP genes were identified from the physic nut genome and the family number is relatively small in comparison to 51 in another Euphorbiaceae plant, rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the JcAQPs were assigned to five subfamilies, i.e., 9 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs, 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs, 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs, 2 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs. Like rubber tree and other plant species, functional prediction based on the aromatic/arginine selectivity filter, Froger’s positions and specificity-determining positions showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies of JcAQPs. Genome-wide comparative analysis revealed the specific expansion of PIP and TIP subfamilies in rubber tree and the specific gene loss of the XIP subfamily in physic nut. Furthermore, by analyzing deep transcriptome sequencing data, the expression evolution especially the expression divergence of duplicated HbAQP genes was also investigated and discussed. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of Jc/HbAQP genes, but also provide a useful reference to survey the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceae plants and other plant species.

  20. Evaluación de agentes de coagulación para la producción de láminas de caucho seco a partir de Látex multiclonal de “Hevea Brasiliensis”

    Giraldo Díaz, Alejandra María; López Aristizábal, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo consiste en la evaluación de tres agentes de coagulación, uno convencional (ácido acético) y dos alternativos (ácido cítrico y limoneno) para la producción de láminas de caucho seco a partir del látex de Hevea brasiliensis, extraído del Nordeste Antioqueño en el corregimiento San José del Nus -- Se realizó una caracterización del látex, en la que se obtuvo una densidad de 0,97 gr/ml, un porcentaje de solidos de 31,14%, un porcentaje de caucho seco de 29,4%, un TGA con la p...

  1. How do rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations behave under seasonal water stress in northeastern Thailand and central Cambodia?

    Kumagai, Tomo' omi [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Mudd, Ryan G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Giambelluca, Thomas W. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Kobayashi, Nakako [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki [Kyushu Univ. Fukuoka (Japan); Lim, Tiva Khan [Cambodian Rubber Research Institute, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Liu, Wen [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Huang, Maoyi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fox, Jefferson M. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ziegler, Alan D. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore); Yin, Song [Cambodian Rubber Research Institute, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Mak, Sophea Veasna [Cambodian Rubber Research Institute, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Kasemsap, Poonpipope [Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    Plantation rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) is a viable economic resource for Southeast Asian countries. Consequently, rubber plantations are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially changing the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with the traditional land covers they are replacing. Delineating the characteristics of biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations is therefore important to understanding the impacts of such land use change on environmental processes. We have conducted eddy flux measurements in two rubber plantation sites: (1) Som Sanuk (SS), located northern Thailand; and (2) Cambodian Rubber Research Institute (CRRI), central Cambodia. Both sites have a distinct dry season. Measurements were made over a 3-year period. We used combination of actual evapotranspiration (ET) flux measurements and an inversed version of a simple 2-layer ET model for estimating the mean canopy stomatal conductances (gs), which is among the most effective measures for describing water and energy exchanges and tree water use characteristics. A main novelty in this analysis is that the rubber canopy conductance can be extracted from total surface conductance (including the canopy and the vegetation floor effects) and hence environmental and biological controls on rubber tree gs are explicitly compared at each site in different seasons and years. It is demonstrated how each studied rubber plantation copes with each strong seasonal drought via tree water use strategies. Potential tree water use deficit (precipitation (P) – potential evaporation (ET_POT)) for each season (i.e., December-February: DJF, March-May: MAM, June-August: JJA, and September-November: SON) revealed in which season and how the water use should be controlled. We found that in seasons when actual tree water use deficit (P

  2. Efeitos de produtos químicos na transpiração e no potencial da água de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600 Effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of rubber plant (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600

    P.R.C. Castro

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, em Piracicaba (SP, visando avali ar a eficiência de diferentes produtos químicos, em aplicação foliar, na taxa transpiratória e no potencial da água de folhas das plantas de seringueira (He Yea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600 com 1,5 ano de idade. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: polissulfetc, de polietileno (Good-rite peps 0,04 %, oxietileno docosanol (Oed green 2%, caulim (silicato de aluminio 3%, e atrazine 50 ppm, alem do controle. Através do método da pesagem rápida de folhas desta cadas, com balança de torço tipo Jung, verificou-se a perda de água pelas plantas de seringueira foi restringida significativamente pelo anti-transpirante metabólico (atrazine com relação ao controle, aos formadores de filme e ao refletor. Polissulfeto de polietileno apresentou as menores amplitudes de variações na taxa respiratória. Atrazine também promoveu a manutenção do potencial da água das folhas mais alto (-7,8 bars com relação ao controle (-14,8 bars, de acordo com determinações efe tuadas através da Câmara de Scholander.This research deals with the effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of Hevea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600 on plants, with 1,5 year old, under field conditions. Rubber plants were sprayed with poliethylen e polys ulfite 0,04%, oxyethylen e docosanol 2%, kaolin 3%, atrazine 50 ppm, and check. A higher efficiency again st water loss was observed for atrazine (10,9 mg water . cm-2 . min-1 in relation to check plants (14,6 mg water . cm . min-1 at the maximum transpiration rate average. Polyethylen e polysulfite presented lower amplitude variation of the transpiration rates during the measurements at the day period. Atrazine promoted the maint enance of a higher water potential (-7,8 bars compared to check treatment (-14,8 bars.

  3. Propriedades físicas de latossolo e argissolo em função de práticas de manejo aplicadas na entrelinha da cultura da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis

    A. A. Ribon

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência das práticas de manejo (gradagem, Pueraria phaseoloides e roçadeira nas entrelinhas da cultura da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, plantada em 1992, sobre a densidade do solo e a macro e microporosidade de solos do Planalto Paulista. Foram retiradas amostras nos anos de 1998 e 1999, após seis anos consecutivos de manejo, nas profundidades de 0-10, 10-20, 20-30 e 30-40 cm do Latossolo Vermelho distrófico textura argilosa A moderado caulinítico hipoférrico relevo plano e Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico abrúptico, Tb, A moderado textura areia/média fase floresta tropical subperenifólia e relevo suave ondulado, localizados, respectivamente, nos municípios de Jaboticabal e Tabapuã (SP. Para cada profundidade, foram retiradas oito amostras por tratamento, por experimento, em cada ano, totalizando 394 amostras. Os atributos físicos do solo (densidade do solo e macroporosidade foram avaliados de acordo com as práticas de manejo aplicadas. Dentre os sistemas de manejos aplicados na entrelinha da seringueira, a roçadeira foi o que provocou maior compactação do solo em todas as profundidades, evidenciada pelos elevados valores de densidade do solo e reduzida macroporosidade, sendo este efeito mais pronunciado nas camadas superficiais dos solos.

  4. CARACTERIZAÇÃO COLORIMÉTRICA DAS MADEIRAS DE MUIRAPIRANGA (Brosimum rubescensTaub. E DE SERINGUEIRA (Hevea brasiliensis, clone Tjir 16 Müll Arg. VISANDO À UTILIZAÇÃO EM INTERIORES

    Cristine da Silva Autran

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Ainda que recente, a técnica para a determinação da cor da madeira por meio da colorimetria quantitativa mostra-se precisa e eficaz. O sistema CIELAB 1976, que determina os parâmetros colorimétricos L*, a*, b*, C e h*, mostrou-se eficiente para a determinação da cor das madeiras de muirapiranga (Brosimum rubescens e de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, clone Tjir 16. A madeira de muirapiranga é de cor vermelha-amarronzada (L* de 42,39, tendo o pigmento vermelho (a* de 22,02 como determinante, apesar de o pigmento amarelo (b* ter influência significativa na definição de sua cor. A madeira de seringueira apresenta cor amarela (L* de 77,55, fortemente influenciada pelo pigmento amarelo (b* de 19,61. Considerando o parâmetro cor, ambas as madeiras apresentam potenciais para serem utilizadas em interiores.

  5. Premilinary studies for optimiziing a protocol for obtaining embryogenic calluses in two rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Mull. Arg clones from different geographical origins Estudios preliminares en la estandarización de un protocolo para la obtención de callos embriogénicos en dos clones de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. de diferentes orígenes geográficos

    Medina S. Marisol

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of growth regulators on obtaining friable rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. calluses with no plant regeneration as investigated. Two clones having different geographical origin were used in all trails carried out in this study: FX 3864 (South-American and PB 254 (Asian. Young leaves and eight- to ten-week-old seed integument from both clones were used as explants in several experiments; they were initially cultured in MH medium (Carron, et ál., 1989, modified MH medium (Montoro, et ál., 1993, 2000 and modified MS medium (Carron, et at,. 1992, no positive response being obtained by days 25 or 50. However, other trials were carried out with the integument in modified MS medium (1962, 0.67 mg/L BAP and 0.66 mg/L 2-4 D being added as medium for initiating embryogenesis, the formation of white, friable calluses being observed by day 25 in the two selected clones. These calluses were sub-cultured in MS supplemented with 0.35 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L 2-4 D as callogenesis expression medium, embryogenic expression being observed in both clones by day 50. Equally friable white calluses were obtained from young leaves in the two clones in MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L BAP, 1.0 mg/L ANA but without IBA and kinetin by day 25. Calluses sub-cultured in the same medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L ANA began to show increased friability after 50 days. culture. This work is a partial report of a macro-project for optimising a protocol for rubber (Hevea brasiliensis  multiplication by somatic embryogenesis.Se investigó la influencia de los reguladores de crecimiento para la obtención de callos friables en caucho (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. sin llegar a obtenerse regeneración de plántulas. En todos los ensayos realizados en este estudio, se utilizaron dos clones de diferentes orígenes geográficos: el FX 3864 (suramericano y el PB 254 (asiático. Para los diferentes tratamientos se utilizaron como explantes hojas j

  6. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., tratadas com benlate durante o armazenamento Physiological quality of rubber tree seed treated with benomyl during storage

    R.D. Vieira

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de um período relativamente frio e seco, imediatamente após o período de coleta de sementes de seringueira - Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. (março-abril, levou à realização do presente trabalho com o objetivo de encontrar condições adequadas de preservação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes. Assim, estudou-se a qualidade fisiológica de sementes, tratadas com Benlate (0,1%, e armazenadas em sacos de polietileno transparente, por períodos de 0 a 5 meses, sob condições ambientais de laboratório. Para a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes, determinou-se a germinação e o vigor através do índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE e do comprimento da parte aérea das plântulas (CPA, em 1987 e 1988. A germinação e o IVE foram obtidos sob duas condições ambientais diferentes, ambiente do laboratório e em germinador a 30°C. O tratamento fungicida utilizado não exerceu efeito significativo na preservação das sementes. A germinação, o IVE e o CPA reduziram-se com o prolongamento do armazenamento. Os valores da germinação foram baixo desde o início dos trabalhos, o que pode ser atribuído ao teor de água inicial, que estava abaixo de 30%. O teste de germinação de sementes dessa espécie pode ser feito utilizando-se areia como substrato, a 30°C e com a contagem final aos 20 dias após a instalação do teste.After rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. seeds reach the physiological maturity, there is a relatively dry and cold period in the State of São Paulo, which led to the present work, in order to evaluate environmental conditions that maintain physiological seed quality. The physiological quality of rubber tree seeds, treated with benomyl (0,1% and stored in plastic bags, was studied up to 5 months, during 87/88. The seed bags were kept under laboratory conditions during the whole storage period. To evaluate physiological seed quality, germination and vigor (germination speed

  7. depolymerizing factor gene in Hevea brasiliensis

    Yomi

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... 1Key Laboratory of Rubber Biology, Ministry of Agriculture, Rubber Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical. Agricultural Sciences ... 3Institute of Biological Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, China. ... rice ADF proteins were divided into four ancient.

  8. (Hevea brasiliensis) SEED PERICARP-ACTIVATED CARBON

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... The continuous drive to increase meat production for the protein needs of the ...... Removal of malachite green from aqueous solution using degreased ... and copper onto treated alga (Undariapinnarlifida):. Application of ...

  9. Height - Diameter predictive equations for Rubber (Hevea ...

    BUKOLA

    They proffer logistic data for modeling and futuristic prediction for sustainable forest management. Diameter is one of the most ... in various quantitative estimation following the intricacy of time, availability of modern equipments .... growth functions. This trend is shown in Figure 1 where the prediction equations are plotted.

  10. depolymerizing factor gene in Hevea brasiliensis

    Yomi

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... 1Key Laboratory of Rubber Biology, Ministry of Agriculture, Rubber Research Institute, ... characterizations of HbADF suggested that HbADF might be associated with latex regeneration and flow ... ABPs co-evolved in specific organs, tissues and cells. ..... ment, wound repair, response to pathogen attack,.

  11. Desempenho de clones de seringueira da série IAC 300 selecionados para a região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo Performance of Hevea clones from IAC 300 series selected in the northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Paulo de Souza Gonçalves

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o desempenho de 19 novos clones de seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. exAdr. de Juss. Muell. Arg.], resultantes de hibridações conduzidas no Instituto Agronômico e avaliados em experimento de pequena escala, tendo o clone RRIM 600 como testemunha. O experimento em campo obedeceu ao delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Com relação à produção de borracha seca, o clone IAC 40 apresentou a maior média (62,22 g/árvore/sangria nos três anos de avaliação, seguido pelo IAC 301 (57,67 g/árvore/sangria e pelo IAC 300 (50,61 g/árvore/sangria, com produções 154%, 138% e 123% superiores em relação ao RRIM 600 (41,04 g/árvore/sangria. Todos os clones selecionados foram vigorosos, com perímetro do caule na abertura do painel variando de 37,81 cm (IAC 317 a 50,90 cm (IAC 315. A porcentagem de plantas aptas a sangria variou de 20,0% (IAC 317 a 100% (IAC 315. Todos os clones apresentaram baixas incidências de quebra pelo vento e de secamento do painel. Não foi detectada nenhuma doença foliar em caráter epidêmico. Dos clones estudados, 15 apresentaram alta resistência à antracnose do painel, e foram superiores ao RRIM 600; os outros cinco apresentaram resistência moderada semelhante ao RRIM 600.The present paper shows the performance of 19 rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg.] originated from Hevea breeding programme conducted at the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC and evaluated in a small scale trial in the northwestern of São Paulo State, Brazil. The old popular clone RRIM 600 of Malaysian origin was used as control. The trial was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. Concerned to yielding the clone IAC 40 recorded highest yield (62.22 g/tree/tap over three years of tapping which was followed by IAC 301 (57.67 g/tree/tap and IAC 300 (50.61 g/tree/tap yielding 154%, 138% and 123% superior to the control clone and RRIM 600 whereas

  12. An overview of the potentials of natural rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis ...

    Tapping rubber trees for valuable proteins will be more profitable compared to other options. The technologies have been developed and only needs to be adapted to our local conditions. It is hoped that this paper will be instructive to rubber farmers, policy makers, executors of policies or citizens wishing to join the Nigerian ...

  13. Transcript Profiling of Hevea brasiliensis during Latex Flow

    Jinquan Chao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Latex exploitation enhances latex regeneration in rubber trees. The latex exploitation-caused latex flow lasts from 10 min to a few hours, which is convenient for exploring the transcript profiling of latex metabolism-related genes at the different stages of latex flow. In the present study, the expression pattern of 62 latex metabolism-related genes involved in water transportation, carbohydrate metabolism, natural rubber biosynthesis, hormone signaling, ROS generation and scavenging, and latex coagulum across three stages of latex flow between rubber tree clones CATAS7-33-97 and CATAS8-79 were comparatively analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The two clones show differences in latex regeneration and have a different duration of latex flow. The results showed that the expression levels of 38 genes were significantly higher in CATAS8-79 latex than in CATAS7-33-97 during latex regeneration, while 45 genes had a notably higher expression level in CATAS8-79 latex during latex flow. Together with the activation of the MEP pathway and jasmonate pathway in CATAS8-79 latex, HbPIP1;3, HbPIP1;4, HbSUT3, HbSus3, HbHMGS1-2, HbMK should contribute to the high latex regeneration ability. The up-regulation of ethylene signaling and Hb44KD and the down-regulation of latex coagulation-related genes in CATAS8-79 latex might contribute to its longer latex flow duration. This study provides some cues for revealing the regulation of latex metabolism in rubber trees.

  14. Het tapsysteem bij Hevea brasiliensis op experimenteelen grondslag

    Maas, J.G.J.A.

    1924-01-01

    The history of the rubber culture and the historical development of tapping systems in South America and Asia were discussed. The tapping systems were then analysed for many factors: the influence of number, length, direction, inclination, depth, height from the ground and consecutive position of

  15. An overview of the potentials of natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... brasiliensis) engineering for the production of valuable proteins ... years gestation period and economic life of about 25 years. ... reactors) involve processes well entrenched in industry. ... plant (low cost of maintenance, simple clonal propaga- .... such as industrial enzymes or proteins used in personal.

  16. Evaluation of different drought stress periods on Hevea brasiliensis ...

    As global demand for natural rubber increases, a major challenge for cultivation of rubber plants is their inability to withstand unfavorable environmental conditions in the context of global climate change. Drought remains one of the most biologically demanding and ecologically limiting factors among all environmental ...

  17. responsive transcription factor from Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... members of CBF/DREB subfamily from different plant species. Quantitative ..... mechanisms of hormonal (ethylene) stimulation. In: D'Auzac J, .... wide interacting effects of sucrose and herbicide-mediated stress in. Arabidopsis ...

  18. ASSOCIATIONS CULTURALES A BASE D'HEVEA : BILAN DE 20 ...

    AISA

    Comportement végétatif de l'hévéa et cultures associées ... les 3 à 4 premières années de plantation, sans danger pour les plants d'hévéas. .... 1975, l'étude des possibilités d'association .... Dans le cadre de ces études, les cultures pures.

  19. Base Cation Leaching From the Canopy of a Rubber ( Hevea ...

    Base cations are essential to the sustainability of forest ecosystems. They are important for neutralizing the acidifying effects of atmospheric deposition. There is the need for in-depth understanding of base cation depletion and leaching from forest canopy. This is important particularly due to the increasing acidification and ...

  20. Resistance of treated rubber wood ( Hevea brasiliensis ) to termite ...

    Spent rubber trees from a 25 year old plantation were cut, sawn and treated with Copper Chromium Arsenate (CCA) and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL). Two sets of wood samples were treated with CCA and CNSL respectively while the third set was not treated to serve as control. The three sets were exposed to termite ...

  1. Analysis of the contribution of women in the production of hevea ...

    Data collected were subjected to descriptive and general entropy class of measures. Result of the analysis indicated women were educated and had one form of formal education or the other and is experienced with large family sizes. Majority of the respondents (62.16%) had income above N50, 000.00 Finding also ...

  2. Efikasi Herbisida Amonium Glufosinatt Gulma Umum Pada Perkebunan Karet Yang Menghasilkan [Hevea Brasiliensis (Muell.) Arg

    Hastuti, Nurjannah Yuliana; J. Sembodo, Dad Resiworo; Evizal, Rusdi

    2015-01-01

    This research was aimed to determine the efficacy of glufosinate ammonium on weed in rubber plants and to know it composition change. Research was conducted in the PTPN 7 UU Way Galih, Tanjung Bintang, and Weed Laboratory, Agricultural Faculty, University of Lampung, during June – August 2013. The Research using randomized complete block design with 6 treatments(t1= 225 g ha-1; t2= 300 g ha-1; t3= 375 g ha-1; t4= 450 g ha-1; t5= mechanical control; t6= control/ no treatment) and 4 replication...

  3. Dynamics of root and leaf decomposition in chronosequence of rubber plantation (Hevea brasilensis) in SW China

    Moazzam, N.S.; Yiping, Z.; Liqing, S.; Moazzam, N.S.

    2018-01-01

    This study highlighted the dynamics of stand parameters as well as root and leaf litter decomposition in the chronosequence (49, 32, 24 and 12 years old plantations established in the year 1965, 1982, 1990 and 2002) of the rubber plantation in Xishuangbanna SW China. Litter trappers were installed on the study site to collect the leaf litter and litter bag experiment was carried out to investigate the rate of root and leaf litter decomposition. The study revealed significant variation of stand characteristics during the decomposition process. The monthly litter fall and root biomass (all categories; kg m-3) showed positive correlation with stand characteristics and age. Remaining leaf litter mass % in the litter bags reduced with the passage of time and was significantly different in the chronosequence. The highest root decomposition rate (55%) was shown by fine roots and minimum (32%) by coarse roots during the study period. The investigations on elemental composition of the leaf and root provides basic important information for rate of nutrient cycle along with decomposition rate in rubber plantation and result are quite helpful for simulating the below ground carbon stock of rubber plantation in SW China. (author)

  4. Pilot scale intensification of rubber seed (Hevea brasiliensis) oil via chemical interesterification using hydrodynamic cavitation technology.

    Bokhari, Awais; Yusup, Suzana; Chuah, Lai Fatt; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Asif, Saira; Ali, Basit; Akbar, Majid Majeed; Kamil, Ruzaimah Nik M

    2017-10-01

    Chemical interesterification of rubber seed oil has been investigated for four different designed orifice devices in a pilot scale hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) system. Upstream pressure within 1-3.5bar induced cavities to intensify the process. An optimal orifice plate geometry was considered as plate with 1mm dia hole having 21 holes at 3bar inlet pressure. The optimisation results of interesterification were revealed by response surface methodology; methyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 14:1, catalyst amount of 0.75wt.% and reaction time of 20min at 50°C. HC is compared to mechanical stirring (MS) at optimised values. The reaction rate constant and the frequency factor of HC were 3.4-fold shorter and 3.2-fold higher than MS. The interesterified product was characterised by following EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751 international standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic Determinism of Sensitivity to Corynespora cassiicola Exudates in Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis).

    Tran, Dinh Minh; Clément-Demange, André; Déon, Marine; Garcia, Dominique; Le Guen, Vincent; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Soumahoro, Mouman; Masson, Aurélien; Label, Philippe; Le, Mau Tuy; Pujade-Renaud, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    An indirect phenotyping method was developed in order to estimate the susceptibility of rubber tree clonal varieties to Corynespora Leaf Fall (CLF) disease caused by the ascomycete Corynespora cassiicola. This method consists in quantifying the impact of fungal exudates on detached leaves by measuring the induced electrolyte leakage (EL%). The tested exudates were either crude culture filtrates from diverse C. cassiicola isolates or the purified cassiicolin (Cas1), a small secreted effector protein produced by the aggressive isolate CCP. The test was found to be quantitative, with the EL% response proportional to toxin concentration. For eight clones tested with two aggressive isolates, the EL% response to the filtrates positively correlated to the response induced by conidial inoculation. The toxicity test applied to 18 clones using 13 toxinic treatments evidenced an important variability among clones and treatments, with a significant additional clone x treatment interaction effect. A genetic linkage map was built using 306 microsatellite markers, from the F1 population of the PB260 x RRIM600 family. Phenotyping of the population for sensitivity to the purified Cas1 effector and to culture filtrates from seven C. cassiicola isolates revealed a polygenic determinism, with six QTL detected on five chromosomes and percentages of explained phenotypic variance varying from 11 to 17%. Two common QTL were identified for the CCP filtrate and the purified cassiicolin, suggesting that Cas1 may be the main effector of CCP filtrate toxicity. The CCP filtrate clearly contrasted with all other filtrates. The toxicity test based on Electrolyte Leakage Measurement offers the opportunity to assess the sensitivity of rubber genotypes to C. cassiicola exudates or purified effectors for genetic investigations and early selection, without risk of spreading the fungus in plantations. However, the power of this test for predicting field susceptibility of rubber clones to CLF will have to be further investigated.

  6. base cation leaching from the canopy of a rubber (hevea brasiliensis

    Osondu

    2012-08-11

    Aug 11, 2012 ... accelerated by acid rain, by forest regrowth following harvest removals, and by declining inputs of base cations from atmospheric deposition. Cation leaching from tree canopy could affect physiological processes, damage flowering and dormancy patterns, and make plants more vulnerable to diseases and ...

  7. Preliminary study of rubber seed Hevea brasiliensis oil utilization for tilapia diet

    Siti Komariyah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was conducted as a preliminary study on utilization of RBO for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis sp. diet by also evaluating its effect on growth the performance. This research used SULTANA strain at average initial body weights of 8.33±0.07 g/ind. Experimental design was set in completely randomized design. Each treatment was done in triplicates. The treatments were various additions of RBO to replace corn oil in the diet, which were 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. Feeding rate, feed efficiency, protein retention, fat retention, specific growth rate, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL (high-density lipoprotein, and hematology were used as evaluating parameters. The results showed that the growth performance, blood chemistry and hematology of fish decreased as the increasing of RBO level in the diet. These are caused by feed intake decreased significantly, which were 583.5 g to 145.6 g of treatments 0% to 100% RBO. Blood glucose, haemoglobin and specific growth of fish in the treatment of 0–100% RBO were 48.7–22.2 mg/dL, 7.6–5.4%, and 3.5–0.8%, respectively. The lowest survival was observed in fish fed 100% RBO (66.7%. Fish growth performance of 0% RBO was the best, so RBO could not be utilized yet as a source of fatty acid or corn oil replacement in tilapia diet. Keywords: free radical, HCN, Oreochromis sp., rubber seed oil  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan sebagai studi awal pemanfaatan minyak biji karet (MBK untuk pakan ikan nila dan mengevaluasi pengaruhnya terhadap pertumbuhan ikan nila. Ikan uji yang digunakan adalah ikan nila strain SULTANA dengan bobot awal rata-rata 8,33±0,07 g/ind. Penelitian didesain dalam rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dengan lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Perlakuan yang diuji berbagai sumbangan MBK untuk mengganti minyak jagung dalam pakan, yaitu 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, dan 100%. Selama pemeliharaan, beberapa parameter yang diukur adalah jumlah konsumsi pakan, efisiensi pakan, retensi protein, retensi lemak, laju pertumbuhan spesifik, glukosa, kolesterol, trigliserida, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, dan gambaran darah. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kinerja pertumbuhan, kimia darah dan gambaran darah ikan semakin menurun seiring dengan penambahan MBK dalam pakan. Hal ini disebabkan semakin menurunnya jumlah konsumsi pakan secara signifikan, yaitu 583,5 g menjadi 145,7 g dari perlakuan 0% ke 100% MBK. Glukosa darah, hemoglobin dan laju pertumbuhan spesifik ikan pada perlakuan 0–100% MBK masing-masing adalah 48,7–22,2 mg/dL, 7,6–5,4% dan 3,5–0,8%. Sintasan ikan terendah terjadi pada perlakuan 100% MBK, yaitu 66,7%. Kinerja pertumbuhan pada perlakuan 0% MBK adalah yang paling baik sehingga MBK belum dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber lemak menggantikan minyak jagung pada pakan ikan nila. Kata kunci: radikal bebas, HCN, Oreochromis sp., minyak biji karet

  8. Preparation of steam activated carbon from rubberwood sawdust (Hevea brasiliensis) and its adsorption kinetics

    Prakash Kumar, B.G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Shivakamy, K. [Centralised Waste Management Facility, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Miranda, Lima Rose [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Velan, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)]. E-mail: velan@annauniv.edu

    2006-08-25

    Activated carbon was produced from a biowaste product, rubberwood sawdust (RWSD) using steam in a high temperature fluidized bed reactor. Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of various process parameters such as activation time, activation temperature, particle size and fluidising velocity on the quality of the activated carbon. The activated carbon was characterized based on its iodine number, methylene blue number, Brauner Emmet Teller (BET) surface area and surface area obtained using the ethylene glycol mono ethyl ether (EGME) retention method. The best quality activated carbon was obtained at an activation time and temperature of 1 h and 750 deg. C for an average particle size of 0.46 mm. The adsorption kinetics shows that pseudo-second-order rate fitted the adsorption kinetics better than pseudo-first-order rate equation. The adsorption capacity of carbon produced from RWSD was found to be 1250 mg g{sup -1} for the Bismark Brown dye. The rate constant and diffusion coefficient for intraparticle transport were determined for steam activated carbon. The characteristic of the prepared activated carbon was found comparable to the commercial activated carbon.

  9. Lipid transfer protein from Hevea brasiliensis (Hev b 12), a cross-reactive latex protein

    Beezhold, Donald H.; Hickey, Vicky L.; Kostyal, David A.; Puhl, Henry; Zuidmeer, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Sussman, Gordon L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Latex-allergic individuals experience clinical cross-reactivity to a large number of fruits and vegetables. Much of the cross-reactivity can be attributed to Hev b 6, but evidence indicates that additional cross-reactive allergens may be present. A common pan-allergen, which has not

  10. Biodegradation of Hevea brasiliensis wood by Rigidoporus lignosus and Phellinus noxius

    Geiger, J.P.; Rio, B.; Nicole, M.; Nandris, D.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro wood slats degradation assays reveal that both the white root rot fungus R. lignosus and the brown root rot fungus P. noxius cause a white rot of wood. In vivo (infected tap roots) they cause the same type of decay. Nevertheless lignin determination show the rubber-tree ability to react against the parasite aggression by increased lignification of tissues.

  11. Variation of Soil Bacterial Communities in a Chronosequence of Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis Plantations

    Yu-Jie Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Regarding rubber tree plantations, researchers lack a basic understanding of soil microbial communities; specifically, little is known about whether or not soil microbial variation is correlated with succession in these plantations. In this paper, we used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate the diversity and composition of the soil bacterial communities in a chronosequence of rubber tree plantations that were 5, 10, 13, 18, 25, and 30 years old. We determined that: (1 Soil bacterial diversity and composition show changes over the succession stages of rubber tree plantations. The diversity of soil bacteria were highest in 10, 13, and 18 year-old rubber tree plantations, followed by 30 year-old rubber tree plantations, whereas 5 and 25 year-old rubber tree plantations had the lowest values for diversity. A total of 438,870 16S rDNA sequences were detected in 18 soil samples from six rubber tree plantations, found in 28 phyla, 66 classes, 139 orders, 245 families, 355 genera, and 645 species, with 1.01% sequences from unclassified bacteria. The dominant phyla were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia (relative abundance large than 3%. There were differences in soil bacterial communities among different succession stages of rubber tree plantation. (2 Soil bacteria diversity and composition in the different stages was closely related to pH, vegetation, soil nutrient, and altitude, of which pH, and vegetation were the main drivers.

  12. Soil Carbon Stocks Decrease following Conversion of Secondary Forests to Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Plantations

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Xu, Jianchu; Corre, Marife D.; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2013-01-01

    Forest-to-rubber plantation conversion is an important land-use change in the tropical region, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. In montane mainland southeast Asia, monoculture rubber plantations cover 1.5 million ha and the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations is predicted to cause a fourfold expansion by 2050. Our study, conducted in southern Yunnan province, China, aimed to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks following the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations. We sampled 11 rubber plantations ranging in age from 5 to 46 years and seven secondary forest plots using a space-for-time substitution approach. We found that forest-to-rubber plantation conversion resulted in losses of soil carbon stocks by an average of 37.4±4.7 (SE) Mg C ha−1 in the entire 1.2-m depth over a time period of 46 years, which was equal to 19.3±2.7% of the initial soil carbon stocks in the secondary forests. This decline in soil carbon stocks was much larger than differences between published aboveground carbon stocks of rubber plantations and secondary forests, which range from a loss of 18 Mg C ha−1 to an increase of 8 Mg C ha−1. In the topsoil, carbon stocks declined exponentially with years since deforestation and reached a steady state at around 20 years. Although the IPCC tier 1 method assumes that soil carbon changes from forest-to-rubber plantation conversions are zero, our findings show that they need to be included to avoid errors in estimating overall ecosystem carbon fluxes. PMID:23894456

  13. Alterações morfofisiológicas em folhas de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. consorciado com seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. Morphophysiological alternations in leaves of Cofeea arabica L. plants in consort with Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Erivaldo Alves do Nascimento

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo da seringueira em monocultivo ou consorciada com cafeeiro surge como alternativa promissora e uma opção para os cafeeicultores frente às constantes oscilações da produção e do mercado. Porém, a produtividade de ambas as culturas é fortemente afetada pelas variações climáticas e pelo sistema de cultivo adotado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da variação dos fatores do clima e dos sistemas de cultivo sobre as trocas gasosas, eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II (FV/FM e anatomia foliar do cafeeiro. Foram estudados quatro sistemas de cultivo: café em monocultivo (C, três fileiras de cafeeiros a cada fileira dupla de seringueira (SSCCCSS, uma fileira de cafeeiros a cada fileira de seringueira (SCS e três plantas de café a cada planta de seringueira na mesma fileira (SCSCS. As plantas dos sistemas (SSCCCSS, (SCS e (SCSCS apresentaram os menores valores de taxas fotossintéticas (A, condutância estomática (gs, transpiração (E e maiores valores para a razão Fv/Fm. As plantas de café em (C apresentaram médias superiores de espessura dos parênquimas paliçádico e lacunoso, do limbo foliar, além de maior índice estomático em relação aos demais sistemas de cultivo, apresentando, dessa forma, plasticidade anatômica para a espécie, quando comparada às plantas de sol e sombreadas pela seringueira.One alternative to reduce the effects of the production instability and of the insecurity of world budget over coffee growers is the cultivation of rubber tree intercropped with coffee. However, the productivity of both cultures is affected strongly by the climatic variations and for the crop system. The objective of this research was to perform evaluations of gas exchanges, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm ratio and leaf anatomy of coffee trees in cropped in different systems with rubber tree and environment. Four intercropping systems were studied as described: full sun coffee (C, three coffee cultivation lines between double strip of rubber tree (SSCCCSS, one coffee cultivation line between rubber tree strips (SCS and three coffee plants for one rubber tree in the same cultivation line (SCSCS. The coffee plants of the (SSCCCSS, (SCS and (SCSCS systems showed smaller values of net photosynthesis rate (A, stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration (E and highest values of Fv/Fm ratio than that observed for the (C system. The coffee plants cropped in the (C system presented the highest average leaf thickness and also the largest thickness of palisade and lacunar parenchymas and stomatal index. These results indicate that coffee leaves have a great anatomic plasticity when cropped at full sun light or under shaded caused by rubber trees.

  14. Hevea brasiliensis natural rubber latex film vulcanization by gamma radiation containing n-butyl acrylate: properties and morphology; Filme de latex de borracha natural de Hevea brasiliensis vulcanizado por radiacao gama contendo acrilato de n-butila: propriedades e morfologia

    Rodrigues, Ana Paula Pinho; Barros, Glaucione Gomes de [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Guedes, Selma M.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    Radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) in the presence of n-butyl acrylate (n-Ba) as sensitizer was carried out. The RVNRL films were investigated with respect to their thermal properties and morphology. The films presented two T{sub g} values obtained by DSC which were identified as due to linear and crosslinked domains. The thermal stability of the material was similar to that of linear material rubber. The morphology showed smooth regular surface characteristic of homogeneous phase domains. (author)

  15. Optimization of invertase assay conditions in rubber tree plants (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. Otimização das condiçõess do ensaio da invertase em seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Daria Pimenta de Oliveira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to define the optimal conditions for invertase assay, seeking to determine the ideal parameters for the different isoenzymes of leaf and bark tissues in adult rubber trees. Assays of varying pH, sucrose concentration and temperature of the reaction medium were conducted for the two investigated isoenzymes. The results pointed out the existence of two different pH related isoforms for the two analyzed tissues, with an isoenzyme being more active at pH 5,5 and the other at neutral/alkaline pH. Leaf blade isoenzymes presented similar values for substrate concentration, whereas the bark isoenzyme presented maximum values below those previously reported. The assays at different temperatures presented similar values for leaf isoenzymes, though they have differed significantly among the obtained values.O objetivo deste trabalho foi definir as condições ótimas para a realização do ensaio enzimático da invertase, procurando-se determinar os parâmetros ideais para as diferentes isoenzimas de tecidos foliares e da casca de plantas adultas de seringueira. Foram realizados ensaios variando-se o pH, a concentração da sacarose e a temperatura do meio de reação para as duas isoenzimas estudadas. Os resultados indicaram a existência de duas isoformas diferentes em relação ao pH nos dois tecidos analisados, sendo uma isoenzima mais ativa a pH 5,5 e outra em pH neutro/alcalino. Com relação à concentração do substrato, as isoenzimas da lâmina foliar apresentaram valores semelhantes, enquanto a isoenzima da casca, valores máximos inferiores aos observados anteriormente. Os ensaios conduzidos em diferentes temperaturas tiveram valores semelhantes nas isoenzimas da folha, embora tenham diferido significativamente entre dos valores obtidos.

  16. Study on Pollen Quality and Quantity as Protein Source of Honeybee Apis mellifera In Rubber Plantation Area (Hevea brasiliensis

    Sri Minarti

    2009-08-01

    The conclusion of this research is during migratory beekeeping in the area of rubber plantation, bees get pollen low amounts of protein and amino acid levels below the requirement. Keywords : Pollen, Protein, Amino Acids, Honey Bee, Rubber

  17. Optimisation on pretreatment of rubber seed (Hevea brasiliensis) oil via esterification reaction in a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor.

    Bokhari, Awais; Chuah, Lai Fatt; Yusup, Suzana; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Kamil, Ruzaimah Nik M

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment of the high free fatty acid rubber seed oil (RSO) via esterification reaction has been investigated by using a pilot scale hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) reactor. Four newly designed orifice plate geometries are studied. Cavities are induced by assisted double diaphragm pump in the range of 1-3.5 bar inlet pressure. An optimised plate with 21 holes of 1mm diameter and inlet pressure of 3 bar resulted in RSO acid value reduction from 72.36 to 2.64 mg KOH/g within 30 min of reaction time. Reaction parameters have been optimised by using response surface methodology and found as methanol to oil ratio of 6:1, catalyst concentration of 8 wt%, reaction time of 30 min and reaction temperature of 55°C. The reaction time and esterified efficiency of HC was three fold shorter and four fold higher than mechanical stirring. This makes the HC process more environmental friendly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of moisture content on some physical and mechanical properties of juvenile rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Buhnnum Kyokong

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content of rubberwood is an important factor influencing its physical and mechanical behaviours. This research aimed at quantifying effect of moisture content on physical and mechanical properties of juvenile rubberwood core. The specimens at various moisture contents were tested in compression and shear parallel to grain. Information was gathered to determine shrinkage, density and specific gravity of specimens. The equilibrium moisture content determined from desorption experiment, was well described by the Hailwood-Horrobin solution theory. Moisture content of 23+4% best represented the value of apparent fiber saturation point, Mp, determined from physical and mechanical properties data. Above Mp, values of all physical and mechanical properties examined were fairly constant. Maximum volumetric shrinkage from moisture content above Mp to an oven-dry condition was 8.2+1.8%. Specific gravity and density were 0.55+0.03 and 614+30 kg/m3 at 12% moisture content. Below Mp, ultimate compressive stress (UCS parallel to grain, ultimate shear stress parallel to grain, modulus of elasticity (MOE for compression parallel to grain, and shear modulus parallel to grain increased exponentially with decreasing moisture content. Shear strain at fracture and work to fracture of shear parallel to grain were found to increase as moisture content decreased below Mp and attained the maximum values at 20% and 12% moisture content, respectively. The values decreased with further lowering of the level of moisture content. Ultimate compressive stress (UCS parallel to grain was closely correlated with specific gravity and was more sensitive to changes in moisture content at higher specific gravity level.

  19. The patatin-like protein from the latex of Hevea brasiliensis (Hev b 7) is not a vacuolar protein

    Jekel, PA; Hofsteenge, J; Beintema, JJ

    Upon centrifugation, rubber latex is divided into a layer of rubber particles, the cytosol, and the lutoid-body fraction, which is of vacuolar origin. One of the proteins isolated from the lutoid-body fraction is a protein with a molecular mass of 43 kDa, which has esterase activity on

  20. Rubber Fruit Shell (Hevea brasiliensis) as bio sorbent to remove FFA (Free Fatty Acid) content in CPO (Crude Palm Oil)

    Pandia, S.; Sinaga, M. S.; Masyithah, Z.; Husin, A.; Nurfadilla, S.; Fitriani; Sipahutar, B. K. S.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to discover the effectiveness of the shell of rubber fruit as bio sorbent for removing FFA (Free Fatty Acid) content in CPO (Crude Palm Oil). Methods used in this study were pretreatment, activation (carbonating and chemically) and adsorption process at room temperature. In the beginning, the shell of rubber fruit was cleaned and dried under the sun. Then the shell was cut for about 0.5 cm of length and carbonated in a furnace for 1h at 600°C. After that, they were crushed to pass through 140 meshes and activated using three variations of chemical such as 6 of HNO3, 6N of KOH and 6N of H3PO4 at certain ratio as 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5 (b/v). The adsorption process was carried out using bio sorbent with the highest iodine number in varying bio sorbent dosage and contact time. The highest iodine number was 913.680 mg/g and obtained at the ratio of bio sorbent to 6N of KOH as 1:5. The best removal of FFA content was 91.94% and at 1% bio sorbent dose and 30 min of contact time.

  1. Effect of Hevea brasiliensis latex sap gel on healing of acute skin wounds induced on the back of rats

    Maria Vitória Carmo Penhavel

    Full Text Available Objective : to evaluate the effect of topical delivery of latex cream-gel in acute cutaneous wounds induced on the back of rats. Methods : we subjected sixteen rats to dermo-epidermal excision of a round dorsal skin flap, with 2.5cm diameter. We divided the animals into two groups: Latex Group: application of cream-gel-based latex throughout the wound bed on postoperative days zero, three, six and nine; Control group: no treatment on the wound. Photographs of the lesions were taken on the procedure day and on the 6th and 14th postoperative days, for analyzing the area and the larger diameter of the wound. We carried out euthanasia of all animals on the 14th postoperative day, when we resected he dorsal skin and the underlying muscle layer supporting the wound for histopathological study. Results : there was no statistically significant difference in the percentage of wound closure, in the histopathological findings or in the reduction of the area and of the largest diameter of the wounds among the groups studied on the 14th postoperative day. Conclusion : according to the experimental conditions in which the study was conducted, latex cream-gel did not interfere in the healing of acute cutaneous wounds in rats.

  2. Natural rubber producing plants: An overview | Venkatachalam ...

    ... Hevea and also other natural rubber producing species for alternative source of latex production in the near future. Keywords: Alternative rubber sources, biotechnology, breeding, Hevea brasiliensis, Parthenium argentatum, Taraxacum koksaghyz, Ficus bengalensis, Lactuca serriola. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  3. Sample Set (SE): SE28 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Full Text Available SE28 Comparison of leaf metabolites among developmental stages of Hevea brasiliensi...s Investigation of Hevea brasiliensis leaf metabolites. 4 developmental stages and 6 replicates data are exa

  4. PENGARUH CAMPURAN ASAM SEMUT DENGAN ASAP CAIR CANGKANG KELAPA SAWIT TERHADAP BAU DAN WAKTU KECEPATAN BEKU LATEKS KARET (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg

    Diana Ulfah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to find out the effect of formic acid mixture with palm oil shell smoke to rubber agglomeration in terms of odor and latex freezing rate, to know the optimum concentration of formic acid mixing with palm oil shell liquid, to optimize the use of liquid smoke of palm shell in order to minimize the use of formic acid and to compare the quick-frozen time of mixed coagulant ingredients using coconut shell liquid cocoa coagulant in latex clotting process. The research procedure is that the latex is inserted into some baking sheet and each of the pans is mixed with coagulant formic acid and palm oil shell liquid with the concentration of ants acid 2.5%, 5%, 7,5%, 10%, 12,5% 15%, 100% and liquid smoke concentration 70%, 755, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 100% 10 ml. The research parameters are the odor and level of latex freezing in rubber clotting process. The results show that mixing of formic acid coagulant material with liquid smoke of palm shell can accelerate the process of clotting latex (equivalent to acid ant, deodorizer that disturbs the society and time; and cost makes efficient and minimizes the use of formic acid. The optimum concentration of mixed coagulant material is 15% formic acid concentration + 70% palm oil shell liquid with average fast freeze time 5-6 minutes latex perliter or equivalent with coagulant material from formic acid. Keywords: formic acid; liquid smoke; palm shell; latex Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh campuran asam semut dengan asap cair cangkang kelapa sawit terhadap penggumpalan karet dari segi bau dan kecepatan beku lateks, mengetahui konsentrasi optimum pencampuran asam semut dengan asap cair cangkang kelapa sawit, mengoptimalkan penggunaan asap cair cangkang kelapa sawit sehingga meminimalkan penggunaan asam semut dan membandingkan waktu cepat beku penggunaan bahan koagulan campuran dengan bahan koagulan asap cair tempurung kelapa dalam proses penggumpalan lateks. Prosedur penelitian yaitu lateks dimasukkan kedalam beberapa loyang kemudian masing-masing loyang dibubuhi bahan koagulan campuran asam semut dan asap cair cangkang sawit dengan tingkat konsentrasi asam semut 2,5%, 5%, 7,5%, 10%, 12,5%, 15%, 100% dan konsentrasi asap cair 70%, 755, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%,100% sebanyak 10 ml. Parameter penelitian yaitu bau dan kecepatan beku lateks dalam proses penggumpalan karet. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pencampuran bahan koagulan asam semut dengan asap cair cangkang kelapa sawit mempunyai kelebihan dapat mempercepat proses penggumpalan lateks (setara asam semut, penghilang bau busuk yang selama ini mengganggu masyarakat dan mengefisienkan waktu dan biaya serta meminimalkan penggunaan asam semut. Konsentrasi optimum bahan koagulan campuran yaitu konsentrasi asam semut 15% + asap cair cangkang kelapa sawit 70% dengan rata-rata waktu cepat beku 5-6 menit perliter lateks atau setara dengan penggunaan bahan koagulan dari asam semut. Kata kunci: Asam semut; asap cair; cangkang kelapa sawit; lateks

  5. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN PUPUK UREA DAN APLIKASI HERBISIDA PRA-TUMBUH TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT KARET (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg. DAN GULMA DI PEMBIBITAN

    Yakup Parto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Research was carried out at green house of Agriculture Faculty of Sriwijaya University from October 2010 to January 2011 using split-split plot design. Main plot were pre-emergence herbicides :  H0 = no preemergence herbicide treatment (control, H1 = preemergence herbicide of methyl metsulfuron, and H2 = preemergence herbicide of ametryn. Subplot were dose of urea fertilizers : U0 = no urea fertilizer treatment (control, U1 = 2 gram of urea fertilizer per plant, and U2 = 4 gram of urea fertilizer per plant. Sub-sub plot were preemergence dosages : D0 = 0 liter formulation per ha, D1 = 1,5 liter formulation per ha, and D2 = 3,0 liter formulation per ha. Parameters measured were diameter of sleep eye stum, time of bud emergence, height of bud, number of leaves, percentage of growth seedling, weed growth, and efficiency of weed control. Results showed that kind of preemergence herbicides, urea fertilizer dosages, and preemergence herbicide dosages were no significant effect to weed dry weight due to weed growing were relative small. This supposed because soil which used as growth media no enough contain weed propagule, so the following research are need conducted.

  6. Isolation of a furan fatty acid from Hevea brasiliensis latex employing the combined use of pH-zone-refining and conventional countercurrent chromatography.

    Englert, Michael; Ulms, Kerstin; Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2016-02-01

    Furan fatty acids are valuable and bioactive minor fatty acids that usually contribute chromatography. A first run using pH-zone-refining countercurrent chromatography provided 48.4 mg of 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid from 210 mg latex extract in a purity of 95%. The purity was increased to 99% by means of one second run in conventional countercurrent chromatography mode. The Structure and purity of 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Caracterización y evaluación del tiempo de vulcanización de caucho natural colombiano obtenido de tres variedades clonales de hevea brasiliensis

    Velásquez, Sandra M.; Giraldo, Diego H.

    2014-01-01

    En las últimas décadas se desarrollan en Colombia importantes proyectos productivos de caucho natural, pero aún hay aspectos por estudiar sobre las propiedades de los materiales producidos. En este trabajo se caracteriza mediante FTIR, DSC y TGA caucho natural obtenido de las variedades clonales FX3864, IAN710 e IAN873 predominantes en Tarazá, Antioquia, comparándolo con caucho de Guatemala SGR10 y caucho técnicamente especificado de Caquetá-Colombia. Se obtuvieron compuestos de caucho siguie...

  8. KERAGAMAN VEGETASI GULMA DI BAWAH TEGAKAN POHON KARET ( Hevea brasiliensis PADA UMUR DAN ARAH LERENG YANG BERBEDA DI PTPN IX BANYUMAS

    Bhaskara Anggarda Gathot Subroto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in PTPN IX Afdeling Krumput Banyumas in July 2016, with observational survey method is by field orientation, exploration, and analysis of vegetation. The data collection is done by means of interviews and direct observation. Preliminary surveys conducted to seek information from relevant agencies, environmental conditions around the rubber planting. The main survey is done to take samples of weeds in every age group, every group performed 5 times the sampling is considered to represent the age group. The variables measured were type of weed, SDR, and the coefficient Communities (C.The results showed that the weed dominant in the younger age group (1-5 years: Cyperus Kyllingia, Axonopus compressus, Clibadium Surinames, adolescent age group (6-10 years: Cyperus Kyllingia, Paspalum conjugatum Berg, Calopogonium mucuinoides Desv., Group age youth (11-15 years: Cyperus Kyllingia, Paspalum conjugatum Berg, Chromolaena odorata., adult group (16-20 years: Eleusine indica, Paspalum conjugatum Berg, Chromolaena odorata, then the dominant weeds on the slopes of the West-East direction (BT is Calopogonium mucuinoides Desv., Clibadium Surinames, Paspalum conjugatum Berg, and the dominant weed species in the North-South direction of the slope (US is Calopogonium mucuinoides Desv., Paspalum conjugatum Berg., and Axonopus compressus. Weeds dominant age group and Directions Slope is Cyperus killingia and Eleusine indica (L, Paspalum conjugatum Berg, Axonopus compressus, Clibadium Surinames and Calopogonium mucuinoides Desv.Keywords : weeds, rubber tree, group age, slopes, SDR

  9. Plantas de ocorrência espontânea como substratos alternativos para fitoseídeos (Acari, Phytoseiidae em cultivos de seringueira Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae Weeds as alternative substrates to phytoseiids (Acari, Phytoseiidae in rubber tree Hevea brasilienis, Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae cultivation

    Marcos Roberto Bellini

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de plantas espontâneas em áreas de cultivo de seringueira que poderiam servir com reservatório de ácaros predadores. O trabalho foi conduzido em Olímpia, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em dois cultivos de seringueira. A cada três meses, cerca de 1.000 cm³ de folhas de cada uma das cinco espécies de plantas espontâneas dominantes em cada cultivo foi tomada para determinar os fitoseídeos. Como as plantas espontâneas dominantes variaram durante o estudo, um total de 20 espécies foi verificado. Somente Cecropia sp. foi dominante em todo estudo, em ambos os cultivos. Um total de 336 fitoseídeos pertencentes às seguintes espécies foi encontrado: Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970, E. concordis (Chant, 1959, Galendromus annectens (DeLeon, 1958, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972, Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965 e N. tunus (DeLeon, 1967. E. citrifolius (189 espécimes e N. tunus (138 espécimes foram os mais abundantes. A maior abundância (231espécimes e diversidade (5 espécies foram observadas sobre Cecropia sp. Sobre esta planta foi encontrado o maior número de ácaros por amostra (29 espécimes, seguida por Piper duncum Linnaeus (22, Guarea sp. (18 e Ageratum conyzoides Linnaeus (12. E. citrifolius tem sido determinado como um dos ácaros predadores mais abundantes sobre seringueiras cultivadas na região onde este trabalho foi conduzido. Cecropia sp. parece ser uma das plantas espontâneas mais importantes consideradas como reservatório de E. citrifolius porque está continuamente presente nos cultivos. Estudos complementares poderiam indicar a viabilidade de se manejar esta planta nas áreas de cultivo de seringueira para permitir o controle biológico dos ácaros-praga desta cultura.The objective of this study was to determine weed species of rubber tree cultivation areas that could serve as reservoirs of predatory mites. The work was conducted in Olímpia, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in two rubber tree plantations. Every three months, about 1.000 cm³ of leaves of each one of the five dominant weeds in each plantation was taken to determine the phytoseiids. As the dominant weeds varied during the study, a total of 20 species were evaluated. Only Cecropia sp. was a dominant weed throughout the study, in both plantations. A total of 336 phytoseiids of the following species were found: Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970, E. concordis (Chant, 1959, Galendromus annectens (DeLeon, 1958, Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, 1972, Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker, 1965 and N. tunus (DeLeon, 1967. E. citrifolius (189 specimens and N. tunus (138 specimens were the most abundant species. The highest abundance (231 specimens and diversity (5 species were observed on Cecropia sp. On this plant was found the largest number of mites per sample (29 specimens, followed by Piper duncum Linnaeus (22, Guarea sp. (18 and Ageratum conyzoides Linnaeus (12. E. citrifolius has been determined as the most abundant predatory mite on rubber trees in the region where this work was conducted. Cecropia sp. seems to be the most important of the weeds considered as reservoir of E. citrifolius because it is continuously present in the plantations. Complementary studies could indicate the viability of managing this weed in or around rubber tree plantations to promote the biological control of mite pests on that crop.

  10. Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg. plantadas de sementes: II - Produtividade de 100 plantas do seringal mirim, em Manaus Observations on the latex production of seedlings of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.: II - Study of 100 rubber trees of the seringal mirim, Manaus

    Luiz O. T. Mendes

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho é feito um estudo da produtividade de 100 seringueiras plantadas de sementes, existentes no Seringal Mirim, em Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, quando tinham a idade de 30 anos. Os resultados se referem à produção obtida de sangrias feitas a meia espiral, em dois regimes de trabalho: a sangria todos os dias (de maio a julho de 1943; b sangria em dias alternados (de agôsto a dezembro de 1943. Tais resultados mostram que, no conjunto de plantas estudado, as de maior produção logo se sobressairam das demais, em qualquer dos regimes de sangria a que foram submetidas; mostram também que, de um modo geral, a mudança do regime de sangria todos os dias para o de sangria em dias alternados provocou um aumento na produção individual, por sangria, tanto mais pronunciado quanto menor foi a produtividade da planta no regime de sangria diária. É também apresentado o resultado do estudo da distribuição, dentro da população, das plantas e conjuntos de plantas classificadas de acordo com sua produtividade, por onde se verifica que umo quarta parte da população foi responsável pela produção de quase 60% do látex total colhido em qualquer dos regimes de sangria adotados. Êsses resultados mostram a possibilidade da formação de seringais de produção relativamente boa, a partir de sementes não selecionadas, desde que plantados inicialmente com densidades bastante elevadas, que permitam posteriores desbastes para a eliminação da maior parte da população, representada pelas plantas de baixa produção.The results of eight month tappings (half-spiral cut of 100 seedlings of rubber trees, 30 years old, are presented. From May to July 1943 the trees were tapped every day; from August to December, every other day. The change of the tapping system, from daily to every other day, caused an increase in the individual yield, per tapping; this yield increase was more pronounced in the low production plants. The study of the plants as a group presented the following results, respectively for daily and every other day tapping systems: a 10% of the population yielded 31 and 31 % of the total production; b 25% of the population yielded 58 and 57% of the total production; c 50% of the population yielded 83 and 80% of the total production; d 75% of the population yielded 95 and 94% of the total production. The results show the possibility of using unselected seeds as commercial planting material, provided the seedlings are planted at very high density in the field, in order to permit the elimination of most of the plants (the lowest yielders.

  11. Trocas gasosas de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. e seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. em diferentes sistemas de cultivo na região de larvas, MG Gas exchange in coffe (Coffea arabica L. and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. in different crop systems in lavras, MG

    Cláudio Roberto Meira de Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso de sistemas de cultivo agrícola que favorecem a conservação dos recursos naturais e a diversidade de produção representa uma alternativa para produtores que visam menores custos em uma produção sustentável. Dentre esses sistemas de cultivo, destaca-se o sistema de consórcio entre cafeeiros e seringueiras, que tem sido estudado na região sul de Minas Gerais. Nesse contexto, avaliaram-se características de trocas gasosas, fluorescência da clorofila e relações hídricas de cafeeiros e seringueiras, em monocultivo e consórcio, na fase de implantação dos cultivos, com o objetivo de verificar o comportamento dessas espécies em diferentes sistemas de cultivo. Os resultados apontaram que um ambiente caracterizado por níveis de radiação e temperatura menores favorece as trocas gasosas do cafeeiro, enquanto maior disponibilidade hídrica e valores elevados de radiação são favoráveis ao desenvolvimento da seringueira quando em sistemas consorciados.Crop systems that improve conservation of natural resources and diversity of production is a promising practice for farmers seeking low costs and a sustainable agriculture. The coffee - rubber tree intercropping has been studied in the south of Minas Gerais - Brazil. Within this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate the characteristics gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and water relations of coffee and rubber tree in both intercropping and monocroping systems, in the early stage of the plantation establishment. The results showed that the reduction in radiation levels and temperature promote gas exchange increase in coffee, while higher photosynthetic radiation values and soil water availability are favorable to rubber tree in intercropping systems.

  12. Photosynthetic behaviour during the leaf ontogeny of rubber tree clones[Hevea brasiliensis (Wild. ex. Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg.], in Lavras, MG Comportamento fotossintético durante a ontogenia foliar de clones de seringueira, [Hevea brasiliensis (Wild. ex. Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg.], em Lavras, MG

    Aurélio Antas Miguel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This work proposed to investigate changes in the photosynthetic behavior during the leaf ontogeny of the during the leaf development. Up to the 32nd day of leaf age (stage B2, the net photosynthesis was negative due to the inefficiency of the photosynthetic system, and this fact was justified by the following factors: low chlorophyll content, less stomatal conductance, high rubber tree clones PB 235, RRIM 600 and GT 1, in Lavras, MG. The experiment was performed in 2004, between May and July, under field conditions, at the Universidade Federal de Lavras. During the leaf ontogeny, the following characteristics were evaluated: chlorophyll content, gaseous exchanges and chlorophyll fluorescence. The clones presented similar profiles of alterations in the physiological characteristics internal CO2 levels and low chlorophyll fluorescence. From the 37th day of leaf age, net photosynthesis became positive and gradually higher, stimulated by the increases in the chlorophyll contents, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, carboxylation efficiency, stomatal conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency. Among the clones, photosynthetic behavior was similar, reaching maximum performance on the 57th day of leaf age (stage D, when clone RRIM 600 showed the highest net photosynthesis, differing from the clones PB 235 and GT 1.Este trabalho, propôs-se a investigar mudanças no comportamento fotossintético durante a ontogenia foliar dos clones de seringueira PB 235, RRIM 600 e GT 1, em Lavras, MG. O experimento foi realizado no período de maio a julho de 2004, em condições de campo, na Universidade Federal de Lavras. Durante a ontogenia foliar avaliaram-se as seguintes características: os teores de clorofilas, as trocas gasosas e a fluorescência da clorofila. Os clones apresentaram perfis semelhantes de alterações nas características fisiológicas avaliadas durante o desenvolvimento foliar. Até o 32º dia de idade foliar (estádio B2, a fotossíntese líquida foi negativa, devido à ineficiência do sistema fotossintético, sendo esta justificada pelos seguintes fatores: reduzidos teores de clorofilas, menor condutância estomática, alta concentração interna de CO2 e baixa fluorescência de clorofilas. A partir do 37º dia de idade foliar, a fotossíntese líquida tornou-se positiva e gradativamente maior, estimulada por aumentos nos teores de clorofilas, eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II, eficiência de carboxilação, condutância estomática, transpiração e eficiência no uso da água. Entre os clones, o comportamento fotossintético foi semelhante, atingindo desempenho máximo no 57º dia de idade foliar (estádio D, quando o clone RRIM 600 apresentou a maior taxa de fotossíntese líquida diferenciando-se significativamente dos clones PB 235 e GT 1.

  13. Lignocellulosic fiber reinforced rubber composites

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural Rubber (NR) is a naturally occurring elastomeric polymer of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene). It can be extracted from latex of only one kind of tree, the Hevea braziliensis. Hevea rubber is produced in many tropical regions of Southeast...

  14. Thermal-kinetic study of natural rubber latex films vulcanized by using gamma radiation; Estudo termo-cinetico de filmes de latex de borracha natural de Hevea brasiliensis vulcanizada por radiacao gama

    Leal, Ana Paula Pinho Rodrigues; Barros, Glaucione Gomes de [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Guedes, Selma M.L. [Instituto de Pesquisa em Energia Nuclear, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    Vulcanization of natural rubber latex by ionization radiation produces the crosslink in disperse latex particles. Advantages over conventional process of vulcanization are: the absence of carcinogenic nitrosamines, low cytotoxicity and better degradation at room conditions, due to mainly to the absence of sulfur, zinc oxide and dithiocarbamates. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) is the measurement of the weight change of a material as a function of temperature and time. TG data different heat speed provide an alternative model of the kinetics of degradation of polymeric materials. The kinetic studies of this material showed a single degradation process at least for 76,5% of mass loss. The activation energy was 49 Kcal/mol. For higher mass loss (85%) the degradation was characterized by associate mechanism. (author)

  15. Analyse des interactions entre les racines d'hévéa (Hevea brasiliensis Muel. Arg.) et de cultures intercalaires dans les jeunes plantations du Nord-Est de la Thaïlande

    Gonkhamdee , Santimaitree

    2010-01-01

    For obvious agronomic and environmental reasons, being able to design and implement agro-ecosystems in which crops have optimal access to resources is of pivotal importance to all stakeholders involved in agricultural production. Intensification techniques such as agro-forestry or the introduction of inter-crops aim to increase land productivity while conserving geochemical cycles, to ensure the sustainability of agro-ecosystems through an optimized use of environmental resources (light, wate...

  16. Observações sôbre a produtividade de seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg. Plantadas de sementes: IV - Produtividade de 29 plantas existentes na travessa Itororó, Belém, Pá Observations on the latex production of seedlings of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis muell.-arg.: IV - Study of 29 rubber trees of the travessa Itororó, Belém, Pará

    Luiz O. T. Mendes

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados do estudo da produtividade de 29 seringueiras plantadas de sementes, existentes na Travessa Itororó, Belém, quando tinham a idade de 25 anos aproximadamente. Os resultados se referem à produção obtida de sangrias feitas a meia espiral, em dois regimes de trabalho: a em dias alternados, de 16 de setembro de 1943 a 31 de março de 1944; b todos os dias úteis, de 1.° de abril a 30 de setembro de 1944. Do conjunto de seringueiras estudadas os resultados mostram que a melhor planta logo após as primeiras sangrias já se classificara em primeiro lugar, quanto à produção. Os dados revelam também que houve pequena diminuição na produção média da população, ao passar para o regime de sangria diária; observou-se no entanto, que o decréscimo de produção foi mois pronunciado e freqüente entre as plantas de maior produtividade médio no regime de sangria em dias alternados. O estudo da população como um todo mostra que uma pequena parcela das plantas contribuiu com grande parte da produção; em ambos os regimes de trabalho, cerca de 25% da população de plantas foram responsáveis por aproximadamente 50% do produção de látex, e mais ou menos 50% da população de plantas produziram cerca de 75% da produção de látex. Tais resultados mostram a importância que se deve dar à eliminação precoce de plantas pouco produtivas, no caso de se fazerem plantações a partir de sementes não selecionadas.The results of 13 month tappings (half-spiral cut of 29 seedlings of rubber trees, approximately 25 years old, ore presented. From September 16, 1943 to March 31, 1944, the trees were tapped every other day; from Abril 1st, to September 30, 1944, every day. The change of the tapping system, from every other day to daily, caused a small decrease in the mean yield of the group, per tapping; this yield decrease was more pronounced and frequent in the high production plants. It must be remembered, however, that during the every day period of tapping the plants passed through regular hibernation. The study of the plants as a group presented the following results, respectively for every other doy and daily tapping systems: a 10.3% of the plant population yielded 27.0 and 24.9% of the total latex production; b 24.1% of the plant population yielded 49.5 and 45.0% of the total latex production; c 48.3% of the plant population yielded 75.8 and 70.7% of the total latex production; d 75.9% of the plant population yielded 92,7 and 90.4% of the total latex production.

  17. The use of radiotracers in natural rubber research in Malaysia

    Lai, P.F.; Singh, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Five main areas where radiotracers have been used in research on natural rubber are on studies on the uptake of plant nutrients by Hevea brasiliensis using 32 P, 86 Rb and 45 Ca as tracers; biosynthesis of Hevea rubber using 14 C or 3 H labelled intermediates; translocation and metabolism of 14 C. Ethephon in Hevea brasiliensis; use of radiotracers as analytical tools and adsorption of labelled fatty acid soaps on natural rubber lattices. These studies are discussed to show the powerful tool that radiotracers provide in agricultural, biochemical and chemical research on natural rubber. (author)

  18. Incidence of latex harvesting technologies on agronomic and ...

    Incidence of latex harvesting technologies on agronomic and physiological parameters and profitability of some rapid metabolic class clones of rubber tree ( Hevea brasiliensis ) in southwestern Côte d'Ivoire.

  19. The effect of Agrobacterium densities and inoculation times on gene ...

    admin

    2014-06-04

    Jun 4, 2014 ... rubber tree, genetic improvement has been very slow and time-consuming as the ..... Expression of human serum albumin in transgenic Hevea ... Identification of expression profiles of tapping panel dryness (TPD) associated ...

  20. PIGMENTOS FOTOSSINTÉTICOS EM CLONES DE SERINGUEIRA SOB ATAQUE DE OÍDIO

    Gisely Cristina Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. Of Juss. Muell. Arg.] can be affected by the occurrence of the fungus Oidium heveae, which causes one of the most important diseases of rubber trees, powdery mildew. This work meet changes in photosynthetic pigments, an indicator of oxidative stress, in seedlings of three Hevea brasiliensis clones, RRIM 600, GT1 and PR255, under infection in Oidium heveae. The experiment was conducted in an open environment under natural photoperiod conditions and at the beginning of the trial, the rubber plants that would be inoculated were sprayed with an aqueous suspension containing Oidium heveae at a concentration of 16 x 104 conidia mL-1. On the day of inoculation and after 48, 96, 144 and 192 h leaf samples were collected for the determination of photosynthetic pigments. Degradation in photosynthetic pigments in the period of infection was observed in rubber tree clones studied; thus, there is oxidative stress in clones of rubber trees. No promising genetic material for genetic improvement work stress tolerance by Oidium heveae was identified.

  1. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to an extract from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis latex and recombinant pollen allergens (Phl P 1, Phl P 2, Phl P 5, Bet v 1 and Bet v 2 in the sera of Italian atopic patients

    Renato E. Rossi

    2001-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the present study may support the concept that a high proportion of sera containing IgE to rBet v 2, rPhl p 1 and rPhl p 5 simultaneously contain antilatex IgE. Therefore, patients with specific IgE to these recombinant allergens with no history of current latex exposure may need additional evaluation.

  2. A review of the Mycrocylus ulei Ascomycetes fungus, causative agent of South American rubber-leaf blight

    Ibonne Aydee García-Romero

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Microcyclus ulei Ascomycetes fungus is the causal agent of south-American leaf blight (SALB, this being one of the most important diseases affecting the natural rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis in Latina-America and has been responsible for numerous economic losses. This fungus has presented high physiological variability, suggesting its great adaptability. HCN tolerance has been described as being one of the mechanisms associated with its virulence. Resistant Hevea clones have been obtained by genetic improvement; however, the mechanisms associated with this are still not well known. Greater knowledge of this pathogen will lead to developing new control strategies and better understanding of the mechanisms associated with host resistance. Key words: Microcyclus ulei, SALB, Hevea brasiliensis.

  3. Seasonality of pathogenic fungi in mites of rubber tree plantations adjacent to fragments of Cerrado

    PR. Demite

    Full Text Available Fungi are the most frequently observed pathogens of mite populations, helping to control them on different crops. Twenty-five samples of leaves were collected from rubber tree plantations adjacent to two fragments of Cerrado vegetation. Each rubber tree plantation had 25 plants selected for sampling and seven leaves from around each tree top were collected up to seven to eight meters above ground. Approximately 250 individuals of Calacarus heveae Feres, Phyllocoptruta seringueirae Feres, and Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, collected randomly, were mounted from each plantation. Hirsutella thompsoni Fisher was observed on all three mites and T. heveae was the most infected species. The highest infestation levels occurred from November to February (rainy season. In the dry season, infestation levels were below 5%. Hirsutella thompsonii has potential to be used as mycoacaricide during the rainy season.

  4. A review of the Mycrocylus ulei Ascomycetes fungus, causative agent of South American rubber-leaf blight Revisión sobre el hongo Microcyclus ulei, agente causal del mal suramericano de la hoja del caucho

    Ancízar Aristizábar Fabio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Microcyclus ulei Ascomycetes fungus is the causal agent of south-American leaf blight (SALB, this being one of the most important diseases affecting the natural rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis in Latina-America and has been responsible for numerous economic losses. This fungus has presented high physiological variability, suggesting its great adaptability. HCN tolerance has been described as being one of the mechanisms associated with its virulence. Resistant Hevea clones have been obtained by genetic improvement; however, the mechanisms associated with this are still not well known. Greater knowledge of this pathogen will lead to developing new control strategies and better understanding of the mechanisms associated with host resistance. Key words: Microcyclus ulei, SALB, Hevea brasiliensis.El hongo ascomycete Microcyclus ulei es el agente causal del SALB que es una de las enfermedades más importan­tes del árbol de caucho natural (Hevea brasiliensis en América Latina y ha sido responsable de numerosas pérdidas económicas. Este hongo ha presentado alta variabilidad fisiológica y se sugiere su alta adaptabilidad, dentro de los mecanismos asociados a su virulencia se ha descrito la tolerancia al HCN. Se han obtenido clones de Hevea resistentes mediante mejoramiento genético, sin embargo, aun no son bien conocidos los mecanismos asociados a ésta. Un mayor conocimiento de este patógeno permitirá el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias de control así como el mayor entendimiento de los mecanismos asociados a resistencia del hospedero. Palabras clave: Microcyclus ulei, SALB, Hevea brasiliensis.

  5. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 8, No 25 (2009)

    An overview of the potentials of natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) engineering for the production of valuable proteins · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... A review of the use of prebiotic in aquaculture for fish and shrimp · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  6. Effect of seasonal collection on callus Induction, proliferation and ...

    Hevea brasiliensis that is grown in Thailand and Southeast Asia is a very valuable source of natural rubber. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of seasonal effect on plantlet regenera-tion through somatic embryogenesis from anther culture. Thus, this study discussed the effect of season on ...

  7. Proteome analysis of interaction between rootstocks and scions in ...

    The main propagation method of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.) is by grafting. However, the molecular mechanism underlying rootstock-scion interactions remains poorly understood. Identification and analysis of proteins related to rootstock-scion interactions are the bases of clarifying the molecular mechanism ...

  8. Natural rubber producing plants: An overview

    User

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... Currently, Hevea brasiliensis has been only one resource for commercial natural rubber production. ...... ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES ... polymer chain. Combinations of an amine antioxidant and a zinc dialkyldithiocarbamate have been used to counter these effects, improving guayule rubber ...

  9. SYSTEMES DE RECOLTE DU LATEX ADAPTES A LA SAIGNEE ...

    AISA

    des arbres. Il s'agira de définir l'influence de ..... CIRAD-Cultures pérennes, éd.,. Montpellier, France .... Indian. Journal of Natural Rubber Research,. 15(1) : 66 - 71. Obouayeba S. 2005.Contribution à la ... Academy Hevea Malaysia, Malaysian.

  10. à l'encoche sèche

    Chez Hevea brasiliensis, la production de latex est affectée par l'encoche sèche qui se manifeste par l'arrêt de l'écoulement de ... coagulation pour donner le caoutchouc naturel. ..... relationship between latex sugar content, the metabolic ...

  11. Download this PDF file

    Dr Osondu

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... plantation is increasing in the rainforest zone of south southern Nigeria; however, the build-up of soil organic matter following ... matter in the soil during the course of forest regeneration from degraded abandoned rubber plantation. (Hevea brasiliensis). ..... microbial respiration. Nature 382:445-448.

  12. Total Nitrogen and Available Phosphorus Dynamics in Soils ...

    Total nitrogen and available phosphorus concentration of soils in three secondary forest fields aged 1, 5 and 10 years of age regenerating from degraded abandoned rubber plantation (Hevea brasiliensis) and a mature forest in the west African Rainforest belt in southern Nigeria were investigated in order to determine the ...

  13. Organic Matter Dynamics in Soils Regenerating from Degraded ...

    The area of secondary forest (SF) regenerating from degraded abandoned rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation is increasing in the rainforest zone of south southern Nigeria; however, the build-up of soil organic matter following abandonment is not well understood. This study examined the build-up of soil organic matter in ...

  14. Browse Title Index

    ... quelques caractéristiques dendrométriques de trois clones d'Hevea brasiliensis Muell ... en champ ecole et en champ de multiplication de semences a Karma (Niger) ... Extraction, purification et caractérisation de deux cellulases du termite, ...

  15. Assessment of the genetic diversity of natural rubber tree clones of the SINCHI Institutes clone collection, using of morphological descriptors

    Quesada Mendez, Isaac; Quintero Barrera, Lorena; Aristizabal, Fabio A; Rodriguez Acuna, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Genetic diversity of natural rubber clones of the in SINCHI Institute’s clone collection was assessed. Clones of Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. De Juss.) Muell.Arg., Hevea spp. (H. brasiliensis x H. benthamiana), and three more species of Hevea genus are a part of the collection. Seventy-two materials were characterized with twenty-eight morphological descriptors. They were later used to generate a similarity matrix through the analysis of multi-categorical variables, and to obtain clusters based on the matrix. A low variability between clones of H. brasiliensis and H. spp. was observed, presumably because of the direct descendants of most of the materials from crosses of parental PB 80, PB 5/51, PB 49 and Tjir, exception made of clone GU 1410. Clustering between some materials product of exclusive cross of PB series, a group between clones descendants of parental clones PB 86, and clustering between descendants of parental clones PB 5/51, were observed. Clones from other species of Hevea differ from this big group.

  16. Fulltext PDF

    Admin

    Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A.Juss.) Müll.Arg. (Para rubber tree) of the family Euphorbiaceae is a tall handsome tree widely distributed in the Amazon forests, sometimes planted as an ornamental and cultivated in most tropical countries. Tree upto 60 feet; leaves alternate or subopposite of 3 pinnate-veined leaflets. Leaflets ...

  17. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Namhai Chua; Kush, A.

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids.

  18. Down-Regulation of Small Rubber Particle Protein Expression Affects Integrity of Rubber Particles and Rubber Content in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum

    Hillebrand, A.; Post, J. J.; Wurbs, D.; Wahler, D.; Lenders, D.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Pruefer, D.; Gronover, CH. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 7 (2012), e41874:1-9 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Hevea - Brasiliensis * Parthenium-Argentatum * Elongation-Factor * Silencing Affects * Surface-Structure * Oil Bodies * Latex * Prenyltransferase * Biosynthesis * Stability Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  19. DEMONSTRATION BY MASS-SPECTROMETRY THAT PSEUDO-HEVEIN AND HEVEIN HAVE RAGGED C-TERMINAL SEQUENCES

    SOEDJANAATMADJA, UMS; HOFSTEENGE, J; JERONIMUSSTRATINGH, CM; BRUINS, AP; BEINTEMA, JJ

    1994-01-01

    The primary structure of pseudo-hevein, a minor hevein component from the latex of the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, was determined. Six differences with the sequence of the major hevein component were found, one of which is a replacement of tryptophan by tyrosine in the carbohydrate binding

  20. Green factories for liquid fuel

    Calvin, G.J.; Calvin, M.

    1978-04-01

    Various plants that could be and are being used for the production of synthetic fuels are discussed. Among these are Hevea brasiliensis, Euphorbia tirucalli, and Euphorbia lathyris. Advantages of fuel production from renewable plant resources are presented; cost estimates are included. (JGB)

  1. WET AND DRY SEASON ECOSYSTEM LEVEL FLUXES OF ISOPRENE AND MONOTERPENES FROM A SOUTHEAST ASIAN SECONDARY FOREST AND RUBBER TREE PLANTATION

    Canopy scale fluxes of isoprene and monoterpenes were investigated in both wet and dry seasons above a rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)/secondary tropical forest in the Yunnan province of southwestern China. Drought conditions were unusually high during the dry season experiment....

  2. Influence of plant growth regulators on somatic embryos induction ...

    TANOH

    2013-04-17

    Theobroma cacao L.) using Thidiazuron. In vitro Cell Dev. Biol. 34:293-299. Michaux-Ferrière N, Carron MP (1989). Histology of early somatic embryogenesis in Hevea brasiliensis. The importance of timing of subculturing. Plant Cell Tiss ...

  3. Proteins and amino acids as biobased polymer modifiers

    Natural rubber (NR) is a critical agricultural material vital to industry, medicine, and defense, yet global supply is largely limited to latex from Hevea brasiliensis cultivated in tropical regions. Guayule (Parthenium argentatum), a woody desert shrub indigenous to the U.S. and Mexico, is under de...

  4. Biobased products from rubber, jatropha and sunflower oil

    Bin Abu Ghazali, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    In dit proefschrift wordt onderzoek beschreven naar het identificeren van interessante producten uit de zaden van de rubber boom (Hevea brasiliensis). Deze zaden worden momenteel niet gebruikt en in vele rubberplantages gezien als afval. De zaden bestaan uit een harde schil (39 wt%) en een kern (61

  5. Plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from root explants of ...

    A system for induction of callus and plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis from root explants of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. clone Reyan 87-6-62 was evaluated. The influence of plant growth regulators (PGRs) including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and kinetin (KT) on ...

  6. Anatomical Variation in the Wall Thickness of Wood Fibres of ...

    The wall thickness of wood fibres of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) grown and tapped for latex in south eastern Nigeria were investigated to determine anatomical variation. The rubber trees which were overmature for tapping and keeping were sampled in hierarchical order of plantations, bud classes, trees, discs, cardinal ...

  7. Evaluation of incubated defatted rubber seed meal with sheep rumen liquor for Pangasius diet

    Muhammad Agus Suprayudi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The research evaluated the use of rubber seed meal (Hevea brasiliensis; RBS incubated with sheep rumen liquor as a subtitution of soybean meal in catfish Pangasionodon sp. diet. The fish was cultured for 40 days and fed with the experimental diet containing RBS at five different diet compositions regarding to soybean meal substitution level, i.e. 0% (control, 12%, 23%, 34%, and 44%. Feeding was done three times a day to satiation. No significant different was found on fish-protein retention and survival rate in all treatments. Based on the study result, the use of rubber-seed meal (Hevea brasiliensis; RBS incubated with sheep rumen liquor could substitute soybean meal in catfish Pangasionodon sp. diet. Keywords: Hevea brasiliensis, Pangasionodon sp., catfish, sheep rumen liquor, rubber seed meal  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini mengevaluasi penggunaan tepung bungkil biji karet (Hevea brasiliensis; TBBK yang diinkubasi dengan cairan rumen domba sebagai pengganti tepung bungkil kedelai pada pakan ikan patin Pangasionodon sp. Pemeliharaan ikan dilakukan selama 40 hari dengan pemberian lima komposisi pakan berbeda sesuai tingkat substitusi tepung bungkil kedelai oleh tepung bungkil karet. TBBK yang ditambahkan untuk mengganti bungkil kedelai adalah sebesar 0%, 12%, 23%, 34% dan 44%. Pemberian pakan dilakukan selama tiga kali sehari secara at satiation. Tidak ditemukan perbedaan signifikan (P>0,05 pada nilai retensi protein dalam tubuh dan kelangsungan hidup ikan uji pada semua perlakuan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa tepung bungkil biji karet yang diinkubasi dengan cairan rumen domba dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti bungkil kedelai pada pakan ikan patin Pangasionodon sp. Kata kunci: Hevea brasiliensis, Pangasionodon sp., patin, rumen domba, tepung biji karet 

  8. Structural characterization of rubber from jackfruit and euphorbia as a model of natural rubber.

    Mekkriengkrai, Dararat; Ute, Koiichi; Swiezewska, Ewa; Chojnacki, Tadeusz; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Sakdapipanich, Jitladda T

    2004-01-01

    A structural study of low molecular weight rubbers from Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Painted spurge (Euphorbia heterophylla) was carried out as model compounds of natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis. The rubber content of latex from Jackfruit was 0.4-0.7%, which is very low compared with that of 30-35% in the latex from Hevea tree. The rubber from Jackfruit latex was low molecular weight with narrow unimodal molecular weight distribution (MWD), whereas that obtained from E. heterophylla showed very broad MWD. The 1H and 13C NMR analyses showed that Jackfruit rubber consists of a dimethylallyl group and two trans-isoprene units connected to a long sequence of cis-isoprene units. The alpha-terminal group of Jackfruit rubber was presumed to be composed of a phosphate group based on the presence of 1H NMR signal at 4.08 ppm corresponding to the terminal =CH-CH2OP group.

  9. Evaluation of natural rubber from IAC series clones by solid state {sup 13}C NMR; Avaliacao da borracha natural de clones da serie IAC por {sup 13}C RMN no estado solido

    Martins, Maria A.; Moreno, Rogerio M.B.; Goncalves, Paulo S. [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Cafe e Plantas Tropicais. Programa Seringueira]. E-mails: paulog@iac.sp.gov.br; mariaalice@cnpdia.embrapa.br; Forato, Lucimara A.; Colnago, Luiz A.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C. [EMBRAPA Instrumentacao Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: colnago@cnpdia.embrapa.br; forato@cnpdia.embrapa.br; rogerio@cnpdia.embrapa.br; mattoso@cnpdia.embrapa.br; Job, Aldo E. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia

    2005-07-01

    Agronomic Institute (IAC) and EMBRAPA Agricultural Instrumentation (EMBRAPA/CNPDIA) have been studied Hevea species in order to increase the production of the natural rubber and to develop new clones more appropriated to Brazil's soil and climate. Structural characterization of natural rubber [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell. - Arg.] from new clones of the IAC series (IAC 300, 301, 302, 303, 35, 40, and 56) and from RRIM 600 clone has been studied by high-resolution solid-state {sup 13}C NMR and by single pulse technique. The results have shown that the application of solid-state {sup 13}C NMR using the single pulse technique is a powerful tool to study natural rubber. The spectra obtained through this technique confirmed that natural rubber from all clones studied are cis-1,4-polyisoprene (author) form.(author)

  10. Cloning and molecular characterization of a copper chaperone gene ...

    The cDNA encoding a copper chaperone, designated as HbCCH1, was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis. HbCC1 was 589 bp long containing a 261 bp open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 86 amino acids, flanked by a 103 bp 5'UTR and a 225 bp 3'UTR. The predicted molecular mass of HbCCH1 was 9.2 kDa, ...

  11. Properties and Performance of Rubberwood Particleboard Treated With Bp® Fire Retardant

    Izran K.; Abood F.; Yap K. C.; Abdul Rashid A. M.; Zaidon A.

    2011-01-01

    Rubberwood composites are available in many sizes and are frequently used as furniture and partitioning inputs. However they are naturally combustible and may limit its usage for other value-added products. Treating wood composites with fire retardant was one of the most effective ways to prevent such occurrence. In this study, Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) particleboards were incorporated with BP® fire retardant through hot and cold soaking processes. Four different concentrations of fire ...

  12. Oil-bearing plants of Zaire. III. Botanical families providing oils of relatively high unsaturation

    Ngiefu, C.K.; Paquot, C.; Vieux, A.

    1977-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the seed oil composition of 16 species of Leguminosae (including Albizia lebbeck, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Delonix regia), 6 species of Euphorbiaceae (including Aleurites moluccana, Hevea brasiliensis and Jatropha curcas) and 1 species (Kigelia africana) of Bignoniaceae. The most interesting for food and industrial purposes appear to be Afzelia bella, Adenanthera pavonina and Pentaclethra macrophylla, in addition to A. moluccana and H. brasiliensis.

  13. Liberação de componentes do extrato de Casearia sylvestris Swartz empregando membranas de látex natural como suporte

    Trecco, Alberto [UNESP; Borges, Felipe Azevedo [UNESP; Perri, Elaíse G. [UNESP; Santos, André Gonzaga dos [UNESP; Chin, Chung Man [UNESP; Herculano, Rondinelli Donizetti [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Natural Rubber Latex (NRL) membrane, made from latex extracted from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, has shown great potential for use in the biomedicine and biomaterials area. Thanks to its biocompatibility and low rejection rate, it has been used for implants and grafts, acting as a stimulant of angiogenesis and cell adhesion and as a barrier against infectious agents. Besides these applications, the membranes are used as model release systems, to assess the release behavior of drugs and...

  14. Taxonomic revision and phylogenetic analyses of rubber powdery mildew fungi.

    Liyanage, K K; Khan, Sehroon; Brooks, Siraprapa; Mortimer, Peter E; Karunarathna, Samantha C; Xu, Jianchu; Hyde, Kevin D

    2017-04-01

    Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that infects a wide range of plants, including rubber trees, which results in a reduction of latex yields of up to 45%. The causal agent of powdery mildew of rubber was first described as Oidium heveae, but later morpho-molecular research suggested that in the past, O. heveae has been confused with Erysiphe quercicola. However, it is still under debate whether the causal agent should be classified as a species of the genus Erysiphe emend. or Golovinomyces and Podosphaera, respectively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to undertake the morpho-molecular characterization of powdery mildew species associated with rubber trees, thus resolving these taxonomic issues. Morphological observation under light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM) clearly identified two morphotypes of the rubber powdery mildew. With the support of morphological and phylogenetic data, one of the two morphotypes was identified as the asexual morph of E. quercicola, while the second morphotype is still insufficiently known and according to the morphological results obtained we assume that it might belong to the genus Golovinomyces. More collections and additional molecular data are required for final conclusions regarding the exact taxonomic position of the second morphotype of rubber powdery mildew and its relation to the name O. heveae. The haplotype analysis identified eight haplotype groups of E. quercicola indicating the high genetic diversity of the species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Estado nutricional e teor de glicosídeos cianogênicos em plantas de seringueira

    Larissa Alexandra Cardoso Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A presença de altos teores de glicosídeos cianogênicos pode predispor a planta ao secamento de painel. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do estado nutricional na formação dos glicosídeos cianogênicos na seringueira, utilizando dois experimentos: a jardim clonal com copa de híbridos de Hevea pauciflora e H. guianensis var. marginata (CPAA C 01 e de H. rigidifolia (CPAA C 81; e b viveiro com H. brasiliensis. No jardim clonal foram coletadas ao acaso, folhas de 23 plantas, enquanto no viveiro, foi realizado experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com cinco repetições, com tratamentos em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, com duas doses de nitrogênio - N (0,8 e 1,6%, fonte: uréia e quatro de manganês - Mn (0, 10, 50 e 100 mg kg-1. Na seringueira, independentemente da idade e da espécie de Hevea, os teores foliares de N, Mn e clorofila tiveram correlação positiva com o HCNp das folhas novas e diagnóstico, podendo assim serem utilizados em futuros processos de seleção. Em concentrações baixas de N (0,8%, as doses de Mn influenciaram a absorção de N, P, K, Ca, S, Fe e Mn pelas plantas de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, na fase de viveiro.

  16. Unraveling the mystery of natural rubber biosynthesis. Part II. Composition and growth of in vitro natural rubber using high-resolution size exclusion chromatography

    Chiang, Cheng Ching K. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Barkakaty, Balaka [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Puskas, Judit E. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Xie, Wenshuang [The Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Cornish, Katrina [The Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States); Peruch, Federic [Univ. of Bordeaux, Pessac Cedex (France); Deffieux, Alain [Univ. of Bordeaux, Pessac Cedex (France)

    2014-09-01

    The superior properties of natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene [NR]) are a function of its structure and composition, properties that still remain a mystery and that are irreplaceable by any synthetic rubber. NR from guayule (Parthenium argentatum) has been gaining special interest for its hypoallergenic properties while maintaining superior mechanical properties that are commonly associated with the Brazilian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), the most common source of NR. Techniques exist to isolate washed rubber particles (WRPs) that contain enzymatically active rubber transferase, to study NR biosynthesis, and previous work on the in vitroNRgrowth in Hevea has demonstrated the presence of around 50wt%of a low molecular weight ([MW], Mn <10 000 g/mol) fraction. Structural and compositional analyses of this low MW fraction in Hevea are challenging due to the high protein content. Here, we discuss the analysis and composition of guayule latex and WRPs using high-resolution Size Exclusion Chromatography. We also discuss the composition of the soluble fraction of inactive guayule latex using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry.

  17. Dinâmica populacional do parasitoide de ovos erythmelus tingitiphagus (hymenoptera: mymaridae em clone de seringueira, em Itiquira, MT Population dynamic of egg parasitoid erythmelus tingitiphagus (hymenoptera: mymaridae in rubber tree clone in Itiquira, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Rodrigo Souza Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O percevejo-de-renda Leptopharsa heveae Drake & Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae é uma das mais importantes pragas da heveicultura no Brasil, principalmente nas regiões Sudeste e Centro-Oeste. Devido ao seu hábito sugador, na face abaxial das folhas, esta praga leva à senescência precoce das mesmas e a reduções na produção de látex em até 30%. Dentre os inimigos naturais de L. heveae está o parasitoide de ovos Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae, regulando suas populações em condições naturais. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a dinâmica populacional deste parasitoide, bem como correlacioná-la com os fatores meteorológicos temperatura e pluviosidade, em plantio comercial de seringueira do clone PB 217, em Itiquira, MT. Semanalmente foram coletadas quatro folhas maduras por árvore, no terço inferior da copa de 40 árvores, totalizando 160 folhas por amostragem, no período de agosto de 2006 a janeiro de 2007. Houve correlação positiva entre a dinâmica populacional e os fatores meteorológicos, sendo o pico populacional do parasitoide observado no mês de novembro e declinando até janeiro na área estudada.The lace bug Leptopharsa heveae Drake & Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae is one of the most import heveiculture pests in Brazil, mainly in the southeast and central-west regions. Due to its sucking habit on the abaxial surface, this pest causes precocious senescence in leaves, and leads to the reduction in latex production in up to 30% of them. Among the natural enemies of L. heveae is the egg parasitoid Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae, regulating populations of L. heveae in natural conditions. The objective of this work was to verify the population dynamics of this parasitoid, as well as to correlate it with meteorological factors such as temperature and rainfall, in a commercial plantation of rubber trees of the PB 217 clone, in Itiquira, in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Four

  18. Determination of high molecular mass compounds from Amazonian plant's leaves; Determinacao de compostos de massa molecular alta em folhas de plantas da Amazonia

    Siqueira, Denilson Soares de; Pereira, Alberto dos Santos; Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: ladetec@iq.gov.br; Cabral, Jose Augusto; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Cid [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Simoneit, Bernd R.T. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences. Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group; Elias, Vladimir O. [Analytical Solution, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-10-01

    The fractions of dichloromethane extracts of leaves from andiroba (Carapa guianensis - Meliaceae), caapi (Banisteriopsis caapi - Malpighiaceae), cocoa (Theobroma cacao - Sterculiaceae), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa - Lecytidaceae), cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflorum - Sterculiaceae), marupa (Simaruba amara - Simaroubaceae) and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis - Euphorbiaceae), were analyzed by HT-HRGC and HT-HRGC-MS. Esters of homologous series of fatty acids and long chain alcohols, phytol, amyrines and tocopherols were characterized. The characterization of the compounds was based mainly in mass spectra data and in addition by usual spectrometric data ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, IR). (author)

  19. Determination of high molecular mass compounds from Amazonian plant's leaves

    Siqueira, Denilson Soares de; Pereira, Alberto dos Santos; Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler de; Simoneit, Bernd R.T.

    2003-01-01

    The fractions of dichloromethane extracts of leaves from andiroba (Carapa guianensis - Meliaceae), caapi (Banisteriopsis caapi - Malpighiaceae), cocoa (Theobroma cacao - Sterculiaceae), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa - Lecytidaceae), cupuacu (Theobroma grandiflorum - Sterculiaceae), marupa (Simaruba amara - Simaroubaceae) and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis - Euphorbiaceae), were analyzed by HT-HRGC and HT-HRGC-MS. Esters of homologous series of fatty acids and long chain alcohols, phytol, amyrines and tocopherols were characterized. The characterization of the compounds was based mainly in mass spectra data and in addition by usual spectrometric data ( 1 H and 13 C NMR, IR). (author)

  20. Viabilidad de la certificación forestal FSC en plantaciones de caucho natural en Colombia y Brasil

    Pulido Sierra, Sonia Ivonn

    2014-01-01

    La presente investigación de doctorado analiza la viabilidad de la certificación forestal bajo el Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) en plantaciones de caucho natural en Colombia y Brasil. El documento recoge (Capítulo 1. Caucho natural, descripción, técnicas de cultivo, historia, producción y consumo) los antecedentes para el conocimiento de la especie Hevea brasiliensis, de las condiciones y técnicas para el desarrollo y aprovechamiento de sus plantaciones, así como de la situación mundial...

  1. El Caucho

    Brandes E. W.

    1942-12-01

    Full Text Available En tiempo de emergencia nacional el insignificante arbusto denominado Guayule se ha convertido en una importante fuente de producción cauchera. Después de años de permanecer a la sombra de su más renombrado competidor, el árbol de Hevea, el Guayule salió a la luz el 5 de marzo de 1942 cuando el Presidente Roosevelt firmó un decreto autorizando un programa oficial para la explotación del arbusto como medio de ampliar las fuentes de provisión de caucho de las Naciones Unidas.

  2. Flutuação populacional e sintomas de dano por ácaros (Acari em seringueira no Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil Population fluctuation and mite (Acari damage symptoms in rubber trees in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da grande importância da cultura da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. para o Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre a flutuação populacional dos ácaros nessa cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a flutuação populacional de ácaros na seringueira no Estado do Mato Grosso, bem como observar a evolução dos sintomas de ataque de tais pragas nessa planta. O estudo foi conduzido em campos de seringueira de Itiquira e Pontes e Lacerda, Estado do Mato Grosso, com seis clones: FX 3864, RRIM 600, IAN 873, IAN 713, PB 260 e PR 255, cujas coletas foram realizadas de agosto de 1998 a julho de 2000. Na safra de 1998/1999, a amostragem foi de 150 folhas de cada um dos estratos basal, mediano e apical, em 10 plantas ao acaso. A metodologia de coleta na safra de 1999/2000 foi alterada devido aos resultados da parcial anterior de cinco folhas do estrato mediano de cada uma das 15 plantas ao acaso. Calacarus heveae Feres foi a espécie mais freqüente em Itiquira e Phyllocoptruta serigueirae Feres em Pontes e Lacerda. A queda prematura das folhas foi observada apenas em Itiquira.Despite the importance of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. to Brazil, little is known about mite population fluctuation on this crop. The aim of this work was to study the fluctuation of the mite population on rubber trees in the state of Mato Grosso and to observe the evolution of the symptoms caused by their attack. This study was conducted in rubber tree fields at Itiquira and Pontes e Lacerda in the state of Mato Grosso with six clones: FX 3864, RRIM 600, IAN 873, IAN 713, PB 260 and PR 255. Samplings were conducted between August 1998 and July 2000. The 1998/1999 samples consisted of 150 leaves of each of the basal, median and apical strata of 10 plants, randomly taken. The 1999/2000 sampling methodology was changed due the results for the previous partial for five leaves of the median stratum of each of 15 plants randomly taken. Calacarus heveae

  3. Chemi-thermomechanical pulping of para rubber waste wood

    Kubo, T.; Hosokawa, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The addition of NaOH to Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/-treated waste wood chips (Hevea brasiliensis) increased long fiber fraction, Klason lignin content and bulk density, improved breaking length and tear factor, and decreased energy consumption in refining and brightness of resulting chemithermomechanical pulp. Lowering in brightness by alkali treatment was recovered by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ bleaching, and bleaching with 8% H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ on pulp gave pulp with 61.3% brightness.

  4. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI); Broekaert, Willem F. (Dilbeek, BE); Chua, Nam-Hai (Scarsdale, NY); Kush, Anil (New York, NY)

    1993-02-16

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a pu GOVERNMENT RIGHTS This application was funded under Department of Energy Contract DE-AC02-76ER01338. The U.S. Government has certain rights under this application and any patent issuing thereon.

  5. The rubber tree genome reveals new insights into rubber production and species adaptation

    Tang, Chaorong; Yang, Meng; Fang, Yongjun; Luo, Yingfeng; Gao, Shenghan; Xiao, Xiaohu; An, Zewei; Zhou, Binhui; Zhang, Bing; Tan, Xinyu; Yeang, Hoong Yeet; Qin, Yunxia; Yang, Jianghua; Lin, Qiang; Mei, Hailiang

    2016-01-01

    The Para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is an economically important tropical tree species that produces natural rubber, an essential industrial raw material. Here we present a high-quality genome assembly of this species (1.37 Gb, scaffold N50 = 1.28 Mb) that covers 93.8% of the genome (1.47 Gb) and harbours 43,792 predicted protein-coding genes. A striking expansion of the REF/SRPP (rubber elongation factor/small rubber particle protein) gene family and its divergence into several laticif...

  6. Liberação de componentes do extrato de Casearia sylvestris Swartz empregando membranas de látex natural como suporte

    Alberto Trecco; Felipe Azevedo Borges; Elaise G. Pierri; André Gonzaga dos Santos; Chung Man Chin; Rondinelli Donizetti Herculano

    2014-01-01

    A membrana de látex natural (NRL – Natural Rubber Latex), manipulada a partir do látex extraído da seringueira Hevea brasiliensis, tem apresentado grande potencial de aplicação no campo da biomedicina e dos biomateriais. Graças a sua biocompatibilidade e baixa taxa de rejeição, ela tem sido utilizada para próteses e enxertos, atuando como estimulante da angiogênese, adesão celular e barreira física a agentes infecciosos. Além dessas aplicações, as membranas são utiliza...

  7. 1916-IJBCS-Article-Traoré Mohamed

    hp

    paramètres agrophysiologiques et de sensibilité à l'encoche sèche d'Hevea brasiliensis au sud-est de la Côte d'Ivoire : cas des clones PB 235 et PB 260 de la classe d'activité ...... (1985), ce type d'encoche sèche est dit encoche sèche induite par ... la coagulation du latex au sein des laticifères, entraîne l'arrêt de ...

  8. Determinação de compostos de massa molecular alta em folhas de plantas da Amazônia

    Siqueira Denilson Soares de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractIons of dichloromethane extracts of leaves from andiroba (Carapa guianensis - Meliaceae, caapi (Banisteriopsis caapi - Malpighiaceae, cocoa (Theobroma cacao - Sterculiaceae, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa - Lecytidaceae, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum - Sterculiaceae, marupá (Simaruba amara - Simaroubaceae and rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis - Euphorbiaceae, were analyzed by HT-HRGC and HT-HRGC-MS. Esters of homologous series of fatty acids and long chain alcohols, phytol, amyrines and tocopherols were characterized. The characterization of the compounds was based mainly in mass spectra data and in addition by usual spectrometric data (¹H and 13C NMR, IR.

  9. Cassia renigera Wall.: novo hospedeiro de Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Cassia renigera Wall.: a new host of Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst.

    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceratocystis fimbriata foi descrito pela primeira vez em 1984, causando murcha em plantas de Cassia renigera, em Campinas (SP. Foram realizadas inoculações cruzadas com dois isolados de C. fimbriata obtidos de Cassia renigera e mangueira (Mangifera indica em plantas de: acácia-negra (Acacia decurrens, cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan, figueira (Ficus carica, gamelina (Gmelina arborea, mangueira (Mangifera indica, seringueira (Hevea brasilienses, Cassia sp., C. carnaval, C. ferruginea, C. grandis, C. moschata, C. multijuga, C. nodosa, C. renigera, C. siamea e C. speciosa. Os dois isolados do fungo foram patogênicos a todas as plantas testadas, com exceção de cacaueiro, gamelina e C. grandis.Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. is described for the first time in 1984 on Cassia renigera, in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. In cross inoculation, the isolates of C. fimbriata obtained from Cassia renigera and from Mangifera indica showed pathogenicity to the following plants: Acacia decurrens, Theobroma cacao, Crotalaria juncea, Cajanus cajan, Ficus Carica, Gmelina arborea, Mangifera indica, Hevea brasiliensis, Cassia sp., C. carnaval, C. ferruginea, C. grandis, C. moschata, C. multijuga, C. nodosa, C. renigera, C. siamea and C. speciosa. The isolates of C. fimbriata were pathogenic to all tested plants, except for Theobroma cacao, Gmelina arborea and C. grandis.

  10. Survey of the rubber tree genome reveals a high number of cysteine protease-encoding genes homologous to Arabidopsis SAG12.

    Zou, Zhi; Liu, Jianting; Yang, Lifu; Xie, Guishui

    2017-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana SAG12, a senescence-specific gene encoding a cysteine protease, is widely used as a molecular marker for the study of leaf senescence. To date, its potential orthologues have been isolated from several plant species such as Brassica napus and Nicotiana tabacum. However, little information is available in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), a rubber-producing plant of the Euphorbiaceae family. This study presents the identification of SAG12-like genes from the rubber tree genome. Results showed that an unexpected high number of 17 rubber orthologues with a single intron were found, contrasting the single copy with two introns in Arabidopsis. The gene expansion was also observed in another two Euphorbiaceae plants, castor bean (Ricinus communis) and physic nut (Jatropha curcas), both of which contain 8 orthologues. In accordance with no occurrence of recent whole-genome duplication (WGD) events, most duplicates in castor and physic nut were resulted from tandem duplications. In contrast, the duplicated HbSAG12H genes were derived from tandem duplications as well as the recent WGD. Expression analysis showed that most HbSAG12H genes were lowly expressed in examined tissues except for root and male flower. Furthermore, HbSAG12H1 exhibits a strictly senescence-associated expression pattern in rubber tree leaves, and thus can be used as a marker gene for the study of senescence mechanism in Hevea.

  11. Nutrient cycling in a RRIM 600 clone rubber plantation

    Murbach Marcos Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Few reports have been presented on nutrient cycling in rubber tree plantations (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. This experiment was carried out to evaluate: the effect of K rates on the amount of nutrients transfered to the soil in a 13-year old Hevea brasilensis RRIM 600 clone plantation, nutrient retranslocation from the leaves before falling to the soil, and nutrient loss by dry rubber export. The experiment started in 1998 and potassium was applied at the rates of 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 of K2O under the crowns of 40 rubber trees of each plot. Literfall collectors, five per plot, were randomly distributed within the plots under the trees. The accumulated literfall was collected monthly during one year. The coagulated rubber latex from each plot was weighed, and samples were analyzed for nutrient content. Increasing K fertilization rates also increased the K content in leaf literfall. Calcium and N were the most recycled leaf nutrients to the soil via litterfall. Potassium, followed by P were the nutrients with the highest retranslocation rates. Potassium was the most exported nutrient by the harvested rubber, and this amount was higher than that transfered to the soil by the leaf literfall.

  12. Below-ground interspecific competition for water in a rubber agroforestry system may enhance water utilization in plants.

    Wu, Junen; Liu, Wenjie; Chen, Chunfeng

    2016-01-19

    Rubber-based (Hevea brasiliensis) agroforestry systems are regarded as the best way to improve the sustainability of rubber monocultures, but few reports have examined water use in such systems. Accordingly, we tested whether interplanting facilitates water utilization of rubber trees using stable isotope (δD, δ(18)O, and δ(13)C) methods and by measuring soil water content (SWC), shoot potential, and leaf C and N concentrations in a Hevea-Flemingia agroforestry system in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. We detected a big difference in the utilization of different soil layer water between both species in this agroforestry system, as evidenced by the opposite seasonal fluctuations in both δD and δ(18)O in stem water. However, similar predawn shoot potential of rubber trees at both sites demonstrating that the interplanted species did not affect the water requirements of rubber trees greatly. Rubber trees with higher δ(13)C and more stable physiological indexes in this agroforestry system showed higher water use efficiency (WUE) and tolerance ability, and the SWC results suggested this agroforestry is conductive to water conservation. Our results clearly indicated that intercropping legume plants with rubber trees can benefit rubber trees own higher N supply, increase their WUE and better utilize soil water of each soil layer.

  13. Responses of rubber leaf phenology to climatic variations in Southwest China

    Zhai, De-Li; Yu, Haiying; Chen, Si-Chong; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-11-01

    The phenology of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) could be influenced by meteorological factors and exhibits significant changes under different geoclimates. In the sub-optimal environment in Xishuangbanna, rubber trees undergo lengthy periods of defoliation and refoliation. The timing of refoliation from budburst to leaf aging could be affected by powdery mildew disease (Oidium heveae), which negatively impacts seed and latex production. Rubber trees are most susceptible to powdery mildew disease at the copper and leaf changing stages. Understanding and predicting leaf phenology of rubber trees are helpful to develop effective means of controlling the disease. This research investigated the effect of several meteorological factors on different leaf phenological stages in a sub-optimal environment for rubber cultivation in Jinghong, Yunnan in Southwest China. Partial least square regression was used to quantify the relationship between meteorological factors and recorded rubber phenologies from 2003 to 2011. Minimum temperature in December was found to be the critical factor for the leaf phenology development of rubber trees. Comparing the delayed effects of minimum temperature, the maximum temperature, diurnal temperature range, and sunshine hours were found to advancing leaf phenologies. A comparatively lower minimum temperature in December would facilitate the advancing of leaf phenologies of rubber trees. Higher levels of precipitation in February delayed the light green and the entire process of leaf aging. Delayed leaf phenology was found to be related to severe rubber powdery mildew disease. These results were used to build predictive models that could be applied to early warning systems of rubber powdery mildew disease.

  14. Genetic divergence of rubber tree estimated by multivariate techniques and microsatellite markers

    Lígia Regina Lima Gouvêa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of 60 Hevea genotypes, consisting of Asiatic, Amazonian, African and IAC clones, and pertaining to the genetic breeding program of the Agronomic Institute (IAC, Brazil, was estimated. Analyses were based on phenotypic multivariate parameters and microsatellites. Five agronomic descriptors were employed in multivariate procedures, such as Standard Euclidian Distance, Tocher clustering and principal component analysis. Genetic variability among the genotypes was estimated with 68 selected polymorphic SSRs, by way of Modified Rogers Genetic Distance and UPGMA clustering. Structure software in a Bayesian approach was used in discriminating among groups. Genetic diversity was estimated through Nei's statistics. The genotypes were clustered into 12 groups according to the Tocher method, while the molecular analysis identified six groups. In the phenotypic and microsatellite analyses, the Amazonian and IAC genotypes were distributed in several groups, whereas the Asiatic were in only a few. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.05 to 0.96. Both high total diversity (H T' = 0.58 and high gene differentiation (Gst' = 0.61 were observed, and indicated high genetic variation among the 60 genotypes, which may be useful for breeding programs. The analyzed agronomic parameters and SSRs markers were effective in assessing genetic diversity among Hevea genotypes, besides proving to be useful for characterizing genetic variability.

  15. Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and three Euphorbia species.

    Georg Bauer

    Full Text Available Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure.

  16. Diclofenac Potassium Transdermal Patches Using Natural Rubber Latex Biomembranes as Carrier

    Natan Roberto de Barros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design a compound transdermal patch containing diclofenac potassium (Dic-K using natural rubber latex (NRL biomembrane. The NRL from Hevea brasiliensis is easily manipulated and low cost and presents high mechanical resistance. It is a biocompatible material which can stimulate natural angiogenesis and is capable of adhering cells on its surface. Recent researches have used the NRL for Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems (TDDSs. Dic-K is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and pain relief for postoperative and posttraumatic cases, as well as inflammation and edema. Results showed that the biomembrane can release Dic-K for up to 216 hours. The kinetics of the Dic-K release could be fitted with double exponential function. X-ray diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy show some interaction by hydrogen bound. The results indicated the potential of the compound patch.

  17. Monitoramento das propriedades térmicas das borrachas naturais de novos clones: IAC 301 e IAC 303

    Rogério M. B. Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A borracha natural (BN de três clones de seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. exAdr. de Juss. Muell.-Arg.] de um período de sete meses foi obtida por coagulação do látex com solução de ácido acético a 10% e seca a 65°C. As curvas TG-DTG foram utilizadas para monitorar as propriedades térmicas da BN. Os resultados indicaram pequenas variações entre clones e coletas, exceto no valor de Tf-T0, indicando que o clone IAC 301 sofre degradação mais rápida durante o processo termo degradação da BN seca. Não houve diferenças significativas nos valores de Tg entre clones e coletas.

  18. The Carbon Sequestration Potential of Tree Crop Plantations

    Kongsager, Rico; Napier, Jonas; Mertz, Ole

    2013-01-01

    -wood products to meet domestic and international market requirements at the same time. Financial compensation for such plantations could potentially be covered by the Clean Development Mechanism under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) Kyoto Protocol, but its suitability has also...... been suggested for integration into REDD+(reducing emissions from deforestation, forest degradation and enhancement of forest C stocks) currently being negotiated under the United Nations FCCC. We assess the aboveground C sequestration potential of four major plantation crops – cocoa (Theobroma cacao......), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and orange (Citrus sinesis) – cultivated in the tropics. Measurements were conducted in Ghana and allometric equations were applied to estimate biomass. The largest C potential was found in the rubber plantations (214 tC/ha). Cocoa (65 t...

  19. Genetic improvement of forest tree species

    Teotônio Francisco Assis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian forestry sector is considered one of the most developed in the world, being the base for important industrialsegments which use wood as raw material. Tree breeding has played an important role on improving the competitiveness ofBrazilian forestry-based companies, especially for its positive reflexes on increasing adaptation, forestry productivity and woodquality. In spite of the importance of other forest trees for the economy, such as Schizolobium, Araucaria, Populus and Hevea, themain genera under genetic improvement in the country are Eucalyptus, Pinus, Acacia and Tectona. They are used by industries likepulp and paper, siderurgy, tannin, chips for exportation and lumber, constituting an important source of revenues for the Brazilian’seconomy, besides their positive social and environmental impacts. This paper presents a generic approach to genetic improvementaspects of these four major genera currently undergoing breeding in Brazil.

  20. Novel endophytic lineages of Tolypocladium provide new insights into the ecology and evolution of Cordyceps-like fungi.

    Gazis, Romina; Skaltsas, Demetra; Chaverri, Priscila

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a group of unknown endophytic fungal isolates from the living sapwood of wild and planted Hevea (rubber tree) populations. Three novel lineages of Tolypocladium are described based on molecular and morphological data. Findings from this study open a window for novel hypotheses regarding the ecology and role of endophytes within plant communities as well as trait evolution and potential forces driving diversification of Cordyceps-like fungi. This study stresses the importance of integrating asexual and sexual fungal states for a more complete understanding of the natural history of this diverse group. In addition, it highlights the study of fungi in the sapwood of tropical trees as habitat for the discovery of novel fungal lineages and substrate associations. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  1. Natural rubber (NR) biosynthesis: perspectives from polymer chemistry

    Barkakaty, Balaka [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Natural rubber is an important strategic raw material for manufacturing a wide variety of industrial products. There are at least 2,500 different latex-producing plant species; however, only Hevea brasiliensis (the Brazilian rubber tree) is a commercial source. The chemical structure of natural rubber is cis-1,4-polyisoprene, but the exact structure of the head and end groups remains unknown. Since synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprenes cannot match the superior properties of natural rubber, understanding the chemistry behind the biosynthetic process is key to finding a possible replacement. T his chapter summarizes our current understandings from the perspective of a polymer scientist by comparing synthetic polyisoprenes to natural rubber. The chapter also highlights biomimetic polymerization, research towards a synthetic match of natural rubber and the role of natural rubber in health care.

  2. Materials and energy from the sun

    Calvin, M.

    1977-08-01

    The use of the green plant as a solar energy collector device is noted. A Brazilian project to produce ethanol from sugar cane is discussed along with the hydrocarbon storage capacities of such rubber-producing plants as Hevea brasiliensis and guayule. Latex-producing plants (including Euphorbia tirucalli, Asclepias, and E. trigona) are described in terms of their possible cultivation under arid or semi-arid conditions. Methods for latex hydrocarbon analysis are presented along with the preliminary results of an experimental planting project. Practical approaches to the use of these hydrocarbons as crude oil are identified, including refining processes and the utilization of the plants as both collectors of sunlight and producers of compounds.

  3. Study on wood vinegars for use as coagulating and antifungal agents on the production of natural rubber sheets

    Baimark, Yodthong; Niamsa, Noi [Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150 (Thailand)

    2009-06-15

    Coagulating and antifungal properties of wood vinegars in the preparation process of Hevea brasiliensis natural rubber (NR) sheets were investigated and compared with those of formic and acetic acids. The wood vinegars produced from biomasses such as inner coconut shell, bamboo and Eucalyptus woods were evaluated. It was found that plasticity retention index, Mooney viscosity and mechanical properties of NR coagulated by wood vinegars were similar to those using acetic acid and better than using formic acid. The antifungal efficiency of coagulants determined from a fungi growth area on NR sheet surfaces was found in the following order: coconut shell wood vinegar > bamboo wood vinegar {approx} Eucalyptus wood vinegar > acetic acid {approx} formic acid. The antifungal efficiency of the wood vinegars was strongly depended upon their phenolic compound contents and confirmed through the inhibitory growth of the main fungi, Penicillium griseofulvum, on potato dextrose agar. (author)

  4. The role of proteins on the thermal oxidative aging of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex

    Abad, L.V.; Rosa, A. de la; Keizo Makuuchi; Fumio Yoshii

    1996-01-01

    The effect of Hevea latex proteins on the aging properties of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) was investigated. Unpurified RVNRL films exhibited better aging properties than the purified RVNRL films. A sharp decrease in tensile strength was observed after aging when RVNRL films were leached in 1% NH sub 4 OH. However, when these films were soaked in ethanol prior to leaching, the aging properties approximated those of the unleached samples. Kjeldahl and FT-IR analyses of the leached and unleached RVNRL films indicated a higher protein content for both the unleached and ethanol-soaked films than for leached films. Electrophoretic analysis of the proteins present in the NH, extracts of leached RVNRL films showed a high concentration of hevein. This protein was not found in the ATH, extracts of ethanol soaked films. Hevein was shown to improve the aging properties of RVNRL

  5. Influência da brisa terra-mar no período de saturação da umidade do ar no interior de dois seringais de cultivo em Ubatuba(SP Influence of the land-sea breese on the saturation period of the relative humidity inside two adult rubber tree plantations in Ubatuba, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    José Eduardo Macedo Pezzopane

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em Ubatuba(SP, a influência da brisa terra-mar no número de horas com umidade relativa igual ou superior a 90% (NHUR > 90% no interior de dois seringais [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss Müell Arg.] adultos: um próximo à praia (800 m e outro distante 5.000 m. Para o período estudado, os resultados demonstraram uma redução significativa do NHUR > 90%, 50% em média, no seringal próximo à praia. A diferença ficou mais evidente, 71,4% em média, quando se analisaram apenas os dias não chuvosos, a fim de desconsiderar a saturação atmosférica devida à chuva. Os resultados deste estudo mostram que a advecção condicionada pela brisa terra-mar é fator aerodinâmico de mesoescala que interfere no início e no final da saturação da umidade atmosférica, reduzindo a duração do período de molhamento das folhas.It was studied the influence of the land-sea breese on the duration of relative humidity equal to or higher than 90% (NHUR > 90% inside two adult rubber tree plantations [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss Müell Arg.]: one located near the shore (800 m and other approximately 5,000 m away. It was found a significant reduction of NHUR > 90% in the plantation near the shore. This reduction was even more evident in clear nights, without rainfall effect. It is assumed that the advection of land-sea breese interferes at the starting and final moments of the humidity saturation, decreasing the leaf wettness duration period.

  6. Harvesting of Non-timber Forest Products by the Local Communities in Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java, Indonesia

    Yelin Adalina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Local communities around the forest need to be involved in securing the sustainability of Mount Halimun Salak National Park (MHSNP, for example through the utilization of non-timber forest products (NTFPs such as flora in the utilization zone. This research was aimed to provide data and information about 3 kinds of vegetation producing resin (Pinus merkusii, Agathis dammara, and Hevea brasiliensis and the harvesting NTFPs by the community in the forest vicinity. The research was conducted in MHSNP, and data were analyzed through quantitative-descriptive. The survey method was employed in the study through interviews of respondents using structured questionnaires. This study revealed that the vegetations at the stage of tree comprised of the following: (1 Agathis dammara (damar with Importance Value Index (IVI of 276.15% and density of 452 trees ha-1, (2 Pinus merkusii (pine trees with IVI of 300.0% and density of 552 trees ha-1, and (3 Hevea brasiliensis (rubber trees with IVI of 217.42% and density of 85 trees ha-1. Pine, damar, and rubber sap tapping afforded contribution in 59.18, 4.41, and 60.71%, respectively of the total household incomes. Community involvement in the collection of NTFPs in national parks implicated to the increasing of the forest communities revenue and the forests will be maintained since public can get benefits from forest resources. Forest management should be directed as a producer of NTFPs that can increase the economic income of forest communities with attention to ecological factors.

  7. Alguns aspectos da anatomía-ecológica de Persea americana Mili (abacateiro e interpretações fisio-ecológicas

    Moacyr Eurípedes Medri

    1985-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work are presented anatomical differences in leaves situaded in different strata on the same tree ofPersea Americana. Analysis of linear regression and tests of coeficience of correlation demonstrate that in respect tb the relationships of the anatomical parameters studied, there is much interdependence. The histological point of view compares such parameters as number and size of stomata, volume of mesophyll, area of functional xylem, phloem, supportive tissue and epidermic tissue, and on the other han different microclimatic positions, domonstrates that Persea Americana is an extremely plastic species with much adaptability; as plastic as Hevea brasiliensis Muelli. Arg and much more plastic than Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Benpl.No presente trabalho são apresentadas as diferenças anatômicas em folhas situadas em diferentes estratos de uma mesma árvore de Persea americana MUI, mostrando através de análise de regressão linear, coeficiente de correlação conclusivos a, respeito das relações diretas e significativas no tocante aos parâmetros anatômicos estudados, evidenciando interdependências dos mesmos. Do ponto de vista histológico, onde se tomou como parâmetro o número e tamanho de estômatos e volume do mesófilo, área xilemática útil, floema, tecido mecânico e epidérmico, e de outro lado, condições microclimáticas diferentes, P. americana evidencia ser uma espécie bastante plástica, havendo uma relação direta se correlacionada ao seu amplo comportamento adaptativo, sendo tão plástica quanto Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. (Medri, 1977 e muito mais que Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Benpl. (Medri, 1978.

  8. Use of low energy accelerator for the radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex and nitrile rubber. The battle for the sustainability and poverty alleviation

    Chirinos, Hugo D.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2001-01-01

    The origin of the Hevea braziliensis tree was the Amazonian basin. The rubber expansion at the end of 19th century brought prosperity and determined the borders of Amazonian countries. In spite of that, the Brazilian government has failed in establishing a successful policy for improving the NR production in the jungle. This battle has been a continuous defeat against the environment as it was not possible to control the fungus Microcyclos ulei in its natural environment. The defeat was catastrophic for the population of Amazon region as they were not able to shift to other sustainable activity. As a consequence of the tack of economical options, the population had to explore all available natural resources. It has been also catastrophic for the Amazonian environment. Nevertheless, rubber plantations were successfully introduced in areas were Hevea braziliensis was not native, mainly in the southeast of Brazil. And recently, it was also introduced near marginal areas of the humid forest in the Amazon due to the absence of the fungus Microcyclos ulei. Both, extraction of wild rubber and plantation have a key role in the maintenance of the forest health as the seringueiros not only have a sustainable activity but can also play a role as soldiers of the jungle. Actually, rubber activities are not only associated to the environment but also with poverty because the activities are labor intensive, so it needs cheap labor. The poverty is unfortunately spread out in rural areas of Brazil and in the peripheral areas of the big cities. Regarding environment and poverty the dilemma is critical in the Amazonian region and is the following: the forest should be maintained healthy and protected from devastating projects and at the same time needs of the inhabitants should be considered. (author)

  9. Harvesting of Non-timber Forest Products by the Local Communities in Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java, Indonesia

    Yelin Adalina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Local communities around the forest need to be involved in securing the sustainability of Mount Halimun Salak National Park (MHSNP, for example through the utilization of non-timber forest products (NTFPs such as flora in the utilization zone. This research was aimed to provide data and information about 3 kinds of vegetation producing resin (Pinus merkusii, Agathis dammara, and Hevea brasiliensis and the harvesting NTFPs by the community in the forest vicinity. The research was conducted in MHSNP, and data were analyzed through quantitative-descriptive. The survey method was employed in the study through interviews of respondents using structured questionnaires.   This study revealed that the vegetations at the stage of tree comprised of the following: (1 Agathis dammara (damar with Importance Value Index (IVI of 276.15% and density of 452 trees ha-1, (2 Pinus merkusii (pine trees with IVI of 300.0% and density of 552 trees ha-1, and (3 Hevea brasiliensis (rubber trees with IVI of 217.42%  and density of 85 trees ha-1. Pine, damar, and rubber sap tapping afforded contribution in 59.18, 4.41, and 60.71%, respectively of the total household incomes. Community involvement in the collection of NTFPs in national parks implicated to the increasing of the forest communities revenue and the forests will be maintained since public can get benefits from forest resources. Forest management should be directed as a producer of NTFPs that can increase the economic income of forest communities with attention to ecological factors. Keywords: Harvesting, non-wood forest products, Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, community around the  forests

  10. Latex allergy in the workplace.

    Toraason, M; Sussman, G; Biagini, R; Meade, J; Beezhold, D; Germolec, D

    2000-11-01

    While less than 1% of the general population is sensitized to latex, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration estimates that 8-12% of health-care workers are sensitized. The major source of workplace exposure is powdered natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves. NRL is harvested from HEVEA: brasiliensis trees and ammoniated to prevent coagulation resulting in the hydrolysis of the latex proteins. Prior to use in manufacturing, the latex is formulated by the addition of multiple chemicals. Thus, human exposure is to a mixture of residual chemicals and hydrolyzed latex peptides. Clinical manifestations include irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis (type IV), and type I immediate hypersensitivity response. Type I (IgE-mediated) NRL allergy includes contact urticaria, systemic urticaria, angioedema, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, bronchospasm, and anaphylaxis. Taking an accurate history, including questions on atopic status, food allergy, and possible reactions to latex devices makes diagnosis of type-I latex allergy possible. To confirm a diagnosis, either in vivo skin prick testing (SPT) or in vitro assays for latex-specific IgE are performed. While the SPT is regarded as a primary confirmatory test for IgE-mediated disease, the absence of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-licensed HEVEA: brasiliensis latex extract has restricted its use in diagnosis. Serological tests have, therefore, become critically important as alternative diagnostic tests. Three manufacturers currently have FDA clearance for in vitro tests, to detect NRL-specific IgE. The commercially available assays may disagree on the antibody status of an individual serum, which may be due to the assay's detecting anti-NRL IgEs to different allergenic NRL proteins. Sensitized individuals produce specific IgE antibody to at least 10 potent HEVEA: allergens, Hev b 1-Hev b 10, each of which differs in its structure, size, and net charge. The relative content and ratios of Hevs in the

  11. POTENSI PENYERAPAN KARBON PADA KARET POLA TUMPANGSARI TANAMAN HUTAN

    Sahuri Sahuri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubber plant (Hevea brasilliensis has a very big role in the economy and the absorption of CO2. Rubber plants as well as forest plants capable of processing CO2 as a carbon source that is used for photosynthesis. CO2 absorption can be enhanced through the implementation of intercropping pattern rubber and forest plant. This study aims to determine the potential for carbon sequestration in intercropping pattern rubber and forest plant. The experiment was conducted at the Sembawa Research Station, South Sumatra, with three cropping pattern (PT, namely PT1: rubber plants + teak (Tectona grandis, PT2: rubber plants + trembesi (Samanea saman, PT3: rubber plant monocultures, PT4: teak monocultures, and PT5: trembesi plant monocultures. Measurement of carbon reserves consist of tree biomass and soil organic matter. The results showed that the amount of absorption of CO2/year in the rubber plantations for 10 years for PT1, PT2, PT3, PT4, and PT5, respectively were 86.46 tons/ha, 125.90 tons / ha, 77.90 tons/ha, 36.26 tons/ha and 49.03 tons/ha. The addition of carbon sequestration for 10 years due to intercrop rubber and forest plant was 30.13% or 49.17 tons CO2/ha compared to the rubber plant monocultures. Tanaman karet (Hevea brasilliensis memiliki peran yang sangat besar dalam perekonomian dan penyerapan CO2. Tanaman karet seperti halnya tanaman hutan mampu mengolah CO2 sebagai sumber karbon yang digunakan untuk fotosintesis. Penyerapan CO2 dapat ditingkatkan melalui penerapan pola tumpangsari karet dan tanaman hutan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi penyerapan karbon pada pola tumpangsari karet dan tanaman hutan. Penelitian dilaksanakan di kebun percobaan Balai Penelitian Sembawa, Sumatra Selatan, dengan tiga pola tanam (PT, yaitu PT1: tanaman karet + jati (Tectona grandis, PT2: tanaman karet + trembesi (Samanea saman, PT3: tanaman karet monokultur, PT4: tanaman jati monokultur, dan PT5: tanaman trembesi monokultur. Pengukuran

  12. Compatibilidade de Dicyma pulvinata com defensivos agrícolas e eficiência do biocontrole do mal-das-folhas da seringueira em campo Compatibility of Dicyma pulvinata with pesticides and biocontrol efficiency of South American leaf blight of rubber tree under field conditions

    Débora Ferreira Melo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar quatro isolados do fungo antagonista Dicyma pulvinata quanto à compatibilidade com defensivos agrícolas e adjuvantes, e a eficiência desses isolados no controle do mal-das-folhas (Microcyclus ulei da seringueira (Hevea sp. em campo. A compatibilidade dos isolados com defensivos e adjuvantes foi avaliada com base no crescimento micelial e na esporulação do fungo, em testes conduzidos in vitro. Para avaliação da eficiência do antagonista contra M. ulei, em campo, os quatros isolados do antagonista foram comparados ao controle exercido pelo tratamento com os fungicidas propiconazol + mancozeb. Os ensaios conduzidos em laboratório indicaram a incompatibilidade de D. pulvinata com os fungicidas benomyl, carbendazim, mancozeb, propiconazol e, ainda, com o inseticida acaricida endosulfan. Dois dos adjuvantes testados (Tween 20 e Tween 80 não afetaram o desenvolvimento do fungo. Foi comprovada a ação do antagonista D. pulvinata sobre M. ulei, em campo, com destaque para os isolados CEN 62 e CEN 93, que apresentaram eficiência de controle semelhante ao tratamento fungicida padrão.The objective of this work was to evaluate four isolates of the antagonist fungus Dicyma pulvinata in terms of its compatibility with chemical pesticides and adjuvants products, and the efficiency of these isolates as biocontrol agent against South American leaf blight (Microcyclus ulei of rubber tree (Hevea sp. under field conditions. Isolates compatibility with chemical pesticides and adjuvants was evaluated on mycelial growth and fungus sporulation in vitro. To assess the efficiency of the antagonist against M. ulei under field conditions, the four isolates were compared to the control by the fungicide mixture propiconazol + mancozeb. The assays showed incompatibility of the antagonistic fungus with the fungicides benomyl, carbendazim, mancozeb, propiconazol, besides the insecticide-acaricide endosulfan. Two of the adjuvants

  13. Compósitos de borracha natural com polianilina Composites of natural rubber with polyaniline

    Patrini D. Galiani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Compósitos de borracha natural (Hevea brasiliensis-BN/polianilina - PANI, com diferentes composições foram obtidos através da polimerização por emulsão do monômero anilina na presença da BN e do ácido dodecilbenzeno sulfônico (DBSA. Filmes finos e homogêneos foram obtidos por prensagem a quente. Os compósitos foram caracterizados por condutividade elétrica, FTIR, UV-vis-NIR, DSC e difração de raios X. Compósito com condutividade elétrica cerca de 14 ordens de grandeza maior que a BN foi obtido. Este alto valor de condutividade é atribuído à formação da PANI no estado dopado no compósito, que foi verificado através das técnicas de UV-vis-NIR e FTIR. Os resultados obtidos com a técnica de DSC e difratometria de raios X indicaram que os polímeros são imiscíveis e que a presença da borracha não altera significantemente a fase cristalina da PANI-DBSA no compósito.In this work composites with different compositions were obtained from natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (NR and polyaniline (PANI using the emulsion polymerization of aniline in the presence of NR and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA. The samples in film form were obtained by pressing the precipitate at 100 °C for 5 minutes. The composites were characterized by electrical conductivity, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X ray diffraction. Composites with electrical conductivity about 14 orders of magnitude higher than NR were obtained. The UV-vis-NIR and FTIR spectra showed that PANI-DBSA was formed in the composites, thus making it responsible for their high conductivity. The DSC thermograms indicated that the two polymers are immiscible and X ray diffraction evidenced that NB does not considerably affect PANI-DBSA crystalline phase in the composite.

  14. Volatile organic compounds from vegetation in southern Yunnan Province, China: Emission rates and some potential regional implications

    Geron, Chris; Owen, Sue; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Rasmussen, Rei; Hui Bai, Jian; Li, Qing-Jun; Baker, Brad

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVOC in and near the Xishuangbanna Tropical Biological Gardens in southern Yunnan Province, Peoples' Republic of China in February 2003. In situ measurements with leaf cuvettes and branch bag enclosures were used in combination with portable gas chromatography, flame ionization, photoionization, and mass spectral detection to identify and quantify BVOC emissions. Forty-four of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates exceeding 20 μg C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1. An emphasis was placed on the genus Ficus, which is important in the region and occupies a wide range of ecological niches. Several species in the footprint of a nearby flux tower were also examined. Several palm species and an abundant fern ( Cyclosorus parasiticus) emitted substantial amounts of isoprene, and probably accounted for observed daytime mean isoprene fluxes from the understory of a Hevea brasiliensis plantation of 1.0 and 0.15 mg C m -2 h -1 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These measurements verify that both the forest floor and canopy in this region can be sources of isoprene. Monoterpene emissions exceeded 1.0 μg-C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1 from only 4 of 38 species surveyed, including some Ficus species and H. brasiliensis. However most of the trees of the latter species were sparsely foliated due to dry season senescence, and emission factors are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those reported during the wet season. BVOC emission rates and physiology of many species are impacted by reduced moisture availability, especially Mangifera indica. South Asia is a region undergoing rapid landuse change and forest plantation establishment, with large increases in area of high BVOC

  15. GEOGRAFIA REGIONAL E A INFLUÊNCIA ECONÔMICA DO OURO E DA BORRACHA: dialética escalar na formação do espaço brasileiro

    Antônia Márcia Duarte Queiroz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto é tecer discussões sobre a Geografia Regional no Brasil. A análise está focada no estudo da base econômica do Brasil por meio dos seus períodos econômicos, em especial o do Ouro, efetivamente concretizado na porção centro-sul do país, e o da Borracha, pela extração do látex proveniente da Hevea brasiliensis, a Seringueira, distribuída sobre a vastidão amazônica. A metodologia principal foi realizada por meio de análise bibliográfica, trabalho de campo em Ouro Preto-MG, onde foram realizadas observações e fotografias e articulações em torno da análise comparativa e dialética escalar. O contexto da construção da sociedade brasileira permite inferir conexões paralelas e importantes à construção regional articulada às potencialidades econômicas distribuídas no espaço geográfico. Portanto, a análise empreendida permitiu verificar que as regiões do Brasil possuem uma lógica estruturada a partir do uso e da exploração dos recursos naturais em suas várias fases econômicas, as quais foram relevantes para a organização e formação regional no território.   REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY: ECONOMIC INFLUENCE AND DIALECTIC CLIMB ON THE FORMATION OF THE BRAZILIAN SPACE   Abstract The objective of this text is to weave discussions on the regional geography in Brasil. The analysis is focused on the study of Brasil's economic base through its economic periods, in particular gold, effectively realized in the Center-South of Brasil, and rubber based on the extraction of latex from the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, distributed on the vast Amazon rainforest. The main methodology was performed by means of bibliographical analysis, field work in Ouro Preto-MG, where observations were carried out and photographs and joints around the comparative analysis and dialectic. The context of the construction of the Brazilian society allows inferring parallel connections and important to regional economic potential

  16. Divergence and genetic variability among superior rubber tree genotypes Divergência e variabilidade genética de genótipos superiores de seringueira

    Lígia Regina Lima Gouvêa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic variability and divergence among 22 superior rubber tree (Hevea sp. genotypes of the IAC 400 series. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using eight quantitative traits (descriptors, including yield. In the univariate analyses, the estimated parameters were: genetic and environmental variances; genetic and environmental coefficients of variation; and the variation index. The Mahalanobis generalized distance, the Tocher agglomerative method and canonical variables were used for the multivariate analyses. In the univariate analyses, variability was verified among the genotypes for all the variables evaluated. The Tocher method grouped the genotypes into 11 clusters of dissimilarity. The first four canonical variables explained 87.93% of the cumulative variation. The highest genetic variability was found in rubber yield-related traits, which contributed the most to the genetic divergence. The most divergent pairs of genotypes are suggested for crossbreeding. The genotypes evaluated are suitable for breeding and may be used to continue the IAC rubber tree breeding program.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a divergência e a variabilidade genética entre 22 genótipos superiores de seringueira (Hevea sp. da série IAC 400. Análises univariadas e multivariadas foram realizadas com oito caracteres quantitativos (descritores, incluindo produtividade. Na análise univariada, os parâmetros estimados foram: variâncias genética e ambiental, coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental, e índice de variação. A distância generalizada de Mahalanobis, o método aglomerativo de Tocher e variáveis canônicas foram utilizados nas análises multivariadas. Nas análises univariadas, verificou-se variabilidade entre os genótipos para todas as variáveis avaliadas. O método de Tocher agrupou os genótipos em 11 grupos de dissimilaridade. As quatro primeiras variáveis can

  17. Particle and VOC emission factor measurements for anthropogenic sources in West Africa

    S. Keita

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of campaigns have been carried out to establish the emission factors of pollutants from fuel combustion in West Africa, as part of work package 2 (Air Pollution and Health of the DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa FP7 program. Emission sources considered here include wood (hevea and iroko and charcoal burning, charcoal making, open trash burning, and vehicle emissions, including trucks, cars, buses and two-wheeled vehicles. Emission factors of total particulate matter (TPM, elemental carbon (EC, primary organic carbon (OC and volatile organic compounds (VOCs have been established. In addition, emission factor measurements were performed in combustion chambers in order to reproduce field burning conditions for a tropical hardwood (hevea, and obtain particulate emission factors by size (PM0.25, PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. Particle samples were collected on quartz fiber filters and analyzed using gravimetric method for TPM and thermal methods for EC and OC. The emission factors of 58 VOC species were determined using offline sampling on a sorbent tube. Emission factor results for two species of tropical hardwood burning of EC, OC and TPM are 0.98 ± 0.46 g kg−1 of fuel burned (g kg−1, 11.05 ± 4.55 and 41.12 ± 24.62 g kg−1, respectively. For traffic sources, the highest emission factors among particulate species are found for the two-wheeled vehicles with two-stroke engines (2.74 g kg−1 fuel for EC, 65.11 g kg−1 fuel for OC and 496 g kg−1 fuel for TPM. The largest VOC emissions are observed for two-stroke two-wheeled vehicles, which are up to 3 times higher than emissions from light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. Isoprene and monoterpenes, which are usually associated with biogenic emissions, are present in almost all anthropogenic sources investigated during this work and could be as significant as aromatic emissions in wood burning (1 g kg−1 fuel. EC is

  18. Latex production with depolymerizing compounds of actin cytoskeleton in rubber trees Produção de látex estimulada pela aplicação de compostos despolimerizantes de citoesqueleto de actina em seringueiras

    Gao Zheng-Quan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess stimulated latex flow from rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis with saturated macrolide (latrunculin A, 1, 5, and 10% potassium iodide in 2% methylcellulose compared with 0.3% ethylene in 2% methylcellulose (check and 2% methylcellulose (blank. Latex output and contents of pure rubber, total solid, sucrose, inorganic phosphorus, thiol, and Mg2+ were measured. The treatments containing 1% KI or saturated macrolide increased latex yields compared to the blank with 2% methylcellulose alone. The 1% KI or saturated macrolide treatments were equal to that of 0.3% ethylene check treatment. However, 5 and 10% KI were harmful to bark of rubber trees, even caused prolonged tapping panel dryness.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de látex em seringueiras (Hevea brasiliensis estimulada pela aplicação de macrolídeo saturado (latrunculina A, iodeto de potássio a 1, 5 e 10%, e etileno a 0,3%, preparados em solução de metilcelulose a 0,2%. O tratamento testemunha consistiu da aplicação de solução pura de metilcelulose a 2%. Foram medidos a produção de látex e o conteúdo de borracha pura, sólidos totais, sacarose, fósforo inorgânico, tiol e Mg2+. A aplicação de KI a 1% ou de macrolídeo saturado aumentou a produção de látex em comparação com o tratamento testemunha. Os tratamentos com KI a 1% e macrolídeo saturado foram iguais ao tratamento com etileno a 0,3%. No entanto, os tratamentos com KI a 5 e 10% foram prejudiciais à casca da seringueira, causando até mesmo o secamento do painel-de-sangria.

  19. Long rotation swidden systems maintain higher carbon stocks than rubber plantations

    Bruun, Thilde Bech; Berry, Nicholas; De Neergaard, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    in fallows were 1.5 ± 0.12 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 and 1.9 ± 0.14 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 in rubber plantations. When comparing time-averaged carbon stocks of swidden systems to rubber plantations with 30 year rotation periods, the stocks of swidden systems with rotation times of 5 and 10 years were 19% and 13% lower......Conversion of shifting cultivation to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations is one of the dominant land use changes in montane mainland areas of Southeast Asia, with the area of rubber expected to quadruple by 2050. However, the impacts of this transition on total ecosystem carbon stocks...... are poorly quantified. We undertook a chronosequence study to quantify changes in ecosystem carbon stocks following conversion from swidden agriculture to rubber plantations in Northern Laos. We measured above-ground biomass stocks and collected volume specific soil samples across rubber plantations...

  20. Host Plant and Leaf-Age Preference of Luprops tristis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Lagriinae: Lupropini: A Home Invading Nuisance Pest in Rubber Plantation Belts

    Sabu K. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive seasonal invasion by the litter-dwelling beetle Luprops tristis, into residential buildings prior to monsoon rains, and their prolonged state of dormancy render them a very serious nuisance pest in rubber plantations in the Western Ghats in southern India. Feeding preferences of L. tristis towards leaf litter of seven trees co-occurring in rubber plantations, cashew (Anacardium occidentale, mango (Mangifera indica, jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus, wild jack (Artocarpus hirsutus, cocoa (Theobroma cacao, cassia (Cassia fistula, sapota (Manilkara zapota and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis were analyzed with no-choice and multiple-choice leaf disc tests. Results showed that L. tristis is a generalist feeder with a defined pattern of preference, with the leaf litter of rubber being the most preferred followed by those of jackfruit and cocoa. Tender leaves were preferred over mature leaves except for cocoa and sapota. Equal preference towards tender and mature cocoa leaves, presence of patches of cocoa plantations and the scarce distribution of other host plants in rubber plantation belts leads to the proposal that in the absence of tender and mature rubber leaves, cocoa becomes the major host plant of L. tristis.

  1. SNP identification from RNA sequencing and linkage map construction of rubber tree for anchoring the draft genome.

    Shearman, Jeremy R; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Jomchai, Nukoon; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Sonthirod, Chutima; Naktang, Chaiwat; Theerawattanasuk, Kanikar; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2015-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis, or rubber tree, is an important crop species that accounts for the majority of natural latex production. The rubber tree nuclear genome consists of 18 chromosomes and is roughly 2.15 Gb. The current rubber tree reference genome assembly consists of 1,150,326 scaffolds ranging from 200 to 531,465 bp and totalling 1.1 Gb. Only 143 scaffolds, totalling 7.6 Mb, have been placed into linkage groups. We have performed RNA-seq on 6 varieties of rubber tree to identify SNPs and InDels and used this information to perform target sequence enrichment and high throughput sequencing to genotype a set of SNPs in 149 rubber tree offspring from a cross between RRIM 600 and RRII 105 rubber tree varieties. We used this information to generate a linkage map allowing for the anchoring of 24,424 contigs from 3,009 scaffolds, totalling 115 Mb or 10.4% of the published sequence, into 18 linkage groups. Each linkage group contains between 319 and 1367 SNPs, or 60 to 194 non-redundant marker positions, and ranges from 156 to 336 cM in length. This linkage map includes 20,143 of the 69,300 predicted genes from rubber tree and will be useful for mapping studies and improving the reference genome assembly.

  2. CDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  3. Ciprofloxacin release using natural rubber latex membranes as carrier.

    Dias Murbach, Heitor; Jaques Ogawa, Guilherme; Azevedo Borges, Felipe; Romeiro Miranda, Matheus Carlos; Lopes, Rute; Roberto de Barros, Natan; Guedes Mazalli, Alexandre Vinicius; Gonçalves da Silva, Rosângela; Ferreira Cinman, José Luiz; de Camargo Drago, Bruno; Donizetti Herculano, Rondinelli

    2014-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) from Hevea brasiliensis is easily manipulated, low cost, is of can stimulate natural angiogenesis and cellular adhesion, is a biocompatible, material and presents high mechanical resistance. Ciprofloxacin (CIP) is a synthetic antibiotic (fluoroquinolone) used in the treatment of infection at external fixation screws sites and remote infections, and this use is increasingly frequent in medical practice. The aim of this study was to develop a novel sustained delivery system for CIP based on NRL membranes and to study its delivery system behavior. CIP was found to be adsorbed on the NRL membrane, according to results of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results show that the membrane can release CIP for up to 59.08% in 312 hours and the mechanism is due to super case II (non-Fickian). The kinetics of the drug release could be fitted with double exponential function X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy shows some interaction by hydrogen bound, which influences its mechanical behavior.

  4. Characterization of the natural rubber from new rubber tree clones of PB 300 series; Caracterizacao da borracha natural dos novos clones de seringueira da serie PB 300

    Silva, Maycon J.; Spinelli, Rafaela O.; Moreno, Rogerio M.B.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C.; Martins, Maria Alice, E-mail: maria-alice.martins@embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentacao/LNNA, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo J. [Instituto Agronomico (IAC), Votuporanga, SP (Brazil). Centro de Seringueira e Sistemas Agroflorestais; Goncalves, Paulo de S. [Instituto Agronomico (IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The natural rubber (NR) is present in more than 2500 species of plants, being the Hevea brasiliensis the most commercially exploited. It is a raw material of great importance to the Brazilian economy, but the country faces a production's deficit, having to import about 60% of its consumption. In this work , the latex obtained from rubber tree of new clones of PB series 300 (PB 311, PB 312, PB 314 , PB 326, PB 346 and PB 350 ) and RRIM 600 (control) were characterized by dry rubber content (DRC), total solids content, distribution of particle size, Zeta potential, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared in the spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and technological properties. The DRC values ranged from 33% to 40%, and total solids of 38% to 44%. All of the clones showed average particle diameter between 180.0 to 192.1 nm, excluding clones PB 326 and PB 346 with 150.0 nm and 157.9 nm, respectively. The NMR spectra and FTIR showed that the structure of the natural rubber from all clones studied is cis -1,4- polyisoprene. Natural rubber from the new clones showed good thermal stability up to 285 °C and glass transition temperature of -64 °C. (author)

  5. [Seasonal variation of soil respiration and its components in tropical rain forest and rubber plantation in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan].

    Lu, Hua-Zheng; Sha, Li-Qing; Wang, Jun; Hu, Wen-Yan; Wu, Bing-Xia

    2009-10-01

    By using trenching method and infrared gas analyzer, this paper studied the seasonal variation of soil respiration (SR), including root respiration (RR) and heterotrophic respiration (HR), in tropical seasonal rain forest (RF) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation (RP) in Xishuangbanna of Yunnan, China. The results showed that the SR and HR rates were significantly higher in RF than in RP (P dry-hot season > foggy season, but the RR rate was rainy season > foggy season > dry-hot season in RF, and foggy season > rainy season > dry-hot season in RP. The contribution of RR to SR in RF (29%) was much lower than that in RP (42%, P < 0.01), while the contribution of HR to SR was 71% in RF and 58% in RP. When the soil temperature at 5 cm depth varied from 12 degrees C to 32 degrees C, the Q10 values for SR, HR, and RR rates were higher in RF than in RP. HR had the highest Q10 value, while RR had the lowest one.

  6. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    2000-07-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  7. Evaluation of peptides release using a natural rubber latex biomembrane as a carrier.

    Miranda, M C R; Borges, F A; Barros, N R; Santos Filho, N A; Mendonça, R J; Herculano, R D; Cilli, E M

    2018-05-01

    The biomembrane natural (NRL-Natural Rubber Latex), manipulated from the latex obtained from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, has shown great potential for application in biomedicine and biomaterials. Reflecting the biocompatibility and low bounce rate of this material, NRL has been used as a physical barrier to infectious agents and for the controlled release of drugs and extracts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incorporation and release of peptides using a latex biomembrane carrier. After incorporation, the release of material from the membrane was observed using spectrophotometry. Analyses using HPLC and mass spectroscopy did not confirm the release of the antimicrobial peptide [W 6 ]Hylin a1 after 24 h. In addition, analysis of the release solution showed new compounds, indicating the degradation of the peptide by enzymes contained in the latex. Additionally, the release of a peptide with a shorter sequence (Ac-WAAAA) was evaluated, and degradation was not observed. These results showed that the use of NRL as solid matrices as delivery systems of peptide are sequence dependent and could to be evaluated for each sequence.

  8. Mechanical properties of rubberwood oriented strand lumber (OSL: The effect of strand length

    Buhnnum Kyokong

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of strand length on mechanical properties (tension, compression and bending of oriented strand lumber (OSL made of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. was reported. Three strand lengths of 50 mm, 100 mm, and 150 mm with 1 mm thickness and 15 mm width were used. The strands were mixed with 5% pMDI glue (weight basis in a tumble mixer. The OSL specimens were formed by hot pressing process of unidirectionally aligned strands. Average specific gravity and moisture content were 0.76 and 8.34%, respectively. Tension and compression tests were carried out for directions both parallel and perpendicular to grain while bending test was performed only in parallel direction. Ultimate stresses and moduli of elasticity were examined from the stress-strain curves. It was found that for the parallel-to-grain direction, the longer strand OSL gave higher strength. The role of the strand length did not appear for the direction normal to the grain. The relationship between the mechanical properties of OSL and strand length was well described by the modified Hankinson formula.

  9. Molecular Cloning, Expression Analysis, and Functional Characterization of the H(+)-Pyrophosphatase from Jatropha curcas.

    Yang, Yumei; Luo, Zhu; Zhang, Mengru; Liu, Chang; Gong, Ming; Zou, Zhurong

    2016-04-01

    H(+)-pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPase) is a primary pyrophosphate (PPi)-energized proton pump to generate electrochemical H(+) gradient for ATP production and substance translocations across membranes. It plays an important role in stress adaptation that was intensively substantiated by numerous transgenic plants overexpressing H(+)-PPases yet devoid of any correlated studies pointing to the elite energy plant, Jatropha curcas. Herein, we cloned the full length of J. curcas H(+)-PPase (JcVP1) complementary DNA (cDNA) by reverse transcription PCR, based on the assembled sequence of its ESTs highly matched to Hevea brasiliensis H(+)-PPase. This gene encodes a polypeptide of 765 amino acids that was predicted as a K(+)-dependent H(+)-PPase evolutionarily closest to those of other Euphorbiaceae plants. Many cis-regulatory elements relevant to environmental stresses, molecular signals, or tissue-specificity were identified by promoter prediction within the 1.5-kb region upstream of JcVP1 coding sequence. Meanwhile, the responses of JcVP1 expression to several common abiotic stresses (salt, drought, heat, cold) were characterized with a considerable accordance with the inherent stress tolerance of J. curcas. Moreover, we found that the heterologous expression of JcVP1 could significantly improve the salt tolerance in both recombinant Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and this effect could be further fortified in yeast by N-terminal addition of a vacuole-targeting signal peptide from the H(+)-PPase of Trypanosoma cruzi.

  10. Performance and emission characteristics of a DI compression ignition engine operated on Honge, Jatropha and sesame oil methyl esters

    Banapurmath, N.R.; Tewari, P.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.V.B. College of Engineering and Technology, Vidyanagar, Poona-Bangalore Road, Hubli 580031 (India); Hosmath, R.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, K.L.E' s C.E.T., Belgaum (India)

    2008-09-15

    The high viscosity of vegetable oils leads to problem in pumping and spray characteristics. The inefficient mixing of vegetable oils with air contributes to incomplete combustion. The best way to use vegetable oils as fuel in compression ignition (CI) engines is to convert it into biodiesel. Biodiesel is a methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acids made from vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and animal fat. The main resources for biodiesel production can be non-edible oils obtained from plant species such as Pongamia pinnata (Honge oil), Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot), Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) and Calophyllum inophyllum (Nagchampa). Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in CI engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has properties similar to mineral diesel. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct-injection, CI engine operated with methyl esters of Honge oil, Jatropha oil and sesame oil. Comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, smoke opacity, HC, CO, NO{sub X}, ignition delay, combustion duration and heat release rates have been presented and discussed. Engine performance in terms of higher brake thermal efficiency and lower emissions (HC, CO, NO{sub X}) with sesame oil methyl ester operation was observed compared to methyl esters of Honge and Jatropha oil operation. (author)

  11. RELACIÓN ESTRUCTURA-INMUNOGENICIDAD DE PROTEÍNAS NATURALES

    Adela Rodríguez-Romero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La alergia al látex del árbol de Hevea brasiliensis ha sido muy estudiada en las últimas décadas y, por lo tanto, se han realizado numerosos intentos para explicar el aumento en la incidencia de esta enfermedad. Recientemente se han logrado avances muy importantes en la expresión, purificación y caracterización molecular de varios alérgenos de hule natural; no obstante, la información estructural es aún muy limitada. El conocimiento de la estructura tridimensional, usando técnicas experimentales, facilita la identificación e incrementa la posibilidad de modificar epítopos conformacionales, que son importantes para el diseño de herramientas de diagnóstico y de agentes inmunoterapéuticos. Nuestro grupo de trabajo ha determinado dos epítopos conformacionales del alérgeno Hev b 2 (heveína y un glicoepítopo del alérgeno Hev b 2 (b-1,3- glucanasa.

  12. Master curves for the sulphur assisted crosslinking reaction of natural rubber in the presence of nano- and nano-structured sp2 carbon allotropes

    S. Musto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, master curves are reported for the crosslinking of a diene rubber with a sulphur based system in the presence of either nano- or nano-structured carbon allotropes, such as carbon nanotubes (CNT, a nanosized graphite with high surface area (HSAG and carbon black (CB. Poly(1,4-cis-isoprene from Hevea Brasiliensis was the diene rubber and crosslinking was performed in temperatures ranging from 151 to 180 °C, with carbon allotropes below and above their percolation threshold. Such carbon allotropes were characterized by different aspect ratio, surface area and pH. However, in the crosslinking reaction, they revealed common behaviour. In fact, the specific interfacial area could be used to correlate crosslinking parameters, such as induction time (ts1 and activation energy (Ea calculated by applying the autocatalytic model. Monotonous decrease of ts1 and increase of Ea were observed, with points lying on master curves, regardless of the nature of the carbon allotropes. Remarkable differences were however observed in the structure of the crosslinking network: when the carbon allotrope was above the percolation threshold much larger crosslinking density was obtained in the presence of CNT whereas composites based on HSAG became soluble in hydrocarbon solvent, after the reaction with a thiol. Proposed explanation of these results is based on the reactivity of carbon allotropes with sulphur and sulphur based compounds, demonstrated through the reaction of 1-dodecanethiol and sulphur with CNT and HSAG and with a model substrate such as anthracene.

  13. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations.

    Sahner, Josephine; Budi, Sri Wilarso; Barus, Henry; Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization). Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs) in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra). We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems.

  14. Rubber trees demonstrate a clear retranslocation under seasonal drought and cold stresses

    Yuwu Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Having been introduced to the northern edge of Asian tropics, the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis has become deciduous in this climate with seasonal drought and cold stresses. To determine its internal nutrient strategy during leaf senescence and deciduous periods, we investigated mature leaf and senescent leaf nutrients, water-soluble soil nutrients and characteristics of soil microbiota in nine different ages of monoculture rubber plantations. Rubber trees demonstrate complicated retranslocation of N, P and K during foliar turnover. Approximately 50.26% of leaf nutrients and 21.47% of soil nutrients were redistributed to the rubber tree body during the leaf senescence and withering stages. However, no significant changes in the structure- or function-related properties of soil microbes were detected. These nutrient retranslocation strategy may be important stress responses. In the nutrient retranslocation process, soil plays a dual role as nutrient supplier and nutrient bank. Soil received the nutrients from abscissed leaves, and also supplied nutrients to trees in the non-growth stage. Nutrient absorption and accumulation began before the leaves started to wither and fall.

  15. Major phytopathogens and strains from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) are differentiated by MALDI-MS lipid and/or peptide/protein profiles.

    Dos Santos, Fábio Neves; Tata, Alessandra; Belaz, Kátia Roberta Anacleto; Magalhães, Dilze Maria Argôlo; Luz, Edna Dora Martins Newman; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2017-03-01

    Phytopathogens are the main disease agents that promote attack of cocoa plantations in all tropical countries. The similarity of the symptoms caused by different phytopathogens makes the reliable identification of the diverse species a challenge. Correct identification is important in the monitoring and management of these pests. Here we show that matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) in combination with multivariate data analysis is able to rapidly and reliably differentiate cocoa phytopathogens, namely Moniliophthora perniciosa, Phytophthora palmivora, P. capsici, P. citrophthora, P. heveae, Ceratocystis cacaofunesta, C. paradoxa, and C. fimbriata. MALDI-MS reveals unique peptide/protein and lipid profiles which differentiate these phytopathogens at the level of genus, species, and single strain coming from different hosts or cocoa tissues collected in several plantations/places. This fast methodology based on molecular biomarkers is also shown to be sufficiently reproducible and selective and therefore seems to offer a suitable tool to guide the correct application of sanitary defense approaches for infected cocoa plantations. International trading of cocoa plants and products could also be efficiently monitored by MALDI-MS. It could, for instance, prevent the entry of new phytopathogens into a country, e.g., as in the case of Moniliophthora roreri fungus that is present in all cocoa plantations of countries bordering Brazil, but that has not yet attacked Brazilian plantations. Graphical Abstract Secure identification of phytopathogens attacking cocoa plantations has been demonstrated via typical chemical profiles provided by mass spectrometric screening.

  16. Forest Conversion to Land of Rubber and Palm Oil Farming and Its Effect on Run Off and Soil Erosion in Batang Pelepat Watershed

    Sunarti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest conversion to some land use happened in all watershed, includes Batang Pelepat watershed. The objectives of this research are to know effect of forest conversion to land of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis and palm oil (Elaeis guinensis Jack farming on run off and soil erosion and different of erosion rate on agro technology of rubber and palm oil farming in Batang Pelepat watershed. The research was carried out during 3 months, begin October to December 2006. Run off and soil erosion measured plot with gutter in the lower of plot. Experimental design for this research is randomized complete block design, with land use type as treatment and slope class as replication or block. Data analyzed statistically by variance analysis (F-test and Duncan New Multiple Range Test on confidence 95% (á = 0.05. The results of this research show that area of forest coverage in Batang Pelepat watershed was decreasing. In 1986 this area still 94.50% of watershed area, but in 1994 area of forest only 78.17% and in 2006 forest area 64.20% of watershed area. Forest conversion was carried out to land of rubber and palm oil farming with some actual agro technologies. Land of monoculture rubber I resulted the highest run off and soil erosion more than the other land use type and showed different of run off and soil erosion on land of secondary forest.

  17. Leaf life span plasticity in tropical seedlings grown under contrasting light regimes.

    Vincent, Gregoire

    2006-02-01

    The phenotypic plasticity of leaf life span in response to low resource conditions has a potentially large impact on the plant carbon budget, notably in evergreen species not subject to seasonal leaf shedding, but has rarely been well documented. This study evaluates the plasticity of leaf longevity, in terms of its quantitative importance to the plant carbon balance under limiting light. Seedlings of four tropical tree species with contrasting light requirements (Alstonia scholaris, Hevea brasiliensis, Durio zibethinus and Lansium domesticum) were grown under three light regimes (full sunlight, 45 % sunlight and 12 % sunlight). Their leaf dynamics were monitored over 18 months. All species showed a considerable level of plasticity with regard to leaf life span: over the range of light levels explored, the ratio of the range to the mean value of life span varied from 29 %, for the least plastic species, to 84 %, for the most. The common trend was for leaf life span to increase with decreasing light intensity. The plasticity apparent in leaf life span was similar in magnitude to the plasticity observed in specific leaf area and photosynthetic rate, implying that it has a significant impact on carbon gain efficiency when plants acclimate to different light regimes. In all species, median survival time was negatively correlated with leaf photosynthetic capacity (or its proxy, the nitrogen content per unit area) and leaf emergence rate. Longer leaf life spans under low light are likely to be a consequence of slower ageing as a result of a slower photosynthetic metabolism.

  18. Protecting tropical forests from the rapid expansion of rubber using carbon payments.

    Warren-Thomas, Eleanor M; Edwards, David P; Bebber, Daniel P; Chhang, Phourin; Diment, Alex N; Evans, Tom D; Lambrick, Frances H; Maxwell, James F; Nut, Menghor; O'Kelly, Hannah J; Theilade, Ida; Dolman, Paul M

    2018-03-02

    Expansion of Hevea brasiliensis rubber plantations is a resurgent driver of deforestation, carbon emissions, and biodiversity loss in Southeast Asia. Southeast Asian rubber extent is massive, equivalent to 67% of oil palm, with rapid further expansion predicted. Results-based carbon finance could dis-incentivise forest conversion to rubber, but efficacy will be limited unless payments match, or at least approach, the costs of avoided deforestation. These include opportunity costs (timber and rubber profits), plus carbon finance scheme setup (transaction) and implementation costs. Using comprehensive Cambodian forest data, exploring scenarios of selective logging and conversion, and assuming land-use choice is based on net present value, we find that carbon prices of $30-$51 per tCO 2 are needed to break even against costs, higher than those currently paid on carbon markets or through carbon funds. To defend forests from rubber, either carbon prices must be increased, or other strategies are needed, such as corporate zero-deforestation pledges, and governmental regulation and enforcement of forest protection.

  19. EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES OF A DYSTROFERRIC RED LATOSOL (OXISOL UNDER DIFFERENT FOREST SETTLEMENTS

    Sérgio Gualberto Martins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the structural quality of a dystroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol under four forest settlements at Federal University of Lavras campus. The studied forest settlements were: Pinus sp. (PP, Eucalyptus sp. (PE, Hevea brasiliensis (PHB, and native forest (PNF. The mean annual precipitation and temperature for the region are 1493 mm and 19.3°C, respectively. For each studied settlement, disturbed and undisturbed samples from 0-5 cm depth were collected. The studied physical attributes were: aggregates stability, expressed through geometric average diameter, porosity distribution, penetration resistance and permeability. The PNF revealed the highest permeability value (139 mm h-1, followed by PHB (57 mm h-1, PP and PE (40 mm h-1. The highest value for penetration resistance was verified for PP, followed by PE and PHB. The smallest value was presented by PNF. Through this study, it can be concluded that the physical attributes, permeability and soil resistance to penetration, utilized as indicators of soil structural quality, present good performance in distinguishing the effects proportionated by the introduction of fast growth species, contributing for the sustainable management of the studied soil.

  20. Variación temporal a Microcyclus ulei en los clones de caucho FX 3864 y FX 4098 en condiciones controladas

    Armando Sterling Cuellar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en español: Variación temporal a Microcyclus ulei en los clones de caucho FX 3864 y FX 4098 en condiciones controladas Título en ingles: Temporal variation to Microcyclus ulei in rubber tree clones FX 3864 and FX 4098 under controlled conditions Título corto: Variación temporal a Microcyclus ulei Resumen:  Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la variación temporal de los principales componentes fisiológicos asociados a la reacción de dos clones (FX 3864 y FX 4098de Hevea brasiliensis a Microcyclus ulei en condiciones controladas. Las inoculaciones se realizaron en cámara húmeda a 23 ºC, una humedad relativa superior al 90% y un fotoperíodo de 12 h. Con un modelo de medidas repetidas en el tiempo y mediante correlaciones se analizaron cuatro variables: severidad de ataque (SA, intensidad de esporulación conidial (IE, tamaño de lesión (TL y frecuencia de infección (FI. M. ulei generó síntomas en los dos clones a los 4 días después de la inoculación. Los signos de la enfermedad (IE= 3 se manifestaron a los 8 días en el clon FX 3864 y a los 12 días en el clon FX 4098. FX 3864 presentó la mayor susceptibilidad a M. ulei (mayor severidad y una esporulación alta, IE= 4. En general, se observó una influencia del tiempo en la reacción de cada clon para las variables SA, IE y TL. Altas correlaciones significativas se encontraron entre SA y las variables IE, TL y FI, excepto en el día 12 para IE. Este estudio permite concluir que en condiciones controladas la intensidad  y la frecuencia de los síntomas así como el grado de esporulación  producidos por M. ulei cambian significativamente a través del tiempo y esta variación está influenciada a su vez por el nivel de susceptibilidad a M. ulei presentado por cada clon de H. brasiliensis.  Palabras clave: Hevea brasiliensis, mal suramericano de las hojas, severidad, esporulación. Abstract:  This study aimed to evaluate the effect of temporal variation on the

  1. El Caucho Artículo de Vital Importancia

    Ministerio de Agricultura y Comercio Revista de Agricultura y Comercio

    1942-08-01

    Full Text Available Como es bien sabido, el caucho es un producto originario de la América del Sur. Ya en su segundo viaje al nuevo mundo Cristóbal Colón vio a los nativos dedicados a unos juegos en los que usaban grandes bolas de goma, sacada del árbol del caucho. Los arqueólogos han hallado reliquias de caucho en las ruinas de la civilización maya del siglo XI en Chichen Itza. Las plantaciones de caucho en Malaca y las Indias Orientales Holandesas deben su existencia a Sir Henry Wickham, quien en 1876 recorrió el valle del Amazonas estudiando más de 400 variedades distintas de árboles y escogiendo finalmente la llamada "hevea brasiliensis". De ésta recogió 7.000 semillas que empacó entre hojas de plátanos silvestres, y luego transportó clandestinamente a Inglaterra.

  2. The effect of crosslinker on mechanical and morphological properties of tropical wood material composites

    Islam, Md. Saiful; Hamdan, Sinin; Rahman, Md. Rezaur; Jusoh, Ismail; Ahmed, Abu Saleh

    2011-01-01

    In this study, wood polymer composites (WPCs) based on five kinds of selected tropical wood species, namely Jelutong (Dyera costulata), Terbulan (Endospermum diadenum), Batai (Paraserianthes moluccana), Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and Pulai (Alstonia pneumatophora), were impregnated with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDIC) monomers mixture in the ratio of 1:1 for composite manufacturing. All these tropical wood reacted with hexamethylene diisocyanate and crosslinked with MMA which enhanced the hydrophobic (restrained water) nature of wood. The vacuum-pressure method was used to impregnate the samples with monomer mixture. The monomer mixture loading achievable was found to be dependent on the properties of wood species. Low loading was observed for the high density wood species. Mechanical strength of fabricated wood polymer composites (WPCs) in term of modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) were found to be significantly improved. The wood-polymer interaction was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Morphological properties of raw wood and WPC samples were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XRD analysis and an improvement in morphological properties was also observed for WPC.

  3. Prediction of direct and indirect genetic gains and genotypic correlations in rubber tree progenies

    Cecília Khusala Verardi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic parameters, genotypic and phenotypic correlations, and direct and indirect genetic gains among and within rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis progenies. The experiment was set up at the Municipality of Jaú, SP, Brazil. A randomized complete block design was used, with 22 treatments (progenies, 6 replicates, and 10 plants per plot at a spacing of 3x3 m. Three‑year‑old progenies were assessed for girth, rubber yield, and bark thickness by direct and indirect gains and genotypic correlations. The number of latex vessel rings showed the best correlations, correlating positively and significantly with girth and bark thickness. Selection gains among progenies were greater than within progeny for all the variables analyzed. Total gains obtained were high, especially for girth increase and rubber yield, which were 93.38 and 105.95%, respectively. Young progeny selection can maximize the expected genetic gains, reducing the rubber tree selection cycle.

  4. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 12 figs.

  5. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hev ein sequence

    Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI); Broekaert, Willem F. (Dilbeek, BE); Chua, Nam-Hai (Scarsdale, NY); Kush, Anil (New York, NY)

    2000-07-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  6. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Raikhel, Natasha V. (Okemos, MI); Broekaert, Willem F. (Dilbeek, BE); Chua, Nam-Hai (Scarsdale, NY); Kush, Anil (New York, NY)

    1999-05-04

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  7. Genetic parameters and estimated genetic gains in young rubber tree progenies

    Cecília Khusala Verardi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the genetic parameters and to estimate genetic gains in young rubber tree progenies. The experiments were carried out during three years, in a randomized block design, with six replicates and ten plants per plot, in three representative Hevea crop regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-two progenies were evaluated, from three to five years old, for rubber yield and annual girth growth. Genetic gain was estimated with the multi-effect index (MEI. Selection by progenies means provided greater estimated genetic gain than selection based on individuals, since heritability values of progeny means were greater than the ones of individual heritability, for both evaluated variables, in all the assessment years. The selection of the three best progenies for rubber yield provided a selection gain of 1.28 g per plant. The genetic gains estimated with MEI using data from early assessments (from 3 to 5-year-old were generally high for annual girth growth and rubber yield. The high genetic gains for annual girth growth in the first year of assessment indicate that progenies can be selected at the beginning of the breeding program. Population effective size was consistent with the three progenies selected, showing that they were not related and that the population genetic variability is ensured. Early selection with the genetic gains estimated by MEI can be made on rubber tree progenies.

  8. Initial performance of clones of rubber, in Puerto Carreño, Vichada – Colombia.

    Diego Fernando Vélez Sánchez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate performance in a large-scale clonal field of rubber clones (Hevea brasiliensis [Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.] Muell.-Arg. IAN 710, IAN 873, FX 3864, RRIM 600, RRIM 703, PB 314, PB 312, PB 235, PR 255, PR 303 e IRCA 41 at 12 and 36 months of planting.  Clonal materials were established using a randomized complete block design with 4 replications of 100 trees per clone. It was evaluated the growth in height and diameter. Clones that showed better diameter growth at 12 and 36 months were FX 3864 (2.13cm and 3.5cm and IAN 710 (2.06cm and 3.63cm, those of smaller growth in diameter at 12 months were IAN 873 with 1.48 cm and PR255 with 1.47cm, while at 36 months was IAN 873 with 2.48cm. Respect to the total height IAN 710 (4.97m and 5.20m presented the best growth at 12 and 36 months, while PR 255 with 2.21m and PR 303 with 2.12cm the lowest growth in 12 months and  in 36 months IAN 873 slower growth with 2.82m.

  9. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 11 figures.

  10. Mathematical analysis and modeling of epidemics of rubber tree root diseases: Probability of infection of an individual tree

    Chadoeuf, J.; Joannes, H.; Nandris, D.; Pierrat, J.C.

    1988-12-01

    The spread of root diseases in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) due to Rigidoporus lignosus and Phellinus noxius was investigated epidemiologically using data collected every 6 month during a 6-year survey in a plantation. The aim of the present study is to see what factors could predict whether a given tree would be infested at the following inspection. Using a qualitative regression method we expressed the probability of pathogenic attack on a tree in terms of three factors: the state of health of the surrounding trees, the method used to clear the forest prior to planting, and evolution with time. The effects of each factor were ranked, and the roles of the various classes of neighbors were established and quantified. Variability between successive inspections was small, and the method of forest clearing was important only while primary inocula in the soil were still infectious. The state of health of the immediate neighbors was most significant; more distant neighbors in the same row had some effect; interrow spread was extremely rare. This investigation dealt only with trees as individuals, and further study of the interrelationships of groups of trees is needed.

  11. Biomass chemicals: improvement in quality and quantity with physiological regulators

    Kossuth, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    The search for alternative biomass energy forms has centered on two approaches: (1) production of cellulose fiber in biomass of low net energy value per unit weight, such as wood and bagasse, and (2) hydrocarbons of high net energy value per unit weight for use as chemical feedstocks and substitutes for petroleum. Major plant chemical products include oleoresin from pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm., P. palustris Mill.) rubber from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.), and guayule shrub (Parthenium argentatum Gray) and sugar from sugarcane (Saccharum species). Ethylene may be a unifying natural bioregulator that can increase deposition of biomass chemicals in all four of these systems. Examples of bioregulators include the use of paraquat, diquat, and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA) for stimulating the synthesis of oleoresin, CEPA for prolonging the flow of rubber and increasing rubber synthesis in the rubber tree, and triethylamines of chlorinated phenoxy compounds for stimulating rubber production in guayule. In sugarcane, gibberellic acid (GA3) increases internodal elongation. Glyphosate, CEPA and other regulators increase the deposition of sucrose, diquat and CEPA inhibit flowering, and paraquat desiccates leaves to facilitate leaf removal or burning just prior to harvest. The cellular compartmentalization for the synthesis of these plant chemicals is unique for each species, and dictates cultural and harvest techniques. The mode of action and pathways for the success of these physiological regulators are discussed. 42 references.

  12. Formation of hydrocarbon compounds during the hydrocracking of non-edible vegetable oils with cobalt-nickel supported on hierarchical HZSM-5 catalyst

    Marlinda, L.; Al-Muttaqii, M.; Roesyadi, A.; Prajitno, D. H.

    2017-05-01

    The hierarchical Co-Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst with hierarchical pore structure was prepared by desilication and incipient wetness impregnation. Hydrocracking of non-edible vegetable oils at temperature of 400 °C, 20±5 bar for 2 h was performed in the presence of this type of catalyst under hydrogen initial pressure in pressured batch reactor. Non-edible vegetable oils, such as Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) airy shaw (sunan candlenut) and Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed) were chosen to study the effect of the degree of saturation and lateral chain length on hydrocarbon compounds obtained through hydrocracking. Cerbera manghas oil was also tested for comparison because the composition of fatty acid was different with the other oils The hydrocracking test indicated that liquid product produced has a similar hydrocarbon compounds with petroleum diesel. The most abundant hydrocarbon is pentadecane (n-C15) and heptadecane (n-C17). The high aromatic compounds were found in liquid product produced in hydrocracking of Sunan candlenut oil.

  13. Thermal characteristics of non-edible oils as phase change materials candidate to application of air conditioning chilled water system

    Irsyad, M.; Indartono, Y. S.; Suwono, A.; Pasek, A. D.

    2015-09-01

    The addition of phase change material in the secondary refrigerant has been able to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems in chilled water system. This material has a high thermal density because its energy is stored as latent heat. Based on material melting and freezing point, there are several non-edible oils that can be studied as a phase change material candidate for the application of chilled water systems. Forests and plantations in Indonesia have great potential to produce non-edible oil derived from the seeds of the plant, such as; Calophyllum inophyllum, Jatropha curcas L, and Hevea braziliensis. Based on the melting temperature, these oils can further studied to be used as material mixing in the secondary refrigerant. Thermal characteristics are obtained from the testing of T-history, Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) and thermal conductivity materials. Test results showed an increase in the value of the latent heat when mixed with water with the addition of surfactant. Thermal characteristics of each material of the test results are shown completely in discussion section of this article.

  14. Concentrations, Stability, and Isolation of the Furan Fatty Acid 9-(3-Methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic Acid from Disposable Latex Gloves.

    Müller, Marco; Hogg, Melanie; Ulms, Kerstin; Vetter, Walter

    2017-09-13

    Because of their antioxidant properties, furan fatty acids (furan-FAs) are valuable minor compounds with a widespread occurrence in all living matter. Unfortunately, pure standards are not readily available, because they usually contribute only 1% to the lipid fraction. A known exception of this is the milky fluid of Hevea brasiliensis, commonly known as latex, in which the furan-FA 9-(3-methyl-5-pentylfuran-2-yl)-nonanoic acid (9M5) contributes about 90% to the triacylglycerides. In this study, we investigated the content of 9M5 in 30 different disposable latex gloves, which ranged from 0.7 to 8.2 mg/g of glove. The light degradability of 9M5 in latex gloves was investigated, and different amounts of 9M5 in disposable latex gloves were attributed to varying exposure time to light. Additionally, over 100 mg of the methyl or ethyl ester of 9M5 (purity of >98%) could be extracted from disposable latex gloves, employing cold extraction and silver ion chromatography. With this method, standards for the quantitation of furan-FAs are obtained easily and rapidly in all laboratories.

  15. The environment, not space, dominantly structures the landscape patterns of the richness and composition of the tropical understory vegetation.

    Yue-Hua Hu

    Full Text Available The mechanisms driving the spatial patterns of species richness and composition are essential to the understanding of biodiversity. Numerous studies separately identify the contributions of the environment (niche process and space (neutral process to the species richness or composition at different scales, but few studies have investigated the contributions of both types of processes in the two types of data at the landscape scale. In this study, we partitioned the spatial variations in all, exotic and native understory plant species richness and composition constrained by environmental variables and space in 134 plots that were spread across 10 counties in Hainan Island in southern China. The 134 plots included 70 rubber (Hevea brasiliensis plantation plots, 50 eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla plantation plots, and 14 secondary forest plots. RDA based variation partitioning was run to assess the contribution of environment and space to species richness and composition. The results showed that the environmental variables alone explained a large proportion of the variations in both the species richness and composition of all, native, and exotic species. The RDA results indicated that overstory composition (forest type here plays a leading role in determining species richness and composition patterns. The alpha and beta diversities of the secondary forest plots were markedly higher than that of the two plantations. In conclusion, niche differentiation processes are the principal mechanisms that shape the alpha and beta diversities of understory plant species in Hainan Island.

  16. Impact of the timing and duration of weed control on the establishment of a rubber tree plantation.

    Guzzo, Caio D; Carvalho, Leonardo B de; Giancotti, Paulo R F; Alves, Pedro L C A; Gonçalves, Elaine C P; Martins, José V F

    2014-03-01

    Rubber tree production is reduced by weeds that compete for environmental resources; therefore, the timing and duration of weed control influences weed interference. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the growth of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) plants, to determine the critical period for weed control, and to evaluate the growth recovery of rubber trees that coexisted with weeds for different periods of time after planting. Two groups of treatments were established under field conditions in the first year of the investigation: one group contained crescent periods of weed infestation, while the other contained crescent periods of weed control, also including a weed-free check and a total weedy check. In the second year of the investigation, the weeds were totally controlled. Urochloa decumbens was the dominant weed (over 90% groundcover). Crop growth was greatly reduced due to the weed interference. Plant height decreased more rapidly than did any other characteristic. Plant height, leaf dry mass, and leaf area decreased by 99%, 97% and 96%, respectively, and were the most reduced characteristics. Plant height also recovered more rapidly than did any characteristic when the period of weed control was lengthened. However, stem dry mass increased by 750%, making it the most recovered characteristic. The critical period for weed control was between 4 and 9½ months after planting in the first year; however, the rubber trees showed an expressive growth recovery when the weeds were controlled throughout the second year.

  17. Characterization of the natural rubber from new rubber tree clones of PB 300 series

    Silva, Maycon J.; Spinelli, Rafaela O.; Moreno, Rogerio M.B.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C.; Martins, Maria Alice; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo J.

    2015-01-01

    The natural rubber (NR) is present in more than 2500 species of plants, being the Hevea brasiliensis the most commercially exploited. It is a raw material of great importance to the Brazilian economy, but the country faces a production's deficit, having to import about 60% of its consumption. In this work , the latex obtained from rubber tree of new clones of PB series 300 (PB 311, PB 312, PB 314 , PB 326, PB 346 and PB 350 ) and RRIM 600 (control) were characterized by dry rubber content (DRC), total solids content, distribution of particle size, Zeta potential, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared in the spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and technological properties. The DRC values ranged from 33% to 40%, and total solids of 38% to 44%. All of the clones showed average particle diameter between 180.0 to 192.1 nm, excluding clones PB 326 and PB 346 with 150.0 nm and 157.9 nm, respectively. The NMR spectra and FTIR showed that the structure of the natural rubber from all clones studied is cis -1,4- polyisoprene. Natural rubber from the new clones showed good thermal stability up to 285 °C and glass transition temperature of -64 °C. (author)

  18. The Effect of Single, Binary and Ternary Anions of Chloride, Carbonate and Phosphate on the Release of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetate Intercalated into the Zn–Al-layered Double Hydroxide Nanohybrid

    Zainal Zulkarnain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intercalation of beneficial anion into inorganic host has lead to an opportunity to synthesize various combinations of new organic–inorganic nanohybrids with various potential applications; especially, for the controlled release formulation and storage purposes. Investigation on the release behavior of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D intercalated into the interlayer of Zn–Al-layered double hydroxide (ZAN have been carried out using single, binary and ternary aqueous systems of chloride, carbonate and phosphate. The release behavior of the active agent 2,4-D from its double-layered hydroxide nanohybrid ZANDI was found to be of controlled manner governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. It was found that carbonate medium yielded the highest accumulated release of 2,4-D, while phosphate in combination with carbonate and/or nitrate speeds up the release rate of 2,4-D. These results indicate that it is possible to design and develop new delivery system of latex stimulant compound with controlled release property based on 2,4-D that is known as a substance to increase latex production of rubber tree,Hevea brasiliensis.

  19. Effects of forests, roads and mistletoe on bird diversity in monoculture rubber plantations.

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Huang, Guohualing; Yasuda, Mika; Quan, Rui-Chang; Goodale, Eben; Corlett, Richard T; Tomlinson, Kyle W

    2016-02-23

    Rising global demand for natural rubber is expanding monoculture rubber (Hevea brasilensis) at the expense of natural forests in the Old World tropics. Conversion of forests into rubber plantations has a devastating impact on biodiversity and we have yet to identify management strategies that can mitigate this. We determined the life-history traits that best predict bird species occurrence in rubber plantations in SW China and investigated the effects of surrounding forest cover and distance to roads on bird diversity. Mistletoes provide nectar and fruit resources in rubber so we examined mistletoe densities and the relationship with forest cover and rubber tree diameter. In rubber plantations, we recorded less than half of all bird species extant in the surrounding area. Birds with wider habitat breadths and low conservation value had a higher probability of occurrence. Species richness and diversity increased logarithmically with surrounding forest cover, but roads had little effect. Mistletoe density increased exponentially with rubber tree diameters, but was unrelated to forest cover. To maximize bird diversity in rubber-dominated landscapes it is therefore necessary to preserve as much forest as possible, construct roads through plantations and not forest, and retain some large rubber trees with mistletoes during crop rotations.

  20. Biological Pretreatment of Rubberwood with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Bioethanol Production

    Forough Nazarpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis, a potential raw material for bioethanol production due to its high cellulose content, was used as a novel feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production using biological pretreatment. To improve ethanol production, rubberwood was pretreated with white rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora to increase fermentation efficiency. The effects of particle size of rubberwood (1 mm, 0.5 mm, and 0.25 mm and pretreatment time on the biological pretreatment were first determined by chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction and their best condition obtained with 1 mm particle size and 90 days pretreatment. Further morphological study on rubberwood with 1 mm particle size pretreated by fungus was performed by FT-IR spectra analysis and SEM observation and the result indicated the ability of this fungus for pretreatment. A study on enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in an increased sugar yield of 27.67% as compared with untreated rubberwood (2.88%. The maximum ethanol concentration and yield were 17.9 g/L and 53% yield, respectively, after 120 hours. The results obtained demonstrate that rubberwood pretreated by C. subvermispora can be used as an alternative material for the enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol production.

  1. Relação entre diferentes caracteres de plantas jovens de seringueira Correlations and regressions studies among juvenile rubber tree characters

    César Lavorenti

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a existência e as magnitudes de correlações e regressões lineares simples em plântulas jovens de seringueira (Hevea spp., para melhor condução de seleção nos futuros trabalhos de melhoramento. Foram utilizadas médias de produção de borracha seca por plântulas por corte, através do teste Hamaker-Morris-Mann (P; circunferência do caule (CC; espessura de casca (EC; número de anéis (NA; diâmetro dos vasos (DV; densidade dos vasos laticíleros (D e distância média entre anéis de vasos consecutivos (DMEAVC em um viveiro de cruzamento com três anos e meio de idade. Os resultados mostraram, entre outros fatores, que as correlações lineares simples de P com CC, EC, NA, D, DV e DMEAVC foram, respectivamente, r =t 0,61, 0,34, 0,28, 0,29, 0,43 e -0,13. As correlações de CC com EC, NA, D, DV e DMEAVC foram: 0,65, 0,22, 0,37, 0,33 e 0,096 respectivamente. Estudos de regressão linear simples de P com CC, EC, NA, DV, D e DMEAVC sugerem que CC foi o caráter independente mais significativo, contribuindo com 36% da variação em P. Em relação ao vigor, a regressão de CC com os respectivos caracteres sugere que EC foi o único caráter que contribuiu significativamente para a variação de CC com 42%. As altas correlações observadas da produção com circunferência do caule e com espessura de casca evidenciam a possibilidade de obter genótipos jovens de boa capacidade produtiva e grande vigor, através de seleção precoce dessas variáveis.This study was undertaken aiming to determine the existence of linear correlations, based on simple regression studies for a better improvement of young rubber tree (Hevea spp. breeding and selection. The characters studied were: yield of dry rubber per tapping by Hamaker-Morris-Mann test tapping (P, mean gurth (CC, bark thickness (EC, number of latex vessel rings (NA, diameter of latex vesseis (DV, density of latex vesseis per 5mm

  2. Análise florística e estrutural de sistemas agroflorestais das várzeas do rio Juba, Cametá, Pará Floristic and structural analysis of agroforestry floodplain systems of the Juba river, Cametá, Pará

    Silvio Roberto Miranda dos Santos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a composição florística e a estrutura de sistemas agroflorestais (SAF nas várzeas do rio Juba, Município de Cametá-PA. Utilizou-se sete parcelas de 0,25 ha (50 m x 50 m em SAF tradicionais. Cada parcela foi dividida em 25 sub-parcelas de 10 m x 10 m. As espécies foram classificadas quanto aos tipos de usos e em três níveis de comercialização. Nos sete SAF foram inventariados 21060 indivíduos/ha com CAP e" 10 cm ou (média de 3009 indivíduos/ha, pertencentes a 27 famílias, 53 gêneros e 61 espécies. Cinco espécies (8 % são comuns aos sete SAF. O uso energético (lenha e carvão foi o mais freqüente (63 %. Os SAF apresentaram maior percentual de espécies comerciais (46 %. Espécies comumente encontradas nas várzeas da Amazônia brasileira foram importantes nesse estudo: Euterpe oleracea Mart., Theobroma cacao L., Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb., Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. e Carapa guianensis Aubl. Euterpe oleracea e Theobroma cacao, juntas apresentaram Dr média de 80 % e IVImédio de 48 %. Os valores médios de abundância, área basal e IVI, bem como os percentuais de espécies potenciais e comerciais indicam grandes possibilidades de sustentabilidade se adotado manejo adequado e racional nesses importantes ecossistemas antrópicos da Amazônia Oriental.This study analyzed the floristic composition and the structure of traditional agroforestry systems (SAF in the floodplains of the river Juba, Cametá, Pará. The survey was made on seven plots of 0.25 ha (50 m x 50 m. Each plot was divided into 25 sub-plots of 10 m x 10 m. The species were classified in types of use and levels of commercialization. In seven SAF were surveyed 21060 individuals/ha with CAP e" 10 cm or (average of 3009 individuals/ha, belonging to 27 families, 53 genera and 61 species. Five species (8% were common to the seven SAF. The most frequent (63 % use of species was energy (firewood and coal. Most species were commercial (46%. Species

  3. Caracterização mecânica e térmica da borracha natural formulada e vulcanizada dos clones: GT 1, IAN 873, PB 235 e RRIM 600 Mechanical and thermal characterization of compounds of natural rubber of the clones: GT 1, IAN 873, PB 235 and RRIM 600

    Ana C. Dall'Antonia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se o desempenho mecânico e térmico de compostos de borracha natural (Hevea brasiliensis de 4 diferentes clones (GT 1, IAN 873, PB 235 e RRIM 600 cultivados no Estado de São Paulo, assim como de uma mistura destes clones e de uma borracha comercial, GEB-1. Estas borrachas foram formuladas e vulcanizadas com tempos de 5, 7 e 9 minutos. A caracterização foi realizada por calorimetria exploratória diferencial, termogravimetria, ensaios de resistência à tração, análise dinâmico-mecânica, medidas de dureza Shore A, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e espectroscopia na região do infravermelho. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o tempo de vulcanização e o tipo de clone não influenciaram na temperatura de transição vítrea (Tg dos compostos. Os valores de Tg obtidos por DMA foram de cerca de -62 °C, e os resultados ensaios de dureza apresentaram valores próximos de 60 para todos os compostos estudados. Os ensaios de resistência à tração mostraram que o melhor desempenho mecânico foi obtido pelo clone RRIM 600. De acordo com os resultados obtidos neste trabalho, todos os clones atingiram as propriedades reportadas na literatura, podendo ser utilizados, em princípio, nas indústrias de artefatos de borracha separadamente ou na forma de mistura.The objective of this work was to study the mechanical and thermal performance of natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis compounds of different types of clones (GT 1, IAN 873, PB 235 and RRIM 600, as well as a mixture made from these clones and a commercial rubber GEB-1. These rubbers were formulated and prepared in a two-roll mill and vulcanized at different times (5, 7 and 9 minutes. The evaluation of the mechanical and thermal performance of different natural rubber compounds was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA, mechanical properties (tensile and hardness tests, dynamic mechanic thermal analysis (DMTA

  4. Tropical terrestrial model ecosystems for evaluation of soil fauna and leaf litter quality effects on litter consumption, soil microbial biomass and plant growth Efeitos de fauna de solo e qualidade de liteira sobre o consumo, biomassa microbiana e crescimento de plantas em modelo de ecossistemas terrestres tropicais

    Bernhard Förster

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate whether terrestrial model ecosystems (TMEs are a useful tool for the study of the effects of litter quality, soil invertebrates and mineral fertilizer on litter decomposition and plant growth under controlled conditions in the tropics. Forty-eight intact soil cores (17.5-cm diameter, 30-cm length were taken out from an abandoned rubber plantation on Ferralsol soil (Latossolo Amarelo in Central Amazonia, Brazil, and kept at 28ºC in the laboratory during four months. Leaf litter of either Hevea pauciflora (rubber tree, Flemingia macrophylla (a shrubby legume or Brachiaria decumbens (a pasture grass was put on top of each TME. Five specimens of either Pontoscolex corethrurus or Eisenia fetida (earthworms, Porcellionides pruinosus or Circoniscus ornatus (woodlice, and Trigoniulus corallinus (millipedes were then added to the TMEs. Leaf litter type significantly affected litter consumption, soil microbial biomass and nitrate concentration in the leachate of all TMEs, but had no measurable effect on the shoot biomass of rice seedlings planted in top soil taken from the TMEs. Feeding rates measured with bait lamina were significantly higher in TMEs with the earthworm P. corethrurus and the woodlouse C. ornatus. TMEs are an appropriate tool to assess trophic interactions in tropical soil ecossistems under controlled laboratory conditions.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o modelo de ecossistema terrestre (TME como ferramenta para o estudo dos efeitos da qualidade da liteira, de invertebrados do solo e da fertilização mineral na decomposição da liteira e no crescimento das plantas em condições controladas. Foram coletados quarenta e oito cilindros de solo intacto (Latossolo Amarelo de 17,5 cm de diâmetro e 30 cm de comprimento em um seringal abandonado na Amazônia Central brasileira e mantidos a 28ºC em laboratório, por quatro meses. Folhas da liteira de Hevea pauciflora (seringueira, ou de Flemingia

  5. Caracterização de isolados de Rhizoctonia associados à queima foliar em Roraima = Characterization of Rhizoctonia isolates associated with foliar blight in Roraima.

    Dayane Rodrigues Youssef

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar isolados do fungo Rhizoctonia associados à queima foliar, obtidos de hospedeiros de importância econômica no estado de Roraima. Os isolados foram obtidos de plantas de feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata, soja (Glycine max, seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, melancia (Citrullus lanatus, alface (Lactuca sativa e feijão-guandu (Cajanus cajan. Os parâmetros utilizados foram números de núcleos, grupo de anastomose e as características culturais da colônia, taxa de crescimento micelial e a formação de escleródios nos meios de cultura: batata dextrose agar (BDA, BDA+asparagina, BDA+extrato de levedura, Czapek Agar, maltose-peptona-agar, soil extract agar, sacarose-yeast-asparagina e V-8. Todos os 10 isolados estudados foram caracterizados como multinucleados e pertencentes à espécie Rhizoctonia solani. Três isolados de feijão-caupi, um de soja e o isolado de melancia foram identificados como AGI-1A e um isolado de feijãocaupi, um de soja e o isolado de feijão-guandu como AGI-1B. O isolado de seringueira não foi identificado como nenhum dos padrões de anastomose utilizado. Para a maioria dos isolados as maiores taxas de crescimento micelialforam obtidas no meio de cultura Soil Extract Agar. Dois tipos de escleródios, característicos do grupo AGI, foram observados: formação de 2-20 tufos placa-1 coloração variável, 1-2 mm e formação de 38-611 microescleródios placa-1, de coloração marrom, medindo 100 μm. A produção e o tipo de escleródio variaram com o isolado e o meio de cultura utilizado.The aim of this work was to characterize Rhizoctonia isolates associated with foliar blight symptom from hosts with economic importance at Roraima state. The isolates were recovered from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, soybean (Glycine max, rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, lettuce (Lactuca sativa and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan. The evaluated characteristics were nuclear

  6. Quantificação de biomassa e geração de certificados de emissões reduzidas no consórcio seringueira-cacau Biomass quantification and emisson reduction certificates for rubber-cocoa intercropping

    Michele Karina Cotta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram quantificar a biomassa vegetal e analisar o potencial de geração de Certificados de Emissões Reduzidas (CERs em um consórcio de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis M. Arg. aos 34 anos de idade com cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L. aos 6 anos de idade. O experimento foi realizado nas Fazendas Reunidas Vale do Juliana, em Igrapiúna, Bahia. A quantificação da biomassa arbórea foi feita utilizando-se o método direto e destrutivo de cinco seringueiras e 10 cacaueiros, selecionados em uma área de 2,2 ha. A biomassa da serapilheira foi quantificada por meio da coleta do material sobre o solo. O estoque de carbono no consórcio seringueira-cacau foi de 91,5 Mg C ha-1. Desse total, 84,7 Mg C ha-1 estavam estocados na seringueira, 5,2 Mg C ha-1 no cacaueiro e 1,6 Mg C ha-1 na serapilheira. O carbono contabilizado no consórcio correspondeu a 336 Mg CO2eq. ha-1, que equivalem à geração de 336 CERs ha-1. O consórcio seringueira-cacau apresentou capacidade para estocagem de carbono, podendo trazer grandes contribuições para a redução dos gases de efeito estufa na atmosfera, e isso o credencia como atividade promissora na geração de projetos candidatos ao recebimento de créditos de carbono.The objective of this work were to quantify plant biomass and analyze the potential for generating Emission Reduction Certificates (ERCs of 34-year-old rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis M.Arg intercropped with 6-year-old cacao (Theobroma cacao L.. The experiment was conducted on the farms Fazendas Reunidas Vale do Juliana, Igrapiúna, BA. Tree biomass quantification was carried out using the direct destructive method by harvesting five rubber trees and ten cocoa trees, in an area of 2.2 ha. Litter biomass was quantified by collecting material from the ground. Total carbon storage in rubber - cacao intercropping was 91.5 Mg C ha-1. Of this, 84.7 Mg C ha-1 were stored in rubber trees, 5.22 Mg C ha-1 in cacao trees and 1.67 Mg C ha

  7. Desempenho de cinco clones jovens de seringueira na região do Planalto Ocidental Paulista Performance of five young clones of rubber tree in the São Paulo Occidental plateau region

    Juliane Ribeiro Cavalcante

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A Região do Planalto Ocidental Paulista tem se destacado como pólo produtor de borracha natural. Visando fornecer informações sobre a adaptação dos clones de seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Wildd. ex. Adr. de Juss Müell. Arg.] RRIM 600, GT 1, RRIM 701, IAN 873 e PB 235, em São José do Rio Preto (SP, realizaram-se avaliações de alguns caracteres de sua biologia, pelo acompanhamento das trocas gasosas e mensuração do desenvolvimento vegetativo durante os primeiros 18 meses após o enxerto sobre Tjir 16. A altura de RRIM 600 atingiu, em média, 3,74 m e o diâmetro do caule de IAN 873 e RRIM 600, 2,50 cm. PB 235 apresentou o menor índice relativo de crescimento durante o período. No período úmido, os valores das trocas gasosas não diferiram significativamente entre os clones, com valores médios da taxa fotossintética de 9,45 mmol.m-2.s-1; para a taxa de transpiração, 3,84 mmol.m-2.s-1, e para a condutância estomática, de 0,096 mol.m-2.s-1. Diferenças entre os valores de trocas gasosas ocorreram apenas no período seco, com redução mais acentuada para PB 235. Considerando o conjunto dos caracteres analisados, o desempenho dos clones IAN 873 e RRIM 600 foi superior, e do clone PB 235, inferior.The region of São Paulo Occidental Plateau is well known for its part as a major producer of natural rubber. In order to obtain information about adaptation of rubber tree clones [Hevea brasiliensis (Wildd. ex. Adr. de Juss Müell. Arg.] RRIM 600, RRIM 701, IAN 873, PB 235 and GT 1, in the city of São José do Rio Preto some biologic characteristics were evaluated. Analysis were performed by monitoring gas exchanges and by measuring vegetative development, during the 18 months after engraft on the Tjir 16 clonal rootstocks. The height of RRIM 600 reached a mean of 3,74 m, and the diameter of the stem of IAN 873 and RRIM 600 reached the mean of 2,50 cm. Clone PB 235 presented the lowest relative growth during the period. During the

  8. Variabilidade genética da produção anual da seringueira: estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e estudo de interação genótipo x ambiente Genetic variability of rubber tree annual yielding: estimates of genetic parameters and study of genotype x environment interaction

    Paulo de Souza Gonçalves

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecionaram-se dezenove genótipos de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. considerados como os melhores em vigor e produção em uma população de pés francos estabelecidos no campo de ensaios da Estação Experimental de Pindorama, com o objetivo de estudar a variabilidade genética e ambiental e a interação genótipo x ambiente sobre a produção durante cinco anos. Com base na análise da variância anual e conjunta, estimaram-se parâmetros genéticos para produção, na tentativa de quantificar o ganho genético com a seleção, e as correlações genéticas e fenotfpicas das produções ano a ano. Os resultados das análises da variância dentro de anos mostraram efeitos significativos para genótipos, sendo os efeitos da interação genótipo x ambiente altamente significativos. As estimativas de herdabilídade, no sentido amplo, ao nível de médias de parcelas, foram altas, com amplitude de 0,57 a 0,77, respectivamente, para o segundo e quinto ano de produção. As maiores percentagens de ganho genético foram obtidas no primeiro e quinto ano de produção, 39,03 e 27,57 respectivamente. Correlações genéticas e fenotípicas entre anos de sangria foram altas e significativas. Os altos valores de herdabilidade e ganho genético para o primeiro ano de sangria indicam que a seleção massal conduzida nesta fase proporciona, efetivamente, maior ganho na seleção.Nineteen rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. considered as the best in growth and yield performance, were selected from a mature seedling population in the experimental field at the Pindorama Experiment Station of the "Instituto Agronômico de Campinas", São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies were carried out aiming to assess the annual environmental influence on genetic variation in five years of yielding. Components of variance were estimated from these analyses in an attempt to quantify genotype x environment interactions. The results of the analysis of

  9. Seletividade de acaricidas e inseticidas a ácaros predadores (Acari: Phytoseiidae encontrados em seringueira no centro-oeste do Brasil Side-effect of acaricides and insecticides to predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae found in rubber-trees in mid-west Brazil

    Noeli Juarez Ferla

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Euseius concordis (Chant e Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker são ácaros predadores da família Phytoseiidae comumente encontrados em seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. em Mato Grosso, região centro-oeste do Brasil. Este trabalho foi realizado para verificar o efeito de acaricidas e inseticidas-acaricidas empregados em plantações de seringueira, e outros que teriam potencial para serem empregados contra insetos e ácaros considerados pragas dessa cultura, sobre E. concordis e N. anonymus. Utilizou-se o método residual de pulverização em superfície, recomendado como padrão pelo Grupo de Trabalho "Pesticidas e Artrópodes Benéficos", da Organização Internacional de Controle Biológico e Integrado de Plantas e Animais Nocivos/Seção Regional do Paleártico Oeste. Duas concentrações de cada um dos seguintes ingredientes ativos foram utilizadas: acefato, dicofol, endosulfan, formetanate, metomil, monocrotofós, óxido de fenbutatin e propargite. Uma das concentrações utilizadas foi uma média daquelas sugeridas pelos fabricantes para o controle de ácaros e insetos fitófagos presentes em outras culturas, uma vez que nenhum dos produtos testados tem registro para o uso em seringueira e a outra correspondeu à cerca de um terço da primeira. Endosulfan a 320ppm, dicofol a 100ppm e óxido de fenbutatin a 100 e 320ppm foram inócuos a E. concordis, enquanto que endosulfan a 320ppm e dicofol a 100ppm foram inócuos a N. anonymus. Acefato, formetanate e monocrotofós, nas concentrações testadas, foram nocivos às duas espécies.Euseius concordis (Chant and Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant & Baker are predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae commonly found on rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. in the State of Mato Grosso, in the mid-west Brazil. This work was conducted to verify the effect of acaricides and insecticides-acaricides occasionally used in rubber tree plantations, and other products that could be used against

  10. Estudios etiológicos de la marchitez del aguacate en Antioquia-Colombia

    Joaquín Guillermo Ramírez Gil

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de aguacate en Colombia ha presentado un incremento en el área sembrada durante la última década, especialmente en clima frío moderado, entre 1.800 y 2.500 msnm. La variedad Hass se destaca por tener la mayor área sembrada en este clima, en el departamento de Antioquia-Colombia. Este cultivo presenta grandes retos tecnológicos para su expansión; entre ellos el manejo de enfermedades ocupa un lugar predominante por las implicaciones que tiene en costos, impacto en la salud, ambiente y restricciones para exportaciones. La marchitez, ocasiona la muerte de numerosos árboles en todas las etapas del cultivo y presenta la mayor incidencia y severidad de las enfermedades identificadas para este cultivo. El desconocimiento de los agentes causales de esta enfermedad, ha llevado a realizar prácticas de manejo encaminadas principalmente al control del oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands, como único agente causal. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo identificar los distintos agentes causales de la marchitez del aguacate y la relación de su incidencia con las prácticas de manejo en lotes cultivados en el departamento de Antioquia-Colombia. Los resultados encontrados muestran que la marchitez es el principal problema del cultivo de aguacate. Los microorganismos P. cinnamomi, Phytophthora heveae Thompson, Phytophthora citrícola Sawada, Verticillium sp., y Cylindrocarpon destructans (Zinss Scholten fueron aislados y reprodujeron los síntomas asociados a marchitez. Las condiciones de bajo contenido de oxigeno el suelo también reprodujeron la sintomatología de marchitez, involucrando también un origen abiótico en la etiología.

  11. Variações morfológicas intra e interpopulacionais de Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma e Euseius concordis (Chant (Acari, Phytoseiidae Intra and interpopulational morphological variations of Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma and Euseius concordis (Chant (Acari, Phytoseiidae

    Aloyséia Cristina da Silva Noronha

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The determination of morphologic variability within and between populations of phytoseiid mites is important for the precise species identification. Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma, 1970 and Euseius concordis (Chant, 1959 are phytoseiids commonly found on different crops in Brazil and other South American countries. The morphologic characterization of populations preliminarily identified as E. citrifolius and E. concordis was done through examination of 10 adult females and 10 adult males of each population and of 2 to 10 adult females and males resulting from crosses between those populations. The plant substrate and collection site of each population were: E. citrijolius: Bauhinia sp. in Arroio do Meio, Rio Grande do Sul, Coffea arabica Linnaeus in Campinas, São Paulo and Terminalia catappa Linnaeus in Petrolina, Pernambuco. E. concordis: Passiflora edulis Sims. i.flavicarpa Deg. in Arroio do Meio, Manihot esculenta (Crantz in Jaguariúna, São Paulo, Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. in Pontes e Lacerda, Mato Grosso, T. catappa in Petrolina and C arabica in Viçosa, Minas Gerais. A comparison of the measurements of different structures of individuals of each population and of type specimens of E. citrifolius and E. concordis confirmed the preliminary identification of the populations. Significant relationships were observed between mean setal lengths and the respective ranges within each population. Females and males of E. citrifolius from Petrolina and E. concordis from Jaguariúna had some of the setae generally shorter than those of other populations of the same species. Measurements of males resulting from heterogamic crosses indicated that E. citrifolius and E. concordis reproduce by pseudo-arrhenotoky.

  12. Effects of increasing temperature and, CO2 on quality of litter, shredders, and microorganisms in Amazonian aquatic systems.

    Renato Tavares Martins

    Full Text Available Climate change may affect the chemical composition of riparian leaf litter and, aquatic organisms and, consequently, leaf breakdown. We evaluated the effects of different scenarios combining increased temperature and carbon dioxide (CO2 on leaf detritus of Hevea spruceana (Benth Müll. and decomposers (insect shredders and microorganisms. We hypothesized that simulated climate change (warming and elevated CO2 would: i decrease leaf-litter quality, ii decrease survival and leaf breakdown by shredders, and iii increase microbial leaf breakdown and fungal biomass. We performed the experiment in four microcosm chambers that simulated air temperature and CO2 changes in relation to a real-time control tracking current conditions in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The experiment lasted seven days. During the experiment mean air temperature and CO2 concentration ranged from 26.96 ± 0.98ºC and 537.86 ± 18.36 ppmv in the control to 31.75 ± 0.50ºC and 1636.96 ± 17.99 ppmv in the extreme chamber, respectively. However, phosphorus concentration in the leaf litter decreased with warming and elevated CO2. Leaf quality (percentage of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, cellulose and lignin was not influenced by soil flooding. Fungal biomass and microbial leaf breakdown were positively influenced by temperature and CO2 increase and reached their highest values in the intermediate condition. Both total and shredder leaf breakdown, and shredder survival rate were similar among all climatic conditions. Thus, low leaf-litter quality due to climate change and higher leaf breakdown under intermediate conditions may indicate an increase of riparian metabolism due to temperature and CO2 increase, highlighting the risk (e.g., decreased productivity of global warming for tropical streams.

  13. Rubber particle proteins, HbREF and HbSRPP, show different interactions with model membranes.

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Zhendre, Vanessa; Henry, Sarah; Thévenot, Julie; Dufourc, Erick J; Alves, Isabel D; Peruch, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The biomembrane surrounding rubber particles from the hevea latex is well known for its content of numerous allergen proteins. HbREF (Hevb1) and HbSRPP (Hevb3) are major components, linked on rubber particles, and they have been shown to be involved in rubber synthesis or quality (mass regulation), but their exact function is still to be determined. In this study we highlighted the different modes of interactions of both recombinant proteins with various membrane models (lipid monolayers, liposomes or supported bilayers, and multilamellar vesicles) to mimic the latex particle membrane. We combined various biophysical methods (polarization-modulation-infrared reflection-adsorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS)/ellipsometry, attenuated-total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR), fluorescence spectroscopy) to elucidate their interactions. Small rubber particle protein (SRPP) shows less affinity than rubber elongation factor (REF) for the membranes but displays a kind of "covering" effect on the lipid headgroups without disturbing the membrane integrity. Its structure is conserved in the presence of lipids. Contrarily, REF demonstrates higher membrane affinity with changes in its aggregation properties, the amyloid nature of REF, which we previously reported, is not favored in the presence of lipids. REF binds and inserts into membranes. The membrane integrity is highly perturbed, and we suspect that REF is even able to remove lipids from the membrane leading to the formation of mixed micelles. These two homologous proteins show affinity to all membrane models tested but neatly differ in their interacting features. This could imply differential roles on the surface of rubber particles. © 2013.

  14. Bird Responses to Lowland Rainforest Conversion in Sumatran Smallholder Landscapes, Indonesia.

    Prabowo, Walesa Edho; Darras, Kevin; Clough, Yann; Toledo-Hernandez, Manuel; Arlettaz, Raphael; Mulyani, Yeni A; Tscharntke, Teja

    2016-01-01

    Rapid land-use change in the tropics causes dramatic losses in biodiversity and associated functions. In Sumatra, Indonesia, lowland rainforest has mainly been transformed by smallholders into oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) monocultures, interspersed with jungle rubber (rubber agroforests) and a few forest remnants. In two regions of the Jambi province, we conducted point counts in 32 plots of four different land-use types (lowland rainforest, jungle rubber, rubber plantation and oil palm plantation) as well as in 16 nearby homegardens, representing a small-scale, traditional agricultural system. We analysed total bird abundance and bird abundance in feeding guilds, as well as species richness per point count visit, per plot, and per land-use system, to unveil the conservation importance and functional responses of birds in the different land-use types. In total, we identified 71 species from 24 families. Across the different land-use types, abundance did not significantly differ, but both species richness per visit and per plot were reduced in plantations. Feeding guild abundances between land-use types were variable, but homegardens were dominated by omnivores and granivores, and frugivorous birds were absent from monoculture rubber and oil palm. Jungle rubber played an important role in harbouring forest bird species and frugivores. Homegardens turned out to be of minor importance for conserving birds due to their low sizes, although collectively, they are used by many bird species. Changes in functional composition with land-use conversion may affect important ecosystem functions such as biological pest control, pollination, and seed dispersal. In conclusion, maintaining forest cover, including degraded forest and jungle rubber, is of utmost importance to the conservation of functional and taxonomic bird diversity.

  15. Cloning and expression analysis of JcAACT, jcMDC and JcFPS, involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in jatropha curcas l

    Huang, Y.; Wen, J.

    2018-01-01

    To better understand the functions of key genes involved in terpenoid biosynthesis in Jatropha curcas, we cloned and characterized three genes, namely acetyl CoA acyltransferase (JcAACT), diphosphate mevalonate decarboxylase (JcMDC) and farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (JcFPS). The opening reading frames (ORFs) of JcAACT, JcMDC and JcFPS were 1239 bp,1248 bp and 1029 bp, respectively, encoding a 412-amino acid, 415-amino acid and 342-amino acid polypeptide, respectively. Results of homology analysis showed that JcAACT, JcMDC and JcFPS encoded proteins that all had the highest identity and closest relationship with the corresponding genes in Hevea brasiliensis, with identities of 89%, 92% and 93%, respectively. JcAACT, JcMDC and JcFPS were expressed in all organs tested of J. curcas; the highest expression level for each gene occurred in seeds. In the early growth stage of seeds, the expression level of each of these three genes increased with time, with JcAACT and JcMDC expression level reaching a peak at the late stage of seed development (50 d), while JcFPS expression level reached a peak at the mid-late stage (40 d). Following the peak, the expression of each gene then declined. The expression level of JcAACT was the highest of the three genes, regardless of the organ or the stage of seed growth, indicating its important role in J. curcas. This study lays the foundation for a better understanding of the important role of the JcAACT, JcMDC and JcFPS genes in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway of J. curcas. (author)

  16. Minimum forest cover required for sustainable water flow regulation of a watershed: a case study in Jambi Province, Indonesia

    S. Tarigan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In many tropical regions, the rapid expansion of monoculture plantations has led to a sharp decline in forest cover, potentially degrading the ability of watersheds to regulate water flow. Therefore, regional planners need to determine the minimum proportion of forest cover that is required to support adequate ecosystem services in these watersheds. However, to date, there has been little research on this issue, particularly in tropical areas where monoculture plantations are expanding at an alarming rate. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the influence of forest cover and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis plantations on the partitioning of rainfall into direct runoff and subsurface flow in a humid, tropical watershed in Jambi Province, Indonesia. To do this, we simulated streamflow with a calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model and observed several watersheds to derive the direct runoff coefficient (C and baseflow index (BFI. The model had a strong performance, with Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency values of 0.80–0.88 (calibration and 0.80–0.85 (validation and percent bias values of −2.9–1.2 (calibration and 7.0–11.9 (validation. We found that the percentage of forest cover in a watershed was significantly negatively correlated with C and significantly positively correlated with BFI, whereas the rubber and oil palm plantation cover showed the opposite pattern. Our findings also suggested that at least 30 % of the forest cover was required in the study area for sustainable ecosystem services. This study provides new adjusted crop parameter values for monoculture plantations, particularly those that control surface runoff and baseflow processes, and it also describes the quantitative association between forest cover and flow indicators in a watershed, which will help regional planners in determining the minimum proportion of forest and the maximum proportion of plantation to ensure that a

  17. Minimum forest cover required for sustainable water flow regulation of a watershed: a case study in Jambi Province, Indonesia

    Tarigan, Suria; Wiegand, Kerstin; Sunarti; Slamet, Bejo

    2018-01-01

    In many tropical regions, the rapid expansion of monoculture plantations has led to a sharp decline in forest cover, potentially degrading the ability of watersheds to regulate water flow. Therefore, regional planners need to determine the minimum proportion of forest cover that is required to support adequate ecosystem services in these watersheds. However, to date, there has been little research on this issue, particularly in tropical areas where monoculture plantations are expanding at an alarming rate. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the influence of forest cover and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations on the partitioning of rainfall into direct runoff and subsurface flow in a humid, tropical watershed in Jambi Province, Indonesia. To do this, we simulated streamflow with a calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model and observed several watersheds to derive the direct runoff coefficient (C) and baseflow index (BFI). The model had a strong performance, with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values of 0.80-0.88 (calibration) and 0.80-0.85 (validation) and percent bias values of -2.9-1.2 (calibration) and 7.0-11.9 (validation). We found that the percentage of forest cover in a watershed was significantly negatively correlated with C and significantly positively correlated with BFI, whereas the rubber and oil palm plantation cover showed the opposite pattern. Our findings also suggested that at least 30 % of the forest cover was required in the study area for sustainable ecosystem services. This study provides new adjusted crop parameter values for monoculture plantations, particularly those that control surface runoff and baseflow processes, and it also describes the quantitative association between forest cover and flow indicators in a watershed, which will help regional planners in determining the minimum proportion of forest and the maximum proportion of plantation to ensure that a watershed can provide

  18. Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon.

    van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-08-11

    Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion--the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses.

  19. Cercosporiose progression in the agroforestry consortium coffee-rubber trees

    Humberto Godoy Androcioli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora coffeicola is one of the primary diseases that affect coffee plants. Studies indicate that shaded coffee plants reduce the incidence of this disease and that the management of trees and coffee plants arrangement influence in the dissemination of cercospora. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and severity of C. coffeicola at different distances from double rows of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis muell. arg. at two different sunlight exposures (north and south. This study was conducted in Londrina, Parana, between 2008 and 2010, with adult plants of the IAPAR 59 cultivar (Coffea arabica L. grown at a spacing of 2.5 m x 1.0 m. The distances between the double rows of rubber trees were 13, 16 and 22 m, compared to plants grown under full sun. The disease incidence was assessed monthly by using a non-destructive method. This analysis was conducted on coffee leaves from the third and fourth pairs of two plagiotropic branches, on eight plants per plot, with five replications. These data were used to calculate the area under the curve for the incidence of the brown eye spot. The highest disease incidence occurred in the coffee plants grown under full sun, whereas lowest disease occurred on plants located at up to two meters away from double rows of rubber trees. The incidence of Cercospora leaf spot increased with the distance from the double rows of rubber trees. The results demonstrate that the mapping of cercospora incidence in shaded coffee plants is essential to determinate the best spacing and plants arrangement.

  20. Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon

    van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D.; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B.; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-01-01

    Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion—the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses. PMID:26217000

  1. Development of rubber-enriched dandelion varieties by metabolic engineering of the inulin pathway.

    Stolze, Anna; Wanke, Alan; van Deenen, Nicole; Geyer, Roland; Prüfer, Dirk; Schulze Gronover, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Natural rubber (NR) is an important raw material for a large number of industrial products. The primary source of NR is the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, but increased worldwide demand means that alternative sustainable sources are urgently required. The Russian dandelion (Taraxacum koksaghyz Rodin) is such an alternative because large amounts of NR are produced in its root system. However, rubber biosynthesis must be improved to develop T. koksaghyz into a commercially feasible crop. In addition to NR, T. koksaghyz also produces large amounts of the reserve carbohydrate inulin, which is stored in parenchymal root cell vacuoles near the phloem, adjacent to apoplastically separated laticifers. In contrast to NR, which accumulates throughout the year even during dormancy, inulin is synthesized during the summer and is degraded from the autumn onwards when root tissues undergo a sink-to-source transition. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of inulin and NR metabolism in T. koksaghyz and its close relative T. brevicorniculatum and functionally characterized the key enzyme fructan 1-exohydrolase (1-FEH), which catalyses the degradation of inulin to fructose and sucrose. The constitutive overexpression of Tk1-FEH almost doubled the rubber content in the roots of two dandelion species without any trade-offs in terms of plant fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that energy supplied by the reserve carbohydrate inulin can be used to promote the synthesis of NR in dandelions, providing a basis for the breeding of rubber-enriched varieties for industrial rubber production. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Homolog of Human Nogo-B Receptor Interacts with cis-Prenyltransferase and Is Necessary for Natural Rubber Biosynthesis*

    Qu, Yang; Chakrabarty, Romit; Tran, Hue T.; Kwon, Eun-Joo G.; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is an indispensable biopolymer used to manufacture diverse consumer products. Although a major source of natural rubber is the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is also known to synthesize natural rubber. Here, we report that an unusual cis-prenyltransferase-like 2 (CPTL2) that lacks the conserved motifs of conventional cis-prenyltransferase is required for natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. CPTL2, identified from the lettuce rubber particle proteome, displays homology to a human NogoB receptor and is predominantly expressed in latex. Multiple transgenic lettuces expressing CPTL2-RNAi constructs showed that a decrease of CPTL2 transcripts (3–15% CPTL2 expression relative to controls) coincided with the reduction of natural rubber as low as 5%. We also identified a conventional cis-prenyltransferase 3 (CPT3), exclusively expressed in latex. In subcellular localization studies using fluorescent proteins, cytosolic CPT3 was relocalized to endoplasmic reticulum by co-occurrence of CPTL2 in tobacco and yeast at the log phase. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid data showed that CPTL2 and CPT3 interact. Yeast microsomes containing CPTL2/CPT3 showed enhanced synthesis of short cis-polyisoprenes, but natural rubber could not be synthesized in vitro. Intriguingly, a homologous pair CPTL1/CPT1, which displays ubiquitous expressions in lettuce, showed a potent dolichol biosynthetic activity in vitro. Taken together, our data suggest that CPTL2 is a scaffolding protein that tethers CPT3 on endoplasmic reticulum and is necessary for natural rubber biosynthesis in planta, but yeast-expressed CPTL2 and CPT3 alone could not synthesize high molecular weight natural rubber in vitro. PMID:25477521

  3. Silencing the lettuce homologs of small rubber particle protein does not influence natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Chakrabarty, Romit; Qu, Yang; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-05-01

    Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is an important raw material in chemical industries, but its biosynthetic mechanism remains elusive. Natural rubber is known to be synthesized in rubber particles suspended in laticifer cells in the Brazilian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In the rubber tree, rubber elongation factor (REF) and its homolog, small rubber particle protein (SRPP), were found to be the most abundant proteins in rubber particles, and they have been implicated in natural rubber biosynthesis. As lettuce (Lactuca sativa) can synthesize natural rubber, we utilized this annual, transformable plant to examine in planta roles of the lettuce REF/SRPP homologs by RNA interference. Among eight lettuce REF/SRPP homologs identified, transcripts of two genes (LsSRPP4 and LsSRPP8) accounted for more than 90% of total transcripts of REF/SRPP homologs in lettuce latex. LsSRPP4 displays a typical primary protein sequence as other REF/SRPP, while LsSRPP8 is twice as long as LsSRPP4. These two major LsSRPP transcripts were individually and simultaneously silenced by RNA interference, and relative abundance, polymer molecular weight, and polydispersity of natural rubber were analyzed from the LsSRPP4- and LsSRPP8-silenced transgenic lettuce. Despite previous data suggesting the implications of REF/SRPP in natural rubber biosynthesis, qualitative and quantitative alterations of natural rubber could not be observed in transgenic lettuce lines. It is concluded that lettuce REF/SRPP homologs are not critically important proteins in natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A lettuce (Lactuca sativa) homolog of human Nogo-B receptor interacts with cis-prenyltransferase and is necessary for natural rubber biosynthesis.

    Qu, Yang; Chakrabarty, Romit; Tran, Hue T; Kwon, Eun-Joo G; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-01-23

    Natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is an indispensable biopolymer used to manufacture diverse consumer products. Although a major source of natural rubber is the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is also known to synthesize natural rubber. Here, we report that an unusual cis-prenyltransferase-like 2 (CPTL2) that lacks the conserved motifs of conventional cis-prenyltransferase is required for natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. CPTL2, identified from the lettuce rubber particle proteome, displays homology to a human NogoB receptor and is predominantly expressed in latex. Multiple transgenic lettuces expressing CPTL2-RNAi constructs showed that a decrease of CPTL2 transcripts (3-15% CPTL2 expression relative to controls) coincided with the reduction of natural rubber as low as 5%. We also identified a conventional cis-prenyltransferase 3 (CPT3), exclusively expressed in latex. In subcellular localization studies using fluorescent proteins, cytosolic CPT3 was relocalized to endoplasmic reticulum by co-occurrence of CPTL2 in tobacco and yeast at the log phase. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid data showed that CPTL2 and CPT3 interact. Yeast microsomes containing CPTL2/CPT3 showed enhanced synthesis of short cis-polyisoprenes, but natural rubber could not be synthesized in vitro. Intriguingly, a homologous pair CPTL1/CPT1, which displays ubiquitous expressions in lettuce, showed a potent dolichol biosynthetic activity in vitro. Taken together, our data suggest that CPTL2 is a scaffolding protein that tethers CPT3 on endoplasmic reticulum and is necessary for natural rubber biosynthesis in planta, but yeast-expressed CPTL2 and CPT3 alone could not synthesize high molecular weight natural rubber in vitro. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Water Use Patterns of Four Tropical Bamboo Species Assessed with Sap Flux Measurements.

    Mei, Tingting; Fang, Dongming; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae) that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea, and G. apus) with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1) a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs), the stem heat balance (SHB) method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2) an in situ calibration of TDPs with the SHB method for the four bamboo species, and (3) field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula, and Hevea brasiliensis) during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the SHB method is well suited for bamboos but that TDPs need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed.

  6. Macrofauna edáfica asociada con sistemas agroforestales en la Amazonía Colombiana

    Juan Carlos Suárez Salazar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La densidad, riqueza y diversidad de la macrofauna edáfica son afectadas, entre otros factores, por la configuración de los agroecosistemas y la estacionalidad de la precipitación. Con el fin de evaluar estos efectos en mayo y noviembre de 2011, correspondientes a épocas de máxima y mínima precipitación, respectivamente, se realizaron estudios sobre la composición de la macrofauna edáfica asociada con los arreglos agroforestales ubicados en el Centro de Investigaciones Macagual Cesar Augusto Estrada González, Amazonia, Caquetá, Colombia. El experimento se dispuso en un diseño completo al azar bifactorial con cuatro tratamientos (arreglos agroforestales: AB = abarco - Cariniana pyriformis Miers; CH = caucho Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss. Müll. Arg. ; CP = caucho-parica Schizolobium amazonicum Huber; UV = uvito Genipa Americana L. y dos épocas (máxima y mínima precipitación, y cuatro repeticiones en parcelas divididas. Para explorar las relaciones entre los órdenes de macrofauna, se realizó un análisis de componentes principales y se evalúo el efecto de los arreglos agroforestales con una prueba de Monte Carlo. Los resultados mostraron que la densidad de la macrofauna fue mayor en el periodo de máxima precipitación (1129 individuos en comparación con el de mínima (598 individuos. Los arreglos agroforestales influyen sobre la presencia o ausencia de algunos grupos taxonómicos (P < 0.05 como Homoptera (Insecta y Raphidioptera (Insecta; además los UV y AB pueden favorecer a la macrofauna del estrés por sequía

  7. EFECTO DE LA INOCULACIÓN CON HONGOS FORMADORES DE MICORRIZAS ARBUSCULARES SOBRE PLÁNTULAS DE CAUCHO

    Tiffany Sosa Rodriguez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares (HFMA obtenidos a partir de suelos caucheros se multiplicaron en plantas de Lolium sp., con 73% de colonización radical luego de 4 meses. Se obtuvieron 7 morfotipos de HFMA, con los cuales se inocularon dos grupos de plántulas de Hevea brasiliensis: 1 producidas in vivo a partir de semilla; 2 producidas in vitro por rescate de embrión, para determinar efectos sobre mortalidad, crecimiento, micorrización y contenido de fósforo foliar. Los niveles de colonización por HFMA para las plántulas obtenidas in vitro e in vivo fueron de 12,6% y de 44,7 %, respectivamente. La biomasa media total acumulada por las plántulas producidas in vitro fue de 0,41 y de 1,40 g por las procedentes del material in vivo, en comparación con los controles no inoculados, los cuales acumularon 0,37 y 0,40 g, respectivamente. El tratamiento con HFMA disminuyó la mortalidad en las plántulas obtenidas in vitro, aunque no tuvo un efecto significativo sobre el contenido de fósforo foliar. La respuesta del crecimiento de las plántulas inoculadas fue diferente dependiendo del origen del material vegetal y del tipo de inóculo (nativo o no nativo. La simbiosis entre HFMA y H. brasiliensis se desarrolló en condiciones controladas de crecimiento, aunque su avance dependió del estado de desarrollo de la plántula. No obstante, influyó en el crecimiento y en la disminución de la mortalidad de las plántulas, lo que abre la posibilidad de utilizarla como alternativa de inoculación en las fases tempranas de obtención del material vegetal.

  8. Comparative Proteomics of Rubber Latex Revealed Multiple Protein Species of REF/SRPP Family Respond Diversely to Ethylene Stimulation among Different Rubber Tree Clones

    Zheng Tong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rubber elongation factor (REF and small rubber particle protein (SRPP are two key factors for natural rubber biosynthesis. To further understand the roles of these proteins in rubber formation, six different genes for latex abundant REF or SRPP proteins, including REF138,175,258 and SRPP117,204,243, were characterized from Hevea brasiliensis Reyan (RY 7-33-97. Sequence analysis showed that REFs have a variable and long N-terminal, whereas SRPPs have a variable and long C-terminal beyond the REF domain, and REF258 has a β subunit of ATPase in its N-terminal. Through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE, each REF/SRPP protein was separated into multiple protein spots on 2-DE gels, indicating they have multiple protein species. The abundance of REF/SRPP proteins was compared between ethylene and control treatments or among rubber tree clones with different levels of latex productivity by analyzing 2-DE gels. The total abundance of each REF/SRPP protein decreased or changed a little upon ethylene stimulation, whereas the abundance of multiple protein species of the same REF/SRPP changed diversely. Among the three rubber tree clones, the abundance of the protein species also differed significantly. Especially, two protein species of REF175 or REF258 were ethylene-responsive only in the high latex productivity clone RY 8-79 instead of in RY 7-33-97 and PR 107. Some individual protein species were positively related to ethylene stimulation and latex productivity. These results suggested that the specific protein species could be more important than others for rubber production and post-translational modifications might play important roles in rubber biosynthesis.

  9. Natural rubber latex: past, present and future in Latin America

    Lugao, A.B.; Miranda, A.; Mindrisz, A.C.; Andrade e Silva, L.G. de

    1996-01-01

    The origin of the Hevea braziliensis tree was the Amazonian region in South America, particularly the Brazilian jungle. The rubber expansion at the end of 9th century brought prosperity and determined the borders of Amazonian countries. In spite of that, the Brazilian government has failed in establishing a successful policy for improving the NR production in the jungle. However, rubber plantations were successfully introduced recently near marginal areas of the humid forest in the Amazon due to the absence of the fungus Microcyclos ulei. Both, extraction of wild rubber and plantation have a key role in the maintenance of the forest health. The market for dipping products is small but is growing very fast and is expected to follow this pattern as the sanitary conditions are improved by the health authority. The history of the Brazilian NR products industry is contemporary and is based on the policy of market protection and on the lack of investments due to extremely high interest rates. As a result, the industry was not competitive. It was concluded that, in order to cope with the future challenge, the industry is required to invest in very modern technologies to produce first class goods with international acceptance. Latin America would follow the world trend for nitrosamine and protein free products. The radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex could prove itself as a profitable solution and not only a quality solution. It was also concluded that both wild rubber and rubber plantations in Brazil have their future coupled with the future of a regional dipping industry. Moreover, the buildup of the dipping industry will be beneficial to the protection of the humid forest and the recovery of degraded areas

  10. PENGARUH KONDISI FUMIGASI TERHADAP EFEKTIFITAS PEWARNAAN DAN KEAWETAN KAYU HUTAN RAKYAT

    Istie Sekartining Rahayu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian log consumption average in 1999-2004 was about 40 million cubic meter per year. Far above the capacity of natural forest to supply wood demand which was only 6.9 million cubic meter per year and only 5 million cubic meter per year from plantation forest. Now community forest has been managed well based on commercial orientation to fullfill the needs of forest products. Recently community forest is known as realible wood producer for furniture such as rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis, Maesopsis (Maesopsis eminii, Jeunjing (Paraserianthes falcataria, Durian (Durio spp., Jackfriut (Arthocarpus sp. However those woods have low appearance quality (pale colours and ununiform, texture not attractive. Thus they need some treatments to enhance their appearance, one of them by fumigation. The purpose of this researh are to gain optimalize fumigation condition (combination between amonia volume and time of fumigation to have wood stain that resistance from weathering and to analyze durability of fumigation wood against Cryptotermes sp attack. The treatments were fumigation by 2, 4, 6 litre of amonia for 1, 2, 3 days. Those treatments were applied on 5 wood species (mahagony, jackfruit, rambutan, menteng and mindi. The results of this research showed that fumigation treatments have effects only on jackfruit, mahagony, rambutan. They did not have effects on menteng and mindi. Because the difference of tanin content between woods, made every wood had different reaction to fumigation (amonia. Based on comparison of all treatments quantitatively showed the most darkened colour of jackfruit was resulted by fumigation by 4 litre amonia for 3 days, mahagony was fumigation by 6 litre amonia for 2 days and rambutan was fumigation by 4 liter amonia for 2 days. Weathering resistance resulted all wood species did not resist to weathering or their colour fade away. Wood fumigation durability showed 100 % mortality of Cryptotermes sp (on jackfruit, mahagony and

  11. Bird Responses to Lowland Rainforest Conversion in Sumatran Smallholder Landscapes, Indonesia

    Clough, Yann; Toledo-Hernandez, Manuel; Arlettaz, Raphael; Mulyani, Yeni A.; Tscharntke, Teja

    2016-01-01

    Rapid land-use change in the tropics causes dramatic losses in biodiversity and associated functions. In Sumatra, Indonesia, lowland rainforest has mainly been transformed by smallholders into oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) monocultures, interspersed with jungle rubber (rubber agroforests) and a few forest remnants. In two regions of the Jambi province, we conducted point counts in 32 plots of four different land-use types (lowland rainforest, jungle rubber, rubber plantation and oil palm plantation) as well as in 16 nearby homegardens, representing a small-scale, traditional agricultural system. We analysed total bird abundance and bird abundance in feeding guilds, as well as species richness per point count visit, per plot, and per land-use system, to unveil the conservation importance and functional responses of birds in the different land-use types. In total, we identified 71 species from 24 families. Across the different land-use types, abundance did not significantly differ, but both species richness per visit and per plot were reduced in plantations. Feeding guild abundances between land-use types were variable, but homegardens were dominated by omnivores and granivores, and frugivorous birds were absent from monoculture rubber and oil palm. Jungle rubber played an important role in harbouring forest bird species and frugivores. Homegardens turned out to be of minor importance for conserving birds due to their low sizes, although collectively, they are used by many bird species. Changes in functional composition with land-use conversion may affect important ecosystem functions such as biological pest control, pollination, and seed dispersal. In conclusion, maintaining forest cover, including degraded forest and jungle rubber, is of utmost importance to the conservation of functional and taxonomic bird diversity. PMID:27224063

  12. Crystallization and Identification of the Glycosylated Moieties of Two Isoforms of the Main Allergen Hev b 2 and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Two Polymorphs of Isoform ll

    Fuentes-Silva,D.; Mendoza-Hernandez, G.; Stojanoff, V.; Palomares, L.; Zenteno, E.; Torres-Larios, A.; Rodriguez-Romero, A.

    2007-01-01

    Latex from Hevea brasiliensis contains several allergenic proteins that are involved in type I allergy. One of them is Hev b 2, which is a {beta}-1,3-glucanase enzyme that exists in different isoforms with variable glycosylation content. Two glucanase isoforms were isolated from trees of the GV-42 clone by gel filtration, affinity and ion-exchange chromatography. Isoform I had a carbohydrate content of about 20%, with N-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine, fucose and galactose residues as the main sugars, while isoform II showed 6% carbohydrate content consisting of N-acetyl-glucosamine, fucose, mannose and xylose. Both isoforms were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Isoform I crystals were grown using 0.2 M trisodium citrate dihydrate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 20%(v/v) 2-propanol, but these crystals were not appropriate for data collection. Isoform II crystals were obtained under two conditions and X-ray diffraction data were collected from both. In the first condition (0.2 M trisodium citrate, 0.1 M sodium cacodylate pH 6.5, 30% 2-propanol), crystals belonging to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1} with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.17, c = 77.41 {angstrom} were obtained. In the second condition [0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.1 M trisodium citrate dihydrate pH 5.6, 30%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 4000] the isoform II crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 85.08, b = 89.67, c = 101.80 {angstrom}, {beta}= 113.6{sup o}. Preliminary analysis suggests that there are four molecules of isoform II in both asymmetric units.

  13. Crystallization and identification of the glycosylated moieties of two isoforms of the main allergen Hev b 2 and preliminary X-ray analysis of two polymorphs of isoform II

    Fuentes-Silva, D. [Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Cuidad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Mendoza-Hernández, G. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Cuidad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Stojanoff, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source, Upton, NY (United States); Palomares, L. A. [Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Cuidad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Zenteno, E. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Cuidad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Torres-Larios, A. [Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Cuidad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Rodríguez-Romero, A., E-mail: adela@servidor.unam.mx [Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Cuidad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México, DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2007-09-01

    Crystallization of important glycoenzymes involved in IgE-mediated latex allergy. Latex from Hevea brasiliensis contains several allergenic proteins that are involved in type I allergy. One of them is Hev b 2, which is a β-1,3-glucanase enzyme that exists in different isoforms with variable glycosylation content. Two glucanase isoforms were isolated from trees of the GV-42 clone by gel filtration, affinity and ion-exchange chromatography. Isoform I had a carbohydrate content of about 20%, with N-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine, fucose and galactose residues as the main sugars, while isoform II showed 6% carbohydrate content constisting of N-acetyl-glucosamine, fucose, mannose and xylose. Both isoforms were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Isoform I crystals were grown using 0.2 M trisodium citrate dihydrate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 20%(v/v) 2-propanol, but these crystals were not appropriate for data collection. Isoform II crystals were obtained under two conditions and X-ray diffraction data were collected from both. In the first condition (0.2 M trisodium citrate, 0.1 M sodium cacodylate pH 6.5, 30% 2-propanol), crystals belonging to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1} with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.17, c = 77.41 Å were obtained. In the second condition [0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.1 M trisodium citrate dihydrate pH 5.6, 30%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 4000] the isoform II crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 85.08, b = 89.67, c = 101.80 Å, β = 113.6°. Preliminary analysis suggests that there are four molecules of isoform II in both asymmetric units.

  14. Functionalized Materials From Elastomers to High Performance Thermoplastics

    Salazar, Laura Ann [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Synthesis and incorporation of functionalized materials continues to generate significant research interest in academia and in industry. If chosen correctly, a functional group when incorporated into a polymer can deliver enhanced properties, such as adhesion, water solubility, thermal stability, etc. The utility of these new materials has been demonstrated in drug-delivery systems, coatings, membranes and compatibilizers. Two approaches exist to functionalize a material. The desired moiety can be added to the monomer either before or after polymerization. The polymers used range from low glass transition temperature elastomers to high glass transition temperature, high performance materials. One industrial example of the first approach is the synthesis of Teflon(reg. sign). Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE or Teflon(reg. sign)) is synthesized from tetrafluoroethylene, a functionalized monomer. The resulting material has significant property differences from the parent, poly(ethylene). Due to the fluorine in the polymer, PTFE has excellent solvent and heat resistance, a low surface energy and a low coefficient of friction. This allows the material to be used in high temperature applications where the surface needs to be nonabrasive and nonstick. This material has a wide spread use in the cooking industry because it allows for ease of cooking and cleaning as a nonstick coating on cookware. One of the best examples of the second approach, functionalization after polymerization, is the vulcanization process used to make tires. Natural rubber (from the Hevea brasiliensis) has a very low glass transition temperature, is very tacky and would not be useful to make tires without synthetic alteration. Goodyear's invention was the vulcanization of polyisoprene by crosslinking the material with sulfur to create a rubber that was tough enough to withstand the elements of weather and road conditions. Due to the development of polymerization techniques to make cis

  15. Modular assembly of transposable element arrays by microsatellite targeting in the guayule and rice genomes.

    Valdes Franco, José A; Wang, Yi; Huo, Naxin; Ponciano, Grisel; Colvin, Howard A; McMahan, Colleen M; Gu, Yong Q; Belknap, William R

    2018-04-19

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum A. Gray) is a rubber-producing desert shrub native to Mexico and the United States. Guayule represents an alternative to Hevea brasiliensis as a source for commercial natural rubber. The efficient application of modern molecular/genetic tools to guayule improvement requires characterization of its genome. The 1.6 Gb guayule genome was sequenced, assembled and annotated. The final 1.5 Gb assembly, while fragmented (N 50  = 22 kb), maps > 95% of the shotgun reads and is essentially complete. Approximately 40,000 transcribed, protein encoding genes were annotated on the assembly. Further characterization of this genome revealed 15 families of small, microsatellite-associated, transposable elements (TEs) with unexpected chromosomal distribution profiles. These SaTar (Satellite Targeted) elements, which are non-autonomous Mu-like elements (MULEs), were frequently observed in multimeric linear arrays of unrelated individual elements within which no individual element is interrupted by another. This uniformly non-nested TE multimer architecture has not been previously described in either eukaryotic or prokaryotic genomes. Five families of similarly distributed non-autonomous MULEs (microsatellite associated, modularly assembled) were characterized in the rice genome. Families of TEs with similar structures and distribution profiles were identified in sorghum and citrus. The sequencing and assembly of the guayule genome provides a foundation for application of current crop improvement technologies to this plant. In addition, characterization of this genome revealed SaTar elements with distribution profiles unique among TEs. Satar targeting appears based on an alternative MULE recombination mechanism with the potential to impact gene evolution.

  16. Avaliação de danos por insetos em toras estocadas em indústrias madeireiras de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

    Abreu Raimunda Liége Souza de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Em seis indústrias madeireiras de Manaus, Amazonas, foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa, com a utilização de um questionário,para averiguar as condições de uso e processamento da madeira e as medidas preventivas contra o ataque de insetos. Foram realizados, também,um levantamento da ocorrência de insetos em 19 espécies de madeiras utilizadas por essas indústrias e a avaliação do dano provocado pelas principais espécies de Coleoptera (besouros e Isoptera (cupins. Das respostas apuradas, constatou-se que nenhuma das empresas visitadas emprega qualquer produto para prevenir o ataque de insetos às toras, assim como a secagem e a estocagem das toras são feitas de forma incorreta, contribuindo para aumentar a intensidade de ataque de insetos. Foram encontradas uma família de cupins e 16 de besouros, ressaltando que destas apenas cinco causam danos à madeira. Do total de 13 espécies de insetos coletados, destacam-se Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff e Platypus parallelus (Fabricius, encontradas em 18 espécies madeireiras, sendo conseqüentemente responsáveis pela maioria dos danos nas toras X. volvulus (Fabricius e Platypus sp. foram encontradas em cinco espécies; X. ferrugineus (Fabricius em três espécies; Minthea rugicolis Walk, Minthea sp. e Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky em duas, e Dinoderus bifoveolatus Wollaston, Anoplotermes sp.; e Cnesinus sp. em uma. As espécies de madeiras que sofreram maior grau de deterioração, causada principalmente por coleópteros, foram Ceiba pentandra (L. Gaertn. e Copaifera multijuga Hayne, seguidas por Couroupitaguianensis Aubl., Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., Cedrela odorata L., Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg., Hura crepitans L., Hymenolobium sp., Maquira coriacea (Karsten C.C. Berg, Nectandra sp., Virolasurinamensis Warb. e Vochysia sp.

  17. Crystallization and identification of the glycosylated moieties of two isoforms of the main allergen Hev b 2 and preliminary X-ray analysis of two polymorphs of isoform II

    Fuentes-Silva, D.; Mendoza-Hernández, G.; Stojanoff, V.; Palomares, L. A.; Zenteno, E.; Torres-Larios, A.; Rodríguez-Romero, A.

    2007-01-01

    Crystallization of important glycoenzymes involved in IgE-mediated latex allergy. Latex from Hevea brasiliensis contains several allergenic proteins that are involved in type I allergy. One of them is Hev b 2, which is a β-1,3-glucanase enzyme that exists in different isoforms with variable glycosylation content. Two glucanase isoforms were isolated from trees of the GV-42 clone by gel filtration, affinity and ion-exchange chromatography. Isoform I had a carbohydrate content of about 20%, with N-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine, fucose and galactose residues as the main sugars, while isoform II showed 6% carbohydrate content constisting of N-acetyl-glucosamine, fucose, mannose and xylose. Both isoforms were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Isoform I crystals were grown using 0.2 M trisodium citrate dihydrate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 20%(v/v) 2-propanol, but these crystals were not appropriate for data collection. Isoform II crystals were obtained under two conditions and X-ray diffraction data were collected from both. In the first condition (0.2 M trisodium citrate, 0.1 M sodium cacodylate pH 6.5, 30% 2-propanol), crystals belonging to the tetragonal space group P4 1 with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.17, c = 77.41 Å were obtained. In the second condition [0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.1 M trisodium citrate dihydrate pH 5.6, 30%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 4000] the isoform II crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 85.08, b = 89.67, c = 101.80 Å, β = 113.6°. Preliminary analysis suggests that there are four molecules of isoform II in both asymmetric units

  18. Padrão morfológico e ciclo de vida de Eutetranychus banksi (Acari: Tetranychidae de diferentes locais e hospedeiros Morphological pattern and life cycle of Eutetranychus banksi (Acari: Tetranychidae from different localities and hosts

    Viviane M. Mattos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor, 1914 is a phytophagous, polyphagous and cosmopolitan species recorded on 23 plant families in 24 countries in North, Central and South Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Specimens of E. banksi present morphological variability among individuals of the same population and also among populations from different host species, being commonly referred to as a polytypic species, despite the fact that studies based on meristic comparisons of these populations are lacking. Also, there is no data available in the literature on the biological life tables of E. banksi on different hosts. Specimens collected in Brazil, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mexico, and Paraguay were investigated in order to recognize morphological patterns among populations from different localities and hosts. A redescription of the species is provided based on data both from literature and new observations. Also, the biological cycle on three hosts, experiments of hosts exchange and the possibility of interbreeding in individuals originating from different populations were evaluated. Significant differences in the morphology of the females of different populations were detected when comparing the different hosts. The length of the dorsal pairs of setae v2, sc2, c1, c3, e1 and h1 differentiated the specimens of the populations collected from Citrus sp. from those of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. and Pachira aquatica Aubl.. Herein we observed significant variation among the life cycle of this species on the three hosts studied. When a substrate different from the one where the mites were collected was used for the biological cycle essay, significant variation was observed in several parameters such as average oviposition rate, events of arrenothoky, and sex ratio. Interbreeding with populations collected from Citrus sinensis and P. aquatica resulted in no descendants, although mating was observed.

  19. Time series analysis of the behavior of brazilian natural rubber

    Antônio Donizette de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The natural rubber is a non-wood product obtained of the coagulation of some lattices of forest species, being Hevea brasiliensis the main one. Native from the Amazon Region, this species was already known by the Indians before the discovery of America. The natural rubber became a product globally valued due to its multiple applications in the economy, being its almost perfect substitute the synthetic rubber derived from the petroleum. Similarly to what happens with other countless products the forecast of future prices of the natural rubber has been object of many studies. The use of models of forecast of univariate timeseries stands out as the more accurate and useful to reduce the uncertainty in the economic decision making process. This studyanalyzed the historical series of prices of the Brazilian natural rubber (R$/kg, in the Jan/99 - Jun/2006 period, in order tocharacterize the rubber price behavior in the domestic market; estimated a model for the time series of monthly natural rubberprices; and foresaw the domestic prices of the natural rubber, in the Jul/2006 - Jun/2007 period, based on the estimated models.The studied models were the ones belonging to the ARIMA family. The main results were: the domestic market of the natural rubberis expanding due to the growth of the world economy; among the adjusted models, the ARIMA (1,1,1 model provided the bestadjustment of the time series of prices of the natural rubber (R$/kg; the prognosis accomplished for the series supplied statistically adequate fittings.

  20. Bird Responses to Lowland Rainforest Conversion in Sumatran Smallholder Landscapes, Indonesia.

    Walesa Edho Prabowo

    Full Text Available Rapid land-use change in the tropics causes dramatic losses in biodiversity and associated functions. In Sumatra, Indonesia, lowland rainforest has mainly been transformed by smallholders into oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis monocultures, interspersed with jungle rubber (rubber agroforests and a few forest remnants. In two regions of the Jambi province, we conducted point counts in 32 plots of four different land-use types (lowland rainforest, jungle rubber, rubber plantation and oil palm plantation as well as in 16 nearby homegardens, representing a small-scale, traditional agricultural system. We analysed total bird abundance and bird abundance in feeding guilds, as well as species richness per point count visit, per plot, and per land-use system, to unveil the conservation importance and functional responses of birds in the different land-use types. In total, we identified 71 species from 24 families. Across the different land-use types, abundance did not significantly differ, but both species richness per visit and per plot were reduced in plantations. Feeding guild abundances between land-use types were variable, but homegardens were dominated by omnivores and granivores, and frugivorous birds were absent from monoculture rubber and oil palm. Jungle rubber played an important role in harbouring forest bird species and frugivores. Homegardens turned out to be of minor importance for conserving birds due to their low sizes, although collectively, they are used by many bird species. Changes in functional composition with land-use conversion may affect important ecosystem functions such as biological pest control, pollination, and seed dispersal. In conclusion, maintaining forest cover, including degraded forest and jungle rubber, is of utmost importance to the conservation of functional and taxonomic bird diversity.

  1. Producing diversity: Agroforests Sustain Avian Richness and Abundance in India's Western Ghats

    Krithi K Karanth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, protected areas have long been the corner stone of biodiversity conservation efforts. In India’s Western Ghats, small and isolated protected areas are embedded in a matrix of multiple land-uses, most of which include agroforests. These agroforests are being increasingly recognized for their supplementary role in conserving wildlife. We examined bird species richness and densities in areca (Areca catechu, coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis agroforests in the Western Ghats. We developed a priori hypotheses, predicting that bird species richness and guild density would be highest in coffee, followed by areca and rubber agroforests. We carried out 551 point-count surveys involving 386 hours of sampling in 187 agroforests across a 29,634 km2 area of the Ghats. We observed 204 bird species, of which 170 were residents. The average estimated richness per agroforest was higher in coffee (60.5 compared to rubber (45.4 and areca (34.1. We modeled species richness as a function of relevant biogeographic and environmental covariates. The most influential factors were tree cover, tree density and rainfall in all agroforests, but the strength of these effects varied. Coffee supported higher densities in all four habitat and three feeding guilds compared to areca and rubber. We integrated extensive field sampling with modeling that accounted for imperfect detection, while assessing bird richness and densities across multiple agroforest types. We establish that coffee agroforests are substantially richer in birds than rubber and areca, but all three agroforests play an important role in providing subsidiary habitats for birds in the Ghats. Policy decisions and markets must incorporate such biodiversity values and services provided by these agroforests to sustain and facilitate long-term biodiversity conservation.

  2. Carbon Stocks across a Fifty Year Chronosequence of Rubber Plantations in Tropical China

    Chenggang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transition from forest to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. plantation has occurred in tropical China for decades. Rubber has been planted on 1 million ha to provide raw materials to the rubber industry. The role of various-aged rubber plantations in carbon (C sequestration remains unclear. The biomass C accumulation including latex C and C distribution in soil of five different-aged stands (7, 13, 19, 25 and 47 years old were examined. The total biomass C stock (TBC and total net primary productivity (NPPtotal, whether with or without latex C, had a close quadratic relationship with stand age. Regardless of stand age, around 68% of the C was stored in aboveground biomass, and NPPlatex contributed to approximately 18% of C sequestration. Soil organic carbon stock in the 100-cm depth remained relatively stable, but it lost about 16.8 Mg ha−1 with stand age. The total ecosystem C stock (TEC across stands averaged 159.6, 174.4, 229.6, 238.1 and 291.9 Mg ha−1, respectively, of which more than 45% was stored in the soil. However, biomass would become the major C sink rather than soil over a maximal rubber life expectancy. Regression analysis showed that TEC for rubber plantation at 22 years is comparable to a baseline of 230.4 Mg ha−1 for tropical forest in China, and would reach the maximum value at around 54 years. Therefore, rubber plantation can be considered as alternative land use without affecting net forest ecosystem C storage. In addition to the potential C gains, a full set of ecosystem and economic properties have to be quantified in order to assess the trade-offs associated with forest-to-rubber transition.

  3. Hydroxynitrile Lyases with α/β-Hydrolase Fold: Two Enzymes with Almost Identical 3D Structures but Opposite Enantioselectivities and Different Reaction Mechanisms

    Andexer, Jennifer N; Staunig, Nicole; Eggert, Thorsten; Kratky, Christoph; Pohl, Martina; Gruber, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs) catalyze the cleavage of cyanohydrins to yield hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and the respective carbonyl compound and are key enzymes in the process of cyanogenesis in plants. In organic syntheses, HNLs are used as biocatalysts for the formation of enantiopure cyanohydrins. We determined the structure of the recently identified, R-selective HNL from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtHNL) at a crystallographic resolution of 2.5 Å. The structure exhibits an α/β-hydrolase fold, very similar to the homologous, but S-selective, HNL from Hevea brasiliensis (HbHNL). The similarities also extend to the active sites of these enzymes, with a Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad present in all three cases. In order to elucidate the mode of substrate binding and to understand the unexpected opposite enantioselectivity of AtHNL, complexes of the enzyme with both (R)- and (S)-mandelonitrile were modeled using molecular docking simulations. Compared to the complex of HbHNL with (S)-mandelonitrile, the calculations produced an approximate mirror image binding mode of the substrate with the phenyl rings located at very similar positions, but with the cyano groups pointing in opposite directions. A catalytic mechanism for AtHNL is proposed, in which His236 from the catalytic triad acts as a general base and the emerging negative charge on the cyano group is stabilized by main-chain amide groups and an α-helix dipole very similar to α/β-hydrolases. This mechanistic proposal is additionally supported by mutagenesis studies. PMID:22851196

  4. Estudo da fotodegradação de poliisoprenos naturais (borrachas naturais em radiações específicas do ultravioleta (UV - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v3i2.564

    Kárin Astrid Marques dos Santos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Filmes de poliisoprenos (PI naturais e sintéticos foram expostos à luz ultravioleta (UV e analisados por espectroscopia de absorção UV, antes e após exposição à radiação UV. Filmes de padrões cis PII foram irradiados separadamente por fontes de luz com comprimentos de ondas iguais a 253 e 300. A fotooxidação foi monitorada observando-se a dependência das intensidades das absorções correspondentes aos modos de estiramento C=C, C=O e O-H e do modo “wagging” =C-H de cis-e trans-PI em função do tempo de exposição. A irradiação em 253 nm levou a reações de reticulação do polímero, impedindo a completa oxidação do filme polimérico. Para irradiação em 300nm, as reações de cisão da cadeia ocorreram preferencialmente, levando à completa oxidação do filme polimérico. Os elastômeros de Hevea brasilienses (HB e Hancornia speciosa (HS foram caracterizadas por espectroscopia de absorção no infravermelho (FTIR como cis-1,4-poliisopreno. A foto-oxidação dos elastômeros apresentou cinética diferente com tempo de indução menor que o observado para os padrões cis-PI. A maior velocidade para o processo de fotodegradação dos filmes de BNs foi atribuída à presença de impurezas, caracterizadas por bandas de absorção nas regiões de estiramento O-H e C=O, mesmo antes da exposição à radiação UV.

  5. The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions

    Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another factor usually overlooked but very important for the tropical rainforest in Amazonia is regular flooding. According to recent estimates, the total Amazonian floodplain area easily ranges up to 700,000 km^2, including whitewater river floodplains (várzea) blackwater regions (igapó) and further clearwater regions. Regarding the total Amazonian wetlands the area sums up to more than 2.000.000 km^2, i.e. 30% of Amazonia. To survive the flooding periods causing anoxic conditions for the root system of up to several months, vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies. One is to switch over the root metabolism to fermentation, thus producing ethanol as one of the main products. Ethanol is a toxic metabolite which is transported into the leaves by the transpiration stream. From there it can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere, or can be re-metabolized to acetaldehyde and/or acetate. All of these compounds are volatile enough to be partly released into the atmosphere. We observed emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid under root anoxia. Furthermore, plant stress induced by flooding also affected leaf primary physiological processes as well as other VOC emissions such as the release of isoprenoids and other volatiles. For example, Hevea spruceana could be identified as a monoterpene emitting tree species behaving differently upon anoxia depending on the origin, with increasing emissions of the species from igapó and decreasing with the corresponding species from várzea. Contrasting such short term inundations, studies of VOC emissions under long term conditions (2-3 months) did not confirm the ethanol/acetaldehyde emissions, whereas emissions of other VOC species decreased considerably. These results demonstrate that the transfer of our knowledge

  6. Soil Nitrogen-Cycling Responses to Conversion of Lowland Forests to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Kara Allen

    Full Text Available Rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia is presently occurring due to the expansion of palm oil and rubber production, fueled by an increasing global demand. Our study aimed to assess changes in soil-N cycling rates with conversion of forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis plantations. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, we selected two soil landscapes - loam and clay Acrisol soils - each with four land-use types: lowland forest and forest with regenerating rubber (hereafter, "jungle rubber" as reference land uses, and rubber and oil palm as converted land uses. Gross soil-N cycling rates were measured using the 15N pool dilution technique with in-situ incubation of soil cores. In the loam Acrisol soil, where fertility was low, microbial biomass, gross N mineralization and NH4+ immobilization were also low and no significant changes were detected with land-use conversion. The clay Acrisol soil which had higher initial fertility based on the reference land uses (i.e. higher pH, organic C, total N, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC and base saturation (P≤0.05-0.09 had larger microbial biomass and NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05 compared to the loam Acrisol soil. Conversion of forest and jungle rubber to rubber and oil palm in the clay Acrisol soil decreased soil fertility which, in turn, reduced microbial biomass and consequently decreased NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05-0.09. This was further attested by the correlation of gross N mineralization and microbial biomass N with ECEC, organic C, total N (R=0.51-0. 76; P≤0.05 and C:N ratio (R=-0.71 - -0.75, P≤0.05. Our findings suggest that the larger the initial soil fertility and N availability, the larger the reductions upon land-use conversion. Because soil N availability was dependent on microbial biomass, management practices in converted oil palm and rubber plantations should focus on enriching microbial biomass.

  7. Characterization of the rubber tree metallothionein family reveals a role in mitigating the effects of reactive oxygen species associated with physiological stress.

    Huang, Yacheng; Fang, Yongjun; Long, Xiangyu; Liu, Linya; Wang, Jia; Zhu, Jinheng; Ma, Yanyan; Qin, Yunxia; Qi, Jiyan; Hu, Xinwen; Tang, Chaorong

    2018-02-07

    Metallothioneins (MTs) as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers play important roles in stress response and heavy metal homeostasis. In Hevea brasiliensis (the para rubber tree that is the source of commercial natural rubber) and in other trees, the functions of MTs are not well understood. Latex exudes when the rubber tree is tapped. The flow of latex and its regeneration can be enhanced by tapping, wounding and ethylene treatment, all of which produce ROS as a by-product. Here, we show the presence of four MT genes in H. brasiliensis, comprising three Type 2 (HbMT2, -2a and -2b) and one Type 3 (HbMT3L) isoforms, representing one of the smallest MT gene families among angiosperms. The four HbMTs exhibited distinct tissue expression patterns: HbMT2 and HbMT3L mainly in leaves, HbMT2a specifically in flowers and HbMT2b in diverse tissues. The expression of HbMT2b, an isoform present in latex, decreased significantly in the latex following the stress-inducing treatments of tapping, wounding and ethephon (an ethylene generator). The expressions of the leaf-abundant isoforms, HbMT2 and -3L were up-regulated following pathogenic fungus infection and high-temperature stress, but down-regulated by low-temperature stress. These reactions were consistent with multiple defense- and hormone-responsive cis-acting elements in the HbMT promoters. Nine transcription factors were shown to implicate in the high-temperature responsiveness of HbMT2 and -3L in leaves. Overexpression of HbMT2 in Escherichia coli enhanced the bacterium's tolerance to heavy metals and ROS, consistent with its predicted role as an ROS scavenger. Taken together, our results, along with other relevant studies, suggest an important role of HbMTs in latex regeneration as well as species adaptation via the regulation of ROS homeostasis. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Production and comparison of fuel properties, engine performance, and emission characteristics of biodiesel from various non-edible vegetable oils: A review

    Ashraful, A.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Rizwanul Fattah, I.M.; Imtenan, S.; Shahir, S.A.; Mobarak, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overview of current energy situation. • Overview of biology, distribution and chemistry of various non-edible oil resources. • Comparison of fuel properties of various biodiesels produced from various non-edible oils. • Comparison of engine performance and emission characteristics of reviewed biodiesels. - Abstract: Energy demand is increasing dramatically because of the fast industrial development, rising population, expanding urbanization, and economic growth in the world. To fulfill this energy demand, a large amount of fuel is widely used from different fossil resources. Burning of fossil fuels has caused serious detrimental environmental consequences. The application of biodiesel has shown a positive impact in resolving these issues. Edible vegetable oils are one of the potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. However, as the use of edible oils will jeopardize food supplies and biodiversity, non-edible vegetable oils, also known as second-generation feedstocks, are considered potential substitutes of edible food crops for biodiesel production. This paper introduces some species of non-edible vegetables whose oils are potential sources of biodiesel. These species are Pongamia pinnata (karanja), Calophyllum inophyllum (Polanga), Maduca indica (mahua), Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed), Cotton seed, Simmondsia chinesnsis (Jojoba), Nicotianna tabacum (tobacco), Azadirachta indica (Neem), Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) and Jatropha curcas (Jatropha). Various aspects of non-edible feedstocks, such as biology, distribution, and chemistry, the biodiesel’s physicochemical properties, and its effect on engine performance and emission, are reviewed based on published articles. From the review, fuel properties are found to considerably vary depending on feedstocks. Analysis of the performance results revealed that most of the biodiesel generally give higher brake thermal efficiency and lower brake-specific fuel consumption. Emission results

  9. Comparison of the performance of natural latex membranes prepared with different procedures and PTFE membrane in guided bone regeneration (GBR) in rabbits.

    Moura, Jonas M L; Ferreira, Juliana F; Marques, Leonardo; Holgado, Leandro; Graeff, Carlos F O; Kinoshita, Angela

    2014-09-01

    This work assessed the performance of membranes made of natural latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis prepared with three different methods: polymerized immediately after collection without the use of ammonia (L1); polymerized after preservation in ammonia solution (L2); and polymerized after storage in ammonia, followed by Soxhlet technique for the extraction of substances (L3). Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane was used as control. Two 10-mm diameter bone defects were surgically made in the calvaria of thirty adult male New Zealand rabbits. Defects (total n = 60) were treated with guided bone regeneration (GBR) using L1, L2, L3 or PTFE membranes (n = 15 for each membrane). Ten animals were euthanized after 7, 20 and 60 days postoperatively so that five samples (n = 5) of each treatment were collected at each time, and bone regeneration was assessed microscopically. The microscopic analysis revealed defects filled with blood clot and new bone formation at the margins of the defect in all 7-day samples, while 20-day defects were mainly filled with fibrous connective tissue. After 60 days defects covered with L1 membranes showed a significantly larger bone formation area in comparison to the other groups (P PTFE membranes was also investigated in six additional rabbits. The animals were subjected to the same surgical procedure for the confection of one 10-mm diameter bone defect that was treated with L1 (n = 3) or PTFE (n = 3). Fifty-three days later, a second surgery was performed to make a second defect, which was treated with the same type of membrane used in the first surgery. Seven days later, the animals were euthanized and samples analyzed. No differences among L1 and PTFE samples collected from sensitized and non-sensitized animals were found (P > 0.05, Kruskal-Wallis). Therefore, the results demonstrated that latex membranes presented performance comparable to PTFE membranes, and that L1 membranes induced higher bone formation. L1 and

  10. Root strength of tropical plants - An investigation in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    Lukose Kuriakose, S.; van Beek, L. P. H.; van Westen, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    Earlier research on debris flows in the Tikovil River basin of the Western Ghats concluded that root cohesion is significant in maintaining the overall stability of the region. In this paper we present the most recent results (December 2008) of root tensile strength tests conducted on nine species of plants that are commonly found in the region. They are 1) Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis), 2) Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera), 3) Jackfruit trees (Artocarpus heterophyllus), 4) Teak (Tectona grandis), 5) Mango trees (Mangifera indica), 6) Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), 7) A variety of Tamarind (Garcinia gummigutta), 8) Coffee (Coffea Arabica) and Tea (Camellia sinensis). About 1500 samples were collected of which only 380 could be tested (in the laboratory) due to breakage of roots during the tests. In the successful tests roots failed in tension. Roots having diameters between 2 mm and 12 mm were tested. Each sample tested has a length of 15 cm. Results indicate that the roots of Coffee, Tamarind, Lemon grass and Jackfruit are the strongest of the nine plant types tested whereas Tea and Teak plants had the most fragile roots. Coconut roots behaved atypical to the others, as the bark of the roots was crushed and slipped from the clamp when tested whereas its internal fiber was the strongest of all tested. Root tensile strength decreases with increasing diameters, Rubber showing more ductile behaviour than Coffee and Tamarind that behaved more brittle, root tensile strength increasing exponentially for finer roots. Teak and Tea showed almost a constant root tensile strength over the range of diameters tested and little variability. Jack fruit and mango trees showed the largest variability, which may be explained by the presence of root nodules, preventing the derivation of an unequivocal relationship between root diameters and tensile strength. This results in uncertainty of root strength estimates that are applicable. These results provide important information to

  11. Rubber seed oil: A potential renewable source of biodiesel for sustainable development in sub-Saharan Africa

    Onoji, Samuel E.; Iyuke, Sunny E.; Igbafe, Anselm I.; Nkazi, Diakanua B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sub-Saharan Africa countries have about 251 million rubber trees with the capacity to produce over 16 kilo ton of biodiesel. • Rubber seed oil has wider industrial applications and its biodiesel properties compete favorably with other non-edible oils. • Rubber seed oil is a sustainable and affordable source of biodiesel for sub-Saharan Africa development. • Plantain peels that are in abundance in sub-Saharan Africa is a source of base catalyst for the transesterification of rubber seed oil. • This is no regulatory framework and bioenergy policy in sub-Saharan Africa on the use of waste rubber seeds. - Abstract: The global energy demand is currently met by the use of non-renewable fossil fuels. The challenges of non-availability of these fuels in the future, instability in prices of crude oil and its negative environmental impacts, stimulated researchers in the global community in search of renewable energies for replacement of fossil fuels in future. Biodiesel has been identified as a good complement and plausible replacement of fossil diesel because of the overwhelming characteristic properties similar to fossil diesel in addition to its good lubricity, biodegradability, non-toxicity and eco-friendliness when used in diesel engines. The production of biodiesel from edible vegetable oils competes with food consumption and consequently high cost of food and biodiesel. Studies have shown that rubber seed contains 35–45 wt.% oil which portrays a better competitor to other non-edible oil bearing plants in biodiesel production. Biodiesel produced from non-edible rubber seed oil (RSO) is an attractive option for the sustainable development of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries that depend heavily on fossil diesel. The application of abundant plantain (Musa paradisiacal) peels considered as waste in SSA countries as heterogeneous base catalyst in RSO biodiesel production will further reduce the cost of biodiesel. Rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis

  12. FORÓFITOS PREFERENCIAIS DE ORQUÍDEAS EPÍFITAS NA APA ILHA DO COMBU, BELÉM, PARÁ, BRASIL

    Tonny David Santiago Medeiros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a correlação da abundância de orquídeas epífitas com o tipo de casca dos forófitos e a influência do DAP sobre a abundância e a riqueza na Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA Ilha do Combu, Belém, Pará, Brasil. O estudo foi realizado em 2,85 ha, a partir da demarcação de 114 transectos de 5 m x 50 m, onde foram mensurados todos os forófitos com DAP ≥ 20 cm e anotadas as características da casca, e identificadas as orquídeas epífitas. A correlação entre o tipo de casca dos forófitos e a abundância de orquídeas foi verificada através do número de epífitas por forófitos na espécie arbórea x, e também da razão (n.° epífitas/n.° forófitos para forófitos rugosos e não-rugosos. Os diâmetros foram categorizados em classes para verificar a influência do DAP sobre a abundância e a riqueza. Trinta e cinco espécies de forófitos (73% apresentaram casca rugosa, com destaque para Hevea brasiliensis e Carapa guianensis que foram os mais amostrados (58 e 42 e mais expressivos em número de orquídeas epífitas; a razão de epífitas por forófitos foi maior em troncos com casca não-rugosa. As classes de diâmetro 2 (31,8┤ 63,7 e 3 (63,7┤ 95,5 registraram as maiores abundâncias de orquídeas epífitas. A abundância de orquídeas epífitas é influenciada pela rugosidade da casca e correlacionada aos maiores diâmetros dos forófitos. Palavras-chave: interação, hospedeiro, orquidaceae, floresta de várzea, Amazônia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n3p1-4

  13. Avaliação de clones de seringueira para a região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo

    Hernandes Martins Alem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOSão Paulo é o Estado no qual clones de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensisWilld. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg. têm apresentado maior produtividade de borracha, no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a produção de borracha e o vigor de 14 clones de seringueira, implantados na região de Votuporanga, além de averiguar mudanças na tendência da correlação anual, para analisar a possibilidade de uma seleção precoce, com base nos caracteres estudados. Para isso, a produção de borracha, em gramas árvore-1sangria-1, foi avaliada, utilizando-se o sistema de sangria 1/2S d/4 5d/7 11m/y ET 2,5%. O período de avaliação da produção de borracha foi de oito anos. O vigor, também, foi analisado, medindo-se o perímetro do caule por 16 anos. Os clones IRCA 111 e PB 235 tiveram os melhores desempenhos de produção de borracha. Os clones IAC 15 e IAC 44 apresentaram os melhores resultados de vigor. As correlações genéticas e fenotípicas foram significativas e positivas entre todos os anos de produção. Para o vigor, a significância dos coeficientes de correlação genotípica e fenotípica diferiram na pré-sangria e na pós-sangria. Pelos valores de produção de borracha observados, os clones IRCA 111 e PB 235 são considerados favoráveis à recomendação em pequena escala para a região de Votuporanga. Com base nos resultados obtidos, é possível realizar uma seleção precoce para o caráter de produtividade, usando-se os dados obtidos no primeiro ano de avaliação. Por causa das diferenças observadas entre os períodos de pré-sangria e pós-sangria, não é aconselhável realizar uma seleção precoce no período de pré-sangria, visando ao caráter de vigor.

  14. A class III chitinase without disulfide bonds from the fern, Pteris ryukyuensis: crystal structure and ligand-binding studies.

    Kitaoku, Yoshihito; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Numata, Tomoyuki; Taira, Toki; Sakuda, Shohei; Fukamizo, Tamo

    2015-10-01

    We first solved the crystal structure of class III catalytic domain of a chitinase from fern (PrChiA-cat), and found a structural difference between PrChiA-cat and hevamine. PrChiA-cat was found to have reduced affinities to chitin oligosaccharides and allosamidin. Plant class III chitinases are subdivided into enzymes with three disulfide bonds and those without disulfide bonds. We here referred to the former enzymes as class IIIa chitinases and the latter as class IIIb chitinases. In this study, we solved the crystal structure of the class IIIb catalytic domain of a chitinase from the fern Pteris ryukyuensis (PrChiA-cat), and compared it with that of hevamine, a class IIIa chitinase from Hevea brasiliensis. PrChiA-cat was found to adopt an (α/β)8 fold typical of GH18 chitinases in a similar manner to that of hevamine. However, PrChiA-cat also had two large loops that extruded from the catalytic site, and the corresponding loops in hevamine were markedly smaller than those of PrChiA-cat. An HPLC analysis of the enzymatic products revealed that the mode of action of PrChiA-cat toward chitin oligosaccharides, (GlcNAc) n (n = 4-6), differed from those of hevamine and the other class IIIa chitinases. The binding affinities of (GlcNAc)3 and (GlcNAc)4 toward the inactive mutant of PrChiA-cat were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, and were markedly lower than those toward other members of the GH18 family. The affinity and the inhibitory activity of allosamidin toward PrChiA-cat were also lower than those toward the GH18 chitinases investigated to date. Several hydrogen bonds found in the crystal structure of hevamine-allosamidin complex were missing in the modeled structure of PrChiA-cat-allosamidin complex. The structural findings for PrChiA-cat successfully interpreted the functional data presented.

  15. Overexpression of an isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase gene to enhance trans-polyisoprene production in Eucommia ulmoides Oliver

    Chen Ren

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural rubber produced by plants, known as polyisoprene, is the most widely used isoprenoid polymer. Plant polyisoprenes can be classified into two types; cis-polyisoprene and trans-polyisoprene, depending on the type of polymerization of the isoprene unit. More than 2000 species of higher plants produce latex consisting of cis-polyisoprene. Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree produces cis-polyisoprene, and is the key source of commercial rubber. In contrast, relatively few plant species produce trans-polyisoprene. Currently, trans-polyisoprene is mainly produced synthetically, and no plant species is used for its commercial production. Results To develop a plant-based system suitable for large-scale production of trans-polyisoprene, we selected a trans-polyisoprene-producing plant, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver, as the target for genetic transformation. A full-length cDNA (designated as EuIPI, Accession No. AB041629 encoding isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IPI was isolated from E. ulmoides. EuIPI consisted of 1028 bp with a 675-bp open reading frame encoding a protein with 224 amino acid residues. EuIPI shared high identity with other plant IPIs, and the recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli showed IPI enzymatic activity in vitro. EuIPI was introduced into E. ulmoides via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic lines of E. ulmoides overexpressing EuIPI showed increased EuIPI expression (up to 19-fold that of the wild-type and a 3- to 4-fold increase in the total content of trans-polyisoprenes, compared with the wild-type (non-transgenic root line control. Conclusions Increasing the expression level of EuIPI by overexpression increased accumulation of trans-polyisoprenes in transgenic E. ulmoides. IPI catalyzes the conversion of isopentenyl diphosphate to its highly electrophilic isomer, dimethylallyl diphosphate, which is the first step in the biosynthesis of all isoprenoids, including polyisoprene. Our

  16. Efeitos da adubação NPK na fertilidade do solo, nutrição e crescimento da seringueira

    O. C. Bataglia

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes combinações de doses de fertilizantes NPK, durante o período de formação do seringal, sobre as características químicas do solo, nutrição mineral e crescimento de árvores de seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Müell. Arg.], clone RRIM 600. O experimento foi instalado em 1985 e realizado até 1993, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, num esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4, testando as doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, aplicadas na forma de uréia, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. Foi usado Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Podzólico distrófico A moderado de textura arenosa/média, localizado no município de Avaí, estado de São Paulo, no período entre dois e oito anos de idade das árvores. A avaliação do experimento foi feita por meio da análise de solo, de folha e medida do perímetro do caule. O fertilizante nitrogenado (uréia foi o que causou maiores alterações com intensa acidificação do solo. Além de alterar diversos atributos do solo, a aplicação de uréia elevou as concentrações de N e reduziu as de K e S nas folhas. A fertilização fosfatada aumentou a disponibilidade de P no solo e a concentração nas folhas, o mesmo acontecendo com a adubação potássica em relação à disponibilidade de K no solo e na planta. Apesar disso, as correlações entre as concentrações de P e K no solo e nas folhas e o período de imaturidade não foram coerentes com esse aumento de disponibilidade. Mesmo sem a aplicação de micronutrientes, observou-se que as concentrações de B nas folhas correlacionaram-se positivamente com o período de imaturidade, enquanto os demais micronutrientes pouco influíram na fertilidade do solo.

  17. Soil Nitrogen-Cycling Responses to Conversion of Lowland Forests to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Tjoa, Aiyen; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia is presently occurring due to the expansion of palm oil and rubber production, fueled by an increasing global demand. Our study aimed to assess changes in soil-N cycling rates with conversion of forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, we selected two soil landscapes – loam and clay Acrisol soils – each with four land-use types: lowland forest and forest with regenerating rubber (hereafter, “jungle rubber”) as reference land uses, and rubber and oil palm as converted land uses. Gross soil-N cycling rates were measured using the 15N pool dilution technique with in-situ incubation of soil cores. In the loam Acrisol soil, where fertility was low, microbial biomass, gross N mineralization and NH4 + immobilization were also low and no significant changes were detected with land-use conversion. The clay Acrisol soil which had higher initial fertility based on the reference land uses (i.e. higher pH, organic C, total N, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) and base saturation) (P≤0.05–0.09) had larger microbial biomass and NH4 + transformation rates (P≤0.05) compared to the loam Acrisol soil. Conversion of forest and jungle rubber to rubber and oil palm in the clay Acrisol soil decreased soil fertility which, in turn, reduced microbial biomass and consequently decreased NH4 + transformation rates (P≤0.05–0.09). This was further attested by the correlation of gross N mineralization and microbial biomass N with ECEC, organic C, total N (R=0.51–0. 76; P≤0.05) and C:N ratio (R=-0.71 – -0.75, P≤0.05). Our findings suggest that the larger the initial soil fertility and N availability, the larger the reductions upon land-use conversion. Because soil N availability was dependent on microbial biomass, management practices in converted oil palm and rubber plantations should focus on enriching microbial biomass. PMID:26222690

  18. Uso da biomembrana de látex em cavidade exenterada: relato de caso The use of latex biomembrane in exenteration: case report

    Fernando Fugimoto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A membrana de látex é um material extraído da Hevea brasiliensis, e devido às suas propriedades neoangiogênicas, de adesão celular e formação de matriz extracelular, é utilizada em recobrimentos de úlceras, meringoplastias e outras feridas, com sucesso. Neste caso descrevemos seu uso, inédito, na ferida pós-exenteração orbitária por carcinoma basocelular em paciente do sexo masculino, 72 anos, procedente da Bahia com lesão na pálpebra do olho esquerdo há dois anos com prurido, sangramento, lacrimejamento, e dor. Ao exame oftalmológico do olho esquerdo evidenciou-se lesão ulcerada de pálpebra superior e canto medial, hiperemia conjuntival, afilamento corneano, catarata, perfuração ocular. Sem alterações significativas à direita. A tomografia de órbitas revelou lesão expansiva palpebral com invasão pré-septal, osso frontal e lâmina papirácea à esquerda. Realizada exenteração total com curativo de biomembrana de látex; troca a cada 24 horas nos primeiros sete dias e a cada 48 horas nos outros sete dias. Retirou-se a biomembrana de látex por não ter sido evidenciada granulação, o que só ocorreu após um mês e quinze dias. A exenteração orbitária consiste na retirada de todo o conteúdo da órbita, incluindo olho e partes moles. É considerada total quando as pálpebras são incluídas, e subtotal quando as mesmas são preservadas. Existem várias técnicas de reconstrução da cavidade exenterada: como granulação espontânea, enxerto de pele, retalho frontal, retalho miocutâneo, entre outros. Neste caso utilizamos curativo com biomembrana de látex, material que se mostrou eficaz no recobrimento de outros tecidos cruentos como úlceras, mas sem o mesmo sucesso em nossa experiência. Mais estudos são necessários para que possamos concluir as vantagens e desvantagens do uso da biomembrana de látex na área da oftalmologia.The latex biomembrane is a material from Hevea brasiliensis and has angiogenic

  19. RESPOSTA DA SERINGUEIRA CLONE RRIM 600 À ADUBAÇÃO NPK EM SOLO PODZÓLICO VERMELHO-AMARELO RESPONSES OF RUBBER TREE CLONE RRIM 600 TO NPK FERTILIZATION ON RED YELLOW PODZOLIC SOIL

    ONDINO CLEANTE BATAGLIA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo, que teve por objetivo determinar respostas da seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg.] à adubação NPK durante o período de formação do seringal, relata os resultados de experimento com o clone RRIM 600 em solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo de textura arenosa, no município de Avaí (SP, Brasil. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4, com doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, aplicados no período entre dois e oito anos de idade das plantas. Avaliou-se o perímetro do caule a 1,20 m acima do calo de enxertia, a cada quatro meses, e calculou-se a porcentagem de plantas aptas para sangria e o tempo de imaturidade do seringal em cada parcela. Efetuaram-se análises de solo aos 27 e 51 meses de idade das plantas e análises de folhas, anualmente, no verão. A partir de 60 meses de idade das plantas, aproximadamente três anos após o início das adubações, observou-se efeito linear da adubação nitrogenada sobre o perímetro do caule. A adubação fosfatada teve efeito linear a partir da idade de 72 meses e a interação NP linear foi consistente depois de 75 meses. Usando como indicador a porcentagem de plantas aptas à sangria, houve efeito linear significativo para as adubações nitrogenada e potássica. O período de imaturidade foi abreviado até em oito meses, comparando-se o tratamento sem adubação com os de melhor desempenho. Adubações desequilibradas, como no tratamento 0-80-120, provocaram retardamento até de 12 meses no período de imaturidade em relação ao tratamento de melhor desempenho (120-120-120. Um ano depois da interrupção da aplicação de fertilizantes, no fim do experimento, não se observou efeito residual dos tratamentos sobre os indicadores de crescimento utilizados.The response of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss. Muell.Arg.], clone RRIM 600 to NPK fertilization during the

  20. Análise florística e estrutura de florestas de várzea no estuário amazônico Floristic analysis and structure of tidal flooded forests in the amazonian estuary

    Samuel Soares de Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de análise fitossociológica e da estrutura, feita em 4 inventários florísticos executados em parcelas de 1 hectare de florestas inundáveis de várzea localizadas na área do estuário e do baixo Amazonas. As florestas de várzea do estuário albergam uma riqueza de espécies relativamente baixa em relação a outras áreas da região como as florestas de terra firme. No entanto a estrutura de tamanho é considerável, com as árvores atingindo elevada biomassa vegetal. Provavelmente isto é devido ao aporte constante de nutrientes através dos sedimentos que viajam milhares de quilômetros de distância desde as nascentes andinas até o delta do rio Amazonas. As florestas inundáveis de várzea são dominadas por poucas espécies, algumas com muitos indivíduos, como o açaí (Euterpe oleracea e o muru-muru (Astrocaryum murumuru, outras com árvores muito grandes como a pitaíca (Swartzia polyphylla, pracuúba (Mora paraensis e a seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis. A ucuúba (Virola surinamensis, uma espécie que apresenta populações ameaçadas pela exploração madeireira, parece apresentar tanto indivíduos grandes como elevada densidade. As florestas de várzea apresentam baixa similaridade entre si, provavelmente decorrente da imensa variação do ambiente de várzea nos rios, paranás, ilhas e lagos, como os efeitos de zonação, altura de inundação, salinidade, velocidade da água, entre outros fatores. Estratégias de seleção de áreas de várzea para conservação devem levar em conta a variação ambiental, o grau de interferência humana e a diversidade local e entre ambientes.This work presents results of the analysis made in four 1-hectare plots of floristic inventory in the flooded forests located in the delta and lower basin of the Amazon river. The flooded forests, so called "várzea" forests, harbor a relatively low species richness in relation to other areas such as "terra firme

  1. Root reinforcement and its contribution to slope stability in the Western Ghats of Kerala, India

    Lukose Kuriakose, Sekhar; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2010-05-01

    The Western Ghats of Kerala, India is prone to shallow landslides and consequent debris flows. An earlier study (Kuriakose et al., DOI:10.1002/esp.1794) with limited data had already demonstrated the possible effects of vegetation on slope hydrology and stability. Spatially distributed root cohesion is one of the most important data necessary to assess the effects of anthropogenic disturbances on the probability of shallow landslide initiation, results of which are reported in sessions GM6.1 and HS13.13/NH3.16. Thus it is necessary to the know the upper limits of reinforcement that the roots are able to provide and its spatial and vertical distribution in such an anthropogenically intervened terrain. Root tensile strength and root pull out tests were conducted on nine species of plants that are commonly found in the region. They are 1) Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis), 2) Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera), 3) Jackfruit trees (Artocarpus heterophyllus), 4) Teak (Tectona grandis), 5) Mango trees (Mangifera indica), 6) Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), 7) Gambooge (Garcinia gummi-gutta), 8) Coffee (Coffea Arabica) and 9) Tea (Camellia sinensis). About 1500 samples were collected of which only 380 could be tested (in the laboratory) due to breakage of roots during the tests. In the successful tests roots failed in tension. Roots having diameters between 2 mm and 12 mm were tested. Each sample tested had a length of 15 cm. Root pull out tests were conducted in the field. Root tensile strength vs root diameter, root pull out strength vs diameter, root diameter vs root depth and root count vs root depth relationships were derived. Root cohesion was computed for nine most dominant plants in the region using the perpendicular root model of Wu et al. (1979) modified by Schimidt et al. (2001). A soil depth map was derived using regression kriging as suggested by Kuriakose et al., (doi:10.1016/j.catena.2009.05.005) and used along with the land use map of 2008 to distribute the

  2. Expressão fenotípica de clones de seringueira na região noroeste do estado de São Paulo Phenotypic expression of rubber tree clones in the northwestern region of São Paulo state

    Paulo de Souza Gonçalves

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de novos clones de seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell.-Arg.] com alto potencial de produção aliado a outros caracteres secundários desejáveis é de fundamental importância para uma heveicultura sustentável e competitiva. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a expressão fenotípica de caracteres superiores em 17 clones de seringueira, tendo em vista a escolha dos mais promissores. Em campo, o experimento obedeceu ao delineamento de blocos ao acaso com três repetições e parcelas lineares de seis plantas. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que o clone IAC 40 foi o mais produtivo, com média de 2.316 kg de borracha seca ha-1 ano-1 no período de seis anos, seguido pelo clone IAC 300 (1.921 kg, enquanto o clone-testemunha, RRIM 600 produziu 1.493 kg. Observou-se na maior parte dos clones, crescimento superior em relação à testemunha. A porcentagem de plantas aptas à sangria variou de 40% (IAC 329 a 100% (IAC 327. Exceto nos clones IAC 56, IAC 331 e IAN 3156 com 7,21 mm, 7,18 mm e 6,40 mm respectivamente, em todos os demais notou-se espessura de casca virgem inferior ao clone RRIM 600 (6,38 mm. Com exceção do IAN 3156, os demais clones tiveram baixa incidência de secamento de painel. O bom desempenho de todos os clones IAC e amazônicos (IAN, Fx e RO permite que sejam recomendados para plantio em pequena escala, ao tempo em que serão avaliados para futura recomendação em grande escala envolvendo diferentes ambientes do Estado de São Paulo.The development of new clones with high production combined to other desirable secondary characters is fundamental for a sustainable and competitive rubber tree cultivation. The objective of this study was to evaluate, during a period of 13 years, the phenotypic expression of superior characters of 17 clones of rubber tree grown in the plateau region of São Paulo State, Brazil. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with three

  3. Soil nitrogen oxide fluxes from lowland forests converted to smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    Hassler, Evelyn; Corre, Marife D.; Kurniawan, Syahrul; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2017-06-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations cover large areas of former rainforest in Sumatra, Indonesia, supplying the global demand for these crops. Although forest conversion is known to influence soil nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) fluxes, measurements from oil palm and rubber plantations are scarce (for N2O) or nonexistent (for NO). Our study aimed to (1) quantify changes in soil-atmosphere fluxes of N oxides with forest conversion to rubber and oil palm plantations and (2) determine their controlling factors. In Jambi, Sumatra, we selected two landscapes that mainly differed in texture but were both on heavily weathered soils: loam and clay Acrisol soils. Within each landscape, we investigated lowland forests, rubber trees interspersed in secondary forest (termed as jungle rubber), both as reference land uses and smallholder rubber and oil palm plantations as converted land uses. In the loam Acrisol landscape, we conducted a follow-on study in a large-scale oil palm plantation (called PTPN VI) for comparison of soil N2O fluxes with smallholder oil palm plantations. Land-use conversion to smallholder plantations had no effect on soil N-oxide fluxes (P = 0. 58 to 0.76) due to the generally low soil N availability in the reference land uses that further decreased with land-use conversion. Soil N2O fluxes from the large-scale oil palm plantation did not differ with those from smallholder plantations (P = 0. 15). Over 1-year measurements, the temporal patterns of soil N-oxide fluxes were influenced by soil mineral N and water contents. Across landscapes, annual soil N2O emissions were controlled by gross nitrification and sand content, which also suggest the influence of soil N and water availability. Soil N2O fluxes (µg N m-2 h-1) were 7 ± 2 to 14 ± 7 (reference land uses), 6 ± 3 to 9 ± 2 (rubber), 12 ± 3 to 12 ± 6 (smallholder oil palm) and 42 ± 24 (large-scale oil palm). Soil NO fluxes (µg N m-2 h-1) were -0.6

  4. Liberação de componentes do extrato de Casearia sylvestris Swartz empregando membranas de látex natural como suporte

    Alberto Trecco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A membrana de látex natural (NRL – Natural Rubber Latex, manipulada a partir do látex extraído da seringueira Hevea brasiliensis, tem apresentado grande potencial de aplicação no campo da biomedicina e dos biomateriais. Graças a sua biocompatibilidade e baixa taxa de rejeição, ela tem sido utilizada para próteses e enxertos, atuando como estimulante da angiogênese, adesão celular e barreira física a agentes infecciosos. Além dessas aplicações, as membranas são utilizadas como matriz de sistemas de liberação para avaliar o comportamento da liberação de fármacos e extratos de origem vegetal que apresentam propriedades medicinais. O sistema extrato-membrana tem como objeto de estudo uma nova abordagem dessas substâncias no tratamento de feridas visando à cicatrização e regeneração do tecido envolvido. Casearia sylvestris, conhecida popularmente como guaçatonga, pertence à família Salicaceae, conhecida na medicina popular pelos seus efeitos antiulcerogênicos, cicatrizantes, antiofídicos, anti-inflamatórios e antissépticos, propriedades já comprovadas por estudos. Trabalhos recentes demonstraram que a liberação controlada de fármacos e extratos utilizando membranas de látex natural é uma alternativa interessante e promissora para aplicações biomédicas. Assim, o objetivo deste projeto foi estudar a liberação do extrato de Casearia sylvestris incorporado à membrana de látex em soluções com diferentes valores de pH, com o propósito de estudar seu comportamento e sua liberação de forma controlada. A taxa de liberação do extrato do sistema extrato-membrana foi monitorada e analisada utilizando-se o método de espectroscopia ótica (UV. O pH básico age desestabilizando a membrana indicando que o polímero possui a habilidade de proteger o extrato de ser liberado em valores de pH ácidos, direcionando sua aplicação para o sítio de melhor absorção. Além disso, a liberação segue uma função bi

  5. 基于Biome-BGC模型的西双版纳橡胶林碳收支模拟%Simulation of carbon budget in rubber plantations in Xishuangbanna based on the Biome-BGC model

    孙燕瓷; 马友鑫; 曹坤芳; 沈金祥; 张一平; 梅岑岑; 刘文俊

    2017-01-01

    以西双版纳橡胶适宜种植区(海拔550-600m)的橡胶林(Hevea brasiliensis)为研究对象,应用参数同化后的Biome-BGC模型模拟了1959-2012年橡胶林的碳循环.结果表明,(1)与涡度相关监测结果相比,橡胶林年总初级生产力(Gross Primary Productivity,GPP)、年总呼吸(Total Respiration,Rt)的模拟精度分别为98.37%和90%.由于对年GPP的过低估计和对年Rt的过高估计,年净生态系统交换量(Net Ecosystem Exchange,NEE)的模拟值比实测值低157.35 g C m-2 a-1.但若考虑干胶碳(139gCm-2a-1),模拟值与实测值十分接近;(2)橡胶林在模拟进行的前8年里因异养呼吸较高,以碳排放为主,NEE平均约357 gC m-2a-1;之后转为以碳固定为主,NEE平均约-146 g C m-2a-1;(3)橡胶林在40年的更新周期中可固定碳1835 g C m-2,是一个弱的碳汇.但与热带雨林相同周期固碳6720 g C m-2相比,仍为碳源.以上结果为深入了解橡胶种植对区域碳循环的影响提供了科学依据,建议当地政府一方面要有计划的对老胶林进行更新,以维持当前橡胶林生态系统中的碳平衡;另一方面要注重对热带雨林的保护,从而实现区域经济和生态环境保护的协调发展.%The carbon (C) cycle in rubber plantations,which are located in a suitable planting region (altitude 550-600 m) in Xishuangbanna,was simulated using the Biome-BGC model for the period 1959-2012.We obtained the following results.(1) Compared with the actual measurements,the accuracy was 98.37% and 90% for the simulated annual gross primary productivity (GPP) and total respiration (Rt),respectively.Because of an underestimate of GPP and an overestimate of Rt,the simulated annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was 157.35 g C m-2 a-1 lower than the measured value.However,the accuracy was greatly enhanced when dry rubber C stock (139 g C m-2 a-1) was taken into account.(2) During the initial 8 years,rubber plantation acted as a C source because of the higher