WorldWideScience

Sample records for heterostructure nanowires obtained

  1. Tracking Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Nanowire Heterostructures

    Taylor A.J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of non-equilibrium carrier dynamics in silicon (Si nanowires (NWs and NW heterostructures is very important due to their many nanophotonic and nanoelectronics applications. Here, we describe the first measurements of ultrafast carrier dynamics and diffusion in single heterostructured Si nanowires, obtained using ultrafast optical microscopy. By isolating individual nanowires, we avoid complications resulting from the broad size and alignment distribution in nanowire ensembles, allowing us to directly probe ultrafast carrier dynamics in these quasi-one-dimensional systems. Spatially-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy demonstrates the influence of surface-mediated mechanisms on carrier dynamics in a single NW, while polarization-resolved femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy reveals a clear anisotropy in carrier lifetimes measured parallel and perpendicular to the NW axis, due to density-dependent Auger recombination. Furthermore, separating the pump and probe spots along the NW axis enabled us to track space and time dependent carrier diffusion in radial and axial NW heterostructures. These results enable us to reveal the influence of radial and axial interfaces on carrier dynamics and charge transport in these quasi-one-dimensional nanosystems, which can then be used to tailor carrier relaxation in a single nanowire heterostructure for a given application.

  2. Nanoparticle Stability in Axial InAs-InP Nanowire Heterostructures with Atomically Sharp Interfaces.

    Zannier, Valentina; Rossi, Francesca; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G; Ercolani, Daniele; Battiato, Sergio; Sorba, Lucia

    2018-01-10

    The possibility to expand the range of material combinations in defect-free heterostructures is one of the main motivations for the great interest in semiconductor nanowires. However, most axial nanowire heterostructures suffer from interface compositional gradients and kink formation, as a consequence of nanoparticle-nanowire interactions during the metal-assisted growth. Understanding such interactions and how they affect the growth mode is fundamental to achieve a full control over the morphology and the properties of nanowire heterostructures for device applications. Here we demonstrate that the sole parameter affecting the growth mode (straight or kinked) of InP segments on InAs nanowire stems by the Au-assisted method is the nanoparticle composition. Indeed, straight InAs-InP nanowire heterostructures are obtained only when the In/Au ratio in the nanoparticles is low, typically smaller than 1.5. For higher In content, the InP segments tend to kink. Tailoring the In/Au ratio by the precursor fluxes at a fixed growth temperature enables us to obtain straight and radius-uniform InAs-InP nanowire heterostructures (single and double) with atomically sharp interfaces. We present a model that is capable of describing all the experimentally observed phenomena: straight growth versus kinking, the stationary nanoparticle compositions in pure InAs and InAs-InP nanowires, the crystal phase trends, and the interfacial abruptness. By taking into account different nanowire/nanoparticle interfacial configurations (forming wetting or nonwetting monolayers in vertical or tapered geometry), our generalized model provides the conditions of nanoparticle stability and abrupt heterointerfaces for a rich variety of growth scenarios. Therefore, our results provide a powerful tool for obtaining high quality InAs-InP nanowire heterostructures with well-controlled properties and can be extended to other material combinations based on the group V interchange.

  3. Axial Ge/Si nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs.

    Dayeh, Shadi A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Gin, Aaron V.; Huang, Jian Yu; Picraux, Samuel Thomas (Los Alamos National Laboratory)

    2010-03-01

    Axial Ge/Si heterostructure nanowires (NWs) allow energy band-edge engineering along the axis of the NW, which is the charge transport direction, and the realization of asymmetric devices for novel device architectures. This work reports on two significant advances in the area of heterostructure NWs and tunnel FETs: (i) the realization of 100% compositionally modulated Si/Ge axial heterostructure NWs with lengths suitable for device fabrication and (ii) the design and implementation of Schottky barrier tunnel FETs on these NWs for high-on currents and suppressed ambipolar behavior. Initial prototype devices with 10 nm PECVD SiN{sub x} gate dielectric resulted in a very high current drive in excess of 100 {micro}A/{micro}m (I/{pi}D) and 10{sup 5} I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratios. Prior work on the synthesis of Ge/Si axial NW heterostructures through the VLS mechanism have resulted in axial Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} NW heterostructures with x{sub max} {approx} 0.3, and more recently 100% composition modulation was achieved with a solid growth catalyst. In this latter case, the thickness of the heterostructure cannot exceed few atomic layers due to the slow axial growth rate and concurrent radial deposition on the NW sidewalls leading to a mixture of axial and radial deposition, which imposes a big challenge for fabricating useful devices form these NWs in the near future. Here, we report the VLS growth of 100% doping and composition modulated axial Ge/Si heterostructure NWs with lengths appropriate for device fabrication by devising a growth procedure that eliminates Au diffusion on the NW sidewalls and minimizes random kinking in the heterostructure NWs as deduced from detailed microscopy analysis. Fig. 1 a shows a cross-sectional SEM image of epitaxial Ge/Si axial NW heterostructures grown on a Ge(111) surface. The interface abruptness in these Ge/Si heterostructure NWs is of the order of the NW diameter. Some of these NWs develop a crystallographic kink that is {approx

  4. Axial Ge/Si nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs

    Picraux, Sanuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daych, Shadi A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of semiconductor nanowires allows doping and composition modulation along their axis and the realization of axial 1 D heterostructures. This provides additional flexibility in energy band-edge engineering along the transport direction which is difficult to attain by planar materials growth and processing techniques. We report here on the design, growth, fabrication, and characterization of asymmetric heterostructure tunnel field-effect transistors (HTFETs) based on 100% compositionally modulated Si/Ge axial NWs for high on-current operation and low ambipolar transport behavior. We discuss the optimization of band-offsets and Schottky barrier heights for high performance HTFETs and issues surrounding their experimental realization. Our HTFET devices with 10 nm PECVD SiN{sub x} gate dielectric resulted in a measured current drive exceeding 100 {mu}A/{mu}m (I/{pi}D) and 10{sup 5} I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratios.

  5. Synthesis, fabrication and characterization of Ge/Si axial nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs

    Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dayeh, Shadi A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Axial Ge/Si heterostructure nanowires allow energy band-edge engineering along the axis of the nanowire, which is the charge transport direction, and the realization of asymmetric devices for novel device architectures. This work reports on two advances in the area of heterostructure nanowires and tunnel FETs: (i) the realization of 100% compositionally modulated Si/Ge axial heterostructure nanowires with lengths suitable for device fabrication and (ii) the design and implementation of Schottky barrier tunnel FETs on these nanowires for high-on currents and suppressed ambipolar behavior. Initial prototype devices resulted in a current drive in excess of 100 {micro}A/{micro}m (I/{pi}D) and 10{sup 5} I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratios. These results demonstrate the potential of such asymmetric heterostructures (both in the semiconductor channel and metal-semiconductor barrier heights) for low-power and high performance electronics.

  6. Integration, gap formation, and sharpening of III-V heterostructure nanowires by selective etching

    Kallesoe, C.; Mølhave, Kristian; Larsen, K. F.

    2010-01-01

    Epitaxial growth of heterostructure nanowires allows for the definition of narrow sections with specific semiconductor composition. The authors demonstrate how postgrowth engineering of III-V heterostructure nanowires using selective etching can form gaps, sharpening of tips, and thin sections...... lithography is used for deposition of catalyst particles on trench sidewalls and the lateral growth of III-V nanowires is achieved from such catalysts. The selectivity of a bromine-based etch on gallium arsenide segments in gallium phosphide nanowires is examined, using a hydrochloride etch to remove the III...

  7. Advanced Optoelectronic Devices based on Si Quantum Dots/Si Nanowires Hetero-structures

    Xu, J; Zhai, Y Y; Cao, Y Q; Chen, K J

    2017-01-01

    Si quantum dots are currently extensively studied since they can be used to develop many kinds of optoelectronic devices. In this report, we review the fabrication of Si quantum dots (Si QD) /Si nanowires (Si NWs) hetero-structures by deposition of Si QDs/SiO 2 or Si QDs/SiC multilayers on Si NWs arrays. The electroluminescence and photovoltaic devices based on the formed hetero-structures have been prepared and the improved performance is confirmed. It is also found that the surface recombination via the surface defects states on the Si NWs, especially the ones obtained by the long-time etching, may deteriorate the device properties though they exhibit the better anti-reflection characteristics. The possible surface passivation approaches are briefly discussed. (paper)

  8. Examination Of Si-Ge Heterostructure Nanowire Growth Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    Nastovjak, A. G.; Neizvestny, I. G.; Shwartz, N. L.

    2011-01-01

    The process of Si-Ge heterostructures formation in nanowires (NWs) grown by vapor-liquid-solid mechanism was investigated using Monte Carlo simulation. Dependences of catalyst drop composition on temperature, flux intensity and nanowire diameter were obtained. Periodical oscillations of drop composition near mean value were observed. Oscillation results from layer-by-layer growth at the drop-whisker interface and necessity of supersaturation onset to start new layer formation. It was demonstrated that it is impossible to grow atomically abrupt axial heterojunctions via classical vapor-liquid-solid mechanism due to gradual change of catalyst drop composition when switching the fluxes. This phenomenon is the main reason of heterojunction blurriness. Junction abruptness was found to be dependent on nanowhisker diameter: in adsorption-induced growth mode abruptness of heterojunction decreases with diameter and in diffusion-induced mode it increases.

  9. Heterostructured ZnS/InP nanowires for rigid/flexible ultraviolet photodetectors with enhanced performance.

    Zhang, Kai; Ding, Jia; Lou, Zheng; Chai, Ruiqing; Zhong, Mianzeng; Shen, Guozhen

    2017-10-19

    Heterostructured ZnS/InP nanowires, composed of single-crystalline ZnS nanowires coated with a layer of InP shell, were synthesized via a one-step chemical vapor deposition process. As-grown heterostructured ZnS/InP nanowires exhibited an ultrahigh I on /I off ratio of 4.91 × 10 3 , a high photoconductive gain of 1.10 × 10 3 , a high detectivity of 1.65 × 10 13 Jones and high response speed even in the case of very weak ultraviolet light illumination (1.87 μW cm -2 ). The values are much higher than those of previously reported bare ZnS nanowires owing to the formation of core/shell heterostructures. Flexible ultraviolet photodetectors were also fabricated with the heterostructured ZnS/InP nanowires, which showed excellent mechanical flexibility, electrical stability and folding endurance besides excellent photoresponse properties. The results elucidated that the heterostructured ZnS/InP nanowires could find good applications in next generation flexible optoelectronic devices.

  10. Growth and properties of low-dimensional III-V semiconductor nanowire heterostructures

    Heiss, Martin

    2010-08-25

    In this work the properties of GaAs nanowire based heterostructures are investigated. The nanowires and their heterostructures are synthesized with Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The optical and structural properties are characterized by means of low temperature confocal micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Molecular Beam Epitaxy is a versatile technique that allows to switch from radial to axial growth in order to cap the nanowires by an epitaxial prismatic AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure. This can passivate surface states and improve the optical properties. The effect of such a passivation layer is studied by quantitative comparison of the diameter dependence of photoluminescence in passivated and unpassivated nanowires. The passivation is an important prerequisite for more complex axial heterostructures. Evidence for radial confinement effects is found in passivated nanowires with core diameters smaller than 70 nm. Furthermore, the polarization dependence of light absorption and emission is investigated. Two different types of axial heterostructures are studied that have the potential to further enhance the functionality of such nanowires. In a first step, the possibility of growth of axial InGaAs heterostructure in the Au-free Molecular Beam Epitaxy growth regime is investigated. Suitable growth conditions are identified and the growth temperature window for both GaAs and InGaAs nanowires is determined. At the optimum growth temperature for GaAs nanowires, the incorporation of indium in the structure is limited to a few percent. It is shown that by lowering the growth temperature the indium concentration in the structure can be increased up to 20%. The optical properties of the synthesized axial heterostructures are investigated by means of micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. The second type of axial nanowire heterostructure investigated in the present work is characterized by a change in crystal

  11. Effect of the nanowire diameter on the linearity of the response of GaN-based heterostructured nanowire photodetectors

    Spies, Maria; Polaczyński, Jakub; Ajay, Akhil; Kalita, Dipankar; Luong, Minh Anh; Lähnemann, Jonas; Gayral, Bruno; den Hertog, Martien I.; Monroy, Eva

    2018-06-01

    Nanowire photodetectors are investigated because of their compatibility with flexible electronics, or for the implementation of on-chip optical interconnects. Such devices are characterized by ultrahigh photocurrent gain, but their photoresponse scales sublinearly with the optical power. Here, we present a study of single-nanowire photodetectors displaying a linear response to ultraviolet illumination. Their structure consists of a GaN nanowire incorporating an AlN/GaN/AlN heterostructure, which generates an internal electric field. The activity of the heterostructure is confirmed by the rectifying behavior of the current–voltage characteristics in the dark, as well as by the asymmetry of the photoresponse in magnitude and linearity. Under reverse bias (negative bias on the GaN cap segment), the detectors behave linearly with the impinging optical power when the nanowire diameter is below a certain threshold (≈80 nm), which corresponds to the total depletion of the nanowire stem due to the Fermi level pinning at the sidewalls. In the case of nanowires that are only partially depleted, their nonlinearity is explained by a nonlinear variation of the diameter of their central conducting channel under illumination.

  12. A Ge/Si heterostructure nanowire-based double quantum dot with integrated charge sensor

    Hu, Yongjie; Churchill, Hugh; Reilly, David

    2007-01-01

    Coupled electron spins in semiconductor double quantum dots hold promise as the basis for solid-state qubits. To date, most experiments have used III-V materials, in which coherence is limited by hyperfine interactions. Ge/Si heterostructure nanowires seem ideally suited to overcome this limitati...

  13. Growth and characterization of InGaAs based nanowire-heterostructures

    Treu, Julian Pascal

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate III-V semiconductor nanowires integrated on silicon. Focusing on InGaAs-based heterostructures, we use molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to obtain high purity material without the use of foreign metal catalysts such as gold. Instead of catalystassisted growth we use selective-area growth using prepatterned SiO 2 /Si(111) substrates prepared by improved nanoimprint lithography, resulting in highly periodic large scale arrays (1 x 1 cm 2 ) of vertically aligned nanowires with hexagonal cross-section. Studying the influence of the main growth parameter substrate temperature, arsenic- and III-material flux we systematically optimize yield and aspect ratio of InAs nanowires for different spacings. Capitalizing on the superior morphological homogeneity of arrays with more than 90% yield, we study their use as efficient surface emitters in the Terahertz regime and find excellent performance, clearly outperforming state-of the art bulk material, when taking the surface coverage into account. Furthermore, we explore nanowires with strongly reduced diameter, where adapted growth conditions result in dimensions as small as 20 nm, well within a quantum confined regime. Starting from optimized high-temperature InAs growth, we further investigate incorporation of gallium for composition tuned ternary InGaAs structures. Delineating the optimized growth parameter space we are able to address nearly the entire compositional range up to more than 80% Ga. Correlating X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy, we find a characteristic transition in crystal structure from wurtzite to zincblende dominated phase for intermediate Ga-content, a regime with luminescence mainly limited by compositional inhomogeneities, while structural defects prevail according linewidths of In- and Ga-rich samples. Furthermore, this successfully demonstrates position-controlled integration of InGaAs nanowires with composition

  14. Understanding the vapor-liquid-solid growth and composition of ternary III-V nanowires and nanowire heterostructures

    Dubrovskii, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    Based on the recent achievements in vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) synthesis, characterization and modeling of ternary III-V nanowires and axial heterostructures within such nanowires, we try to understand the major trends in their compositional evolution from a general theoretical perspective. Clearly, the VLS growth of ternary materials is much more complex than in standard vapor-solid epitaxy techniques, and even maintaining the necessary control over the composition of steady-state ternary nanowires is far from straightforward. On the other hand, VLS nanowires offer otherwise unattainable material combinations without introducing structural defects and hence are very promising for next-generation optoelectronic devices, in particular those integrated with a silicon electronic platform. In this review, we consider two main problems. First, we show how and by means of which parameters the steady-state composition of Au-catalyzed or self-catalyzed ternary III-V nanowires can be tuned to a desired value and why it is generally different from the vapor composition. Second, we present some experimental data and modeling results for the interfacial abruptness across axial nanowire heterostructures, both in Au-catalyzed and self-catalyzed VLS growth methods. Refined modeling allows us to formulate some general growth recipes for suppressing the unwanted reservoir effect in the droplet and sharpening the nanowire heterojunctions. We consider and refine two approaches developed to date, namely the regular crystallization model for a liquid alloy with a critical size of only one III-V pair at high supersaturations or classical binary nucleation theory with a macroscopic critical nucleus at modest supersaturations.

  15. Designing Diameter-Modulated Heterostructure Nanowires of PbTe/Te by Controlled Dewetting.

    Kumar, Abinash; Kundu, Subhajit; Samantaray, Debadarshini; Kundu, Paromita; Zanaga, Daniele; Bals, Sara; Ravishankar, N

    2017-12-13

    Heterostructures consisting of semiconductors with controlled morphology and interfaces find applications in many fields. A range of axial, radial, and diameter-modulated nanostructures have been synthesized primarily using vapor phase methods. Here, we present a simple wet chemical routine to synthesize heterostructures of PbTe/Te using Te nanowires as templates. A morphology evolution study for the formation of these heterostructures has been performed. On the basis of these control experiments, a pathway for the formation of these nanostructures is proposed. Reduction of a Pb precursor to Pb on Te nanowire templates followed by interdiffusion of Pb/Te leads to the formation of a thin shell of PbTe on the Te wires. Controlled dewetting of the thin shell leads to the formation of cube-shaped PbTe that is periodically arranged on the Te wires. Using control experiments, we show that different reactions parameters like rate of addition of the reducing agent, concentration of Pb precursor and thickness of initial Te nanowire play a critical role in controlling the spacing between the PbTe cubes on the Te wires. Using simple surface energy arguments, we propose a mechanism for the formation of the hybrid. The principles presented are general and can be exploited for the synthesis of other nanoscale heterostructures.

  16. VLS growth of alternating InAsP/InP heterostructure nanowires for multiple-quantum-dot structures.

    Tateno, Kouta; Zhang, Guoqiang; Gotoh, Hideki; Sogawa, Tetsuomi

    2012-06-13

    We investigated the Au-assisted growth of alternating InAsP/InP heterostructures in wurtzite InP nanowires on InP(111)B substrates for constructing multiple-quantum-dot structures. Vertical InP nanowires without stacking faults were obtained at a high PH(3)/TMIn mole flow ratio of 300-1000. We found that the growth rate changed largely when approximately 40 min passed. Ten InAsP layers were inserted in the InP nanowire, and it was found that both the InP growth rate and the background As level increased after the As supply. We also grew the same structure using TBAs/TBP and could reduce the As level in the InP segments. A simulation using a finite-difference time-domain method suggests that the nanowire growth was dominated by the diffusion of the reaction species with long residence time on the surface. For TBAs/TBP, when the source gases were changed, the formed surface species showed a short diffusion length so as to reduce the As background after the InAsP growth.

  17. Coherently Strained Si-SixGe1-x Core-Shell Nanowire Heterostructures.

    Dillen, David C; Wen, Feng; Kim, Kyounghwan; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2016-01-13

    Coherently strained Si-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowire heterostructures are expected to possess a positive shell-to-core conduction band offset, allowing for quantum confinement of electrons in the Si core. We report the growth of epitaxial, coherently strained Si-SixGe1-x core-shell heterostructures through the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism for the Si core, followed in situ by the epitaxial SixGe1-x shell growth using ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition. The Raman spectra of individual nanowires reveal peaks associated with the Si-Si optical phonon mode in the Si core and the Si-Si, Si-Ge, and Ge-Ge vibrational modes of the SixGe1-x shell. The core Si-Si mode displays a clear red-shift compared to unstrained, bare Si nanowires thanks to the lattice mismatch-induced tensile strain, in agreement with calculated values using a finite-element continuum elasticity model combined with lattice dynamic theory. N-type field-effect transistors using Si-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowires as channel are demonstrated.

  18. Flexible Piezoelectric-Induced Pressure Sensors for Static Measurements Based on Nanowires/Graphene Heterostructures.

    Chen, Zefeng; Wang, Zhao; Li, Xinming; Lin, Yuxuan; Luo, Ningqi; Long, Mingzhu; Zhao, Ni; Xu, Jian-Bin

    2017-05-23

    The piezoelectric effect is widely applied in pressure sensors for the detection of dynamic signals. However, these piezoelectric-induced pressure sensors have challenges in measuring static signals that are based on the transient flow of electrons in an external load as driven by the piezopotential arisen from dynamic stress. Here, we present a pressure sensor with nanowires/graphene heterostructures for static measurements based on the synergistic mechanisms between strain-induced polarization charges in piezoelectric nanowires and the caused change of carrier scattering in graphene. Compared to the conventional piezoelectric nanowire or graphene pressure sensors, this sensor is capable of measuring static pressures with a sensitivity of up to 9.4 × 10 -3 kPa -1 and a fast response time down to 5-7 ms. This demonstration of pressure sensors shows great potential in the applications of electronic skin and wearable devices.

  19. Hole spin coherence in a Ge/Si heterostructure nanowire

    Higginbotham, Andrew P; Larsen, Thorvald Wadum; Yao, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Relaxation and dephasing of hole spins are measured in a gate-defined Ge/Si nanowire double quantum dot using a fast pulsed-gate method and dispersive readout. An inhomogeneous dephasing time T2(*)≈ 0.18 μs exceeds corresponding measurements in III-V semiconductors by more than an order of magnit......Relaxation and dephasing of hole spins are measured in a gate-defined Ge/Si nanowire double quantum dot using a fast pulsed-gate method and dispersive readout. An inhomogeneous dephasing time T2(*)≈ 0.18 μs exceeds corresponding measurements in III-V semiconductors by more than an order...

  20. Growth and characterization of straight InAs/GaAs nanowire heterostructures on Si substrate

    Yan Xin; Zhang Xia; Li Jun-Shuai; Lü Xiao-Long; Ren Xiao-Min; Huang Yong-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Vertical InAs/GaAs nanowire (NW) heterostructures with a straight InAs segment have been successfully fabricated on Si (111) substrate by using AlGaAs/GaAs buffer layers coupled with a composition grading InGaAs segment. Both the GaAs and InAs segments are not limited by the misfit strain induced critical diameter. The low growth rate of InAs NWs is attributed to the AlGaAs/GaAs buffer layers which dramatically decrease the adatom diffusion contribution to the InAs NW growth. The crystal structure of InAs NW can be tuned from zincblende to wurtzite by controlling its diameter as well as the length of GaAs NWs. This work helps to open up a road for the integration of high-quality III-V NW heterostructures with Si

  1. Synthesis of core-shell heterostructured Cu/Cu2O nanowires monitored by in situ XRD as efficient visible-light photocatalysts

    Chen, Wei; Fan, Zhongli; Lai, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    strategy for fabricating efficiently core-shell heterostructured nanowires and provides the potential for developing their applications in electronic devices, for environmental remediation and in solar energy utilization fields. This journal is © The Royal

  2. Fabrication of Coaxial Si(1-x)Ge(x) Heterostructure Nanowires by O(2) Flow-Induced Bifurcate Reactions.

    Kim, Ilsoo; Lee, Ki-Young; Kim, Ungkil; Park, Yong-Hee; Park, Tae-Eon; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2010-06-17

    We report on bifurcate reactions on the surface of well-aligned Si(1-x)Ge(x) nanowires that enable fabrication of two different coaxial heterostructure nanowires. The Si(1-x)Ge(x) nanowires were grown in a chemical vapor transport process using SiCl(4) gas and Ge powder as a source. After the growth of nanowires, SiCl(4) flow was terminated while O(2) gas flow was introduced under vacuum. On the surface of nanowires was deposited Ge by the vapor from the Ge powder or oxidized into SiO(2) by the O(2) gas. The transition from deposition to oxidation occurred abruptly at 2 torr of O(2) pressure without any intermediate region and enables selectively fabricated Ge/Si(1-x)Ge(x) or SiO(2)/Si(1-x)Ge(x) coaxial heterostructure nanowires. The rate of deposition and oxidation was dominated by interfacial reaction and diffusion of oxygen through the oxide layer, respectively.

  3. Fabrication of Coaxial Si1−xGex Heterostructure Nanowires by O2 Flow-Induced Bifurcate Reactions

    Kim Ilsoo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on bifurcate reactions on the surface of well-aligned Si1−xGex nanowires that enable fabrication of two different coaxial heterostructure nanowires. The Si1−xGex nanowires were grown in a chemical vapor transport process using SiCl4 gas and Ge powder as a source. After the growth of nanowires, SiCl4 flow was terminated while O2 gas flow was introduced under vacuum. On the surface of nanowires was deposited Ge by the vapor from the Ge powder or oxidized into SiO2 by the O2 gas. The transition from deposition to oxidation occurred abruptly at 2 torr of O2 pressure without any intermediate region and enables selectively fabricated Ge/Si1−xGex or SiO2/Si1−xGex coaxial heterostructure nanowires. The rate of deposition and oxidation was dominated by interfacial reaction and diffusion of oxygen through the oxide layer, respectively.

  4. Strain in GaAs / InAs core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown on GaAs

    Biermanns, Andreas; Davydok, Anton; Pietsch, Ullrich [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik (Germany); Rieger, Torsten; Lepsa, Mihail Ion [Peter Gruenberg Institut 9, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); JARA - Fundamentals of Future Information Technology (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The growth of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has attracted significant interest in recent years due to the possible fabrication of novel semiconductor devices for future electronic and opto-electronic applications. Compared to planar heterostructures, the nanowire approach offers an advantage regarding the possibility to form heterostructures between highly lattice mismatched systems, because the free surface of the nanowires allows to relieve the strain more efficiently. One particular way to form heterostructures in the NW geometry, is the fabrication of core-shell devices, in which a NW core is surrounded by a shell of different material. The understanding of the mutual strain between core and shell, as well as the relaxation behavior of the system are crucial for the fabrication of functional devices. In this contribution we report on first X-ray diffraction measurements of GaAs-core/InAs-shell nanowires grown on GaAs(111) by molecular beam epitaxy. Using symmetric- and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, the relaxation state of the InAs shell as well as the strain in the GaAs core are measured as function of the InAs shell thickness, showing a gradual relaxation behavior of the shell.

  5. Room-Temperature Quantum Ballistic Transport in Monolithic Ultrascaled Al-Ge-Al Nanowire Heterostructures.

    Sistani, Masiar; Staudinger, Philipp; Greil, Johannes; Holzbauer, Martin; Detz, Hermann; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Lugstein, Alois

    2017-08-09

    Conductance quantization at room temperature is a key requirement for the utilizing of ballistic transport for, e.g., high-performance, low-power dissipating transistors operating at the upper limit of "on"-state conductance or multivalued logic gates. So far, studying conductance quantization has been restricted to high-mobility materials at ultralow temperatures and requires sophisticated nanostructure formation techniques and precise lithography for contact formation. Utilizing a thermally induced exchange reaction between single-crystalline Ge nanowires and Al pads, we achieved monolithic Al-Ge-Al NW heterostructures with ultrasmall Ge segments contacted by self-aligned quasi one-dimensional crystalline Al leads. By integration in electrostatically modulated back-gated field-effect transistors, we demonstrate the first experimental observation of room temperature quantum ballistic transport in Ge, favorable for integration in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor platform technology.

  6. Influence of strain relaxation in axial [Formula: see text] nanowire heterostructures on their electronic properties.

    Marquardt, Oliver; Krause, Thilo; Kaganer, Vladimir; Martín-Sánchez, Javier; Hanke, Michael; Brandt, Oliver

    2017-05-26

    We present a systematic theoretical study of the influence of elastic strain relaxation on the built-in electrostatic potentials and the electronic properties of axial [Formula: see text] nanowire (NW) heterostructures. Our simulations reveal that for a sufficiently large ratio between the thickness of the [Formula: see text] disk and the diameter of the NW, the elastic relaxation leads to a significant reduction of the built-in electrostatic potential in comparison to a planar system of similar layer thickness and In content. In this case, the ground state transition energies approach constant values with increasing thickness of the disk and only depend on the In content, a behavior usually associated to that of a quantum well free of built-in electrostatic potentials. We show that the structures under consideration are by no means field-free, and the built-in potentials continue to play an important role even for ultrathin NWs. In particular, strain and the resulting polarization potentials induce complex confinement features of electrons and holes, which depend on the In content, shape, and dimensions of the heterostructure.

  7. A radio-frequency single-electron transistor based on an InAs/InP heterostructure nanowire

    Nilsson, Henrik A.; Duty, Tim; Abay, Simon

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate radio frequency single-electron transistors fabricated from epitaxially grown InAs/InP heterostructure nanowires. Two sets of double-barrier wires with different barrier thicknesses were grown. The wires were suspended 15 nm above a metal gate electrode. Electrical measurements...... on a high-resistance nanowire showed regularly spaced Coulomb oscillations at a gate voltage from −0.5 to at least 1.8 V. The charge sensitivity was measured to 32 µerms Hz−1/2 at 1.5 K. A low-resistance single-electron transistor showed regularly spaced oscillations only in a small gate-voltage region just...

  8. Tuning Light Emission of a Pressure-Sensitive Silicon/ZnO Nanowires Heterostructure Matrix through Piezo-phototronic Effects.

    Chen, Mengxiao; Pan, Caofeng; Zhang, Taiping; Li, Xiaoyi; Liang, Renrong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-06-28

    Based on white light emission at silicon (Si)/ZnO hetrerojunction, a pressure-sensitive Si/ZnO nanowires heterostructure matrix light emitting diode (LED) array is developed. The light emission intensity of a single heterostructure LED is tuned by external strain: when the applied stress keeps increasing, the emission intensity first increases and then decreases with a maximum value at a compressive strain of 0.15-0.2%. This result is attributed to the piezo-phototronic effect, which can efficiently modulate the LED emission intensity by utilizing the strain-induced piezo-polarization charges. It could tune the energy band diagrams at the junction area and regulate the optoelectronic processes such as charge carriers generation, separation, recombination, and transport. This study achieves tuning silicon based devices through piezo-phototronic effect.

  9. Comparison of the top-down and bottom-up approach to fabricate nanowire-based Silicon/Germanium heterostructures

    Wolfsteller, A.; Geyer, N.; Nguyen-Duc, T.-K.; Das Kanungo, P.; Zakharov, N.D.; Reiche, M.; Erfurth, W.; Blumtritt, H.; Werner, P.; Goesele, U.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon nanowires (NWs) and vertical nanowire-based Si/Ge heterostructures are expected to be building blocks for future devices, e.g. field-effect transistors or thermoelectric elements. In principle two approaches can be applied to synthesise these NWs: the 'bottom-up' and the 'top-down' approach. The most common method for the former is the vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism which can also be applied to grow NWs by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Although MBE allows a precise growth control under highly reproducible conditions, the general nature of the growth process via a eutectic droplet prevents the synthesis of heterostructures with sharp interfaces and high Ge concentrations. We compare the VLS NW growth with two different top-down methods: The first is a combination of colloidal lithography and metal-assisted wet chemical etching, which is an inexpensive and fast method and results in large arrays of homogenous Si NWs with adjustable diameters down to 50 nm. The second top-down method combines the growth of Si/Ge superlattices by MBE with electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. Again, large and homogeneous arrays of NWs were created, this time with a diameter of 40 nm and the Si/Ge superlattice inside.

  10. Vertical group III-V nanowires on si, heterostructures, flexible arrays and fabrication

    Wang, Deli; Soci, Cesare; Bao, Xinyu; Wei, Wei; Jing, Yi; Sun, Ke

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the invention provide a method for direct heteroepitaxial growth of vertical III-V semiconductor nanowires on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is etched to substantially completely remove native oxide. It is promptly placed in a reaction chamber. The substrate is heated and maintained at a growth temperature. Group III-V precursors are flowed for a growth time. Preferred embodiment vertical Group III-V nanowires on silicon have a core-shell structure, which provides a radial homojunction or heterojunction. A doped nanowire core is surrounded by a shell with complementary doping. Such can provide high optical absorption due to the long optical path in the axial direction of the vertical nanowires, while reducing considerably the distance over which carriers must diffuse before being collected in the radial direction. Alloy composition can also be varied. Radial and axial homojunctions and heterojunctions can be realized. Embodiments provide for flexible Group III-V nanowire structures. An array of Group III-V nanowire structures is embedded in polymer. A fabrication method forms the vertical nanowires on a substrate, e.g., a silicon substrate. Preferably, the nanowires are formed by the preferred methods for fabrication of Group III-V nanowires on silicon. Devices can be formed with core/shell and core/multi-shell nanowires and the devices are released from the substrate upon which the nanowires were formed to create a flexible structure that includes an array of vertical nanowires embedded in polymer.

  11. Synthesis of core-shell heterostructured Cu/Cu2O nanowires monitored by in situ XRD as efficient visible-light photocatalysts

    Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Core-shell heterostructured Cu/Cu2O nanowires with a high aspect ratio were synthesized from Cu foam using a novel oxidation/reduction process. In situ XRD was used as an efficient tool to acquire phase transformation details during the temperature-programmed oxidation of Cu foam and the subsequent reduction process. Based on knowledge of the crucial phase transformation, optimal synthesis conditions for producing high-quality CuO and core-shell Cu/Cu2O nanowires were determined. In favor of efficient charge separation induced by the special core-shell heterostructure and the advanced three-dimensional spatial configuration, Cu/Cu2O nanowires exhibited superior visible-light activity in the degradation of methylene blue. The present study illustrates a novel strategy for fabricating efficiently core-shell heterostructured nanowires and provides the potential for developing their applications in electronic devices, for environmental remediation and in solar energy utilization fields. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. A top-down approach to fabrication of high quality vertical heterostructure nanowire arrays

    Wang, Hua; Sun, Minghua; Ding, K.; Hill, M.T.; Ning, C.Z.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel top-down approach for fabricating nanowires with unprecedented complexity and optical quality by taking advantage of a nanoscale self-masking effect. We realized vertical arrays of nanowires of 20-40 nm in diameter with 16 segments of complex longitudinal InGaAsP/InP

  13. Photoluminescence Polarization Anisotropy in a Single Heterostructured III-V Nanowire with Mixed Crystal Phases

    Moses, A. F.; Hoang, T. B.; Ahtapodov, L.; Dheeraj, D. L.; Fimland, B. O.; Weman, H.; Helvoort, A. T. J. van

    2011-01-01

    Low temperature (10 K) micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) of single GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires with single GaAsSb inserts were measured. The PL emission from the zinc blende GaAsSb insert is strongly polarized along the nanowire axis while the PL emission from the wurtzite GaAs nanowire is perpendiculary polarized to the nanowire axis. The result indicates that the crystal phase, through the optical selection rules, has significant effect on the polarization of the PL from NWs besides the dielectric mismatch. The analysis of the PL results based on the electronic structure of these nanowires supports the correlation between the crystal phase and the PL emission.

  14. Effect of annealing on SiO{sub x}-TiO{sub 2} axial heterostructure nanowires and improved photodetection

    Dhar, J. C.; Singh, N. K. [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology Nagaland, Dimapur, Nagaland 797103 (India); Mondal, A., E-mail: aniruddhamo@gmail.com; Chakrabartty, S. [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, Tripura (West) 799055 (India); Bhattacharyya, A. [Department of Radio Physics and Electronics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700009 (India); Chattopadhyay, K. K. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2013-12-28

    Glancing angle deposition technique has been used to synthesize the axial heterostructure SiO{sub x}-TiO{sub 2} nanowires (NWs) on the Si substrate. The field emission gun scanning electron microscope image shows the formation of perpendicular NWs on Si substrate. A typical transmission electron microscope image confirms the heterostructure NW which consists of SiO{sub x} of length ∼130 nm and TiO{sub 2} of length ∼170 nm. The amorphous NWs transformed to polycrystalline nature after annealing. The trap assisted radiative recombination process is absent for the annealed NWs. An averagely 1.1 fold enhanced photoabsorption was exhibited by the annealed NWs in the 200–350 nm region and 1.5 fold in the 500–850 nm region. The leakage current (2.6 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2} at −0.5 V) significantly reduced for annealed NWs device. A maximum 1.4 × 10{sup 3} times enlarged photodetection has been observed for annealed device.

  15. Spin Qubits in GaAs Heterostructures and Gating of InAs Nanowires for Lowtemperature Measurements

    Nissen, Peter Dahl

    of the contenders in the race to build a large-scale quantum computer, is such a component, and research aiming to build, manipulate and couple spin qubits is looking at many materials systems to nd one where the requirements for fast control and long coherence time can be combined with ecient coupling between...... distant qubits. This thesis presents electric measurement on two of the materials systems currently at the forefront of the spin qubit race, namely InAs nanowires and GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. For the InAs nanowires we investigate dierent gating geometries towards the goal of dening stable quantum...... electrodes induces tunable barriers of up to 0:25 eV. From the temperature dependence of the conductance, the barrier height is extracted and mapped as a function of gate voltage. Top and bottom gates are similar to each other in terms of electrostatic couplings (lever arms 0:10:2 eV=V) and threshold...

  16. An Enhanced UV-Vis-NIR an d Flexible Photodetector Based on Electrospun ZnO Nanowire Array/PbS Quantum Dots Film Heterostructure.

    Zheng, Zhi; Gan, Lin; Zhang, Jianbing; Zhuge, Fuwei; Zhai, Tianyou

    2017-03-01

    ZnO nanostructure-based photodetectors have a wide applications in many aspects, however, the response range of which are mainly restricted in the UV region dictated by its bandgap. Herein, UV-vis-NIR sensitive ZnO photodetectors consisting of ZnO nanowires (NW) array/PbS quantum dots (QDs) heterostructures are fabricated through modified electrospining method and an exchanging process. Besides wider response region compared to pure ZnO NWs based photodetectors, the heterostructures based photodetectors have faster response and recovery speed in UV range. Moreover, such photodetectors demonstrate good flexibility as well, which maintain almost constant performances under extreme (up to 180°) and repeat (up to 200 cycles) bending conditions in UV-vis-NIR range. Finally, this strategy is further verified on other kinds of 1D nanowires and 0D QDs, and similar enhancement on the performance of corresponding photodetecetors can be acquired, evidencing the universality of this strategy.

  17. A top-down approach to fabrication of high quality vertical heterostructure nanowire arrays.

    Wang, Hua; Sun, Minghua; Ding, Kang; Hill, Martin T; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate a novel top-down approach for fabricating nanowires with unprecedented complexity and optical quality by taking advantage of a nanoscale self-masking effect. We realized vertical arrays of nanowires of 20-40 nm in diameter with 16 segments of complex longitudinal InGaAsP/InP structures. The unprecedented high quality of etched wires is evidenced by the narrowest photoluminescence linewidth ever produced in similar wavelengths, indistinguishable from that of the corresponding wafer. This top-down, mask-free, large scale approach is compatible with the established device fabrication processes and could serve as an important alternative to the bottom-up approach, significantly expanding ranges and varieties of applications of nanowire technology.

  18. Development of Highly Ordered Heterostructured Semiconductor Nanowire Arrays for Sub-Wavelength Optical Devices

    2007-06-01

    properties of nanowires" J. Appl. Phys 98, 094306 (2005) 9. Harry E. Ruda and Alexander Shik, "Polarization-sensitive optical properties of metallic and...34Biexcitons in parabolic quantum dots", Phys. Rev. B. 73, 125321 (2006). 11. M. Blumin, H.E. Ruda, I. Savelyev , A Shik and H. Wang, "Self-assembled InAs

  19. Quantum efficiency of InAs/InP nanowire heterostructures grown on silicon substrates

    Anufriev, Roman; Chauvin, Nicolas; Bru-Chevallier, Catherine; Khmissi, Hammadi; Naji, Khalid; Gendry, Michel; Patriarche, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) quantum efficiency (QE) is experimentally investigated, using an integrating sphere, as a function of excitation power on both InAs/InP quantum rod nanowires (QRod-NWs) and radial quantum well nanowires (QWell-NWs) grown on silicon substrates. The measured values of the QE are compared with those of the planar analogues such as quantum dash and quantum well samples, and found to be comparable for the quantum well structures at relatively low power density. Further studies reveal that the values of QE of the QRod-NWs and QWell-NWs are limited by the low quality of the InP NW structure and the quality of radial quantum well, respectively. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Temperature effect on the growth of Au-free InAs and InAs/GaSb heterostructure nanowires on Si substrate by MOCVD

    Kakkerla, Ramesh Kumar; Anandan, Deepak; Hsiao, Chih-Jen; Yu, Hung Wei; Singh, Sankalp Kumar; Chang, Edward Yi

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate the growth of vertically aligned Au-free InAs and InAs/GaSb heterostructure nanowires on Si (1 1 1) substrate by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). The effect of growth temperature on the morphology and growth rate of the InAs and InAs/GaSb heterostructure nanowires (NWs) is investigated. Control over diameter and length of the InAs NWs and the GaSb shell thickness was achieved by using growth temperature. As the GaSb growth temperature increase, GaSb radial growth rate increases due to the increase in alkyl decomposition at the substrate surface. Diffusivity of the adatoms increases as the GaSb growth temperature increase which results in tapered GaSb shell growth. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) measurements revealed that the morphology and shell thickness can be tuned by the growth temperature. Electron microscopy also shows the formation of GaSb both in radial and axial directions outside the InAs NW core can be controlled by the growth temperature. This study demonstrates the control over InAs NWs growth and the GaSb shell thickness can be achieved through proper growth temperature control, such technique is essential for the growth of nanowire for future nano electronic devices, such as Tunnel FET.

  1. Diameter-tailored telecom-band luminescence in InP/InAs heterostructure nanowires grown on InP (111)B substrate with continuously-modulated diameter from microscale to nanoscale

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Tateno, Kouta; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Gotoh, Hideki

    2018-04-01

    We report diameter-tailored luminescence in telecom band of InP/InAs multi-heterostructure nanowires with continuously-modulated diameter from microscale to nanoscale. By using the self-catalyzed vapor-solid-liquid approach, we tune the indium particle size, and consequently the InP/InAs nanowire diameter, during growth by modulating the flow rate of the indium source material. This technique allows a high degree of continuous tuning in a wide scale from microscale to nanoscale. Hence it offers an original way to bridge the gap between microscale-featured photolithographic and nanoscale-featured nanolithographic processes and to incorporate InAs quantum disks with tunable diameters into a single InP/InAs quantum heterostructure nanowire. We realized site-defined nanowires with nanoscale diameters initiated from site-defined microscale-diameter particles made with a conventional photolithographic process. The luminescence wavelength from InAs quantum disks is directly connected to the nanowire diameter, by which the strain in the InAs quantum disks is tailored. This work provides new opportunities in the fabrication and design of nanowire devices that extends beyond what is achievable with the current technologies and enables the nanowire shape to be engineered thus offering the potential to broaden the application range of nanowire devices.

  2. The role of Euler buckling instability in the fabrication of nanoelectromechanical systems on the basis of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures

    Shevyrin, A. A.; Pogosov, A. G.; Budantsev, M. V.; Bakarov, A. K.; Toropov, A. I.; Ishutkin, S. V.; Shesterikov, E. V.; Kozhukhov, A. S.; Kosolobov, S. S.; Gavrilova, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Mechanical stresses are investigated in suspended nanowires made on the basis of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. Though there are no intentionally introduced stressor layers in the heterostructure, the nanowires are subject to Euler buckling instability. In the wide nanowires, the out-of-plane buckling is observed at length significantly smaller (3 times) than the theoretically estimated critical value, while in the narrow nanowires, the experimentally measured critical length of the in-plane buckling coincides with the theoretical estimation. The possible reasons for the obtained discrepancy are considered. The observed peculiarities should be taken into account in the fabrication of nanomechanical and nanoelectromechanical systems.

  3. Tunable Band Gap and Conductivity Type of ZnSe/Si Core-Shell Nanowire Heterostructures

    Yijie Zeng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The electronic properties of zincblende ZnSe/Si core-shell nanowires (NWs with a diameter of 1.1–2.8 nm are calculated by means of the first principle calculation. Band gaps of both ZnSe-core/Si-shell and Si-core/ZnSe-shell NWs are much smaller than those of pure ZnSe or Si NWs. Band alignment analysis reveals that the small band gaps of ZnSe/Si core-shell NWs are caused by the interface state. Fixing the ZnSe core size and enlarging the Si shell would turn the NWs from intrinsic to p-type, then to metallic. However, Fixing the Si core and enlarging the ZnSe shell would not change the band gap significantly. The partial charge distribution diagram shows that the conduction band maximum (CBM is confined in Si, while the valence band maximum (VBM is mainly distributed around the interface. Our findings also show that the band gap and conductivity type of ZnSe/Si core-shell NWs can be tuned by the concentration and diameter of the core-shell material, respectively.

  4. Three-dimensional mesoscale heterostructures of ZnO nanowire arrays epitaxially grown on CuGaO2 nanoplates as individual diodes.

    Forticaux, Audrey; Hacialioglu, Salih; DeGrave, John P; Dziedzic, Rafal; Jin, Song

    2013-09-24

    We report a three-dimensional (3D) mesoscale heterostructure composed of one-dimensional (1D) nanowire (NW) arrays epitaxially grown on two-dimensional (2D) nanoplates. Specifically, three facile syntheses are developed to assemble vertical ZnO NWs on CuGaO2 (CGO) nanoplates in mild aqueous solution conditions. The key to the successful 3D mesoscale integration is the preferential nucleation and heteroepitaxial growth of ZnO NWs on the CGO nanoplates. Using transmission electron microscopy, heteroepitaxy was found between the basal planes of CGO nanoplates and ZnO NWs, which are their respective (001) crystallographic planes, by the observation of a hexagonal Moiré fringes pattern resulting from the slight mismatch between the c planes of ZnO and CGO. Careful analysis shows that this pattern can be described by a hexagonal supercell with a lattice parameter of almost exactly 11 and 12 times the a lattice constants for ZnO and CGO, respectively. The electrical properties of the individual CGO-ZnO mesoscale heterostructures were measured using a current-sensing atomic force microscopy setup to confirm the rectifying p-n diode behavior expected from the band alignment of p-type CGO and n-type ZnO wide band gap semiconductors. These 3D mesoscale heterostructures represent a new motif in nanoassembly for the integration of nanomaterials into functional devices with potential applications in electronics, photonics, and energy.

  5. Flexible heterostructures based on metal phthalocyanines thin films obtained by MAPLE

    Socol, M., E-mail: cela@infim.ro [National Institute of Material Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Preda, N.; Rasoga, O. [National Institute of Material Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Breazu, C. [National Institute of Material Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 405 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Stavarache, I. [National Institute of Material Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Stanculescu, F. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 405 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Socol, G.; Gherendi, F.; Grumezescu, V.; Popescu-Pelin, G. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Girtan, M. [Laboratoire de Photonique d’Angers, Université d’Angers, 2, Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France); Stefan, N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Organic heterostructures prepared by MAPLE having a large absorbtion domain. • Photogeneration process is evidenced in the structure with ZnPc:TPyP mixed layer. • An increase in current value is observed in the structure with MgPc:TPyP mixed layer. - Abstract: Heterostructures based on zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc), magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPc) and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyrydil)21H,23H-porphine (TPyP) were deposited on ITO flexible substrates by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Organic heterostructures containing (TPyP/ZnPc(MgPc)) stacked or (ZnPc(MgPc):TPyP) mixed layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction-XRD, photoluminescence-PL, UV–vis and FTIR spectroscopy. No chemical decomposition of the initial materials was observed. The investigated structures present a large spectral absorption in the visible range making them suitable for organic photovoltaics applications (OPV). Scanning electron microscopy-SEM and atomic force microscopy-AFM revealed morphologies typical for the films prepared by MAPLE. The current–voltage characteristics of the investigated structures, measured in dark and under light, present an improvement in the current value (∼3 order of magnitude larger) for the structure based on the mixed layer (Al/MgPc:TPyP/ITO) in comparison with the stacked layer (Al/MgPc//TPyP/ITO). A photogeneration process was evidenced in the case of structures Al/ZnPc:TPyP/ITO with mixed layers.

  6. Flexible heterostructures based on metal phthalocyanines thin films obtained by MAPLE

    Socol, M.; Preda, N.; Rasoga, O.; Breazu, C.; Stavarache, I.; Stanculescu, F.; Socol, G.; Gherendi, F.; Grumezescu, V.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Girtan, M.; Stefan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Organic heterostructures prepared by MAPLE having a large absorbtion domain. • Photogeneration process is evidenced in the structure with ZnPc:TPyP mixed layer. • An increase in current value is observed in the structure with MgPc:TPyP mixed layer. - Abstract: Heterostructures based on zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc), magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPc) and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyrydil)21H,23H-porphine (TPyP) were deposited on ITO flexible substrates by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Organic heterostructures containing (TPyP/ZnPc(MgPc)) stacked or (ZnPc(MgPc):TPyP) mixed layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction-XRD, photoluminescence-PL, UV–vis and FTIR spectroscopy. No chemical decomposition of the initial materials was observed. The investigated structures present a large spectral absorption in the visible range making them suitable for organic photovoltaics applications (OPV). Scanning electron microscopy-SEM and atomic force microscopy-AFM revealed morphologies typical for the films prepared by MAPLE. The current–voltage characteristics of the investigated structures, measured in dark and under light, present an improvement in the current value (∼3 order of magnitude larger) for the structure based on the mixed layer (Al/MgPc:TPyP/ITO) in comparison with the stacked layer (Al/MgPc//TPyP/ITO). A photogeneration process was evidenced in the case of structures Al/ZnPc:TPyP/ITO with mixed layers.

  7. Conductance Enhancement of InAs/InP Heterostructure Nanowires by Surface Functionalization with Oligo(phenylene vinylene)s

    Schukfeh, Muhammed Ihab; Storm, Kristian; Mahmoud, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the electronic transport through 3 μm long, 45 nm diameter InAs nanowires comprising a 5 nm long InP segment as electronic barrier. After assembly of 12 nm long oligo(phenylene vinylene) derivative molecules onto these InAs/InP nanowires, we observed a pronounced, nonlinear I...

  8. Influence of strain relaxation in axial {{In}}_{x}{{Ga}}_{1-x}{\\rm{N}}/{GaN} nanowire heterostructures on their electronic properties

    Marquardt, Oliver; Krause, Thilo; Kaganer, Vladimir; Martín-Sánchez, Javier; Hanke, Michael; Brandt, Oliver

    2017-05-01

    We present a systematic theoretical study of the influence of elastic strain relaxation on the built-in electrostatic potentials and the electronic properties of axial {{In}}x{{Ga}}1-x{{N}}/{GaN} nanowire (NW) heterostructures. Our simulations reveal that for a sufficiently large ratio between the thickness of the {{In}}x{{Ga}}1-x{{N}} disk and the diameter of the NW, the elastic relaxation leads to a significant reduction of the built-in electrostatic potential in comparison to a planar system of similar layer thickness and In content. In this case, the ground state transition energies approach constant values with increasing thickness of the disk and only depend on the In content, a behavior usually associated to that of a quantum well free of built-in electrostatic potentials. We show that the structures under consideration are by no means field-free, and the built-in potentials continue to play an important role even for ultrathin NWs. In particular, strain and the resulting polarization potentials induce complex confinement features of electrons and holes, which depend on the In content, shape, and dimensions of the heterostructure.

  9. Growth control, structure, chemical state, and photoresponse of CuO-CdS core-shell heterostructure nanowires.

    El Mel, A A; Buffière, M; Bouts, N; Gautron, E; Tessier, P Y; Henzler, K; Guttmann, P; Konstantinidis, S; Bittencourt, C; Snyders, R

    2013-07-05

    The growth of single-crystal CuO nanowires by thermal annealing of copper thin films in air is studied. We show that the density, length, and diameter of the nanowires can be controlled by tuning the morphology and structure of the copper thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. After identifying the optimal conditions for the growth of CuO nanowires, chemical bath deposition is employed to coat the CuO nanowires with CdS in order to form p-n nanojunction arrays. As revealed by high-resolution TEM analysis, the thickness of the polycrystalline CdS shell increases when decreasing the diameter of the CuO core for a given time of CdS deposition. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy combined with transmission x-ray microscopy allows the chemical analysis of isolated nanowires. The absence of modification in the spectra at the Cu L and O K edges after the deposition of CdS on the CuO nanowires indicates that neither Cd nor S diffuse into the CuO phase. We further demonstrate that the core-shell nanowires exhibit the I-V characteristic of a resistor instead of a diode. The electrical behavior of the device was found to be photosensitive, since increasing the incident light intensity induces an increase in the collected electrical current.

  10. The SERS and TERS effects obtained by gold droplets on top of Si nanowires.

    Becker, M; Sivakov, V; Andrä, G; Geiger, R; Schreiber, J; Hoffmann, S; Michler, J; Milenin, A P; Werner, P; Christiansen, S H

    2007-01-01

    We show that hemispherical gold droplets on top of silicon nanowires when grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, can produce a significant enhancement of Raman scattered signals. Signal enhancement for a few or even just single gold droplets is demonstrated by analyzing the enhanced Raman signature of malachite green molecules. For this experiment, trenches (approximately 800 nm wide) were etched in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer along crystallographic directions that constitute sidewalls ({110} surfaces) suitable for the growth of silicon nanowires in directions with the intention that the gold droplets on the silicon nanowires can meet somewhere in the trench when growth time is carefully selected. Another way to realize gold nanostructures in close vicinity is to attach a silicon nanowire with a gold droplet onto an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip and to bring this tip toward another gold-coated AFM tip where malachite green molecules were deposited prior to the measurements. In both experiments, signal enhancement of characteristic Raman bands of malachite green molecules was observed. This indicates that silicon nanowires with gold droplets atop can act as efficient probes for tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). In our article, we show that a nanowire TERS probe can be fabricated by welding nanowires with gold droplets to AFM tips in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). TERS tips made from nanowires could improve the spatial resolution of Raman spectroscopy so that measurements on the nanometer scale are possible.

  11. Effect of rapid oxidation on optical and electrical properties of silicon nanowires obtained by chemical etching

    Karyaoui, M.; Bardaoui, A.; Ben Rabha, M.; Harmand, J. C.; Amlouk, M.

    2012-05-01

    In the present work, we report the investigation of passivated silicon nanowires (SiNWs) having an average radius of 3.7 μm, obtained by chemical etching of p-type silicon (p-Si). The surface passivation of the SiNWs was performed through a rapid oxidation conducted under a controlled atmosphere at different temperatures and durations. The morphology of the SiNWs was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) that revealed a wave-like structure of dense and vertically aligned one-dimensional silicon nanostructures. On the other hand, optical and electrical characterizations of the SiNWs were studied using a UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and I-V measurements. The reflectance of SiNWs has been dropped to approximately 2% in comparison to that of bare p-Si. This low reflectance slightly increased after carrying out the rapid thermal annealing. The observed behavior was attributed to the formation of a SiO2 layer, as confirmed by FTIR measurements. Finally, the electrical measurements have shown that the rapid oxidation, at certain conditions, contributes to the improvement of the electrical responses of the SiNWs, which can be of great interest for photovoltaic applications.

  12. Controlled 1.1-1.6 μm luminescence in gold-free multi-stacked InAs/InP heterostructure nanowires.

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Tateno, Kouta; Birowosuto, Muhammad Danang; Notomi, Masaya; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Gotoh, Hideki

    2015-03-20

    We report controlled 1.1-1.6 μm luminescence in gold-free multi-stacked InAs/InP heterostructure nanowires (NWs). We realized the NWs by using an indium-particle-assisted vapor-liquid-solid synthesis approach. The growth temperature, as low as 320 °C, enables the formation of an atomically abrupt InP/InAs interface by supressing the diffusion and weakening the reservoir effect in the indium droplet. The low growth temperature also enables us to grow multi-stacked InAs/InP NWs in the axial direction without any growth on the NW side face. The high controllability of the growth technology ensures that the luminescence can be tailored by the thickness of InAs segment in InP NWs and cover the 1.3-1.5 μm telecommunication window range. By using the nanoscale-spatial-resolution technology combing cathodoluminescence with scanning electron microscopy, we directly correlated the site of different-thickness InAs segments with its luminescence property in a single NW and demonstrate the InAs-thickness-controlled energy of optical emission in 1.1-1.6 μm.

  13. Characterization of core-shell GaAs/AlGaAs nanowire heterostructures using advanced electron microscopy

    Tambe, M J; Gradecak, S; Allard, L F

    2010-01-01

    To explore the unique properties of the nanoscale, advanced fabrication and characterization techniques are required. Specifically analyses in two orthogonal directions, plan-view and cross-section, were used to prove the core-shell morphology of GaAs/AlGaAs nanowires and determine their cross-section to be hexagonal. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy confirmed the core-shell interface to be defect-free, coherent, and sharp ( 0.9 Ga 0.1 As uniformly along the length of the nanowire. These results demonstrate the power of electron microscopy to aid the development of semiconductor nanotechnology.

  14. Conductance enhancement of InAs/InP heterostructure nanowires by surface functionalization with oligo(phenylene vinylene)s.

    Schukfeh, Muhammed Ihab; Storm, Kristian; Mahmoud, Ahmed; Søndergaard, Roar R; Szwajca, Anna; Hansen, Allan; Hinze, Peter; Weimann, Thomas; Svensson, Sofia Fahlvik; Bora, Achyut; Dick, Kimberly A; Thelander, Claes; Krebs, Frederik C; Lugli, Paolo; Samuelson, Lars; Tornow, Marc

    2013-05-28

    We have investigated the electronic transport through 3 μm long, 45 nm diameter InAs nanowires comprising a 5 nm long InP segment as electronic barrier. After assembly of 12 nm long oligo(phenylene vinylene) derivative molecules onto these InAs/InP nanowires, we observed a pronounced, nonlinear I-V characteristic with significantly increased currents of up to 1 μA at 1 V bias, for a back-gate voltage of 3 V. As supported by our model calculations based on a nonequilibrium Green Function approach, we attribute this effect to charge transport through those surface-bound molecules, which electrically bridge both InAs regions across the embedded InP barrier.

  15. Conductance enhancement of InAs/InP heterostructure nanowires by surface assembly of oligo-phenylenevinylene molecular wires

    Schukfeh, Muhammed Ihab; Szwajca, Anna; Hansen, Allan; Tornow, Marc [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig (Germany); Storm, Kristian; Thelander, Claes; Samuelson, Lars [Lund University, Solid State Physics (Sweden); Soendergaard, Roar; Krebs, Frederik C. [Risoe DTU, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Hinze, Peter; Weimann, Thomas [PTB, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The direct combination of organic molecules with semiconductor nanostructures provides an appealing approach towards possible future nanoelectronic systems. In this context, indium-arsenide is a material of particular interest due to the presence of an electron inversion layer at the surface. We have prepared 50 nm diameter InAs nanowires comprising a 5 nm long InP segment, and contacted them by Ti/Au metallic leads on a planar Si/Si-oxide substrate. Electronic transport measurements at 77 K confirmed the presence of the potential barrier of the InP segment. After investigation of the assembly of 12 nm long, dithiolated oligo-phenylenevinylene (OPV) derivative molecules from solution onto planar InAs surfaces the same recipe was applied to the InAs/InP nanowires, which led to a pronounced, non-linear I-V characteristic, with significantly increased currents of up to 1 {mu}A at 1 V bias, for a back-gate voltage of 3 V. We attribute this effect to the OPV molecules tethered to the nanowire surface, thereby increasing the surface conductance across the InP barrier.

  16. Fabrication and optical properties of type-II InP/InAs nanowire/quantum-dot heterostructures

    Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Li, Junshuai; Wu, Yao; Li, Bang; Ren, Xiaomin [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, 100876 (China)

    2016-02-15

    The growth and optical properties of InAs quantum dots on a pure zinc blende InP nanowire are investigated. The quantum dots are formed in Stranski-Krastanov mode and exhibit pure zinc blende crystal structure. A substantial blueshift of the dots peak with a cube-root dependence on the excitation power is observed, suggesting a type-II band alignment. The peak position of dots initially red-shifts and then blue-shifts with increasing temperature, which is attributed to the carrier redistribution among the quantum dots. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Design and Characterisation of III-V Semiconductor Nanowire Lasers

    Saxena, Dhruv

    -quantum well (MQW) gain regions are investigated. The TE01 mode, due to its polarisation and excellent overlap with the gain region, is predicted to lase in these nanowire heterostructures. Through gain/loss calculations, important design criteria, such as the optimal well thickness to minimise the threshold carrier density and the optimal number of QWs to minimise the threshold fluence are determined. Based on the design, MQW nanowire heterostructures containing eight uniform coaxial GaAs/AlGaAs MQWs are grown. Room-temperature lasing is demonstrated from individual nanowires at a threshold fluence that is two times lower compared to the bulk GaAs nanowire lasers. Lasing is also verified to be from TE01 mode by polarisation measurements. Lastly, a mode characterisation technique based on imaging the polarisation dependent far-field emission pattern of nanowire lasers is presented. To demonstrate this technique, InP nanowire lasers are used, because of their excellent structural characteristics. The InP nanowire lasers are designed to lase from different guided modes by varying the nanowire diameter. The experimentally obtained polarisation dependent far-field profiles match very well with numerical simulations and enable unambiguous identification of the lasing mode(s) in nanowire lasers. Overall, this thesis presents extensive modelling of nanowire lasers, which is supported by experimental results. The modelling will provide a useful reference for developing novel nanoscale lasers and improving the performance of current nanowire lasers.

  18. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    Majumdar, Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2018-01-30

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  19. Plateau-Rayleigh Crystal Growth of Nanowire Heterostructures: Strain-Modified Surface Chemistry and Morphological Control in One, Two, and Three Dimensions.

    Day, Robert W; Mankin, Max N; Lieber, Charles M

    2016-04-13

    One-dimensional (1D) structures offer unique opportunities for materials synthesis since crystal phases and morphologies that are difficult or impossible to achieve in macroscopic crystals can be synthesized as 1D nanowires (NWs). Recently, we demonstrated one such phenomenon unique to growth on a 1D substrate, termed Plateau-Rayleigh (P-R) crystal growth, where periodic shells develop along a NW core to form diameter-modulated NW homostructures with tunable morphologies. Here we report a novel extension of the P-R crystal growth concept with the synthesis of heterostructures in which Ge (Si) is deposited on Si (Ge) 1D cores to generate complex NW morphologies in 1, 2, or 3D. Depositing Ge on 50 nm Si cores with a constant GeH4 pressure yields a single set of periodic shells, while sequential variation of GeH4 pressure can yield multimodulated 1D NWs with two distinct sets of shell periodicities. P-R crystal growth on 30 nm cores also produces 2D loop structures, where Ge (Si) shells lie primarily on the outside (inside) of a highly curved Si (Ge) core. Systematic investigation of shell morphology as a function of growth time indicates that Ge shells grow in length along positive curvature Si cores faster than along straight Si cores by an order of magnitude. Short Ge deposition times reveal that shells develop on opposite sides of 50 and 100 nm Si cores to form straight 1D morphologies but that shells develop on the same side of 20 nm cores to produce 2D loop and 3D spring structures. These results suggest that strain mediates the formation of 2 and 3D morphologies by altering the NW's surface chemistry and that surface diffusion of heteroatoms on flexible freestanding 1D substrates can facilitate this strain-mediated mechanism.

  20. Ag/CdS heterostructural composites: Fabrication, characterizations and photocatalysis

    Liu, Yang; Chi, Mei; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Husheng; Xu, Bingshe; Zhang, Zhuxia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel Ag/CdS core–shell heterostructural composites were fabricated using a two-step chemical method. • A formation mechanism of Ag/CdS heterostructural composites. • The photocatalytic activity of Ag/CdS heterostructural composites was found to be improved. • PL emissions are markedly quenched in the Ag/CdS composites than in CdS nanoparticles. - Abstract: Ag/CdS heterostructural materials were successfully synthesized by ultrasound-assisted polyols and hydrothermal method. Under hydrothermal condition, thiourea adsorbed on Ag nanowires releases S 2− ions, which react with vicinal Cd 2+ ions to form CdS clusters on Ag nanowires. Thereafter, the Ag/CdS composites grow into core–shell structure through CdS aggregation, Ostwald ripening, and preferential growth. The obtained core–shell structures and morphologies were investigated by XRD, SEM, and TEM; the experimental results indicate that the composites are composed of Ag nanowires serving as the core and CdS particles as the shell. The photocatalytic property of Ag/CdS core–shell materials was then investigated in detail. Comparing studies on the degradation of methylene blue were employed by using pure CdS, pure Ag, and Ag/CdS composites, respectively. The results show that the Ag/CdS composites possess higher photocatalytic degradation efficiency. Moreover, the Ag/CdS composites show improved stability, and the photocatalytic activity remains almost unchanged after four recycles. The enhanced photocatalytic effect for Ag/CdS composites is mainly attributed to the photogenerated electron transfer from CdS to Ag nanowire, while photogenerated holes still remain in CdS's valence band. Consequently, the effective separation of photogenerated electrons and holes and the resulting OH radicals improve the photocatalytic efficiency of Ag/CdS composites greatly

  1. Pyrolytically grown indium sulfide sensitized zinc oxide nanowires for solar water splitting

    Komurcu, Pelin; Can, Emre Kaan; Aydin, Erkan; Semiz, Levent [Micro and Nanotechnology Graduate Program, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, 06560 Ankara (Turkey); Gurol, Alp Eren; Alkan, Fatma Merve [Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, 06560 Ankara (Turkey); Sankir, Mehmet; Sankir, Nurdan Demirci [Micro and Nanotechnology Graduate Program, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, 06560 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, 06560 Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires, sensitized with spray pyrolyzed indium sulfide, were obtained by chemical bath deposition. The XRD analysis indicated dominant evolution of hexagonal ZnO phase. Significant gain in photoelectrochemical current using ZnO nanowires is largely accountable to enhancement of the visible light absorption and the formation of heterostructure. The maximum photoconversion efficiency of 2.77% was calculated for the indium sulfide sensitized ZnO nanowire photoelectrodes. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Photoinduced entropy of InGaN/GaN p-i-n double-heterostructure nanowires

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2017-04-17

    The photoinduced entropy of InGaN/GaN p-i-n nanowires was investigated using temperature-dependent (6–290 K) photoluminescence. We also analyzed the photocarrier dynamics in the InGaN active regions using time-resolved photoluminescence. An increasing trend in the amount of generated photoinduced entropy of the system above 250 K was observed, while we observed an oscillatory trend in the generated entropy of the system below 250 K that stabilizes between 200 and 250 K. Strong exciton localization in indium-rich clusters, carrier trapping by surface defect states, and thermodynamic entropy effects were examined and related to the photocarrier dynamics. We conjecture that the amount of generated photoinduced entropy of the system increases as more non-radiative channels become activated and more shallowly localized carriers settle into deeply localized states; thereby, additional degrees of uncertainty related to the energy of states involved in thermionic transitions are attained.

  3. Photoinduced entropy of InGaN/GaN p-i-n double-heterostructure nanowires

    Alfaraj, Nasir; Mitra, Somak; Wu, Feng; Ajia, Idris A.; Janjua, Bilal; Prabaswara, Aditya; Aljefri, Renad A.; Sun, Haiding; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Roqan, Iman S.; Li, Xiaohang

    2017-01-01

    The photoinduced entropy of InGaN/GaN p-i-n nanowires was investigated using temperature-dependent (6–290 K) photoluminescence. We also analyzed the photocarrier dynamics in the InGaN active regions using time-resolved photoluminescence. An increasing trend in the amount of generated photoinduced entropy of the system above 250 K was observed, while we observed an oscillatory trend in the generated entropy of the system below 250 K that stabilizes between 200 and 250 K. Strong exciton localization in indium-rich clusters, carrier trapping by surface defect states, and thermodynamic entropy effects were examined and related to the photocarrier dynamics. We conjecture that the amount of generated photoinduced entropy of the system increases as more non-radiative channels become activated and more shallowly localized carriers settle into deeply localized states; thereby, additional degrees of uncertainty related to the energy of states involved in thermionic transitions are attained.

  4. Photoelectric properties and charge dynamics in ZnO nanowires/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} and ZnO nanowires/In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} heterostructures

    Liu, Xiangyang, E-mail: lxy081276@126.com, E-mail: yzgu@henu.edu.cn; Wang, Shun; Gu, Yuzong, E-mail: lxy081276@126.com, E-mail: yzgu@henu.edu.cn [Institue of Microsystems Physics and School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhang, Jingwei; Zhang, Jiwei [The Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of MOE, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-12-28

    ZnO nanowires arrays were preformed in a horizontal double-tube system. Two types of heterostructures (ZnO nanowires/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} and ZnO nanowires/In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9}) and three-dimensional solar cells were fabricated with ZnO nanowires arrays as working electrode, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} as buffer layer, and Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} as inorganic dye and hole collector. It is suggested that two types of heterostructures have the similar absorption properties with single Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9}. However, the results of steady state and electric field-induced surface photovoltage indicate that ZnO nanowires/In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} exhibits the higher photovoltaic response than ZnO nanowires/Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9}. Using the transient surface photovoltage spectroscopy, we further studied the separation and transport mechanism of photogenerated charges. Furthermore, Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9}/In{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO cells presents the better performance than Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9}/ZnO cells and the highest efficiencies are about 6.4% and 5.2%, respectively. It is suggested that direct paths, interface barrier, built-in electric field, and double energy level matchings between conduction bands (Cu{sub 4}Bi{sub 4}S{sub 9} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3}, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZnO) have obvious effect on the separation of photogenerated charges. Then we discussed the synthetic action on the charge dynamics from these factors.

  5. Soft plasma processing of organic nanowires: a route for the fabrication of 1D organic heterostructures and the template synthesis of inorganic 1D nanostructures.

    Alcaire, Maria; Sanchez-Valencia, Juan R; Aparicio, Francisco J; Saghi, Zineb; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Juan C; Barranco, Angel; Zian, Youssef Oulad; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R; Midgley, Paul; Espinos, Juan P; Groening, Pierangelo; Borras, Ana

    2011-11-01

    Hierarchical (branched) and hybrid metal-NPs/organic supported NWs are fabricated through controlled plasma processing of metalloporphyrin, metallophthalocyanine and perylene nanowires. The procedure is also applied for the development of a general template route for the synthesis of supported metal and metal oxide nanowires.

  6. Edge Epitaxy of Two-dimensional MoSe2 and MoS2 Nanosheets on One-dimensional Nanowires

    Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Gong, Yue; Zhu, Yihan; Yang, Zhenzhong; Li, Bing; Lu, Qipeng; Yu, Yifu; Han, Shikui; Zhang, Zhicheng; Zong, Yun; Han, Yu; Gu, Lin; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    the longitudinal direction of one-dimensional (1D) Cu2-xS nanowires (NWs) in an epitaxial manner. The obtained Cu2-xS-TMD heterostructures with tunable loading amount and lateral size of TMD NSs are achieved by the consecutive growth of TMD NSs on Cu2-xS NWs

  7. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  8. Synthesis, microstructural characterization and optical properties of CuO nanorods and nanowires obtained by aerosol assisted CVD

    Lugo-Ruelas, M.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Esquivel-Pereyra, O.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Ornelas-Gutiérrez, C.; Miki-Yoshida, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanorods and nanowires of CuO were successfully synthesized by AACVD technique. • The carrier gas velocity was a determinant factor for the growth of nanorods or nanowires. • The increase of deposition time generates the reduction in the evenness and distribution density. • The crystalline phase of nanorods and nanowires was monoclinic tenorite. - Abstract: Copper oxide is a particularly interesting material because it presents photovoltaic, electrochemical and catalytic properties. Its unique properties are very important in the area of nanotechnology and may be an advantage because these nanomaterials can be applied in the design and manufacture of nanosensors, photocatalysis area, nanolasers switches and transistors. Nowadays one-dimensional nanostructures as nanorods, nanowires, etc., have generated a great importance and have received considerable attention and study due to their unique physical and chemical properties. In this work we report the synthesis, microstructural characterization and optical properties of CuO nanorods and nanowires grown by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition onto a CuO, ZnO and TiO 2 thin film covered and bare borosilicate glass substrate. Concentration of the precursor solution and carrier gas flux were previously optimized and fixed at 0.1 mol dm −3 and 5 L min −1 , respectively. Other deposition parameters such as substrate temperature, as well the carrier gas velocity and deposition time were varied from 623 to 973 K, 0.88 to 1.77 m s −1 and 11 to 16 min, respectively. Their influence on the morphology, microstructure and optical properties of the nanorods and nanowires were analyzed. The crystalline structure of the materials was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction; results indicate the presence of the tenorite phase. Surface morphology and microstructure were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Optical

  9. High-Performance Single Nanowire Tunnel Diodes

    Wallentin, Jesper; Persson, Johan Mikael; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate single nanowire tunnel diodes with room temperature peak current densities of up to 329 A/cm(2). Despite the large surface to volume ratio of the type-II InP-GaAs axial heterostructure nanowires, we measure peak to valley current ratios (PVCR) of up to 8.2 at room temperature and 27...

  10. Ge/Si core/multi shell heterostructure FETs

    Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dayeh, Shadi A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Concentric heterostructured materials provide numerous design opportunities for engineering strain and interfaces, as well as tailoring energy band-edge combinations for optimal device performance. Key to the realization of such novel device concepts is the complete understanding and full control over their growth, crystal structure, and hetero-epitaxy. We report here on a new route for synthesizing Ge/Si core/multi-shell heterostructure nanowires that eliminate Au seed diffusion on the nanowire sidewalls by engineering the interface energy density difference. We show that such control over core/shell synthesis enable experimental realization of heterostructure FET devices beyond those available in the literature with enhanced transport characteristics. We provide a side-by-side comparison on the transport properties of Ge/Si core/multi-shell nanowires grown with and without Au diffusion and demonstrate heterostructure FETs with drive currents that are {approx} 2X higher than record results for p-type FETs.

  11. Rational design of octahedron and nanowire CeO2@MnO2 core-shell heterostructures with outstanding rate capability for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Zhu, Shi Jin; Jia, Jia Qi; Wang, Tian; Zhao, Dong; Yang, Jian; Dong, Fan; Shang, Zheng Guo; Zhang, Yu Xin

    2015-10-14

    Two kinds of novel CeO2@MnO2 nanostructures have been synthesized via a self-assembly strategy. The as-prepared CeO2 nanowire@MnO2 nanostructures exhibited unprecedented pseudocapacitance performance (255 F g(-1)) with outstanding rate capability. A new mechanism based on the synergistic effect between CeO2 and MnO2 was proposed to interpret this phenomenon. When assembled as an asymmetric supercapacitor, an energy density of 27.5 W h kg(-1) with a maximum power density of 1.6 kW kg(-1) was achieved for CeO2 nanowire@MnO2 nanostructures.

  12. InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire white light emitting diodes on (001) silicon

    Guo, Wei; Banerjee, Animesh; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2011-01-01

    High density (? 1011 cm-2) GaN nanowires and InGaN/GaN disk-in-nanowire heterostructures have been grown on (001) silicon substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The nanowires exhibit excellent uniformity in length and diameter and a broad emission is obtained by incorporating InGaN disks of varying composition along the length of the nanowires. Monolithic lighting emitting diodes were fabricated with appropriate n- and p-doping of contact layers. White light emission with chromaticity coordinates of x=0.29 and y=0.37 and a correlated color temperature of 5500-6500 K at an injection current of 50 A/ cm2 is measured. The measured external quantum efficiency of the devices do not exhibit any rollover (droop) up to an injection current density of 400 A/ cm2. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Formation of nanogaps in InAs nanowires by selectively etching embedded InP segments.

    Schukfeh, M I; Storm, K; Hansen, A; Thelander, C; Hinze, P; Beyer, A; Weimann, T; Samuelson, L; Tornow, M

    2014-11-21

    We present a method to fabricate nanometer scale gaps within InAs nanowires by selectively etching InAs/InP heterostructure nanowires. We used vapor-liquid-solid grown InAs nanowires with embedded InP segments of 10-60 nm length and developed an etching recipe to selectively remove the InP segment. A photo-assisted wet etching process in a mixture of acetic acid and hydrobromic acid gave high selectivity, with accurate removal of InP segments down to 20 nm, leaving the InAs wire largely unattacked, as verified using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The obtained nanogaps in InAs wires have potential as semiconducting electrodes to investigate electronic transport in nanoscale objects. We demonstrate this functionality by dielectrophoretically trapping 30 nm diameter gold nanoparticles into the gap.

  14. Formation of nanogaps in InAs nanowires by selectively etching embedded InP segments

    Schukfeh, M I; Hansen, A; Tornow, M; Storm, K; Thelander, C; Samuelson, L; Hinze, P; Weimann, T; Beyer, A

    2014-01-01

    We present a method to fabricate nanometer scale gaps within InAs nanowires by selectively etching InAs/InP heterostructure nanowires. We used vapor–liquid–solid grown InAs nanowires with embedded InP segments of 10–60 nm length and developed an etching recipe to selectively remove the InP segment. A photo-assisted wet etching process in a mixture of acetic acid and hydrobromic acid gave high selectivity, with accurate removal of InP segments down to 20 nm, leaving the InAs wire largely unattacked, as verified using scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The obtained nanogaps in InAs wires have potential as semiconducting electrodes to investigate electronic transport in nanoscale objects. We demonstrate this functionality by dielectrophoretically trapping 30 nm diameter gold nanoparticles into the gap. (paper)

  15. Optical Properties of Rotationally Twinned Nanowire Superlattices

    Bao, Jiming; Bell, David C.; Capasso, Federico

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a technique so that both transmission electron microscopy and microphotoluminescence can be performed on the same semiconductor nanowire over a large range of optical power, thus allowing us to directly correlate structural and optical properties of rotationally twinned zinc...... a heterostructure in a chemically homogeneous nanowire material and alter in a major way its optical properties opens new possibilities for band-structure engineering....

  16. From nanodiamond to nanowires.

    Barnard, A.; Materials Science Division

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in the fabrication and characterization of semiconductor and metallic nanowires are proving very successful in meeting the high expectations of nanotechnologists. Although the nanoscience surrounding sp{sup 3} bonded carbon nanotubes has continued to flourish over recent years the successful synthesis of the sp{sup 3} analogue, diamond nanowires, has been limited. This prompts questions as to whether diamond nanowires are fundamentally unstable. By applying knowledge obtained from examining the structural transformations in nanodiamond, a framework for analyzing the structure and stability of diamond nanowires may be established. One possible framework will be discussed here, supported by results of ab initio density functional theory calculations used to study the structural relaxation of nanodiamond and diamond nanowires. The results show that the structural stability and electronic properties of diamond nanowires are dependent on the surface morphology, crystallographic direction of the principal axis, and the degree of surface hydrogenation.

  17. Nanoscale heterostructures with molecular-scale single-crystal metal wires.

    Kundu, Paromita; Halder, Aditi; Viswanath, B; Kundu, Dipan; Ramanath, Ganpati; Ravishankar, N

    2010-01-13

    Creating nanoscale heterostructures with molecular-scale (synthesis of nanoscale heterostructures with single-crystal molecular-scale Au nanowires attached to different nanostructure substrates. Our method involves the formation of Au nanoparticle seeds by the reduction of rocksalt AuCl nanocubes heterogeneously nucleated on the substrates and subsequent nanowire growth by oriented attachment of Au nanoparticles from the solution phase. Nanoscale heterostructures fabricated by such site-specific nucleation and growth are attractive for many applications including nanoelectronic device wiring, catalysis, and sensing.

  18. Lateral topological crystalline insulator heterostructure

    Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Niu, Chengwang; Ma, Yandong; Wei, Wei; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of lateral heterostructures fabricated by two-dimensional building blocks brings many exciting realms in material science and device physics. Enriching available nanomaterials for creating such heterostructures and enabling the underlying new physics is highly coveted for the integration of next-generation devices. Here, we report a breakthrough in lateral heterostructure based on the monolayer square transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M  =  W, X  =  S/Se) modules. Our results reveal that the MX2 lateral heterostructure (1S-MX2 LHS) can possess excellent thermal and dynamical stability. Remarkably, the highly desired two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase is confirmed by the calculated mirror Chern number {{n}\\text{M}}=-1 . A nontrivial band gap of 65 meV is obtained with SOC, indicating the potential for room-temperature observation and applications. The topologically protected edge states emerge at the edges of two different nanoribbons between the bulk band gap, which is consistent with the mirror Chern number. In addition, a strain-induced topological phase transition in 1S-MX2 LHS is also revealed, endowing the potential utilities in electronics and spintronics. Our predictions not only introduce new member and vitality into the studies of lateral heterostructures, but also highlight the promise of lateral heterostructure as appealing topological crystalline insulator platforms with excellent stability for future devices.

  19. X-ray diffraction from single GaAs nanowires

    Biermanns, Andreas

    2012-11-12

    In recent years, developments in X-ray focussing optics have allowed to produce highly intense, coherent X-ray beams with spot sizes in the range of 100 nm and below. Together with the development of new experimental stations, X-ray diffraction techniques can now be applied to study single nanometer-sized objects. In the present work, X-ray diffraction is applied to study different aspects of the epitaxial growth of GaAs nanowires. Besides conventional diffraction methods, which employ X-ray beams with dimensions of several tens of {mu}m, special emphasis lies on the use of nanodiffraction methods which allow to study single nanowires in their as-grown state without further preparation. In particular, coherent X-ray diffraction is applied to measure simultaneously the 3-dimensional shape and lattice parameters of GaAs nanowires grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. It is observed that due to a high density of zinc-blende rotational twins within the nanowires, their lattice parameter deviates systematically from the bulk zinc-blende phase. In a second step, the initial stage in the growth of GaAs nanowires on Si (1 1 1) surfaces is studied. This nanowires, obtained by Ga-assisted growth in molecular beam epitaxy, grow predominantly in the cubic zinc-blende structure, but contain inclusions of the hexagonal wurtzite phase close to their bottom interface. Using nanodiffraction methods, the position of the different structural units along the growth axis is determined. Because the GaAs lattice is 4% larger than silicon, these nanowires release their lattice mismatch by the inclusion of dislocations at the interface. Whereas NWs with diameters below 50 nm are free of strain, a rough interface structure in nanowires with diameters above 100 nm prevents a complete plastic relaxation, leading to a residual strain at the interface that decays elastically along the growth direction. Finally, measurements on GaAs-core/InAs-shell nanowire heterostructures are presented

  20. Electromagnetic field enhancement effects in group IV semiconductor nanowires. A Raman spectroscopy approach

    Pura, J. L.; Anaya, J.; Souto, J.; Prieto, A. C.; Rodríguez, A.; Rodríguez, T.; Periwal, P.; Baron, T.; Jiménez, J.

    2018-03-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are the building blocks of future nanoelectronic devices. Furthermore, their large refractive index and reduced dimension make them suitable for nanophotonics. The study of the interaction between nanowires and visible light reveals resonances that promise light absorption/scattering engineering for photonic applications. Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been used as a characterization tool for semiconductor nanowires. The light/nanowire interaction can be experimentally assessed through the micro-Raman spectra of individual nanowires. As compared to both metallic and dielectric nanowires, semiconductor nanowires add additional tools for photon engineering. In particular, one can grow heterostructured nanowires, both axial and radial, and also one could modulate the doping level and the surface condition among other factors than can affect the light/NW interaction. We present herein a study of the optical response of group IV semiconductor nanowires to visible photons. The study is experimentally carried out through micro-Raman spectroscopy of different group IV nanowires, both homogeneous and axially heterostructured (SiGe/Si). The results are analyzed in terms of the electromagnetic modelling of the light/nanowire interaction using finite element methods. The presence of axial heterostructures is shown to produce electromagnetic resonances promising new photon engineering capabilities of semiconductor nanowires.

  1. Defect-Induced Nucleation and Epitaxy: A New Strategy toward the Rational Synthesis of WZ-GaN/3C-SiC Core-Shell Heterostructures.

    Liu, Baodan; Yang, Bing; Yuan, Fang; Liu, Qingyun; Shi, Dan; Jiang, Chunhai; Zhang, Jinsong; Staedler, Thorsten; Jiang, Xin

    2015-12-09

    In this work, we demonstrate a new strategy to create WZ-GaN/3C-SiC heterostructure nanowires, which feature controllable morphologies. The latter is realized by exploiting the stacking faults in 3C-SiC as preferential nucleation sites for the growth of WZ-GaN. Initially, cubic SiC nanowires with an average diameter of ∼100 nm, which display periodic stacking fault sections, are synthesized in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process to serve as the core of the heterostructure. Subsequently, hexagonal wurtzite-type GaN shells with different shapes are grown on the surface of 3C-SiC wire core. In this context, it is possible to obtain two types of WZ-GaN/3C-SiC heterostructure nanowires by means of carefully controlling the corresponding CVD reactions. Here, the stacking faults, initially formed in 3C-SiC nanowires, play a key role in guiding the epitaxial growth of WZ-GaN as they represent surface areas of the 3C-SiC nanowires that feature a higher surface energy. A dedicated structural analysis of the interfacial region by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed that the disordering of the atom arrangements in the SiC defect area promotes a lattice-matching with respect to the WZ-GaN phase, which results in a preferential nucleation. All WZ-GaN crystal domains exhibit an epitaxial growth on 3C-SiC featuring a crystallographic relationship of [12̅10](WZ-GaN) //[011̅](3C-SiC), (0001)(WZ-GaN)//(111)(3C-SiC), and d(WZ-GaN(0001)) ≈ 2d(3C-SiC(111)). The approach to utilize structural defects of a nanowire core to induce a preferential nucleation of foreign shells generally opens up a number of opportunities for the epitaxial growth of a wide range of semiconductor nanostructures which are otherwise impossible to acquire. Consequently, this concept possesses tremendous potential for the applications of semiconductor heterostructures in various fields such as optics, electrics, electronics, and photocatalysis for energy harvesting

  2. Edge Epitaxy of Two-dimensional MoSe2 and MoS2 Nanosheets on One-dimensional Nanowires

    Chen, Junze

    2017-06-05

    Rational design and synthesis of heterostructures based on transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted increasing interests because of their promising applications in electronics, catalysis, etc. However, the construction of epitaxial heterostructures with interface at the edges of TMD nanosheets (NSs) still remains great challenge. Here, we report a strategy for controlled synthesis of a new type of heterostructures in which TMD NSs, including MoS2 and MoSe2, vertically grow along the longitudinal direction of one-dimensional (1D) Cu2-xS nanowires (NWs) in an epitaxial manner. The obtained Cu2-xS-TMD heterostructures with tunable loading amount and lateral size of TMD NSs are achieved by the consecutive growth of TMD NSs on Cu2-xS NWs through the gradually injection of chalcogen precursors. After cation exchange of Cu in Cu2-xS-TMD heterostructures with Cd, the obtained CdS-MoS2 heterostructures remained their original architectures. Compared to the pure CdS NWs, the CdS-MoS2 heterostructures with 7.7 wt% loading of MoS2 NSs exhibit the best performance in the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction with the H2 production rate up to 4,647 μmol·h-1·g-1, about 58 times that catalyzed with pure CdS NWs. Our synthetic strategy opens up a new way for the controlled synthesis of TMD-based heterostructures which could have various promising applications.

  3. Spontaneous core–shell elemental distribution in In-rich InxGa1−xN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Gómez-Gómez, M; Garro, N; Cantarero, A; Mengistu, H T; García-Cristóbal, A; Murcia-Mascarós, S; Segura-Ruiz, J; Martinez-Criado, G; Denker, C; Malindretos, J; Rizzi, A

    2014-01-01

    The elemental distribution of self-organized In-rich In x Ga 1−x N nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy has been investigated using three different techniques with spatial resolution on the nanoscale. Two-dimensional images and elemental profiles of single nanowires obtained by x-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, respectively, have revealed a radial gradient in the alloy composition of each individual nanowire. The spectral selectivity of resonant Raman scattering has been used to enhance the signal from very small volumes with different elemental composition within single nanowires. The combination of the three techniques has provided sufficient sensitivity and spatial resolution to prove the spontaneous formation of a core–shell nanowire and to quantify the thicknesses and alloy compositions of the core and shell regions. A theoretical model based on continuum elastic theory has been used to estimate the strain fields present in such inhomogeneous nanowires. These results suggest new strategies for achieving high quality non-polar heterostructures. (paper)

  4. Spontaneous core-shell elemental distribution in In-rich InxGa1-xN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Gómez-Gómez, M.; Garro, N.; Segura-Ruiz, J.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Cantarero, A.; Mengistu, H. T.; García-Cristóbal, A.; Murcia-Mascarós, S.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2014-02-01

    The elemental distribution of self-organized In-rich InxGa1-xN nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy has been investigated using three different techniques with spatial resolution on the nanoscale. Two-dimensional images and elemental profiles of single nanowires obtained by x-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, respectively, have revealed a radial gradient in the alloy composition of each individual nanowire. The spectral selectivity of resonant Raman scattering has been used to enhance the signal from very small volumes with different elemental composition within single nanowires. The combination of the three techniques has provided sufficient sensitivity and spatial resolution to prove the spontaneous formation of a core-shell nanowire and to quantify the thicknesses and alloy compositions of the core and shell regions. A theoretical model based on continuum elastic theory has been used to estimate the strain fields present in such inhomogeneous nanowires. These results suggest new strategies for achieving high quality non-polar heterostructures.

  5. Spontaneous core–shell elemental distribution in In-rich In(x)Ga1-xN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Gómez-Gómez, M; Garro, N; Segura-Ruiz, J; Martinez-Criado, G; Cantarero, A; Mengistu, H T; García-Cristóbal, A; Murcia-Mascarós, S; Denker, C; Malindretos, J; Rizzi, A

    2014-02-21

    The elemental distribution of self-organized In-rich In(x)Ga1-xN nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy has been investigated using three different techniques with spatial resolution on the nanoscale. Two-dimensional images and elemental profiles of single nanowires obtained by x-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, respectively, have revealed a radial gradient in the alloy composition of each individual nanowire. The spectral selectivity of resonant Raman scattering has been used to enhance the signal from very small volumes with different elemental composition within single nanowires. The combination of the three techniques has provided sufficient sensitivity and spatial resolution to prove the spontaneous formation of a core–shell nanowire and to quantify the thicknesses and alloy compositions of the core and shell regions. A theoretical model based on continuum elastic theory has been used to estimate the strain fields present in such inhomogeneous nanowires. These results suggest new strategies for achieving high quality nonpolar heterostructures.

  6. Controllable growth and optical properties of InP and InP/InAs nanostructures on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires

    Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Li, Junshuai; Cui, Jiangong; Ren, Xiaomin

    2014-01-01

    The growth and optical properties of InP and InP/InAs nanostructures on GaAs nanowires are investigated. InP quantum well and quantum dots (QDs) are formed on the sidewalls of GaAs nanowires successively with increasing the deposition time of InP. The GaAs/InP nanowire heterostructure exhibits a type-II band alignment. The wavelength of the InP quantum well is in the range of 857–892 nm at 77 K, which means that the quantum well is nearly fully strained. The InP quantum dot, which has a bow-shaped cross section, exhibits dislocation-free pure zinc blende structure. Stranski-Krastanow InAs quantum dots are subsequently formed on the GaAs/InP nanowire core-shell structure. The InAs quantum dots are distributed over the middle part of the nanowire, indicating that the In atoms contributing to the quantum dots mainly come from the vapor rather than the substrate. The longest emission wavelength obtained from the InAs QDs is 1039 nm at 77 K. The linewidth is as narrow as 46.3 meV, which is much narrower than those on planar InP substrates and wurtzite InP nanowires, suggesting high-crystal-quality, phase-purity, and size-uniformity of quantum dots

  7. Enhanced Photon Extraction from a Nanowire Quantum Dot Using a Bottom-Up Photonic Shell

    Jeannin, Mathieu; Cremel, Thibault; Häyrynen, Teppo

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires offer the possibility to grow high-quality quantum-dot heterostructures, and, in particular, CdSe quantum dots inserted in ZnSe nanowires have demonstrated the ability to emit single photons up to room temperature. In this paper, we demonstrate a bottom-up approach...

  8. Electrochemical fabrication of CdS/Co nanowire arrays in porous aluminum oxide templates

    Yoon, C H

    2002-01-01

    A procedure for preparing semiconductor/metal nanowire arrays is described, based on a template method which entails electrochemical deposition into nanometer-wide parallel pores of anodic aluminum oxide films on aluminum. Aligned CdS/Co heterostructured nanowires have been prepared by ac electrodeposition in the anodic aluminum oxide templates. By varying the preparation conditions, a variety of CdS/Co nanowire arrays were fabricated, whose dimensional properties could be adjusted.

  9. Impurity-induced states in superconducting heterostructures

    Liu, Dong E.; Rossi, Enrico; Lutchyn, Roman M.

    2018-04-01

    Heterostructures allow the realization of electronic states that are difficult to obtain in isolated uniform systems. Exemplary is the case of quasi-one-dimensional heterostructures formed by a superconductor and a semiconductor with spin-orbit coupling in which Majorana zero-energy modes can be realized. We study the effect of a single impurity on the energy spectrum of superconducting heterostructures. We find that the coupling between the superconductor and the semiconductor can strongly affect the impurity-induced states and may induce additional subgap bound states that are not present in isolated uniform superconductors. For the case of quasi-one-dimensional superconductor/semiconductor heterostructures we obtain the conditions for which the low-energy impurity-induced bound states appear.

  10. Enhanced Photon Extraction from a Nanowire Quantum Dot Using a Bottom-Up Photonic Shell

    Jeannin, Mathieu; Cremel, Thibault; Häyrynen, Teppo; Gregersen, Niels; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Nogues, Gilles; Kheng, Kuntheak

    2017-11-01

    Semiconductor nanowires offer the possibility to grow high-quality quantum-dot heterostructures, and, in particular, CdSe quantum dots inserted in ZnSe nanowires have demonstrated the ability to emit single photons up to room temperature. In this paper, we demonstrate a bottom-up approach to fabricate a photonic fiberlike structure around such nanowire quantum dots by depositing an oxide shell using atomic-layer deposition. Simulations suggest that the intensity collected in our NA =0.6 microscope objective can be increased by a factor 7 with respect to the bare nanowire case. Combining microphotoluminescence, decay time measurements, and numerical simulations, we obtain a fourfold increase in the collected photoluminescence from the quantum dot. We show that this improvement is due to an increase of the quantum-dot emission rate and a redirection of the emitted light. Our ex situ fabrication technique allows a precise and reproducible fabrication on a large scale. Its improved extraction efficiency is compared to state-of-the-art top-down devices.

  11. Synthesis of Won-WX2 (n=2.7, 2.9; X=S, Se) Heterostructures for Highly Efficient Green Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes

    Han, Shikui; Yang, Xuyong; Zhu, Yihan; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Junze; Huang, Ying; Chen, Bo; Luo, Zhimin; Ma, Qinglang; Sindoro, Melinda; Zhang, Hao; Qi, Xiaoying; Li, Hai; Huang, Xiao; Huang, Wei; Sun, Xiao Wei; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    .7, 2.9; X=S, Se) heterostructures by sulfurization or selenization of WOn nanomaterials. The WOn -WX2 heterostructures are composed of WO2.9 nanoparticles (NPs) or WO2.7 nanowires (NWs) grown together with single- or few-layer WX2 nanosheets (NSs). As a

  12. Piezoelectric effect in InAs/InP quantum rod nanowires grown on silicon substrate

    Anufriev, Roman; Chauvin, Nicolas; Bru-Chevallier, Catherine; Khmissi, Hammadi; Naji, Khalid; Gendry, Michel; Patriarche, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    We report on the evidence of a strain-induced piezoelectric field in wurtzite InAs/InP quantum rod nanowires. This electric field, caused by the lattice mismatch between InAs and InP, results in the quantum confined Stark effect and, as a consequence, affects the optical properties of the nanowire heterostructure. It is shown that the piezoelectric field can be screened by photogenerated carriers or removed by increasing temperature. Moreover, a dependence of the piezoelectric field on the quantum rod diameter is observed in agreement with simulations of wurtzite InAs/InP quantum rod nanowire heterostructures

  13. Atomic-Resolution Spectrum Imaging of Semiconductor Nanowires.

    Zamani, Reza R; Hage, Fredrik S; Lehmann, Sebastian; Ramasse, Quentin M; Dick, Kimberly A

    2018-03-14

    Over the past decade, III-V heterostructure nanowires have attracted a surge of attention for their application in novel semiconductor devices such as tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs). The functionality of such devices critically depends on the specific atomic arrangement at the semiconductor heterointerfaces. However, most of the currently available characterization techniques lack sufficient spatial resolution to provide local information on the atomic structure and composition of these interfaces. Atomic-resolution spectrum imaging by means of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is a powerful technique with the potential to resolve structure and chemical composition with sub-angstrom spatial resolution and to provide localized information about the physical properties of the material at the atomic scale. Here, we demonstrate the use of atomic-resolution EELS to understand the interface atomic arrangement in three-dimensional heterostructures in semiconductor nanowires. We observed that the radial interfaces of GaSb-InAs heterostructure nanowires are atomically abrupt, while the axial interface in contrast consists of an interfacial region where intermixing of the two compounds occurs over an extended spatial region. The local atomic configuration affects the band alignment at the interface and, hence, the charge transport properties of devices such as GaSb-InAs nanowire TFETs. STEM-EELS thus represents a very promising technique for understanding nanowire physical properties, such as differing electrical behavior across the radial and axial heterointerfaces of GaSb-InAs nanowires for TFET applications.

  14. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of an inclined nanowire array solar cell.

    Wu, Yao; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2015-11-30

    An innovative solar cell based on inclined p-i-n nanowire array is designed and analyzed. The results show that the inclined geometry can sufficiently increase the conversion efficiency of solar cells by enhancing the absorption of light in the active region. By tuning the nanowire array density, nanowire diameter, nanowire length, as well as the proportion of intrinsic region of the inclined nanowire solar cell, a remarkable efficiency in excess of 16% can be obtained in GaAs. Similar results have been obtained in InP and Si nanowire solar cells, demonstrating the universality of the performance enhancement of inclined nanowire arrays.

  15. Investigation of microstructure and morphology for the Ge on porous silicon/Si substrate hetero-structure obtained by molecular beam epitaxy

    Gouder, S.; Mahamdi, R.; Aouassa, M.; Escoubas, S.; Favre, L.; Ronda, A.; Berbezier, I.

    2014-01-01

    cost growth process of relaxed Ge buffer layer. • The process was achieved using compliant porous silicon (PS) template layers. • Single crystal Ge layers have been deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on PS. • SiGe layers obtained are fully relaxed and present a high Ge content (0.74–0.96). • SiGe layers could be used as relaxed pseudosubstrate in microelectronic technology

  16. Single-nanowire, low-bandgap hot carrier solar cells with tunable open-circuit voltage

    Limpert, Steven; Burke, Adam; Chen, I.-Ju; Anttu, Nicklas; Lehmann, Sebastian; Fahlvik, Sofia; Bremner, Stephen; Conibeer, Gavin; Thelander, Claes; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Linke, Heiner

    2017-10-01

    Compared to traditional pn-junction photovoltaics, hot carrier solar cells offer potentially higher efficiency by extracting work from the kinetic energy of photogenerated ‘hot carriers’ before they cool to the lattice temperature. Hot carrier solar cells have been demonstrated in high-bandgap ferroelectric insulators and GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, but so far not in low-bandgap materials, where the potential efficiency gain is highest. Recently, a high open-circuit voltage was demonstrated in an illuminated wurtzite InAs nanowire with a low bandgap of 0.39 eV, and was interpreted in terms of a photothermoelectric effect. Here, we point out that this device is a hot carrier solar cell and discuss its performance in those terms. In the demonstrated devices, InP heterostructures are used as energy filters in order to thermoelectrically harvest the energy of hot electrons photogenerated in InAs absorber segments. The obtained photovoltage depends on the heterostructure design of the energy filter and is therefore tunable. By using a high-resistance, thermionic barrier, an open-circuit voltage is obtained that is in excess of the Shockley-Queisser limit. These results provide generalizable insight into how to realize high voltage hot carrier solar cells in low-bandgap materials, and therefore are a step towards the demonstration of higher efficiency hot carrier solar cells.

  17. Organic Nanowires

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Al-Shamery, Katharina

    Single crystalline nanowires from fluorescing organic molecules like para-phenylenes or thiophenes are supposed to become key elements in future integrated optoelectronic devices [1]. For a sophisticated design of devices based on nanowires the basic principles of the nanowire formation have...... atomic force microscopy and from polarized far-field optical microscopy for various prototypical molecules are reproduced by electrostatic and Monte Carlo calculations. Based on the crystal structure, predictions on the growth habit from other conjugated molecules become in reach....

  18. Selective growth of gallium nitride nanowires by femtosecond laser patterning

    Ng, D.K.T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Hong, M.H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)], E-mail: HONG_Minghui@dsi.a-star.edu.sg; Tan, L.S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zhou, Y. [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 2 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Chen, G.X. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2008-01-31

    We report on gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires grown using pulsed laser ablation, adopting the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism. The GaN nanowires are obtained based on the principle that a catalyst is required to initiate the nanowires growth. Locations of the GaN nanowires are patterned using femtosecond laser and focused ion beam. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to characterize the nanowires. This patterning of GaN nanowires will enable selective growth of nanowires and bottom-up assembly of integrated electronic and photonic devices.

  19. Selective growth of gallium nitride nanowires by femtosecond laser patterning

    Ng, D.K.T.; Hong, M.H.; Tan, L.S.; Zhou, Y.; Chen, G.X.

    2008-01-01

    We report on gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires grown using pulsed laser ablation, adopting the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism. The GaN nanowires are obtained based on the principle that a catalyst is required to initiate the nanowires growth. Locations of the GaN nanowires are patterned using femtosecond laser and focused ion beam. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to characterize the nanowires. This patterning of GaN nanowires will enable selective growth of nanowires and bottom-up assembly of integrated electronic and photonic devices

  20. Generic nano-imprint process for fabrication of nanowire arrays

    Pierret, A.; Hocevar, M.; Diedenhofen, S.L.; Algra, R.E.; Vlieg, E.; Timmering, E.C.; Verschuuren, M.A.; Immink, W.G.G.; Verheijen, M.A.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    A generic process has been developed to grow nearly defect-free arrays of (heterostructured) InP and GaP nanowires. Soft nano-imprint lithography has been used to pattern gold particle arrays on full 2inch substrates. After lift-off organic residues remain on the surface, which induce the growth of

  1. n-GaAs/InGaP/p-GaAs core-multishell nanowire diodes for efficient light-to-current conversion

    Gutsche, Christoph; Lysov, Andrey; Regolin, Ingo; Keller, Gregor; Prost, Werner; Tegude, Franz-Josef [Department of Solid-State Electronics and CeNIDE University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany); Braam, Daniel; Li, Zi-An; Geller, Martin; Spasova, Marina [Department of Experimental Physics and CeNIDE University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany)

    2012-03-07

    Heterostructure n-GaAs/InGaP/p-GaAs core-multishell nanowire diodes are synthesized by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy. This structure allows a reproducible, selective wet etching of the individual shells and therefore a simplified contacting of single nanowire p-i-n junctions. Nanowire diodes show leakage currents in a low pA range and at a high rectification ratio of 3500 (at {+-}1V). Pronounced electroluminescence at 1.4 eV is measured at room temperature and gives evidence of the device quality. Photocurrent generation is demonstrated at the complete area of the nanowire p-i-n junction by scanning photocurrent microscopy. A solar-conversion efficiency of 4.7%, an open-circuit voltage of 0.5 V and a fill factor of 52% are obtained under AM 1.5G conditions. These results will guide the development of nanowire-based photonic and photovoltaic devices. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Generic nano-imprint process for fabrication of nanowire arrays

    Pierret, Aurelie; Hocevar, Moira; Algra, Rienk E; Timmering, Eugene C; Verschuuren, Marc A; Immink, George W G; Verheijen, Marcel A; Bakkers, Erik P A M [Philips Research Laboratories Eindhoven, High Tech Campus 11, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Diedenhofen, Silke L [FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics c/o Philips Research Laboratories, High Tech Campus 4, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Vlieg, E, E-mail: e.p.a.m.bakkers@tue.nl [IMM, Solid State Chemistry, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2010-02-10

    A generic process has been developed to grow nearly defect-free arrays of (heterostructured) InP and GaP nanowires. Soft nano-imprint lithography has been used to pattern gold particle arrays on full 2 inch substrates. After lift-off organic residues remain on the surface, which induce the growth of additional undesired nanowires. We show that cleaning of the samples before growth with piranha solution in combination with a thermal anneal at 550 deg. C for InP and 700 deg. C for GaP results in uniform nanowire arrays with 1% variation in nanowire length, and without undesired extra nanowires. Our chemical cleaning procedure is applicable to other lithographic techniques such as e-beam lithography, and therefore represents a generic process.

  3. Additional compound semiconductor nanowires for photonics

    Ishikawa, F.

    2016-02-01

    GaAs related compound semiconductor heterostructures are one of the most developed materials for photonics. Those have realized various photonic devices with high efficiency, e. g., lasers, electro-optical modulators, and solar cells. To extend the functions of the materials system, diluted nitride and bismide has been paid attention over the past decade. They can largely decrease the band gap of the alloys, providing the greater tunability of band gap and strain status, eventually suppressing the non-radiative Auger recombinations. On the other hand, selective oxidation for AlGaAs is a vital technique for vertical surface emitting lasers. That enables precisely controlled oxides in the system, enabling the optical and electrical confinement, heat transfer, and mechanical robustness. We introduce the above functions into GaAs nanowires. GaAs/GaAsN core-shell nanowires showed clear redshift of the emitting wavelength toward infrared regime. Further, the introduction of N elongated the carrier lifetime at room temperature indicating the passivation of non-radiative surface recombinations. GaAs/GaAsBi nanowire shows the redshift with metamorphic surface morphology. Selective and whole oxidations of GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires produce semiconductor/oxide composite GaAs/AlGaOx and oxide GaOx/AlGaOx core-shell nanowires, respectively. Possibly sourced from nano-particle species, the oxide shell shows white luminescence. Those property should extend the functions of the nanowires for their application to photonics.

  4. Diameter-dependent coloration of silver nanowires

    Stewart, Mindy S; Qiu Chao; Jiang Chaoyang; Kattumenu, Ramesh; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanowires were synthesized with a green method and characterized with microscopic and diffractometric methods. The correlation between the colors of the nanowires deposited on a solid substrate and their diameters was explored. Silver nanowires that appear similar in color in the optical micrographs have very similar diameters as determined by atomic force microscopy. We have summarized the diameter-dependent coloration for these silver nanowires. An optical interference model was applied to explain such correlation. In addition, microreflectance spectra were obtained from individual nanowires and the observed spectra can be explained with the optical interference theory. This work provides a cheap, quick and simple screening method for studying the diameter distribution of silver nanowires, as well as the diameter variations of individual silver nanowires, without complicated sample preparation.

  5. Semiconductor nanowires and templates for electronic applications

    Ying, Xiang

    2009-07-15

    This thesis starts by developing a platform for the organized growth of nanowires directly on a planar substrate. For this, a method to fabricate horizontal porous alumina membranes is studied. The second part of the thesis focuses on the study of nanowires. It starts by the understanding of the growth mechanisms of germanium nanowires and follows by the structural and electrical properties at the single nanowire level. Horizontally aligned porous anodic alumina (PAA) was used as a template for the nanowire synthesis. Three PAA arrangements were studied: - high density membranes - micron-sized fingers - multi-contacts Membranes formed by a high density of nanopores were obtained by anodizing aluminum thin films. Metallic and semiconducting nanowires were synthesized into the PAA structures via DC deposition, pulsed electro-depostion and CVD growth. The presence of gold, copper, indium, nickel, tellurium, and silicon nanowires inside PAA templates was verified by SEM and EDX analysis. Further, room-temperature transport measurements showed that the pores are completely filled till the bottom of the pores. In this dissertation, single crystalline and core-shell germanium nanowires are synthesized using indium and bismuth as catalyst in a chemical vapor deposition procedure with germane (GeH{sub 4}) as growth precursor. A systematic growth study has been performed to obtain high aspect-ratio germanium nanowires. The influence of the growth conditions on the final morphology and the crystalline structure has been determined via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). In the case of indium catalyzed germanium nanowires, two different structures were identified: single crystalline and crystalline core-amorphous shell. The preferential growth axis of both kinds of nanowires is along the [110] direction. The occurrence of the two morphologies was found to only depend on the nanowire dimension. In the case of bismuth

  6. Nanowire Lasers

    Couteau C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We review principles and trends in the use of semiconductor nanowires as gain media for stimulated emission and lasing. Semiconductor nanowires have recently been widely studied for use in integrated optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs, solar cells, and transistors. Intensive research has also been conducted in the use of nanowires for subwavelength laser systems that take advantage of their quasione- dimensional (1D nature, flexibility in material choice and combination, and intrinsic optoelectronic properties. First, we provide an overview on using quasi-1D nanowire systems to realize subwavelength lasers with efficient, directional, and low-threshold emission. We then describe the state of the art for nanowire lasers in terms of materials, geometry, andwavelength tunability.Next,we present the basics of lasing in semiconductor nanowires, define the key parameters for stimulated emission, and introduce the properties of nanowires. We then review advanced nanowire laser designs from the literature. Finally, we present interesting perspectives for low-threshold nanoscale light sources and optical interconnects. We intend to illustrate the potential of nanolasers inmany applications, such as nanophotonic devices that integrate electronics and photonics for next-generation optoelectronic devices. For instance, these building blocks for nanoscale photonics can be used for data storage and biomedical applications when coupled to on-chip characterization tools. These nanoscale monochromatic laser light sources promise breakthroughs in nanophotonics, as they can operate at room temperature, can potentially be electrically driven, and can yield a better understanding of intrinsic nanomaterial properties and surface-state effects in lowdimensional semiconductor systems.

  7. Heterostructures and quantum devices

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1994-01-01

    Heterostructure and quantum-mechanical devices promise significant improvement in the performance of electronic and optoelectronic integrated circuits (ICs). Though these devices are the subject of a vigorous research effort, the current literature is often either highly technical or narrowly focused. This book presents heterostructure and quantum devices to the nonspecialist, especially electrical engineers working with high-performance semiconductor devices. It focuses on a broad base of technical applications using semiconductor physics theory to develop the next generation of electrical en

  8. Spatially resolved investigation of competing nanocluster emission in quantum-disks-in-nanowires structure characterized by nanoscale cathodoluminescence

    Prabaswara, Aditya; Stowe, David J.; Janjua, Bilal; Ng, Tien Khee; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Longo, Paolo; Zhao, Chao; Elafandy, Rami T.; Li, Xiaohang; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the study and characterization of nanoclusters-related recombination centers within quantum-disks-in-nanowires heterostructure by utilizing microphotoluminescence (mu-PL) and cathodoluminescence scanning transmission electron microscopy (CL-STEM). mu-PL measurement shows that the nanoclusters-related recombination center exhibits different temperature-dependent characteristics compared with the surrounding InGaN quantum-disksrelated recombination center. CL-STEM measurements reveal that these recombination centers mainly arise from irregularities within the quantum disks, with a strong, spatially localized emission when measured at low temperature. The spectra obtained from both CL-STEM and mu-PL correlate well with each other. Our work sheds light on the optical and structural properties of simultaneously coexisting recombination centers within nanowires heterostructures. (C) The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI.

  9. Spatially resolved investigation of competing nanocluster emission in quantum-disks-in-nanowires structure characterized by nanoscale cathodoluminescence

    Prabaswara, Aditya

    2017-06-30

    We report on the study and characterization of nanoclusters-related recombination centers within quantum-disks-in-nanowires heterostructure by utilizing microphotoluminescence (mu-PL) and cathodoluminescence scanning transmission electron microscopy (CL-STEM). mu-PL measurement shows that the nanoclusters-related recombination center exhibits different temperature-dependent characteristics compared with the surrounding InGaN quantum-disksrelated recombination center. CL-STEM measurements reveal that these recombination centers mainly arise from irregularities within the quantum disks, with a strong, spatially localized emission when measured at low temperature. The spectra obtained from both CL-STEM and mu-PL correlate well with each other. Our work sheds light on the optical and structural properties of simultaneously coexisting recombination centers within nanowires heterostructures. (C) The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI.

  10. Nanoscale semiconductor-insulator-metal core/shell heterostructures: facile synthesis and light emission

    Li, Gong Ping; Chen, Rui; Guo, Dong Lai; Wong, Lai Mun; Wang, Shi Jie; Sun, Han Dong; Wu, Tom

    2011-08-01

    Controllably constructing hierarchical nanostructures with distinct components and designed architectures is an important theme of research in nanoscience, entailing novel but reliable approaches of bottom-up synthesis. Here, we report a facile method to reproducibly create semiconductor-insulator-metal core/shell nanostructures, which involves first coating uniform MgO shells onto metal oxide nanostructures in solution and then decorating them with Au nanoparticles. The semiconductor nanowire core can be almost any material and, herein, ZnO, SnO2 and In2O3 are used as examples. We also show that linear chains of short ZnO nanorods embedded in MgO nanotubes and porous MgO nanotubes can be obtained by taking advantage of the reduced thermal stability of the ZnO core. Furthermore, after MgO shell-coating and the appropriate annealing treatment, the intensity of the ZnO near-band-edge UV emission becomes much stronger, showing a 25-fold enhancement. The intensity ratio of the UV/visible emission can be increased further by decorating the surface of the ZnO/MgO nanowires with high-density plasmonic Au nanoparticles. These heterostructured semiconductor-insulator-metal nanowires with tailored morphologies and enhanced functionalities have great potential for use as nanoscale building blocks in photonic and electronic applications.Controllably constructing hierarchical nanostructures with distinct components and designed architectures is an important theme of research in nanoscience, entailing novel but reliable approaches of bottom-up synthesis. Here, we report a facile method to reproducibly create semiconductor-insulator-metal core/shell nanostructures, which involves first coating uniform MgO shells onto metal oxide nanostructures in solution and then decorating them with Au nanoparticles. The semiconductor nanowire core can be almost any material and, herein, ZnO, SnO2 and In2O3 are used as examples. We also show that linear chains of short ZnO nanorods embedded in

  11. Quantum optics with nanowires (Conference Presentation)

    Zwiller, Val

    2017-02-01

    Nanowires offer new opportunities for nanoscale quantum optics; the quantum dot geometry in semiconducting nanowires as well as the material composition and environment can be engineered with unprecedented freedom to improve the light extraction efficiency. Quantum dots in nanowires are shown to be efficient single photon sources, in addition because of the very small fine structure splitting, we demonstrate the generation of entangled pairs of photons from a nanowire. By doping a nanowire and making ohmic contacts on both sides, a nanowire light emitting diode can be obtained with a single quantum dot as the active region. Under forward bias, this will act as an electrically pumped source of single photons. Under reverse bias, an avalanche effect can multiply photocurrent and enables the detection of single photons. Another type of nanowire under study in our group is superconducting nanowires for single photon detection, reaching efficiencies, time resolution and dark counts beyond currently available detectors. We will discuss our first attempts at combining semiconducting nanowire based single photon emitters and superconducting nanowire single photon detectors on a chip to realize integrated quantum circuits.

  12. Reactive diffusion and stresses in nanowires or nanorods

    Roussel, Manuel; Erdélyi, Zoltán; Schmitz, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Heterostructured nanowires are of prime interest in nowadays technology such as field-effect transistors, field emitters, batteries and solar cells. We consider their aging behavior and developed a model focusing on reactive diffusion in core-shell nanowires. A complete set of analytical equations is presented that takes into account thermodynamic driving forces, vacancy distribution, elastic stress and its plastic relaxation. This complete description of the reactive diffusion can be used in finite element simulations to investigate diffusion processes in various geometries. In order to show clearly the interplay between the cylindrical geometry, the reactive diffusion and the stresses developing in the nanowire, we investigate the formation of an intermetallic reaction product in various core-shell geometries. Emphasis is placed on showing how it is possible to control the kinetics of the reaction by applying an axial stress to the nanowires.

  13. Shear-driven phase transformation in silicon nanowires.

    Vincent, L; Djomani, D; Fakfakh, M; Renard, C; Belier, B; Bouchier, D; Patriarche, G

    2018-03-23

    We report on an unprecedented formation of allotrope heterostructured Si nanowires by plastic deformation based on applied radial compressive stresses inside a surrounding matrix. Si nanowires with a standard diamond structure (3C) undergo a phase transformation toward the hexagonal 2H-allotrope. The transformation is thermally activated above 500 °C and is clearly driven by a shear-stress relief occurring in parallel shear bands lying on {115} planes. We have studied the influence of temperature and axial orientation of nanowires. The observations are consistent with a martensitic phase transformation, but the finding leads to clear evidence of a different mechanism of deformation-induced phase transformation in Si nanowires with respect to their bulk counterpart. Our process provides a route to study shear-driven phase transformation at the nanoscale in Si.

  14. Magnetostatic Interaction in Fe-Co Nanowires

    Laura Elbaile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arrays of Fe-Co alloy nanowires with diameter around 35 nm and several micrometers in length have been synthesized by codepositing Fe and Co into porous anodic alumina. The morphology, structure, and magnetic properties of the nanowires (hysteresis loops and remanence curves were characterized by SEM, TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and VSM, respectively. The XRD patterns indicate that the Fe-Co nanowires present a body-centered cubic (bcc structure and a preferred (110 orientation perpendicular to the template surface. From the hysteresis loops obtained with the magnetic field applied in the axis direction of the nanowires, we can observe that the coercive field slightly decreases when the nanowire length increases. This magnetic behaviour is analyzed considering the shape anisotropy and the dipolar interactions among nanowires.

  15. Long-range magnetostatic interactions in arrays of nanowires

    Raposo, V; González, J M; Vázquez, M

    2000-01-01

    Experimental measurements and micromagnetic simulations of the hysteresis loops of arrays of cobalt nanowires are compared here. Arrays of cobalt nanowires (200 nm in diameter) were electrodeposited into the pores of alumina membranes (thickness 60 mu m). Their hysteresis loops along the axial direction of nanowires were measured using vibrating sample magnetometry. Micromagnetic simulations were performed considering dipolar interaction between nanowires leading to similar hysteresis loops as those obtained experimentally.

  16. Growth dynamics of SiGe nanowires by the Vapour Liquid Solid method and its impact on SiGe/Si axial heterojunction abruptness.

    Pura, Jose Luis; Periwal, Priyanka; Baron, Thierry; Jimenez, Juan

    2018-06-05

    The Vapour Liquid Solid (VLS) method is by far the most extended procedure for bottom-up nanowire growth. This method also allows for the manufacture of nanowire axial heterojunctions in a straightforward way. To do this, during the growth process the precursor gases are switched on/off to obtain the desired change in the nanowire composition. Using this technique axially heterostructured nanowires can be grown, which are crucial for the fabrication of electronic and optoelectronic devices. SiGe/Si nanowires are compatible with Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology, this improves their versatility and the possibility of integration with the current electronic technologies. Abrupt heterointerfaces are fundamental for the development and correct operation of electronic and optoelectronic devices. Unfortunately, VLS growth of SiGe/Si heterojunctions does not provide abrupt transitions because of the high solubility of group IV semiconductors in Au, with the corresponding reservoir effect that precludes the growth of sharp interfaces. In this work, we studied the growth dynamics of SiGe/Si heterojunctions based on already developed models for VLS growth. A composition map of the Si-Ge-Au liquid alloy is proposed to better understand the impact of the growing conditions on the nanowire growth process and the heterojunction formation. The solution of our model provides heterojunction profiles in good agreement with experimental measurements. Finally, the in-depth study of the composition map provides a practical approach to reduce drastically the heterojunction abruptness by reducing the Si and Ge concentrations in the catalyst droplet. This converges with previous approaches that use catalysts aiming to reduce the solubility of the atomic species. This analysis opens new paths to reduce the heterojunction abruptness using Au catalysts, but the model can be naturally extended to other catalysts and semiconductors. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Epitaxial TiO 2/SnO 2 core-shell heterostructure by atomic layer deposition

    Nie, Anmin; Liu, Jiabin; Li, Qianqian; Cheng, Yingchun; Dong, Cezhou; Zhou, Wu; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Qingxiao; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Yihan; Zeng, Yuewu; Wang, Hongtao

    2012-01-01

    Taking TiO 2/SnO 2 core-shell nanowires (NWs) as a model system, we systematically investigate the structure and the morphological evolution of this heterostructure synthesized by atomic layer deposition/epitaxy (ALD/ALE). All characterizations

  18. Electrical conductivity measurements of bacterial nanowires from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Maruthupandy, Muthusamy; Anand, Muthusamy; Beevi, Akbar Sait Hameedha; Priya, Radhakrishnan Jeeva; Maduraiveeran, Govindhan

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular appendages of bacteria (flagella) that transfer electrons to electrodes are called bacterial nanowires. This study focuses on the isolation and separation of nanowires that are attached via Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial culture. The size and roughness of separated nanowires were measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The obtained bacterial nanowires indicated a clear image of bacterial nanowires measuring 16 nm in diameter. The formation of bacterial nanowires was confirmed by microscopic studies (AFM and TEM) and the conductivity nature of bacterial nanowire was investigated by electrochemical techniques. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which are nondestructive voltammetry techniques, suggest that bacterial nanowires could be the source of electrons—which may be used in various applications, for example, microbial fuel cells, biosensors, organic solar cells, and bioelectronic devices. Routine analysis of electron transfer between bacterial nanowires and the electrode was performed, providing insight into the extracellular electron transfer (EET) to the electrode. CV revealed the catalytic electron transferability of bacterial nanowires and electrodes and showed excellent redox activities. CV and EIS studies showed that bacterial nanowires can charge the surface by producing and storing sufficient electrons, behave as a capacitor, and have features consistent with EET. Finally, electrochemical studies confirmed the development of bacterial nanowires with EET. This study suggests that bacterial nanowires can be used to fabricate biomolecular sensors and nanoelectronic devices. (paper)

  19. Functionalization of magnetic nanowires by charged biopolymers

    Magnin, D.; Callegari, V.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    We report on a facile method for the preparation of biocompatible and bioactive magnetic nanowires. The method consists of the direct deposition of polysaccharides by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly onto a brush of metallic nanowires; obtained by electrodeposition of the metal within the nanopores ...

  20. Single InAs/GaSb nanowire low-power CMOS inverter.

    Dey, Anil W; Svensson, Johannes; Borg, B Mattias; Ek, Martin; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2012-11-14

    III-V semiconductors have so far predominately been employed for n-type transistors in high-frequency applications. This development is based on the advantageous transport properties and the large variety of heterostructure combinations in the family of III-V semiconductors. In contrast, reports on p-type devices with high hole mobility suitable for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits for low-power operation are scarce. In addition, the difficulty to integrate both n- and p-type devices on the same substrate without the use of complex buffer layers has hampered the development of III-V based digital logic. Here, inverters fabricated from single n-InAs/p-GaSb heterostructure nanowires are demonstrated in a simple processing scheme. Using undoped segments and aggressively scaled high-κ dielectric, enhancement mode operation suitable for digital logic is obtained for both types of transistors. State-of-the-art on- and off-state characteristics are obtained and the individual long-channel n- and p-type transistors exhibit minimum subthreshold swings of SS = 98 mV/dec and SS = 400 mV/dec, respectively, at V(ds) = 0.5 V. Inverter characteristics display a full signal swing and maximum gain of 10.5 with a small device-to-device variability. Complete inversion is measured at low frequencies although large parasitic capacitances deform the waveform at higher frequencies.

  1. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    Good morning, Gentlemen! On behalf of the Nobel Foundation, I should like to welcome you to the Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semiconductors". It gives me great pleasure to see so many colleagues and old friends from all over the world in the audience and, in particular, to bid welcome to our Nobel laureates, Prof. Esaki and Prof. von Klitzing. In front of a different audience I would now commend the scientific and technological importance of heterostructures in semiconductors and emphatically emphasise that heterostructures, as an important contribution to microelectronics and, hence, information technology, have changed societies all over the world. I would also mention that information technology is one of the most important global key industries which covers a wide field of important areas each of which bears its own character. Ever since the invention of the transistor, we have witnessed a fantastic growth in semiconductor technology, leading to more complex functions and higher densities of devices. This development would hardly be possible without an increasing understanding of semiconductor materials and new concepts in material growth techniques which allow the fabrication of previously unknown semiconductor structures. But here and today I will not do it because it would mean to carry coals to Newcastle. I will therefore not remind you that heterostructures were already suggested and discussed in detail a long time before proper technologies were available for the fabrication of such structures. Now, heterostructures are a foundation in science and part of our everyday life. Though this is certainly true, it is nevertheless fair to say that not all properties of heterostructures are yet understood and that further technologies have to be developed before a still better understanding is obtained. The organisers therefore hope that this symposium will contribute not only to improving our understanding of heterostructures but also to opening new

  2. Synthesis of silver nanowires using hydrothermal technique for flexible transparent electrode application

    Vijila, C. V. Mary; Rahman, K. K. Arsina; Parvathy, N. S.; Jayaraj, M. K., E-mail: mkj@cusat.ac.in [Nanophotonic and Optoelectronic Division, Dept. of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala (India)

    2016-05-23

    Transparent conducting films are becoming increasingly interesting because of their applications in electronics industry such as their use in solar energy applications. In this work silver nanowires were synthesized using solvothermal method by reducing silver nitrate and adding sodium chloride for assembling silver into nanowires. Absorption spectra of nanowires in the form of a dispersion in deionized water, AFM and SEM images confirm the nanowire formation. Solution of nanowire was coated over PET films to obtain transparent conducting films.

  3. High-frequency acoustic charge transport in GaAs nanowires

    Büyükköse, S.; Hernandez-Minguez, A.; Vratzov, B.; Somaschini, C.; Geelhaar, L.; Riechert, H.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Santos, P.V.

    2014-01-01

    The oscillating piezoelectric fields accompanying surface acoustic waves are able to transport charge carriers in semiconductor heterostructures. Here, we demonstrate high-frequency (above 1 GHz) acoustic charge transport in GaAs-based nanowires deposited on a piezoelectric substrate. The short

  4. Electronic properties of semiconductor heterostructures

    Einevoll, G.T.

    1991-02-01

    Ten papers on the electronic properties of semiconductors and semiconductor heterostructures constitute the backbone of this thesis. Four papers address the form and validity of the single-band effective mass approximation for semiconductor heterostructures. In four other papers properties of acceptor states in bulk semiconductors and semiconductor heterostructures are studied using the novel effective bond-orbital model. The last two papers deal with localized excitions. 122 refs

  5. Synthesis of Won-WX2 (n=2.7, 2.9; X=S, Se) Heterostructures for Highly Efficient Green Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes

    Han, Shikui

    2017-07-04

    Preparation of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures is important not only fundamentally, but also technologically for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Herein, we report a facile colloidal method for the synthesis of WOn -WX2 (n=2.7, 2.9; X=S, Se) heterostructures by sulfurization or selenization of WOn nanomaterials. The WOn -WX2 heterostructures are composed of WO2.9 nanoparticles (NPs) or WO2.7 nanowires (NWs) grown together with single- or few-layer WX2 nanosheets (NSs). As a proof-of-concept application, the WOn -WX2 heterostructures are used as the anode interfacial buffer layer for green quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs). The QLED prepared with WO2.9 NP-WSe2 NS heterostructures achieves external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 8.53 %. To our knowledge, this is the highest efficiency in the reported green QLEDs using inorganic materials as the hole injection layer.

  6. Organic heterostructures deposited by MAPLE on AZO substrate

    Socol, M.; Preda, N.; Stanculescu, A.; Breazu, C.; Florica, C.; Stanculescu, F.; Iftimie, S.; Girtan, M.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Socol, G.

    2017-09-01

    Organic heterostructures based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and fullerene (C60) as blends or multilayer were deposited on Al:ZnO (AZO) by Matrix-Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. The AZO layers were obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) on glass substrate, the high quality of the films being reflected by the calculated figure of merit. The organic heterostructures were investigated from morphological, optical and electrical point of view by atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements, respectively. The increase of the C60 content in the blend heterostructure has as result a high roughness. Compared with the multilayer heterostructure, those based on blends present an improvement in the electrical properties. Under illumination, the highest current value was recorded for the heterostructure based on the blend with the higher C60 amount. The obtained results showed that MAPLE is a useful technique for the deposition of the organic heterostructures on AZO as transparent conductor electrode.

  7. Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers

    Mi, Z; Zhao, S; Djavid, M; Liu, X; Kang, J; Woo, S Y; Bugnet, M; Botton, G A; Kong, X; Guo, H; Ji, W; Liu, Z

    2016-01-01

    We report on the detailed molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of Al(Ga)N nanowire heterostructures on Si and their applications for deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers. The nanowires are formed under nitrogen-rich conditions without using any metal catalyst. Compared to conventional epilayers, Mg-dopant incorporation is significantly enhanced in nearly strain- and defect-free Al(Ga)N nanowire structures, leading to efficient p -type conduction. The resulting Al(Ga)N nanowire LEDs exhibit excellent performance, including a turn-on voltage of ∼5.5 V for an AlN nanowire LED operating at 207 nm. The design, fabrication, and performance of an electrically injected AlGaN nanowire laser operating in the UV-B band is also presented. (paper)

  8. Topological insulator nanowires and nanowire hetero-junctions

    Deng, Haiming; Zhao, Lukas; Wade, Travis; Konczykowski, Marcin; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia

    2014-03-01

    The existing topological insulator materials (TIs) continue to present a number of challenges to complete understanding of the physics of topological spin-helical Dirac surface conduction channels, owing to a relatively large charge conduction in the bulk. One way to reduce the bulk contribution and to increase surface-to-volume ratio is by nanostructuring. Here we report on the synthesis and characterization of Sb2Te3, Bi2Te3 nanowires and nanotubes and Sb2Te3/Bi2Te3 heterojunctions electrochemically grown in porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with varied (from 50 to 150 nm) pore diameters. Stoichiometric rigid polycrystalline nanowires with controllable cross-sections were obtained using cell voltages in the 30 - 150 mV range. Transport measurements in up to 14 T magnetic fields applied along the nanowires show Aharonov-Bohm (A-B) quantum oscillations with periods corresponding to the nanowire diameters. All nanowires were found to exhibit sharp weak anti-localization (WAL) cusps, a characteristic signature of TIs. In addition to A-B oscillations, new quantization plateaus in magnetoresistance (MR) at low fields (< 0 . 7T) were observed. The analysis of MR as well as I - V characteristics of heterojunctions will be presented. Supported in part by NSF-DMR-1122594, NSF-DMR-1312483-MWN, and DOD-W911NF-13-1-0159.

  9. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Al-Nassar, Mohammed Y.; Perez, Jose E.; Vazquez, Manuel; Chuvilin, Andrey; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires.

  10. Optical properties of indium phosphide nanowire ensembles at various temperatures

    Lohn, Andrew J; Onishi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P [Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz-NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Ensembles that contain two types (zincblende and wurtzite) of indium phosphide nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces were studied by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy at various low temperatures. The obtained spectra are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of differing lattice types, geometries, and crystallographic orientations present within an ensemble of nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces. In the photoluminescence spectra, a typical Varshni dependence of band gap energy on temperature was observed for emissions from zincblende nanowires and in the high temperature regime energy transfer from excitonic transitions and band-edge transitions was identified. In contrast, the photoluminescence emissions associated with wurtzite nanowires were rather insensitive to temperature. Raman spectra were collected simultaneously from zincblende and wurtzite nanowires coexisting in an ensemble. Raman peaks of the wurtzite nanowires are interpreted as those related to the zincblende nanowires by a folding of the phonon dispersion.

  11. Optical properties of indium phosphide nanowire ensembles at various temperatures

    Lohn, Andrew J; Onishi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P

    2010-01-01

    Ensembles that contain two types (zincblende and wurtzite) of indium phosphide nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces were studied by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy at various low temperatures. The obtained spectra are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of differing lattice types, geometries, and crystallographic orientations present within an ensemble of nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces. In the photoluminescence spectra, a typical Varshni dependence of band gap energy on temperature was observed for emissions from zincblende nanowires and in the high temperature regime energy transfer from excitonic transitions and band-edge transitions was identified. In contrast, the photoluminescence emissions associated with wurtzite nanowires were rather insensitive to temperature. Raman spectra were collected simultaneously from zincblende and wurtzite nanowires coexisting in an ensemble. Raman peaks of the wurtzite nanowires are interpreted as those related to the zincblende nanowires by a folding of the phonon dispersion.

  12. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2016-04-13

    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires.

  13. Si/Ge hetero-structure nanotube tunnel field effect transistor

    Hanna, A. N.

    2015-01-07

    We discuss the physics of conventional channel material (silicon/germanium hetero-structure) based transistor topology mainly core/shell (inner/outer) gated nanotube vs. gate-all-around nanowire architecture for tunnel field effect transistor application. We show that nanotube topology can result in higher performance through higher normalized current when compared to nanowire architecture at Vdd-=-1-V due to the availability of larger tunneling cross section and lower Shockley-Reed-Hall recombination. Both architectures are able to achieve sub 60-mV/dec performance for more than five orders of magnitude of drain current. This enables the nanotube configuration achieving performance same as the nanowire architecture even when Vdd is scaled down to 0.5-V.

  14. Si/Ge hetero-structure nanotube tunnel field effect transistor

    Hanna, A. N.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the physics of conventional channel material (silicon/germanium hetero-structure) based transistor topology mainly core/shell (inner/outer) gated nanotube vs. gate-all-around nanowire architecture for tunnel field effect transistor application. We show that nanotube topology can result in higher performance through higher normalized current when compared to nanowire architecture at Vdd-=-1-V due to the availability of larger tunneling cross section and lower Shockley-Reed-Hall recombination. Both architectures are able to achieve sub 60-mV/dec performance for more than five orders of magnitude of drain current. This enables the nanotube configuration achieving performance same as the nanowire architecture even when Vdd is scaled down to 0.5-V.

  15. Room-temperature InP/InAsP Quantum Discs-in-Nanowire Infrared Photodetectors.

    Karimi, Mohammad; Jain, Vishal; Heurlin, Magnus; Nowzari, Ali; Hussain, Laiq; Lindgren, David; Stehr, Jan Eric; Buyanova, Irina A; Gustafsson, Anders; Samuelson, Lars; Borgström, Magnus T; Pettersson, Håkan

    2017-06-14

    The possibility to engineer nanowire heterostructures with large bandgap variations is particularly interesting for technologically important broadband photodetector applications. Here we report on a combined study of design, fabrication, and optoelectronic properties of infrared photodetectors comprising four million n + -i-n + InP nanowires periodically ordered in arrays. The nanowires were grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on InP substrates, with either a single or 20 InAsP quantum discs embedded in the i-segment. By Zn compensation of the residual n-dopants in the i-segment, the room-temperature dark current is strongly suppressed to a level of pA/NW at 1 V bias. The low dark current is manifested in the spectrally resolved photocurrent measurements, which reveal strong photocurrent contributions from the InAsP quantum discs at room temperature with a threshold wavelength of about 2.0 μm and a bias-tunable responsivity reaching 7 A/W@1.38 μm at 2 V bias. Two different processing schemes were implemented to study the effects of radial self-gating in the nanowires induced by the nanowire/SiO x /ITO wrap-gate geometry. Summarized, our results show that properly designed axial InP/InAsP nanowire heterostructures are promising candidates for broadband photodetectors.

  16. Charging effects and surface potential variations of Cu-based nanowires

    Nunes, D., E-mail: daniela.gomes@fct.unl.pt [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Calmeiro, T.R.; Nandy, S.; Pinto, J.V.; Pimentel, A.; Barquinha, P. [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Carvalho, P.A. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, PB 124 Blindern, NO-0314, Oslo (Norway); CeFEMA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001, Lisboa (Portugal); Walmsley, J.C. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Materials and Nanotechnology, Høgskoleringen 5, 7034 Trondheim (Norway); Fortunato, E., E-mail: emf@fct.unl.pt [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Martins, R., E-mail: rm@uninova.pt [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-02-29

    The present work reports charging effects and surface potential variations in pure copper, cuprous oxide and cupric oxide nanowires observed by electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The copper nanowires were produced by wet synthesis, oxidation into cuprous oxide nanowires was achieved through microwave irradiation and cupric oxide nanowires were obtained via furnace annealing in atmospheric conditions. Structural characterization of the nanowires was carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. During the EFM experiments the electrostatic field of the positive probe charged negatively the Cu-based nanowires, which in turn polarized the SiO{sub 2} dielectric substrate. Both the probe/nanowire capacitance as well as the substrate polarization increased with the applied bias. Cu{sub 2}O and CuO nanowires behaved distinctively during the EFM measurements in accordance with their band gap energies. The work functions (WF) of the Cu-based nanowires, obtained by KPFM measurements, yielded WF{sub CuO} > WF{sub Cu} > WF{sub Cu{sub 2O}}. - Highlights: • Charge distribution study in Cu, Cu{sub 2}O and CuO nanowires through electrostatic force microscopy • Structural/surface defect role on the charge distribution along the Cu nanowires • Determination of the nanowire work functions by Kelvin probe force microscopy • Three types of nanowires give a broad idea of charge behavior on Cu based-nanowires.

  17. Silicon nanowire-based solar cells

    Stelzner, Th; Pietsch, M; Andrae, G; Falk, F; Ose, E; Christiansen, S [Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, D-07745 Jena (Germany)], E-mail: thomas.stelzner@ipht-jena.de

    2008-07-23

    The fabrication of silicon nanowire-based solar cells on silicon wafers and on multicrystalline silicon thin films on glass is described. The nanowires show a strong broadband optical absorption, which makes them an interesting candidate to serve as an absorber in solar cells. The operation of a solar cell is demonstrated with n-doped nanowires grown on a p-doped silicon wafer. From a partially illuminated area of 0.6 cm{sup 2} open-circuit voltages in the range of 230-280 mV and a short-circuit current density of 2 mA cm{sup -2} were obtained.

  18. Silicon nanowire-based solar cells

    Stelzner, Th; Pietsch, M; Andrae, G; Falk, F; Ose, E; Christiansen, S

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of silicon nanowire-based solar cells on silicon wafers and on multicrystalline silicon thin films on glass is described. The nanowires show a strong broadband optical absorption, which makes them an interesting candidate to serve as an absorber in solar cells. The operation of a solar cell is demonstrated with n-doped nanowires grown on a p-doped silicon wafer. From a partially illuminated area of 0.6 cm 2 open-circuit voltages in the range of 230-280 mV and a short-circuit current density of 2 mA cm -2 were obtained

  19. Electrospinning synthesis of superconducting BSCCO nanowires

    Duarte, Edgar A.; Quintero, Pedro A.; Meisel, Mark W.; Nino, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires 150 nm to 250 nm thick are synthesized using the electrospinning. •Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires are obtained after a heat treatment at 850 °C. •Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires show a T c = 78.7 K consistent with bulk superconductor behavior. -- Abstract: This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x superconducting nanowires. Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires with a T c = 78.7 K are synthesized using the electrospinning process employing sol–gel precursors. A sol–gel methodology is used to obtain a homogeneous PVP solution containing Bi, Sr, Ca, and Cu acetates. Mats of randomly oriented nanowires and aligned nanowires are also collected. After a heat treatment at 850 °C in ambient atmosphere using heating rates of 100 and 400 °C/h, fully crystallized Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires are obtained. The morphology, microstructure, and crystal structure of these nanowires are then examined to reveal a rectangular morphology having typical wire thickness in the range of 150–250 nm, and a wire width between 400 and 600 nm. DC magnetization studies are conducted to investigate the critical transition temperature (T c ) of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires and to compare their magnetic properties to those of bulk Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x powder. The T c for the commercial powder is observed at 78.6 K, and that of the obtained nanowires at 78.7 K. These results point to the superconducting nature of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x nanowires, and the potential of the electrospinning process for the synthesis of this superconductor material

  20. Magnetic and superconducting nanowires

    Piraux, L.; Encinas, A.; Vila, L.

    2005-01-01

    magnetic and superconducting nanowires. Using different approaches entailing measurements on both single wires and arrays, numerous interesting physical properties have been identified in relation to the nanoscopic dimensions of these materials. Finally, various novel applications of the nanowires are also...

  1. Vertical nanowire architectures

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfl-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires and statistics: A statistical process for reading ultradense arrays of nanostructured materials is presented (see image). The experimental realization is achieved through selective nanowire growth using porous alumina templates. The statistical patterning approach is found to provide ri...

  2. Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Ni Nanotubes and Nanowires

    Wang Yiqian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Highly ordered Ni nanotube and nanowire arrays were fabricated via electrodeposition. The Ni microstructures and the process of the formation were investigated using conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Herein, we demonstrated the systematic fabrication of Ni nanotube and nanowire arrays and proposed an original growth mechanism. With the different deposition time, nanotubes or nanowires can be obtained. Tubular nanostructures can be obtained at short time, while nanowires take longer time to form. This formation mechanism is applicable to design and synthesize other metal nanostructures and even compound nanostuctures via template-based electrodeposition.

  3. Synthesis of SERS active Au nanowires in different noncoordinating solvents

    Hou Xiaomiao; Zhang Xiaoling, E-mail: zhangxl@bit.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science of Ministry of Education, Beijing Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, School of Science (China); Fang Yan, E-mail: fangyan@mail.cnu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Nano-Photonics and Nano-Structure (NPNS), Capital Normal University (China); Chen Shutang; Li Na; Zhou Qi [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science of Ministry of Education, Beijing Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, School of Science (China)

    2011-06-15

    Au nanowires with length up to micrometers were synthesized through a simple and one-pot solution growth method. HAuCl{sub 4} was reduced in a micellar structure formed by 1-octadecylamine and oleic acid in hexane, heptane, toluene and chloroform, respectively. As the non-polarity of noncoordinating solvents can affect the nucleation and growth rates of Au nanostructures, Au nanowires with different diameters could be obtained by changing the noncoordinating solvents in the synthetic process. The influences of the solvents on the morphology of Au nanowires were systematically studied. When using hexane as reaction solvent, the product turned to be high portion of Au nanowires with more uniform size than the others. Furthermore, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum of 2-thionaphthol was obtained on the Au nanowire-modified substrate, indicating that the as-synthesized Au nanowires have potential for highly sensitive optical detection application.

  4. Future applications of heterostructures

    König, Ulf

    1996-01-01

    In this review the status and future of heterostructure devices is discussed. The author concentrates on III/V and Si/SiGe. Performance and applications are folded to the data and expectations of the micro- and opto-electronic market and to the traditional Si-mainstream. New trends, i.e. the SIA-roadmap, are checked how heterodevices can fit in. Only the most attractive candidates for applications are considered, i.e. the heterobipolar-, the hetero field effect-transistors, the resonant tunnel diode and to a less extent, some optoelectronic devices. Considered figures of merit are frequencies, transconductance, noise at high and low frequencies, threshold voltage, power delay, threshold current and quantum efficiencies. It is pointed out how to optimize those by material and design. Extrapolations to the future potential of heterodevices are made, just taking the claimed scaling of lateral dimensions into consideration. Field of applications are presented, where heterodevices offer exclusive qualities, i.e. high frequency transmission and sensors, and new mixed systems. In the case of logic the trend goes to nanoscaled devices and ICs targeting nanoelectronics beyond traditional electronics. Heterostructure layers allow a vertical nanoscaling and thus give an additional degree of freedom for designing and optimation. It is an attractive challenge for scientists and engineers to solve the related technological problems like thin, low thermal budget oxides, like defect free buffer layers etc. Special attention is put on Si/SiGe, which is now on an upswing in electronics and photonics.

  5. Understanding the true shape of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowires.

    Jiang, Nian; Wong-Leung, Jennifer; Joyce, Hannah J; Gao, Qiang; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2014-10-08

    With increasing interest in nanowire-based devices, a thorough understanding of the nanowire shape is required to gain tight control of the quality of nanowire heterostructures and improve the performance of related devices. We present a systematic study of the sidewalls of Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowires by investigating the faceting process from the beginning with vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) nucleation, followed by the simultaneous radial growth on the sidewalls, and to the end with sidewall transformation during annealing. The VLS nucleation interface of our GaAs nanowires is revealed by examining cross sections of the nanowire, where the nanowire exhibits a Reuleaux triangular shape with three curved surfaces along {112}A. These curved surfaces are not thermodynamically stable and adopt {112}A facets during radial growth. We observe clear differences in radial growth rate between the ⟨112⟩A and ⟨112⟩B directions with {112}B facets forming due to the slower radial growth rate along ⟨112⟩B directions. These sidewalls transform to {110} facets after high temperature (>500 °C) annealing. A nucleation model is proposed to explain the origin of the Reuleaux triangular shape of the nanowires, and the sidewall evolution is explained by surface kinetic and thermodynamic limitations.

  6. Optical haze of randomly arranged silver nanowire transparent conductive films with wide range of nanowire diameters

    M. Marus

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the diameter of randomly arranged silver nanowires on the optical haze of silver nanowire transparent conductive films was studied. Proposed simulation model behaved similarly with the experimental results, and was used to theoretically study the optical haze of silver nanowires with diameters in the broad range from 30 nm and above. Our results show that a thickening of silver nanowires from 30 to 100 nm results in the increase of the optical haze up to 8 times, while from 100 to 500 nm the optical haze increases only up to 1.38. Moreover, silver nanowires with diameter of 500 nm possess up to 5% lower optical haze and 5% higher transmittance than 100 nm thick silver nanowires for the same 10-100 Ohm/sq sheet resistance range. Further thickening of AgNWs can match the low haze of 30 nm thick AgNWs, but at higher transmittance. The results obtained from this work allow deeper analysis of the silver nanowire transparent conductive films from the perspective of the diameter of nanowires for various optoelectronic devices.

  7. Characteristics of AlN/GaN nanowire Bragg mirror grown on (001) silicon by molecular beam epitaxy

    Heo, Junseok

    2013-10-01

    GaN nanowires containing AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) heterostructures have been grown on (001) silicon substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. A peak reflectance of 70% with normal incidence at 560 nm is derived from angle resolved reflectance measurements on the as-grown nanowire DBR array. The measured peak reflectance wavelength is significantly blue-shifted from the ideal calculated value. The discrepancy is explained by investigating the reflectance of the nanoscale DBRs with a finite difference time domain technique. Ensemble nanowire microcavities with In0.3Ga 0.7N nanowires clad by AlN/GaN DBRs have also been characterized. Room temperature emission from the microcavity exhibits considerable linewidth narrowing compared to that measured for unclad In0.3Ga0.7N nanowires. The resonant emission is characterized by a peak wavelength and linewidth of 575 nm and 39 nm, respectively. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  8. A Facile Fabrication of Silver-Coated Copper Nanowires by Galvanic Replacement

    Xin He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a general strategy to fabricate silver-coated copper nanowires by a galvanic replacement, which is guided by the chemical principle that metal ions (silver ions with a relatively high reduction potential can galvanically etch nanostructure made from a less metal (copper. Well-dispersed and high-yielded copper nanowires were initially synthesized and then introduced into silver-ammonia solution for the growth of silver nanocrystals on the nanowire surfaces under vigorous oscillation. The results of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope revealed that the silver nanocrystals were uniformly distributed on the copper nanowire surfaces to form Cu-Ag heterostructures. The concentration of silver-ammonia solution and the time of replacement reaction determine the size and density of the silver nanocrystals. Our investigation might pave the way to the synthesis of other bimetallic nanostructures via a facile, fast, and economical route.

  9. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    Kaur, Jasveer, E-mail: kaurjasveer89@gmail.com; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder [Department of Physics, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India); Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder, E-mail: raminder-k-saini@yahoo.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Punjabi University Patiala, 147002, Punjab (India)

    2016-05-06

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  10. Fabrication of multilayer nanowires

    Kaur, Jasveer; Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder; Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer nanowires were fabricated by potentiostate ectrodeposition template synthesis method into the pores of polycarbonate membrane. In present work layer by layer deposition of two different metals Ni and Cu in polycarbonate membrane having pore size of 600 nm were carried out. It is found that the growth of nanowires is not constant, it varies with deposition time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the morphology of fabricated multilayer nanowires. An energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results confirm the composition of multilayer nanowires. The result shows that multilayer nanowires formed is dense.

  11. Vacuum-evaporated ferroelectric films and heterostructures of vinylidene fluoride/trifluoroethylene copolymer

    Draginda, Yu. A., E-mail: lbf@ns.crys.ras.ru; Yudin, S G; Lazarev, V V; Yablonskii, S V; Palto, S P [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    The potential of the vacuum method for preparing ferroelectric films and photonic heterostructures from organic materials is studied. Vacuum-evaporated films of fluoropolymers and heterostructures on their basis are obtained and their ferroelectric and spectral properties are studied. In particular, homogeneous films of the well-known piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride and ferroelectric material vinylidene fluoride/trifluoroethylene copolymer (P(VDF/TFE)) are produced. Experimental studies of vacuum-evaporated P(VDF/TFE) films confirmed their ferroelectric properties. The heterostructures composed of alternating layers of P(VDF/TFE) copolymer molecules and azodye molecules are fabricated by vacuum evaporation. Owing to the controlled layer thickness and a significant difference in the refractive indices of the P(VDF/TFE) copolymer and azodyes, these heterostructures exhibit properties of photonic crystals. This finding is confirmed by the occurrence of a photonic band in the absorption spectra of the heterostructures.

  12. Nanowire Growth for Photovoltaics

    Holm, Jeppe Vilstrup

    Solar cells commercial success is based on an efficiency/cost calculation. Nanowire solar cells is one of the foremost candidates to implement third generation photo voltaics, which are both very efficient and cheap to produce. This thesis is about our progress towards commercial nanowire solar...... cells. Resonance effects between the light and nanowire causes an inherent concentration of the sunlight into the nanowires, and means that a sparse array of nanowires (less than 5% of the area) can absorb all the incoming light. The resonance effects, as well as a graded index of refraction, also traps...... the light. The concentration and light trapping means that single junction nanowire solar cells have a higher theoretical maximum efficiency than equivalent planar solar cells. We have demonstrated the built-in light concentration of nanowires, by growing, contacting and characterizing a solar cell...

  13. Electrodeposited highly-ordered manganese oxide nanowire arrays for supercapacitors

    Liu, Haifeng; Lu, Bingqiang; Wei, Shuiqiang; Bao, Mi; Wen, Yanxuan; Wang, Fan

    2012-07-01

    Large arrays of well-aligned Mn oxide nanowires were prepared by electrodeposition using anodic aluminum oxide templates. The sizes of nanowires were tuned by varying the electrotype solution involved and the MnO2 nanowires with 10 μm in length were obtained in a neutral KMnO4 bath for 1 h. MnO2 nanowire arrays grown on conductor substance save the tedious electrode-making process, and electrochemical characterization demonstrates that the MnO2 nanowire arrays electrode has good capacitive behavior. Due to the limited mass transportation in narrow spacing, the spacing effects between the neighbor nanowires have show great influence to the electrochemical performance.

  14. Determination of interfacial states in solid heterostructures using a variable-energy positron beam

    Asoka kumar, Palakkal P. V.; Lynn, Kelvin G.

    1993-01-01

    A method and means is provided for characterizing interfacial electron states in solid heterostructures using a variable energy positron beam to probe the solid heterostructure. The method includes the steps of directing a positron beam having a selected energy level at a point on the solid heterostructure so that the positron beam penetrates into the solid heterostructure and causes positrons to collide with the electrons at an interface of the solid heterostructure. The number and energy of gamma rays emitted from the solid heterostructure as a result of the annihilation of positrons with electrons at the interface are detected. The data is quantified as a function of the Doppler broadening of the photopeak about the 511 keV line created by the annihilation of the positrons and electrons at the interface, preferably, as an S-parameter function; and a normalized S-parameter function of the data is obtained. The function of data obtained is compared with a corresponding function of the Doppler broadening of the annihilation photopeak about 511 keV for a positron beam having a second energy level directed at the same material making up a portion of the solid heterostructure. The comparison of these functions facilitates characterization of the interfacial states of electrons in the solid heterostructure at points corresponding to the penetration of positrons having the particular energy levels into the interface of the solid heterostructure. Accordingly, the invention provides a variable-energy non-destructive probe of solid heterostructures, such as SiO.sub.2 /Si, MOS or other semiconductor devices.

  15. Designing and building nanowires: directed nanocrystal self-assembly into radically branched and zigzag PbS nanowires

    Xu Fan; Ma Xin; Gerlein, L Felipe; Cloutier, Sylvain G

    2011-01-01

    Lead sulfide nanowires with controllable optoelectronic properties would be promising building blocks for various applications. Here, we report the hot colloidal synthesis of radically branched and zigzag nanowires through self-attachment of star-shaped and octahedral nanocrystals in the presence of multiple surfactants. We obtained high-quality single-crystal nanowires with uniform diameter along the entire length, and the size of the nanowire can be tuned by tailoring the reaction parameters. This slow oriented attachment provides a better understanding of the intricacies of this complex nanocrystal assembly process. Meanwhile, these self-assembled nanowire structures have appealing lateral conformations with narrow side arms or highly faceted edges, where strong quantum confinement can occur. Consequently, the single-crystal nanowire structures exhibit strong photoluminescence in the near-infrared region with a large blue-shift compared to the bulk material.

  16. Electron scattering times in ZnO based polar heterostructures

    Falson, J., E-mail: j.falson@fkf.mpg.de [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum-Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan); Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kozuka, Y. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum-Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Smet, J. H. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Arima, T. [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Tsukazaki, A. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Kawasaki, M. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum-Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-08-24

    The remarkable historic advances experienced in condensed matter physics have been enabled through the continued exploration and proliferation of increasingly richer and cleaner material systems. In this work, we report on the scattering times of charge carriers confined in state-of-the-art MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures displaying electron mobilities in excess of 10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/V s. Through an examination of low field quantum oscillations, we obtain the effective mass of charge carriers, along with the transport and quantum scattering times. These times compare favorably with high mobility AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures, suggesting the quality of MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures now rivals that of traditional semiconductors.

  17. Photonic Heterostructures with Properties of Ferroelectrics and Light Polarizers

    Palto, S. P., E-mail: palto@online.ru; Draginda, Yu A [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-15

    The optical and electro-optical properties of a new type of photonic heterostructure composed of alternating ferroelectric molecular layers and optically anisotropic layers of another material are considered. A numerical simulation of the real prototype of this heterostructure, which can be prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett method from layers of a ferroelectric copolymer (polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) and an azo dye with photoinduced optical anisotropy, has been performed. It is shown that this heterostructure has pronounced polarization optical properties and yields a significant change in the polarization state of light at the photonic band edges in the ranges of the maximum density of photon states. The latter property can be used to obtain an enhanced electro-optic effect at small spectral shifts of the photonic band (the latter can be provided by the piezoelectric effect in ferroelectric layers).

  18. Resonance of curved nanowires

    Calabri, L [CNR-INFM-National Research Center on nanoStructures and bioSystems at Surfaces (S3), Via Campi 213/a, 41100 Modena (Italy); Pugno, N [Department of Structural Engineering and Geotechnics, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Ding, W [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3111 (United States); Ruoff, R S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3111 (United States)

    2006-08-23

    The effects of non-ideal experimental configuration on the mechanical resonance of boron (B) nanowires (NWs) were studied to obtain the corrected value for the Young's modulus. The following effects have been theoretically considered: (i) the presence of intrinsic curvature (ii) non-ideal clamps (iii) spurious masses (iv) coating layer, and (v) large displacements. An energy-based analytical analysis was developed to treat such effects and their interactions. Here, we focus on treating the effect of the intrinsic curvature on the mechanical resonance. The analytical approach has been confirmed by numerical FEM analysis. A parallax method was used to obtain the three-dimensional geometry of the NW.

  19. Morphology induced photo-degradation study of low temperature, chemically derived ZnO/SnO{sub 2} heterostructure

    Pal, Shreyasi, E-mail: Shreyasi.tua@gamil.com; Maiti, Soumen; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar, E-mail: kalyan-chattopadhyay@yahoo.com [Thin Films and Nanoscience Laboratory, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Rational construction of heterostructure is a key pathway to pursue highly active photocatalysts that also offers prospects to explore the relationship between structural aspect and photocatalytic efficiency. Here, we adopted a two-step wet chemical protocol for decoration of ZnO nanowires with SnO{sub 2} nanoclusters. ZnO nanowires were prepared by one pot ambient conditioned synthesis from commercial zinc powder. In sequence, synthesized ZnO nanowires were engineered with varying quantity SnO{sub 2} nanoclusters via low temperature hydrothermal method. Environmental remediation through catalytic activity of the samples was inspected taking two dyes having different ionic character (Methyl Orange and Rhodamine B) under UV irradiation where the optimized hybrid displayed better performance than mono component oxides. Enhancement in catalytic performance could be enlightened by the heterostructure formation at the ZnO/SnO{sub 2} interface which in turns prolonged photogenerated carrier separation and extend the photo response range. Furthermore, the photocatalysis performance by heterostructure could be recycled for several times without noticeable decrease in their catalytic activity.

  20. Majorana zero modes in superconductor-semiconductor heterostructures

    Lutchyn, R. M.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.; Krogstrup, P.; Marcus, C. M.; Oreg, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Realizing topological superconductivity and Majorana zero modes in the laboratory is a major goal in condensed-matter physics. In this Review, we survey the current status of this rapidly developing field, focusing on proposals for the realization of topological superconductivity in semiconductor-superconductor heterostructures. We examine materials science progress in growing InAs and InSb semiconductor nanowires and characterizing these systems. We then discuss the observation of robust signatures of Majorana zero modes in recent experiments, paying particular attention to zero-bias tunnelling conduction measurements and Coulomb blockade experiments. We also outline several next-generation experiments probing exotic properties of Majorana zero modes, including fusion rules and non-Abelian exchange statistics. Finally, we discuss prospects for implementing Majorana-based topological quantum computation.

  1. Nanowire growth from the viewpoint of the thin film polylayer growth theory

    Kashchiev, Dimo

    2018-03-01

    The theory of polylayer growth of thin solid films is employed for description of the growth kinetics of single-crystal nanowires. Expressions are derived for the dependences of the height h and radius r of a given nanowire on time t, as well as for the h(r) dependence. These dependences are applicable immediately after the nanowire nucleation on the substrate and thus include the period during which the nucleated nanowire changes its shape from that of cap to that of column. The analysis shows that the nanowire cap-to-column shape transition is continuous and makes it possible to kinetically define the nanowire shape-transition radius by means of the nanowire radial and axial growth rates. The obtained h(t), r(t) and h(r) dependences are found to provide a good description of available experimental data for growth of self-nucleated GaN nanowires by the vapor-solid mechanism.

  2. Oxygen deficiency in MoO{sub 3} polycrystalline nanowires and nanotubes

    Varlec, Ana, E-mail: ana.varlec@ijs.si [Condensed Matter Physics, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Arčon, Denis [Condensed Matter Physics, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska cesta 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Škapin, Srečo D. [Advanced Materials Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Remškar, Maja [Condensed Matter Physics, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-02-15

    We report on the synthesis of polycrystalline molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 3}) nanowires via oxidation of molybdenum-sulfur-iodine (Mo{sub 6}S{sub 2}I{sub 8}) nanowires. This unique synthesis route results in an interesting morphology comprising porous nanowires and nanotubes. We found the nanowires to have the orthorhombic MoO{sub 3} structure. The structure is slightly oxygen deficient which results in the appearance of a new resonant Raman band (1004 cm{sup −1}) and paramagnetic defects (Mo{sup 5+}) of both the point and crystallographic shear plane nature. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline MoO{sub 3} nanowires were obtained via oxidation of Mo{sub 6}S{sub 2}I{sub 8} nanowires. • Nanowires are porous and tubular with either filled or empty interior. • Nanowires are slightly oxygen deficient which leads to a new Raman band.

  3. Controllable size reduction of CdSe nanowires through the intermediate formation of Se-coated CdSe nanowires using acid and thermal treatment

    Lam, N S [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wong, K W [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Li, Q [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Zheng, Z [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Lau, W M [Surface Science Western, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2007-10-17

    Thinning of CdSe nanowires (NWs) with controllable size was achieved by a simple acid treatment and subsequent annealing on thick CdSe NWs synthesized from vapour phase growth. During acid treatment, not only the undesired impurities such as native oxides of Cd and Se could be etched, but surface reactions of CdSe NWs were also observed, resulting in the formation of a layer of elemental Se around a thinner CdSe core. As a result, a heterostructure of Se - CdSe nanostructure formed after acid treatment of CdSe NWs. Upon thermal annealing, the Se shell was effectively removed and thinned stoichiometric single-crystalline CdSe NWs could be obtained. It was observed that NWs could be thinned by up to {approx}60% in diameter by acid treatment and subsequent Se thermal desorption. The degree of thinning was controllable by adjusting the duration of acid treatment. The success of the thinning of CdSe NWs by simple acid treatment and the annealing process reported here opens a new processing route for obtaining stoichiometric CdSe NWs with controllable size reduction and improved aspect ratio. This can undoubtedly broadly improve the range of applications of 1D CdSe nanostructures and allow more exploration of their uni-directional properties. A correction was made to the last paragraph of section 3 on 18 September 2007. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.

  4. Controllable size reduction of CdSe nanowires through the intermediate formation of Se-coated CdSe nanowires using acid and thermal treatment

    Lam, N S; Wong, K W; Li, Q; Zheng, Z; Lau, W M

    2007-01-01

    Thinning of CdSe nanowires (NWs) with controllable size was achieved by a simple acid treatment and subsequent annealing on thick CdSe NWs synthesized from vapour phase growth. During acid treatment, not only the undesired impurities such as native oxides of Cd and Se could be etched, but surface reactions of CdSe NWs were also observed, resulting in the formation of a layer of elemental Se around a thinner CdSe core. As a result, a heterostructure of Se - CdSe nanostructure formed after acid treatment of CdSe NWs. Upon thermal annealing, the Se shell was effectively removed and thinned stoichiometric single-crystalline CdSe NWs could be obtained. It was observed that NWs could be thinned by up to ∼60% in diameter by acid treatment and subsequent Se thermal desorption. The degree of thinning was controllable by adjusting the duration of acid treatment. The success of the thinning of CdSe NWs by simple acid treatment and the annealing process reported here opens a new processing route for obtaining stoichiometric CdSe NWs with controllable size reduction and improved aspect ratio. This can undoubtedly broadly improve the range of applications of 1D CdSe nanostructures and allow more exploration of their uni-directional properties. A correction was made to the last paragraph of section 3 on 18 September 2007. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version

  5. Synthesis, microstructure, and physical properties of metallic barcode nanowires

    Park, Bum Chul; Kim, Young Keun

    2017-05-01

    With rapid progress in nanotechnology, nanostructured materials have come closer to our life. Single-component nanowires are actively investigated because of their novel properties, attributed to their nanoscale dimensions and adjustable aspect ratio, but their technical limitations cannot be resolved easily. Heterostructured nanomaterials gained attention as alternatives because they can improve the existing single-component structure or add new functions to it. Among them, barcode nanowires (BNWs), comprising at least two different functional segments, can perform multiple functions for use in biomedical sensors, information encoding and security, and catalysts. BNW applications require reliable response to the external field. Hence, researchers have been attempting to improve the reliability of synthesis and regulate the properties precisely. This article highlights the recent progress and prospects for the synthesis, properties, and applications of metallic BNWs with focus on the dependence of the magnetic, optical, and mechanical properties on material, composition, shape, and microstructure.

  6. Heterostructures of transition metal dichalcogenides

    Amin, Bin

    2015-08-24

    The structural, electronic, optical, and photocatalytic properties of out-of-plane and in-plane heterostructures of transition metal dichalcogenides are investigated by (hybrid) first principles calculations. The out-of-plane heterostructures are found to be indirect band gap semiconductors with type-II band alignment. Direct band gaps can be achieved by moderate tensile strain in specific cases. The excitonic peaks show blueshifts as compared to the parent monolayer systems, whereas redshifts occur when the chalcogen atoms are exchanged along the series S-Se-Te. Strong absorption from infrared to visible light as well as excellent photocatalytic properties can be achieved.

  7. Technology for obtaining of solar elements based on heterostructure basis

    Camalova, A.Q.; Aliyeva, A.K.; Zeynalova, S.M.; Latifova, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    As it is known the level of energy sources usage reflects the level of development of civilization and was accepted by all as main factor. Currently, there are mainly oil, coal and natural gas are used as raw material in traditional energy, which leads to formation of environmental problems. They are not endless reserves of traditional energy sources and there is a danger of their extinction in the near future. For that reason, recently, the use of wind, solar, thermal waters and some other natural resources rapidly increased in many countries. The most important place among these natural resources belongs to solar energy. Thus, the amount of solar energy coming into the earth is much more than the amount of energy of oil, gas, coal and uranium reserves in the world taken together. At present the annual production of solar components exceeds 500 MW in the world. Photoelectric stations are silent and do not waste harmful products to the environment. The majority of modern solar cells are made on the basis of a single p-n junction

  8. Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices

    Forbes, David

    2015-01-01

    Firefly Technologies, in collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, developed synthesis methods for highly strained nanowires. Two synthesis routes resulted in successful nanowire epitaxy: direct nucleation and growth on the substrate and a novel selective-epitaxy route based on nanolithography using diblock copolymers. The indium-arsenide (InAs) nanowires are implemented in situ within the epitaxy environment-a significant innovation relative to conventional semiconductor nanowire generation using ex situ gold nanoparticles. The introduction of these nanoscale features may enable an intermediate band solar cell while simultaneously increasing the effective absorption volume that can otherwise limit short-circuit current generated by thin quantized layers. The use of nanowires for photovoltaics decouples the absorption process from the current extraction process by virtue of the high aspect ratio. While no functional solar cells resulted from this effort, considerable fundamental understanding of the nanowire epitaxy kinetics and nanopatterning process was developed. This approach could, in principle, be an enabling technology for heterointegration of dissimilar materials. The technology also is applicable to virtual substrates. Incorporating nanowires onto a recrystallized germanium/metal foil substrate would potentially solve the problem of grain boundary shunting of generated carriers by restricting the cross-sectional area of the nanowire (tens of nanometers in diameter) to sizes smaller than the recrystallized grains (0.5 to 1 micron(exp 2).

  9. Functionalised Silver Nanowire Structures

    Andrew, Piers; Ilie, Adelina

    2007-01-01

    Crystalline silver nanowires 60-100 nm in diameter and tens of micrometres in length have been fabricated using a low temperature, solution synthesis technique. We explore the potential of this method to produce functional nanowire structures using two different strategies to attach active molecules to the nanowires: adsorption and displacement. Initially, as-produced silver nanowires capped with a uniaxial-growth-inducing polymer layer were functionalised by solution adsorption of a semiconducting conjugated polymer to generate fluorescent nanowire structures. The influence of nanowire surface chemistry was investigated by displacing the capping polymer with an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer, followed by solution adsorption functionalisation. The success of molecular attachment was monitored by electron microscopy, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy. We examined how the optical properties of such adsorbed molecules are affected by the metallic nanowires, and observed transfer of excitation energy between dye molecules mediated by surface plasmons propagating on the nanowires. Non-contact dynamic force microscopy measurements were used to map the work-function of individual wires, revealing inhomogeneity of the polymer surface coverage

  10. Stability of Organic Nanowires

    Balzer, F.; Schiek, M.; Wallmann, I.

    2011-01-01

    The morphological stability of organic nanowires over time and under thermal load is of major importance for their use in any device. In this study the growth and stability of organic nanowires from a naphthyl end-capped thiophene grown by organic molecular beam deposition is investigated via ato...

  11. High Piezo-photocatalytic Efficiency of CuS/ZnO Nanowires Using Both Solar and Mechanical Energy for Degrading Organic Dye.

    Hong, Deyi; Zang, Weili; Guo, Xiao; Fu, Yongming; He, Haoxuan; Sun, Jing; Xing, Lili; Liu, Baodan; Xue, Xinyu

    2016-08-24

    High piezo-photocatalytic efficiency of degrading organic pollutants has been realized from CuS/ZnO nanowires using both solar and mechanical energy. CuS/ZnO heterostructured nanowire arrays are compactly/vertically aligned on stainless steel mesh by a simple two-step wet-chemical method. The mesh-supported nanocomposites can facilitate an efficient light harvesting due to the large surface area and can also be easily removed from the treated solution. Under both solar and ultrasonic irradiation, CuS/ZnO nanowires can rapidly degrade methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution, and the recyclability is investigated. In this process, the ultrasonic assistance can greatly enhance the photocatalytic activity. Such a performance can be attributed to the coupling of the built-in electric field of heterostructures and the piezoelectric field of ZnO nanowires. The built-in electric field of the heterostructure can effectively separate the photogenerated electrons/holes and facilitate the carrier transportation. The CuS component can improve the visible light utilization. The piezoelectric field created by ZnO nanowires can further separate the photogenerated electrons/holes through driving them to migrate along opposite directions. The present results demonstrate a new water-pollution solution in green technologies for the environmental remediation at the industrial level.

  12. Escher-like quasiperiodic heterostructures

    Barriuso, A G; Monzon, J J; Sanchez-Soto, L L; Costa, A F

    2009-01-01

    Quasiperiodic heterostructures present unique structural, electronic and vibrational properties, connected to the existence of incommensurate periods. We go beyond previous schemes, such as Fibonacci or Thue-Morse, based on substitutional sequences, by introducing construction rules generated by tessellations of the unit disc by regular polygons. We explore some of the properties exhibited by these systems. (fast track communication)

  13. Escher-like quasiperiodic heterostructures

    Barriuso, A G; Monzon, J J; Sanchez-Soto, L L [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Costa, A F [Departamento de Matematicas Fundamentales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Quasiperiodic heterostructures present unique structural, electronic and vibrational properties, connected to the existence of incommensurate periods. We go beyond previous schemes, such as Fibonacci or Thue-Morse, based on substitutional sequences, by introducing construction rules generated by tessellations of the unit disc by regular polygons. We explore some of the properties exhibited by these systems. (fast track communication)

  14. X = S, Se, Te) heterostructures

    Zhang, Qingyun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2018-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic properties of the two-dimensional GaX/MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te) heterostructures. Orbital hybridization between GaX and MX2 is found to result in Rashba splitting at the valence

  15. Photonic slab heterostructures based on opals

    Palacios-Lidon, Elisa; Galisteo-Lopez, Juan F.; Juarez, Beatriz H.; Lopez, Cefe

    2004-09-01

    In this paper the fabrication of photonic slab heterostructures based on artificial opals is presented. The innovated method combines high-quality thin-films growing of opals and silica infiltration by Chemical Vapor Deposition through a multi-step process. By varying structure parameters, such as lattice constant, sample thickness or refractive index, different heterostructures have been obtained. The optical study of these systems, carried out by reflectance and transmittance measurements, shows that the prepared samples are of high quality further confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy micrographs. The proposed novel method for sample preparation allows a high control of the involved structure parameters, giving the possibility of tunning their photonic behavior. Special attention in the optical response of these materials has been addressed to the study of planar defects embedded in opals, due to their importance in different photonic fields and future technological applications. Reflectance and transmission measurements show a sharp resonance due to localized states associated with the presence of planar defects. A detailed study of the defect mode position and its dependance on defect thickness and on the surrounding photonic crystal is presented as well as evidence showing the scalability of the problem. Finally, it is also concluded that the proposed method is cheap and versatile allowing the preparation of opal-based complex structures.

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of ZnS/Diamond-Like Carbon Core-Shell Nanowires

    Jung Han Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated ZnS/diamond-like carbon (DLC core-shell heterostructure nanowire using a simple two-step process: the vapor-liquid-solid method combined with radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf PECVD. As a core nanowire, ZnS nanowires with face-centered cubic structure were synthesized with a sputtered Au thin film, which exhibit a length and a diameter of ~10 μm and ~30–120 nm . After rf PECVD for DLC coating, The length and width of the dense ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires were a range of ~10 μm  and 50–150 nm , respectively. In addition, ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires were characterized with scanning transmission electron microscopy. From the results, the products have flat and uniform DLC coating layer on ZnS nanowire in spite of high residual stress induced by the high sp3 fraction. To further understanding of the DLC coating layer, Raman spectroscopy was employed with ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires, which reveals two Raman bands at 1550 cm−1 (G peak and 1330 cm−1 (D peak. Finally, we investigated the optical properties from ultraviolet to infrared wavelength region using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrometry. Related to optical properties, ZnS/DLC core-shell nanowires exhibit relatively lower absorbance and higher IR transmittance than that of ZnS nanowires.

  17. IZO deposited by PLD on flexible substrate for organic heterostructures

    Socol, M.; Preda, N.; Stanculescu, A.; Breazu, C.; Florica, C.; Rasoga, O.; Stanculescu, F.; Socol, G.

    2017-05-01

    In:ZnO (IZO) thin films were deposited on flexible plastic substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The obtained layers present adequate optical and electrical properties competitive with those based on indium tin oxide (ITO). The figure of merit (9 × 10-3 Ω-1) calculated for IZO layers demonstrates that high quality coatings can be prepared by this deposition technique. A thermal annealing (150 °C for 1 h) or an oxygen plasma etching (6 mbar for 10 min.) were applied to the IZO layers to evaluate the influence of these treatments on the properties of the transparent coatings. Using vacuum evaporation, organic heterostructures based on cooper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) were deposited on the untreated and treated IZO layers. The optical and electrical properties of the heterostructures were investigated by UV-Vis, FTIR and current-voltage ( I- V) measurements. For the heterostructure fabricated on IZO treated in oxygen plasma, an improvement in the current value with at least one order of magnitude was evidenced in the I- V characteristics recorded in dark conditions. Also, an increase in the current value for the heterostructure deposited on untreated IZO layer can be achieved by adding an organic layer such as tris-8-hydroxyquinoline aluminium (Alq3).

  18. Photopatterning of heterostructured polymer Langmuir-Blodgett films

    Li Tiesheng; Mitsuishi, Masaya; Miyashita, Tokuji

    2008-01-01

    Heterostructured polymer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film prepared by using poly(N-dodecylacrylamide-co-t-butyl 4-vinylphenyl carbonate) (p(DDA-tBVPC53)) and poly(N-neopentyl methacrylamide-co-9-anthrylmethyl methacrylate) (p(nPMA-AMMA10)) polymer LB films which can act as photogenerator layers were investigated. Patterns with a resolution of 0.75 μm were obtained on heterostructured polymer LB films composed of 4 layers of p(nPMA-AMMA10) LB film (top layers) and 40 layers of p(DDA-tBVPC53) LB film (under layers) on a silicon wafer by deep UV irradiation followed by development with 1% tetramethylammonium hydroxide aqueous solution. The sensitivity of the heterostructured polymer LB films was improved without loss of the resolution compared with p(DDA-tBVPC53) LB film. The etch resistance of the heterostructured polymer LB films was sufficiently good to allow patterning of a copper film suitable for photomask fabrication

  19. Core-shell magnetic nanowires fabrication and characterization

    Kalska-Szostko, B., E-mail: kalska@uwb.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1K, 15-245 Bialystok (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Bialystok, Poland (Poland); Klekotka, U.; Satuła, D. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1K, 15-245 Bialystok (Poland); Faculty of Physics, University of Bialystok, Ciolkowskiego 1L, 15-245 Bialystok, Poland (Poland)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • New approach for nanowires modification are presented. • Physical and chemical characterization of the nanowires are shown. • Properties modulations as an effect of the surface layer composition are discussed. - Abstract: In this paper, a new way of the preparation of core-shell magnetic nanowires has been proposed. For the modification Fe nanowires were prepared by electrodeposition in anodic aluminium oxide matrixes, in first step. In second, by wetting chemical deposition, shell layers of Ag, Au or Cu were obtained. Resultant core-shell nanowires structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray. Whereas magnetic properties by Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  20. High mobility ZnO nanowires for terahertz detection applications

    Liu, Huiqiang; Peng, Rufang; Chu, Shijin; Chu, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    An oxide nanowire material was utilized for terahertz detection purpose. High quality ZnO nanowires were synthesized and field-effect transistors were fabricated. Electrical transport measurements demonstrated the nanowire with good transfer characteristics and fairly high electron mobility. It is shown that ZnO nanowires can be used as building blocks for the realization of terahertz detectors based on a one-dimensional plasmon detection configuration. Clear terahertz wave (∼0.3 THz) induced photovoltages were obtained at room temperature with varying incidence intensities. Further analysis showed that the terahertz photoresponse is closely related to the high electron mobility of the ZnO nanowire sample, which suggests that oxide nanoelectronics may find useful terahertz applications.

  1. Stability of core–shell nanowires in selected model solutions

    Kalska-Szostko, B.; Wykowska, U.; Basa, A.; Zambrzycka, E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Stability of the core–shell nanowires in environmental solutions were tested. • The most and the least aggressive solutions were determined. • The influence of different solutions on magnetic nanowires core was found out. - Abstract: This paper presents the studies of stability of magnetic core–shell nanowires prepared by electrochemical deposition from an acidic solution containing iron in the core and modified surface layer. The obtained nanowires were tested according to their durability in distilled water, 0.01 M citric acid, 0.9% NaCl, and commercial white wine (12% alcohol). The proposed solutions were chosen in such a way as to mimic food related environment due to a possible application of nanowires as additives to, for example, packages. After 1, 2 and 3 weeks wetting in the solutions, nanoparticles were tested by Infrared Spectroscopy, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods

  2. In situ hydrogenation of molybdenum oxide nanowires for enhanced supercapacitors

    Shakir, Imran

    2014-01-01

    In situ hydrogenation of orthorhombic molybdenum trioxide (α-MoO 3) nanowires has been achieved on a large scale by introducing alcohol during the hydrothermal synthesis for electrochemical energy storage supercapacitor devices. The hydrogenated molybdenum trioxide (H xMoO3) nanowires yield a specific capacitance of 168 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and maintain 108 F g-1 at 10 A g-1, which is 36-fold higher than the capacitance obtained from pristine MoO3 nanowires at the same conditions. The electrochemical devices made with HxMoO3 nanowires exhibit excellent cycling stability by retaining 97% of their capacitance after 3000 cycles due to an enhanced electronic conductivity and increased density of hydroxyl groups on the surface of the MoO3 nanowires. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Stability of core–shell nanowires in selected model solutions

    Kalska-Szostko, B., E-mail: kalska@uwb.edu.pl; Wykowska, U.; Basa, A.; Zambrzycka, E.

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Stability of the core–shell nanowires in environmental solutions were tested. • The most and the least aggressive solutions were determined. • The influence of different solutions on magnetic nanowires core was found out. - Abstract: This paper presents the studies of stability of magnetic core–shell nanowires prepared by electrochemical deposition from an acidic solution containing iron in the core and modified surface layer. The obtained nanowires were tested according to their durability in distilled water, 0.01 M citric acid, 0.9% NaCl, and commercial white wine (12% alcohol). The proposed solutions were chosen in such a way as to mimic food related environment due to a possible application of nanowires as additives to, for example, packages. After 1, 2 and 3 weeks wetting in the solutions, nanoparticles were tested by Infrared Spectroscopy, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods.

  4. Oriented epitaxial TiO2 nanowires for water splitting

    Hou, Wenting; Cortez, Pablo; Wuhrer, Richard; Macartney, Sam; Bozhilov, Krassimir N.; Liu, Rong; Sheppard, Leigh R.; Kisailus, David

    2017-06-01

    Highly oriented epitaxial rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire arrays have been hydrothermally grown on polycrystalline TiO2 templates with their orientation dependent on the underlying TiO2 grain. Both the diameter and areal density of the nanowires were tuned by controlling the precursor concentration, and the template surface energy and roughness. Nanowire tip sharpness was influenced by precursor solubility and diffusivity. A new secondary ion mass spectrometer technique has been developed to install additional nucleation sites in single crystal TiO2 templates and the effect on nanowire growth was probed. Using the acquired TiO2 nanowire synthesis knowhow, an assortment of nanowire arrays were installed upon the surface of undoped TiO2 photo-electrodes and assessed for their photo-electrochemical water splitting performance. The key result obtained was that the presence of short and dispersed nanowire arrays significantly improved the photocurrent when the illumination intensity was increased from 100 to 200 mW cm-2. This is attributed to the alignment of the homoepitaxially grown nanowires to the [001] direction, which provides the fastest charge transport in TiO2 and an improved pathway for photo-holes to find water molecules and undertake oxidation. This result lays a foundation for achieving efficient water splitting under conditions of concentrated solar illumination.

  5. Pattern analysis of aligned nanowires in a microchannel

    Jeon, Young Jin; Kang, Hyun Wook; Ko, Seung Hwan; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2013-01-01

    An image processing method for evaluating the quality of nanowire alignment in a microchannel is described. A solution containing nanowires flowing into a microchannel will tend to deposit the nanowires on the bottom surface of the channel via near-wall shear flows. The deposited nanowires generally form complex directional structures along the direction of flow, and the physical properties of these structures depend on the structural morphology, including the alignment quality. A quantitative analysis approach to characterizing the nanowire alignment is needed to estimate the useful features of the nanowire structures. This analysis consists of several image processing methods, including ridge detection, texton analysis and autocorrelation function (ACF) calculation. The ridge detection method improved the ACF by extracting nanowire frames 1–2 pixels in width. Dilation filters were introduced to permit a comparison of the ACF results calculated from different images, regardless of the nanowire orientation. An ACF based on the FFT was then calculated over a square interrogation window. The alignment angle probability distribution was obtained using texton analysis. Monte Carlo simulations of artificially generated images were carried out, and the new algorithm was applied to images collected using two types of microscopy. (paper)

  6. InAs/InP/InSb Nanowires as Low Capacitance n-n Heterojunction Diodes

    A. Pitanti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanowire diodes have been realized by employing an axial heterojunction between InAs and InSb semiconductor materials. The broken-gap band alignment (type III leads to a strong rectification effect when the current-voltage (I-V characteristic is inspected at room temperature. The additional insertion of a narrow InP barrier reduces the thermionic contribution, which results in a net decrease of leakage current in the reverse bias with a corresponding enhanced rectification in terms of asymmetry in the I-V characteristics. The investigated diodes compare favorably with the ones realized with p-n heterostructured nanowires, making InAs/InP/InSb devices appealing candidates to be used as building blocks for nanowire-based ultrafast electronics and for the realization of photodetectors in the THz spectral range.

  7. Epitaxial nanowire formation in metamorphic GaAs/GaPAs short-period superlattices

    Zheng, Nan; Ahrenkiel, S. Phillip

    2017-07-01

    Metamorphic growth presents routes to novel nanomaterials with unique properties that may be suitable for a range of applications. We discuss self-assembled, epitaxial nanowires formed during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of metamorphic GaAs/GaPAs short-period superlattices. The heterostructures incorporate strain-engineered GaPAs compositional grades on 6°-B miscut GaAs substrates. Lateral diffusion within the SPS into vertically aligned, three-dimensional columns results in nanowires extending along A directions with a lateral period of 70-90 nm. The microstructure is probed by transmission electron microscopy to confirm the presence of coherent GaAs nanowires within GaPAs barriers. The compositional profile is inferred from analysis of {200} dark-field image contrast and lattice images.

  8. Cell membrane conformation at vertical nanowire array interface revealed by fluorescence imaging

    Berthing, Trine; Bonde, Sara; Rostgaard, Katrine R; Martinez, Karen L; Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Sørensen, Claus B; Nygård, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The perspectives offered by vertical arrays of nanowires for biosensing applications in living cells depend on the access of individual nanowires to the cell interior. Recent results on electrical access and molecular delivery suggest that direct access is not always obtained. Here, we present a generic approach to directly visualize the membrane conformation of living cells interfaced with nanowire arrays, with single nanowire resolution. The method combines confocal z-stack imaging with an optimized cell membrane labelling strategy which was applied to HEK293 cells interfaced with 2–11 μm long and 3–7 μm spaced nanowires with various surface coatings (bare, aminosilane-coated or polyethyleneimine-coated indium arsenide). We demonstrate that, for all commonly used nanowire lengths, spacings and surface coatings, nanowires generally remain enclosed in a membrane compartment, and are thereby not in direct contact with the cell interior. (paper)

  9. InGaN/GaN nanowires epitaxy on large-area MoS2 for high-performance light-emitters

    Zhao, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Tseng, Chien-Chih; Li, Jun; Shi, Yumeng; Wei, Nini; Zhang, Daliang; Consiglio, Giuseppe Bernardo; Prabaswara, Aditya; Alhamoud, Abdullah Ali; Albadri, Abdulrahman  M.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Zhang, Xixiang; Li, Lain-Jong; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    The recent study of a wide range of layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) has created a new era for device design and applications. In particular, the concept of van der Waals epitaxy (vdWE) utilizing layered TMDCs has the potential to broaden the family of epitaxial growth techniques beyond the conventional methods. We report herein, for the first time, the monolithic high-power, droop-free, and wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nanowire light-emitting diodes (NW-LEDs) on large-area MoS2 layers formed by sulfurizing entire Mo substrates. MoS2 serves as both a buffer layer for high-quality GaN nanowires growth and a sacrificial layer for epitaxy lift-off. The LEDs obtained on nitridated MoS2 via quasi vdWE show a low turn-on voltage of ∼2 V and light output power up to 1.5 mW emitting beyond the “green gap”, without an efficiency droop up to the current injection of 1 A (400 A cm−2), by virtue of high thermal and electrical conductivities of the metal substrates. The discovery of the nitride/layered TMDCs/metal heterostructure platform also ushers in the unparalleled opportunities of simultaneous high-quality nitrides growth for high-performance devices, ultralow-profile optoelectronics, energy harvesting, as well as substrate reusability for practical applications.

  10. InGaN/GaN nanowires epitaxy on large-area MoS2 for high-performance light-emitters

    Zhao, Chao

    2017-05-18

    The recent study of a wide range of layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) has created a new era for device design and applications. In particular, the concept of van der Waals epitaxy (vdWE) utilizing layered TMDCs has the potential to broaden the family of epitaxial growth techniques beyond the conventional methods. We report herein, for the first time, the monolithic high-power, droop-free, and wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nanowire light-emitting diodes (NW-LEDs) on large-area MoS2 layers formed by sulfurizing entire Mo substrates. MoS2 serves as both a buffer layer for high-quality GaN nanowires growth and a sacrificial layer for epitaxy lift-off. The LEDs obtained on nitridated MoS2 via quasi vdWE show a low turn-on voltage of ∼2 V and light output power up to 1.5 mW emitting beyond the “green gap”, without an efficiency droop up to the current injection of 1 A (400 A cm−2), by virtue of high thermal and electrical conductivities of the metal substrates. The discovery of the nitride/layered TMDCs/metal heterostructure platform also ushers in the unparalleled opportunities of simultaneous high-quality nitrides growth for high-performance devices, ultralow-profile optoelectronics, energy harvesting, as well as substrate reusability for practical applications.

  11. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells.

  12. Enhanced magnetotransport in nanopatterned manganite nanowires.

    Marín, Lorena; Morellón, Luis; Algarabel, Pedro A; Rodríguez, Luis A; Magén, César; De Teresa, José M; Ibarra, Manuel R

    2014-02-12

    We have combined optical and focused ion beam lithographies to produce large aspect-ratio (length-to-width >300) single-crystal nanowires of La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 that preserve their functional properties. Remarkably, an enhanced magnetoresistance value of 34% in an applied magnetic field of 0.1 T in the narrowest 150 nm nanowire is obtained. The strain release at the edges together with a destabilization of the insulating regions is proposed to account for this behavior. This opens new strategies to implement these structures in functional spintronic devices.

  13. Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics

    Garnett, Erik C.; Peters, Craig; Brongersma, Mark; Cui, Yi; McGehee, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky junction solar cells have been fabricated using n-type silicon nanowire arrays and a spin-coated conductive polymer (PEDOT). The polymer Schottky junction cells show superior surface passivation and open-circuit voltages compared to standard diffused junction cells with native oxide surfaces. External quantum efficiencies up to 88% were measured for these silicon nanowire/PEDOT solar cells further demonstrating excellent surface passivation. This process avoids high temperature processes which allows for low-cost substrates to be used. © 2010 IEEE.

  14. Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics

    Garnett, Erik C.

    2010-06-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky junction solar cells have been fabricated using n-type silicon nanowire arrays and a spin-coated conductive polymer (PEDOT). The polymer Schottky junction cells show superior surface passivation and open-circuit voltages compared to standard diffused junction cells with native oxide surfaces. External quantum efficiencies up to 88% were measured for these silicon nanowire/PEDOT solar cells further demonstrating excellent surface passivation. This process avoids high temperature processes which allows for low-cost substrates to be used. © 2010 IEEE.

  15. Micromagnetic sensors and Dirac fermions in HgTe heterostructures

    Buettner, Bastian

    2012-08-06

    Within the scope of this thesis two main topics have been investigated: the examination of micromagnetic sensors and transport of massive and massless Dirac fermions in HgTe quantum wells. For the investigation of localized, inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the fabrication and characterization of two different non-invasive and ultra sensitive sensors has been established at the chair ''Experimentelle Physik'' of the University of Wuerzburg. The first sensor is based on the young technique named micro-Hall magnetometry. The necessary semiconductor devices (Hall cross structures) were fabricated by high-resolution electron beam lithography based on two different two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), namely InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb- and HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te-heterostructures. The characteristics have been examined in two different ways. Measurements in homogeneous magnetic fields served for characterization of the sensors, whereas the investigation of artificially produced sub-{mu}m magnets substantiates the suitability of the devices for the study of novel nanoscale magnetic materials (e.g. nanowires). Systematic experiments with various magnets are in accordance with the theory of single-domain particles and anisotropic behavior due to shapes with high aspect ratio. The highest sensitivity for strongly localized fields was obtained at T=4.2 K for a (200.200) nm{sup 2} Hall cross - made from shallow, high mobility HgTe 2DEG. Although the field resolution was merely {delta}B{approx}100 {mu}T, the nanoscale sensor size yields an outstanding flux resolution of {delta}{Phi}=2.10{sup -3} {Phi}{sub 0}, where {Phi}{sub 0}=h/2e is the flux quantum. Translating this result in terms of magnetic moment, the sensitivity allows for the detection of magnetization changes of a particle centered on top of the sensor as low as {delta}M{approx}10{sup 2} {mu}{sub B}, with the magnetic moment of a single electron {mu}{sub B}, the Bohr magneton. The further examination of a permalloy nanomagnet with a

  16. Micromagnetic sensors and Dirac fermions in HgTe heterostructures

    Buettner, Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Within the scope of this thesis two main topics have been investigated: the examination of micromagnetic sensors and transport of massive and massless Dirac fermions in HgTe quantum wells. For the investigation of localized, inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the fabrication and characterization of two different non-invasive and ultra sensitive sensors has been established at the chair ''Experimentelle Physik'' of the University of Wuerzburg. The first sensor is based on the young technique named micro-Hall magnetometry. The necessary semiconductor devices (Hall cross structures) were fabricated by high-resolution electron beam lithography based on two different two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), namely InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb- and HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te-heterostructures. The characteristics have been examined in two different ways. Measurements in homogeneous magnetic fields served for characterization of the sensors, whereas the investigation of artificially produced sub-μm magnets substantiates the suitability of the devices for the study of novel nanoscale magnetic materials (e.g. nanowires). Systematic experiments with various magnets are in accordance with the theory of single-domain particles and anisotropic behavior due to shapes with high aspect ratio. The highest sensitivity for strongly localized fields was obtained at T=4.2 K for a (200.200) nm 2 Hall cross - made from shallow, high mobility HgTe 2DEG. Although the field resolution was merely δB∼100 μT, the nanoscale sensor size yields an outstanding flux resolution of δΦ=2.10 -3 Φ 0 , where Φ 0 =h/2e is the flux quantum. Translating this result in terms of magnetic moment, the sensitivity allows for the detection of magnetization changes of a particle centered on top of the sensor as low as δM∼10 2 μ B , with the magnetic moment of a single electron μ B , the Bohr magneton. The further examination of a permalloy nanomagnet with a cross-section of (100.20) nm 2 confirms the expected resolution ability

  17. Micromagnetic sensors and Dirac fermions in HgTe heterostructures

    Buettner, Bastian

    2012-08-06

    Within the scope of this thesis two main topics have been investigated: the examination of micromagnetic sensors and transport of massive and massless Dirac fermions in HgTe quantum wells. For the investigation of localized, inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the fabrication and characterization of two different non-invasive and ultra sensitive sensors has been established at the chair ''Experimentelle Physik'' of the University of Wuerzburg. The first sensor is based on the young technique named micro-Hall magnetometry. The necessary semiconductor devices (Hall cross structures) were fabricated by high-resolution electron beam lithography based on two different two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), namely InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb- and HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te-heterostructures. The characteristics have been examined in two different ways. Measurements in homogeneous magnetic fields served for characterization of the sensors, whereas the investigation of artificially produced sub-{mu}m magnets substantiates the suitability of the devices for the study of novel nanoscale magnetic materials (e.g. nanowires). Systematic experiments with various magnets are in accordance with the theory of single-domain particles and anisotropic behavior due to shapes with high aspect ratio. The highest sensitivity for strongly localized fields was obtained at T=4.2 K for a (200.200) nm{sup 2} Hall cross - made from shallow, high mobility HgTe 2DEG. Although the field resolution was merely {delta}B{approx}100 {mu}T, the nanoscale sensor size yields an outstanding flux resolution of {delta}{Phi}=2.10{sup -3} {Phi}{sub 0}, where {Phi}{sub 0}=h/2e is the flux quantum. Translating this result in terms of magnetic moment, the sensitivity allows for the detection of magnetization changes of a particle centered on top of the sensor as low as {delta}M{approx}10{sup 2} {mu}{sub B}, with the magnetic moment of a single electron {mu}{sub B}, the Bohr magneton. The further examination of a permalloy

  18. Catalyst-free fabrication of novel ZnO/CuO core-Shell nanowires heterojunction: Controlled growth, structural and optoelectronic properties

    Khan, Muhammad Arif; Wahab, Yussof; Muhammad, Rosnita; Tahir, Muhammad; Sakrani, Samsudi

    2018-03-01

    Development of controlled growth and vertically aligned ZnO/CuO core-shell heterojunction nanowires (NWs) with large area by a catalyst free vapor deposition and oxidation approach has been investigated. Structural characterization reveals successful fabrication of a core ZnO nanowire having single crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure along [002] direction and CuO nanostructure shell with thickness (8-10 nm) having polycrystalline monoclinic structure. The optical property analysis suggests that the reflectance spectrum of ZnO/CuO heterostructure nanowires is decreased by 18% in the visible range, which correspondingly shows high absorption in this region as compared to pristine ZnO nanowires. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of core-shell heterojunction nanowires measured by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) shows excellent rectifying behavior, which indicates the characteristics of a good p-n junction. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has confirmed the sharp junction interface between the core-shell heterojunction nanowire arrays. The valence band offset and conduction band offset at ZnO/CuO heterointerfaces are measured to be 2.4 ± 0.05 and 0.23 ± 0.005 eV respectively, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and a type-II band alignment structure is found. The results of this study contribute to the development of new advanced device heterostructures for solar energy conversion and optoelectronics applications.

  19. Polarity Control of Heteroepitaxial GaN Nanowires on Diamond.

    Hetzl, Martin; Kraut, Max; Hoffmann, Theresa; Stutzmann, Martin

    2017-06-14

    Group III-nitride materials such as GaN nanowires are characterized by a spontaneous polarization within the crystal. The sign of the resulting sheet charge at the top and bottom facet of a GaN nanowire is determined by the orientation of the wurtzite bilayer of the different atomic species, called N and Ga polarity. We investigate the polarity distribution of heteroepitaxial GaN nanowires on different substrates and demonstrate polarity control of GaN nanowires on diamond. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy is used to determine the polarity of individual selective area-grown and self-assembled nanowires over a large scale. At standard growth conditions, mixed polarity occurs for selective GaN nanowires on various substrates, namely on silicon, on sapphire and on diamond. To obtain control over the growth orientation on diamond, the substrate surface is modified by nitrogen and oxygen plasma exposure prior to growth, and the growth parameters are adjusted simultaneously. We find that the surface chemistry and the substrate temperature are the decisive factors for obtaining control of up to 93% for both polarity types, whereas the growth mode, namely selective area or self-assembled growth, does not influence the polarity distribution significantly. The experimental results are discussed by a model based on the interfacial bonds between the GaN nanowires, the termination layer, and the substrate.

  20. Photoluminescence measurements of ZnO heterostructures

    Adachi, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Isao; Ohashi, Naoki; Haneda, Hajime; Ryoken, Haruki; Takenaka, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    ZnO thin films were grown on TbAlO 3 single crystal substrates by pulsed laser deposition. In photoluminescence (PL) measurements, strong emissions from TbAlO 3 were observed with the emission from ZnO when the film thickness was less than 100 nm. The relationship between the ZnO film thickness and the emission intensity from TbAlO 3 was investigated in order to determine the penetration depth of excitation light. Information on the heterostructures ranging from the surface to a depth of 300 nm was obtained by PL measurements in this study, and the absorption coefficient for a wavelength of 325 nm was estimated to be 1.31x10 5 cm -1 . (author)

  1. Control of tunneling in heterostructures

    Volokhov, V M; Tovstun, C A; Ivlev, B

    2007-01-01

    A tunneling current between two rectangular potential wells can be effectively controlled by applying an external ac field. A variation of the ac frequency by 10% may lead to the suppression of the tunneling current by two orders of magnitude, which is a result of quantum interference under the action of the ac field. This effect of destruction of tunneling can be used as a sensitive control of tunneling current across nanosize heterostructures

  2. Nanotubes and nanowires

    Unknown

    junction nanotubes by the pyrolysis of appropriate organic precursors. ... By making use of carbon nanotubes, nanowires of metals, metal ..... The use of activated carbon in place of ..... required for the complete removal of the carbon template.

  3. Porous Silicon Nanowires

    Qu, Yongquan; Zhou, Hailong; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    In this minreview, we summarize recent progress in the synthesis, properties and applications of a new type of one-dimensional nanostructures — single crystalline porous silicon nanowires. The growth of porous silicon nanowires starting from both p- and n-type Si wafers with a variety of dopant concentrations can be achieved through either one-step or two-step reactions. The mechanistic studies indicate the dopant concentration of Si wafers, oxidizer concentration, etching time and temperature can affect the morphology of the as-etched silicon nanowires. The porous silicon nanowires are both optically and electronically active and have been explored for potential applications in diverse areas including photocatalysis, lithium ion battery, gas sensor and drug delivery. PMID:21869999

  4. Biofunctionalized Magnetic Nanowires

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-12-19

    Magnetic nanowires can be used as an alternative method overcoming the limitations of current cancer treatments that lack specificity and are highly cytotoxic. Nanowires are developed so that they selectively attach to cancer cells via antibodies, potentially destroying them when a magnetic field induces their vibration. This will transmit a mechanical force to the targeted cells, which is expected to induce apoptosis on the cancer cells.

  5. Biofunctionalized Magnetic Nanowires

    Kosel, Jü rgen; Ravasi, Timothy; Contreras Gerenas, Maria Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic nanowires can be used as an alternative method overcoming the limitations of current cancer treatments that lack specificity and are highly cytotoxic. Nanowires are developed so that they selectively attach to cancer cells via antibodies, potentially destroying them when a magnetic field induces their vibration. This will transmit a mechanical force to the targeted cells, which is expected to induce apoptosis on the cancer cells.

  6. Electronic and magnetic properties of ultrathin rhodium nanowires

    Wang Bao Lin; Ren-Yun; Sun Hou Qian; Chen Xiao Shuang; Zhao Ji Jun

    2003-01-01

    The structures of ultrathin rhodium nanowires are studied using empirical molecular dynamics simulations with a genetic algorithm. Helical multishell cylindrical and pentagonal packing structures are found. The electronic and magnetic properties of the rhodium nanowires are calculated using an spd tight-binding Hamiltonian in the unrestricted Hartree-Fock approximation. The average magnetic moment and electronic density of states are obtained. Our results indicate that the electronic and magnetic properties of the rhodium nanowires depend not only on the size of the wire but also on the atomic structure. In particular, centred pentagonal and hexagonal structures can be unusually ferromagnetic.

  7. Multiple simultaneous fabrication of molecular nanowires using nanoscale electrocrystallization

    Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Rieko; Kubota, Tohru; Mashiko, Shinro

    2006-01-01

    We carried out a multiple simultaneous fabrication based on the nanoscale electrocrystallization to simultaneously construct molecular nanowires at two or more positions. This substrate-independent nanoscale electrocrystallization process enables nanowires fabrication at specific positions using AC. We also succeeded in multiple fabrications only at each gap between the electrode tips. We found that π-stack was formed along the long axis of the nanowires obtained by analyzing the selected-area electron diffraction. We believe this technique has the potential for expansion to the novel low-cost and energy-saving fabrication of high-performance nanodevices

  8. Nanowire structures and electrical devices

    Bezryadin, Alexey; Remeika, Mikas

    2010-07-06

    The present invention provides structures and devices comprising conductive segments and conductance constricting segments of a nanowire, such as metallic, superconducting or semiconducting nanowire. The present invention provides structures and devices comprising conductive nanowire segments and conductance constricting nanowire segments having accurately selected phases including crystalline and amorphous states, compositions, morphologies and physical dimensions, including selected cross sectional dimensions, shapes and lengths along the length of a nanowire. Further, the present invention provides methods of processing nanowires capable of patterning a nanowire to form a plurality of conductance constricting segments having selected positions along the length of a nanowire, including conductance constricting segments having reduced cross sectional dimensions and conductance constricting segments comprising one or more insulating materials such as metal oxides.

  9. A simple method of growing silver chloride nanocubes on silver nanowires

    Khaligh, Hadi Hosseinzadeh; Goldthorpe, Irene A

    2015-01-01

    The growth of AgCl nanocubes directly on the sidewalls of Ag nanowires is demonstrated. The nanocubes can be simply obtained through extended low temperature annealing of polyol-synthesized silver nanowires in a vacuum. The length of time and temperature of the anneal and the diameter of the nanowire affect the size and density of the nanocubes obtained. It is hypothesized that the AgCl material is supplied from reactants leftover from the silver nanowire synthesis. This novel hybrid nanostructure may have applications in areas such as photovoltaics, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and photocatalysis. (fast track communication)

  10. A simple method of growing silver chloride nanocubes on silver nanowires

    Hosseinzadeh Khaligh, Hadi; Goldthorpe, Irene A.

    2015-09-01

    The growth of AgCl nanocubes directly on the sidewalls of Ag nanowires is demonstrated. The nanocubes can be simply obtained through extended low temperature annealing of polyol-synthesized silver nanowires in a vacuum. The length of time and temperature of the anneal and the diameter of the nanowire affect the size and density of the nanocubes obtained. It is hypothesized that the AgCl material is supplied from reactants leftover from the silver nanowire synthesis. This novel hybrid nanostructure may have applications in areas such as photovoltaics, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and photocatalysis.

  11. Specific synthesis of Pt nanowires for catalytic applications

    Fenske, Daniela; Kehres, Jan; Al-Shamery, Katharina [IRAC, University Oldenburg (Germany); Center of Interface Science, CIS (Germany); Borchert, Holger; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna [EHF, University Oldenburg (Germany); Center of Interface Science, CIS (Germany); Baeumer, Marcus [IAPC, University Bremen (Germany); Center of Interface Science, CIS (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Metallic nanomaterials are of great interest in the last years due to their interesting properties as new materials for optical, electronic, magnetic or catalytic applications. Particularly size and morphology of such nanoparticulate systems offer also high potential for material improvement. A promising issue is the preparation of platinum nanowires by means of colloidal chemistry which allows obtaining particles with well-defined size and shape by use of stabilizing ligands. Recent efforts have been focused on the development of synthesis to obtain these nanowires. Therefore we were able to prepare dodecylamine-capped Pt nanowires with 2 nm in diameter and several multiple in length in varying the synthesis conditions. The influence of temperature, stabilisers and reducing agents on the morphology has been investigated. The catalytic activity of such nanowires immobilized at different oxidic supports could also be demonstrated on the example of CO oxidation and are compared to spherical Pt and bimetallic colloidal nanoparticles.

  12. Well-dispersed gold nanowire suspension for assembly application

    Xu Cailing; Zhang Li; Zhang Haoli; Li Hulin

    2005-01-01

    A method for fabricating well-dispersed nanowire suspension has been demonstrated in the paper. Thin gold nanowires were prepared by template synthesis, and then functionalized with sulphonate group-terminated thiols before suspended in different solvents. The degree of aggregation of the obtained suspension was evaluated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. It was found that the degree of aggregation was predominated by the solvents, and the best degree of dispersion was obtained when isopropyl alcohol (IPA) was used as the solvent. The gold nanowires from the suspension can be selectively assembled onto chemically patterned substrates. This well-dispersed nanowire suspension is potentially useful for fabricating novel nanodevices

  13. Variation in electrical properties of gamma irradiated cadmium selenate nanowires

    Chauhan, R. P.; Rana, Pallavi; Narula, Chetna; Panchal, Suresh; Choudhary, Ritika

    2016-07-01

    Preparation of low-dimensional materials attracts more and more interest in the last few years, mainly due to the wide field of potential commercial applications ranging from life sciences, medicine and biotechnology to communication and electronics. One-dimensional systems are the smallest dimension structures that can be used for efficient transport of electrons and thus expected to be critical to the function and integration of nanoscale devices. Nanowires with well controlled morphology and extremely high aspect ratio can be obtained by replicating a nanoporous polymer ion-track membrane with cylindrical pores of controlled dimensions. With this technique, materials can be deposited within the pores of the membrane by electrochemical reduction of the desired ion. In the present study, cadmium selenate nanowires were synthesized potentiostatically via template method. These synthesized nanowires were then exposed to gamma rays by using a 60Co source at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. Structural, morphological, electrical and elemental characterizations were made in order to analyze the effect of gamma irradiation on the synthesized nanowires. I-V measurements of cadmium selenate nanowires, before and after irradiation were made with the help of Keithley 2400 source meter and Ecopia probe station. A significant change in the electrical conductivity of cadmium selenate nanowires was found after gamma irradiation. The crystallography of the synthesized nanowires was also studied using a Rigaku X-ray diffractrometer equipped with Cu-Kα radiation. XRD patterns of irradiated samples showed no variation in the peak positions or phase change.

  14. Variation in electrical properties of gamma irradiated cadmium selenate nanowires

    Chauhan, R.P., E-mail: chauhanrpc@gmail.com; Rana, Pallavi, E-mail: prana.phy@gmail.com; Narula, Chetna; Panchal, Suresh; Choudhary, Ritika

    2016-07-15

    Preparation of low-dimensional materials attracts more and more interest in the last few years, mainly due to the wide field of potential commercial applications ranging from life sciences, medicine and biotechnology to communication and electronics. One-dimensional systems are the smallest dimension structures that can be used for efficient transport of electrons and thus expected to be critical to the function and integration of nanoscale devices. Nanowires with well controlled morphology and extremely high aspect ratio can be obtained by replicating a nanoporous polymer ion-track membrane with cylindrical pores of controlled dimensions. With this technique, materials can be deposited within the pores of the membrane by electrochemical reduction of the desired ion. In the present study, cadmium selenate nanowires were synthesized potentiostatically via template method. These synthesized nanowires were then exposed to gamma rays by using a {sup 60}Co source at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi, India. Structural, morphological, electrical and elemental characterizations were made in order to analyze the effect of gamma irradiation on the synthesized nanowires. I–V measurements of cadmium selenate nanowires, before and after irradiation were made with the help of Keithley 2400 source meter and Ecopia probe station. A significant change in the electrical conductivity of cadmium selenate nanowires was found after gamma irradiation. The crystallography of the synthesized nanowires was also studied using a Rigaku X-ray diffractrometer equipped with Cu-Kα radiation. XRD patterns of irradiated samples showed no variation in the peak positions or phase change.

  15. Long wave polar modes in semiconductor heterostructures

    Trallero-Giner, C; García-Moliner, F; Garc A-Moliner, F; Perez-Alvarez, R; Garcia-Moliner, F

    1998-01-01

    Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is concerned with the study of polar optical modes in semiconductor heterostructures from a phenomenological approach and aims to simplify the model of lattice dynamics calculations. The book provides useful tools for performing calculations relevant to anyone who might be interested in practical applications. The main focus of Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is planar heterostructures (quantum wells or barriers, superlattices, double barrier structures etc) but there is also discussion on the growing field of quantum wires and dots. Also to allow anyone reading the book to apply the techniques discussed for planar heterostructures, the scope has been widened to include cylindrical and spherical geometries. The book is intended as an introductory text which guides the reader through basic questions and expands to cover state-of-the-art professional topics. The book is relevant to experimentalists wanting an instructive presentatio...

  16. Giant magnetoelectric effect in pure manganite-manganite heterostructures

    Paul, Sanjukta; Pankaj, Ravindra; Yarlagadda, Sudhakar; Majumdar, Pinaki; Littlewood, Peter B.

    2017-11-01

    Obtaining strong magnetoelectric couplings in bulk materials and heterostructures is an ongoing challenge. We demonstrate that manganite heterostructures of the form (Insulator) /(LaMnO3)(n)/Interface/(CaMnO3)(n)/(Insulator) show strong multiferroicity in magnetic manganites where ferroelectric polarization is realized by charges leaking from LaMnO3 to CaMnO3 due to repulsion. Here, an effective nearest-neighbor electron-electron (electron-hole) repulsion (attraction) is generated by cooperative electron-phonon interaction. Double exchange, when a particle virtually hops to its unoccupied neighboring site and back, produces magnetic polarons that polarize antiferromagnetic regions. Thus a striking giant magnetoelectric effect ensues when an external electrical field enhances the electron leakage across the interface.

  17. CdSe/beta-Pb0.33V2O5 heterostructures: Nanoscale semiconductor interfaces with tunable energetic configurations for solar energy conversion and storage

    Milleville, Christopher C.

    This dissertation focuses on the formation and characterization of semiconductor heterostructures, consisting of light-harvesting cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) and single crystalline lead vanadium oxide nanowires (β-Pb0.33V2O5 NWs), for the purpose of excited-state charge transfer and photocatalytic production of solar fuels. We reported two distinct routes for assembling CdSe/β-Pb0.33V2O5 heterostructures: linker-assisted assembly (LAA) mediated by a bifunctional ligand and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). In the former case, the thiol end of a molecular linker, cysteine (Cys) is found to bind to the QD surface, whereas a protonated amine moiety interacts electrostatically with the negatively charged NW surface. In the alternative SILAR route, the surface coverage of CdSe on the β-Pb0.33V2O5 NWs is tuned by varying the number of successive precipitation cycles. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) measurements revealed that the mid-gap states of β-Pb0.33V2O5 NWs are closely overlapped in energy with the valence band edges of CdSe QDs, suggesting that hole transfer from the valence band of CdSe into the mid-gap states is possible. Preliminary evidence of hole transfer was obtained through photoluminescence quenching experiments. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements on Cys-CdSe dispersions, mixed dispersions of Cys-CdSe QDs and β-Pb0.33V¬2O5 NWs, and mixed dispersions of Cys-CdS QDs and V2O5 revealed a greater extent of quenching of the emission of Cys-CdSe QDs by β Pb0.33V¬2O5 relative to V2O5. V2O5, devoid of mid-gap states, is unable to accept holes from CdSe and therefore should not quench emission to the same extent as β-Pb0.33V¬2O5. The additional quenching was dynamic, consistent with a mechanism involving the transfer of photogenerated holes from CdSe QDs to the mid-gap states of β Pb0.33V2O5. Transient absorption spectroscopy (TA) was used to probe the dynamics of interfacial

  18. Poly(1-(2-carboxyethyl)pyrrole)/polypyrrole composite nanowires for glucose biosensor

    Jiang Hairong; Zhang Aifeng; Sun Yanan; Ru Xiaoning; Ge Dongtao; Shi Wei

    2012-01-01

    A novel glucose biosensor based on poly(1-(2-carboxyethyl)pyrrole) (PPyCOOH)/polypyrrole (PPy) composite nanowires was developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) on the nanowires via covalent linkages. The PPyCOOH/PPy composite nanowires were fabricated by a facile two-step electrochemical synthesis route. First, PPy nanowires were synthesized in phosphate buffer solution using organic sulfonic acid, p-toluenesulfonate acid, as soft-template. Then, PPyCOOH/PPy composite nanowires were obtained by polymerizing 1-(2-carboxyethyl)pyrrole onto PPy nanowires via electrochemical method. Scanning electron microscopic, FT-IR spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cyclic voltammograms were used to characterize the structural and electrical behaviors of the composite nanowires. The PPyCOOH/PPy composite nanowires exhibited uniform diameter, high reactive site (-COOH), large specific surface, excellent electroactivity and good adhesion to electrode. The glucose biosensor was constructed by covalently coupling GOD to the composite nanowires. The biosensor response was rapid (5 s), highly sensitive (33.6 μA mM −1 cm −2 ) with a wide linear range (up to 10.0 mM) and low detection limit (0.63 μM); it also exhibited high stability and specificity to glucose. The attractive electrochemical and structural properties of PPyCOOH/PPy composite nanowires suggested potential application for electrocatalysis and biosensor.

  19. Selective growth of silica nanowires using an Au catalyst for optical recognition of interleukin-10

    Sekhar, Praveen K; Ramgir, Niranjan S; Joshi, Rakesh K; Bhansali, Shekhar [Bio-MEMS and Microfabrication Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, ENB 118, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)], E-mail: bhansali@eng.usf.edu

    2008-06-18

    The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth procedure has been extended for the selective growth of silica nanowires on SiO{sub 2} layer by using Au as a catalyst. The nanowires were grown in an open tube furnace at 1100 deg. C for 60 min using Ar as a carrier gas. The average diameter of these bottom-up nucleated wires was found to be 200 nm. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicates the amorphous nature of these nanoscale wires and suggests an Si-silica heterostructure. The localized silica nanowires have been used as an immunoassay template in the detection of interleukin-10 which is a lung cancer biomarker. Such a nanostructured platform offered a tenfold enhancement in the optical response, aiding the recognition of IL-10 in comparison to a bare silica substrate. The role of nanowires in the immunoassay was verified through the quenching behavior in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Two orders of reduction in PL intensity have been observed after completion of the immunoassay with significant quenching after executing every step of the protocol. The potential of this site-specific growth of silica nanowires on SiO{sub 2} as a multi-modal biosensing platform has been discussed.

  20. Synthesis of high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires with an inexpensive handcrafted electrochemical setup

    Taheri, Ali, E-mail: at1361@aut.ac.ir, E-mail: atahery@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Science and Technology Institute (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saramad, Shahyar; Setayeshi, Saeed [Amirkabir University of Technology, Faculty of Energy Engineering and Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this work, high aspect ratio zinc oxide nanowires are synthesized using templated one-step electrodeposition technique. Electrodeposition of the nanowires is done using a handcrafted electronic system. Nuclear track-etched polycarbonate membrane is used as a template to form the high aspect ratio nanowires. The result of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy shows that nanowires with a good crystallinity and an aspect ratio of more than 30 can be achieved in a suitable condition. The height of electrodeposited nanowires reaches to about 11 μm. Based on the obtained results, high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires can be formed using inexpensive electrodeposition setup with an acceptable quality.

  1. Graphyne–graphene (nitride) heterostructure as nanocapacitor

    Bhattacharya, Barnali; Sarkar, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Binding energy of heterostructures indicates the exothermic nature. • Increasing electric field enhances charge and energy stored in the system. • The external electric fields amplify the charge transfer between two flakes. • The capacitance value gets saturated above a certain electric field. - Abstract: A nanoscale capacitor composed of heterostructure derived from finite size graphyne flake and graphene (nitride) flake has been proposed and investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The exothermic nature of formation process of these heterostructures implies their stability. Significant charge transfer between two flakes generates permanent dipole in this heterostructures. The amount of charge transfer is tunable under the application of external electric field which enhances their applicability in electronics. We have specifically focused on the capacitive properties of different heterostructure composed of graphyne flake and graphene (nitride) flake, i.e., graphyne/graphene, graphyne/h-BN, graphyne/AlN, graphyne/GaN. The charge stored by each flake, energy storage, and capacitance are switchable under external electric field. Thus, our modeled heterostructures are a good candidate as nanoscale capacitor and can be used in nanocircuit. We found that the charge stored by each flake, energy storage, and capacitance value are highest for graphyne/GaN heterostructures.

  2. Graphyne–graphene (nitride) heterostructure as nanocapacitor

    Bhattacharya, Barnali; Sarkar, Utpal, E-mail: utpalchemiitkgp@yahoo.com

    2016-10-20

    Highlights: • Binding energy of heterostructures indicates the exothermic nature. • Increasing electric field enhances charge and energy stored in the system. • The external electric fields amplify the charge transfer between two flakes. • The capacitance value gets saturated above a certain electric field. - Abstract: A nanoscale capacitor composed of heterostructure derived from finite size graphyne flake and graphene (nitride) flake has been proposed and investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The exothermic nature of formation process of these heterostructures implies their stability. Significant charge transfer between two flakes generates permanent dipole in this heterostructures. The amount of charge transfer is tunable under the application of external electric field which enhances their applicability in electronics. We have specifically focused on the capacitive properties of different heterostructure composed of graphyne flake and graphene (nitride) flake, i.e., graphyne/graphene, graphyne/h-BN, graphyne/AlN, graphyne/GaN. The charge stored by each flake, energy storage, and capacitance are switchable under external electric field. Thus, our modeled heterostructures are a good candidate as nanoscale capacitor and can be used in nanocircuit. We found that the charge stored by each flake, energy storage, and capacitance value are highest for graphyne/GaN heterostructures.

  3. Fabrication and Characterization of Magnetic Nanowires in Anodic Alumina

    Xiao, Z. L.; Han, Y. R.; Wang, H. H.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2002-03-01

    Magnetic nanowires (cobalt, iron and nickel) with diameters down to 20 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition. Both commercial and home-made anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with nanochannel arrays were used as templates. The structure and magnetization hysteresis of the specimens with nanowires were investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), respectively. Growth of nanowires with both aqueous and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solutions was conducted and better quality nanowires were obtained with the organic DMSO solution. The influence of the diameter, the length and the separation of the nanochannels on the magnetization orientation was investigated in detail. Work supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), BES-Materials Science, Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38.

  4. Elastic properties and electron transport in InAs nanowires

    Migunov, Vadim

    2013-02-22

    The electron transport and elastic properties of InAs nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition on InAs (001) substrate were studied experimentally, in-situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). A TEM holder allowing the measurement of a nanoforce while simultaneous imaging nanowire bending was used. Diffraction images from local areas of the wire were recorded to correlate elastic properties with the atomic structure of the nanowires. Another TEM holder allowing the application of electrical bias between the nanowire and an apex of a metallic needle while simultaneous imaging the nanowire in TEM or performing electron holography was used to detect mechanical vibrations in mechanical study or holographical observation of the nanowire inner potential in the electron transport studies. The combination of the scanning probe methods with TEM allows to correlate the measured electric and elastic properties of the nanowires with direct identification of their atomic structure. It was found that the nanowires have different atomic structures and different stacking fault defect densities that impacts critically on the elastic properties and electric transport. The unique methods, that were applied in this work, allowed to obtain dependencies of resistivity and Young's modulus of left angle 111 right angle -oriented InAs nanowires on defect density and diameter. It was found that the higher is the defect density the higher are the resistivity and the Young's modulus. Regarding the resistivity, it was deduced that the stacking faults increase the scattering of the electrons in the nanowire. These findings are consistent with the literature, however, the effect described by the other groups is not so pronounced. This difference can be attributed to the significant incompleteness of the physical models used for the data analysis. Regarding the elastic modulus, there are several mechanisms affecting the elasticity of the nanowires discussed in the thesis. It

  5. Direct observation of short-circuit diffusion during the formation of a single cupric oxide nanowire

    Cheng, C-L; Ma, Y-R; Chou, M H; Huang, C Y; Yeh, V; Wu, S Y

    2007-01-01

    Short-circuit diffusion was observed in a single CuO nanowire synthesized using a thermal oxidation method. The confocal Raman spectra of a single CuO nanowire permit direct observation of the nature of an individual CuO nanowire. The parameter order obtained from the inverse Raman B g 2 peak linewidth results in the length dependence of the linewidth and a short-circuit diffusion length of 3.3 μm. The observed structural information is also consistent with the energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic mapping. The results confirm that the growth of CuO nanowires occurs through the short-circuit diffusion mechanism

  6. Crystal phase-based epitaxial growth of hybrid noble metal nanostructures on 4H/fcc Au nanowires

    Lu, Qipeng; Wang, An-Liang; Gong, Yue; Hao, Wei; Cheng, Hongfei; Chen, Junze; Li, Bing; Yang, Nailiang; Niu, Wenxin; Wang, Jie; Yu, Yifu; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Ye; Fan, Zhanxi; Wu, Xue-Jun; Chen, Jinping; Luo, Jun; Li, Shuzhou; Gu, Lin; Zhang, Hua

    2018-03-01

    Crystal-phase engineering offers opportunities for the rational design and synthesis of noble metal nanomaterials with unusual crystal phases that normally do not exist in bulk materials. However, it remains a challenge to use these materials as seeds to construct heterometallic nanostructures with desired crystal phases and morphologies for promising applications such as catalysis. Here, we report a strategy for the synthesis of binary and ternary hybrid noble metal nanostructures. Our synthesized crystal-phase heterostructured 4H/fcc Au nanowires enable the epitaxial growth of Ru nanorods on the 4H phase and fcc-twin boundary in Au nanowires, resulting in hybrid Au-Ru nanowires. Moreover, the method can be extended to the epitaxial growth of Rh, Ru-Rh and Ru-Pt nanorods on the 4H/fcc Au nanowires to form unique hybrid nanowires. Importantly, the Au-Ru hybrid nanowires with tunable compositions exhibit excellent electrocatalytic performance towards the hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline media.

  7. Strong sp-d exchange coupling in ZnMnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires

    Wojnar, Piotr; Janik, Elzbieta; Szymura, Malgorzata; Zaleszczyk, Wojciech; Kret, Slawomir; Klopotowski, Lukasz; Wojciechowski, Tomasz; Baczewski, Lech T.; Wiater, Maciej; Karczewski, Grzegorz; Wojtowicz, Tomasz; Kossut, Jacek [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Suffczynski, Jan; Papierska, Joanna [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-07-15

    In this work, our recent progress in the growth and optical studies of telluride nanowire heterostructures containing a small molar fraction of magnetic Mn-ions of only a few percent is overviewed. ZnMnTe/ZnMgTe core/shell nanowires (NWs) are grown by molecular beam epitaxy by employing the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism assisted with gold catalyst. The structures are studied by means of photoluminescence and microphotoluminescence in an external magnetic field. In the first step, however, an activation of the near band edge emission from ZnTe and ZnMnTe nanowires is described, which is achieved by coating the nanowires with shells made of ZnMgTe. The role of these shells is to passivate Zn(Mn)Te surface states. The incorporation of Mn ions into the crystalline lattice of ZnMnTe nanowires is manifested as a considerable blue shift of near band edge emission with increasing Mn concentration inside the nanowire cores, which reflects directly the increase of their energy gap. In an external magnetic field the near band edge emission exhibits a giant spectral redshift accompanied by an increase of the circular polarization of the emitted light. Both effect are fingerprints of giant Zeeman splitting of the band edges due to sp-d exchange interaction between the band carriers and magnetic Mn-ions. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Hydrogenated CoOx nanowire@Ni(OH)2 nanosheet core-shell nanostructures for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors

    Zhu, Jianxiao; Huang, Lei; Xiao, Yuxiu; Shen, Leo; Chen, Qi; Shi, Wangzhou

    2014-05-01

    We report a facile strategy to prepare 3D core-shell nanowire heterostructures with microporous hydrogenated CoOx (H-CoOx) nanowires as the conducting scaffold to support Ni(OH)2 nanosheets. Benefiting from the H-CoOx nanowire core to provide the effective pathway for charge transport and the core-shell heterostructures with synergistic effects, the H-CoOx@Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanowire electrode achieved the specific capacitance of 2196 F g-1 (areal capacitance of 5.73 F cm-2), which is approximately a 1.4-fold enhancement compared with the Co3O4@Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanowires. An aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device was fabricated by using H-CoOx@Ni(OH)2 nanowires as the positive electrode and reduced graphene oxide @Fe3O4 nanocomposites as the negative electrode. The ASCs achieved high energy density (~45.3 W h kg-1 at 1010 W kg-1), high power density (~7080 W kg-1 at 23.4 W h kg-1) and high cycling stability. Furthermore, after charging for ~1 min, one such 22 cm2 ASC device demonstrated to be able to drive a small windmill (0.8 V, 0.1 W) for 20 min. Two such ASCs connected in series can power up a seven-color LED (3.2 V) efficiently.We report a facile strategy to prepare 3D core-shell nanowire heterostructures with microporous hydrogenated CoOx (H-CoOx) nanowires as the conducting scaffold to support Ni(OH)2 nanosheets. Benefiting from the H-CoOx nanowire core to provide the effective pathway for charge transport and the core-shell heterostructures with synergistic effects, the H-CoOx@Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanowire electrode achieved the specific capacitance of 2196 F g-1 (areal capacitance of 5.73 F cm-2), which is approximately a 1.4-fold enhancement compared with the Co3O4@Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanowires. An aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device was fabricated by using H-CoOx@Ni(OH)2 nanowires as the positive electrode and reduced graphene oxide @Fe3O4 nanocomposites as the negative electrode. The ASCs achieved high energy density (~45.3 W h kg-1 at

  9. Single Nanowire Probe for Single Cell Endoscopy and Sensing

    Yan, Ruoxue

    The ability to manipulate light in subwavelength photonic and plasmonic structures has shown great potentials in revolutionizing how information is generated, transformed and processed. Chemically synthesized nanowires, in particular, offers a unique toolbox not only for highly compact and integrated photonic modules and devices, including coherent and incoherent light sources, waveguides, photodetectors and photovoltaics, but also for new types of nanoscopic bio-probes for spot cargo delivery and in-situ single cell endoscopy and sensing. Such nanowire probes would enable us to carry out intracellular imaging and probing with high spatial resolution, monitor in-vivo biological processes within single living cells and greatly improve our fundamental understanding of cell functions, intracellular physiological processes, and cellular signal pathways. My work is aimed at developing a material and instrumental platform for such single nanowire probe. Successful optical integration of Ag nanowire plasmonic waveguides, which offers deep subwavelength mode confinement, and conventional photonic waveguides was demonstrated on a single nanowire level. The highest plasmonic-photonic coupling efficiency coupling was found at small coupling angles and low input frequencies. The frequency dependent propagation loss was observed in Ag nanowire and was confirmed by quantitative measurement and in agreement with theoretical expectations. Rational integration of dielectric and Ag nanowire waveguide components into hybrid optical-plasmonic routing devices has been demonstrated. This capability is essential for incorporating sub-100nm Ag nanowire waveguides into optical fiber based nanoprobes for single cell endoscopy. The nanoprobe system based on single nanowire waveguides was demonstrated by optically coupling semiconductor or metal nanowire with an optical fiber with tapered tip. This nanoprobe design requires minimal instrumentation which makes it cost efficient and readily

  10. Heterostructures on the basis of GaAs with quantum points of InAs for photo-electric transformers

    Maronchuk I. E.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Heterostructures based on GaAs with InAs quantum dots obtained in the process of liquid-phase epitaxy by the method of pulse cooling of saturated solution in indium or heterostructures containing quantum dots in the area of the p–n-junction were much worse than control solar cells manufactured on the same structures but without quantum dots. Solar cells containing quantum dots in the p-region were slightly better than control solar cells.

  11. EDITORIAL: Nanowires for energy Nanowires for energy

    LaPierre, Ray; Sunkara, Mahendra

    2012-05-01

    This special issue of Nanotechnology focuses on studies illustrating the application of nanowires for energy including solar cells, efficient lighting and water splitting. Over the next three decades, nanotechnology will make significant contributions towards meeting the increased energy needs of the planet, now known as the TeraWatt challenge. Nanowires in particular are poised to contribute significantly in this development as presented in the review by Hiralal et al [1]. Nanowires exhibit light trapping properties that can act as a broadband anti-reflection coating to enhance the efficiency of solar cells. In this issue, Li et al [2] and Wang et al [3] present the optical properties of silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays. In addition to enhanced optical properties, core-shell nanowires also have the potential for efficient charge carrier collection across the nanowire diameter as presented in the contribution by Yu et al [4] for radial junction a-Si solar cells. Hybrid approaches that combine organic and inorganic materials also have potential for high efficiency photovoltaics. A Si-based hybrid solar cell is presented by Zhang et al [5] with a photoconversion efficiency of over 7%. The quintessential example of hybrid solar cells is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) where an organic absorber (dye) coats an inorganic material (typically a ZnO nanostructure). Herman et al [6] present a method of enhancing the efficiency of a DSSC by increasing the hetero-interfacial area with a unique hierarchical weeping willow ZnO structure. The increased surface area allows for higher dye loading, light harvesting, and reduced charge recombination through direct conduction along the ZnO branches. Another unique ZnO growth method is presented by Calestani et al [7] using a solution-free and catalyst-free approach by pulsed electron deposition (PED). Nanowires can also make more efficient use of electrical power. Light emitting diodes, for example, will eventually become the

  12. Zinc-oxide-based nanostructured materials for heterostructure solar cells

    Bobkov, A. A.; Maximov, A. I.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Somov, P. A.; Terukov, E. I.

    2015-01-01

    Results obtained in the deposition of nanostructured zinc-oxide layers by hydrothermal synthesis as the basic method are presented. The possibility of controlling the structure and morphology of the layers is demonstrated. The important role of the procedure employed to form the nucleating layer is noted. The faceted hexagonal nanoprisms obtained are promising for the fabrication of solar cells based on oxide heterostructures, and aluminum-doped zinc-oxide layers with petal morphology, for the deposition of an antireflection layer. The results are compatible and promising for application in flexible electronics

  13. Small signal modulation characteristics of red-emitting (λ = 610 nm) III-nitride nanowire array lasers on (001) silicon

    Jahangir, Shafat; Frost, Thomas; Hazari, Arnab; Yan, Lifan; Stark, Ethan; LaMountain, Trevor; Millunchick, Joanna M.; Ooi, Boon S.; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2015-01-01

    The small signal modulation characteristics of an InGaN/GaN nanowire array edge- emitting laser on (001) silicon are reported. The emission wavelength is 610 nm. Lattice matched InAlN cladding layers were incorporated in the laser heterostructure for better mode confinement. The suitability of the nanowire lasers for use in plastic fiber communication systems with direct modulation is demonstrated through their modulation bandwidth of f-3dB,max = 3.1 GHz, very low values of chirp (0.8 Å) and α-parameter, and large differential gain (3.1 × 10-17 cm2).

  14. Effect of postgrowth heat treatment on the structural and optical properties of InP/InAsP/InP nanowires

    Cirlin, G. E.; Tchernycheva, M.; Patriarche, G.; Harmand, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the postgrowth annealing of InP/InAsP/InP heterostructural nanowires produced by molecular-beam epitaxy on their structural and optical properties is studied. It is shown that the procedure of short-term (1 min) annealing in an argon atmosphere provides a means for increasing the emission intensity of InAsP quantum dots, suppressing the emission from InAsP quantum wells formed as a result of lateral growth, and substantially reducing the density of structural defects in the nanowires.

  15. Small signal modulation characteristics of red-emitting (λ = 610 nm) III-nitride nanowire array lasers on (001) silicon

    Jahangir, Shafat

    2015-02-16

    The small signal modulation characteristics of an InGaN/GaN nanowire array edge- emitting laser on (001) silicon are reported. The emission wavelength is 610 nm. Lattice matched InAlN cladding layers were incorporated in the laser heterostructure for better mode confinement. The suitability of the nanowire lasers for use in plastic fiber communication systems with direct modulation is demonstrated through their modulation bandwidth of f-3dB,max = 3.1 GHz, very low values of chirp (0.8 Å) and α-parameter, and large differential gain (3.1 × 10-17 cm2).

  16. The Self- and Directed Assembly of Nanowires

    Smith, Benjamin David

    alignment with respect to nearest neighbor particles. All experiments showed order parameters indicating a slight preference for orientational ordering that was relatively insensitive to segment size, nanowire size, and nanowire coating. Monte Carlo simulations pointed towards this alignment as a consequence of small differences in the van der Waals attractions between the segments. Experimentally, ordering might to be limited by the large size of the nanowires, which results in kinetically trapped structures. In an attempt to obtain better ordering within rows, silica coated nanowires with partial Au cores were made. The synthesis involved silica-coating the nanowires and selectively etching a Ag segment. These particles have extremely different VDWs attractions between their segments, as the Au cores are much more attractive than the solvent-filled etched ends. The assembly of these partially etched nanowires (PENs) is detailed in Chapters 4, 5, and 6. When allowed to self-assemble, we observed the formation of either vertically or horizontally oriented arrays depending on PEN composition. The formation of vertically oriented arrays of anisotropic particles is important, since not many methods to produce these structures are currently available for particles of this size. We examined the effects of PEN length, PEN diameter, and the size, number, and location of the core segments. Our findings showed a large etched segment at one end (which resulted in a large offset in the center of mass and concentrated the VDWs attractions to one end of the particle) resulted in the best columnar assemblies. These vertically orientated arrays formed in a two part process. First, after PENs sedimented, they fell flat and oriented parallel to the surface. These PENs then sampled many orientations, including rotating out of the surface plane. When higher surface concentrations of particles built as more PENs fell to the surface of the cover slip, neighboring particles stabilized vertical

  17. A novel method for massive synthesis of SnO2 nanowires

    Compositions of three reaction systems for synthesizing SnO2 nanowires by thermite reaction. Constituents (g) ... ing voltage and at a magnification of 3000. .... nanowires to obtain the distribution shown in figure 7. SnO2 ... The Sn drop sprayed ...

  18. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of hierarchically branched ZnO nanostructures on ensembles of gold nanowires

    Ongaro, Michael; Gambirasi, Arianna; Favaro, Monica; Ugo, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ZnO branched nanofibres for photoelectrochemical applications. ► Branched nanostructures are obtained by electrochemical deposition of ZnO on gold template nanowires. ► Branched nanowires crystallographic phase determined by electron back scatter diffraction. ► Branched structures display improved performances for the photoelectrochemical oxidation of water. - Abstract: This study presents an electrosynthetic methodology to obtain hierarchically structured ZnO electrodes with improved surface area, by exploiting gold nanowires ensembles (3D-NEEs) as the growing substrate. By this way, semiconductor electrodes organized in the shape of fir-like branches are obtained. Branched nanofibres are characterized by electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), the latter technique allowing the determination of the crystalline habit of individual nanostructures. The hierarchical branched nanowires show enhanced performances with respect to water photooxidation in comparison with already known nanostructured materials such as 1D-ZnO nanowires.

  19. Thermal response in van der Waals heterostructures

    Gandi, Appala; Alshareef, Husam N.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    We solve numerically the Boltzmann transport equations of the phonons and electrons to understand the thermoelectric response in heterostructures of M2CO2 (M: Ti, Zr, Hf) MXenes with transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. Low frequency optical

  20. Wave mechanics applied to semiconductor heterostructures

    Bastard, G.

    1990-01-01

    This book examines the basic electronic and optical properties of two dimensional semiconductor heterostructures based on III-V and II-VI compounds. The book explores various consequences of one-dimensional size-quantization on the most basic physical properties of heterolayers. Beginning with basic quantum mechanical properties of idealized quantum wells and superlattices, the book discusses the occurrence of bound states when the heterostructure is imperfect or when it is shone with near bandgap light

  1. High yield polyol synthesis of round- and sharp-end silver nanowires with high aspect ratio

    Nekahi, A.; Marashi, S.P.H., E-mail: pmarashi@aut.ac.ir; Fatmesari, D. Haghshenas

    2016-12-01

    Long silver nanowires (average length of 28 μm, average aspect ratio of 130) with uniform diameter along their length were produced by polyol synthesis of AgNO{sub 3} in ethylene glycol in the presence of PVP as preferential growth agent. Nanowires were produced with no addition of chloride salts such as NaCl or CuCl{sub 2} (or other additives such as Na{sub 2}S) which are usually used for lowering reduction rate of Ag ions by additional etchant of O{sub 2}/Cl{sup −}. Lower reduction rate was obtained by increasing the injection time of PVP and AgNO{sub 3} solutions, which was the significant factor in the formation of nanowires. Therefore, there was enough time for reduced Ag atoms to be deposited preferentially in the direction of PVP chains, resulting in high yield (the fraction of nanowires in the products) of nanowires (more than 95%) with high aspect ratio. The produced nanowires had both round- and sharp-ends with pentagonal cross section. Higher energy level of Ag atoms in borders of MTPs, which increases the dissolution rate of precipitated atoms, in addition to partial melting of MTPs at high synthesis temperatures, leads to the curving of the surfaces of exposed (111) crystalline planes in some MTPs and the formation of round-end silver nanowires. - Highlights: • Long silver nanowires with high aspect ratio of 130 were produced. • More than 95% nanowires were produced in products. • The produced nanowires had round- and sharp-ends with pentagonal cross section. • Additives were needed neither for high yield synthesis nor for round-end nanowires. • Melting and etching of MTPs in high energy borders resulted to round-end nanowires.

  2. Band Alignment in MoS2/WS2 Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Heterostructures Probed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy.

    Hill, Heather M; Rigosi, Albert F; Rim, Kwang Taeg; Flynn, George W; Heinz, Tony F

    2016-08-10

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), we examine the electronic structure of transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructures (TMDCHs) composed of monolayers of MoS2 and WS2. STS data are obtained for heterostructures of varying stacking configuration as well as the individual monolayers. Analysis of the tunneling spectra includes the influence of finite sample temperature, yield information about the quasi-particle bandgaps, and the band alignment of MoS2 and WS2. We report the band gaps of MoS2 (2.16 ± 0.04 eV) and WS2 (2.38 ± 0.06 eV) in the materials as measured on the heterostructure regions and the general type II band alignment for the heterostructure, which shows an interfacial band gap of 1.45 ± 0.06 eV.

  3. Magnetic phase shift reconstruction for uniformly magnetized nanowires

    Akhtari-Zavareh, Azadeh [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); De Graef, Marc [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kavanagh, Karen L. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    2017-01-15

    A new analytical model is developed for the magnetic phase shift of uniformly magnetized nanowires with ideal cylindrical geometry. The model is applied to experimental data from off-axis electron holography measurements of the phase shift of CoFeB nanowires, and the saturation induction of a selected wire, as well as its radius, aspect ratio, position and orientation, is determined by fitting the model parameters. The saturation induction value of 1.7 T of the CoFeB nanowire is found to be similar, to be within the measurement error, to values reported in the literature. - Highlights: • We describe a mathematical model for the magnetic phase shift of a cylindrical nanowire. • We discuss electron holography experiments on magnetic nanowires. • We obtain an accurate fit of the measured magnetic phase shift profile. • We extract the magnetic induction of the nanowire from the phase shift model. • The magnetic induction of 1.7 T agrees well with literature results.

  4. Tunable band gaps in graphene/GaN van der Waals heterostructures

    Huang, Le; Kang, Jun; Li, Yan; Li, Jingbo; Yue, Qu

    2014-01-01

    Van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures consisting of graphene and other two-dimensional materials provide good opportunities for achieving desired electronic and optoelectronic properties. Here, we focus on vdW heterostructures composed of graphene and gallium nitride (GaN). Using density functional theory, we perform a systematic study on the structural and electronic properties of heterostructures consisting of graphene and GaN. Small band gaps are opened up at or near the Γ point of the Brillouin zone for all of the heterostructures. We also investigate the effect of the stacking sequence and electric fields on their electronic properties. Our results show that the tunability of the band gap is sensitive to the stacking sequence in bilayer-graphene-based heterostructures. In particular, in the case of graphene/graphene/GaN, a band gap of up to 334 meV is obtained under a perpendicular electric field. The band gap of bilayer graphene between GaN sheets (GaN/graphene/graphene/GaN) shows similar tunability, and increases to 217 meV with the perpendicular electric field reaching 0.8 V Å  − 1 . (paper)

  5. Broadband infrared photoluminescence in silicon nanowires with high density stacking faults.

    Li, Yang; Liu, Zhihong; Lu, Xiaoxiang; Su, Zhihua; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Rui; Wang, Dunwei; Jian, Jie; Lee, Joon Hwan; Wang, Haiyan; Yu, Qingkai; Bao, Jiming

    2015-02-07

    Making silicon an efficient light-emitting material is an important goal of silicon photonics. Here we report the observation of broadband sub-bandgap photoluminescence in silicon nanowires with a high density of stacking faults. The photoluminescence becomes stronger and exhibits a blue shift under higher laser powers. The super-linear dependence on excitation intensity indicates a strong competition between radiative and defect-related non-radiative channels, and the spectral blue shift is ascribed to the band filling effect in the heterostructures of wurtzite silicon and cubic silicon created by stacking faults.

  6. Nanowires and nanotubes of BN, GaN and Si3N4

    Deepak, F.L.; Gundiah, G.; Govindaraj, A.; Rao, C.N.

    2002-01-01

    Simple methods of synthesizing nanotubes and nanowires of boron nitride, gallium nitride and silicon nitride have been investigated. The nanotubes and nanowires have been examined by electron microscopy and other techniques. In the case of BN, activated carbon or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was heated with boric acid in the presence of NH 3 . With activated carbon, BN nanowires constitute the primary products, but good yields of BN nanotubes are obtained with MWNTs. Aligned BN nanotubes are obtained when aligned MWNTs are employed as the starting material suggesting templating role of carbon nanotubes. Single crystal gallium nitride nanowires have been obtained by heating carbon nanotubes coated with gallium acetylacetonate in NH 3 vapor at 910 o C. Single walled carbon nanotubes were used as templated to reduce the diameter of the GaN nanowires. The growth direction of the GaN nanowires is nearly perpendicular to the [100] planes and the nanowires exhibit satisfactory photoluminescence spectra. Si 3 N 4 nanowires have been synthesized by heating multi-walled carbon nanotubes with silica gel at 1360 o C in an atmosphere of NH 3 . Si 3 N 4 nanotubes are found occasionally when aligned multi-walled nanotubes are employed as templates. (author)

  7. p-Cu2O-shell/n-TiO2-nanowire-core heterostucture photodiodes

    Hsueh Ting-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reports the deposition of cuprous oxide [Cu2O] onto titanium dioxide [TiO2] nanowires [NWs] prepared on TiO2/glass templates. The average length and average diameter of these thermally oxidized and evaporated TiO2 NWs are 0.1 to 0.4 μm and 30 to 100 nm, respectively. The deposited Cu2O fills gaps between the TiO2 NWs with good step coverage to form nanoshells surrounding the TiO2 cores. The p-Cu2O/n-TiO2 NW heterostructure exhibits a rectifying behavior with a sharp turn-on at approximately 0.9 V. Furthermore, the fabricated p-Cu2O-shell/n-TiO2-nanowire-core photodiodes exhibit reasonably large photocurrent-to-dark-current contrast ratios and fast responses.

  8. Uniform photoresponse in thermally oxidized Ni and MoS2 heterostructures

    Luo, Wei; Peng, Gang; Wang, Fei; Miao, Feng; Zhang, Xue-Ao; Qin, Shiqiao

    2017-01-01

    Non-uniform photocurrent is usually generated at the overlapped region of the heterostructures, and its potential applications may be hindered by the spatial uniformity issue of the device photoresponse. Here, nearly a uniform photoresponse at the overlapped region of the thermally oxidized Ni and molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2 ) heterostructures is obtained. Further characterizations reveal that several nanometers Ni is rightly under the NiO x layer formed at the surface of the film in the oxidation process. The heterostructures based on layered MoS 2 /NiO x /Ni with highly conductive bottom Ni show a high uniform photoresponse with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 1.4% at 532 nm. Moreover, successful integration of multiple devices suggests a great priority for such a structure for highly integrated uniform photodetectors. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Uniform photoresponse in thermally oxidized Ni and MoS{sub 2} heterostructures

    Luo, Wei [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Nanjing University (China); Peng, Gang; Wang, Fei [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); Miao, Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Nanjing University (China); Zhang, Xue-Ao; Qin, Shiqiao [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Computing, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China)

    2017-09-15

    Non-uniform photocurrent is usually generated at the overlapped region of the heterostructures, and its potential applications may be hindered by the spatial uniformity issue of the device photoresponse. Here, nearly a uniform photoresponse at the overlapped region of the thermally oxidized Ni and molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}) heterostructures is obtained. Further characterizations reveal that several nanometers Ni is rightly under the NiO{sub x} layer formed at the surface of the film in the oxidation process. The heterostructures based on layered MoS{sub 2}/NiO{sub x}/Ni with highly conductive bottom Ni show a high uniform photoresponse with an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 1.4% at 532 nm. Moreover, successful integration of multiple devices suggests a great priority for such a structure for highly integrated uniform photodetectors. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Electronic transport in narrow-gap semiconductor nanowires

    Bloemers, Christian

    2012-10-19

    Throughout this work the electronic transport properties of InAs, InN, and GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires have been analyzed. This includes the analysis of specific resistivity at room temperature and low temperatures as well as the breakdown of resistivity by a contribution of mobility and carrier concentration using gate measurements. While the InN nanowires showed homogeneous transport properties, there was a large statistical spread in the properties of InAs nanowires. Differing crystal structures and the surface conditions are identified to be the main reasons for the statistical spread. Both quantities of influence have been pointed out by comparing the transport parameters before and after a surface treatment (electron irradiation and long time ambient air exposure), and by comparing the transport parameters of wires grown by different growth methods which exhibit different kinds of crystal structure. In particular, the temperature dependence of the conductivity revealed different activation energies in nanowires with differing crystal structures. An explanation has been suggested in terms of stacking fault induced potential barriers. A field-effect measurement setup has been utilized to determine the nanowire mobility and carrier concentration. Even though this method is widely used for nanowires, it is subject to a serious disadvantage concerning the influence of surface and interface states on the measurements. As an alternative method which does not suffer from this drawback, Hall measurements have been successfully performed on InAs nanowires for the first time. These measurements became possible because of the utilization of a new electron beam lithographic procedure with an alignment accuracy in the 5 nm range. Carrier concentration values could be determined and compared to the ones obtained from conventional field-effect measurements. The results of the Hall measurements revealed a methodical overestimation of the carrier concentrations obtained

  11. Electronic transport in narrow-gap semiconductor nanowires

    Bloemers, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Throughout this work the electronic transport properties of InAs, InN, and GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires have been analyzed. This includes the analysis of specific resistivity at room temperature and low temperatures as well as the breakdown of resistivity by a contribution of mobility and carrier concentration using gate measurements. While the InN nanowires showed homogeneous transport properties, there was a large statistical spread in the properties of InAs nanowires. Differing crystal structures and the surface conditions are identified to be the main reasons for the statistical spread. Both quantities of influence have been pointed out by comparing the transport parameters before and after a surface treatment (electron irradiation and long time ambient air exposure), and by comparing the transport parameters of wires grown by different growth methods which exhibit different kinds of crystal structure. In particular, the temperature dependence of the conductivity revealed different activation energies in nanowires with differing crystal structures. An explanation has been suggested in terms of stacking fault induced potential barriers. A field-effect measurement setup has been utilized to determine the nanowire mobility and carrier concentration. Even though this method is widely used for nanowires, it is subject to a serious disadvantage concerning the influence of surface and interface states on the measurements. As an alternative method which does not suffer from this drawback, Hall measurements have been successfully performed on InAs nanowires for the first time. These measurements became possible because of the utilization of a new electron beam lithographic procedure with an alignment accuracy in the 5 nm range. Carrier concentration values could be determined and compared to the ones obtained from conventional field-effect measurements. The results of the Hall measurements revealed a methodical overestimation of the carrier concentrations obtained

  12. Spin-polarized photoemission from SiGe heterostructures

    Ferrari, A.; Bottegoni, F.; Isella, G.; Cecchi, S.; Chrastina, D.; Finazzi, M.; Ciccacci, F. [LNESS-Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-12-04

    We apply the principles of Optical Orientation to measure by Mott polarimetry the spin polarization of electrons photoemitted from different group-IV heterostructures. The maximum measured spin polarization, obtained from a Ge/Si{sub 0.31}Ge{sub 0.69} strained film, undoubtedly exceeds the maximum value of 50% attainable in bulk structures. The explanation we give for this result lies in the enhanced band orbital mixing between light hole and split-off valence bands as a consequence of the compressive strain experienced by the thin Ge layer.

  13. Development of an eight-band theory for quantum dot heterostructures

    Pokatilov, E.P.; Fonoberov, V.A.; Fomin, V.; Devreese, J.T.

    2001-01-01

    We derive a nonsymmetrized eight-band effective-mass Hamiltonian for quantum dot heterostructures (QDH's) in Burt's envelope-function representation. The 8*8 radial Hamiltonian and the boundary conditions for the Schrodinger equation are obtained for spherical QDH's. Boundary conditions for

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of CdS/CdSxSe1-x Nanowires

    Agueda Lopez, Kleyser; Wu, Marvin

    Semiconductor nanowire heterostructures are of interest for potential applications in solar cells and other advanced optoelectronic devices. We report here on synthesis of CdS/CdSxSe1-x nanowires (NWs) using a dual source vapor = liquid - solid technique, and characterization of these NWs with scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. We determine the effect of growth parameters, including source / substrate temperatures and time of exposure, on NW size, shape, and composition. The crystal structure and optical properties individual NWs from selected substrates has been mapped using transmission Kikuchi diffraction and photoluminescence (PL) microscopy. NWs consistently exhibit a hexagonal structure, with growth along the c-axis. Strong PL peaks are observed between the expected bandgap emission from CdS and CdSe, confirming formation of CdSxSe1-x. PL peaks vary significantly with intensity along the long axis of the nanowire, suggesting that the NW surface is not uniformly passivated. These nanowires show promise for future investigation and manipulation of energy band gaps contain in CdS/CdSe. CREST.

  15. Development of highly transparent Pd-coated Ag nanowire electrode for display and catalysis applications

    Canlier, Ali, E-mail: ali.canlier@agu.edu.tr [Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering, Abdullah Gul University, P.O. Box 38080, Kayseri (Turkey); Ucak, Umit Volkan, E-mail: sirvolkan@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering, Abdullah Gul University, P.O. Box 38080, Kayseri (Turkey); Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water, and Sustainability (EEWS), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), P.O. Box 305-701, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Usta, Hakan, E-mail: husta38@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering, Abdullah Gul University, P.O. Box 38080, Kayseri (Turkey); Cho, Changsoon, E-mail: cscho@kaist.ac.kr [Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water, and Sustainability (EEWS), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), P.O. Box 305-701, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Yong, E-mail: jungyong.lee@kaist.ac.kr [Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water, and Sustainability (EEWS), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), P.O. Box 305-701, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sen, Unal, E-mail: senunal@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Abdullah Gul University, P.O. Box 38080, Kayseri (Turkey); Citir, Murat, E-mail: muratcitir@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Abdullah Gul University, P.O. Box 38080, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2015-09-30

    Highlights: • Highly uniform thin-layer coating of Pd onto Ag nanowire surface was accomplished. • A transparent electrode of Pd-coated Ag nanowire was uniformly deposited on flexible substrate. • 95% of optical transmittance and 175 Ω/sq sheet resistance were obtained. • Extremely low haze of 1.9% and high oxidation stability proved an efficient transparent electrode. • This electrode can be used as Pd-catalyst for synthesis reactions and fuel cell electrode applications. - Abstract: Ag nanowire transparent electrode has excellent transmittance (90%) and sheet resistance (20 Ω/sq), yet there are slight drawbacks such as optical haze and chemical instability against aerial oxidation. Chemical stability of Ag nanowires needs to be improved in order for it to be suitable for electrode applications. In our recent article, we demonstrated that coating Ag nanowires with a thin layer of Au through galvanic exchange reactions enhances the chemical stability of Ag nanowire films highly and also helps to obtain lower haze. In this study, coating of a thin Pd layer has been applied successfully onto the surface of Ag nanowires. A mild Pd complex oxidant [Pd(en){sub 2}](NO{sub 3}){sub 2} was prepared in order to oxidize Ag atoms partially on the surface via galvanic displacement. The mild galvanic exchange allowed for a thin layer (1–2 nm) of Pd coating on the Ag nanowires with minimal truncation of the nanowire, where the average length and the diameter were 12.5 μm and 59 nm, respectively. The Pd-coated Ag nanowires were suspended in methanol and then electrostatically sprayed on flexible polycarbonate substrates. It has been revealed that average total transmittance remain around 95% within visible spectrum region (400–800 nm) whereas sheet resistance rises up to 175 Ω/sq. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time in the literature, Pd coating was employed on Ag nanowires in order to design transparent electrodes for high transparency and strong

  16. VLS-grown diffusion doped ZnO nanowires and their luminescence properties

    Roy, Pushan Guha; Dutta, Amartya; Das, Arpita; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Sen, Sayantani; Pramanik, Pallabi

    2015-01-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanowires were deposited by vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) method on to aluminum doped ZnO (AZO) thin films grown by sol-gel technique. For various device applications, current injection into such nanowires is critical. This is expected to be more efficient for ZnO nanowires deposited on to AZO compared to those deposited on to a foreign substrate such as silicon. In this work we compare the morphological and optical properties of nanowires grown on AZO with those grown under similar conditions on silicon (Si) wafers. For nanowires grown on silicon, diameters around 44 nm with heights around 2.2 μm were obtained. For the growth on to AZO, the diameters were around 90 nm while the heights were around 520 nm. Room temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL) measurements show improved near band-edge emission for nanowires grown on to AZO, indicating higher material quality. This is further established by low temperature photoluminescence (LT-PL) measurements where excitonic transitions with width as small as 14 meV have been obtained at 4 K for such structures. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) studies indicate the presence of Al in the nanowires, indicating a new technique for introduction of dopants into these structures. These results indicate that ZnO nanowires on sol-gel grown AZO thin films show promise in the development of various optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  17. Fabrication of diameter-modulated and ultrathin porous nanowires in anodic aluminum oxide templates

    Sulka, Grzegorz D., E-mail: Sulka@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 3, 30060 Krakow (Poland); Brzozka, Agnieszka [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30-059 (Poland); Liu, Lifeng [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2011-05-30

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > AAO templates with modulated pore diameter were fabricated by pulse anodization. > HA pulse duration tunes the shape of pores and the structure of AAO channels. > Au, Ag, Ni and Ag-Au diameter-modulated nanowires were synthetized. > Porous ultrathin Au nanowires were obtained by dealloying Ag-Au nanowires. - Abstract: Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with modulated pore diameter were synthesized by pulse anodization in 0.3 M sulfuric acid at 1 deg. C. For AAO growth, a typical combination of alternating mild anodizing (MA) and hard anodizing (HA) pulses with applied potential pulses of 25 V and 35 V was applied. The control of the duration of HA pulses will provide an interesting way to tune the shape of pores and the structure of AAO channels. It was found that a non-uniform length of HA segments in cross section of AAO is usually observed when the HA pulse duration is shorter than 1.2 s. The pulse anodization performed with longer HA pulses leads to the formation of AAO templates with periodically modulated pore diameter and nearly uniform length of segments. Various diameter-modulated metallic nanowires (Au, Ag, Ni and Ag-Au) were fabricated by electrodeposition in the pores of anodic alumina membranes. A typical average nanowire diameter was about 30 nm and 48 nm for MA and HA nanowire segments, respectively. After a successful dealloying silver from Ag-Au nanowires, porous ultrathin Au nanowires were obtained.

  18. Fabrication of diameter-modulated and ultrathin porous nanowires in anodic aluminum oxide templates

    Sulka, Grzegorz D.; Brzozka, Agnieszka; Liu, Lifeng

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → AAO templates with modulated pore diameter were fabricated by pulse anodization. → HA pulse duration tunes the shape of pores and the structure of AAO channels. → Au, Ag, Ni and Ag-Au diameter-modulated nanowires were synthetized. → Porous ultrathin Au nanowires were obtained by dealloying Ag-Au nanowires. - Abstract: Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with modulated pore diameter were synthesized by pulse anodization in 0.3 M sulfuric acid at 1 deg. C. For AAO growth, a typical combination of alternating mild anodizing (MA) and hard anodizing (HA) pulses with applied potential pulses of 25 V and 35 V was applied. The control of the duration of HA pulses will provide an interesting way to tune the shape of pores and the structure of AAO channels. It was found that a non-uniform length of HA segments in cross section of AAO is usually observed when the HA pulse duration is shorter than 1.2 s. The pulse anodization performed with longer HA pulses leads to the formation of AAO templates with periodically modulated pore diameter and nearly uniform length of segments. Various diameter-modulated metallic nanowires (Au, Ag, Ni and Ag-Au) were fabricated by electrodeposition in the pores of anodic alumina membranes. A typical average nanowire diameter was about 30 nm and 48 nm for MA and HA nanowire segments, respectively. After a successful dealloying silver from Ag-Au nanowires, porous ultrathin Au nanowires were obtained.

  19. Long Silver Nanowires Synthesis by Pulsed Electrodeposition

    M.R. Batevandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanowires were pulse electrodeposited into nanopore anodic alumina oxide templates. The effects of continuous and pulse electrodeposition waveform on the microstructure properties of the nanowire arrays were studied. It is seen that the microstructure of nanowire is depend to pulse condition. The off time duration of pulse waveform enables to control the growth direction of Ag nanowires.

  20. Towards an elastic model of wurtzite AlN nanowires

    Mitrushchenkov, A; Chambaud, G; Yvonnet, J; He, Q-C

    2010-01-01

    Starting with ab initio calculations of AlN wurtzite [0001] nanowires with diameters up to 4 nm, a finite element method is developed to deal with larger nanostructures/nanoparticles. The ab initio calculations show that the structure of the nanowires can be well represented by an internal part with AlN bulk elastic properties, and one atomic surface layer with its own elastic behavior. The proposed finite element method includes surface elements with their own elastic properties using surface elastic coefficients deduced from the ab initio calculations. The elastic properties obtained with the finite element model compare very well with those obtained with the full ab initio calculations.

  1. Aging of Organic Nanowires

    Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Osadnik, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Organic semiconductors formed by epitaxial growth from small molecules such as the para-phenylenes or squaraines promise a vast application potential as the active ingredient in electric and optoelectronic devices. Their self-organization into organic nanowires or "nanofibers" adds a peculiar...... attribute, making them especially interesting for light generation in OLEDs and for light-harvesting devices such as solar cells. Functionalization of the molecules allows the customization of optical and electrical properties. However, aging of the wires might lead to a considerable decrease in device...... performance over time. In this study the morphological stability of organic nanoclusters and nanowires from the methoxy functionalized quaterphenylene, 4,4'''dimethoxy-1,1':4',1''4'',1'''-quaterphenylene (MOP4), is investigated in detail. Aging experiments conducted by atomic force microscopy under ambient...

  2. Silicon nanowire transistors

    Bindal, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the n and p-channel Silicon Nanowire Transistor (SNT) designs with single and dual-work functions, emphasizing low static and dynamic power consumption. The authors describe a process flow for fabrication and generate SPICE models for building various digital and analog circuits. These include an SRAM, a baseband spread spectrum transmitter, a neuron cell and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform in the digital domain, as well as high bandwidth single-stage and operational amplifiers, RF communication circuits in the analog domain, in order to show this technology’s true potential for the next generation VLSI. Describes Silicon Nanowire (SNW) Transistors, as vertically constructed MOS n and p-channel transistors, with low static and dynamic power consumption and small layout footprint; Targets System-on-Chip (SoC) design, supporting very high transistor count (ULSI), minimal power consumption requiring inexpensive substrates for packaging; Enables fabrication of different types...

  3. 2D Vertical Heterostructures for Novel Tunneling Device Applications

    2017-03-01

    2D Vertical Heterostructures for Novel Tunneling Device Applications Philip M. Campbell, Christopher J. Perini, W. Jud Ready, and Eric M. Vogel...School of Materials Science and Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA, USA 30332 Abstract: Vertical heterostructures...digital logic, signal processing, analog-to-digital conversion, and high-frequency communications, vertical heterostructure tunneling devices have

  4. Characterization of Nanowire Photodetectors

    2016-11-28

    characterization system and picosecond pulsed laser source will be used to provide deeper insight into the fast charge carrier dynamics in the GaAsSb and...value of the current fluctuations for a particular frequency, f is the effective measurement bandwidth at the discrete frequency point, and IDS is...GaAsSb CS nanowires. The best fit of the spectra with the simulation carried out using Matlab revealed flicker noise at lower frequency having 1/f

  5. Effect of the template-assisted electrodeposition parameters on the structure and magnetic properties of Co nanowire arrays

    Kac, Malgorzata, E-mail: malgorzata.kac@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Zarzycki, Arkadiusz [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Kac, Slawomir [AGH University of Science and Technology, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Kopec, Marek; Perzanowski, Marcin; Dutkiewicz, Erazm M.; Suchanek, Katarzyna; Maximenko, Alexey; Marszalek, Marta [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Magnetic properties of Co nanowires in polycarbonate membranes were studied. • Electrodeposition stages were illustrated by SEM images. • Electrolyte and membrane parameters were optimized for Co nanowire fabrication. • Low temperature and potential favored nanowires with high coercivity and squareness. - Abstract: We studied the magnetic properties of Co nanowires electrodeposited in polycarbonate membranes as a function of the electrodeposition and template parameters. We showed the response of the current as a function of time, for nanowires prepared in various conditions. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that nanowires have polycrystalline hcp structure with small addition of fcc phase. Magnetic properties analyzed by SQUID measurements suggest that easy axis of magnetization follows the nanowire axis with coercivity increasing with a decrease of nanowire diameter and length. The largest coercivity, equal to 850 Oe, was obtained for nanowires with the diameter of 30 nm and the length of 1.5 μm. We find the coercivity to be insensitive to pH value. Low electrodeposition temperature, low cathodic potential, and medium pH are the synthesis parameters most beneficial for large coercivity and/or magnetic anisotropy with easy axis along nanowires.

  6. Enhanced Electron Mobility in Nonplanar Tensile Strained Si Epitaxially Grown on SixGe1-x Nanowires.

    Wen, Feng; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2018-01-10

    We report the growth and characterization of epitaxial, coherently strained Si x Ge 1-x -Si core-shell nanowire heterostructure through vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism for the Si x Ge 1-x core, followed by an in situ ultrahigh-vacuum chemical vapor deposition for the Si shell. Raman spectra acquired from individual nanowire reveal the Si-Si, Si-Ge, and Ge-Ge modes of the Si x Ge 1-x core and the Si-Si mode of the shell. Because of the compressive (tensile) strain induced by lattice mismatch, the core (shell) Raman modes are blue (red) shifted compared to those of unstrained bare Si x Ge 1-x (Si) nanowires, in good agreement with values calculated using continuum elasticity model coupled with lattice dynamic theory. A large tensile strain of up to 2.3% is achieved in the Si shell, which is expected to provide quantum confinement for electrons due to a positive core-to-shell conduction band offset. We demonstrate n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors using Si x Ge 1-x -Si core-shell nanowires as channel and observe a 40% enhancement of the average electron mobility compared to control devices using Si nanowires due to an increased electron mobility in the tensile-strained Si shell.

  7. Quantum transport in semiconductor nanowires

    Van Dam, J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes a series of experiments aimed at understanding the low-temperature electrical transport properties of semiconductor nanowires. The semiconductor nanowires (1-100 nm in diameter) are grown from nanoscale gold particles via a chemical process called vapor-liquid-solid (VLS)

  8. Ultrafast Carbon Dioxide Sorption Kinetics Using Lithium Silicate Nanowires.

    Nambo, Apolo; He, Juan; Nguyen, Tu Quang; Atla, Veerendra; Druffel, Thad; Sunkara, Mahendra

    2017-06-14

    In this paper, the Li 4 SiO 4 nanowires (NWs) were shown to be promising for CO 2 capture with ultrafast kinetics. Specifically, the nanowire powders exhibited an uptake of 0.35 g g -1 of CO 2 at an ultrafast adsorption rate of 0.22 g g -1 min -1 at 650-700 °C. Lithium silicate (Li 4 SiO 4 ) nanowires and nanopowders were synthesized using a "solvo-plasma" technique involving plasma oxidation of silicon precursors mixed with lithium hydroxide. The kinetic parameter values (k) extracted from sorption kinetics obtained using NW powders are 1 order of magnitude higher than those previously reported for the Li 4 SiO 4 -CO 2 reaction system. The time scales for CO 2 sorption using nanowires are approximately 3 min and two orders magnitude faster compared to those obtained using lithium silicate powders with spherical morphologies and aggregates. Furthermore, Li 4 SiO 4 nanowire powders showed reversibility through sorption-desorption cycles indicating their suitability for CO 2 capture applications. All of the morphologies of Li 4 SiO 4 powders exhibited a double exponential behavior in the adsorption kinetics indicating two distinct time constants for kinetic and the mass transfer limited regimes.

  9. Spin Transport in Semiconductor heterostructures

    Marinescu, Domnita Catalina

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the research performed under this grant has been the investigation of spin transport in magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. The interest in these systems is motivated both by their intriguing physical properties, as the physical embodiment of a spin-polarized Fermi liquid, as well as by their potential applications as spintronics devices. In our work we have analyzed several different problems that affect the spin dynamics in single and bi-layer spin-polarized two-dimensional (2D) systems. The topics of interests ranged from the fundamental aspects of the electron-electron interactions, to collective spin and charge density excitations and spin transport in the presence of the spin-orbit coupling. The common denominator of these subjects is the impact at the macroscopic scale of the spin-dependent electron-electron interaction, which plays a much more subtle role than in unpolarized electron systems. Our calculations of several measurable parameters, such as the excitation frequencies of magneto-plasma modes, the spin mass, and the spin transresistivity, propose realistic theoretical estimates of the opposite-spin many-body effects, in particular opposite-spin correlations, that can be directly connected with experimental measurements.

  10. Multilayer heterostructures and their manufacture

    Hammond, Scott R; Reese, Matthew; Rupert, Benjamin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Clavin; Olson, Dana; Ginley, David S

    2015-11-04

    A method of synthesizing multilayer heterostructures including an inorganic oxide layer residing on a solid substrate is described. Exemplary embodiments include producing an inorganic oxide layer on a solid substrate by a liquid coating process under relatively mild conditions. The relatively mild conditions include temperatures below 225.degree. C. and pressures above 9.4 mb. In an exemplary embodiment, a solution of diethyl aluminum ethoxide in anhydrous diglyme is applied to a flexible solid substrate by slot-die coating at ambient atmospheric pressure, and the diglyme removed by evaporation. An AlO.sub.x layer is formed by subjecting material remaining on the solid substrate to a relatively mild oven temperature of approximately 150.degree. C. The resulting AlO.sub.x layer exhibits relatively high light transmittance and relatively low vapor transmission rates for water. An exemplary embodiment of a flexible solid substrate is polyethylene napthalate (PEN). The PEN is not substantially adversely affected by exposure to 150.degree. C

  11. A catalyst-free synthesis of germanium nanowires obtained by ...

    2015-08-25

    Aug 25, 2015 ... 1Dipartimento di Chimica and NIS Centre of Excellence, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 7, ..... Indeed, a test synthesis replying .... 48 5446. [27] Lu X T, Harris J T, Villareal J E, Chockla A M and Korgel B.

  12. Near-thermal limit gating in heavily doped III-V semiconductor nanowires using polymer electrolytes

    Ullah, A. R.; Carrad, D. J.; Krogstrup, P.; Nygârd, J.; Micolich, A. P.

    2018-02-01

    Doping is a common route to reducing nanowire transistor on-resistance but it has limits. A high doping level gives significant loss in gate performance and ultimately complete gate failure. We show that electrolyte gating remains effective even when the Be doping in our GaAs nanowires is so high that traditional metal-oxide gates fail. In this regime we obtain a combination of subthreshold swing and contact resistance that surpasses the best existing p -type nanowire metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Our subthreshold swing of 75 mV/dec is within 25 % of the room-temperature thermal limit and comparable with n -InP and n -GaAs nanowire MOSFETs. Our results open a new path to extending the performance and application of nanowire transistors, and motivate further work on improved solid electrolytes for nanoscale device applications.

  13. Schottky barrier measurements on individual GaAs nanowires by X-ray photoemission microscopy

    Di Mario, Lorenzo [IMM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Turchini, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.turchini@cnr.it [ISM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Zamborlini, Giovanni; Feyer, Vitaly [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Tian, Lin [IMM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Schneider, Claus M. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Fakultät für Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Rubini, Silvia [IOM-CNR, TASC Laboratory, Basovizza 34149, Trieste (Italy); Martelli, Faustino, E-mail: faustino.martelli@cnr.it [IMM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The Schottky barrier at the interface between Cu and GaAs nanowires was measured. • Individual nanowires were investigated by X-ray Photoemission Microscopy. • The Schottky barrier at different positions along the nanowire was evaluated. - Abstract: We present measurements of the Schottky barrier height on individual GaAs nanowires by means of x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (XPEEM). Values of 0.73 and 0.51 eV, averaged over the entire wires, were measured on Cu-covered n-doped and p-doped GaAs nanowires, respectively, in agreement with results obtained on bulk material. Our measurements show that XPEEM can become a feasible and reliable investigation tool of interface formation at the nanoscale and pave the way towards the study of size-dependent effects on semiconductor-based structures.

  14. Theoretical investigation of structural and electronic properties of ultrathin nickle nanowire

    Sing, Deobrat; Sonvane, Y. A. [Department of Applied Physics, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat, 395007 (India)

    2016-04-13

    We have performed first principles calculations for structural and electronic properties of ultrathin Nickle nanowire. We have systematically investigated the equilibrium structure and electronic properties of 4-Ni square, 5-Ni pentagonal, 5- Ni Pyramidal, 6- Ni pentagonal, 6-Ni Hexagonal and 7-Ni Hexagonal structure nanowires having different cross-sections with 4-7 Ni atoms per unit cell. The structural properties of the studied Ni nanowires were greatly different from those of face centered cubic bulk Ni. For each wire the equilibrium lattice constant was obtained. In the present result all the nanowires are found to be metallic. The density of charge revealed delocalized metallic bonding for all studied Ni nanowires.

  15. Thermal resistance measurement of In{sub 3}SbTe{sub 2} nanowires

    Battaglia, J.L.; Saci, A.; De, I. [I2M Laboratory, University of Bordeaux, UMR CNRS 5295, Talence (France); Cecchini, R.; Cecchi, S.; Longo, M. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Unita di Agrate Brianza (Italy); Selmo, S.; Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM, IMM-CNR, Unita di Agrate Brianza (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, University of Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2017-05-15

    The thermal resistance along the thickness of In{sub 3}SbTe{sub 2} crystalline nanowires was measured using the scanning thermal microscopy in 3ω mode. The nanowires were grown by metal organic vapor deposition, exploiting the VLS mechanism induced by Au metal-catalyst nanoparticles and harvested on a SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate. Two nanowires with different thickness (13 and 23 nm) were investigated. The thermal resistance of the nanowires was determined using two different approaches; the first one exploits the experimental data, whereas the second one is more sophisticated, since it involves a minimization procedure. Both methods led to comparable values of the thermal resistance along the transverse direction (thickness) of the nanowire. The obtained results were explained starting from the mean free path of phonons calculated in the In{sub 3}SbTe{sub 2} bulk. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Static and dynamic magnetic properties of densely packed magnetic nanowire arrays

    Dmytriiev, O.; Al-Jarah, U.A.S.; Gangmei, P.

    2013-01-01

    and a continuous ferromagnetic thin film. In particular, the competition between anisotropies associated with the shape of the individual nanowires and that of the array as a whole has been studied. Measured and simulated hysteresis loops are largely anhysteretic with zero remanence, and the micromagnetic...... configuration is such that the net magnetization vanishes in directions orthogonal to the applied field. Simulations of the remanent state reveal antiferromagnetic alignment of the magnetization in adjacent nanowires and the formation of vortex flux closure structures at the ends of each nanowire....... The excitation spectra obtained from experiment and micromagnetic simulations are in qualitative agreement for magnetic fields applied both parallel and perpendicular to the axes of the nanowires. For the field parallel to the nanowire axes, there is also good quantitative agreement between experiment...

  17. Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Silver Nanowires Films: Effect of Capping Agent and Deposition Technique.

    Lopez-Diaz, D; Merino, C; Velázquez, M M

    2015-11-11

    Silver nanowires 90 nm in diameter and 9 µm in length have been synthesized using different capping agents: polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and alkyl thiol of different chain lengths. The nanowire structure is not influenced by the displacement of PVP by alkyl thiols, although alkyl thiols modify the lateral aggregation of nanowires. We examined the effect of the capping agent and the deposition method on the optical and electrical properties of films prepared by Spray and the Langmuir-Schaefer methodologies. Our results revealed that nanowires capped with PVP and C8-thiol present the best optoelectronic properties. By using different deposition techniques and by modifying the nanowire surface density, we can modulate the optoelectronic properties of films. This strategy allows obtaining films with the optoelectronic properties required to manufacture touch screens and electromagnetic shielding.

  18. Study of optical absorbance in porous silicon nanowires for photovoltaic applications

    Charrier, Joël

    2013-10-01

    Porous silicon nanowires (PSiNWs) layers fabrication was reported. Reflectance spectra were measured as a function of the nanowire length and were inferior to 0.1% and a strong photoluminescence (PL) signal was measured from samples. Models based on cone shape of nanowires located in circular and rectangular bases were used to calculate the reflectance using the transfer matrix formalism (TMF) of PSiNWs layer. The modeling of the reflectance permits to explain this value by taking account into the shape of the nanowires and its porosity. Optical absorbance and transmission were also theoretically studied. The absorbance was superior to that obtained with silicon nanowires and the ultimate efficiency was about equal to 25% for normal incidence angle. These results could be applied to the potential application in low-cost and high efficiency PSiNWs based solar cells. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Surface effects on static bending of nanowires based on non-local elasticity theory

    Quan Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The surface elasticity and non-local elasticity effects on the elastic behavior of statically bent nanowires are investigated in the present investigation. Explicit solutions are presented to evaluate the surface stress and non-local elasticity effects with various boundary conditions. Compared with the classical Euler beam, a nanowire with surface stress and/or non-local elasticity can be either stiffer or less stiff, depending on the boundary conditions. The concept of surface non-local elasticity was proposed and its physical interpretation discussed to explain the combined effect of surface elasticity and non-local elasticity. The effect of the nanowire size on its elastic bending behavior was investigated. The results obtained herein are helpful to characterize mechanical properties of nanowires and aid nanowire-based devices design.

  20. Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Silver Nanowires Films: Effect of Capping Agent and Deposition Technique

    D. Lopez-Diaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanowires 90 nm in diameter and 9 µm in length have been synthesized using different capping agents: polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and alkyl thiol of different chain lengths. The nanowire structure is not influenced by the displacement of PVP by alkyl thiols, although alkyl thiols modify the lateral aggregation of nanowires. We examined the effect of the capping agent and the deposition method on the optical and electrical properties of films prepared by Spray and the Langmuir-Schaefer methodologies. Our results revealed that nanowires capped with PVP and C8-thiol present the best optoelectronic properties. By using different deposition techniques and by modifying the nanowire surface density, we can modulate the optoelectronic properties of films. This strategy allows obtaining films with the optoelectronic properties required to manufacture touch screens and electromagnetic shielding.

  1. Growth Mechanism Studies of ZnO Nanowires: Experimental Observations and Short-Circuit Diffusion Analysis.

    Shih, Po-Hsun; Wu, Sheng Yun

    2017-07-21

    Plenty of studies have been performed to probe the diverse properties of ZnO nanowires, but only a few have focused on the physical properties of a single nanowire since analyzing the growth mechanism along a single nanowire is difficult. In this study, a single ZnO nanowire was synthesized using a Ti-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to avoid the appearance of catalytic contamination. Two-dimensional energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping with a diffusion model was used to obtain the diffusion length and the activation energy ratio. The ratio value is close to 0.3, revealing that the growth of ZnO nanowires was attributed to the short-circuit diffusion.

  2. A deep etching mechanism for trench-bridging silicon nanowires.

    Tasdemir, Zuhal; Wollschläger, Nicole; Österle, Werner; Leblebici, Yusuf; Alaca, B Erdem

    2016-03-04

    Introducing a single silicon nanowire with a known orientation and dimensions to a specific layout location constitutes a major challenge. The challenge becomes even more formidable, if one chooses to realize the task in a monolithic fashion with an extreme topography, a characteristic of microsystems. The need for such a monolithic integration is fueled by the recent surge in the use of silicon nanowires as functional building blocks in various electromechanical and optoelectronic applications. This challenge is addressed in this work by introducing a top-down, silicon-on-insulator technology. The technology provides a pathway for obtaining well-controlled silicon nanowires along with the surrounding microscale features up to a three-order-of-magnitude scale difference. A two-step etching process is developed, where the first shallow etch defines a nanoscale protrusion on the wafer surface. After applying a conformal protection on the protrusion, a deep etch step is carried out forming the surrounding microscale features. A minimum nanowire cross-section of 35 nm by 168 nm is demonstrated in the presence of an etch depth of 10 μm. Nanowire cross-sectional features are characterized via transmission electron microscopy and linked to specific process steps. The technology allows control on all dimensional aspects along with the exact location and orientation of the silicon nanowire. The adoption of the technology in the fabrication of micro and nanosystems can potentially lead to a significant reduction in process complexity by facilitating direct access to the nanowire during surface processes such as contact formation and doping.

  3. A deep etching mechanism for trench-bridging silicon nanowires

    Tasdemir, Zuhal; Alaca, B Erdem; Wollschläger, Nicole; Österle, Werner; Leblebici, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Introducing a single silicon nanowire with a known orientation and dimensions to a specific layout location constitutes a major challenge. The challenge becomes even more formidable, if one chooses to realize the task in a monolithic fashion with an extreme topography, a characteristic of microsystems. The need for such a monolithic integration is fueled by the recent surge in the use of silicon nanowires as functional building blocks in various electromechanical and optoelectronic applications. This challenge is addressed in this work by introducing a top-down, silicon-on-insulator technology. The technology provides a pathway for obtaining well-controlled silicon nanowires along with the surrounding microscale features up to a three-order-of-magnitude scale difference. A two-step etching process is developed, where the first shallow etch defines a nanoscale protrusion on the wafer surface. After applying a conformal protection on the protrusion, a deep etch step is carried out forming the surrounding microscale features. A minimum nanowire cross-section of 35 nm by 168 nm is demonstrated in the presence of an etch depth of 10 μm. Nanowire cross-sectional features are characterized via transmission electron microscopy and linked to specific process steps. The technology allows control on all dimensional aspects along with the exact location and orientation of the silicon nanowire. The adoption of the technology in the fabrication of micro and nanosystems can potentially lead to a significant reduction in process complexity by facilitating direct access to the nanowire during surface processes such as contact formation and doping. (paper)

  4. A deep etching mechanism for trench-bridging silicon nanowires

    Tasdemir, Zuhal; Wollschläger, Nicole; Österle, Werner; Leblebici, Yusuf; Erdem Alaca, B.

    2016-03-01

    Introducing a single silicon nanowire with a known orientation and dimensions to a specific layout location constitutes a major challenge. The challenge becomes even more formidable, if one chooses to realize the task in a monolithic fashion with an extreme topography, a characteristic of microsystems. The need for such a monolithic integration is fueled by the recent surge in the use of silicon nanowires as functional building blocks in various electromechanical and optoelectronic applications. This challenge is addressed in this work by introducing a top-down, silicon-on-insulator technology. The technology provides a pathway for obtaining well-controlled silicon nanowires along with the surrounding microscale features up to a three-order-of-magnitude scale difference. A two-step etching process is developed, where the first shallow etch defines a nanoscale protrusion on the wafer surface. After applying a conformal protection on the protrusion, a deep etch step is carried out forming the surrounding microscale features. A minimum nanowire cross-section of 35 nm by 168 nm is demonstrated in the presence of an etch depth of 10 μm. Nanowire cross-sectional features are characterized via transmission electron microscopy and linked to specific process steps. The technology allows control on all dimensional aspects along with the exact location and orientation of the silicon nanowire. The adoption of the technology in the fabrication of micro and nanosystems can potentially lead to a significant reduction in process complexity by facilitating direct access to the nanowire during surface processes such as contact formation and doping.

  5. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pomerantseva, Ekaterina [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-06-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. As a result, we also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  6. Resonant Tunneling in Photonic Double Quantum Well Heterostructures

    Cox Joel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here, we study the resonant photonic states of photonic double quantum well (PDQW heterostructures composed of two different photonic crystals. The heterostructure is denoted as B/A/B/A/B, where photonic crystals A and B act as photonic wells and barriers, respectively. The resulting band structure causes photons to become confined within the wells, where they occupy discrete quantized states. We have obtained an expression for the transmission coefficient of the PDQW heterostructure using the transfer matrix method and have found that resonant states exist within the photonic wells. These resonant states occur in split pairs, due to a coupling between degenerate states shared by each of the photonic wells. It is observed that when the resonance energy lies at a bound photonic state and the two photonic quantum wells are far away from each other, resonant states appear in the transmission spectrum of the PDQW as single peaks. However, when the wells are brought closer together, coupling between bound photonic states causes an energy-splitting effect, and the transmitted states each have two peaks. Essentially, this means that the system can be switched between single and double transparent states. We have also observed that the total number of resonant states can be controlled by varying the width of the photonic wells, and the quality factor of transmitted peaks can be drastically improved by increasing the thickness of the outer photonic barriers. It is anticipated that the resonant states described here can be used to develop new types of photonic-switching devices, optical filters, and other optoelectronic devices.

  7. A lithographically patterned capacitor with horizontal nanowires of length 2.5 mm.

    Yan, Wenbo; Thai, Mya Le; Dutta, Rajen; Li, Xiaowei; Xing, Wendong; Penner, Reginald M

    2014-04-09

    A symmetrical hybrid capacitor consisting of interdigitated, horizontal nanowires is described. Each of the 750 nanowires within the capacitor is 2.5 mm in length, consisting of a gold nanowire core (40 × ≈200 nm) encapsulated within a hemicylindrical shell of δ-phase MnO2 (thickness = 60-220 nm). These Au@δ-MnO2 nanowires are patterned onto a planar glass surface using lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition (LPNE). A power density of 165 kW/kg and energy density of 24 Wh/kg were obtained for a typical nanowire array in which the MnO2 shell thickness was 68 ± 8 nm. Capacitors incorporating these ultralong nanowires lost ≈10% of their capacity rapidly, during the first 20 discharge cycles, and then retained 90% of their maximum capacity for the ensuing 6000 cycles. The ability of capacitors consisting of ultralong Au@δ-MnO2 nanowires to simultaneously deliver high power and high capacity with acceptable cycle life is demonstrated.

  8. Band bending at the heterointerface of GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires monitored by synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Khanbabaee, B.; Bussone, G.; Knutsson, J. V.; Geijselaers, I.; Pryor, C. E.; Rieger, T.; Demarina, N.; Grützmacher, D.; Lepsa, M. I.; Timm, R.; Pietsch, U.

    2016-10-01

    Unique electronic properties of semiconductor heterostructured nanowires make them useful for future nano-electronic devices. Here, we present a study of the band bending effect at the heterointerface of GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires by means of synchrotron based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Different Ga, In, and As core-levels of the nanowire constituents have been monitored prior to and after cleaning from native oxides. The cleaning process mainly affected the As-oxides and was accompanied by an energy shift of the core-level spectra towards lower binding energy, suggesting that the As-oxides turn the nanowire surfaces to n-type. After cleaning, both As and Ga core-levels revealed an energy shift of about -0.3 eV for core/shell compared to core reference nanowires. With respect to depth dependence and in agreement with calculated strain distribution and electron quantum confinement, the observed energy shift is interpreted by band bending of core-levels at the heterointerface between the GaAs nanowire core and the InAs shell.

  9. Ag-bridged Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array p–n heterojunction as a highly efficient and stable visible light photocatalyst

    Liu, Chengbin, E-mail: chem_cbliu@hnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Cao, Chenghao [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Luo, Xubiao [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Luo, Shenglian [Key Laboratory of Jiangxi Province for Persistent Pollutants Control and Resources Recycle, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Graphical abstract: A unique Ag-bridged Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array p–n heterojunction was fabricated by simple electrochemical method. The heterostructures exhibit high photocatalytic activity and excellent recycling performance. - Highlights: • Ag-bridged Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network self-stability structure. • Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network/TiO{sub 2} nanotube p–n heterojunction. • High visible light photocatalytic activity. • Highly stable recycling performance. - Abstract: A unique Ag-bridged Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array p–n heterojunction (Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT) was fabricated by simple electrochemical method. Ag nanoparticles were firstly electrochemically deposited onto the surface of TiO{sub 2} NT and then were partly oxidized to Ag{sub 2}O nanowires while the rest of Ag mother nanoparticles were located at the junctions of Ag{sub 2}O nanowire network. The Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT heterostructure exhibited strong visible-light response, effective separation of photogenerated carriers, and high adsorption capacity. The integration of Ag–Ag{sub 2}O self-stability structure and p–n heterojunction permitted high and stable photocatalytic activity of Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT heterostructure photocatalyst. Under 140-min visible light irradiation, the photocatalytic removal efficiency of both dye acid orange 7 (AO7) and industrial chemical p-nitrophenol (PNP) over Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT reached nearly 100% much higher than 17% for AO7 or 13% for PNP over bare TiO{sub 2} NT. After 5 successive cycles under 600-min simulated solar light irradiation, Ag–Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} NT remained highly stable photocatalytic activity.

  10. Rational Design and Nanoscale Integration of Multi-Heterostructures as Highly Efficient Photocatalysts

    Duan, Xiangfeng [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-11-03

    The central goal of this project is to design and synthesize complex multi-hetero-nanostructures and fundamental investigation of their potential as efficient and robust photocatalysts. Specifically, the project aims to develop a nanoscale light-harvesting antenna that can efficiently convert solar photon energy into excited electrons and holes, and integrate such antenna with efficient redox nanocatalysts that can harness the photo-generated carriers for productive electrochemical processes. Focusing on this central goal, we have investigated several potential light-harvesting antennas including: silicon nanowires, nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanowires and the emerging perovskite materials. We also devoted considerable effort in developing electrocatalysts including: hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts, oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts and oxygen reduction reaction catalysts (ORR). In previous annual reports, we have described our effort in the synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties of silicon, TiO2, perovskite-based materials and heterostructures. Here, we focus our discussion on the recent effort in investigating charge transport dynamics in organolead halide perovskites, as well as carbon nanostructure and platinum nanostructure-based electrocatalysts for energy conversion and storage.

  11. Growth of aligned ZnO nanowires via modified atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition

    Zhao, Yuping; Li, Chengchen; Chen, Mingming; Yu, Xiao; Chang, Yunwei; Chen, Anqi; Zhu, Hai; Tang, Zikang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the growth of high-quality aligned ZnO nanowires via a facile atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The CVD reactor chamber used was more complicated than a conventional one due to the quartz boats loaded with sources (ZnO/C) and substrates being inserted into a semi-open quartz tube, and then placed inside the CVD reactor. The semi-open quartz tube played a very important role in growing the ZnO nanowires, and demonstrated that the transportation properties of Zn and O vapor differ from those in the conventional CVD reactor chamber. Aligned ZnO nanowires were successfully obtained, though they were only found at substrates located upstream. The very high crystalline quality of the obtained ZnO nanowires was demonstrated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and room temperature photoluminescence investigations. Such ZnO nanowires with high crystalline quality may provide opportunities for the fabrication of ZnO-based nano-devices in future. - Highlights: • High-quality aligned ZnO nanowires were obtained via modified chemical vapor deposition under atmospheric pressure. • The semi-open quartz tube plays very important roles in growing ZnO nanowires. • The transportation properties of Zn and O vapor differ from those in the conventional CVD reactor chamber.

  12. Growth of aligned ZnO nanowires via modified atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition

    Zhao, Yuping; Li, Chengchen [Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212013 (China); Chen, Mingming, E-mail: andychain@live.cn [Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212013 (China); Yu, Xiao; Chang, Yunwei [Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212013 (China); Chen, Anqi [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Electronics & Information Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center (University Town), Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Zhu, Hai, E-mail: zhuhai5@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Electronics & Information Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center (University Town), Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Tang, Zikang, E-mail: zktang@umac.mo [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Electronics & Information Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center (University Town), Guangzhou, 510006 (China); The Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau (China)

    2016-12-09

    In this work, we report the growth of high-quality aligned ZnO nanowires via a facile atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The CVD reactor chamber used was more complicated than a conventional one due to the quartz boats loaded with sources (ZnO/C) and substrates being inserted into a semi-open quartz tube, and then placed inside the CVD reactor. The semi-open quartz tube played a very important role in growing the ZnO nanowires, and demonstrated that the transportation properties of Zn and O vapor differ from those in the conventional CVD reactor chamber. Aligned ZnO nanowires were successfully obtained, though they were only found at substrates located upstream. The very high crystalline quality of the obtained ZnO nanowires was demonstrated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and room temperature photoluminescence investigations. Such ZnO nanowires with high crystalline quality may provide opportunities for the fabrication of ZnO-based nano-devices in future. - Highlights: • High-quality aligned ZnO nanowires were obtained via modified chemical vapor deposition under atmospheric pressure. • The semi-open quartz tube plays very important roles in growing ZnO nanowires. • The transportation properties of Zn and O vapor differ from those in the conventional CVD reactor chamber.

  13. Effect of Silicon Nanowire on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Characteristics

    Zahra Ostadmahmoodi Do

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW, is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method for producing nanowires of the same substrate material. The process conditions are adjusted to find the best quality of Si NWs. Morphology of Si NWs is studied using a field emission scanning electron microscopic technique. An energy dispersive X-Ray analyzer is also used to provide elemental identification and quantitative compositional information. Subsequently, Schottky type solar cell samples are fabricated on Si and Si NWs using ITO and Ag contacts. The junction properties are calculated using I-V curves in dark condition and the solar cell I-V characteristics are obtained under incident of the standardized light of AM1.5. The results for the two mentioned Schottky solar cell samples are compared and discussed. An improvement in short circuit current and efficiency of Schottky solar cell is found when Si nanowires are employed.

  14. Optical Sensing with Simultaneous Electrochemical Control in Metal Nanowire Arrays

    Janos Vörös

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the alternative use of noble metal nanowire systems in large-scale array configurations to exploit both the nanowires’ conductive nature and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR. The first known nanowire-based system has been constructed, with which optical signals are influenced by the simultaneous application of electrochemical potentials. Optical characterization of nanowire arrays was performed by measuring the bulk refractive index sensitivity and the limit of detection. The formation of an electrical double layer was controlled in NaCl solutions to study the effect of local refractive index changes on the spectral response. Resonance peak shifts of over 4 nm, a bulk refractive index sensitivity up to 115 nm/RIU and a limit of detection as low as 4.5 × 10−4 RIU were obtained for gold nanowire arrays. Simulations with the Multiple Multipole Program (MMP confirm such bulk refractive index sensitivities. Initial experiments demonstrated successful optical biosensing using a novel form of particle-based nanowire arrays. In addition, the formation of an ionic layer (Stern-layer upon applying an electrochemical potential was also monitored by the shift of the plasmon resonance.

  15. Synthesis of WO{sub n}-WX{sub 2} (n=2.7, 2.9; X=S, Se) heterostructures for highly efficient green quantum dot light-emitting diodes

    Han, Shikui; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Junze; Huang, Ying; Chen, Bo; Luo, Zhimin; Ma, Qinglang; Sindoro, Melinda; Zhang, Hua [Center for Programmable Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Yang, Xuyong [Luminous. Center of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu [Advanced Membranes and Porous Materials Center, Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Zhang, Hao; Li, Hai; Huang, Xiao; Huang, Wei [Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech) (China); Qi, Xiaoying [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore (Singapore); Sun, Xiao Wei [Luminous. Center of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, Southern Univ. of Science and Technology, Nanshan, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China)

    2017-08-21

    Preparation of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures is important not only fundamentally, but also technologically for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Herein, we report a facile colloidal method for the synthesis of WO{sub n}-WX{sub 2} (n=2.7, 2.9; X=S, Se) heterostructures by sulfurization or selenization of WO{sub n} nanomaterials. The WO{sub n}-WX{sub 2} heterostructures are composed of WO{sub 2.9} nanoparticles (NPs) or WO{sub 2.7} nanowires (NWs) grown together with single- or few-layer WX{sub 2} nanosheets (NSs). As a proof-of-concept application, the WO{sub n}-WX{sub 2} heterostructures are used as the anode interfacial buffer layer for green quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs). The QLED prepared with WO{sub 2.9} NP-WSe{sub 2} NS heterostructures achieves external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 8.53 %. To our knowledge, this is the highest efficiency in the reported green QLEDs using inorganic materials as the hole injection layer. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. 'Blocking' effects in magnetic resonance? The ferromagnetic nanowires case

    Ramos, C.A.; De Biasi, E.; Zysler, R.D.; Vassallo Brigneti, E.; Vazquez, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present magnetic resonance results obtained at L, X, and Q bands (1.2, 9.4 and 34GHz, respectively) on ferromagnetic nanowires with a hysteresis cycle characterized by a remanent magnetization M r /M s ∼0.92 and a coercive field H c =1.0kOe. The hysteretic response of the ferromagnetic resonance spectra is discussed in terms of independent contributions of the nanowires aligned along and opposite to the applied field. We will discuss the implications of this study on the magnetic resonance in nanoparticles and other systems with large anisotropy

  17. Superconductivity in nanowires

    Bezryadin, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    The importance and actuality of nanotechnology is unabated and will be for years to come. A main challenge is to understand the various properties of certain nanostructures, and how to generate structures with specific properties for use in actual applications in Electrical Engineering and Medicine.One of the most important structures are nanowires, in particular superconducting ones. They are highly promising for future electronics, transporting current without resistance and at scales of a few nanometers. To fabricate wires to certain defined standards however, is a major challenge, and so i

  18. Optical Binding of Nanowires

    Simpson, Stephen Hugh; Zemánek, Pavel; Marago, O.M.; Jones, P.H.; Hanna, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 6 (2017), s. 3485-3492 ISSN 1530-6984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36681G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) CNR-16-12 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : optical binding nanowires * Brownian motion * self-organization * non-equilibrium thermodynamics * non-equilibrium steady state * spin-orbit coupling * emergent phenomena Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 12.712, year: 2016

  19. Use of anisotropy of light transmittance in a system to measure the frequency of nanowires' rotation in a viscous liquid

    Lipiec, Wojciech; Sikora, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Fe nanowires with diameters of ca. 80 nm and lengths ranging from 1 to 3 μm were immersed in a viscous liquid and exposed to a static magnetic field in order to orient them in a specific direction. The nanowire suspension was illuminated with a laser beam. The light intensity was measured at the input and output. It was observed that the light transmittance of the nanowire system was strongly dependent on the nanowires' orientation in relation to the laser beam. The phenomenon was applied to measure the rotation frequency of the nanowires immersed in a liquid with a viscosity of 2 Pa·s. Rotation of the nanowires was enforced by a rotating magnetic field generated by a rotating magnet. On the basis of the obtained results it was observed that the highest frequency of the nanowires' rotation in the applied liquid, in a rotating magnetic field with induction of 46 mT, exceeded 382 Hz. - Highlights: • Measurement method of the light transmittance of the nanowire system was presented. • The light transmittance depends on orientation of the nanowire system. • An application of anisotropy of light transmittance of the nanowire system was shown. • Nanowires suspended in a liquid with a big viscosity were able to rotate

  20. Contact planarization of ensemble nanowires

    Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R.

    2011-06-01

    The viability of four organic polymers (S1808, SC200, SU8 and Cyclotene) as filling materials to achieve planarization of ensemble nanowire arrays is reported. Analysis of the porosity, surface roughness and thermal stability of each filling material was performed. Sonication was used as an effective method to remove the tops of the nanowires (NWs) to achieve complete planarization. Ensemble nanowire devices were fully fabricated and I-V measurements confirmed that Cyclotene effectively planarizes the NWs while still serving the role as an insulating layer between the top and bottom contacts. These processes and analysis can be easily implemented into future characterization and fabrication of ensemble NWs for optoelectronic device applications.

  1. Phosphorus Doped Zn 1- x Mg x O Nanowire Arrays

    Lin, S. S.; Hong, J. I.; Song, J. H.; Zhu, Y.; He, H. P.; Xu, Z.; Wei, Y. G.; Ding, Y.; Snyder, R. L.; Wang, Z. L.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the growth of phosphorus doped Zn 1-xMg xO nanowire (NW) using pulsed laser deposition. For the first time, p-type Zn 0.92Mg 0.08O:P NWs are likely obtained In reference to atomic force microscopy based piezoelectric output

  2. Single-electron tunneling in InP nanowires

    Franceschi, De S.; Dam, Van J.A.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Feiner, L.F.; Gurevich, L.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2003-01-01

    A study was performed on single-electron tunneling in InP nanowires. The contact resistances as low as ~10 k¿, with minor temperature dependence were obtained. The Coulomb-blockade behavior was shown with single-electron charging energies of ~1 meV.

  3. Theory of second-harmonic generation in silica nanowires

    Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    , while generating the second harmonic in one of the modes of the LP11 multiplet. This is shown to work in both circular and microstructured nanowires, although only one of the LP11 modes can be phase-matched in the microstructure. The prospect of obtaining large conversion efficiencies in silica...

  4. Theory of surface second-harmonic generation in silica nanowires

    Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    , while generating the second harmonic in one of the modes of the LP11 multiplet. This is shown to work in both circular and microstructured nanowires, although only one of the LP11 modes can be phase-matched in the microstructure. The prospect of obtaining large conversion efficiencies in silica...

  5. A review on III–V core–multishell nanowires: growth, properties, and applications

    Royo, Miquel; Rurali, Riccardo; De Luca, Marta; Zardo, Ilaria

    2017-01-01

    This review focuses on the emerging field of core–multishell (CMS) semiconductor nanowires (NWs). In these kinds of wires, a NW grown vertically on a substrate acts as a template for the coaxial growth of two or more layers wrapped around it. Thanks to the peculiar geometry, the strain is partially released along the radial direction, thus allowing the creation of fascinating heterostructures, even based on lattice mismatched materials that would hardly grow in a planar geometry. Enabling the unique bridging of the 1D nature of NWs with the exciting properties of 2D heterostructures, these novel systems are becoming attractive for material science, as well as fundamental and applied physics. We will focus on NWs made of III–V and III–V-based alloys as they represent a model system in which present growth techniques have reached a high degree of control on the material structural properties, and many physical properties have been assessed, from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. In particular, we provide an overview on the growth methods and structural properties of CMS NWs, on the modulation doping mechanisms enabled by these heterostructures, on the effects of a magnetic field, and on the phononic and optical properties typical of CMS NWs. Moreover, we review the main technological applications based on these systems, such as optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. (topical review)

  6. Stabilized thin film heterostructure for electrochemical applications

    2015-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the formation of a thin film multi-layered heterostructure upon a substrate, said method comprising the steps of: a. providing a substrate; b. depositing a buffer layer upon said substrate, said buffer layer being a layer of stable ionic conductor (B); c. depos...

  7. Interactions between semiconductor nanowires and living cells.

    Prinz, Christelle N

    2015-06-17

    Semiconductor nanowires are increasingly used for biological applications and their small dimensions make them a promising tool for sensing and manipulating cells with minimal perturbation. In order to interface cells with nanowires in a controlled fashion, it is essential to understand the interactions between nanowires and living cells. The present paper reviews current progress in the understanding of these interactions, with knowledge gathered from studies where living cells were interfaced with vertical nanowire arrays. The effect of nanowires on cells is reported in terms of viability, cell-nanowire interface morphology, cell behavior, changes in gene expression as well as cellular stress markers. Unexplored issues and unanswered questions are discussed.

  8. Transition-metal dichalcogenides heterostructure saturable absorbers for ultrafast photonics.

    Chen, Hao; Yin, Jinde; Yang, Jingwei; Zhang, Xuejun; Liu, Mengli; Jiang, Zike; Wang, Jinzhang; Sun, Zhipei; Guo, Tuan; Liu, Wenjun; Yan, Peiguang

    2017-11-01

    In this Letter, high-quality WS 2 film and MoS 2 film were vertically stacked on the tip of a single-mode fiber in turns to form heterostructure (WS 2 -MoS 2 -WS 2 )-based saturable absorbers with all-fiber integrated features. Their nonlinear saturable absorption properties were remarkable, such as a large modulation depth (∼16.99%) and a small saturable intensity (6.23  MW·cm -2 ). Stable pulses at 1.55 μm with duration as short as 296 fs and average power as high as 25 mW were obtained in an erbium-doped fiber laser system. The results demonstrate that the proposed heterostructures own remarkable nonlinear optical properties and offer a platform for adjusting nonlinear optical properties by stacking different transition-metal dichalcogenides or modifying the thickness of each layer, paving the way for engineering functional ultrafast photonics devices with desirable properties.

  9. Synthesis of β-AgVO3 nanowires decorated with Ag2CrO4, with improved visible light photocatalytic performance

    Ouyang, Qi; Li, Zhonghua; Liu, Jiawen

    2018-05-01

    Silver chromate‑silver vanadate (Ag2CrO4/β-AgVO3) heterojunction composites are synthesized through a facile precipitation process. The Ag2CrO4/β-AgVO3 hybrids obtained exhibit better photocatalytic activity in degradation of RhB than both pure Ag2CrO4 and β-AgVO3 under visible light irradiation. The 20 wt% Ag2CrO4/β-AgVO3 heterojunction possesses the best photocatalytic ability for degrading RhB: 24.4 times that of pristine β-AgVO3 nanowires and 3.2 times that of individual Ag2CrO4 particles. The phase of the nanocomposites was analyzed using x-ray diffraction as well as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Their morphology was observed via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The improvement in photocatalytic performance is chiefly ascribed to the synergies between Ag2CrO4/β-AgVO3 heterostructure, which can enhance the light absorbance ability and also accelerate the separation and transfer of photoinduced electrons and holes under visible light irradiation; this is also confirmed by UV–vis diffuse reflection spectrometry and fluorescence emission spectra.

  10. Effects of pH on the crystallographic structure and magnetic properties of electrodeposited cobalt nanowires

    Zafar, N.; Shamaila, S.; Sharif, R.; Wali, H.; Naseem, S.; Riaz, S.; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide templates with pore diameter of 40 nm and inter pore separation of 100 nm are prepared by two step anodization in 0.3 M oxalic acid solution. These templates are used to fabricate dc-deposited Co nanowires at different pH values of acidic bath. Continuous and densely packed nanowires having length ∼8 µm are observed. The hcp configuration appeared at moderate and high pH whereas both fcc and hcp phases are observed at low pH. However the crystallinity distorted at high pH due to formation of polycrystalline structure of cobalt nanowires. Alignment of easy-axis of nanowires can be tailored by varying pH of solution. - Highlights: • Variation in the structure of dc deposited cobalt nanowires can be obtained by varying pH of acidic bath. • The hcp structure is stable at room temperature with low voltage deposition for electrodeposited Co nanowires. Co with fcc structure, is stable at temperatures above 422 °C or at pH<3 with high potential. • The hcp (100) plane is obtained with pH∼3.5 and (101) is stable at pH∼5.5 due to variation in temperature inside the pores with respect to the pH. • Alignment of easy-axis of nanowires can be tailored by varying pH of solution

  11. Improved seedless hydrothermal synthesis of dense and ultralong ZnO nanowires

    Tian Jinghua; Hu Jie; Li Sisi; Zhang Fan; Liu Jun; Shi Jian; Li Xin; Chen Yong; Tian Zhongqun

    2011-01-01

    Seedless hydrothermal synthesis has been improved by introducing an adequate content of ammonia into the nutrient solution, allowing the fabrication of dense and ultralong ZnO nanowire arrays over large areas on a substrate. The presence of ammonia in the nutrient solution facilitates the high density nucleation of ZnO on the substrate which is critical for the nanowire growth. In order to achieve an optimal growth, the growth conditions have been studied systematically as a function of ammonia content, growth temperature and incubation time. The effect of polyethyleneimine (PEI) has also been studied but shown to be of no benefit to the nucleation of ZnO. Ultradense and ultralong ZnO nanowires could be obtained under optimal growth conditions, showing no fused structure at the foot of the nanowire arrays. Due to different reaction kinetics, four growth regimes could be attributed, including the first fast growth, equilibrium phase, second fast growth and final erosion. Combining this simple method with optical lithography, ZnO nanowires could be grown selectively on patterned areas. In addition, the as-grown ZnO nanowires could be used for the fabrication of a piezoelectric nanogenerator. Compared to the device of ZnO nanowires made by other methods, a more than twice voltage output has been obtained, thereby proving an improved performance of our growth method.

  12. Magnetoelectric coupling characteristics in multiferroic heterostructures with different thickness of nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy

    Chen, Lei; Wang, Yao

    2016-05-01

    Magnetoelectric(ME) coupling characteristics in multiferroic heterostructures with different thickness of nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy has been investigated at low frequency. The ME response with obvious hysteresis, self-biased and dual-peak phenomenon is observed for multiferroic heterostructures, which results from strong magnetic interactions between two ferromagnetic materials with different magnetic properties, magnetostrictions and optimum bias magnetic fields Hdc,opti. The proposed multiferroic heterostructures not only enhance ME coupling significantly, but also broaden dc magnetic bias operating range and overcomes the limitations of narrow bias range. By optimizing the thickness of nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloy Tf, a significantly zero-biased ME voltage coefficient(MEVC) of 14.8mV/Oe (185 mV/cmṡ Oe) at Tf = 0.09 mm can be obtained, which is about 10.8 times as large as that of traditional PZT/Terfenol-D composite with a weak ME coupling at zero bias Hdc,zero. Furthermore, when Tf increases from 0.03 mm to 0.18 mm, the maximum MEVC increases nearly linearly with the increased Tf at Hdc,opti. Additionally, the experimental results demonstrate the ME response for multiferroic heterostructures spreads over a wide magnetic dc bias operating range. The excellent ME performance provides a promising and practicable application for both highly sensitive magnetic field sensors without bias and ME energy harvesters.

  13. Tuning the Schottky contacts in the phosphorene and graphene heterostructure by applying strain.

    Liu, Biao; Wu, Li-Juan; Zhao, Yu-Qing; Wang, Lin-Zhi; Caii, Meng-Qiu

    2016-07-20

    The structures and electronic properties of the phosphorene and graphene heterostructure are investigated by density functional calculations using the hybrid Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) functional. The results show that the intrinsic properties of phosphorene and graphene are preserved due to the weak van der Waals contact. But the electronic properties of the Schottky contacts in the phosphorene and graphene heterostructure can be tuned from p-type to n-type by the in-plane compressive strains from -2% to -4%. After analyzing the total band structure and density of states of P atom orbitals, we find that the Schottky barrier height (SBH) is determined by the P-pz orbitals. What is more, the variation of the work function of the phosphorene monolayer and the graphene electrode and the Fermi level shift are the nature of the transition of Schottky barrier from n-type Schottky contact to p-type Schottky contact in the phosphorene and graphene heterostructure under different in-plane strains. We speculate that these are general results of tuning of the electronic properties of the Schottky contacts in the phosphorene and graphene heterostructure by controlling the in-plane compressive strains to obtain a promising method to design and fabricate a phosphorene-graphene based field effect transistor.

  14. Emergence of Quantum Phase-Slip Behaviour in Superconducting NbN Nanowires: DC Electrical Transport and Fabrication Technologies

    Nicolas G. N. Constantino

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting nanowires undergoing quantum phase-slips have potential for impact in electronic devices, with a high-accuracy quantum current standard among a possible toolbox of novel components. A key element of developing such technologies is to understand the requirements for, and control the production of, superconducting nanowires that undergo coherent quantum phase-slips. We present three fabrication technologies, based on using electron-beam lithography or neon focussed ion-beam lithography, for defining narrow superconducting nanowires, and have used these to create nanowires in niobium nitride with widths in the range of 20–250 nm. We present characterisation of the nanowires using DC electrical transport at temperatures down to 300 mK. We demonstrate that a range of different behaviours may be obtained in different nanowires, including bulk-like superconducting properties with critical-current features, the observation of phase-slip centres and the observation of zero conductance below a critical voltage, characteristic of coherent quantum phase-slips. We observe critical voltages up to 5 mV, an order of magnitude larger than other reports to date. The different prominence of quantum phase-slip effects in the various nanowires may be understood as arising from the differing importance of quantum fluctuations. Control of the nanowire properties will pave the way for routine fabrication of coherent quantum phase-slip nanowire devices for technology applications.

  15. A promising routine to fabricate GeSi nanowires via self-assembly on miscut Si (001) substrates.

    Zhong, Zhenyang; Gong, Hua; Ma, Yingjie; Fan, Yongliang; Jiang, Zuimin

    2011-04-11

    : Very small and compactly arranged GeSi nanowires could self-assembled on vicinal Si (001) substrates with ~8° off toward ⟨110⟩ during Ge deposition. The nanowires were all oriented along the miscut direction. The small ration of height over width of the nanowire indicated that the nanowires were bordered partly with {1 0 5} facets. These self-assembled small nanowires were remarkably influenced by the growth conditions and the miscut angle of substrates in comparison with large dome-like islands obtained after sufficient Ge deposition. These results proposed that the formation of the nanowire was energetically driven under growth kinetic assistance. Three-dimensionally self-assembled GeSi nanowires were first realized via multilayer Ge growth separated with Si spacers. These GeSi nanowires were readily embedded in Si matrix and compatible with the sophisticated Si technology, which suggested a feasible strategy to fabricate nanowires for fundamental studies and a wide variety of applications.PACS: 81.07.Gf, 81.16.Dn, 68.65.-k, 68.37.Ps.

  16. A promising routine to fabricate GeSi nanowires via self-assembly on miscut Si (001 substrates

    Zhong Zhenyang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Very small and compactly arranged GeSi nanowires could self-assembled on vicinal Si (001 substrates with ~8° off toward ⟨110⟩ during Ge deposition. The nanowires were all oriented along the miscut direction. The small ration of height over width of the nanowire indicated that the nanowires were bordered partly with {1 0 5} facets. These self-assembled small nanowires were remarkably influenced by the growth conditions and the miscut angle of substrates in comparison with large dome-like islands obtained after sufficient Ge deposition. These results proposed that the formation of the nanowire was energetically driven under growth kinetic assistance. Three-dimensionally self-assembled GeSi nanowires were first realized via multilayer Ge growth separated with Si spacers. These GeSi nanowires were readily embedded in Si matrix and compatible with the sophisticated Si technology, which suggested a feasible strategy to fabricate nanowires for fundamental studies and a wide variety of applications. PACS: 81.07.Gf, 81.16.Dn, 68.65.-k, 68.37.Ps

  17. Electric Conductivity of Phosphorus Nanowires

    Jing-Xiang, Zhang; Hui, Li; Xue-Qing, Zhang; Kim-Meow, Liew

    2009-01-01

    We present the structures and electrical transport properties of nanowires made from different strands of phosphorus chains encapsulated in carbon nanotubes. Optimized by density function theory, our results indicate that the conductance spectra reveal an oscillation dependence on the size of wires. It can be seen from the density of states and current-voltage curves that the structure of nanowires affects their properties greatly. Among them, the DNA-like double-helical phosphorus nanowire exhibits the distinct characteristic of an approximately linear I – V relationship and has a higher conductance than others. The transport properties of phosphorus nanowires are highly correlated with their microstructures. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  18. Tunneling magnetoresistance in Si nanowires

    Montes Muñ oz, Enrique; Rungger, I.; Sanvito, S.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    for quantum transport. Silicon nanowires represent an interesting platform for spin devices. They are compatible with mature silicon technology and their intrinsic electronic properties can be controlled by modifying the diameter and length. Here we

  19. Novel Crystal Structure C60 Nanowire

    Mickelson, William; Aloni, Shaul; Han, Weiqiang; Cumings, John; Zettl, Alex

    2003-03-01

    We have created insulated C60 nanowire by packing C60 molecules into the interior of insulating boron nitride (BN) nanotubes. For small-diameter BN tubes, the wire consists of a linear chain of C60's. With increasing BN tube inner diameter, novel C60 stacking configurations are obtained (including helical, hollow core, and incommensurate) which are unknown for bulk or thin film forms of C60. C60 in BN nanotubes presents a model system for studying the properties of new dimensionally-constrained "silo" crystal structures.

  20. Growth and Raman spectroscopy studies of gold-free catalyzed semiconductor nanowires

    Zardo, Ilaria

    2010-12-15

    The present Ph.D. thesis proposes two aims: the search for catalysts alternative to gold for the growth of silicon nanowires and the investigation of the structural properties of the gold-free catalyzed Si, Ge, and GaAs nanowires. The successful growth of gold free catalyzed silicon nanowires was obtained using Ga and In as catalyst. Hydrogen plasma conditions were needed during the growth process. We proposed a growth mechanism where the role of the hydrogen plasma is taken into account. The influence of the growth conditions on nanowire growth morphology and structural properties was investigated in detail. The TEM studies showed the occurrence of different kind of twin defects depending on the nanowire growth direction. The intersection of twins in different spatial directions in <111>-oriented nanowires or the periodicity of highly dense twins in <112>-oriented nanowires leads to the formation of hexagonal domains embedded in the diamond silicon structure. A simple crystallographic model which illustrates the formation of the hexagonal phase was proposed. The presence of the hexagonal domains embedded in the diamond silicon structure was investigated also by means of Raman spectroscopy. The measured frequencies of the E2g and A1g modes were found to be in agreement with frequencies expected from phonon dispersion folding. An estimation of the percentage of hexagonal structure with respect to the cubic structure was given. The relative percentage of the two structures was found to change with growth temperature. Spatially resolved Raman scattering experiments were also realized on single Si nanowires. The lattice dynamics of gold-free catalyzed Ge and GaAs nanowires was studied by means of Raman spectroscopy. We performed spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy experiments on single crystalline- amorphous core-shell Ge nanowires. The correlation with TEM studies on nanowires grown under the same conditions and with AFM measurements realized of the same nanowires

  1. Biotemplated Synthesis of PZT Nanowires

    2013-11-25

    electromechanical coupling coefficient , Y is the Young’s modulus, and Ri is intrinsic resistance. The PZT nanowire- based film is taken to have negligible...robotic actuation, and bioMEMS. Lead zirconate titanate ( PZT ), in particular, has attracted significant attention, owing to its superior...electromechanical conversion performance. Yet, the ability to synthesize crystalline PZT nanowires with reproducible and well-controlled properties remains a

  2. Silicon nanowires: structure and properties

    Nezhdanov, A.V.; Mashin, A.I.; Razuvaev, A.G.; Ershov, A.V.; Ignatov, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    An attempt to grow silicon nanowires has been made by electron beam evaporation on highly oriented pyrolytic substrate. Needle-like objects are located along the normal to a substrate (density 2 x 10 11 cm -2 ). For modeling quasi-one-dimensional objects calculations of nuclear structure and energy spectra have been accomplished. A fullerene-like structure Si 24 is proposed as a basic atomic configuration of silicon nanowires [ru

  3. Fabrication of amorphous silica nanowires via oxygen plasma treatment of polymers on silicon

    Chen, Zhuojie; She, Didi; Chen, Qinghua; Li, Yanmei; Wu, Wengang

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate a facile non-catalytic method of fabricating silica nanowires at room temperature. Different polymers including photoresists, parylene C and polystyrene are patterned into pedestals on the silicon substrates. The silica nanowires are obtained via the oxygen plasma treatment on those pedestals. Compared to traditional strategies of silica nanowire fabrication, this method is much simpler and low-cost. Through designing the proper initial patterns and plasma process parameters, the method can be used to fabricate various regiment nano-scale silica structure arrays in any laboratory with a regular oxygen-plasma-based cleaner or reactive-ion-etching equipment.

  4. Magnetic behaviour of arrays of Ni nanowires by electrodeposition into self-aligned titania nanotubes

    Prida, V.M.; Hernandez-Velez, M.; Cervera, M.; Pirota, K.; Sanz, R.; Navas, D.; Asenjo, A.; Aranda, P.; Ruiz-Hitzky, E.; Batallan, F.; Vazquez, M.; Hernando, B.; Menendez, A.; Bordel, N.; Pereiro, R.

    2005-01-01

    Arrays of Ni nanowires electrodeposited into self-aligned and randomly disordered titania nanotube arrays grown by anodization process are investigated by X-ray diffraction, SEM, rf-GDOES and VSM magnetometry. The titania nanotube outer diameter is about 160 nm, wall thickness ranging from 60 to 70 nm and 300 nm in depth. The so-obtained Ni nanowires reach above 100 nm diameter and 240 nm length, giving rise to coercive fields of 98 and 200 Oe in the perpendicular or parallel to the nanowires axis hysteresis loops, respectively. The formation of magnetic vortex domain states is also discussed

  5. Synthesis, formation mechanism and sensing properties of WO3 hydrate nanowire netted-spheres

    Yan, Aihua; Xie, Changsheng; Zeng, Dawen; Cai, Shuizhou; Hu, Mulin

    2010-01-01

    Tungsten oxide hydrate nanowire netted-spheres were successfully synthesized in the glycol solution using a facile solvothermal approach. The nanowires with uniform diameter of 4-6 nm are actually a kind of tungsten oxide hydrate/surfactant hybrid materials. The influence of surfactant, solvent, time and temperature on tailoring morphology was investigated in detail. The possible formation process of WO 3 hydrate nanowire netted-sphere was proposed. Sensing properties of such WO 3 hydrate sensor show that the desirable sensing characteristics towards 100 ppm ammonia gas at 320 o C were obtained, such as rapid response (18.3 s), high sensitivity, good reproducibility and stability.

  6. Site-selective fabrication of conducting molecular nanowires based on electrocrystallization

    Hasegawa, H.; Kubota, T.; Mashiko, S.

    2005-01-01

    We have grown nanowires in a selective position by using an electrochemical process and alternating current. Nanoscale electrocrystallization was carried out in an axially substituted phthalocyanine solution using substrates with two electrodes formed by photolithography. The growth area was limited to the narrowest part of the gap between the tips of the electrodes by using tapered electrodes. The nanowires obtained had a width of approximately 100 nm and a length of more than 1 μm. Analysis of the selected-area electron diffraction pattern showed that the nanowire structure was identical to that of bulk crystal

  7. Electrochemically grown rough-textured nanowires

    Tyagi, Pawan; Postetter, David; Saragnese, Daniel; Papadakis, Stergios J.; Gracias, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowires with a rough surface texture show unusual electronic, optical, and chemical properties; however, there are only a few existing methods for producing these nanowires. Here, we describe two methods for growing both free standing and lithographically patterned gold (Au) nanowires with a rough surface texture. The first strategy is based on the deposition of nanowires from a silver (Ag)-Au plating solution mixture that precipitates an Ag-Au cyanide complex during electrodeposition at low current densities. This complex disperses in the plating solution, thereby altering the nanowire growth to yield a rough surface texture. These nanowires are mass produced in alumina membranes. The second strategy produces long and rough Au nanowires on lithographically patternable nickel edge templates with corrugations formed by partial etching. These rough nanowires can be easily arrayed and integrated with microscale devices.

  8. Structural and tunneling properties of Si nanowires

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2013-12-06

    We investigate the electronic structure and electron transport properties of Si nanowires attached to Au electrodes from first principles using density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method. We systematically study the dependence of the transport properties on the diameter of the nanowires, on the growth direction, and on the length. At the equilibrium Au-nanowire distance we find strong electronic coupling between the electrodes and nanowires, which results in a low contact resistance. With increasing nanowire length we study the transition from metallic to tunneling conductance for small applied bias. For the tunneling regime we investigate the decay of the conductance with the nanowire length and rationalize the results using the complex band structure of the pristine nanowires. The conductance is found to depend strongly on the growth direction, with nanowires grown along the ⟨110⟩ direction showing the smallest decay with length and the largest conductance and current.

  9. Structural and tunneling properties of Si nanowires

    Montes Muñ oz, Enrique; Gkionis, Konstantinos; Rungger, Ivan; Sanvito, Stefano; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the electronic structure and electron transport properties of Si nanowires attached to Au electrodes from first principles using density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green's function method. We systematically study the dependence of the transport properties on the diameter of the nanowires, on the growth direction, and on the length. At the equilibrium Au-nanowire distance we find strong electronic coupling between the electrodes and nanowires, which results in a low contact resistance. With increasing nanowire length we study the transition from metallic to tunneling conductance for small applied bias. For the tunneling regime we investigate the decay of the conductance with the nanowire length and rationalize the results using the complex band structure of the pristine nanowires. The conductance is found to depend strongly on the growth direction, with nanowires grown along the ⟨110⟩ direction showing the smallest decay with length and the largest conductance and current.

  10. A silicon nanowire heater and thermometer

    Zhao, Xingyan; Dan, Yaping

    2017-07-01

    In the thermal conductivity measurements of thermoelectric materials, heaters and thermometers made of the same semiconducting materials under test, forming a homogeneous system, will significantly simplify fabrication and integration. In this work, we demonstrate a high-performance heater and thermometer made of single silicon nanowires (SiNWs). The SiNWs are patterned out of a silicon-on-insulator wafer by CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. The electronic properties of the nanowires are characterized by four-probe and low temperature Hall effect measurements. The I-V curves of the nanowires are linear at small voltage bias. The temperature dependence of the nanowire resistance allows the nanowire to be used as a highly sensitive thermometer. At high voltage bias, the I-V curves of the nanowire become nonlinear due to the effect of Joule heating. The temperature of the nanowire heater can be accurately monitored by the nanowire itself as a thermometer.

  11. Controlling nanowire emission profile using conical taper

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The influence of a conical taper on nanowire light emission is studied. For nanowires with divergent output beams, the introduction of tapers improves the emission profile and increase the collection efficiency of the detection optics....

  12. Heterostructures based on inorganic and organic van der Waals systems

    Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Lee, Chul-Ho; Zande, Arend M. van der; Han, Minyong; Cui, Xu; Arefe, Ghidewon; Hone, James; Nuckolls, Colin; Heinz, Tony F.; Kim, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The two-dimensional limit of layered materials has recently been realized through the use of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures composed of weakly interacting layers. In this paper, we describe two different classes of vdW heterostructures: inorganic vdW heterostructures prepared by co-lamination and restacking; and organic-inorganic hetero-epitaxy created by physical vapor deposition of organic molecule crystals on an inorganic vdW substrate. Both types of heterostructures exhibit atomically clean vdW interfaces. Employing such vdW heterostructures, we have demonstrated various novel devices, including graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and MoS 2 heterostructures for memory devices; graphene/MoS 2 /WSe 2 /graphene vertical p-n junctions for photovoltaic devices, and organic crystals on hBN with graphene electrodes for high-performance transistors

  13. Semiconducting silicon nanowires for biomedical applications

    Coffer, JL

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical applications have benefited greatly from the increasing interest and research into semiconducting silicon nanowires. Semiconducting Silicon Nanowires for Biomedical Applications reviews the fabrication, properties, and applications of this emerging material. The book begins by reviewing the basics, as well as the growth, characterization, biocompatibility, and surface modification, of semiconducting silicon nanowires. It goes on to focus on silicon nanowires for tissue engineering and delivery applications, including cellular binding and internalization, orthopedic tissue scaffol

  14. Electrochemical synthesis of highly crystalline copper nanowires

    Kaur, Amandeep; Gupta, Tanish; Kumar, Akshay; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Karamjeet; Thakur, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Copper nanowires were fabricated within the pores of anodic alumina template (AAT) by template synthesis method at pH = 2.9. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate the structure, morphology and composition of fabricated nanowires. These characterizations revealed that the deposited copper nanowires were highly crystalline in nature, dense and uniform. The crystalline copper nanowires are promising in application of future nanoelectronic devices and circuits

  15. Characterization of amorphous multilayered ZnO-SnO2 heterostructure thin films and their field effect electronic properties

    Lee, Su-Jae; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Pi, Jae-Eun; Yang, Jong-Heon; Oh, Himchan; Cho, Sung Haeng; Cho, Kyoung-Ik; Chu, Hye Yong

    2014-01-01

    Multilayered ZnO-SnO 2 heterostructure thin films were produced using pulsed laser ablation of pie-shaped ZnO-SnO 2 oxides target, and their structural and field effect electronic transport properties were investigated as a function of the thickness of the ZnO and SnO 2 layers. The films have an amorphous multilayered heterostructure composed of the periodic stacking of the ZnO and SnO 2 layers. The field effect electronic properties of amorphous multilayered ZnO-SnO 2 heterostructure thin film transistors (TFTs) are highly dependent on the thickness of the ZnO and SnO 2 layers. The highest electron mobility of 37 cm 2 /V s, a low subthreshold swing of a 0.19 V/decade, a threshold voltage of 0.13 V, and a high drain current on-to-off ratio of ∼10 10 obtained for the amorphous multilayered ZnO(1.5 nm)-SnO 2 (1.5 nm) heterostructure TFTs. These results are presumed to be due to the unique electronic structure of an amorphous multilayered ZnO-SnO 2 heterostructure film consisting of ZnO, SnO 2 , and ZnO-SnO 2 interface layers

  16. A review of nano-optics in metamaterial hybrid heterostructures

    Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London N6G 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-03-31

    We present a review for the nonlinear nano-optics in quantum dots doped in a metamaterial heterostructure. The heterostructure is formed by depositing a metamaterial on a dielectric substrate and ensemble of noninteracting quantum dots are doped near the heterostructure interface. It is shown that there is enhancement of the second harmonic generation due to the surface plasmon polaritons field present at the interface.

  17. Polarized and resonant Raman spectroscopy on single InAs nanowires

    Möller, M.; de Lima, M. M., Jr.; Cantarero, A.; Dacal, L. C. O.; Madureira, J. R.; Iikawa, F.; Chiaramonte, T.; Cotta, M. A.

    2011-08-01

    We report polarized Raman scattering and resonant Raman scattering studies on single InAs nanowires. Polarized Raman experiments show that the highest scattering intensity is obtained when both the incident and analyzed light polarizations are perpendicular to the nanowire axis. InAs wurtzite optical modes are observed. The obtained wurtzite modes are consistent with the selection rules and also with the results of calculations using an extended rigid-ion model. Additional resonant Raman scattering experiments reveal a redshifted E1 transition for InAs nanowires compared to the bulk zinc-blende InAs transition due to the dominance of the wurtzite phase in the nanowires. Ab initio calculations of the electronic band structure for wurtzite and zinc-blende InAs phases corroborate the observed values for the E1 transitions.

  18. ZrTiO4 nanowire growth using membrane-assisted Pechini route

    P. R. de Lucena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The high surface-to-volume ratio of nanowires makes them natural competitors as new device components. In this regard, a current major challenge is to produce quasi-one-dimensional nanostructures composed of well established oxide-based materials. This article reports the synthesis of ZrTiO4 nanowires on a silicon (100 wafer in a single-step deposition/thermal treatment. The template-directed membrane synthesis strategy was associated with the Pechini route and spin-coating deposition technique. ZrTiO4 nanowires were obtained at 700 ˚C with diameters in the range of 80-100 nm. FEG- SEM images were obtained to investigate ZrTiO4 nanowire formation on the silicon surface and energy dispersive x-ray detection (EDS and x-ray diffraction (XRD analyses were performed to confirm the oxide composition and structure.

  19. ZrTiO4 Nanowire Growth Using Membrane-assisted Pechini Route

    Poty Rodrigues de Lucena

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The high surface-to-volume ratio of nanowires makes them natural competitors as newer device components. In this regard, a current major challenge is to produce quasi-one-dimensional nanostructures composed of well-established oxide-based materials. This article reports the synthesis of ZrTiO4 nanowires on a silicon (100 wafer in a single-step deposition/thermal treatment. The template-directed membrane synthesis strategy was associated with the Pechini route and spin-coating deposition technique. ZrTiO4 nanowires were obtained at 700 °C with diameters in the range of 80-100 nm. FEGSEM images were obtained to investigate ZrTiO4 nanowire formation on the silicon surface and energy dispersive X-ray detection (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses were performed to confirm the oxide composition and structure. 

  20. The study of the sample size on the transverse magnetoresistance of bismuth nanowires

    Zare, M.; Layeghnejad, R.; Sadeghi, E.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of sample size on the galvanomagnetice properties of semimetal nanowires are theoretically investigated. Transverse magnetoresistance (TMR) ratios have been calculated within a Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) approach by specular reflection approximation. Temperature and radius dependence of the transverse magnetoresistance of cylindrical Bismuth nanowires are given. The obtained values are in good agreement with the experimental results, reported by Heremans et al. - Highlights: ► In this study effects of sample size on the galvanomagnetic properties of Bi. ► Nanowires were explained by Parrott theorem by solving the Boltzmann Transport Equation. ► Transverse magnetoresistance (TMR) ratios have been measured by specular reflection approximation. ► Temperature and radius dependence of the transverse magnetoresistance of cylindrical Bismuth nanowires are given. ► The obtained values are in good agreement with the experimental results, reported by Heremans et al.

  1. Facile Five-Step Heteroepitaxial Growth of GaAs Nanowires on Silicon Substrates and the Twin Formation Mechanism.

    Yao, Maoqing; Sheng, Chunyang; Ge, Mingyuan; Chi, Chun-Yung; Cong, Sen; Nakano, Aiichiro; Dapkus, P Daniel; Zhou, Chongwu

    2016-02-23

    Monolithic integration of III-V semiconductors with Si has been pursued for some time in the semiconductor industry. However, the mismatch of lattice constants and thermal expansion coefficients represents a large technological challenge for the heteroepitaxial growth. Nanowires, due to their small lateral dimension, can relieve strain and mitigate dislocation formation to allow single-crystal III-V materials to be grown on Si. Here, we report a facile five-step heteroepitaxial growth of GaAs nanowires on Si using selective area growth (SAG) in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, and we further report an in-depth study on the twin formation mechanism. Rotational twin defects were observed in the nanowire structures and showed strong dependence on the growth condition and nanowire size. We adopt a model of faceted growth to demonstrate the formation of twins during growth, which is well supported by both a transmission electron microscopy study and simulation based on nucleation energetics. Our study has led to twin-free segments in the length up to 80 nm, a significant improvement compared to previous work using SAG. The achievements may open up opportunities for future functional III-V-on-Si heterostructure devices.

  2. CdTe deposition by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique onto ZnO nanowires

    Salazar, Raul; Delamoreanu, Alexandru; Saidi, Bilel; Ivanova, Valentina [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054, Grenoble (France); Levy-Clement, Claude [CNRS, Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux de Paris-Est, 94320, Thiais (France)

    2014-09-15

    In this study is reported CdTe deposition by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and reaction (SILAR) at room temperature onto ZnO nanowires (NWs). The as-deposited CdTe layer exhibits poor crystalline quality and not well defined optical transition which is probably result of its amorphous nature. The implementation of an annealing step and chemical treatment by CdCl{sub 2} to the classical SILAR technique improved significantly the CdTe film quality. The XRD analysis showed that the as treated layers are crystallized in the cubic zinc blende structure. The full coverage of ZnO nanowires and thickness of the CdTe shell, composed of small crystallites, was confirmed by STEM and TEM analysis. The layer thickness could be controlled by the number of SILAR cycles. The sharper optical transitions for the annealed and CdCl{sub 2} treated heterostructures additionally proves the enhancement of the layer crystalline quality. For comparison CdTe was also deposited by close space sublimation (CSS) method onto ZnO nanowires. It is shown that the SILAR deposited CdTe exhibits equal crystalline and optical properties to that prepared by CSS. These results demonstrate that SILAR technique is more suitable for conformal thin film deposition on nanostructures. CdTe extremely thin film deposited by SILAR method onto ZnO nanowire. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. CdTe deposition by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique onto ZnO nanowires

    Salazar, Raul; Delamoreanu, Alexandru; Saidi, Bilel; Ivanova, Valentina; Levy-Clement, Claude

    2014-01-01

    In this study is reported CdTe deposition by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and reaction (SILAR) at room temperature onto ZnO nanowires (NWs). The as-deposited CdTe layer exhibits poor crystalline quality and not well defined optical transition which is probably result of its amorphous nature. The implementation of an annealing step and chemical treatment by CdCl 2 to the classical SILAR technique improved significantly the CdTe film quality. The XRD analysis showed that the as treated layers are crystallized in the cubic zinc blende structure. The full coverage of ZnO nanowires and thickness of the CdTe shell, composed of small crystallites, was confirmed by STEM and TEM analysis. The layer thickness could be controlled by the number of SILAR cycles. The sharper optical transitions for the annealed and CdCl 2 treated heterostructures additionally proves the enhancement of the layer crystalline quality. For comparison CdTe was also deposited by close space sublimation (CSS) method onto ZnO nanowires. It is shown that the SILAR deposited CdTe exhibits equal crystalline and optical properties to that prepared by CSS. These results demonstrate that SILAR technique is more suitable for conformal thin film deposition on nanostructures. CdTe extremely thin film deposited by SILAR method onto ZnO nanowire. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Efficient photocatalytic performance enhancement in Co-doped ZnO nanowires coupled with CuS nanoparticles

    Li, Wei; Wang, Guojing; Feng, Yimeng; Li, Zhengcao

    2018-01-01

    In this research, a kind of highly efficient semiconductor photocatalyst was fabricated by depositing CuS nanoparticles uniformly on the surface of Co-doped ZnO nanowires. ZnO nanowires were synthesized by hydrothermal method and CuS nanoparticles were modified by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). By conducting methyl orange (MO) degradation experiments under the illumination of visible light, the photocatalytic activity of Co-doped ZnO nanowires modified with CuS nanoparticles was found to be nearly three times active when compared to bare ZnO nanowires. Its superior photocatalytic performance has two main reasons. The doped Co2+ ions can inhibit the recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs and decrease the optical bandgap, while the p-n heterostructure can enhance the visible light absorption ability and promote the separation of photo-excited charge carriers. Furthermore, the effect of the amount of deposited CuS nanoparticles on the photocatalysis was also investigated. The photocatalytic efficiency firstly raised along with the increment of SILAR cycle times and reached a maximum at 10 cycles but then decreased as the cycle times continue to increase. This originates from that an excessive amount of CuS would not only cover the active reacting sites, but also serve as recombination centers. Overall, this new nanostructure is expected to work as an efficient photocatalyst.

  5. Fabrication of vertically aligned Pd nanowire array in AAO template by electrodeposition using neutral electrolyte

    Yüzer Hayrettin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A vertically aligned Pd nanowire array was successfully fabricated on an Au/Ti substrate using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template by a direct voltage electrodeposition method at room temperature using diluted neutral electrolyte. The fabrication of Pd nanowires was controlled by analyzing the current–time transient during electrodeposition using potentiostat. The AAO template and the Pd nanowires were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX methods and X-Ray diffraction (XRD. It was observed that the Pd nanowire array was standing freely on an Au-coated Ti substrate after removing the AAO template in a relatively large area of about 5 cm2, approximately 50 nm in diameter and 2.5 μm in length with a high aspect ratio. The nucleation rate and the number of atoms in the critical nucleus were determined from the analysis of current transients. Pd nuclei density was calculated as 3.55 × 108 cm−2. Usage of diluted neutral electrolyte enables slower growing of Pd nanowires owing to increase in the electrodeposition potential and thus obtained Pd nanowires have higher crystallinity with lower dislocations. In fact, this high crystallinity of Pd nanowires provides them positive effect for sensor performances especially.

  6. Quantitative magnetometry analysis and structural characterization of multisegmented cobalt–nickel nanowires

    Cantu-Valle, Jesus [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Díaz Barriga-Castro, Enrique [Centro de Investigación de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas/Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Pedro de Alba s/n, San Nicolás de Los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Vega, Víctor; García, Javier [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, Oviedo 33007 (Spain); Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Pedro de Alba s/n, San Nicolás de Los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Luna, Carlos [Centro de Investigación de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas/Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Pedro de Alba s/n, San Nicolás de Los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Manuel Prida, Víctor [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, Oviedo 33007 (Spain); and others

    2015-04-01

    Understanding and measuring the magnetic properties of an individual nanowire and their relationship with crystalline structure and geometry are of scientific and technological great interest. In this work, we report the localized study of the magnetic flux distribution and the undisturbed magnetization of a single ferromagnetic nanowire that poses a bar-code like structure using off-axis electron holography (EH) under Lorentz conditions. The nanowires were grown by template-assisted electrodeposition, using AAO templates. Electron holography allows the visualization of the magnetic flux distribution within and surroundings as well as its quantification. The magnetic analysis performed at individual nanowires was correlated with the chemical composition and crystalline orientation of the nanowires. - Highlights: • The structure-magnetic property relationship of CoNi nanowires is determined. • Off axis electron holography for the magnetic nanowires is used for the analysis. • The magnetization is quantitatively obtained from the retrieved phase images. • These results lead to a better comprehension of the magneto-crystalline phenomena.

  7. Towards low-dimensional hole systems in Be-doped GaAs nanowires

    Ullah, A. R.; Gluschke, J. G.; Jeppesen, Peter Krogstrup

    2017-01-01

    -gates produced using GaAs nanowires with three different Be-doping densities and various AuBe contact processing recipes. We show that contact annealing only brings small improvements for the moderately doped devices under conditions of lower anneal temperature and short anneal time. We only obtain good......GaAs was central to the development of quantum devices but is rarely used for nanowire-based quantum devices with InAs, InSb and SiGe instead taking the leading role. p-type GaAs nanowires offer a path to studying strongly confined 0D and 1D hole systems with strong spin–orbit effects, motivating...... our development of nanowire transistors featuring Be-doped p-type GaAs nanowires, AuBe alloy contacts and patterned local gate electrodes towards making nanowire-based quantum hole devices. We report on nanowire transistors with traditional substrate back-gates and EBL-defined metal/oxide top...

  8. Quantitative magnetometry analysis and structural characterization of multisegmented cobalt–nickel nanowires

    Cantu-Valle, Jesus; Díaz Barriga-Castro, Enrique; Vega, Víctor; García, Javier; Mendoza-Reséndez, Raquel; Luna, Carlos; Manuel Prida, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and measuring the magnetic properties of an individual nanowire and their relationship with crystalline structure and geometry are of scientific and technological great interest. In this work, we report the localized study of the magnetic flux distribution and the undisturbed magnetization of a single ferromagnetic nanowire that poses a bar-code like structure using off-axis electron holography (EH) under Lorentz conditions. The nanowires were grown by template-assisted electrodeposition, using AAO templates. Electron holography allows the visualization of the magnetic flux distribution within and surroundings as well as its quantification. The magnetic analysis performed at individual nanowires was correlated with the chemical composition and crystalline orientation of the nanowires. - Highlights: • The structure-magnetic property relationship of CoNi nanowires is determined. • Off axis electron holography for the magnetic nanowires is used for the analysis. • The magnetization is quantitatively obtained from the retrieved phase images. • These results lead to a better comprehension of the magneto-crystalline phenomena

  9. Growth of Ag-seeded III-V Nanowires and TEM Characterization

    Lindberg, Anna Helmi Caroline

    appropriate, the density and the vertical yield were obtained. The crystal structures for the grown nanowires have been investigated with TEM.We have also performed additional growths to further understand exactly how the nanowire growth proceeds as well as to understand the limitations of using Ag as a seed......This thesis deals with growth and characterization of GaAs and InAs nanowires. Today Au nanoparticle-seeding together with self-catalyzing are the dominating techniques to grow III-V nanowires with molecular beam epitaxy. In this thesis we instead investigate the possibility to use Ag as seed...... particle for growth of GaAs and InAs nanowires. The aim with the experiments performed has been to conclude whether Ag can be used to nucleate and grow nanowires on III-V substrates with molecular beam epitaxy. To investigate this we have performed growths of GaAs nanowires on GaAs(111)B and GaAs(100...

  10. From dopyballs to nanowires

    Smalley, R E [Rice Quantum Inst. and Depts. of Chemistry and Physics, Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1993-04-19

    Consideration of the factors involved in the production of fullerene nanotubes in carbon arcs leads to the notion that a high electric field may be the critical factor that causes the tubes to grow. This thought then leads to a suggestion that it may be possible to grow continuous fullerene fibers many centimeters in length by an electric-field-and-laser induced pyrolysis of gas phase hydrocarbons of fullerenes on the tip of the growing fiber as it extends out from its place of attachment on a high voltage needle. Use of metal- or boron-doped fullerenes (dopyballs) in such an apparatus may lead to the production of doped fullerene fiber nanowires of high strength and conductivity. (orig.)

  11. Indium Arsenide Nanowires

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal

    -ray diffraction. InAs NWs can be used in a broad range of applications, including detectors, high speed electronics and low temperature transport measurements, but in this thesis focus will be put on biological experiments on living cells. Good control of Au-assisted InAs NW growth has been achieved......This thesis is about growth of Au-assisted and self-assisted InAs nanowires (NWs). The wires are synthesized using a solid source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system and characterized with several techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x...... by a systematic study to optimize the growth conditions; first the Au deposition, then the growth temperature and finally the beam fluxes. For further control of the growth, Au droplets have been positioned with electron beam lithography and large scale arrays with a > 99 % yield have been made on 2 inch...

  12. Corrosion detection of nanowires by magnetic sensors

    Kosel, Jü rgen; Amara, Selma; Ivanov, Iurii; Blanco, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments related to a corrosion detection device for detecting corrosive environments. A corrosion detection device comprises a magnetic sensor and at least one magnetic nanowire disposed on the magnetic sensor. The magnetic sensor is configured to detect corrosion of the one or more magnetic nanowires based at least in part on a magnetic field of the one or more magnetic nanowires.

  13. Corrosion detection of nanowires by magnetic sensors

    Kosel, Jürgen

    2017-10-05

    Disclosed are various embodiments related to a corrosion detection device for detecting corrosive environments. A corrosion detection device comprises a magnetic sensor and at least one magnetic nanowire disposed on the magnetic sensor. The magnetic sensor is configured to detect corrosion of the one or more magnetic nanowires based at least in part on a magnetic field of the one or more magnetic nanowires.

  14. Vertical-Cavity In-plane Heterostructures: Physics and Applications

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2015-01-01

    We show that the in-plane heterostructures realized in vertical cavities with high contrast grating(HCG) reflector enables exotic configurations of heterostructure and photonic wells. In photonic crystal heterostructures forming a photonic well, the property of a confined mode is determined...... by the well width and barrier height. We show that in vertical-cavity in-plane heterostructures, anisotropic dispersion curvatures plays a key role as well, leading to exotic effects such as a photonic well with conduction band like well and a valence band like barrier. We investigate three examples...

  15. Ultrahigh Density Array of Vertically Aligned Small-molecular Organic Nanowires on Arbitrary Substrates

    Starko-Bowes, Ryan; Pramanik, Sandipan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years π-conjugated organic semiconductors have emerged as the active material in a number of diverse applications including large-area, low-cost displays, photovoltaics, printable and flexible electronics and organic spin valves. Organics allow (a) low-cost, low-temperature processing and (b) molecular-level design of electronic, optical and spin transport characteristics. Such features are not readily available for mainstream inorganic semiconductors, which have enabled organics to carve a niche in the silicon-dominated electronics market. The first generation of organic-based devices has focused on thin film geometries, grown by physical vapor deposition or solution processing. However, it has been realized that organic nanostructures can be used to enhance performance of above-mentioned applications and significant effort has been invested in exploring methods for organic nanostructure fabrication. A particularly interesting class of organic nanostructures is the one in which vertically oriented organic nanowires, nanorods or nanotubes are organized in a well-regimented, high-density array. Such structures are highly versatile and are ideal morphological architectures for various applications such as chemical sensors, split-dipole nanoantennas, photovoltaic devices with radially heterostructured "core-shell" nanowires, and memory devices with a cross-point geometry. Such architecture is generally realized by a template-directed approach. In the past this method has been used to grow metal and inorganic semiconductor nanowire arrays. More recently π-conjugated polymer nanowires have been grown within nanoporous templates. However, these approaches have had limited success in growing nanowires of technologically important π-conjugated small molecular weight organics, such as tris-8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3), rubrene and methanofullerenes, which are commonly used in diverse areas including organic displays, photovoltaics, thin film transistors

  16. Favorable ultraviolet photoelectric effects in TbMnO3/Nb-SrTiO3 heterostructures

    Jin, Kexin

    2014-12-01

    The rectifying properties and ultraviolet photoelectric effects in TbMnO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterostructures have been investigated. The ideality factors and the diffusion voltages obtained from the current-voltage curves nonlinearly decrease with increasing the temperature. It is observed that the maximum photovoltaic values of the heterostructure irradiated by the 365 nm (2.6 mW/mm2) and 248 nm (0.71 mJ/mm2) lights are about 0.121 V and 0.119 V at T=300 K, respectively. The relations between the relaxation of photovoltages after the irradiation and the power intensity are revealed. These results suggest the potential applications in the development of ultraviolet detectors using oxides-based heterostructures.

  17. Formation of Ag nanowires on graphite stepped surfaces. A DFT study

    Ambrusi, Rubén E.; García, Silvana G.; Pronsato, María E.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of obtaining silver nanowires on graphite stepped surfaces theoretically, using density functional theory calculations. Three layer slabs are used to model graphite surfaces with and without defects. Adsorption energies for Ag atoms on graphite surfaces were calculated showing the preference of Ag adatoms to locate on the steps, forming linear structures like nanowires. An analysis of the charge densities and projected densities of states for different structures is also performed.

  18. Ultra-low reflection porous silicon nanowires for solar cell applications

    Najar , Adel; Charrier , Joël; Pirasteh , Parastesh; Sougrat , R.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; High density vertically aligned Porous Silicon NanoWires (PSiNWs) were fabricated on silicon substrate using metal assisted chemical etching process. A linear dependency of nanowire length to the etching time was obtained and the change in the growth rate of PSiNWs by increasing etching durations was shown. A typical 2D bright-field TEM image used for volume reconstruction of the sample shows the pores size varying from 10 to 50 nm. Furthermore, reflectivity measuremen...

  19. Thermal response in van der Waals heterostructures

    Gandi, Appala

    2016-11-21

    We solve numerically the Boltzmann transport equations of the phonons and electrons to understand the thermoelectric response in heterostructures of M2CO2 (M: Ti, Zr, Hf) MXenes with transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. Low frequency optical phonons are found to occur as a consequence of the van der Waals bonding, contribute significantly to the thermal transport, and compensate for the reduced contributions of the acoustic phonons (increased scattering cross-sections in heterostructures), such that the thermal conductivities turn out to be similar to those of the bare MXenes. Our results indicate that the important superlattice design approach of thermoelectrics (to reduce the thermal conductivity) may be effective for two-dimensional van der Waals materials when used in conjunction with intercalation. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers

    Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A.; Sergeev, A.

    2013-11-01

    Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La2-xSrxCuO4 layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, δV ˜γI3, with a coefficient γ(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity dρ /dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area ge -ph≈1 W/K cm2 at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity.

  1. Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers

    Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A.; Sergeev, A.

    2013-01-01

    Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La 2−x Sr x CuO 4 layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, δV∼γI 3 , with a coefficient γ(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity dρ/dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area g e−ph ≈1 W/K cm 2 at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity

  2. Ultrafast strain engineering in complex oxide heterostructures

    Popovich, Paul; Caviglia, Andrea; Hu, Wanzheng; Bromberger, Hubertus; Singla, Rashmi; Mitrano, Matteo; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Kaiser, Stefan; Foerst, Michael [Max-Planck Research Group for Structural Dynamics - Center for Free Electron Laser Science, University of Hamburg (Germany); Scherwitzl, Raoul; Zubko, Pavlo; Gariglio, Sergio; Triscone, Jean-Marc [Departement de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Geneve 4, Geneva (Switzerland); Cavalleri, Andrea [Max-Planck Research Group for Structural Dynamics - Center for Free Electron Laser Science, University of Hamburg (Germany); Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The mechanical coupling between the substrate and the thin film is expected to be effective on the ultrafast timescale, and could be exploited for the dynamic control of materials properties. Here, we demonstrate that a large-amplitude mid-infrared field, made resonant with a stretching mode of the substrate, can switch the electronic properties of a thin film across an interface. Exploiting dynamic strain propagation between different components of a heterostructure, insulating antiferromagnetic NdNiO{sub 3} is driven through a prompt, five-order-of-magnitude increase of the electrical conductivity, with resonant frequency and susceptibility that is controlled by choice of the substrate material. Vibrational phase control, extended here to a wide class of heterostructures and interfaces, may be conductive to new strategies for electronic phase control at THz repetition rates.

  3. Multiple scattering theory for superconducting heterostructures

    Ujfalussy, Balazs [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-07-01

    We generalize the screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method for solving the corresponding Kohn-Sham-Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for surfaces and interfaces. As an application of the theory, we study the quasiparticle spectrum of Au overlayers on a Nb(100) host. We find that within the superconducting gap region, the quasiparticle spectrum consists of Andreev bound states with a dispersion which is closely connected to the underlying electronic structure of the overlayer. We also find that the spectrum has a strongly k-dependent induced gap. The properties of the gap are discussed in relation to the thickness of the overlayer, and it is shown that certain states do not participate in the Andreev scattering process. From the thickness dependence of the gap size we calculate the superconducting critical temperature of Au/Nb(100) heterostructures what we compare with with experiments. Moreover, predictions are made for similar heterostructures of other compounds.

  4. Transport Properties Of Van Der Waals Hybrid Heterostructures.

    Pacheco, M.; Orellana, P. A.; Felix, A. B.; Latge, A.

    Here we study transport properties of van der Waals heterostructures composed of carbon nanotubes adsorbed on nanoribbons of distinct 2D materials. Calculations of the electronic density of states and conductance of the hybrid systems are obtained in single band tight-binding approximation in the Green function formalism by adopting real-space renormalization schemes. We show that an analytical approach may be derived when both systems are formed by the same type of atoms. In the coupled structures the different electronic paths along the ribbons and finite nanotubes lead to quantum interference effects which are reflected as Fano antiresonances in the conductance. The electronic and transport properties of these materials are modulated by changing geometrical and structural parameters, such as the nanotube diameter and the widths and edge type of the ribbons. FONDECYT 1151316-1140571.

  5. Shell morphology and Raman spectra of epitaxial Ge-SixGe1-x and Si-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowires

    Wen, Feng; Dillen, David C.; Kim, Kyounghwan; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the shell morphology and Raman spectra of epitaxial Ge-SixGe1-x and Si-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown using a combination of a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism for the core, followed by in-situ epitaxial shell growth using ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy reveals that the VLS growth yields cylindrical Ge, and Si nanowire cores grown along the ⟨111⟩, and ⟨110⟩ or ⟨112⟩ directions, respectively. A hexagonal cross-sectional morphology is observed for Ge-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowires terminated by six {112} facets. Two distinct morphologies are observed for Si-SixGe1-x core-shell nanowires that are either terminated by four {111} and two {100} planes associated with the ⟨110⟩ growth direction or four {113} and two {111} planes associated with the ⟨112⟩ growth direction. We show that the Raman spectra of Si- SixGe1-x are correlated with the shell morphology thanks to epitaxial growth-induced strain, with the core Si-Si mode showing a larger red shift in ⟨112⟩ core-shell nanowires compared to their ⟨110⟩ counterparts. We compare the Si-Si Raman mode value with calculations based on a continuum elasticity model coupled with the lattice dynamic theory.

  6. Growth and morphological analysis of segmented AuAg alloy nanowires created by pulsed electrodeposition in ion-track etched membranes

    Ina Schubert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multicomponent heterostructure nanowires and nanogaps are of great interest for applications in sensorics. Pulsed electrodeposition in ion-track etched polymer templates is a suitable method to synthesise segmented nanowires with segments consisting of two different types of materials. For a well-controlled synthesis process, detailed analysis of the deposition parameters and the size-distribution of the segmented wires is crucial.Results: The fabrication of electrodeposited AuAg alloy nanowires and segmented Au-rich/Ag-rich/Au-rich nanowires with controlled composition and segment length in ion-track etched polymer templates was developed. Detailed analysis by cyclic voltammetry in ion-track membranes, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy was performed to determine the dependency between the chosen potential and the segment composition. Additionally, we have dissolved the middle Ag-rich segments in order to create small nanogaps with controlled gap sizes. Annealing of the created structures allows us to influence their morphology.Conclusion: AuAg alloy nanowires, segmented wires and nanogaps with controlled composition and size can be synthesised by electrodeposition in membranes, and are ideal model systems for investigation of surface plasmons.

  7. Enhanced optical nonlinearities in the near-infrared using III-nitride heterostructures coupled to metamaterials

    Wolf, Omri; Ma, Xuedan; Brener, Igal; Allerman, Andrew A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Shaner, Eric A.; Song, Alex Y.

    2015-01-01

    We use planar metamaterial resonators to enhance by more than two orders of magnitude the near infrared second harmonic generation obtained from intersubband transitions in III-Nitride heterostructures. The improvement arises from two factors: employing an asymmetric double quantum well design and aligning the resonators' cross-polarized resonances with the intersubband transition energies. The resulting nonlinear metamaterial operates at wavelengths where single photon detection is available, and represents a different class of sources for quantum photonics related phenomena

  8. Proximity effects in topological insulator heterostructures

    Li Xiao-Guang; Wu Guang-Fen; Zhang Gu-Feng; Culcer Dimitrie; Zhang Zhen-Yu; Chen Hua

    2013-01-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) are bulk insulators that possess robust helical conducting states along their interfaces with conventional insulators. A tremendous research effort has recently been devoted to Tl-based heterostructures, in which conventional proximity effects give rise to a series of exotic physical phenomena. This paper reviews our recent studies on the potential existence of topological proximity effects at the interface between a topological insulator and a normal insulator or other topologically trivial systems. Using first-principles approaches, we have realized the tunability of the vertical location of the topological helical state via intriguing dual-proximity effects. To further elucidate the control parameters of this effect, we have used the graphene-based heterostructures as prototypical systems to reveal a more complete phase diagram. On the application side of the topological helical states, we have presented a catalysis example, where the topological helical state plays an essential role in facilitating surface reactions by serving as an effective electron bath. These discoveries lay the foundation for accurate manipulation of the real space properties of the topological helical state in TI-based heterostructures and pave the way for realization of the salient functionality of topological insulators in future device applications. (topical review - low-dimensional nanostructures and devices)

  9. Graphene diamond-like carbon films heterostructure

    Zhao, Fang; Afandi, Abdulkareem; Jackman, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    A limitation to the potential use of graphene as an electronic material is the lack of control over the 2D materials properties once it is deposited on a supporting substrate. Here, the use of Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) interlayers between the substrate and the graphene is shown to offer the prospect of overcoming this problem. The DLC films used here, more properly known as a-C:H with ∼25% hydrogen content, have been terminated with N or F moieties prior to graphene deposition. It is found that nitrogen terminations lead to an optical band gap shrinkage in the DLC, whilst fluorine groups reduce the DLC's surface energy. CVD monolayer graphene subsequently transferred to DLC, N terminated DLC, and F terminated DLC has then been studied with AFM, Raman and XPS analysis, and correlated with Hall effect measurements that give an insight into the heterostructures electrical properties. The results show that different terminations strongly affect the electronic properties of the graphene heterostructures. G-F-DLC samples were p-type and displayed considerably higher mobility than the other heterostructures, whilst G-N-DLC samples supported higher carrier densities, being almost metallic in character. Since it would be possible to locally pattern the distribution of these differing surface terminations, this work offers the prospect for 2D lateral control of the electronic properties of graphene layers for device applications

  10. Voltage control of magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures.

    Liu, Ming; Sun, Nian X

    2014-02-28

    Electrical tuning of magnetism is of great fundamental and technical importance for fast, compact and ultra-low power electronic devices. Multiferroics, simultaneously exhibiting ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism, have attracted much interest owing to the capability of controlling magnetism by an electric field through magnetoelectric (ME) coupling. In particular, strong strain-mediated ME interaction observed in layered multiferroic heterostructures makes it practically possible for realizing electrically reconfigurable microwave devices, ultra-low power electronics and magnetoelectric random access memories (MERAMs). In this review, we demonstrate this remarkable E-field manipulation of magnetism in various multiferroic composite systems, aiming at the creation of novel compact, lightweight, energy-efficient and tunable electronic and microwave devices. First of all, tunable microwave devices are demonstrated based on ferrite/ferroelectric and magnetic-metal/ferroelectric composites, showing giant ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) tunability with narrow FMR linewidth. Then, E-field manipulation of magnetoresistance in multiferroic anisotropic magnetoresistance and giant magnetoresistance devices for achieving low-power electronic devices is discussed. Finally, E-field control of exchange-bias and deterministic magnetization switching is demonstrated in exchange-coupled antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic/ferroelectric multiferroic hetero-structures at room temperature, indicating an important step towards MERAMs. In addition, recent progress in electrically non-volatile tuning of magnetic states is also presented. These tunable multiferroic heterostructures and devices provide great opportunities for next-generation reconfigurable radio frequency/microwave communication systems and radars, spintronics, sensors and memories.

  11. Quantum dots coupled ZnO nanowire-array panels and their photocatalytic activities.

    Liao, Yulong; Que, Wenxiu; Zhang, Jin; Zhong, Peng; Yuan, Yuan; Qiu, Xinku; Shen, Fengyu

    2013-02-01

    Fabrication and characterization of a heterojunction structured by CdS quantum dots@ZnO nanowire-array panels were presented. Firstly, ZnO nanowire-array panels were prepared by using a chemical bath deposition approach where wurtzite ZnO nanowires with a diameter of about 100 nm and 3 microm in length grew perpendicularly to glass substrate. Secondly, CdS quantum dots were deposited onto the surface of the ZnO nanowire-arrays by using successive ion layer absorption and reaction method, and the CdS shell/ZnO core heterojunction were thus obtained. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope were employed to characterize the morphological properties of the as-obtained CdS quantum dots@ZnO nanowire-array panels. X-ray diffraction was adopted to characterize the crystalline properties of the as-obtained CdS quantum dots@ZnO nanowire-array panels. Methyl orange was taken as a model compound to confirm the photocatalytic activities of the CdS shell/ZnO core heterojunction. Results indicate that CdS with narrow band gap not only acts as a visible-light sensitizer but also is responsible for an effective charge separation.

  12. Nanostructuring of conduction channels in (In,Ga)As-InP heterostructures: Overcoming carrier generation caused by Ar ion milling

    Hortelano, V.; Weidlich, H.; Semtsiv, M. P.; Masselink, W. T.; Ramsteiner, M.; Jahn, U.; Biermann, K.; Takagaki, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Nanometer-sized channels are fabricated in (In,Ga)As-InP heterostructures using Ar ion milling. The ion milling causes spontaneous creation of nanowires, and moreover, electrical conduction of the surface as carriers is generated by sputtering-induced defects. We demonstrate a method to restore electrical isolation in the etched area that is compatible with the presence of the nanochannels. We remove the heavily damaged surface layer using a diluted HCl solution and subsequently recover the crystalline order in the moderately damaged part by annealing. We optimize the HCl concentration to make the removal stop on its own before reaching the conduction channel part. The lateral depletion in the channels is shown to be almost absent.

  13. Box-like gel capsules from heterostructures based on a core-shell MOF as a template of crystal crosslinking.

    Ishiwata, Takumi; Michibata, Ayano; Kokado, Kenta; Ferlay, Sylvie; Hosseini, Mir Wais; Sada, Kazuki

    2018-02-06

    New polymer capsules (PCs) were obtained using a crystal crosslinking (CC) method on core-shell MOF crystals. The latter are based on the epitaxial growth of two isostructural coordination polymers which are then selectively crosslinked. Decomposition of the non-reticulated phase leads to new PCs, possessing a well-defined hollow cubic shape reflecting the heterostructure of the template.

  14. Favorable ultraviolet photoelectric effects in TbMnO3/Nb-SrTiO3 heterostructures

    Jin, Kexin; Zhai, Y. X.; Li, Hui; Tian, Y. F.; Luo, B. C.; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The rectifying properties and ultraviolet photoelectric effects in TbMnO3/Nb-doped SrTiO3 heterostructures have been investigated. The ideality factors and the diffusion voltages obtained from the current-voltage curves nonlinearly decrease

  15. Gold nanowires and the effect of impurities

    Novaes Frederico

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMetal nanowires and in particular gold nanowires have received a great deal of attention in the past few years. Experiments on gold nanowires have prompted theory and simulation to help answer questions posed by these studies. Here we present results of computer simulations for the formation, evolution and breaking of very thin Au nanowires. We also discuss the influence of contaminants, such as atoms and small molecules, and their effect on the structural and mechanical properties of these nanowires.

  16. Micromagnetic simulations of cylindrical magnetic nanowires

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2015-05-27

    This chapter reviews micromagnetic simulations of cylindrical magnetic nanowires and their ordered arrays. It starts with a description of the theoretical background of micromagnetism. The chapter discusses main magnetization reversal modes, domain wall types, and state diagrams in cylindrical nanowires of different types and sizes. The results of the hysteresis process in individual nanowires and nanowire arrays also are presented. Modeling results are compared with experimental ones. The chapter also discusses future trends in nanowire applications in relation to simulations, such as current-driven dynamics, spintronics, and spincaloritronics. The main micromagnetic programs are presented and discussed, together with the corresponding links.

  17. Ballistic superconductivity in semiconductor nanowires

    Zhang, Hao; Gül, Önder; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Nowak, Michał P.; Wimmer, Michael; Zuo, Kun; Mourik, Vincent; de Vries, Folkert K.; van Veen, Jasper; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Bommer, Jouri D. S.; van Woerkom, David J.; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sébastien R; Bakkers, Erik P.A.M.; Quintero-Pérez, Marina; Cassidy, Maja C.; Koelling, Sebastian; Goswami, Srijit; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have opened new research avenues in quantum transport owing to their confined geometry and electrostatic tunability. They have offered an exceptional testbed for superconductivity, leading to the realization of hybrid systems combining the macroscopic quantum properties of superconductors with the possibility to control charges down to a single electron. These advances brought semiconductor nanowires to the forefront of efforts to realize topological superconductivity and Majorana modes. A prime challenge to benefit from the topological properties of Majoranas is to reduce the disorder in hybrid nanowire devices. Here we show ballistic superconductivity in InSb semiconductor nanowires. Our structural and chemical analyses demonstrate a high-quality interface between the nanowire and a NbTiN superconductor that enables ballistic transport. This is manifested by a quantized conductance for normal carriers, a strongly enhanced conductance for Andreev-reflecting carriers, and an induced hard gap with a significantly reduced density of states. These results pave the way for disorder-free Majorana devices. PMID:28681843

  18. Growth and characterisation of group-III nitride-based nanowires for devices

    Meijers, R J

    2007-08-30

    One of the main goals of this thesis was to get more insight into the mechanisms driving the growth of nitride nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). The influence of the group-III and group-V flux as well as the substrate temperature T{sub sub} has been studied leading to the conclusion that the III-V ratio determines the growth mode. Ga desorption limits the temperature range to grow GaN nanowires and dissociation of InN is the limiting factor for InN nanowire growth. A reduction of the surface diffusivity on polar surfaces under N-rich conditions explains the anisotropic growth. Growth kinetics of the nanowires show that there are two important contributions to the growth. The first is growth by direct impingement and its contribution is independent of the nanowire diameter. The second contribution comes from atoms, which absorb on the substrate or wire sidewalls and diffuse along the sidewalls to the top of the wire, which acts as an effective sink for the adatoms due to a reduced surface mobility on the polar top of the wires. This diffusion channel, which is enhanced at higher T{sub sub}, becomes more significant for smaller wire diameters, because its contribution scales like 1/d. Experiments with an interruption of the growth and sharp interfaces in TEM images of heterostructures show that the suggestion in literature of a droplet-mediated PA-MBE nitride growth has to be discarded. Despite a thin amorphous silicon nitride wetting layer on the substrate surface, both GaN and InN nanowires grow in the wurtzite structure and epitaxially in a one-to-one relation to the Si(111) substrate surface. There is no evidence for cubic phases. TEM images and optical studies display a high crystalline and optical quality of GaN and InN nanowires. The substrate induces some strain in the bottom part of the nanowires, especially in InN due to the lower T{sub sub} than for GaN, which is released without the formation of dislocations. Only some stacking

  19. Fabrication of ZnO Nanowires Arrays by Anodization and High-Vacuum Die Casting Technique, and Their Piezoelectric Properties

    Kuo, Chin-Guo; Chang, Ho; Wang, Jian-Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with arrayed and regularly arranged nanopores is used as a template in the high-vacuum die casting of molten zinc metal (Zn) into the nanopores. The proposed technique yields arrayed Zn nanowires with an aspect ratio of over 600. After annealing, arrayed zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires are obtained. Varying the anodizing time yields AAO templates with thicknesses of approximately 50 μm, 60 μm, and 70 μm that can be used in the fabrication of nanowires of three lengths with high aspect ratios. Experimental results reveal that a longer nanowire generates a greater measured piezoelectric current. The ZnO nanowires that are fabricated using an alumina template are anodized for 7 h and produce higher piezoelectric current of up to 69 pA. PMID:27023546

  20. Fabrication of ZnO Nanowires Arrays by Anodization and High-Vacuum Die Casting Technique, and Their Piezoelectric Properties

    Chin-Guo Kuo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO with arrayed and regularly arranged nanopores is used as a template in the high-vacuum die casting of molten zinc metal (Zn into the nanopores. The proposed technique yields arrayed Zn nanowires with an aspect ratio of over 600. After annealing, arrayed zinc oxide (ZnO nanowires are obtained. Varying the anodizing time yields AAO templates with thicknesses of approximately 50 μm, 60 μm, and 70 μm that can be used in the fabrication of nanowires of three lengths with high aspect ratios. Experimental results reveal that a longer nanowire generates a greater measured piezoelectric current. The ZnO nanowires that are fabricated using an alumina template are anodized for 7 h and produce higher piezoelectric current of up to 69 pA.

  1. Fabrication of ZnO Nanowires Arrays by Anodization and High-Vacuum Die Casting Technique, and Their Piezoelectric Properties.

    Kuo, Chin-Guo; Chang, Ho; Wang, Jian-Hao

    2016-03-24

    In this investigation, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) with arrayed and regularly arranged nanopores is used as a template in the high-vacuum die casting of molten zinc metal (Zn) into the nanopores. The proposed technique yields arrayed Zn nanowires with an aspect ratio of over 600. After annealing, arrayed zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires are obtained. Varying the anodizing time yields AAO templates with thicknesses of approximately 50 μm, 60 μm, and 70 μm that can be used in the fabrication of nanowires of three lengths with high aspect ratios. Experimental results reveal that a longer nanowire generates a greater measured piezoelectric current. The ZnO nanowires that are fabricated using an alumina template are anodized for 7 h and produce higher piezoelectric current of up to 69 pA.

  2. CoFe Layers Thickness and Annealing Effect on the Magnetic Behavior of the CoFe/Cu Multilayer Nanowires

    M. Ahmadzadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available CoFe/Cu multilayer nanowires were electrodeposited into anodic aluminum oxide templates prepared by a two-step mild anodization method, using the single-bath technique. Nanowires with 30 nm diameter and the definite lengths were obtained. The effect of CoFe layers thickness and annealing on the magnetic behavior of the multilayer nanowires was investigated. The layers thickness was controlled through the pulses numbers: 200, 260, 310,360 and 410 pulses were used to deposit the CoFe layers, while 300 pulse for the Cu layers. A certain increase in coercivity and squareness of CoFe/Cu multilayer nanowires observed with increasing the CoFe layer thickness and annealing improved the coercivity and decrease squareness of CoFe/Cu multilayer nanowires. First order reversal curves after annealed showed amount domains with soft magnetic phase, it also shows decreasing spreading of distribution function along the Hu axis after annealed

  3. Methods for synthesizing metal oxide nanowires

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Kumar, Vivekanand; Kim, Jeong H.; Clark, Ezra Lee

    2016-08-09

    A method of synthesizing a metal oxide nanowire includes the steps of: combining an amount of a transition metal or a transition metal oxide with an amount of an alkali metal compound to produce a mixture; activating a plasma discharge reactor to create a plasma discharge; exposing the mixture to the plasma discharge for a first predetermined time period such that transition metal oxide nanowires are formed; contacting the transition metal oxide nanowires with an acid solution such that an alkali metal ion is exchanged for a hydrogen ion on each of the transition metal oxide nanowires; and exposing the transition metal oxide nanowires to the plasma discharge for a second predetermined time period to thermally anneal the transition metal oxide nanowires. Transition metal oxide nanowires produced using the synthesis methods described herein are also provided.

  4. Nanowire failure: long = brittle and short = ductile.

    Wu, Zhaoxuan; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Jhon, Mark H; Gao, Huajian; Srolovitz, David J

    2012-02-08

    Experimental studies of the tensile behavior of metallic nanowires show a wide range of failure modes, ranging from ductile necking to brittle/localized shear failure-often in the same diameter wires. We performed large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of copper nanowires with a range of nanowire lengths and provide unequivocal evidence for a transition in nanowire failure mode with change in nanowire length. Short nanowires fail via a ductile mode with serrated stress-strain curves, while long wires exhibit extreme shear localization and abrupt failure. We developed a simple model for predicting the critical nanowire length for this failure mode transition and showed that it is in excellent agreement with both the simulation results and the extant experimental data. The present results provide a new paradigm for the design of nanoscale mechanical systems that demarcates graceful and catastrophic failure. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  5. Ferromagnetic resonance in low interacting permalloy nanowire arrays

    Raposo, V.; Zazo, M.; Flores, A. G.; Iñiguez, J. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, University of Salamanca, E-37071 Salamanca (Spain); Garcia, J.; Vega, V.; Prida, V. M. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-04-14

    Dipolar interactions on magnetic nanowire arrays have been investigated by various techniques. One of the most powerful techniques is the ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy, because the resonance field depends directly on the anisotropy field strength and its frequency dependence. In order to evaluate the influence of magnetostatic dipolar interactions among ferromagnetic nanowire arrays, several densely packed hexagonal arrays of NiFe nanowires have been prepared by electrochemical deposition filling self-ordered nanopores of alumina membranes with different pore sizes but keeping the same interpore distance. Nanowires’ diameter was changed from 90 to 160 nm, while the lattice parameter was fixed to 300 nm, which was achieved by carefully reducing the pore diameter by means of Atomic Layer Deposition of conformal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers on the nanoporous alumina templates. Field and frequency dependence of ferromagnetic resonance have been studied in order to obtain the dispersion diagram which gives information about anisotropy, damping factor, and gyromagnetic ratio. The relationship between resonance frequency and magnetic field can be explained by the roles played by the shape anisotropy and dipolar interactions among the ferromagnetic nanowires.

  6. Controlled synthesis of uniform ultrafine CuO nanowires as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Wang Fei; Tao Weizhe; Zhao Mingshu; Xu Minwei; Yang Shengchun; Sun Zhanbo; Wang Liqun; Song Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The ultrafine CuO nanowires were controlled synthesized by a simple solution route. → CuO nanowires exhibit high capacity, superior cyclability and improved rate capability. → Voltage-capacity curves show larger extra reversible reactions at low potentials in CuO nanowires. → CV curves show lower over-potential in CuO nanowires. - Abstract: A simple solution route is used to synthesize ultrafine Cu(OH) 2 nanowires by restraining the morphology transformation of early formed 1D nanostructure. The obtained ultrafine nanowires can be well preserved at a low temperature structure transformation in solid state. As anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the ultrafine CuO nanowires exhibit high reversible capacity, superior cycling performance and improved rate capability. The improved electrochemical properties of CuO nanowires are ascribed to their ultrafine size which lead to the reduced over-potential, extra reversible reactions at low potentials and improved interface performance between the electrode and electrolyte.

  7. Electrical conductivity characteristic of TiO2 nanowires from hydrothermal method

    Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Amat, Noor Faridah; Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Rajan, Jose

    2014-01-01

    One dimensional nanostructures of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) were synthesized via hydrothermal method by mixing TiO 2 as precursor in aqueous solution of NaOH as solvent. Then, heat and washing treatment was applied. Thus obtained wires had diameter ∼15 nm. TiO 2 nanowires will be used as a network in solar cell such dye-sensitized solar cell in order to improve the performance of electron movement in the device. To improve the performance of electron movement, the characteristics of TiO 2 nanowires have been analyses using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis, x-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis and brunauer emmett teller (BET) analysis. Finally, electrical conductivity of TiO 2 nanowires was determined by measuring the resistance of the TiO 2 nanowires paste on microscope glass.

  8. A comprehensive study of thermoelectric and transport properties of β-silicon carbide nanowires

    Valentín, L. A.; Betancourt, J.; Fonseca, L. F., E-mail: luis.fonseca@upr.edu [Department of Physics University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico); Pettes, M. T.; Shi, L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Soszyński, M.; Huczko, A. [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University, Pasteur 1 Str., 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-11-14

    The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical and thermal conductivities of individual β-silicon carbide nanowires produced by combustion in a calorimetric bomb were studied using a suspended micro-resistance thermometry device that allows four-point probe measurements to be conducted on each nanowire. Additionally, crystal structure and growth direction for each measured nanowire was directly obtained by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The Fermi level, the carrier concentration, and mobility of each nanostructure were determined using a combination of Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity measurements, energy band structure and transport theory calculations. The temperature dependence of the thermal and electrical conductivities of the nanowires was explained in terms of contributions from boundary, impurity, and defect scattering.

  9. Fully transparent thin-film transistor devices based on SnO2 nanowires.

    Dattoli, Eric N; Wan, Qing; Guo, Wei; Chen, Yanbin; Pan, Xiaoqing; Lu, Wei

    2007-08-01

    We report on studies of field-effect transistor (FET) and transparent thin-film transistor (TFT) devices based on lightly Ta-doped SnO2 nano-wires. The nanowire-based devices exhibit uniform characteristics with average field-effect mobilities exceeding 100 cm2/V x s. Prototype nano-wire-based TFT (NW-TFT) devices on glass substrates showed excellent optical transparency and transistor performance in terms of transconductance, bias voltage range, and on/off ratio. High on-currents and field-effect mobilities were obtained from the NW-TFT devices even at low nanowire coverage. The SnO2 nanowire-based TFT approach offers a number of desirable properties such as low growth cost, high electron mobility, and optical transparency and low operation voltage, and may lead to large-scale applications of transparent electronics on diverse substrates.

  10. Single-crystalline self-branched anatase titania nanowires for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Li, Zhenquan; Yang, Huang; Wu, Fei; Fu, Jianxun; Wang, Linjun; Yang, Weiguang

    2017-03-01

    The morphology of the anatase titania plays an important role in improving the photovoltaic performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, single-crystalline self-branched anatase TiO2 nanowires have been synthesized by hydrothermal method using TBAH and CTAB as morphology controlling agents. The obtained self-branched TiO2 nanowires dominated by a large percentage of (010) facets. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency (6.37%) of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the self-branched TiO2 nanowires shows a significant improvement (26.6%) compared to that of P25 TiO2 (5.03%). The enhanced performance of the self-branched TiO2 nanowires-based DSSC is due to heir large percent of exposed (010) facets which have strong dye adsorption capacity and effective charge transport of the self-branched 1D nanostructures.

  11. Magnetization reversal and coercivity of Fe3Se4 nanowire arrays

    Li, D.; Li, S. J.; Zhou, Y. T.; Bai, Y.; Zhu, Y. L.; Ren, W. J.; Long, G.; Zeng, H.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2015-05-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of Fe3Se4 nanowire (NW) arrays in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) porous membrane are studied. Cross-sectional SEM and plane-view TEM images show that the mean wire diameter (dw) and the center-to-center spacing (D) of Fe3Se4 nanowires are about 220 nm and 330 nm, respectively. The field-cooled magnetization dependent on the temperature indicates a Curie temperature around 334 K for the Fe3Se4 nanowires. The coercivities of Fe3Se4 nanowires at 10 K, obtained from the in-plane and out-of-plane hysteresis loops, are as high as 22.4 kOe and 23.3 kOe, which can be understood from the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and the magnetization reversal process.

  12. In situ electron backscattered diffraction of individual GaAs nanowires

    Prikhodko, S.V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)], E-mail: sergey@seas.ucla.edu; Sitzman, S. [Oxford Instruments America, Concord, MA 01742 (United States); Gambin, V. [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Kodambaka, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    We suggest and demonstrate that electron backscattered diffraction, a scanning electron microscope-based technique, can be used for non-destructive structural and morphological characterization of statistically significant number of nanowires in situ on their growth substrate. We obtain morphological, crystal phase, and crystal orientation information of individual GaAs nanowires in situ on the growth substrate GaAs(1 1 1) B. Our results, verified using transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction analyses of the same set of wires, indicate that most wires possess a wurtzite structure with a high density of thin structural defects aligned normal to the wire growth axis, while others grow defect-free with a zincblende structure. The demonstrated approach is general, applicable to other material systems, and is expected to provide important insights into the role of substrate structure on nanowire structure on nanowire crystallinity and growth orientation.

  13. 3D Auger quantitative depth profiling of individual nanoscaled III–V heterostructures

    Hourani, W. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Gorbenko, V. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LTM, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Barnes, J.-P.; Guedj, C. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Cipro, R.; Moeyaert, J.; David, S.; Bassani, F.; Baron, T. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LTM, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Martinez, E., E-mail: eugenie.martinez@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The nanoscale chemical characterization of III–V heterostructures is performed using Auger depth profiling below decananometric spatial resolution. • Reliable indium quantification is achieved on planar structures for thicknesses down to 9 nm. • Quantitative 3D compositional depth profiles are obtained on patterned structures, with sufficient lateral resolution to analyze one single trench. • The Auger intrinsic spatial resolution is estimated around 150–200 nm using a comparison with HAADF-STEM. • Auger and SIMS provide reliable in-depth chemical analysis of such complex 3D heterostructures, in particular regarding indium quantification. - Abstract: The nanoscale chemical characterization of III–V heterostructures is performed using Auger depth profiling below decananometric spatial resolution. This technique is successfully applied to quantify the elemental composition of planar and patterned III–V heterostructures containing InGaAs quantum wells. Reliable indium quantification is achieved on planar structures for thicknesses down to 9 nm. Quantitative 3D compositional depth profiles are obtained on patterned structures, for trench widths down to 200 nm. The elemental distributions obtained in averaged and pointed mode are compared. For this last case, we show that Zalar rotation during sputtering is crucial for a reliable indium quantification. Results are confirmed by comparisons with secondary ion mass spectrometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The Auger intrinsic spatial resolution is quantitatively measured using an original methodology based on the comparison with high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements at the nanometric scale.

  14. Tunneling magnetoresistance in Si nanowires

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2016-11-09

    We investigate the tunneling magnetoresistance of small diameter semiconducting Si nanowires attached to ferromagnetic Fe electrodes, using first principles density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green\\'s functions method for quantum transport. Silicon nanowires represent an interesting platform for spin devices. They are compatible with mature silicon technology and their intrinsic electronic properties can be controlled by modifying the diameter and length. Here we systematically study the spin transport properties for neutral nanowires and both n and p doping conditions. We find a substantial low bias magnetoresistance for the neutral case, which halves for an applied voltage of about 0.35 V and persists up to 1 V. Doping in general decreases the magnetoresistance, as soon as the conductance is no longer dominated by tunneling.

  15. Study of transmission function and electronic transport in one dimensional silver nanowire: Ab-initio method using density functional theory (DFT)

    Thakur, Anil; Kashyap, Rajinder

    2018-05-01

    Single nanowire electrode devices have their application in variety of fields which vary from information technology to solar energy. Silver nanowires, made in an aqueous chemical reduction process, can be reacted with gold salt to create bimetallic nanowires. Silver nanowire can be used as electrodes in batteries and have many other applications. In this paper we investigated structural and electronic transport properties of Ag nanowire using density functional theory (DFT) with SIESTA code. Electronic transport properties of Ag nanowire have been studied theoretically. First of all an optimized geometry for Ag nanowire is obtained using DFT calculations, and then the transport relations are obtained using NEGF approach. SIESTA and TranSIESTA simulation codes are used in the calculations respectively. The electrodes are chosen to be the same as the central region where transport is studied, eliminating current quantization effects due to contacts and focusing the electronic transport study to the intrinsic structure of the material. By varying chemical potential in the electrode regions, an I-V curve is traced which is in agreement with the predicted behavior. Bulk properties of Ag are in agreement with experimental values which make the study of electronic and transport properties in silver nanowires interesting because they are promising materials as bridging pieces in nanoelectronics. Transmission coefficient and V-I characteristic of Ag nano wire reveals that silver nanowire can be used as an electrode device.

  16. Nanowire surface fastener fabrication on flexible substrate

    Toku, Yuhki; Uchida, Keita; Morita, Yasuyuki; Ju, Yang

    2018-07-01

    The market for wearable devices has increased considerably in recent years. In response to this demand, flexible electronic circuit technology has become more important. The conventional bonding technology in electronic assembly depends on high-temperature processes such as reflow soldering, which result in undesired thermal damages and residual stress at a bonding interface. In addition, it exhibits poor compatibility with bendable or stretchable device applications. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement to attach electronic parts on printed circuit boards with good mechanical and electrical properties at room temperature. Nanowire surface fasteners (NSFs) are candidates for resolving these problems. This paper describes the fabrication of an NSF on a flexible substrate, which can be used for room temperature conductive bonding. The template method is used for preparing high-density nanowire arrays. A Cu thin film is layered on the template as the flexible substrate. After etching the template, a Cu NSF is obtained on the Cu film substrate. In addition, the electrical and mechanical properties of the Cu NSF are studied under various fabrication conditions. The Cu NSF exhibits high shear adhesion strength (∼234 N cm‑2) and low contact resistivity (2.2 × 10‑4 Ω cm2).

  17. A.E.S. characterisation of small dimensional heterostructures

    Gelsthorpe, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Surface analysis is used to examine the outer layers of solid material to determine their properties and composition, and has many applications in industry. Atomic composition of the surface can be determined by Auger analysis. Depth profiles can also be obtained by exposing layers buried within a structure and then analysing them. This thesis presents improved techniques for analysing complex structures that have multiple thin layers or have significant topographical features. Bevelling techniques can be used to produce depth profiles of complex heterostructures by removing surface layers with a bevel. The work presented here shows the development of a chemical bevelling reactor to produce a system that is routinely used to make bevels on samples. The chemical bevelling reactor can also be used to correct for non-linear effects in the slope of the surface of the bevel that are usually present in other bevelling techniques. Chemical bevelling shows significant improvements in the depth resolution over the existing technique of ion beam milling. Artefacts due to surface topography are a common problem in Auger analysis as it is often difficult to identify the correct Auger reading from the artefact. A Cylindrical Mirror Analyser (CMA) described here, has been modified to detect artefacts. It uses three pairs of opposing detectors that observe 6 angles of azimuth simultaneously. The opposing detectors are used to identify topographical artefacts in two dimensions across the surface. The CMA also incorporates an electrostatic lens that deflects electrons onto the detectors along the same path independent of their energy. The operation and characterisation of the modified CMA and its electrostatic lens is described. Application to topographical features that show artefacts is also described. The CMA system can also be used to perform depth profiling by ion beam bevelling. This technique is applied to multi-layered heterostructures and a comparison is made between this

  18. Multilayer Graphene–WSe2 Heterostructures for WSe2 Transistors

    Tang, Hao-Ling

    2017-11-29

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are drawing growing attention for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics owing to its atomic thickness and unique physical properties. One of the challenges posed by 2D materials is the large source/drain (S/D) series resistance due to their thinness, which may be resolved by thickening the source and drain regions. Recently explored lateral graphene–MoS21−3 and graphene–WS21,4 heterostructures shed light on resolving the mentioned issues owing to their superior ohmic contact behaviors. However, recently reported field-effect transistors (FETs) based on graphene–TMD heterostructures have only shown n-type characteristics. The lack of p-type transistor limits their applications in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor electronics. In this work, we demonstrate p-type FETs based on graphene–WSe2 lateral heterojunctions grown with the scalable CVD technique. Few-layer WSe2 is overlapped with the multilayer graphene (MLG) at MLG–WSe2 junctions such that the contact resistance is reduced. Importantly, the few-layer WSe2 only forms at the junction region while the channel is still maintained as a WSe2 monolayer for transistor operation. Furthermore, by imposing doping to graphene S/D, 2 orders of magnitude enhancement in Ion/Ioff ratio to ∼108 and the unipolar p-type characteristics are obtained regardless of the work function of the metal in ambient air condition. The MLG is proposed to serve as a 2D version of emerging raised source/drain approach in electronics.

  19. CdTe as a passivating layer in CdTe/HgCdTe heterostructures

    Virt, I. S.; Kurilo, I. V.; Rudyi, I. A.; Sizov, F. F.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Smirnov, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    CdTe/Hg 1-x Cd x Te heterostructures are studied. In the structures, CdTe is used as a passivating layer deposited as a polycrystal or single crystal on a single-crystal Hg 1-x Cd x Te film. The film and a passivating layer were obtained in a single technological process of molecular beam epitaxy. The structure of passivating layers was studied by reflection high-energy electron diffraction, and the effect of the structure of the passivating layer on the properties of the active layer was studied by X-ray diffractometry. Mechanical properties of heterostructures were studied by the microhardness method. Electrical and photoelectrical parameters of the Hg 1-x Cd x Te films are reported.

  20. Low-temperature magnetotransport in Si/SiGe heterostructures on 300 mm Si wafers

    Scappucci, Giordano; Yeoh, L.; Sabbagh, D.; Sammak, A.; Boter, J.; Droulers, G.; Kalhor, N.; Brousse, D.; Veldhorst, M.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Thomas, N.; Roberts, J.; Pillarisetty, R.; Amin, P.; George, H. C.; Singh, K. J.; Clarke, J. S.

    Undoped Si/SiGe heterostructures are a promising material stack for the development of spin qubits in silicon. To deploy a qubit into high volume manufacturing in a quantum computer requires stringent control over substrate uniformity and quality. Electron mobility and valley splitting are two key electrical metrics of substrate quality relevant for qubits. Here we present low-temperature magnetotransport measurements of strained Si quantum wells with mobilities in excess of 100000 cm2/Vs fabricated on 300 mm wafers within the framework of advanced semiconductor manufacturing. These results are benchmarked against the results obtained in Si quantum wells deposited on 100 mm Si wafers in an academic research environment. To ensure rapid progress in quantum wells quality we have implemented fast feedback loops from materials growth, to heterostructure FET fabrication, and low temperature characterisation. On this topic we will present recent progress in developing a cryogenic platform for high-throughput magnetotransport measurements.

  1. Modeling surface roughness scattering in metallic nanowires

    Moors, Kristof, E-mail: kristof@itf.fys.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Sorée, Bart [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); KU Leuven, Electrical Engineering (ESAT) Department, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Magnus, Wim [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Physics Department, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2015-09-28

    Ando's model provides a rigorous quantum-mechanical framework for electron-surface roughness scattering, based on the detailed roughness structure. We apply this method to metallic nanowires and improve the model introducing surface roughness distribution functions on a finite domain with analytical expressions for the average surface roughness matrix elements. This approach is valid for any roughness size and extends beyond the commonly used Prange-Nee approximation. The resistivity scaling is obtained from the self-consistent relaxation time solution of the Boltzmann transport equation and is compared to Prange-Nee's approach and other known methods. The results show that a substantial drop in resistivity can be obtained for certain diameters by achieving a large momentum gap between Fermi level states with positive and negative momentum in the transport direction.

  2. Vertical electron transport in van der Waals heterostructures with graphene layers

    Ryzhii, V.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, M.; Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Dubinov, A. A.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    We propose and analyze an analytical model for the self-consistent description of the vertical electron transport in van der Waals graphene-layer (GL) heterostructures with the GLs separated by the barriers layers. The top and bottom GLs serve as the structure emitter and collector. The vertical electron transport in such structures is associated with the propagation of the electrons thermionically emitted from GLs above the inter-GL barriers. The model under consideration describes the processes of the electron thermionic emission from and the electron capture to GLs. It accounts for the nonuniformity of the self-consistent electric field governed by the Poisson equation which accounts for the variation of the electron population in GLs. The model takes also under consideration the cooling of electrons in the emitter layer due to the Peltier effect. We find the spatial distributions of the electric field and potential with the high-electric-field domain near the emitter GL in the GL heterostructures with different numbers of GLs. Using the obtained spatial distributions of the electric field, we calculate the current-voltage characteristics. We demonstrate that the Peltier cooling of the two-dimensional electron gas in the emitter GL can strongly affect the current-voltage characteristics resulting in their saturation. The obtained results can be important for the optimization of the hot-electron bolometric terahertz detectors and different devices based on GL heterostructures

  3. Growth and properties of In(Ga)As nanowires on silicon

    Hertenberger, Simon

    2012-01-01

    by TEM and XRD analysis revealing a disordered wurtzite (WZ) structure with stacking faults occurring every few monolayers to nanometers for InAs nanowires grown under different As/In ratios. However, the nanowire growth temperature is found to influence the crystal structure more significantly, such that longer phase pure WZ segments up to lengths of >10 nm are observed for elevated growth temperatures (≥530 C). Furthermore, InAs nanowire ensembles with different diameter (40-135 nm) are investigated by low-temperature PL spectroscopy. The nanowires show relatively strong emission efficiency, characteristic red-shift with temperature and low-temperature band-edge energy position of ∝0.41 eV for thick nanowires. Reduction in nanowire diameter yields a characteristic blue-shift which is related to quantum confinement effects as confirmed by simulations. The good control about In(Ga)As nanowire growth on Si and the obtained understanding of important physical properties as discussed in this thesis provide a valuable basis for the development of effective high-quality nanowire-based devices.

  4. Growth and properties of In(Ga)As nanowires on silicon

    Hertenberger, Simon

    2012-10-15

    microstructure are investigated by TEM and XRD analysis revealing a disordered wurtzite (WZ) structure with stacking faults occurring every few monolayers to nanometers for InAs nanowires grown under different As/In ratios. However, the nanowire growth temperature is found to influence the crystal structure more significantly, such that longer phase pure WZ segments up to lengths of >10 nm are observed for elevated growth temperatures (≥530 C). Furthermore, InAs nanowire ensembles with different diameter (40-135 nm) are investigated by low-temperature PL spectroscopy. The nanowires show relatively strong emission efficiency, characteristic red-shift with temperature and low-temperature band-edge energy position of ∝0.41 eV for thick nanowires. Reduction in nanowire diameter yields a characteristic blue-shift which is related to quantum confinement effects as confirmed by simulations. The good control about In(Ga)As nanowire growth on Si and the obtained understanding of important physical properties as discussed in this thesis provide a valuable basis for the development of effective high-quality nanowire-based devices.

  5. Growth of uranyl hydroxide nanowires and nanotubes with electrodeposition method

    Wang Lin; Yuan Liyong; Chai Zhifang; Shi Weiqun

    2013-01-01

    Actinides nanomaterials have great potential applications in fabrication of novel nuclear fuel and spent fuel reprocessing in advanced nuclear energy system. However, the relative research so far still lacks systematic investigation on the synthetic methods for actinides nanomaterials. In this work, we use track-etched membranes as hard templates to synthesize uranium based nanomaterials with novel structures by electrodeposition method. Through electrochemical behavior investigations and subsequent product characterizations such as energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the chemical composition of deposition products have been confirmed as the uranyl hydroxide. More importantly, accurate control of morphology and structures (nanowires and nanotubes) could be achieved by carefully adjusting the growth parameters such as deposition time and deposition current density. It was found that the preferred morphology of electrodeposition products is nanowire when a low current density was applied, whereas nanotubes could be formed only under conditions of high current density and the short deposition time. The mechanism for the formation of nanowires in track-etched membranes is based on the precipitation of uranyl hydroxide from uranyl nitrate solution, according to the previous researches about obtaining nanostructures of hydroxides from nitrate salt solutions. And we have concluded that the formation of nanotubes is attributed to the hydrogen bubbles generated by water electrolysis under the condition of over-potential electro-reduction. The conveying of hydrogen bubbles plays the role of dynamic template which can prevent the complete filling of uranyl hydroxide in the channels. Additionally, we transform the chemical composition of deposition products from uranyl hydroxide to triuranium octoxide by calcining them at 500 and 800 degree centigrade, respectively, and SEM results show the morphologies of nanowires and

  6. Electrical control of single hole spins in nanowire quantum dots.

    Pribiag, V S; Nadj-Perge, S; Frolov, S M; van den Berg, J W G; van Weperen, I; Plissard, S R; Bakkers, E P A M; Kouwenhoven, L P

    2013-03-01

    The development of viable quantum computation devices will require the ability to preserve the coherence of quantum bits (qubits). Single electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are a versatile platform for quantum information processing, but controlling decoherence remains a considerable challenge. Hole spins in III-V semiconductors have unique properties, such as a strong spin-orbit interaction and weak coupling to nuclear spins, and therefore, have the potential for enhanced spin control and longer coherence times. A weaker hyperfine interaction has previously been reported in self-assembled quantum dots using quantum optics techniques, but the development of hole-spin-based electronic devices in conventional III-V heterostructures has been limited by fabrication challenges. Here, we show that gate-tunable hole quantum dots can be formed in InSb nanowires and used to demonstrate Pauli spin blockade and electrical control of single hole spins. The devices are fully tunable between hole and electron quantum dots, which allows the hyperfine interaction strengths, g-factors and spin blockade anisotropies to be compared directly in the two regimes.

  7. Synthesis of magnetic microtubes decorated with nanowires and cells

    Pomar, C. Diaz; Martinho, H.; Ferreira, F. F.; Goia, T. S.; Rodas, A. C. D.; Santos, S. F.; Souza, J. A.

    2018-04-01

    Antiferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic microtubes decorated with nanowires have been obtained during thermal oxidation process, which was assisted by in situ electrical resistivity measurements. The synthesis route including heat treatment and electrical current along with growth mechanism are presented. This simple method and the ability to tune in the magnetic moment of the obtained microtubes going from a nonmagnetic-like to a large magnetization saturation open an avenue for interesting applications. In vitro experiments involving adherence, migration, and proliferation of fibroblasts cell culture on the surface of the microtubes indicated the absence of cytotoxicity for this material. We have also calculated both torque and driving magnetic force for these microtubes with nanowires and cells as a function of external magnetic field gradient which were found to be robust opening the possibility for magnetic bio micro-robot device fabrication and application in biotechnology.

  8. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxides Loaded-nano ZnS/CuS Heterostructures

    ZENG Bin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduced graphene oxides(rGO loaded-nano ZnS nanoparticles were fabricated by microwave heating method and by ion exchanged reaction reduced graphene oxides(rGO loaded-nano ZnS/CuS heterostructures were obtained. The structure, morphology were characterized via scanning electron microscopy(SEM, transmission electron microscopy(TEM and X-ray diffraction pattern(XRD. The effect of the mass fraction of graphene oxides, sulfur source and microwave heating time on the morphology and photocatalyitc performance were discussed. The results show that graphene uniformly loaded-nano ZnS/CuS heterostructures are obtained on the condition of graphene mass fraction of 10%, thioacetamide acting as sulfur source, microwave heating time is 30min. rGO-loaded nano ZnS/CuS heterostructures nanoparticles enhance photocatalytic performance with 81.2% decomposition of MO in 150min under visible light, demonstrating the excellent photocatalytic performance. The high visible photocatalytic performances are attributed to photoinduced interfacial charge transfer in the nano heterostructures and their further separation and transfer by rGO.

  9. Exciton broadening in WS2 /graphene heterostructures

    Hill, Heather M.; Rigosi, Albert F.; Raja, Archana

    2017-01-01

    Here, we have used optical spectroscopy to observe spectral broadening of WS 2 exciton reflectance peaks in heterostructures of monolayer WS 2 capped with mono- to few-layer graphene. The broadening is found to be similar for the A and B excitons and on the order of 5–10 meV. No strong dependence on the number of graphene layers was observed within experimental uncertainty. The broadening can be attributed to charge- and energy-transfer processes between the two materials, providing an observed lower bound for the corresponding time scales of 65 fs.

  10. Hierarchical 3C-SiC nanowires as stable photocatalyst for organic dye degradation under visible light irradiation

    Zhang, Judong; Chen, Jianjun; Xin, Lipeng; Wang, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic performance was enhanced by hierarchical nanostructural SiC nanowires due to the increased specific surface areas and efficient incident light scattering. The positive effect of SiO 2 layer growth on the surface of nanowires during the catalytic process on the high decolorization efficiency of SiC nanowires was attributed to SiO 2 surface oxygen vacancies. -- Highlights: • High decolorization rate of methylene blue using hierarchical 3C-SiC nanowires was obtained. • The effect of methylene blue with different concentration to catalytic result was investigated. • The photocatalytic reaction mechanism of degrading methylene blue was explained. • The SiO 2 layer generating on nanowire surface in the catalytic process was analyzed. -- Abstract: 3C-SiC nanowires with hierarchical structure were synthesized by sol–gel carbothermal reduction method. The photocatalytic property of SiC nanowires was investigated. 3C-SiC hierarchical nanowires exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity by accelerating the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue solution under visible light irradiation. Methylene blue was degraded efficiently after 5 h irradiation over the photocatalyst. The photocatalytic activity was affected by the initial concentration of the methylene blue solution. Silicon dioxide layer was observed on the surface of nanowires after the catalytic process. The positive effect of SiO 2 surface oxygen vacancies and 3C-SiC hierarchical nanostructures on the high decolorization efficiency of SiC nanowires was discussed. The detailed photocatalytic redox processes were also explained

  11. Magnetotransport and magnetization reversal of electrodeposited multilayer nanowires

    Tang, Xueti

    2007-12-01

    Electrodeposited magnetic multilayer nanowires are ideal materials to study nanoscale magnetism and the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in the current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) geometry. This is because the diameter of each nanowire is uniform, the surface of the nanowire is smooth, and the thickness of both the magnetic and non-magnetic layers can be varied to either larger or smaller than the spin diffusion length which is an important parameter in magnetotransport study. In addition, the aspect ratio (layer-thickness/diameter) that is related to shape anisotropy can be varied for magnetization reversal study. There has been little understanding in the magnetization reversal mechanism of multilayer nanowires, which is complicated due to the dipolar interactions between magnetic layers in each nanowire and between nanowires. The objective of this work is to study the magnetization reversal mechanism of multilayer nanowires using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), where various dipolar interactions are taken into account. Although multilayer nanowires are ideal for the study of the CPP-GMR effect, there remains technical difficulty in making an electrical contact with individual nanowires for the CPP-GMR measurements. In this work, a point-contact method using a conductive plunger tip was developed in-house, that enabled us to measure the CPP-GMR of selected multilayer nanowires in an array of vertically aligned nanowires in each sample. To examine the CPP-GMR and compare the results with theoretical models, the CPP-GMR data were systematically obtained from samples with various magnetic and non-magnetic layer thicknesses. It was found from VSM measurement that the magnetization reversal mode in electrodeposited CoNi/Cu multilayer nanowires depends on the shape and thickness of the CoNi layers where the mode in rod-shaped thick CoNi layers is different from that in disk-shaped thin CoNi layers. The reversal mode in coherent rotation or curling was determined

  12. Photonic nanowires for quantum optics

    Munsch, M.; Claudon, J.; Bleuse, J.

    Photonic nanowires (PWs) are simple dielectric structures for which a very efficient and broadband spontaneous emission (SE) control has been predicted [1]. Recently, a single photon source featuring a record high efficiency was demonstrated using this geometry [2]. Using time-resolved micro-phot...

  13. Tunneling and Transport in Nanowires

    Goldman, Allen M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this program was to study new physical phenomena that might be relevant to the performance of conductive devices and circuits of the smallest realizable feature sizes possible using physical rather than biological techniques. Although the initial scientific work supported involved the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to ascertain the statistics of the energy level distribution of randomly sized and randomly shaped quantum dots, or nano-crystals, the main focus was on the investigation of selected properties, including superconductivity, of conducting and superconducting nanowires prepared using electron-beam-lithography. We discovered a magnetic-field-restoration of superconductivity in out-of-equilibrium nanowires driven resistive by current. This phenomenon was explained by the existence of a state in which dissipation coexisted with nonvanishing superconducting order. We also produced ultra-small superconducting loops to study a predicted anomalous fluxoid quantization, but instead, found a magnetic-field-dependent, high-resistance state, rather than superconductivity. Finally, we developed a simple and controllable nanowire in an induced charged layer near the surface of a masked single-crystal insulator, SrTiO_3. The layer was induced using an electric double layer transistor employing an ionic liquid (IL). The transport properties of the induced nanowire resembled those of collective electronic transport through an array of quantum dots.

  14. Tunneling and Transport in Nanowires

    Goldman, Allen M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-08-16

    The goal of this program was to study new physical phenomena that might be relevant to the performance of conductive devices and circuits of the smallest realizable feature sizes possible using physical rather than biological techniques. Although the initial scientific work supported involved the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to ascertain the statistics of the energy level distribution of randomly sized and randomly shaped quantum dots, or nano-crystals, the main focus was on the investigation of selected properties, including superconductivity, of conducting and superconducting nanowires prepared using electron-beam-lithography. We discovered a magnetic-field-restoration of superconductivity in out-of-equilibrium nanowires driven resistive by current. This phenomenon was explained by the existence of a state in which dissipation coexisted with nonvanishing superconducting order. We also produced ultra-small superconducting loops to study a predicted anomalous fluxoid quantization, but instead, found a magnetic-field-dependent, high-resistance state, rather than superconductivity. Finally, we developed a simple and controllable nanowire in an induced charged layer near the surface of a masked single-crystal insulator, SrTiO3. The layer was induced using an electric double layer transistor employing an ionic liquid (IL). The transport properties of the induced nanowire resembled those of collective electronic transport through an array of quantum dots.

  15. Biotemplated synthesis of PZT nanowires.

    Cung, Kellye; Han, Booyeon J; Nguyen, Thanh D; Mao, Sheng; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Xu, Shiyou; Naik, Rajesh R; Poirier, Gerald; Yao, Nan; Purohit, Prashant K; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric nanowires are an important class of smart materials for next-generation applications including energy harvesting, robotic actuation, and bioMEMS. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT), in particular, has attracted significant attention, owing to its superior electromechanical conversion performance. Yet, the ability to synthesize crystalline PZT nanowires with well-controlled properties remains a challenge. Applications of common nanosynthesis methods to PZT are hampered by issues such as slow kinetics, lack of suitable catalysts, and harsh reaction conditions. Here we report a versatile biomimetic method, in which biotemplates are used to define PZT nanostructures, allowing for rational control over composition and crystallinity. Specifically, stoichiometric PZT nanowires were synthesized using both polysaccharide (alginate) and bacteriophage templates. The wires possessed measured piezoelectric constants of up to 132 pm/V after poling, among the highest reported for PZT nanomaterials. Further, integrated devices can generate up to 0.820 μW/cm(2) of power. These results suggest that biotemplated piezoelectric nanowires are attractive candidates for stimuli-responsive nanosensors, adaptive nanoactuators, and nanoscale energy harvesters.

  16. Nanowire-based gas sensors

    Chen, X.; Wong, C.K.Y.; Yuan, C.A.; Zhang, G.

    2013-01-01

    Gas sensors fabricated with nanowires as the detecting elements are powerful due to their many improved characteristics such as high surface-to-volume ratios, ultrasensitivity, higher selectivity, low power consumption, and fast response. This paper gives an overview on the recent process of the

  17. Ultrafine MnO2 Nanowire Arrays Grown on Carbon Fibers for High-Performance Supercapacitors

    Hu, Jiyu; Qian, Feng; Song, Guosheng; Li, Wenyao; Wang, Linlin

    2016-10-01

    Large-area ultrafine MnO2 nanowire arrays (NWA) directly grew on a carbon fiber (CF, used as a substrate) by a simple electrochemical method, forming three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical heterostructures of a CF@MnO2 NWA composite. As an electrode for supercapacitors, the CF@MnO2 NWA composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performances including high specific capacitance (321.3 F g-1 at 1000 mA g-1) and good rate capability. Further, the overall capacitance retention is 99.7 % capacitance after 3000 cycles. These outstanding electrochemical performances attribute to a large number of transport channels for the penetration of electrolyte and the transportation of ions and electrons of electrodes. The as-prepared CF@MnO2 NWA composite may be a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  18. Ultrafine MnO2 Nanowire Arrays Grown on Carbon Fibers for High-Performance Supercapacitors

    Jiyu Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large-area ultrafine MnO2 nanowire arrays (NWA directly grew on a carbon fiber (CF, used as a substrate by a simple electrochemical method, forming three-dimensional (3D hierarchical heterostructures of a CF@MnO2 NWA composite. As an electrode for supercapacitors, the CF@MnO2 NWA composite exhibits excellent electrochemical performances including high specific capacitance (321.3 F g−1 at 1000 mA g−1 and good rate capability. Further, the overall capacitance retention is ~99.7 % capacitance after 3000 cycles. These outstanding electrochemical performances attribute to a large number of transport channels for the penetration of electrolyte and the transportation of ions and electrons of electrodes. The as-prepared CF@MnO2 NWA composite may be a promising electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  19. Axial strain in GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowires

    Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Rieger, Torsten; Gruetzmacher, Detlev; Ion Lepsa, Mihail [Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum, 52425 Juelich (Germany); JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Bussone, Genziana [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik, 57068 Siegen (Germany); ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2013-01-28

    We study the axial strain relaxation in GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Besides a gradual strain relaxation of the shell material, we find a significant strain in the GaAs core, increasing with shell thickness. This strain is explained by a saturation of the dislocation density at the core-shell interface. Independent measurements of core and shell lattice parameters by x-ray diffraction reveal a relaxation of 93% in a 35 nm thick InAs shell surrounding cores of 80 nm diameter. The compressive strain of -0.5% compared to bulk InAs is accompanied by a tensile strain up to 0.9% in the GaAs core.

  20. Facile approach to prepare nickel cobaltite nanowire materials for supercapacitors.

    Wang, Huanlei; Gao, Qiuming; Jiang, Lei

    2011-09-05

    Excellent electrochemical performance results from the coexistence of nickel and cobalt ions, with mesoporous characteristics and nanocrystal structure. Nickel cobalt nanowire is prepared by hydrothermal and thermal decomposition processes. High capacitance of 722 F g(-1) can be obtained at 1 A g(-1) in 6 M KOH, with a capacitance retention ratio of ca. 79% at 20 A g(-1) . Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Optimal design of aperiodic, vertical silicon nanowire structures for photovoltaics.

    Lin, Chenxi; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2011-09-12

    We design a partially aperiodic, vertically-aligned silicon nanowire array that maximizes photovoltaic absorption. The optimal structure is obtained using a random walk algorithm with transfer matrix method based electromagnetic forward solver. The optimal, aperiodic structure exhibits a 2.35 times enhancement in ultimate efficiency compared to its periodic counterpart. The spectral behavior mimics that of a periodic array with larger lattice constant. For our system, we find that randomly-selected, aperiodic structures invariably outperform the periodic array.

  2. Fabrication and magnetic investigations of highly uniform CoNiGa alloy nanowires

    Li, Wen-Jing; Khan, U.; Irfan, Muhammad [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Javed, K. [Department of Physics, Forman Christian College, Lahore 5400 (Pakistan); Liu, P. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Ban, S.L. [School of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Han, X.F., E-mail: xfhan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Highly ordered CoNiGa alloy nanowires with different compositions were fabricated by DC electrodeposition. • The magnetic properties of CoNiGa nanowires can be easily tailored by varying its components. • Magnetostatic interactions plays an important role in the magnetization reversal process. • A linear dependence of coercivity on temperature was found for Co{sub 55}Ni{sub 28}Ga{sub 17} samples. - Abstract: CoNiGa ternary alloy nanowire arrays were successfully fabricated by simple DC electrodeposition into the anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. A systematic study of the potential and components of the electrolyte were conducted to obtain different components of CoNiGa nanowires. The largest Ga content in the prepared alloy nanowires was about 17%, while for Co and Ni contents which can be controlled in a wide range by adjusting the composition and pH value of the electrolyte appropriately. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the as-grown CoNiGa nanowire arrays were polycrystal with fcc phase of Co where Co atoms partially substituted by Ni and Ga. Magnetization curves of samples with different composition were measured at room temperature as well as low temperature. The results showed that the components of the alloy nanowires have a great impact on its magnetic properties. For Co{sub 55}Ni{sub 28}Ga{sub 17} nanowires, the magnetization reversal mode changes from curling mode to coherent rotation as the angle increases, and the temperature dependence of coercivity can be well described by the thermal activation effect.

  3. Molybdenum oxide nanowires based supercapacitors with enhanced capacitance and energy density in ethylammonium nitrate electrolyte

    Sarfraz, Mansoor; Aboud, Mohamed F.A.; Shakir, Imran, E-mail: shakir@skku.edu

    2015-11-25

    Orthorhombic molybdenum trioxide (α-MoO{sub 3}) nanowires as an electrode for electrochemical supercapacitors in ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) electrolyte exhibits a high specific capacitance of 288 Fg{sup −1}, which is 8 times higher than the specific capacitance obtained from MoO{sub 3} nanowires in water based electrolyte. MoO{sub 3} nanowires in EAN electrolyte exhibit energy density of 46.32 Wh kg{sup −1} at a power density of 20.3 kW kg{sup −1} with outstanding cycling stability with specific capacitance retention of 96% over 3000 cycles. We believe that the superior performance of the MoO{sub 3} nanowires in EAN based electrolyte is primarily due to its relatively low viscosity (0.28 P at 25 °C), high electrical conductivity (20 mS cm{sup −1} at 25 °C) and large working voltage window. The results clearly demonstrate that EAN as electrolyte is one of the most promising electrolyte for high performance large scale energy storage devices. - Highlights: • Synthesis of single crystalline molybdenum oxide nanowires. • Ethylammonium Nitrate as an electrolyte for high performance large scale psuedocapacitor based energy storage devices. • Molybdenum oxide nanowires based electrodes shows 8 fold enhancement in Ethylammonium Nitrate electrolyte as compared to water based electrolytes. • The devices in Ethylammonium Nitrate exhibit excellent stability, retaining 96% of its initial capacity after 3000 cycles.

  4. Different growth regimes in InP nanowire growth mediated by Ag nanoparticles.

    Oliveira, D S; Zavarize, M; Tizei, L H G; Walls, M; Ospina, C A; Iikawa, F; Ugarte, D; Cotta, M A

    2017-12-15

    We report on the existence of two different regimes in one-step Ag-seeded InP nanowire growth. The vapor-liquid-solid-mechanism is present at larger In precursor flows and temperatures, ∼500 °C, yielding high aspect ratio and pure wurtzite InP nanowires with a semi-spherical metal particle at the thin apex. Periodic diameter oscillations can be achieved under extreme In supersaturations at this temperature range, showing the presence of a liquid catalyst. However, under lower temperatures and In precursor flows, large diameter InP nanowires with mixed wurtzite/zincblende segments are obtained, similarly to In-assisted growth. Chemical composition analysis suggest that In-rich droplet formation is catalyzed at the substrate surface via Ag nanoparticles; this process might be facilitated by the sulfur contamination detected in these nanoparticles. Furthermore, part of the original Ag nanoparticle remains solid and is embedded inside the actual catalyst, providing an in situ method to switch growth mechanisms upon changing In precursor flow. Nevertheless, our Ag-seeded InP nanowires exhibit overall optical emission spectra consistent with the observed structural properties and similar to Au-catalyzed InP nanowires. We thus show that Ag nanoparticles may be a suitable replacement for Au in InP nanowire growth.

  5. Bipolar resistive switching of single gold-in-Ga2O3 nanowire.

    Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chou, Li-Jen

    2012-08-08

    We have fabricated single nanowire chips on gold-in-Ga(2)O(3) core-shell nanowires using the electron-beam lithography techniques and realized bipolar resistive switching characteristics having invariable set and reset voltages. We attribute the unique property of invariance to the built-in conduction path of gold core. This invariance allows us to fabricate many resistive switching cells with the same operating voltage by simple depositing repetitive metal electrodes along a single nanowire. Other characteristics of these core-shell resistive switching nanowires include comparable driving electric field with other thin film and nanowire devices and a remarkable on/off ratio more than 3 orders of magnitude at a low driving voltage of 2 V. A smaller but still impressive on/off ratio of 10 can be obtained at an even lower bias of 0.2 V. These characteristics of gold-in-Ga(2)O(3) core-shell nanowires make fabrication of future high-density resistive memory devices possible.

  6. Voltage manipulation of the magnetization reversal in Fe/n-GaAs/piezoelectric heterostructure

    Li, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wengang; Zhu, Lijun; Zhao, Jianhua; Wang, Kaiyou, E-mail: kywang@semi.ac.cn

    2015-02-01

    We carefully investigated the in-plane magnetization reversal and corresponding magnetic domain structures in Fe/n-GaAs/piezoelectric heterostructure using longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr microscopy. The coexistence of the in-plane <100> cubic and [11{sup ¯}0] uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was observed in this system at virgin state. The piezo voltages can effectively manipulate the magnetic properties of the Fe/n-GaAs/piezoelectric heterostructure, where the manipulation of two-jump to one-jump magnetization switching during the magnetic reversal was achieved with magnetic field applied in [100] direction. Our findings on manipulation of ferromagnetization in this heterostructure could be important for future metal-semiconductor spintronic applications. The additional uniaxial anisotropy induced by piezo voltages obtained at ±75 V is ±1.4×10{sup 3} J/m{sup 3}. - Highlights: • In this work, we use piezo voltages not only realize the significant change of coercivity but also effectively manipulate the magnetization transition from one step to two steps during magnetic reversal, indicating that the piezo-voltages can be used to effectively control the magnetization reversal. • The additional uniaxial anisotropy induced by piezo voltages at +/−75 V are +/−1.4×10{sup 3} J/m{sup 3}. This work could be very used for future metal-semiconductor spintronic devices.

  7. Enhancement of efficiency and stability of phosphorescent OLEDs based on heterostructured light-emitting layers

    Chin, Byung Doo, E-mail: bdchin@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering and Center for Photofunctional Energy Materials, Dankook University, Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-23

    The light-emitting efficiency and stability of a phosphorescent organic light-emitting device (OLED), whose emission characteristics are strongly dominated not only by the energy transfer but also by the charge carrier trapping influenced by heterostructured emissive layers, are studied. The variation of the material combination of the heterostructured emitter, both for mixed and double layer configuration, affects the charge injection behaviour, luminous efficiency and stability. Both double and mixed emitter configurations yield low-voltage and high-efficiency behaviour (51 lm W{sup -1} at 1000 cd m{sup -2}; 30 lm W{sup -1} at 10 000 cd m{sup -2}). Such an improvement in power efficiency at elevated brightness is sufficiently universal, while the enhancement of device half-lifetime is rather sensitive to the circumstantial layout of heterostructural emitters. With an optimal mixture of hole-transport type and electron-transport type, a half-lifetime of more than 2500 h at 4000 cd m{sup -2} is obtained, which is 8 times the half-lifetime of control devices with a single emitter structure. The origin and criterion for enhancement of efficiency and lifetime are discussed in terms of the carrier transport behaviour with a specific device architecture.

  8. Modulation of band gap by an applied electric field in BN-based heterostructures

    Luo, M.; Xu, Y. E.; Zhang, Q. X.

    2018-05-01

    First-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed on the structural and electronic properties of the SiC/BN van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures under an external electric field (E-field). Our results reveal that the SiC/BN vdW heterostructure has a direct band gap of 2.41 eV in the raw. The results also imply that electrons are likely to transfer from BN to SiC monolayer due to the deeper potential of BN monolayer. It is also observed that, by applying an E-field, ranging from -0.50 to +0.65 V/Å, the band gap decreases from 2.41 eV to zero, which presents a parabola-like relationship around 0.0 V/Å. Through partial density of states (PDOS) plots, it is revealed that, p orbital of Si, C, B, and N atoms are responsible for the significant variations of band gap. These obtained results predict that, the electric field tunable band gap of the SiC/BN vdW heterostructures carries potential applications for nanoelectronics and spintronic device applications.

  9. Imaging of Interlayer Coupling in van der Waals Heterostructures Using a Bright-Field Optical Microscope.

    Alexeev, Evgeny M; Catanzaro, Alessandro; Skrypka, Oleksandr V; Nayak, Pramoda K; Ahn, Seongjoon; Pak, Sangyeon; Lee, Juwon; Sohn, Jung Inn; Novoselov, Kostya S; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Tartakovskii, Alexander I

    2017-09-13

    Vertically stacked atomic layers from different layered crystals can be held together by van der Waals forces, which can be used for building novel heterostructures, offering a platform for developing a new generation of atomically thin, transparent, and flexible devices. The performance of these devices is critically dependent on the layer thickness and the interlayer electronic coupling, influencing the hybridization of the electronic states as well as charge and energy transfer between the layers. The electronic coupling is affected by the relative orientation of the layers as well as by the cleanliness of their interfaces. Here, we demonstrate an efficient method for monitoring interlayer coupling in heterostructures made from transition metal dichalcogenides using photoluminescence imaging in a bright-field optical microscope. The color and brightness in such images are used here to identify mono- and few-layer crystals and to track changes in the interlayer coupling and the emergence of interlayer excitons after thermal annealing in heterobilayers composed of mechanically exfoliated flakes and as a function of the twist angle in atomic layers grown by chemical vapor deposition. Material and crystal thickness sensitivity of the presented imaging technique makes it a powerful tool for characterization of van der Waals heterostructures assembled by a wide variety of methods, using combinations of materials obtained through mechanical or chemical exfoliation and crystal growth.

  10. Synthesis, Antibacterial and Thermal Studies of Cellulose Nanocrystal Stabilized ZnO-Ag Heterostructure Nanoparticles

    Mohd Zobir Hussein

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of ZnO-Ag heterostructure nanoparticles was carried out by a precipitation method with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs as a stabilizer for antimicrobial and thermal studies. ZnO-Ag nanoparticles were obtained from various weight percentages of added AgNO3 relative to Zn precursors for evaluating the best composition with enhanced functional properties. The ZnO-Ag/CNCs samples were characterized systematically by TEM, XRD, UV, TGA and DTG. From the TEM studies we observed that ZnO-Ag heterostructure nanoparticles have spherical shapes with size diameters in a 9–35 nm range. The antibacterial activities of samples were assessed against the bacterial species Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The CNC-stabilized ZnO-Ag exhibited greater bactericidal activity compared to cellulose-free ZnO-Ag heterostructure nanoparticles of the same particle size. The incorporation of ZnO-Ag hetreostructure nanoparticles significantly increased the thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals.

  11. Voltage manipulation of the magnetization reversal in Fe/n-GaAs/piezoelectric heterostructure

    Li, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wengang; Zhu, Lijun; Zhao, Jianhua; Wang, Kaiyou

    2015-01-01

    We carefully investigated the in-plane magnetization reversal and corresponding magnetic domain structures in Fe/n-GaAs/piezoelectric heterostructure using longitudinal magneto-optical Kerr microscopy. The coexistence of the in-plane <100> cubic and [11 ¯ 0] uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was observed in this system at virgin state. The piezo voltages can effectively manipulate the magnetic properties of the Fe/n-GaAs/piezoelectric heterostructure, where the manipulation of two-jump to one-jump magnetization switching during the magnetic reversal was achieved with magnetic field applied in [100] direction. Our findings on manipulation of ferromagnetization in this heterostructure could be important for future metal-semiconductor spintronic applications. The additional uniaxial anisotropy induced by piezo voltages obtained at ±75 V is ±1.4×10 3 J/m 3 . - Highlights: • In this work, we use piezo voltages not only realize the significant change of coercivity but also effectively manipulate the magnetization transition from one step to two steps during magnetic reversal, indicating that the piezo-voltages can be used to effectively control the magnetization reversal. • The additional uniaxial anisotropy induced by piezo voltages at +/−75 V are +/−1.4×10 3 J/m 3 . This work could be very used for future metal-semiconductor spintronic devices

  12. Wurtzite InP/InAs/InP core-shell nanowires emitting at telecommunication wavelengths on Si substrate

    Hadj Alouane, M H; Anufriev, R; Chauvin, N; Bru-Chevallier, C; Khmissi, H; Ilahi, B; Maaref, H; Naji, K; Gendry, M; Patriarche, G

    2011-01-01

    Optical properties of wurtzite InP/InAs/InP core-shell nanowires grown on silicon substrates by solid source molecular beam epitaxy are studied by means of photoluminescence and microphotoluminescence. The growth conditions were optimized to obtain purely wurtzite radial quantum wells emitting in the telecom bands with a radiative lifetime in the 5-7 ns range at 14 K. Optical studies on single nanowires reveal that the polarization is mainly parallel to the growth direction. A 20-fold reduction of the photoluminescence intensity is observed between 14 and 300 K confirming the very good quality of the nanowires.

  13. Organic p-n heterostructures and superlattices

    Kowarik, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hinderhofer, Alexander; Gerlach, Alexander; Schreiber, Frank [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Tuebingen (Germany); Osso, Oriol [MATGAS 2000 A.I.E., Esfera UAB, Barcelona (Spain); Wang, Cheng; Hexemer, Alexander [Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    For many applications of organic semiconductors two components such as e.g. n and p-type layers are required, and the morphology of such heterostructures is crucial for their performance. Pentacene (PEN) is one of the most promising p-type molecular semiconductors and recently perfluoro-pentacene (PFP) has been identified as a good electron conducting material for complementary circuits with PEN. We use soft and hard X-ray reflectivity measurements, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and atomic force microscopy for structural investigations of PFP-PEN heterostructures. The chemical contrast between PEN and PFP in STXM allows us to determine the lateral length scales of p and n domains in a bilayer. For a superlattice of alternating PFP and PEN layers grown by organic molecular beam deposition, X-ray reflectivity measurements demonstrate good structural order. We find a superlattice reflection that varies strongly when tuning the X-ray energy around the fluorine edge, demonstrating that there are indeed alternating PFP and PEN layers.

  14. Emission and Dynamics of Charge Carriers in Uncoated and Organic/Metal Coated Semiconductor Nanowires

    Kaveh Baghbadorani, Masoud

    In this dissertation, the dynamics of excitons in hybrid metal/organic/nanowire structures possessing nanometer thick deposited molecular and metal films on top of InP and GaAs nanowire (NW) surfaces were investigated. Optical characterizations were carried out as a function of the semiconductor NW material, design, NW size and the type and thickness of the organic material and metal used. Hybrid organic and plasmonic semiconductor nanowire heterostructures were fabricated using organic molecular beam deposition technique. I investigated the photon emission of excitons in 150 nm diameter polytype wurtzite/zincblende InP NWs and the influence of a few ten nanometer thick organic and metal films on the emission using intensity- and temperature-dependent time-integrated and time resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL). The plasmonic NWs were coated with an Aluminum quinoline (Alq3) interlayer and magnesium-silver (Mg0.9:Ag0.1) top layer. In addition, the nonlinear optical technique of heterodyne four-wave mixing was used (in collaboration with Prof. Wolfgang Langbein, University of Cardiff) to study incoherent and coherent carrier relaxation processes on bare nanowires on a 100 femtosecond time-scale. Alq3 covered NWs reveal a stronger emission and a longer decay time of exciton transitions indicating surface state passivation at the Alq3/NW interface. Alq3/Mg:Ag NWs reveal a strong quenching of the exciton emission which is predominantly attributed to Forster energy-transfer from excitons to plasmon oscillations in the metal cluster film. Changing the Mg:Ag to gold and the organic Alq3 spacer layer to PTCDA leads to a similar behavior, but the PL quenching is strongly increased. The observed behavior is attributed to a more continuous gold deposition leading to an increased Forster energy transfer and to a metal induced band-bending. I also investigated ensembles of bare and gold/Alq3 coated GaAs-AlGaAs-GaAs core shell NWs of 130 nm diameter. Plasmonic NWs with Au

  15. Highly Confined Electronic and Ionic Conduction in Oxide Heterostructures

    Pryds, Nini

    2015-01-01

    The conductance confined at the interface of complex oxide heterostructures provides new opportunities to explore nanoelectronic as well as nanoionic devices. In this talk I will present our recent results both on ionic and electronic conductivity at different heterostructures systems. In the first...... unattainable for Bi2O3-based materials, is achieved[1]. These confined heterostructures provide a playground not only for new high ionic conductivity phenomena that are sufficiently stable but also uncover a large variety of possible technological perspectives. At the second part, I will discuss and show our...

  16. Vibration of Piezoelectric Nanowires Including Surface Effects

    R. Ansari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, surface and piezoelectric effects on the vibration behavior of nanowires (NWs are investigated by using a Timoshenko beam model. The electric field equations and the governing equations of motion for the piezoelectric NWs are derived with the consideration of surface effects. By the exact solution of the governing equations, an expression for the natural frequencies of NWs with simply-supported boundary conditions is obtained. The effects of piezoelectricity and surface effects on the vibrational behavior of Timoshenko NWs are graphically illustrated. A comparison is also made between the predictions of Timoshenko beam model and those of its Euler-Bernoulli counterpart. Additionally, the present results are validated through comparison with the available data in the literature.

  17. Enhanced ionized impurity scattering in nanowires

    Oh, Jung Hyun; Lee, Seok-Hee; Shin, Mincheol

    2013-06-01

    The electronic resistivity in silicon nanowires is investigated by taking into account scattering as well as the donor deactivation from the dielectric mismatch. The effects of poorly screened dopant atoms from the dielectric mismatch and variable carrier density in nanowires are found to play a crucial role in determining the nanowire resistivity. Using Green's function method within the self-consistent Born approximation, it is shown that donor deactivation and ionized impurity scattering combined with the charged interface traps successfully to explain the increase in the resistivity of Si nanowires while reducing the radius, measured by Björk et al. [Nature Nanotech. 4, 103 (2009)].

  18. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    Yang, Peidong [El Cerrito, CA; Choi, Heonjin [Seoul, KR; Lee, Sangkwon [Daejeon, KR; He, Rongrui [Albany, CA; Zhang, Yanfeng [El Cerrito, CA; Kuykendal, Tevye [Berkeley, CA; Pauzauskie, Peter [Berkeley, CA

    2011-08-23

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  19. Band alignment studies of Al2O3/CuGaO2 and ZnO/CuGaO2 hetero-structures grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Ajimsha, R.S.; Das, Amit K.; Joshi, M.P.; Kukreja, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Band offset studies at the interface of Al 2 O 3 /CuGaO 2 and ZnO/CuGaO 2 hetero-structures were performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. • Valance band offsets (VBO) of these hetero-structures were obtained from respective XPS peak positions and VB spectra using Kraut's equation. • Al 2 O 3 /CuGaO 2 interface exhibited a type I band alignment with valance band offset (VBO) of 4.05 eV whereas type II band alignment was observed in ZnO/CuGaO 2 hetero-structure with a VBO of 2.32 eV. • Schematic band alignment diagram for the interface of these hetero-structures has been constructed. • Band offset and alignment studies of these heterojunctions are important for gaining insight to the design of various optoelectronic devices based on such hetero-structures. - Abstract: We have studied the band offset and alignment of pulsed laser deposited Al 2 O 3 /CuGaO 2 and ZnO/CuGaO 2 hetero-structures using photoelectron spectroscopy. Al 2 O 3 /CuGaO 2 interface exhibited a type I band alignment with valance band offset (VBO) of 4.05 eV whereas type II band alignment was observed in ZnO/CuGaO 2 hetero-structure with a VBO of 2.32 eV. Schematic band alignment diagram for the interface of these hetero-structures has been constructed. Band offset and alignment studies of these heterojunctions are important for gaining insight to the design of various optoelectronic devices based on such hetero-structures

  20. Effect of indium on photovoltaic property of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction device prepared using solution-synthesized ZnO nanowire film

    Kathalingam, Adaikalam; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Hyung-Moo; Valanarasu, Santiyagu; Mahalingam, Thaiyan

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of n-ZnO/p-Si heterostructures using solution-synthesized ZnO nanowire films and their photovoltaic characterization is reported. The solution-grown ZnO nanowire film is characterized using scanning electron microscope, electron dispersive x-ray, and optical absorption studies. Electrical and photovoltaic properties of the fabricated heterostructures are studied using e-beam-evaporated aluminum as metal contacts. In order to use transparent contact and to simultaneously collect the photogenerated carriers, sandwich-type solar cells were fabricated using ZnO nanorod films grown on p-silicon and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass as ITO/n-ZnO NR/p-Si. The electrical properties of these structures are analyzed from current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. ZnO nanowire film thickness-dependent photovoltaic properties are also studied. Indium metal was also deposited over the ZnO nanowires and its effects on the photovoltaic response of the devices were studied. The results demonstrated that all the samples exhibit a strong rectifying behavior indicating the diode nature of the devices. The sandwich-type ITO/n-ZnO NR/p-Si solar cells exhibit improved photovoltaic performance over the Al-metal-coated n-ZnO/p-Si structures. The indium deposition is found to show enhancement in photovoltaic behavior with a maximum open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.3 V and short-circuit current (Isc) of 70×10-6 A under ultraviolet light excitation.

  1. Printable Transfer-Free and Wafer-Size MoS2/Graphene van der Waals Heterostructures for High-Performance Photodetection.

    Liu, Qingfeng; Cook, Brent; Gong, Maogang; Gong, Youpin; Ewing, Dan; Casper, Matthew; Stramel, Alex; Wu, Judy

    2017-04-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) MoS 2 /graphene van der Waals heterostructures integrate the superior light-solid interaction in MoS 2 and charge mobility in graphene for high-performance optoelectronic devices. Key to the device performance lies in a clean MoS 2 /graphene interface to facilitate efficient transfer of photogenerated charges. Here, we report a printable and transfer-free process for fabrication of wafer-size MoS 2 /graphene van der Waals heterostructures obtained using a metal-free-grown graphene, followed by low-temperature growth of MoS 2 from the printed thin film of ammonium thiomolybdate on graphene. The photodetectors based on the transfer-free MoS 2 /graphene heterostructures exhibit extraordinary short photoresponse rise/decay times of 20/30 ms, which are significantly faster than those of the previously reported MoS 2 /transferred-graphene photodetectors (0.28-1.5 s). In addition, a high photoresponsivity of up to 835 mA/W was observed in the visible spectrum on such transfer-free MoS 2 /graphene heterostructures, which is much higher than that of the reported photodetectors based on the exfoliated layered MoS 2 (0.42 mA/W), the graphene (6.1 mA/W), and transfer-free MoS 2 /graphene/SiC heterostructures (∼40 mA/W). The enhanced performance is attributed to the clean interface on the transfer-free MoS 2 /graphene heterostructures. This printable and transfer-free process paves the way for large-scale commercial applications of the emerging 2D heterostructures in optoelectronics and sensors.

  2. Influence of the Hydrothermal Method Growth Parameters on the Zinc Oxide Nanowires Deposited on Several Substrates

    Concepción Mejía-García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of ZnO nanowires grown on several substrates (PET, glass, and Si using a two-step process: (a preparation of the seed layer on the substrate by spin coating, from solutions of zinc acetate dihydrate and 1-propanol, and (b growth of the ZnO nanostructures by dipping the substrate in an equimolar solution of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine. Subsequently, films were thermally treated with a commercial microwave oven (350 and 700 W for 5, 20, and 35 min. The ZnO nanowires obtained were characterized structurally, morphologically, and optically using XRD, SEM, and UV-VIS transmission, respectively. XRD patterns spectra revealed the presence of Zn(OH2 on the films grown on glass and Si substrates. A preferential orientation along c-axis directions for films grown on PET substrate was observed. An analysis by SEM revealed that the growth of the ZnO nanowires on PET and glass is better than the growth on Si when the same growth parameters are used. On glass substrates, ZnO nanowires less than 50 nm in diameter and between 200 nm and 1200 nm in length were obtained. The ZnO nanowires band gap energy for the films grown on PET and glass was obtained from optical transmission spectra.

  3. III-nitride disk-in-nanowire 1.2 μm monolithic diode laser on (001)silicon

    Hazari, Arnab; Aiello, Anthony; Bhattacharya, Pallab [Center for Photonics and Multiscale Nanomaterials, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Ng, Tien-Khee; Ooi, Boon S. [Division of Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-11-09

    III-nitride nanowire diode heterostructures with multiple In{sub 0.85}Ga{sub 0.15}N disks and graded InGaN mode confining regions were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (001)Si substrates. The aerial density of the 60 nm nanowires is ∼3 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}. A radiative recombination lifetime of 1.84 ns in the disks is measured by time-resolved luminescence measurements. Edge-emitting nanowire lasers have been fabricated and characterized. Measured values of J{sub th}, T{sub 0}, and dg/dn in these devices are 1.24 kA/cm{sup 2}, 242 K, and 5.6 × 10{sup −17} cm{sup 2}, respectively. The peak emission is observed at ∼1.2 μm.

  4. The influence of seeding conditions and shielding gas atmosphere on the synthesis of silver nanowires through the polyol process

    Chen, Chang; Wang, Li; Jiang, Guohua; Yang, Qiang; Wang, Jianjun; Yu, Haojie; Chen, Tao; Wang, Chiliang; Chen, Xu

    2006-01-01

    The polyol process including the introduction of preformed seeds and the inducement of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) has been developed as a powerful approach for synthesizing silver nanowires. Here, silver nanowires without other metal elements as impurities were synthesized through a silver seeding polyol process in a shielding gas atmosphere. It is demonstrated that the first seeding step is critical in obtaining silver nanowires as the principal product, and we also observe that the shielding gas atmosphere not only improves the repeatability of experiments but also affects the morphology of the final product. We obtained nanocubes with hydrogen gas shielding in a short reaction time; these would scarcely appear with argon or air shielding. Our work supplies new evidence to explain the actual growth mechanism of silver nanowires.

  5. On the difficulties in characterizing ZnO nanowires

    Schlenker, E; Bakin, A; Wehmann, H-H; Waag, A [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Weimann, T; Hinze, P; Weber, D H [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Goelzhaeuser, A [Physics of Supramolecular Systems, University of Bielefeld, Universitaetsstrasse 25, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany)], E-mail: e.schlenker@tu-bs.de

    2008-09-10

    The electrical properties of single ZnO nanowires grown by vapor phase transport were investigated. While some samples were contacted by Ti/Au electrodes, another set of samples was investigated using a manipulator tip in a low energy electron point-source microscope. The deduced resistivities range from 1 to 10{sup 3} {omega}cm. Additionally, the resistivities of nanowires from multiple publications were brought together and compared to the values obtained from our measurements. The overview of all data shows enormous differences (10{sup -3}-10{sup 5} {omega}cm) in the measured resistivities. In order to reveal the origin of the discrepancies, the influence of growth parameters, measuring methods, contact resistances, crystal structures and ambient conditions are investigated and discussed in detail.

  6. On the difficulties in characterizing ZnO nanowires.

    Schlenker, E; Bakin, A; Weimann, T; Hinze, P; Weber, D H; Gölzhäuser, A; Wehmann, H-H; Waag, A

    2008-09-10

    The electrical properties of single ZnO nanowires grown by vapor phase transport were investigated. While some samples were contacted by Ti/Au electrodes, another set of samples was investigated using a manipulator tip in a low energy electron point-source microscope. The deduced resistivities range from 1 to 10(3) Ωcm. Additionally, the resistivities of nanowires from multiple publications were brought together and compared to the values obtained from our measurements. The overview of all data shows enormous differences (10(-3)-10(5) Ωcm) in the measured resistivities. In order to reveal the origin of the discrepancies, the influence of growth parameters, measuring methods, contact resistances, crystal structures and ambient conditions are investigated and discussed in detail.

  7. Coaxial silver nanowire network core molybdenum oxide shell supercapacitor electrodes

    Yuksel, Recep; Coskun, Sahin; Unalan, Husnu Emrah

    2016-01-01

    We present a new hybrid material composed of molybdenum (IV) oxide (MoO 2 ) shell on highly conducting silver nanowire (Ag NW) core in the network form for the realization of coaxial Ag NW/MoO 2 nanocomposite supercapacitor electrodes. Ag NWs were simply spray coated onto glass substrates to form conductive networks and conformal MoO 2 layer was electrodeposited onto the Ag NW network to create binder-free coaxial supercapacitor electrodes. Combination of Ag NWs and pseudocapacitive MoO 2 generated an enhanced electrochemical energy storage capacity and a specific capacitance of 500.7 F/g was obtained at a current density of 0.25 A/g. Fabricated supercapacitor electrodes showed excellent capacity retention after 5000 cycles. The methods and the design investigated herein open a wide range of opportunities for nanowire based coaxial supercapacitors.

  8. 3D ZnIn2S4 nanosheet/TiO2 nanowire arrays and their efficient photocathodic protection for 304 stainless steel

    Sun, Wenxia; Wei, Na; Cui, Hongzhi; Lin, Yuan; Wang, Xinzhen; Tian, Jian; Li, Jian; Wen, Jing

    2018-03-01

    A well-designed heterostructure engineered ZnIn2S4 nanosheet/TiO2 nanowire arrays photoanode is investigated for photocathodic protection. The ZnIn2S4 nanosheets are distributed uniformly on the surface of the TiO2 nanowire by a hydrothermal method. The stem-and-leaf-like ZnIn2S4 nanosheet/TiO2 nanowire arrays exhibit excellent photoelectrochemical properties, owing to the energy band structure and large surface area. A maximum photocurrent density of 2 mA cm-2 is achieved for the ZnIn2S4 nanosheet/TiO2 nanowire composite film for a 6 h reaction time under white illumination. Moreover, the potential of the 304 stainless steel coupled with the composite film immediately shifts negatively to -1.17 V (vs. SCE), which is significantly lower than the corrosion potential (-0.201 V vs. SCE). Thus, the composite film offers a superior photocathodic protection for stainless steel against corrosion by a NaCl solution. This study provides a promising approach for the design and synthesis of composite films with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance.

  9. Self-diffusion in single crystalline silicon nanowires

    Südkamp, T.; Hamdana, G.; Descoins, M.; Mangelinck, D.; Wasisto, H. S.; Peiner, E.; Bracht, H.

    2018-04-01

    Self-diffusion experiments in single crystalline isotopically controlled silicon nanowires with diameters of 70 and 400 nm at 850 and 1000 °C are reported. The isotope structures were first epitaxially grown on top of silicon substrate wafers. Nanowires were subsequently fabricated using a nanosphere lithography process in combination with inductively coupled plasma dry reactive ion etching. Three-dimensional profiling of the nanosized structure before and after diffusion annealing was performed by means of atom probe tomography (APT). Self-diffusion profiles obtained from APT analyses are accurately described by Fick's law for self-diffusion. Data obtained for silicon self-diffusion in nanowires are equal to the results reported for bulk silicon crystals, i.e., finite size effects and high surface-to-volume ratios do not significantly affect silicon self-diffusion. This shows that the properties of native point defects determined from self-diffusion in bulk crystals also hold for nanosized silicon structures with diameters down to 70 nm.

  10. A soft chemical route to multicomponent lithium transition metal oxide nanowires as promising cathode materials for lithium secondary batteries

    Park, Dae-Hoon; Lim, Seung-Tae; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2006-01-01

    We have synthesized 1D nanowires of lithium nickel manganese oxides with two different crystal structures through the chemical oxidation reaction of solid-state precursor LiMn 0.5 Ni 0.5 O 2 under hydrothermal condition. According to X-ray diffraction and elemental analyses, the nanowires obtained by persulfate treatments at 65 and 120 deg. C crystallize with a hexagonal layered and an α-MnO 2 -type structure, respectively, in which nickel and manganese ions exist in octahedral sites. Electron microscopic analyses reveal that the platelike crystallites of the precursor are changed into nanowires with the diameter of ∼20 nm after the persulfate treatment. Thermal and infrared spectroscopic analyses clearly demonstrate that, in comparison with α-MnO 2 -structured nanowires, the hexagonal layered nanowires contain less water molecules in the lattice, which makes them suitable for the application as electrode materials for lithium secondary batteries. According to electrochemical measurements, the hexagonal layered nanowires show a larger discharge capacity and an excellent cyclability with respect to repeated Li intercalation-disintercalation process. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic analyses on the samples subjected to electrochemical analysis reveal that the layered structure and 1D morphology of the nanowires are still maintained after the electrochemical cyclings, which is responsible for their excellent electrochemical performances

  11. Synthesis and magnetic properties of cobalt-iron/cobalt-ferrite soft/hard magnetic core/shell nanowires

    Leandro Londoño-Calderón, César; Moscoso-Londoño, Oscar; Muraca, Diego; Arzuza, Luis; Carvalho, Peterson; Pirota, Kleber Roberto; Knobel, Marcelo; Pampillo, Laura Gabriela; Martínez-García, Ricardo

    2017-06-01

    A straightforward method for the synthesis of CoFe2.7/CoFe2O4 core/shell nanowires is described. The proposed method starts with a conventional pulsed electrodeposition procedure on alumina nanoporous template. The obtained CoFe2.7 nanowires are released from the template and allowed to oxidize at room conditions over several weeks. The effects of partial oxidation on the structural and magnetic properties were studied by x-ray spectrometry, magnetometry, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that the final nanowires are composed of 5 nm iron-cobalt alloy nanoparticles. Releasing the nanowires at room conditions promoted surface oxidation of the nanoparticles and created a CoFe2O4 shell spinel-like structure. The shell avoids internal oxidation and promotes the formation of bi-magnetic soft/hard magnetic core/shell nanowires. The magnetic properties of both the initial single-phase CoFe2.7 nanowires and the final core/shell nanowires, reveal that the changes in the properties from the array are due to the oxidation more than effects associated with released processes (disorder and agglomeration).

  12. Crystallinity, Surface Morphology, and Photoelectrochemical Effects in Conical InP and InN Nanowires Grown on Silicon.

    Parameshwaran, Vijay; Xu, Xiaoqing; Clemens, Bruce

    2016-08-24

    The growth conditions of two types of indium-based III-V nanowires, InP and InN, are tailored such that instead of yielding conventional wire-type morphologies, single-crystal conical structures are formed with an enlarged diameter either near the base or near the tip. By using indium droplets as a growth catalyst, combined with an excess indium supply during growth, "ice cream cone" type structures are formed with a nanowire "cone" and an indium-based "ice cream" droplet on top for both InP and InN. Surface polycrystallinity and annihilation of the catalyst tip of the conical InP nanowires are observed when the indium supply is turned off during the growth process. This growth design technique is extended to create single-crystal InN nanowires with the same morphology. Conical InN nanowires with an enlarged base are obtained through the use of an excess combined Au-In growth catalyst. Electrochemical studies of the InP nanowires on silicon demonstrate a reduction photocurrent as a proof of photovolatic behavior and provide insight as to how the observed surface polycrystallinity and the resulting interface affect these device-level properties. Additionally, a photovoltage is induced in both types of conical InN nanowires on silicon, which is not replicated in epitaxial InN thin films.

  13. Horizontal Assembly of Single Nanowire Diode Fabricated by p-n Junction GaN NW Grown by MOCVD

    Ji-Hyeon Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxially p-n junction gallium nitride nanowires have been synthesized via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition method. Nanowires prepared on Si(111 substrates were found to grow perpendicular to the substrate, and the transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the nanowires had singlecrystalline structures with a growth axis. The parallel assembly of the p-n junction nanowire was prepared on a Si substrate with a thermally grown SiO2 layer. The transport studies of horizontal gallium nitride nanowire structures assembled from p- and n-type materials show that these junctions correspond to well-defined p-n junction diodes. The p-n junction devices based on GaN nanowires suspended over the electrodes were fabricated and their electrical properties were investigated. The horizontally assembled gallium nitride nanowire diodes suspended over the electrodes exhibited a substantial increase in conductance under UV light exposure. Apart from the selectivity to different light wavelengths, high responsivity and extremely short response time have also been obtained.

  14. A Facile Synthesis of Graphene-WO3 Nanowire Clusters with High Photocatalytic Activity for O2 Evolution

    M.-J. Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS techniques. The photocatalytic oxygen (O2 evolution properties of the as-synthesized samples were investigated by measuring the amount of evolved O2 from water splitting. The graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters exhibited enhanced performance compared to pure WO3 nanowire clusters for O2 evolution. The amount of evolved O2 from water splitting after 8 h for the graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters is ca. 0.345 mmol/L, which is more than 1.9 times as much as that of the pure WO3 nanowire clusters (ca. 0.175 mmol/L. The high photocatalytic activity of the graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters was attributed to a high charge transfer rate in the presence of graphene.

  15. PREFACE: Synthesis and integration of nanowires

    Samuelson, L.

    2006-06-01

    The field of semiconductor nanowires has attracted much attention in recent years, from the areas of basic materials science, advanced characterization and technology, as well as from the perspective of the applications of nanowires. Research on large-sized whiskers and wires had already begun in the 1960s with the pioneering work of Wagner, as well as by other researchers. It was, however, in the early 1990s that Kenji Hiruma at Hitachi Central Research Laboratories in Japan first succeeded in developing methods for the growth of nanowires with dimensions on the scale of 10-100 nm, thereby initiating the field of growth and applications of nanowires, with a strong emphasis on epitaxial nucleation of nanowires on a single-crystalline substrate. Starting from the mid-1990s, the field developed very rapidly with the number of papers on the subject growing from ten per year to several thousand papers on the subject published annually today, although with a rather generous definition of the concept of nanowires. With this rapid development we have seen many new and different approaches to the growth of nanowires, technological advances leading to a more well-controlled formation of nanowires, new innovative methods for the characterization of structures, as well as a wealth of approaches towards the use of nanowires in electronics, photonics and sensor applications. This issue contains contributions from many different laboratories, each adding significant detail to the development of the field of research. The contributions cover issues such as basic growth, advanced characterization and technology, and application of nanowires. I would like to acknowledge the shared responsibilities for this special issue of Nanotechnology on the synthesis and integration of nanowires with my co-Editors, S Tong Lee and M Sunkara, as well as the highly professional support from Dr Nina Couzin, Dr Ian Forbes and the Nanotechnology team from the Institute of Physics Publishing.

  16. Quantum engineering of transistors based on 2D materials heterostructures

    Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Colombo, Luigi; Fiori, Gianluca

    2018-03-01

    Quantum engineering entails atom-by-atom design and fabrication of electronic devices. This innovative technology that unifies materials science and device engineering has been fostered by the recent progress in the fabrication of vertical and lateral heterostructures of two-dimensional materials and by the assessment of the technology potential via computational nanotechnology. But how close are we to the possibility of the practical realization of next-generation atomically thin transistors? In this Perspective, we analyse the outlook and the challenges of quantum-engineered transistors using heterostructures of two-dimensional materials against the benchmark of silicon technology and its foreseeable evolution in terms of potential performance and manufacturability. Transistors based on lateral heterostructures emerge as the most promising option from a performance point of view, even if heterostructure formation and control are in the initial technology development stage.

  17. Engineering charge transport by heterostructuring solution-processed semiconductors

    Voznyy, Oleksandr; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Ip, Alexander H.; Zhitomirsky, David; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-06-01

    Solution-processed semiconductor devices are increasingly exploiting heterostructuring — an approach in which two or more materials with different energy landscapes are integrated into a composite system. Heterostructured materials offer an additional degree of freedom to control charge transport and recombination for more efficient optoelectronic devices. By exploiting energetic asymmetry, rationally engineered heterostructured materials can overcome weaknesses, augment strengths and introduce emergent physical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible to single-material systems. These systems see benefit and application in two distinct branches of charge-carrier manipulation. First, they influence the balance between excitons and free charges to enhance electron extraction in solar cells and photodetectors. Second, they promote radiative recombination by spatially confining electrons and holes, which increases the quantum efficiency of light-emitting diodes. In this Review, we discuss advances in the design and composition of heterostructured materials, consider their implementation in semiconductor devices and examine unexplored paths for future advancement in the field.

  18. Ionic conductivity in oxide heterostructures: the role of interfaces

    Emiliana Fabbri, Daniele Pergolesi and Enrico Traversa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing attention is being directed to the investigation of ionic conductivity in oxide film heterostructures. The main reason for this interest arises from interfacial phenomena in these heterostructures and their applications. Recent results revealed that heterophase interfaces have faster ionic conduction pathways than the bulk or homophase interfaces. This finding can open attractive opportunities in the field of micro-ionic devices. The influence of the interfaces on the conduction properties of heterostructures is becoming increasingly important with the miniaturization of solid-state devices, which leads to an enhanced interface density at the expense of the bulk. This review aims to describe the main evidence of interfacial phenomena in ion-conducting film heterostructures, highlighting the fundamental and technological relevance and offering guidelines to understanding the interface conduction mechanisms in these structures.

  19. Organic heterostructures based on arylenevinylene oligomers deposited by MAPLE

    Socol, M.; Preda, N.; Vacareanu, L.; Grigoras, M.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Stanculescu, F.; Jelínek, Miroslav; Stanculescu, A.; Stoicanescu, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 302, May (2014), s. 216-222 ISSN 0169-4332 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : organic heterostructures * MAPLE * oligomer * optoelectronica Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014

  20. Superthin Solar Cells Based on AIIIBV/Ge Heterostructures

    Pakhanov, N. A.; Pchelyakov, O. P.; Vladimirov, V. M.

    2017-11-01

    A comparative analysis of the prospects of creating superthin, light-weight, and highly efficient solar cells based on AIIIBV/InGaAs and AIIIBV/Ge heterostructures is performed. Technological problems and prospects of each variant are discussed. A method of thinning of AIIIBV/Ge heterostructures with the use of an effective temporary carrier is proposed. The method allows the process to be performed almost with no risk of heterostructure fracture, thinning of the Ge junction down to several tens of micrometers (or even several micrometers), significant enhancement of the yield of good structures, and also convenient and reliable transfer of thinned solar cells to an arbitrary light and flexible substrate. Such a technology offers a possibility of creating high-efficiency thin and light solar cells for space vehicles on the basis of mass-produced AIIIBV/Ge heterostructures.

  1. Quantum engineering of transistors based on 2D materials heterostructures.

    Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Colombo, Luigi; Fiori, Gianluca

    2018-03-01

    Quantum engineering entails atom-by-atom design and fabrication of electronic devices. This innovative technology that unifies materials science and device engineering has been fostered by the recent progress in the fabrication of vertical and lateral heterostructures of two-dimensional materials and by the assessment of the technology potential via computational nanotechnology. But how close are we to the possibility of the practical realization of next-generation atomically thin transistors? In this Perspective, we analyse the outlook and the challenges of quantum-engineered transistors using heterostructures of two-dimensional materials against the benchmark of silicon technology and its foreseeable evolution in terms of potential performance and manufacturability. Transistors based on lateral heterostructures emerge as the most promising option from a performance point of view, even if heterostructure formation and control are in the initial technology development stage.

  2. Variable electronic properties of lateral phosphorene-graphene heterostructures.

    Tian, Xiaoqing; Liu, Lin; Du, Yu; Gu, Juan; Xu, Jian-Bin; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-12-21

    Phosphorene and graphene have a tiny lattice mismatch along the armchair direction, which can result in an atomically sharp in-plane interface. The electronic properties of the lateral heterostructures of phosphorene/graphene are investigated by the first-principles method. Here, we demonstrate that the electronic properties of this type of heterostructure can be highly tunable by the quantum size effects and the externally applied electric field (Eext). At strong Eext, Dirac Fermions can be developed with Fermi velocities around one order smaller than that of graphene. Undoped and hydrogen doped configurations demonstrate three drastically different electronic phases, which reveal the strongly tunable potential of this type of heterostructure. Graphene is a naturally better electrode for phosphorene. The transport properties of two-probe devices of graphene/phosphorene/graphene exhibit tunnelling transport characteristics. Given these results, it is expected that in-plane heterostructures of phosphorene/graphene will present abundant opportunities for applications in optoelectronic and electronic devices.

  3. Spin-torque generation in topological insulator based heterostructures

    Fischer, Mark H.; Vaezi, Abolhassan; Manchon, Aurelien; Kim, Eun-Ah

    2016-01-01

    Heterostructures utilizing topological insulators exhibit a remarkable spin-torque efficiency. However, the exact origin of the strong torque, in particular whether it stems from the spin-momentum locking of the topological surface states or rather

  4. Design and fabrication of Ni nanowires having periodically hollow nanostructures

    Sada, Takao; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2014-09-01

    interior surfaces of AAO. The Ni shell layer allows the Ni segments to remain even after dissolution of the Ag segments. Because the electroplating conditions can be easily controlled, we could carefully adjust the size and pitch of the periodically hollow nanospaces. We also describe a method for the fabrication of Ni nanorods by forming an Ag shell instead of a Ni shell on the Ni-Ag barcode nanowire, in which the interior of the AAO surfaces was modified with a compound bearing a thiol group prior to electroplating. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Information on the current profile during pulsed-electroplating, the histogram for the Ni and nanopores, and STEM images of obtained nanowires. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02625j

  5. Enhancement of exciton radiative recombination for In-doped ZnO nanowires with aluminum cylindrical micropillars

    Wang, Jen-Cheng; Liang, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Fang-Ching; Fang, Chia-Hui; Chen, Hung-Ing; Tsai, Chung-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Jiang, Joe-Air [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Nee, Tzer-En, E-mail: neete@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-04-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has attracted intensive research effort in recent years, due to its unique properties and versatile applications. Recent work on the conservation of surface plasmon (SP) and light through period metal arrays has elucidated the propagation of SP resonance behavior. In this paper, we discuss the enhancement of exciton radiative recombination of the ZnO nanowires with Al cylindrical micropillars. Optical characterization of exciton interacted with SP resonance for indium-doped ZnO nanowires with Al cylindrical micropillars has been also investigated. From photoluminescence spectra of In-doped ZnO nanowires, it is found that the In-doped ZnO nanowires have a blue emission at 425 nm, which resulted from the ZnO band-to-band transition. Prior to the arrays of samples were annealed, a broad green emission centered at 500 nm was observed, which is attributed to ZnO native point defects. The relatively strong green band emission results from the radiative recombination that arises from the ionized oxygen vacancy and surface-defect related luminescence. Compare the In-doped ZnO on Si substrate, the enhancement of PL intensity for In-doped ZnO with deposited Al pattern film can be attributed to strong interaction with SP resonance and exciton over a broad temperature range. These experimental results indicate that Al cylindrical micropillars can significantly enhance carrier confinement and increase the quantum efficiency of In-doped ZnO/Al heterostructures due to the interaction of SP resonance between the In-doped ZnO nanowires and Al cylindrical micropillar structures, the surface-defect related luminescence, and the auxiliary test structures with variable micropillar parameters. -- Highlights: ► We examine the exciton radiative recombination of the ZnO nanowires. ► Al cylindrical micropillars affect the carrier recombination of ZnO/Al structures. ► The interaction of SP resonance between In-doped ZnO nanowire and Al pattern film. ► The carrier

  6. Guided Growth of Horizontal ZnSe Nanowires and their Integration into High-Performance Blue-UV Photodetectors.

    Oksenberg, Eitan; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Rechav, Katya; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2015-07-15

    Perfectly aligned horizontal ZnSe nano-wires are obtained by guided growth, and easily integrated into high-performance blue-UV photodetectors. Their crystal phase and crystallographic orientation are controlled by the epitaxial relations with six different sapphire planes. Guided growth paves the way for the large-scale integration of nanowires into optoelectronic devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Self-assembled, nanowire network electrodes for depleted bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Lan, Xinzheng; Bai, Jing; Masala, Silvia; Thon, Susanna; Ren, Yuan; Kramer, Illan J.; Hoogland, Sjoerd H.; Simchi, Arash; Koleilat, Ghada I.; Paz-Soldan, Daniel; Ning, Zhijun; Labelle, André J.; Kim, Jinyoung; Jabbour, Ghassan E.; Sargent, E. H.

    2013-01-01

    Herein, a solution-processed, bottom-up-fabricated, nanowire network electrode is developed. This electrode features a ZnO template which is converted into locally connected, infiltratable, TiO2 nanowires. This new electrode is used to build a depleted bulk heterojunction solar cell employing hybrid-passivated colloidal quantum dots. The new electrode allows the application of a thicker, and thus more light-absorbing, colloidal quantum dot active layer, from which charge extraction of an efficiency comparable to that obtained from a thinner, planar device could be obtained. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Self-assembled, nanowire network electrodes for depleted bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Lan, Xinzheng

    2013-01-06

    Herein, a solution-processed, bottom-up-fabricated, nanowire network electrode is developed. This electrode features a ZnO template which is converted into locally connected, infiltratable, TiO2 nanowires. This new electrode is used to build a depleted bulk heterojunction solar cell employing hybrid-passivated colloidal quantum dots. The new electrode allows the application of a thicker, and thus more light-absorbing, colloidal quantum dot active layer, from which charge extraction of an efficiency comparable to that obtained from a thinner, planar device could be obtained. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Electrospun ZnO Nanowires as Gas Sensors for Ethanol Detection

    Huang Po-Jung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract ZnO nanowires were produced using an electrospinning method and used in gas sensors for the detection of ethanol at 220 °C. This electrospinning technique allows the direct placement of ZnO nanowires during their synthesis to bridge the sensor electrodes. An excellent sensitivity of nearly 90% was obtained at a low ethanol concentration of 10 ppm, and the rest obtained at higher ethanol concentrations, up to 600 ppm, all equal to or greater than 90%.

  10. Nanowire NMOS Logic Inverter Characterization.

    Hashim, Yasir

    2016-06-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate characteristics optimization of nanowire N-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (NW-MOS) logic inverter. Noise margins and inflection voltage of transfer characteristics are used as limiting factors in this optimization. A computer-based model used to produce static characteristics of NW-NMOS logic inverter. In this research two circuit configuration of NW-NMOS inverter was studied, in first NW-NMOS circuit, the noise margin for (low input-high output) condition was very low. For second NMOS circuit gives excellent noise margins, and results indicate that optimization depends on applied voltage to the inverter. Increasing gate to source voltage with (2/1) nanowires ratio results better noise margins. Increasing of applied DC load transistor voltage tends to increasing in decreasing noise margins; decreasing this voltage will improve noise margins significantly.

  11. X-ray characterization Si-doped InAs nanowires grown on GaAs

    Saqib, Muhammad; Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik (Germany); Grap, Thomas; Lepsa, Mihail [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Bio- und Nanosysteme (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NW) are of particular interest due to the ability to synthesize single-crystalline 1D epitaxial structures and heterostructures in the nanometer range. However, many details of the growth mechanism are not well understood. In particular, understanding and control of doping mechanisms during NW growth are important issues for technological applications. In this contribution we present a x-ray diffraction study of the influence of Si-doping in InAs NWs grown on GaAs(111) substrates using In-assisted MBE growth. With the help of coplanar and asymmetric x-ray diffraction, we monitor the evolution of the lattice constants and structure of the InAs NWs as function of doping concentration. We observe that increasing the nominal doping concentration leads to the appearance of additional diffraction maxima corresponding to material whose vertical lattice parameter is 1% smaller than that of the undoped nanowires. Those lattice parameters can be attributed with alloy formation in the form of island like crystallites.

  12. X-ray characterization of Au-free grown GaAs nanowires on Si

    Biermanns, Andreas; Davydok, Anton; Pietsch, Ullrich [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik (Germany); Breuer, Steffen; Geelhaar, Lutz [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NW) are of particular interest due to the ability to synthesize single-crystalline 1D epitaxial structures and heterostructures in the nanometer range. However, many details of the growth mechanism are not well understood. In this contribution we present a x-ray diffraction study of the early stage of Au-free GaAs nanowire growth on Si(111)-substrates with native oxide using the nano-focus setup available at the ID1 beamline of ESRF. The GaAs NWs were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and their formation was induced by Ga droplets. Using a nanometer-sized x-ray beam, size and lattice parameters of individual wires were measured separately. Using asymmetric x-ray diffraction on particular zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (W) sensitive reflections, we show that under the used conditions the NW growth starts with predominantly WZ phases and continues mainly in ZB phase. In addition we can show that the WZ segments of the NWs exhibit a different vertical lattice parameter compared to the zinc-blende segments. A combination of x-ray diffraction from single wires and grazing incidence diffraction shows that the base of the NW is compressively strained along the inplane direction. This strain is released within 20 nm from the substrate-interface.

  13. Nanowire sensors and arrays for chemical/biomolecule detection

    Yun, Minhee; Lee, Choonsup; Vasquez, Richard P.; Ramanathan, K.; Bangar, M. A.; Chen, W.; Mulchandan, A.; Myung, N. V.

    2005-01-01

    We report electrochemical growth of single nanowire based sensors using e-beam patterned electrolyte channels, potentially enabling the controlled fabrication of individually addressable high density arrays. The electrodeposition technique results in nanowires with controlled dimensions, positions, alignments, and chemical compositions. Using this technique, we have fabricated single palladium nanowires with diameters ranging between 75 nm and 300 nm and conducting polymer nanowires (polypyrrole and polyaniline) with diameters between 100 nm and 200 nm. Using these single nanowires, we have successfully demonstrated gas sensing with Pd nanowires and pH sensing with polypirrole nanowires.

  14. Electrical limit of silver nanowire electrodes: Direct measurement of the nanowire junction resistance

    Selzer, Franz; Floresca, Carlo; Kneppe, David; Bormann, Ludwig; Sachse, Christoph; Weiß , Nelli; Eychmü ller, Alexander; Amassian, Aram; Mü ller-Meskamp, Lars; Leo, Karl

    2016-01-01

    We measure basic network parameters of silvernanowire (AgNW) networks commonly used as transparent conductingelectrodes in organic optoelectronic devices. By means of four point probing with nanoprobes, the wire-to-wire junction resistance and the resistance of single nanowires are measured. The resistanceRNW of a single nanowire shows a value of RNW=(4.96±0.18) Ω/μm. The junction resistanceRJ differs for annealed and non-annealed NW networks, exhibiting values of RJ=(25.2±1.9) Ω (annealed) and RJ=(529±239) Ω (non-annealed), respectively. Our simulation achieves a good agreement between the measured network parameters and the sheet resistanceRS of the entire network. Extrapolating RJ to zero, our study show that we are close to the electrical limit of the conductivity of our AgNW system: We obtain a possible RS reduction by only ≈20% (common RS≈10 Ω/sq). Therefore, we expect further performance improvements in AgNW systems mainly by increasing NW length or by utilizing novel network geometries.

  15. Electrical limit of silver nanowire electrodes: Direct measurement of the nanowire junction resistance

    Selzer, Franz

    2016-04-19

    We measure basic network parameters of silvernanowire (AgNW) networks commonly used as transparent conductingelectrodes in organic optoelectronic devices. By means of four point probing with nanoprobes, the wire-to-wire junction resistance and the resistance of single nanowires are measured. The resistanceRNW of a single nanowire shows a value of RNW=(4.96±0.18) Ω/μm. The junction resistanceRJ differs for annealed and non-annealed NW networks, exhibiting values of RJ=(25.2±1.9) Ω (annealed) and RJ=(529±239) Ω (non-annealed), respectively. Our simulation achieves a good agreement between the measured network parameters and the sheet resistanceRS of the entire network. Extrapolating RJ to zero, our study show that we are close to the electrical limit of the conductivity of our AgNW system: We obtain a possible RS reduction by only ≈20% (common RS≈10 Ω/sq). Therefore, we expect further performance improvements in AgNW systems mainly by increasing NW length or by utilizing novel network geometries.

  16. Angular Magnetoresistance of Nanowires with Alternating Cobalt and Nickel Segments

    Mohammed, Hanan

    2017-06-22

    Magnetization reversal in segmented Co/Ni nanowires with varying number of segments was studied using angular Magnetoresistance (MR) measurements on isolated nanowires. The MR measurements offer an insight into the pinning of domain walls within the nanowires. Angular MR measurements were performed on nanowires with two and multiple segments by varying the angle between the applied magnetic field and nanowire (−90° ≤θ≤90°). The angular MR measurements reveal that at lower values of θ the switching fields are nearly identical for the multisegmented and two-segmented nanowires, whereas at higher values of θ, a decrease in the switching field is observed in the case of two segmented nanowires. The two segmented nanowires generally exhibit a single domain wall pinning event, whereas an increased number of pinning events are characteristic of the multisegmented nanowires at higher values of θ. In-situ magnetic force microscopy substantiates reversal by domain wall nucleation and propagation in multisegmented nanowires.

  17. Nanowire sensor, sensor array, and method for making the same

    Yun, Minhee (Inventor); Myung, Nosang (Inventor); Vasquez, Richard (Inventor); Homer, Margie (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Pin (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar (Inventor); Choi, Daniel (Inventor); Goddard, William (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a nanowire sensor and method for forming the same. More specifically, the nanowire sensor comprises at least one nanowire formed on a substrate, with a sensor receptor disposed on a surface of the nanowire, thereby forming a receptor-coated nanowire. The nanowire sensor can be arranged as a sensor sub-unit comprising a plurality of homogeneously receptor-coated nanowires. A plurality of sensor subunits can be formed to collectively comprise a nanowire sensor array. Each sensor subunit in the nanowire sensor array can be formed to sense a different stimulus, allowing a user to sense a plurality of stimuli. Additionally, each sensor subunit can be formed to sense the same stimuli through different aspects of the stimulus. The sensor array is fabricated through a variety of techniques, such as by creating nanopores on a substrate and electrodepositing nanowires within the nanopores.

  18. Angular Magnetoresistance of Nanowires with Alternating Cobalt and Nickel Segments

    Mohammed, Hanan; Corte-Leon, H.; Ivanov, Yurii P.; Moreno, J. A.; Kazakova, O.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2017-01-01

    Magnetization reversal in segmented Co/Ni nanowires with varying number of segments was studied using angular Magnetoresistance (MR) measurements on isolated nanowires. The MR measurements offer an insight into the pinning of domain walls within the nanowires. Angular MR measurements were performed on nanowires with two and multiple segments by varying the angle between the applied magnetic field and nanowire (−90° ≤θ≤90°). The angular MR measurements reveal that at lower values of θ the switching fields are nearly identical for the multisegmented and two-segmented nanowires, whereas at higher values of θ, a decrease in the switching field is observed in the case of two segmented nanowires. The two segmented nanowires generally exhibit a single domain wall pinning event, whereas an increased number of pinning events are characteristic of the multisegmented nanowires at higher values of θ. In-situ magnetic force microscopy substantiates reversal by domain wall nucleation and propagation in multisegmented nanowires.

  19. Rashba-Edelstein Magnetoresistance in Metallic Heterostructures.

    Nakayama, Hiroyasu; Kanno, Yusuke; An, Hongyu; Tashiro, Takaharu; Haku, Satoshi; Nomura, Akiyo; Ando, Kazuya

    2016-09-09

    We report the observation of magnetoresistance originating from Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in a metallic heterostructure: the Rashba-Edelstein (RE) magnetoresistance. We show that the simultaneous action of the direct and inverse RE effects in a Bi/Ag/CoFeB trilayer couples current-induced spin accumulation to the electric resistance. The electric resistance changes with the magnetic-field angle, reminiscent of the spin Hall magnetoresistance, despite the fact that bulk SOC is not responsible for the magnetoresistance. We further found that, even when the magnetization is saturated, the resistance increases with increasing the magnetic-field strength, which is attributed to the Hanle magnetoresistance in this system.

  20. Electron Transport Properties of Ge nanowires

    Hanrath, Tobias; Khondaker, Saiful I.; Yao, Zhen; Korgel, Brian A.

    2003-03-01

    Electron Transport Properties of Ge nanowires Tobias Hanrath*, Saiful I. Khondaker, Zhen Yao, Brian A. Korgel* *Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Dept. of Physics, Texas Materials Institute, and Center for Nano- and Molecular Science and Technology University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1062 e-mail: korgel@mail.che.utexas.edu Germanium (Ge) nanowires with diameters ranging from 6 to 50 nm and several micrometer in length were grown via a supercritical fluid-liquid-solid synthesis. Parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) was employed to study the band structure and electron density in the Ge nanowires. The observed increase in plasmon peak energy and peak width with decreasing nanowire diameter is attributed to quantum confinement effects. For electrical characterization, Ge nanowires were deposited onto a patterned Si/SiO2 substrate. E-beam lithography was then used to form electrode contacts to individual nanowires. The influence of nanowire diameter, surface chemistry and crystallographic defects on electron transport properties were investigated and the comparison of Ge nanowire conductivity with respect to bulk, intrinsic Ge will be presented.

  1. Moessbauer study of Fe-Co nanowires

    Chen Ziyu [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China)]. E-mail: chenzy@lzu.edu.cn; Zhan Qingfeng; Xue Desheng; Li Fashen [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); Zhou Xuezhi; Kunkel, Henry; Williams, Gwyn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, the University of Manitoba (Canada)

    2002-01-28

    Arrays of Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} (0.0{<=}x{<=}0.92) nanowires have been prepared by an electrochemical process, co-depositing Fe and Co atoms into the pores of anodic aluminium; their compositions were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscope results show that the nanowires are regularly spaced and uniform in shape with lengths of about 7.5 {mu}m and diameters of 20 nm. The x-ray diffraction indicates a texture in the deposited nanowires. For the composition below 82 at.% cobalt, the nanowires had a body-centred-cubic structure with a [110] preferred orientation. For the 92 at.% cobalt sample, the alloy exhibited a mixture of bcc and face-centred-cubic structure. The room temperature {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra of the arrays of Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} nanowires have second and fifth absorption lines of the six-line pattern with almost zero intensity, indicating that the internal magnetic field in the nanowires lies along the long axis of the nanowire. The maximum values of the hyperfine field (B{sub hf} 36.6{+-}0.1 T) and isomer shift (IS=0.06{+-}0.01 mm s-1) occur for 44 at.% cobalt. The variations of the isomer shift and the linewidths with composition indicate that the Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} alloy nanowires around the equiatomic composition are in an atomistic disordered state. (author)

  2. Epitaxy of advanced nanowire quantum devices

    Gazibegovic, S.; Car, D.; Zhang, H.; Balk, S.C.; Logan, J.A.; De Moor, M.W.A.; Cassidy, M.C.; Schmits, R.; Xu, D.; Wang, G.; Krogstrup, P.; Op Het Veld, R.L.M.; Zuo, K.; Vos, Y.; Shen, J.; Bouman, D.; Shojaei, B.; Pennachio, D.; Lee, J.S.; van Veldhoven, P.J.; Koelling, S.; Verheijen, M.A.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Palmstrøm, C.J.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires are ideal for realizing various low-dimensional quantum devices. In particular, topological phases of matter hosting non-Abelian quasiparticles (such as anyons) can emerge when a semiconductor nanowire with strong spin-orbit coupling is brought into contact with a

  3. Synthesis of Metal-Oxide/Carbon-Fiber Heterostructures and Their Properties for Organic Dye Removal and High-Temperature CO2 Adsorption

    Shao, Liangzhi; Nie, Shibin; Shao, Xiankun; Zhang, LinLin; Li, Benxia

    2018-03-01

    One-dimensional metal-oxide/carbon-fiber (MO/CF) heterostructures were prepared by a facile two-step method using the natural cotton as a carbon source the low-cost commercial metal salts as precursors. The metal oxide nanostructures were first grown on the cotton fibers by a solution chemical deposition, and the metal-oxide/cotton heterostructures were then calcined and carbonized in nitrogen atmosphere. Three typical MO/CF heterostructures of TiO2/CF, ZnO/CF, and Fe2O3/CF were prepared and characterized. The loading amount of the metal oxide nanostructures on carbon fibers can be tuned by controlling the concentration of metal salt in the chemical deposition process. Finally, the performance of the as-obtained MO/CF heterostructures for organic dye removal from water was tested by the photocatalytic degradation under a simulated sunlight, and their properties of high-temperature CO2 adsorption were predicted by the temperature programmed desorption. The present study would provide a desirable strategy for the synthesis of MO/CF heterostructures for various applications.

  4. Extreme IR absorption in group IV-SiGeSn core-shell nanowires

    Attiaoui, Anis; Wirth, Stephan; Blanchard-Dionne, André-Pierre; Meunier, Michel; Hartmann, J. M.; Buca, Dan; Moutanabbir, Oussama

    2018-06-01

    Sn-containing Si and Ge (Ge1-y-xSixSny) alloys are an emerging family of semiconductors with the potential to impact group IV material-based devices. These semiconductors provide the ability to independently engineer both the lattice parameter and bandgap, which holds the premise to develop enhanced or novel photonic and electronic devices. With this perspective, we present detailed investigations of the influence of Ge1-y-xSixSny layers on the optical properties of Si and Ge based heterostructures and nanowires. We found that by adding a thin Ge1-y-xSixSny capping layer on Si or Ge greatly enhances light absorption especially in the near infrared range, leading to an increase in short-circuit current density. For the Ge1-y-xSixSny structure at thicknesses below 30 nm, a 14-fold increase in the short-circuit current is observed with respect to bare Si. This enhancement decreases by reducing the capping layer thickness. Conversely, decreasing the shell thickness was found to improve the short-circuit current in Si/Ge1-y-xSixSny and Ge/Ge1-y-xSixSny core/shell nanowires. The optical absorption becomes very important by increasing the Sn content. Moreover, by exploiting an optical antenna effect, these nanowires show extreme light absorption, reaching an enhancement factor, with respect to Si or Ge nanowires, on the order of 104 in Si/Ge0.84Si0.04Sn0.12 and 12 in Ge/Ge0.84Si0.04Sn0.12. Furthermore, we analyzed the optical response after the addition of a dielectric layer of Si3N4 to the Si/Ge1-y-xSixSny core-shell nanowire and found approximatively a 50% increase in the short-circuit current density for a dielectric layer of thickness equal to 45 nm and both a core radius and a shell thickness greater than 40 nm. The core-shell optical antenna benefits from a multiplication of enhancements contributed by leaky mode resonances in the semiconductor part and antireflection effects in the dielectric part.

  5. Weak antilocalization and conductance fluctuation in a single crystalline Bi nanowire

    Kim, Jeongmin; Lee, Seunghyun; Kim, MinGin; Lee, Wooyoung; Brovman, Yuri M.; Kim, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We present the low temperature transport properties of an individual single-crystalline Bi nanowire grown by the on-film formation of nanowire method. The temperature dependent resistance and magnetoresistance of Bi nanowires were investigated. The phase coherence length was obtained from the fluctuation pattern of the magnetoresistance below 40 K using universal conductance fluctuation theory. The obtained temperature dependence of phase coherence length and the fluctuation amplitude indicates that the transport of electrons shows 2-dimensional characteristics originating from the surface states. The temperature dependence of the coherence length derived from the weak antilocalization effect using the Hikami–Larkin–Nagaoka model is consistent with that from the universal conductance fluctuations theory

  6. Study of carrier concentration in single InP nanowires by luminescence and Hall measurements

    Lindgren, David; Hultin, Olof; Heurlin, Magnus; Storm, Kristian; Borgström, Magnus T; Samuelson, Lars; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The free electron carrier concentrations in single InP core–shell nanowires are determined by micro-photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence (CL) and Hall effect measurements. The results from luminescence measurements were obtained by solving the Fermi–Dirac integral, as well as by analyzing the peak full width at half maximum (FWHM). Furthermore, the platform used for Hall effect measurements, combined with spot mode CL spectroscopy, is used to determine the carrier concentrations at specific positions along single nanowires. The results obtained via luminescence measurements provide an accurate and rapid feedback technique for the epitaxial development of doping incorporation in nanowires. The technique has been employed on several series of samples in which growth parameters, such as V/III-ratio, temperature and dopant flows, were investigated in an optimization procedure. The correlation between the Hall effect and luminescence measurements for extracting the carrier concentration of different samples were in excellent agreement. (paper)

  7. Large scale, highly conductive and patterned transparent films of silver nanowires on arbitrary substrates and their application in touch screens

    Madaria, Anuj R; Kumar, Akshay; Zhou Chongwu

    2011-01-01

    The application of silver nanowire films as transparent conductive electrodes has shown promising results recently. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of a simple spray coating technique to obtain large scale, highly uniform and conductive silver nanowire films on arbitrary substrates. We also integrated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-assisted contact transfer technique with spray coating, which allowed us to obtain large scale high quality patterned films of silver nanowires. The transparency and conductivity of the films was controlled by the volume of the dispersion used in spraying and the substrate area. We note that the optoelectrical property, σ DC /σ Op , for various films fabricated was in the range 75-350, which is extremely high for transparent thin film compared to other candidate alternatives to doped metal oxide film. Using this method, we obtain silver nanowire films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate with a transparency of 85% and sheet resistance of 33 Ω/sq, which is comparable to that of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) on flexible substrates. In-depth analysis of the film shows a high performance using another commonly used figure-of-merit, Φ TE . Also, Ag nanowire film/PET shows good mechanical flexibility and the application of such a conductive silver nanowire film as an electrode in a touch panel has been demonstrated.

  8. Large scale, highly conductive and patterned transparent films of silver nanowires on arbitrary substrates and their application in touch screens.

    Madaria, Anuj R; Kumar, Akshay; Zhou, Chongwu

    2011-06-17

    The application of silver nanowire films as transparent conductive electrodes has shown promising results recently. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of a simple spray coating technique to obtain large scale, highly uniform and conductive silver nanowire films on arbitrary substrates. We also integrated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-assisted contact transfer technique with spray coating, which allowed us to obtain large scale high quality patterned films of silver nanowires. The transparency and conductivity of the films was controlled by the volume of the dispersion used in spraying and the substrate area. We note that the optoelectrical property, σ(DC)/σ(Op), for various films fabricated was in the range 75-350, which is extremely high for transparent thin film compared to other candidate alternatives to doped metal oxide film. Using this method, we obtain silver nanowire films on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate with a transparency of 85% and sheet resistance of 33 Ω/sq, which is comparable to that of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) on flexible substrates. In-depth analysis of the film shows a high performance using another commonly used figure-of-merit, Φ(TE). Also, Ag nanowire film/PET shows good mechanical flexibility and the application of such a conductive silver nanowire film as an electrode in a touch panel has been demonstrated.

  9. Electrochemical Investigation on the Formation of Cu Nanowires by Electroless Deposition

    Felizco Jenichi Clairvaux E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of copper (Cu nanowires by electroless deposition in aqueous solution at 60-80 °C was studied from an electrochemical perspective using in situ mixed potential measurements and potential-pH diagrams. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM showed that thick and short nanowires were obtained at high temperatures, while long and thin nanowires result from low reaction temperatures. In situ mixed potential measurements reveal that Cu(II reduction is more favored at higher reaction temperatures, hastening the reduction reaction. The fast reaction leads to a high concentration of Cu atoms in the solution. As a result, Cu deposition occurs rapidly, such that they attached on both sides and ends of the primary Cu nanowires. This results to the formation of thick and short structures. On the other hand, thin and long nanowires are obtained due to the slow reduction reaction, which gives the Cu atoms more time to orderly attach in a wire-like formation.

  10. Writing and functionalisation of suspended DNA nanowires on superhydrophobic pillar arrays

    Miele, Ermanno; Accardo, Angelo; Falqui, Andrea; Marini, Monica; Giugni, Andrea; Leoncini, Marco; De Angelis, Francesco De; Krahne, Roman; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2014-01-01

    Nanowire arrays and networks with precisely controlled patterns are very interesting for innovative device concepts in mesoscopic physics. In particular, DNA templates have proven to be versatile for the fabrication of complex structures that obtained functionality via combinations with other materials, for example by functionalisation with molecules or nanoparticles, or by coating with metals. Here, the controlled motion of the a three-phase contact line (TCL) of DNA-loaded drops on superhydrophobic substrates is used to fabricate suspended nanowire arrays. In particular, the deposition of DNA wires is imaged in situ, and different patterns are obtained on hexagonal pillar arrays by controlling the TCL velocity and direction. Robust conductive wires and networks are achieved by coating the wires with a thin layer of gold, and as proof of concept conductivity measurements are performed on single suspended wires. The plastic material of the superhydrophobic pillars ensures electrical isolation from the substrate. The more general versatility of these suspended nanowire networks as functional templates is outlined by fabricating hybrid organic-metal-semiconductor nanowires by growing ZnO nanocrystals onto the metal-coated nanowires.

  11. Growth of InAs/InP core-shell nanowires with various pure crystal structures.

    Gorji Ghalamestani, Sepideh; Heurlin, Magnus; Wernersson, Lars-Erik; Lehmann, Sebastian; Dick, Kimberly A

    2012-07-20

    We have studied the epitaxial growth of an InP shell on various pure InAs core nanowire crystal structures by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. The InP shell is grown on wurtzite (WZ), zinc-blende (ZB), and {111}- and {110}-type faceted ZB twin-plane superlattice (TSL) structures by tuning the InP shell growth parameters and controlling the shell thickness. The growth results, particularly on the WZ nanowires, show that homogeneous InP shell growth is promoted at relatively high temperatures (∼500 °C), but that the InAs nanowires decompose under the applied conditions. In order to protect the InAs core nanowires from decomposition, a short protective InP segment is first grown axially at lower temperatures (420-460 °C), before commencing the radial growth at a higher temperature. Further studies revealed that the InP radial growth rate is significantly higher on the ZB and TSL nanowires compared to WZ counterparts, and shows a strong anisotropy in polar directions. As a result, thin shells were obtained during low temperature InP growth on ZB structures, while a higher temperature was used to obtain uniform thick shells. In addition, a schematic growth model is suggested to explain the basic processes occurring during the shell growth on the TSL crystal structures.

  12. Growth of InAs/InP core–shell nanowires with various pure crystal structures

    Gorji Ghalamestani, Sepideh; Heurlin, Magnus; Lehmann, Sebastian; Dick, Kimberly A; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the epitaxial growth of an InP shell on various pure InAs core nanowire crystal structures by metal–organic vapor phase epitaxy. The InP shell is grown on wurtzite (WZ), zinc-blende (ZB), and {111}- and {110}-type faceted ZB twin-plane superlattice (TSL) structures by tuning the InP shell growth parameters and controlling the shell thickness. The growth results, particularly on the WZ nanowires, show that homogeneous InP shell growth is promoted at relatively high temperatures (∼500 °C), but that the InAs nanowires decompose under the applied conditions. In order to protect the InAs core nanowires from decomposition, a short protective InP segment is first grown axially at lower temperatures (420–460 °C), before commencing the radial growth at a higher temperature. Further studies revealed that the InP radial growth rate is significantly higher on the ZB and TSL nanowires compared to WZ counterparts, and shows a strong anisotropy in polar directions. As a result, thin shells were obtained during low temperature InP growth on ZB structures, while a higher temperature was used to obtain uniform thick shells. In addition, a schematic growth model is suggested to explain the basic processes occurring during the shell growth on the TSL crystal structures. (paper)

  13. Writing and functionalisation of suspended DNA nanowires on superhydrophobic pillar arrays

    Miele, Ermanno

    2014-08-08

    Nanowire arrays and networks with precisely controlled patterns are very interesting for innovative device concepts in mesoscopic physics. In particular, DNA templates have proven to be versatile for the fabrication of complex structures that obtained functionality via combinations with other materials, for example by functionalisation with molecules or nanoparticles, or by coating with metals. Here, the controlled motion of the a three-phase contact line (TCL) of DNA-loaded drops on superhydrophobic substrates is used to fabricate suspended nanowire arrays. In particular, the deposition of DNA wires is imaged in situ, and different patterns are obtained on hexagonal pillar arrays by controlling the TCL velocity and direction. Robust conductive wires and networks are achieved by coating the wires with a thin layer of gold, and as proof of concept conductivity measurements are performed on single suspended wires. The plastic material of the superhydrophobic pillars ensures electrical isolation from the substrate. The more general versatility of these suspended nanowire networks as functional templates is outlined by fabricating hybrid organic-metal-semiconductor nanowires by growing ZnO nanocrystals onto the metal-coated nanowires.

  14. Transformation of bulk alloys to oxide nanowires

    Lei, Danni; Benson, Jim; Magasinski, Alexandre; Berdichevsky, Gene; Yushin, Gleb

    2017-01-01

    One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer prospects for enhancing the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a broad range of functional materials and composites, but their synthesis methods are typically elaborate and expensive. We demonstrate a direct transformation of bulk materials into nanowires under ambient conditions without the use of catalysts or any external stimuli. The nanowires form via minimization of strain energy at the boundary of a chemical reaction front. We show the transformation of multimicrometer-sized particles of aluminum or magnesium alloys into alkoxide nanowires of tunable dimensions, which are converted into oxide nanowires upon heating in air. Fabricated separators based on aluminum oxide nanowires enhanced the safety and rate capabilities of lithium-ion batteries. The reported approach allows ultralow-cost scalable synthesis of 1D materials and membranes.

  15. Nanowire-decorated microscale metallic electrodes

    Vlad, A.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Antohe, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication of metallic nanowire patterns within anodic alumina oxide (AAO) membranes on top of continuous conducting substrates are discussed. The fabrication protocol is based on the realization of nanowire patterns using supported nanoporous alumina templates (SNAT) prepared on top...... of lithographically defined metallic microelectrodes. The anodization of the aluminum permits electroplating only on top of the metallic electrodes, leading to the nanowire patterns having the same shape as the underlying metallic tracks. The variation in the fabricated structures between the patterned and non......-patterned substrates can be interpreted in terms of different behavior during anodization. The improved quality of fabricated nanowire patterns is clearly demonstrated by the SEM imaging and the uniform growth of nanowires inside the alumina template is observed without any significant height variation....

  16. Diamond nanowires: fabrication, structure, properties, and applications.

    Yu, Yuan; Wu, Liangzhuan; Zhi, Jinfang

    2014-12-22

    C(sp(3) )C-bonded diamond nanowires are wide band gap semiconductors that exhibit a combination of superior properties such as negative electron affinity, chemical inertness, high Young's modulus, the highest hardness, and room-temperature thermal conductivity. The creation of 1D diamond nanowires with their giant surface-to-volume ratio enhancements makes it possible to control and enhance the fundamental properties of diamond. Although theoretical comparisons with carbon nanotubes have shown that diamond nanowires are energetically and mechanically viable structures, reproducibly synthesizing the crystalline diamond nanowires has remained challenging. We present a comprehensive, up-to-date review of diamond nanowires, including a discussion of their synthesis along with their structures, properties, and applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Excitonic terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires

    Yan, Jie-Yun

    2018-06-01

    Excitonic terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires is studied. Based on the excitonic theory, the numerical method to calculate the photoconductivity spectrum in the nanowires is developed, which can simulate optical pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy measurements on real nanowires and thereby calculate the typical photoconductivity spectrum. With the help of the energetic structure deduced from the calculated linear absorption spectrum, the numerically observed shift of the resonant peak in the photoconductivity spectrum is found to result from the dominant exciton transition between excited or continuum states to the ground state, and the quantitative analysis is in good agreement with the quantum plasmon model. Besides, the dependence of the photoconductivity on the polarization of the terahertz field is also discussed. The numerical method and supporting theoretical analysis provide a new tool for experimentalists to understand the terahertz photoconductivity in intrinsic semiconductor nanowires at low temperatures or for nanowires subjected to below bandgap photoexcitation, where excitonic effects dominate.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Tin Oxide Nanowires

    A. Kabiri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is preparation of SnO2 nanowires by means of Thermal chemical reaction vapor transport deposition (TCRVTD method from SnO powders. The morphology, chemical composition and microstructure properties of the nanowires are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, EDS, and XRD. The XRD diffraction patterns reveal that the SnO2 nanowires have been grown in the form of tetragonal crystal structures with the lattice parameter of a=b=0.440 nm, and c=0.370 nm. The SEM images reveal that SnO2 nanowires have successfully been grown on the Si substrate. The EDS patterns show that only elements of Sn, O and Au are detected. Prior to the VLS process the substrate is coated by a thin layer of Au. The diameter of nanowires is measured to be something between 20-100 nm.

  19. Superconductive silicon nanowires using gallium beam lithography.

    Henry, Michael David; Jarecki, Robert Leo,

    2014-01-01

    This work was an early career LDRD investigating the idea of using a focused ion beam (FIB) to implant Ga into silicon to create embedded nanowires and/or fully suspended nanowires. The embedded Ga nanowires demonstrated electrical resistivity of 5 m-cm, conductivity down to 4 K, and acts as an Ohmic silicon contact. The suspended nanowires achieved dimensions down to 20 nm x 30 nm x 10 m with large sensitivity to pressure. These structures then performed well as Pirani gauges. Sputtered niobium was also developed in this research for use as a superconductive coating on the nanowire. Oxidation characteristics of Nb were detailed and a technique to place the Nb under tensile stress resulted in the Nb resisting bulk atmospheric oxidation for up to years.

  20. Printed silver nanowire antennas with low signal loss at high-frequency radio

    Komoda, Natsuki; Nogi, Masaya; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Kohno, Kazuo; Akiyama, Yutaka; Otsuka, Kanji

    2012-05-01

    Silver nanowires are printable and conductive, and are believed to be promising materials in the field of printed electronics. However, the resistivity of silver nanowire printed lines is higher than that of metallic particles or flakes even when sintered at high temperatures of 100-400 °C. Therefore, their applications have been limited to the replacement of transparent electrodes made from high-resistivity materials, such as doped metallic oxides, conductive polymers, carbon nanotubes, or graphenes. Here we report that using printed silver nanowire lines, signal losses obtained in the high-frequency radio were lower than those obtained using etched copper foil antennas, because their surfaces were much smoother than those of etched copper foil antennas. This was the case even though the resistivity of silver nanowire lines was 43-71 μΩ cm, which is much higher than that of etched copper foil (2 μΩ cm). When printed silver nanowire antennas were heated at 100 °C, they achieved signal losses that were much lower than those of silver paste antennas comprising microparticles, nanoparticles, and flakes. Furthermore, using a low temperature process, we succeeded in remotely controlling a commercialized radio-controlled car by transmitting a 2.45 GHz signal via a silver nanowire antenna printed on a polyethylene terephthalate film.Silver nanowires are printable and conductive, and are believed to be promising materials in the field of printed electronics. However, the resistivity of silver nanowire printed lines is higher than that of metallic particles or flakes even when sintered at high temperatures of 100-400 °C. Therefore, their applications have been limited to the replacement of transparent electrodes made from high-resistivity materials, such as doped metallic oxides, conductive polymers, carbon nanotubes, or graphenes. Here we report that using printed silver nanowire lines, signal losses obtained in the high-frequency radio were lower than those