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Sample records for heterosexually acquired human

  1. Heterosexually acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection in women in Copenhagen: sexual behavior and other risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, E; Kroon, S; Gerstoft, J

    1990-01-01

    antibodies: 35 (31%) were infected by heterosexual contact and 63 (55%) were intravenous drug users. Among the heterosexually transmitted cases 25 (71%) had intercourse with a man from a high risk group and nine women had intercourse with a known HIV antibody positive man without known risk factors. Use......In order to describe the risk pattern including sexual behaviour among HIV-infected women in Copenhagen we studied the charts of all women tested seropositive between January 1985 and August 1988 in the three main hospitals handling HIV/AIDS. One hundred and fifteen women were positive for HIV...

  2. Dogma disputed: potential endemic heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S

    1992-06-01

    The concept of tertiary sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been central to government efforts to communicate notions of risk to heterosexuals in Australia. Data on heterosexually transmitted acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and HIV for Australia are reviewed with emphasis given to the probability of misclassification bias in the heterosexually acquired and 'other/undetermined' categories. Tertiary cases are almost certainly rare in Australia, with little evidence of any increase in their incidence since the first cases were recorded. Three factors (low probability of exposure, the infectivity of HIV and a comparatively low rate of sexual partner change) make it improbable that Australian heterosexuals with no risk factors will experience endemic HIV infection, with a caveat to this conclusion lying in the potential of Australian sex tourism to Southeast Asia for introducing HIV into the Australian heterosexual population. Four hegemonic factors which have acted to suppress any serious debate of the notion that HIV in Australia is unlikely to become endemic among heterosexuals are discussed: the political 'democratization' of risk inspired by concerns that gay men should not be further vilified as a victim group; the preventive imperative; a reluctance among health educators to question the very foundations of the message they are employed to deliver; and a reluctance to curtail 'Trojan horse' benefits to sexually transmissible disease prevention engendered by HIV education promoting safe sex messages.

  3. Incidence, clearance, and disease progression of genital human papillomavirus infection in heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Edson Duarte; Giuliano, Anna R; Palefsky, Joel; Flores, Carlos Aranda; Goldstone, Stephen; Ferris, Daron; Hillman, Richard J; Moi, Harald; Stoler, Mark H; Marshall, Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Guris, Dalya; Haupt, Richard M

    2014-07-15

    In this analysis, we examine the incidence and clearance of external genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among heterosexual males aged 16-24 years. A total of 1732 males aged 16-24 years old in the placebo arm of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine trial were included in this analysis. Participants were enrolled from 18 countries in Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Europe, Latin America, and North America. Subjects underwent anogenital examinations and sampling of the penis, scrotum, and perineal/perianal regions. The incidence rate of any HPV DNA genotype 6, 11, 16, and/or 18 detection was 9.0 cases per 100 person-years. Rates of HPV DNA detection were highest in men from Africa. Median time to clearance of HPV genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 DNA was 6.1, 6.1, 7.7, and 6.2 months, respectively. Median time to clearance of persistently detected HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 DNA was 6.7, 3.2, 9.2, and 4.7 months, respectively. The study results suggest that the acquisition of HPV 6, 11, 16, and/or 18 in males is common and that many of these so-called infections are subsequently cleared, similar to findings for women. Nevertheless, given the high rate of HPV detection among young men, HPV vaccination of males may reduce infection in men and reduce the overall burden of HPV-associated disease in the community. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Heterosexual transmission of HIV in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumelioutou-Karayannis, A; Nestoridou, K; Mandalaki, T; Stefanou, T; Papaevangelou, G

    1988-06-01

    To provide further evidence for the heterosexual transmission of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Greece we examined 53 Greek female steady heterosexual partners of 53 anti-HIV-positive men. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission was estimated by the detection of anti-HIV antibodies. Our results showed that 27.8% (5 of 18) of the female partners of bisexuals, 33.3% (2 of 6) of intravenous drug abusers (IVDA), and 100% (4 of 4) of those who had lived for a long time in Africa were found anti-HIV positive. In contrast, only 4% (1 of 25) of the studied sexual partners of hemophiliac carriers were found to be HIV seropositive. The use of condoms seemed to be the most important factor in reducing HIV transmission. According to our results the duration of sexual relationships and the practice of anal intercourse did not increase the possibility of seroconversion. These results confirm the heterosexual transmission of HIV. However, further studies should be conducted to evaluate the relative role of various risk factors and the overall importance of heterosexual spread of HIV infections.

  5. Estimating the Number of Heterosexual Persons in the United States to Calculate National Rates of HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Lansky

    Full Text Available This study estimated the proportions and numbers of heterosexuals in the United States (U.S. to calculate rates of heterosexually acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Quantifying the burden of disease can inform effective prevention planning and resource allocation.Heterosexuals were defined as males and females who ever had sex with an opposite-sex partner and excluded those with other HIV risks: persons who ever injected drugs and males who ever had sex with another man. We conducted meta-analysis using data from 3 national probability surveys that measured lifetime (ever sexual activity and injection drug use among persons aged 15 years and older to estimate the proportion of heterosexuals in the United States population. We then applied the proportion of heterosexual persons to census data to produce population size estimates. National HIV infection rates among heterosexuals were calculated using surveillance data (cases attributable to heterosexual contact in the numerators and the heterosexual population size estimates in the denominators.Adult and adolescent heterosexuals comprised an estimated 86.7% (95% confidence interval: 84.1%-89.3% of the U.S. population. The estimate for males was 84.1% (CI: 81.2%-86.9% and for females was 89.4% (95% CI: 86.9%-91.8%. The HIV diagnosis rate for 2013 was 5.2 per 100,000 heterosexuals and the rate of persons living with diagnosed HIV infection in 2012 was 104 per 100,000 heterosexuals aged 13 years or older. Rates of HIV infection were >20 times as high among black heterosexuals compared to white heterosexuals, indicating considerable disparity. Rates among heterosexual men demonstrated higher disparities than overall population rates for men.The best available data must be used to guide decision-making for HIV prevention. HIV rates among heterosexuals in the U.S. are important additions to cost effectiveness and other data used to make critical decisions about resources for

  6. Type-specific human papillomavirus infections among young heterosexual male and female STI clinic attendees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Henrike J; Boot, Hein J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Rossen, John

    BACKGROUND: Baseline genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence rates and associated risk factors per gender enable future assessment of the impact of vaccination on HPV dynamics. METHODS: Before the start of national HPV vaccination for girls, data were collected cross-sectionally in

  7. Effect of age-difference between heterosexual partners on risk of cervical cancer and human papillomavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Baussano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age difference (Adiff within a heterosexual couple may influence a woman's risk of being HPV-positive and developing cervical cancer (CC. Methods: We assessed the relationship between Adiff within the first and current sexual partnership and risk of CC and HPV infection in 1495 cases and 1358 control women from 6 countries included in IARC's multicentric case-control study (median age: 48 years. Results: Large Adiff within the first partnerships was associated with increased CC risk (OR≥3 vs. ≤2 years=1.49, CI: 1.26–1.75; this association disappeared after correction for age at first sexual intercourse (OR=1.03, 0.86–1.24. The relationship between Adiff within the current partnership and HPV-positivity was opposite (OR≥3 vs. ≤2 years=0.59, 0.41–0.86 and not affected by adjustment for sexual confounding. The influences of Adiff on CC risk and HPV-positivity were consistent across age groups and countries. Conclusion: The association between CC risk and large Adiff in the first sexual partnership is mostly explained by young age at first intercourse. Conversely, the negative association between Adiff in current partnership and HPV-positivity is probably related to decreased infectiousness of the male partner with age. The study of Adiff in sexual partnerships helps elucidate HPV circulation in different populations. Keywords: Sexual behavior, Age-difference, Assortative mixing, Human papillomavirus (HPV, Cervical cancer

  8. Human lipodystrophies: genetic and acquired diseases of adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeau, Jacqueline; Magré, Jocelyne; Caron-Debarle, Martine; Lagathu, Claire; Antoine, Bénédicte; Béréziat, Véronique; Lascols, Olivier; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Vigouroux, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    Human lipodystrophies represent a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by generalized or partial fat loss, with fat hypertrophy in other depots when partial. Insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and diabetes are generally associated, leading to early complications. Genetic forms are uncommon: recessive generalized congenital lipodystrophies result in most cases from mutations in the genes encoding seipin or the 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase 2 (AGPAT2). Dominant partial familial lipodystrophies result from mutations in genes encoding the nuclear protein lamin A/C or the adipose transcription factor PPARγ. Importantly, lamin A/C mutations are also responsible for metabolic laminopathies, resembling the metabolic syndrome and progeria, a syndrome of premature aging. A number of lipodystrophic patients remain undiagnosed at the genetic level. Acquired lipodystrophy can be generalized, resembling congenital forms, or partial, as the Barraquer-Simons syndrome, with loss of fat in the upper part of the body contrasting with accumulation in the lower part. Although their aetiology is generally unknown, they could be associated with signs of auto-immunity. The most common forms of lipodystrophies are iatrogenic. In human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, some first generation antiretroviral drugs were strongly related with peripheral lipoatrophy and metabolic alterations. Partial lipodystrophy also characterize patients with endogenous or exogenous long-term corticoid excess. Treatment of fat redistribution can sometimes benefit from plastic surgery. Lipid and glucose alterations are difficult to control leading to early occurrence of diabetic, cardio-vascular and hepatic complications. PMID:20551664

  9. Anal high-risk human papillomavirus infection and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia detected in women and heterosexual men infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandra S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sumanth Gandra, Aline Azar, Mireya WessolosskyDivision of Infectious Disease and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: Although anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV infection and anal cytological abnormalities are highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM, there are insufficient data on these abnormalities among HIV-infected heterosexual men (HSM and women. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of anal HR-HPV, cytological abnormalities, and performance of these screening tests in detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2+ among our cohort of HIV-infected MSM and non-MSM (HSM and women.Methods: A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted with HIV-infected individuals who underwent anal cancer screening with anal cytology and HR-HPV testing from January 2011 to January 31, 2013.Results: Screening of 221 HIV-infected individuals for both HR-HPV and anal cytology showed the presence of HR-HPV in 54% (abnormal anal cytology 48% of MSM, 28% (abnormal anal cytology 28% of HSM, and 27% (abnormal anal cytology 34% of women. Among 117 (53% individuals with abnormal results (HR-HPV-positive and/or cytology was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or above, 67 underwent high resolution anoscopy. Of these 67 individuals, 22 individuals had AIN2+ (17 MSM, four women, and one HSM. HR-HPV correlated better with AIN2+ than with anal cytology on biopsy in both MSM (r=0.29 versus r=0.10; P=0.05 versus P=0.49 and non-MSM (r=0.36 versus r=-0.34; P=0.08 versus P=0.09.Conclusion: Given the presence of AIN2+ in screened HIV-infected HSM and women, routine anal cancer screening in all HIV-infected individuals should be considered. HR-HPV merits further evaluation for anal cancer screening among non-MSM.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, anal human papillomavirus, heterosexual men, women, anal cancer

  10. Autoimmunity and dysmetabolism of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Mei; Hong, Xue-Zhi; Xu, Jia-Hua; Luo, Jiang-Xi; Mo, Han-You; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-06-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains ill-defined by lists of symptoms, infections, tumors, and disorders in metabolism and immunity. Low CD4 cell count, severe loss of body weight, pneumocystis pneumonia, and Kaposi's sarcoma are the major disease indicators. Lines of evidence indicate that patients living with AIDS have both immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. Immunodeficiency is attributed to deficits in the skin- and mucosa-defined innate immunity, CD4 T cells and regulatory T cells, presumably relating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The autoimmunity in AIDS is evident by: (1) overproduction of autoantibodies, (2) impaired response of CD4 cells and CD8 cells, (3) failure of clinical trials of HIV vaccines, and (4) therapeutic benefits of immunosuppression following solid organ transplantation and bone marrow transplantation in patients at risk of AIDS. Autoantibodies are generated in response to antigens such as debris and molecules de novo released from dead cells, infectious agents, and catabolic events. Disturbances in metabolic homeostasis occur at the interface of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in the development of AIDS. Optimal treatments favor therapeutics targeting on the regulation of metabolism to restore immune homeostasis.

  11. Effect of age-difference between heterosexual partners on risk of cervical cancer and human papillomavirus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Baussano, Iacopo; Diaz, Mireia; Tully, Stephen; Muñoz, Nubia; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F. Xavier; Franceschi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Age difference (Adiff) within a heterosexual couple may influence a woman's risk of being HPV-positive and developing cervical cancer (CC). Methods: We assessed the relationship between Adiff within the first and current sexual partnership and risk of CC and HPV infection in 1495 cases and 1358 control women from 6 countries included in IARC's multicentric case-control study (median age: 48 years). Results: Large Adiff within the first partnerships was associated with increased CC...

  12. RF Device for Acquiring Images of the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, Todd C.; McGrath, William R.

    2010-01-01

    A safe, non-invasive method for forming images through clothing of large groups of people, in order to search for concealed weapons either made of metal or not, has been developed. A millimeter wavelength scanner designed in a unique, ring-shaped configuration can obtain a full 360 image of the body with a resolution of less than a millimeter in only a few seconds. Millimeter waves readily penetrate normal clothing, but are highly reflected by the human body and concealed objects. Millimeter wave signals are nonionizing and are harmless to human tissues when used at low power levels. The imager (see figure) consists of a thin base that supports a small-diameter vertical post about 7 ft (=2.13 m) tall. Attached to the post is a square-shaped ring 2 in. (=5 cm) wide and 3 ft (=91 cm) on a side. The ring is oriented horizontally, and is supported halfway along one side by a connection to a linear bearing on the vertical post. A planar RF circuit board is mounted to the inside of each side of the ring. Each circuit board contains an array of 30 receivers, one transmitter, and digitization electronics. Each array element has a printed-circuit patch antenna coupled to a pair of mixers by a 90 coupler. The mixers receive a reference local oscillator signal to a subharmonic of the transmitter frequency. A single local oscillator line feeds all 30 receivers on the board. The resulting MHz IF signals are amplified and carried to the edge of the board where they are demodulated and digitized. The transmitted signal is derived from the local oscillator at a frequency offset determined by a crystal oscillator. One antenna centrally located on each side of the square ring provides the source illumination power. The total transmitted power is less than 100 mW, resulting in an exposure level that is completely safe to humans. The output signals from all four circuit boards are fed via serial connection to a data processing computer. The computer processes the approximately 1-MB

  13. Are transvestites necessarily heterosexual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, B; Bullough, V

    1997-02-01

    A survey of 372 male cross-dressers gathered data about present and childhood experiences and attitudes in light of the growing knowledge about transvestism. This article focuses on data related to sexual orientation, particularly in relationship to the definition of transvestism in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association. It is argued that transvestism is not necessarily a heterosexual phenomenon.

  14. Effect of human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection on sperm quality in young heterosexual men with chronic prostatitis-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tommaso; Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Mondaini, Nicola; D'Elia, Carolina; Meacci, Francesca; Migno, Serena; Malossini, Gianni; Mazzoli, Sandra; Bartoletti, Riccardo

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) co-infection on sperm concentration, motility and morphology, in a large cohort of young heterosexual male patients with chronic prostatitis-related symptoms. Patients with chronic prostatitis-related symptoms, attending the same centre for sexually transmitted diseases from January 2005 and December 2010, were consecutively enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All patients underwent clinical and instrumental examination, microbiological cultures for common bacteria, DNA extraction, mucosal and serum antibodies evaluation for Ct, specific tests for HPV and semen analysis. The semen variables analysed were: volume; pH; sperm concentration; motility; and morphology. Subjects were subdivided in two groups: group A, patients with Ct infection alone and group B, patients with Ct and HPV co-infection. The main outcome measurement was the effect of Ct and HPV co-infection on the semen variables examined. Of 3050 screened patients, 1003 were enrolled (32.9%) in the study. A total of 716 (71.3%) patients were allocated to group A, and 287 (28.7%) to group B. Significant differences between the two groups were reported in terms of percentage of motile sperm (degrees of freedom [df] = 1001; t-test = 11.85; P prostatitis-related symptoms attributable to Ct infection, co-infection with HPV has a significant role in decreasing male fertility, in particular with regard to sperm motility and morphology. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  15. Presentation and outcome amongst older Singaporeans living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): does age alone drive excess mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggan, Paul J; Foo, Rui Min; Olszyna, Dariusz; Chew, Nicholas S; Smitasen, Nares; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Archuleta, Sophia

    2012-12-01

    There is little detailed information on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) amongst older adults in Singapore. A retrospective study of 121 consecutive referrals of patients presenting for HIV care was conducted. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were collected. A prognostic model derived from the North American Veterans' Affairs Cohort Study (VACS) was used to estimate prognosis. The median age at presentation was 43 (range, 18 to 76). Thirty-eight patients (31%) were aged 50 or older and 106 patients (88%) were male. Older patients were more likely to be of Chinese ethnicity (P = 0.035), married (P = 0.0001), unemployed or retired (P = 0.0001), and to have acquired their infection heterosexually (P = 0.0002). The majority of patients in both groups were symptomatic at presentation. Eighty-one (67%) had CD4 counts less than 200 at baseline with no observable differences in HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) or clinical stage based on age. Non-Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) morbidity was observed more frequently amongst older patients. The estimated prognosis of patients differed significantly based on age. Using the VACS Index and comparing younger patients with those aged 50 and above, mean 5 year mortality estimates were 25% and 50% respectively (P HIV/AIDS cases and present with more non-AIDS morbidity. This confers a poor prognosis despite comparable findings with younger patients in terms of clinical stage, AIDS-defining illness, CD4 count and HIV viral load.

  16. [Characteristics of non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission of HIV infection in Miao-Dong Autonomous prefecture of Qiandongnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q Y; Wang, F L; Xu, P; Wen, H J; Xiong, Y X; Yang, J; Long, Y; He, H J; Shi, J; Lyu, P

    2017-11-06

    Objective: The goal of this research was to understand the demographic distribution and related factors of non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission (non-commercial transmission) for HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Methods: Data related to HIV/AIDS infected by non-marital heterosexual transmission and whose present address was in Qian Dongnan, were collected from Information System on the HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control. Information included demographic characteristics, the members of non-marital sex partners, transmission path, detection source, CD4(+)T lymphocyte level, et al. cases belong to homosexual history, injective drug use or non-classified non-marital heterosexuality transmission were excluded, totally collect HIV/AIDS 919 cases. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze potential factors associated with non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission. In addition, in March and June 2017, using a convenience sampling, we conducted one-to-one interviews among 10 HIV/AIDS who were infected by non-marital heterosexuality and had non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual experience in Kaili Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The content of the interview included basic information, sexual orientation, the main place of making friends and sexual behavior, attitude to commercial heterosexuality and non-martial and non-commercial heterosexuality and so on. Results: Out of the 919 cases, 645 (70.2%) were male, the proportion of non-commercial transmission was 55.06% (506). The proportion of female HIV/AIDS with non-commercial transmission was 84.7% (232), which was higher than male (42.5%(274)) (χ(2)=138.35, Pcommercial transmission was 61.5% (275), which was higher than other religion (52.2%(412)) (χ(2)=6.32, P= 0.012). The proportion of HIV/AIDS with non-commercial transmission who had 0-5 non-marital sexual partners was 58.8% (498), which was higher than who had>5 non

  17. AKT-mediated enhanced aerobic glycolysis causes acquired radioresistance by human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Noma, Naoto; Sano, Yui; Ochiai, Yasushi; Oikawa, Toshiyuki; Fukumoto, Manabu; Kunugita, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Cellular radioresistance is a major impediment to effective radiotherapy. Here, we demonstrated that long-term exposure to fractionated radiation conferred acquired radioresistance to tumor cells due to AKT-mediated enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Material and methods: Two human tumor cell lines with acquired radioresistance were established by long-term exposure to fractionated radiation with 0.5 Gy of X-rays. Glucose uptake was inhibited using 2-deoxy-D-glucose, a non-metabolizable glucose analog. Aerobic glycolysis was assessed by measuring lactate concentrations. Cells were then used for assays of ROS generation, survival, and cell death as assessed by annexin V staining. Results: Enhanced aerobic glycolysis was shown by increased glucose transporter Glut1 expression and a high lactate production rate in acquired radioresistant cells compared with parental cells. Inhibiting the AKT pathway using the AKT inhibitor API-2 abrogated these phenomena. Moreover, we found that inhibiting glycolysis with 2-deoxy-D-glucose suppressed acquired tumor cell radioresistance. Conclusions: Long-term fractionated radiation confers acquired radioresistance to tumor cells by AKT-mediated alterations in their glucose metabolic pathway. Thus, tumor cell metabolic pathway is an attractive target to eliminate radioresistant cells and improve radiotherapy efficacy

  18. The estimated lifetime probability of acquiring human papillomavirus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Dunne, Eileen F; Hariri, Susan; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2014-11-01

    Estimates of the lifetime probability of acquiring human papillomavirus (HPV) can help to quantify HPV incidence, illustrate how common HPV infection is, and highlight the importance of HPV vaccination. We developed a simple model, based primarily on the distribution of lifetime numbers of sex partners across the population and the per-partnership probability of acquiring HPV, to estimate the lifetime probability of acquiring HPV in the United States in the time frame before HPV vaccine availability. We estimated the average lifetime probability of acquiring HPV among those with at least 1 opposite sex partner to be 84.6% (range, 53.6%-95.0%) for women and 91.3% (range, 69.5%-97.7%) for men. Under base case assumptions, more than 80% of women and men acquire HPV by age 45 years. Our results are consistent with estimates in the existing literature suggesting a high lifetime probability of HPV acquisition and are supported by cohort studies showing high cumulative HPV incidence over a relatively short period, such as 3 to 5 years.

  19. What are the factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection screening behaviour among heterosexual men patronising entertainment establishments who engaged in casual or paid sex? - Results from a cross-sectional survey in an Asian urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Tham, Dede Kam Tyng; Cheung, Olive N Y; Tai, Bee Choo; Chan, Roy; Wong, Mee Lian

    2016-12-19

    Late presentation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with heterosexual transmission, particularly among heterosexual men in Asia. Although data on HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing behaviour is increasing, information is still lacking among heterosexual men who receive far lesser attention and are generally invisible in HIV/ STI prevention, particularly in the Asian urban setting. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HIV/STI testing among heterosexual men patronising entertainment establishments (EEs) who engaged in casual or paid sex in Singapore, and the factors associated with this behaviour. This was a cross-sectional survey involving 604 participants using time location sampling between March and May 2015. For multivariable analysis, we used a mixed effects Poisson regression model with backward stepwise approach to account for clustering by venue and to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) for the association of various factors with HIV/STI testing. Among 604 at-risk participants, only 163 (27.0%) had gone for HIV or STI testing in the past 6 months. Of this, 83.4% of them specifically underwent HIV testing. In multivariable analysis, HIV/STI testing increased with being non-Chinese (aPR 1.50; 95% CI: 1.08-2.06), having engaged in anal sex with casual or paid partner in the past 6 months (aPR 1.80; 95% CI: 1.27-2.57), number of partners in the past 6 months (aPR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) and HIV knowledge score (aPR 1.11; 95% CI: 1.05-1.16). Among those who reported non-consistent condom use with casual or paid partner, almost half of them (47.9%) perceived that they were at low risk for HIV/STI. Sigmatisation and discrimination was another common barrier for non-testing. Despite being at risk of HIV/STI, the low prevalence of testing coupled with a high prevalence of risky sexual behaviour among this group of heterosexual men in Singapore calls for a need for HIV/STI prevention interventions in the EE

  20. Langerhans cell precursors acquire RANK/CD265 in prenatal human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöppl, Alice; Botta, Albert; Prior, Marion; Akgün, Johnnie; Schuster, Christopher; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2015-01-01

    The skin is the first barrier against foreign pathogens and the prenatal formation of a strong network of various innate and adaptive cells is required to protect the newborn from perinatal infections. While many studies about the immune system in healthy and diseased adult human skin exist, our knowledge about the cutaneous prenatal/developing immune system and especially about the phenotype and function of antigen-presenting cells such as epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) in human skin is still scarce. It has been shown previously that LCs in healthy adult human skin express receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), an important molecule prolonging their survival. In this study, we investigated at which developmental stage LCs acquire this important molecule. Immunofluorescence double-labeling of cryostat sections revealed that LC precursors in prenatal human skin either do not yet [10-11 weeks of estimated gestational age (EGA)] or only faintly (13-15 weeks EGA) express RANK. LCs express RANK at levels comparable to adult LCs by the end of the second trimester. Comparable with adult skin, dermal antigen-presenting cells at no gestational age express this marker. These findings indicate that epidermal leukocytes gradually acquire RANK during gestation - a phenomenon previously observed also for other markers on LCs in prenatal human skin. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  1. Youth masculinities: compelling male heterosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane

    2010-12-01

    This article seeks to extend understandings of heterosexual masculine identities through an examination of young men's constructions of what motivates young men to engage in heterosexual practices and relationships, and what not having sex might mean for them. Using the masculinity literature and work on heterosexuality to frame the discussion and to contextualize the findings, it explores the complex dynamics that frame the relationship between masculinity and heterosexuality. Specifically, how dominant or 'hegemonic' discourses of heterosexuality shape young men's identities, beliefs and behaviour. It considers these questions using empirical data from a qualitative study of young people living in close-knit working-class communities in the North East of England, with a specific focus on cultural and social attitudes towards sexuality and sexual practices. Peer group networks are a key site for the construction and (re)production of masculinity and, therefore, an important arena within which gendered social approval and acceptance is both sought and gained. In this article, I explore the reasons why young men engage in specific types of heterosexual practice in order to gain social approval. A central question is the extent to which heterosexuality is compelling for young men. That young men do feel compelled to behave in certain ways sexually, behaviours that they may be uncomfortable with and/or dislike, and the fact that they feel they are restricted in terms of how they can talk about their experiences within their peer group networks, demonstrates the power of dominant discourses of masculinity in everyday life. This is addressed through an examination of the restrictive effects of normative discourses about male heterosexuality, including their privatizing effects, which suggest that youth masculinities are often experienced in ways that are highly contradictory requiring young men to adopt a range of strategies to deal with this.

  2. Human neutrophil peptides and complement factor Bb in pathogenesis of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenjing; Pham, Huy P; Williams, Lance A; McDaniel, Jenny; Siniard, Rance C; Lorenz, Robin G; Marques, Marisa B; Zheng, X Long

    2016-11-01

    Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is primarily caused by the deficiency of plasma ADAMTS13 activity resulting from autoantibodies against ADAMTS13. However, ADAMTS13 deficiency alone is often not sufficient to cause acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Infections or systemic inflammation may precede acute bursts of the disease, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Herein, 52 patients with acquired autoimmune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and 30 blood donor controls were recruited for the study. The plasma levels of human neutrophil peptides 1-3 and complement activation fragments (i.e. Bb, iC3b, C4d, and sC5b-9) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Univariate analyses were performed to determine the correlation between each biomarker and clinical outcomes. We found that the plasma levels of human neutrophil peptides 1-3 and Bb in patients with acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura were significantly higher than those in the control (Ppurpura patients and the control. We conclude that innate immunity, i.e. neutrophil and complement activation via the alternative pathway, may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute autoimmune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, and a therapy targeted at these pathways may be considered in a subset of these patients. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  3. Knowledge, attitude, and perception of disease among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome: A study from a tertiary care center in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K; Chauahn, Pushpinder S; Mehta, Karainder S; Rawat, Ritu; Shiny, T N

    2016-01-01

    Although modification of behavioral practices among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected patients is important in decreasing HIV disease transmission, the knowledge, attitude, and perception studies about HIV infection rarely include persons living with HIV/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS). To assess knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of persons living with HIV/AIDS for the disease and other epidemiological aspects. One-hundred and fifty consecutive persons living with HIV/AIDS were enrolled for this questionnaire-based cross-sectional, descriptive study. These 150 patients comprised 93 men and 57 women, aged between 14 and 78 (mean 37.13) years. The majority, 112 (74.67%) patients were between 20 and 50 years of age and 116 (77.3%) patients were either illiterate or high-school dropouts. Drivers, laborers, and self-employed comprised 69 (74.2%) patients among affected males. Only 129 (86%) respondents had heard about HIV/AIDS and knew about its heterosexual transmission. Ninety-eight (65.3%) respondents were aware of disease transmission from infected blood or needle pricks. Interestingly, 106 (70.7%) respondents were aware of the importance of using condom in preventing disease transmission. Television/radio was the most common sources of information for 135 (90%) patients. Nearly, 69% respondents disfavored disclosing their disease to friends/colleagues fearing stigmatization. Information, education, and communication activities are imperative to educate persons living with HIV/AIDS about life-long nature of the disease, modes of its transmission, and significance of preventive measures to bridge the gaps in their knowledge. While improvement in individual economic status, education, and health services remains highly desirable, mass media can play a pivotal role in creating awareness among masses.

  4. Human papillomavirus-associated cancers as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defining illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahabi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control currently report cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal and some head and neck cancers as human papillomavirus (HPV-associated cancers. Only cervical cancer is listed amongst acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS defining illnesses. All of these cancers may represent progression of the immunocompromised state with the inability to eradicate viral infection. This study reports the case of a 27-year old HIV positive female presenting with a persistent right vulvar exophytic lesion. High-risk HPV analysis and immunostaining for P16 were both positive. A biopsy of the lesion revealed invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent neoadjuvant radiation and chemotherapy followed by a radical vulvectomy. During treatment, her CD4 T-lymphocyte count decreased to 120 advancing her condition from HIV to AIDS. This case suggests that all HPV-associated cancers should be included as AIDS defining illnesses.

  5. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Concepción; Castillo-Álvarez, Federico; Azcona-Gutiérrez, José M; Herraiz, María J; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

    2015-05-01

    Neurological complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are still common, even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections, immune reconstitution, the virus itself, antiretroviral drugs and neurocognitive disorders have to be considered when establishing the differential diagnosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis remains the major cause of space-occupying lesions in the brain of patients with HIV/AIDS; however, spinal cord involvement has been reported infrequently. Here, we review spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection and illustrate the condition with a recent case from our hospital. We suggest that most patients with HIV/AIDS and myelitis with enhanced spine lesions, multiple brain lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii should receive immediate empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis, and a biopsy should be performed in those cases without clinical improvement or with deterioration.

  6. Radiation response of human lung cancer cells with inherent and acquired resistance to cisplatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twentyman, P.R.; Wright, K.A.; Rhodes, T.

    1991-01-01

    We have derived sublines of three human lung cancer cell lines with acquired resistance to cisplatin. The cisplatin resistant sublines of NCI-H69 (small cell), COR-L23 (large cell), and MOR (adenocarcinoma) show 5.3 fold, 3.1 fold, and 3.8 fold resistance, respectively, determined in a 6-day MTT assay. Although the parent lines show a wide range of glutathione content per cell, the sublines each show similar values to their corresponding parent line. Radiation response curves have been obtained using a soft agar clonogenic assay. Values obtained for the parent lines (95% CL in parentheses) were: NCI-H69: Do = 0.99 Gy (0.87-1.16), n = 2.9 (1.6-5.2), GSH = 14 ng/10(4) cells; COR-L23: Do = 1.23 Gy (1.05-1.49), n = 1.3 (0.7-2.2), GSH = 47 ng/10(4) cells; MOR: Do = 1.66 Gy (1.48-1.88), n = 3.0 (1.9-4.8), GSH = 86 ng/10(4) cells. The cisplatin resistant variants of NCI-H69 and COR-L23 showed 31% and 63% increases, respectively, in Do compared to their parent lines, whereas no change in radiation response was seen in MOR. In this panel of lines, therefore, although there is a correlation between glutathione content and radiosensitivity of the parent cell lines, acquired resistance to cisplatin is not accompanied by increased glutathione content. However, two of the three cisplatin resistant lines do show a significantly reduced radiosensitivity

  7. Use of etanercept in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Patricia T; Koo, John Y

    2006-06-01

    Etanercept (Enbrel, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA), a soluble p75 tumor necrosis factor receptor:FC (TNFR:FC) fusion protein for plasma cytokines, specifically tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), is used in the treatment of immune-mediated rheumatic diseases. To our knowledge, the use of etanercept in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is relatively uncommon. The main purpose of this short review is to examine the safety of etanercept in patients with HIV/AIDS. A Medline search was conducted using the keywords etanercept and HIV and/or AIDS for any published articles between 1966 to the present (September 2004). A case report, one case series, and one clinical trial pertained to the use of etanercept in HIV patients. No reports were found on the use of etanercept in AIDS. In addition, two case reports were found documenting the use of infliximab in HIV patients. Preliminary reports indicate that the administration of etanercept does not appear to increase the morbidity or mortality rates in HIV. The inhibition of TNF-alpha may actually improve the symptoms of HIV/AIDS-associated aphthous ulcers, cachexia, dementia, fatigue, and fever, as well as help manage concomitant rheumatic diseases and psoriasis. The use of etanercept shows promise for applications in disease management in patients with HIV/AIDS. Continued research efforts are necessary to establish the long-term safety and efficacy of etanercept and other biologic agents in this patient population.

  8. Sexual violence victimization history and sexual risk indicators in a community-based urban cohort of "mostly heterosexual" and heterosexual young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Roberts, Andrea L; Corliss, Heather L; Molnar, Beth E

    2008-06-01

    We sought to examine sexual violence victimization in childhood and sexual risk indicators in young adulthood in a primarily Latina and Black cohort of "mostly heterosexual" and heterosexual women in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). In 2000, a comprehensive survey that assessed sexual orientation, sexual risk indicators, and sexual abuse victimization was completed by 391 young women (aged 18 to 24 years) who had participated in PHDCN. We used multivariable regression methods to examine sexual orientation group differences in sexual risk indicators and to assess whether childhood sexual abuse may mediate relationships. Compared with self-reported heterosexual women, self-reported "mostly heterosexual" women were more likely to report having been the victim of childhood sexual abuse, to have had a sexually transmitted infection, to report an earlier age of first sexual intercourse, and to have had more sexual partners. Childhood sexual abuse did not mediate relationships between sexual orientation and sexual risk indicators. Our findings add to the evidence that "mostly heterosexual" women experience greater health risk than do heterosexual women. In addition, "mostly heterosexual" women are at high risk for having experienced childhood sexual abuse.

  9. Three Co-Existing Sexually Transmitted Diseases in a Heterosexual Male Youth: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theetat M. Surawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Most sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are asymptomatic, leading to widespread underdiagnoses estimated at 50% or higher. The presence of one STD significantly indicates an individual’s sexual health risk since an STD contributes to the transmission and acquisition of other STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Multiple co-existing STDs, thus, further increase the susceptibility of acquiring and transmitting HIV by twofold or more. Therefore, the comprehensive STD prevention strategies play a major role in reducing the transmission of HIV infection. We report an interesting case of a heterosexual male youth who presented at dermatology clinic with three concurrent sexually transmitted diseases: gonococcal urethritis, genital wart, and late latent syphilis. The case demonstrated significant issues for appropriate approaches and management of multiple co-existing STDs. Also, it reinforced the necessity for STD counselling for the patient, his partners, and family.

  10. Chest radiography patterns in 75 adolescents with vertically-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, S.R.; Copley, S.J.; Barker, R.D.; Elston, C.M.; Miller, R.F.; Wells, A.U.; Munyati, S.; Nathoo, K.; Corbett, E.L.; Ferrand, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate lung disease on chest radiography (CR), the relative frequency of CR abnormalities, and their clinical correlates in adolescents with vertically-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Materials and methods: CRs of 75 patients [59 inpatients (33 males; mean age 13.7 ± 2.3 years) and 16 outpatients (eight males; mean age 14.1 ± 2.1 years)] were retrospectively reviewed by three independent observers. The overall extent of disease (to the nearest 5%), its distribution, and the proportional extents (totalling 100%) of different radiographic patterns (including ring/tramline opacities and consolidation) were quantified. CR features and clinical data were compared. Results: CRs were abnormal in 51/75 (68%) with 'extensive' disease in 38/51 (74%). Ring/tramline opacities and consolidation predominated (i.e., proportional extent >50%) in 26 and 21 patients, respectively. Consolidation was significantly more common in patients hospitalized primarily for a respiratory illness than patients hospitalized for a non-respiratory illness or in outpatients (p 2 for trend); by contrast, ring/tramline opacities did not differ in prevalence across the groups. On stepwise logistic regression, predominant consolidation was associated with progressive dyspnoea [odds ratio (OR) 5.60; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.60, 20.1; p < 0.01] and was associated with a primary respiratory cause for hospital admission (OR: 22.0; CI: 2.7, 181.1; p < 0.005). Ring/tramline opacities were equally prevalent in patients with and without chronic symptoms and in those admitted to hospital with respiratory and non-respiratory illness. Conclusion: In HIV-infected adolescents, evaluated in secondary practice, CR abnormalities are prevalent. The presence of ring/tramline opacities, believed to reflect chronic airway disease, is not linked chronic respiratory symptoms.

  11. Chest radiography patterns in 75 adolescents with vertically-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.R., E-mail: sujal.desai@nhs.ne [King' s College London, King' s Health Partners, Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Copley, S.J. [Department of Radiology, Hammersmith Hospital (United Kingdom); Barker, R.D.; Elston, C.M. [King' s College London, King' s Health Partners, Department of Respiratory Medicine, King' s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Miller, R.F. [Research Department of Infection and Public Health, Division of Population Health, University College London (United Kingdom); Clinical Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Wells, A.U. [The Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Munyati, S. [Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Samora Machel Avenue (Zimbabwe); Nathoo, K. [Department of Paediatrics, University of Zimbabwe (Zimbabwe); Harare Central Hospital, Lobengula Road, Harare (Zimbabwe); Corbett, E.L.; Ferrand, R.A. [Clinical Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Samora Machel Avenue (Zimbabwe)

    2011-03-15

    Aim: To evaluate lung disease on chest radiography (CR), the relative frequency of CR abnormalities, and their clinical correlates in adolescents with vertically-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Materials and methods: CRs of 75 patients [59 inpatients (33 males; mean age 13.7 {+-} 2.3 years) and 16 outpatients (eight males; mean age 14.1 {+-} 2.1 years)] were retrospectively reviewed by three independent observers. The overall extent of disease (to the nearest 5%), its distribution, and the proportional extents (totalling 100%) of different radiographic patterns (including ring/tramline opacities and consolidation) were quantified. CR features and clinical data were compared. Results: CRs were abnormal in 51/75 (68%) with 'extensive' disease in 38/51 (74%). Ring/tramline opacities and consolidation predominated (i.e., proportional extent >50%) in 26 and 21 patients, respectively. Consolidation was significantly more common in patients hospitalized primarily for a respiratory illness than patients hospitalized for a non-respiratory illness or in outpatients (p < 0.005, {chi}{sup 2} for trend); by contrast, ring/tramline opacities did not differ in prevalence across the groups. On stepwise logistic regression, predominant consolidation was associated with progressive dyspnoea [odds ratio (OR) 5.60; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.60, 20.1; p < 0.01] and was associated with a primary respiratory cause for hospital admission (OR: 22.0; CI: 2.7, 181.1; p < 0.005). Ring/tramline opacities were equally prevalent in patients with and without chronic symptoms and in those admitted to hospital with respiratory and non-respiratory illness. Conclusion: In HIV-infected adolescents, evaluated in secondary practice, CR abnormalities are prevalent. The presence of ring/tramline opacities, believed to reflect chronic airway disease, is not linked chronic respiratory symptoms.

  12. Science and ethics of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome controversies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, David

    2011-09-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in Africa has raised important ethical issues for both researchers and clinicians. The most notorious controversy has been related to the zidovudine (AZT) trials in Africa in the late 1990s, in which the control groups were given a placebo rather than an effective drug to prevent vertical transmission. This raised concerns in the sponsoring country about exploitation of subjects, injustice and an ethical double standard between donor countries and resource-poor settings. However, the real double standard is between clinical practice standards in Western versus African countries, which must be addressed as part of the increasing global inequity of wealth both between countries and also within countries. There are important limitations to ethical declarations, principles and guidelines on their own without contextual ethical reasoning. The focus on research ethics with the HIV epidemic has led to a relative neglect of ethical issues in clinical practice. Although the scientific advances in HIV/AIDS have changed the ethical issues since the 1990s, there has also been progress in the bioethics of HIV/AIDS in terms of ethical review capability by local committees as well as in exposure to ethical issues by clinicians and researchers in Africa. However, serious concerns remain about the overregulation of research by bureaucratic agencies which could discourage African research on specifically African health issues. There is also a need for African academic institutions and researchers to progressively improve their research capacity with the assistance of research funders and donor agencies. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Acquired Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis Associated with Human Papilloma Virus Type 14 in a Small Bowel Transplanted Child--A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, Derek; Tacastacas, Joselin; Rady, Peter L; Tyring, Stephen K; Cooper, Kevin; Honda, Kord

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old African American girl taking sirolimus and tacrolimus for a small bowel transplantation presented with hypopigmented macules and papules throughout her trunk. A biopsy diagnosed epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) that was found to be associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 14 according to polymerase chain reaction analysis. There are few cases of acquired EV in the setting of organ transplantation. Although there is no standardized treatment for acquired EV, prevention and surveillance for transformation to squamous cell carcinoma are primary concerns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Production of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus in human and nonhuman cells transfected with an infectious molecular clone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, A.; Gendelman, H.E.; Koenig, S.; Folks, T.; Willey, R.; Rabson, A.; Martin, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors considered an infectious molecular clone of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus. Upon transfection, this clone directed the production of infectious virus particles in a wide variety of cells in addition to human T4 cells. The progeny, infectious virions, were synthesized in mouse, mink, monkey, and several human non-T cell lines, indicating the absence of any intracellular obstacle to viral RNA or protein production or assembly. During the course of these studies, a human colon carcinoma cell line, exquisitely sensitive to DNA transfection, was identified

  15. Practicing vaginistic femininity: Doing bodies, enacting normative heterosexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Stelko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaginismus is a female sexual pain disorder, characterized by contractions of the pubococcygeus (PC muscle that surrounds the outer third of the vagina, which makes penetrative penile-vaginal intercourse (coitus, insertion of a finger or tampon and gynecological examinations hard or impossible, and painful for the woman. The condition is believed to be associated with negative beliefs, attitudes or experiences related to sex. Vaginismus has important social repercussions in everyday life, which acquire meaning in the context of hegemonic heterosexuality. In line with theories of performativity, heterosexuality and gender are normatively and performatively linked sets of practices, with coitus being the central practice of heterosexuality and thus defining for one’s gender. Thus, the inability of vaginistic women to perform coitus impairs their performance of normative heterogender. In this article I address gender experiences of women with primary vaginismus, by looking at social and bodily practices they engage in. In the first part of the article, I explore how women with primary vaginismus do (vaginistic heterogender. In the second part I address the practices they do in order to ‘overcome’ vaginismus, thus improving their performance of normative heterogender, and argue that these practices are gendering themselves.

  16. Immunochip analysis identifies novel susceptibility loci in the human leukocyte antigen region for acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, I; Ricaño-Ponce, I; Pappalardo, E; Cairo, A; Gorski, M M; Casoli, G; Ferrari, B; Alberti, M; Mikovic, D; Noris, M; Wijmenga, C; Peyvandi, F

    2016-12-01

    Essentials Genetic predisposition to acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP) is mainly unknown. Genetic risk factors for aTTP were studied by Immunochip analysis and replication study. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variant rs6903608 conferred a 2.5-fold higher risk of developing aTTP. rs6903608 and HLA-DQB1*05:03 may explain most of the HLA association signal in aTTP. Click to hear Dr Cataland's presentation on acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura SUMMARY: Background Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare, life-threatening thrombotic microangiopathy associated with the development of autoantibodies against the von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease ADAMTS-13. Similarly to what has been found for other autoimmune disorders, there is evidence of a genetic contribution, including the association of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II complex with disease risk. Objective To identify novel genetic risk factors in acquired TTP. Patients/Methods We undertook a case-control genetic association study in 190 European-origin TTP patients and 1255 Italian healthy controls by using the Illumina Immunochip. Replication analysis in 88 Italian cases and 456 controls was performed with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) TaqMan assays. Results and conclusion We identified one common variant (rs6903608) located within the HLA class II locus that was independently associated with acquired TTP at genome-wide significance and conferred a 2.6-fold increased risk of developing a TTP episode (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.02-3.27, P = 1.64 × 10 -14 ). We also found five non-HLA variants mapping to chromosomes 2, 6, 8 and X that were suggestively associated with the disease: rs9490550, rs115265285, rs5927472, rs7823314, and rs1334768 (nominal P-values ranging from 1.59 × 10 -5 to 7.60 × 10 -5 ). Replication analysis confirmed the association of HLA variant rs6903608 with acquired TTP (pooled P = 3.95 × 10 -19 ). Imputation of classic

  17. Gastric and Peritoneal Involvement of Human Herpes Virus 8 Related Kaposi Sarcoma in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Ribeiro Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma (KS is one of the most frequent neoplastic diseases in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The authors report the case of a 40-year-old male with ascites, peripheral edema and peritoneal carcinomatosis secondary to a gastric KS related to human herpes virus type 8 (HHV-8. The patient had severe immunodeficiency, with a TCD4+ count of 86 cells/µl and newly diagnosed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. His clinical condition rapidly deteriorated, with multiorgan failure, and he died without the possibility of initiating antiretroviral therapy or chemotherapy. To the authors’ knowledge, carcinomatosis is a rare feature in KS.

  18. Global dispersal pattern of HIV type 1 subtype CRF01-AE : A genetic trace of human mobility related to heterosexual sexual activities centralized in southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelis, Konstantinos; Albert, Jan; Mamais, Ioannis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Hatzakis, Angelos; Hamouda, Osamah; Struck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Alexiev, Ivailo; Åsjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Camacho, Ricardo J.; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Andrzej; Kostrikis, Leondios G.; Lepej, Snjezana; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Schmit, Jean Claude; Sönnerborg, Anders; Staneková, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Boucher, Charles A B; Kaplan, Lauren; Vandamme, Anne Mieke; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype CRF01-AE originated in Africa and then passed to Thailand, where it established a major epidemic. Despite the global presence of CRF01-AE, little is known about its subsequent dispersal pattern. Methods. We assembled a global data set

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Chlamydia/Gonorrhea Testing among Heterosexual College Students: Who Is Getting Tested and Why Do Some Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Erin W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study explored college students' reported history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and chlamydia/gonorrhea and characteristics of students reporting testing. Additionally, it assessed their motivation regarding future testing and reasons for lack of motivation. Participants: The sample consisted of 292 sexually experienced…

  20. A case of familial heterosexual transvestism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrich, N

    1977-03-01

    A brief review of the literature concerning familial transvestism is given. The case history of father-son heterosexual transvestism is presented. The son appears to have been ignorant of his father's transvestism. Early childhood experiences as an aetiological factor seem inadequate to explain the similarities of the two subjects' transvestite behaviour. It is suggested that constitutional factors play a part in the aetiology of heterosexual transvestism.

  1. Global Dispersal Pattern of HIV Type 1 Subtype CRF01_AE: A Genetic Trace of Human Mobility Related to Heterosexual Sexual Activities Centralized in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Konstantinos; Albert, Jan; Mamais, Ioannis; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Hatzakis, Angelos; Hamouda, Osamah; Struck, Daniel; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Alexiev, Ivailo; Åsjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Camacho, Ricardo J; Coughlan, Suzie; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Grossman, Zehava; Horban, Andrzej; Kostrikis, Leondios G; Lepej, Snjezana; Liitsola, Kirsi; Linka, Marek; Nielsen, Claus; Otelea, Dan; Paredes, Roger; Poljak, Mario; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Sönnerborg, Anders; Staneková, Danica; Stanojevic, Maja; Boucher, Charles A B; Kaplan, Lauren; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Paraskevis, Dimitrios

    2015-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype CRF01_AE originated in Africa and then passed to Thailand, where it established a major epidemic. Despite the global presence of CRF01_AE, little is known about its subsequent dispersal pattern. We assembled a global data set of 2736 CRF01_AE sequences by pooling sequences from public databases and patient-cohort studies. We estimated viral dispersal patterns, using statistical phylogeographic analysis run over bootstrap trees estimated by the maximum likelihood method. We show that Thailand has been the source of viral dispersal to most areas worldwide, including 17 of 20 sampled countries in Europe. Japan, Singapore, Vietnam, and other Asian countries have played a secondary role in the viral dissemination. In contrast, China and Taiwan have mainly imported strains from neighboring Asian countries, North America, and Africa without any significant viral exportation. The central role of Thailand in the global spread of CRF01_AE can be probably explained by the popularity of Thailand as a vacation destination characterized by sex tourism and by Thai emigration to the Western world. Our study highlights the unique case of CRF01_AE, the only globally distributed non-B clade whose global dispersal did not originate in Africa. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Association of lipidome remodeling in the adipocyte membrane with acquired obesity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi H Pietiläinen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of early mechanisms that may lead from obesity towards complications such as metabolic syndrome is of great interest. Here we performed lipidomic analyses of adipose tissue in twin pairs discordant for obesity but still metabolically compensated. In parallel we studied more evolved states of obesity by investigating a separated set of individuals considered to be morbidly obese. Despite lower dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, the obese twin individuals had increased proportions of palmitoleic and arachidonic acids in their adipose tissue, including increased levels of ethanolamine plasmalogens containing arachidonic acid. Information gathered from these experimental groups was used for molecular dynamics simulations of lipid bilayers combined with dependency network analysis of combined clinical, lipidomics, and gene expression data. The simulations suggested that the observed lipid remodeling maintains the biophysical properties of lipid membranes, at the price, however, of increasing their vulnerability to inflammation. Conversely, in morbidly obese subjects, the proportion of plasmalogens containing arachidonic acid in the adipose tissue was markedly decreased. We also show by in vitro Elovl6 knockdown that the lipid network regulating the observed remodeling may be amenable to genetic modulation. Together, our novel approach suggests a physiological mechanism by which adaptation of adipocyte membranes to adipose tissue expansion associates with positive energy balance, potentially leading to higher vulnerability to inflammation in acquired obesity. Further studies will be needed to determine the cause of this effect.

  3. Estimating Human Physical States from Chronological Gait Features Acquired with RFID Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro UEMURA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to estimate the state of the user to provide proactive hospitality from features of their gait pattern acquired with a Radio Frequency Identifier (RFID system. This method uses RFID readers on each shoe, as well as RFID tags installed on the floor. The ID of each tag is organized as a map, to show the precise position of the user. The reader and tags communicate while the user is walking. We extract feature components which represents gait patterns. Two-way ANOVA test and correlation analysis are conducted to find significant features. We classify the state of the user from these components with the Naȉve Bayes, the Support Vector Machine, and the Random Forest. Compared with each combination of the analysis and the machine learning method, the most efficient way is found to identify the state of the user. The experimental results show that different state of users can be classified appropriately. Finally, variable importance and the feasibility of proposed method are discussed to show potential implications of the proposed approach.

  4. The human microbiota: novel targets for hospital-acquired infections and antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Melinda M; Johnson, J Kristie; Harris, Anthony D

    2016-05-01

    Hospital-acquired infections are increasing in frequency due to multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs), and the spread of MDROs has eroded our ability to treat infections. Health care professionals cannot rely solely on traditional infection control measures and antimicrobial stewardship to prevent MDRO transmission. We review research on the microbiota as a target for infection control interventions. We performed a literature review of key research findings related to the microbiota as a target for infection control interventions. These data are summarized and used to outline challenges, opportunities, and unanswered questions in the field. The healthy microbiota provides protective functions including colonization resistance, which refers to the microbiota's ability to prevent colonization and/or expansion of pathogens. Antibiotic use and other exposures in hospitalized patients are associated with disruptions of the microbiota that may reduce colonization resistance and select for antibiotic resistance. Novel methods to exploit protective mechanisms provided by an intact microbiota may provide the key to preventing the spread of MDROs in the health care setting. Research on the microbiota as a target for infection control has been limited. Epidemiologic studies will facilitate progress toward the goal of manipulating the microbiota for control of MDROs in the health care setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethical Considerations in Mandatory Disclosure of Data Acquired While Caring for Human Trafficking Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Patrick L; Dash, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Accurate data on the prevalence and psychological effects of human trafficking as well as treatment outcomes for survivors are essential for measuring the impact of interventions and generating better understanding of this phenomenon. However, such data are difficult to obtain. A legal mandate for health care professionals to report trafficking opens opportunities for advancing our work in the field of human trafficking but also poses risks to survivors seeking services. In this article, we provide an analysis of some critical ethical considerations for the development and implementation of a mandatory reporting policy and offer recommendations for the ethical implementation of such a policy. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  6. HTLV-3 infection and AIDS: risk of spread by heterosexual contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, J

    1986-02-01

    This article reviews current research evidence on the natural history, epidemiology, and clinical features of acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS) and presents guidelines for controlling the sexual transmission of human lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) infection. The rapid spread of HTLV-III infection through homosexual communities in the US and Europe and its association with promiscuity initially obscured the fact that heterosexual transmission is also a significant risk factor for infection. Public health workers and epidemiologists are examining which sexual practices are most associated with the transmission of HTLV-III infection. Case-control studies in homosexuals have suggested that promiscuity, passive anal intercourse, and other sexual practices associated with rectal trauma and bleeding correlate with infection. Similar studies involving heterosexuals have not been conducted. However, the following guidelines have been proposed for couples where 1 partner has been found to be positive for HTLV-III antibodies: 1) sexual partners should be confined to established relationships; 2) anal intercourse should be avoided, even if the male uses a condom; 3) no oral contact with semen should occur; 4) if vaginal intercourse is practiced, the use of condom is essential; and 5) the only practices that are free from risk of infection are mutual masturbation and hand caresses. Since a high proportion of children of women with HTLV-III develop severe immunodeficiency, it is undesirable for women who are HTLV-III antibody positive to become pregnant. Furthermore, there is evidence that women who are HTLV-III antibody positive are more likely to develop AIDS if they become pregnant. A reliable method of permanent or reversible contraception is recommended for these women. Finally, men who are antibody positive should not donate sperm to a sperm bank.

  7. "Straight Talk" for African-American heterosexual men: results of a single-arm behavioral intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Henny, Kirk; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Bond, Keosha T; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Greene, Emily; Koblin, Beryl A

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, heterosexual transmission is the second leading cause of HIV/AIDS, and two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 occurred among African-Americans. Few HIV prevention interventions have been designed specifically for African-American heterosexual men not seeking clinical treatment. Here we report results of a single-arm intervention trial of a theory-based HIV prevention intervention designed to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. We tested our hypothesis using McNemar discordant pairs exact test for binary variables and paired t-tests for continuous variables. We observed statistically significant declines in mean number of total and new female partners, unprotected sex partners, and partner concurrency in both primary and nonprimary sex partnerships between baseline and 3 months postintervention.

  8. [Heterosexual transmission of HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulaud, J P

    1993-02-01

    The AIDS epidemic has spread rapidly in Africa among the urban impoverished where multiple sexual partners and sexually transmitted diseases are common. Over 80% of the 9 million Africans who will develop AIDS before the year 2000 will have been contaminated sexually. Poverty, multiple sexual partners in the framework of prostitution, and drug addiction are responsible for rapid spread of HIV infection in Southeast Asia, the West India, and Brazil. Drug addiction has played a major role in diffusion of HIV into the general population of Europe and the US. Prevalence rates are much higher in sexually transmitted disease centers in France and the US than among blood donors or pregnant women. Sexually transmitted diseases and heterosexual transmission have been studied in Africas since diagnostic tests became available. Several studies, the majority conducted among prostitutes in Nairobi or Kinshasa and their clients, allow establishment of a list of sexually transmitted diseases associated with increased risk of seroconversion. Genital ulcers within the past 6 months presented a relative risk of 2-4 depending on the series. Urethral or cervical gonorrhea has a lower relative risk of 1.2 in most studies. Absence of circumcision was also a risk factor. Studies were subsequently conducted in Europe on factors favoring sexual transmission. 513 heterosexual couples together for a minimum duration of 18 months and an average of 38 months were included in the Multicenter European Study conducted in 10 centers in 9 countries. The "index" subject was male in 400 cases and female in 113. At entry into the study, 73 of 400 males (18.2%) and 10 of 113 females (8.8%) had already infected their partners. Duration of union, frequency of intercourse, mode of transmission of the index subject, and oral contraceptive use had no effect on risk of transmission. Factors increasing risk of infection included the severity of immunosuppression of the index subject, whether judged by

  9. Acquiring Chondrocyte Phenotype from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells under Inflammatory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kondo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An inflammatory milieu breaks down the cartilage matrix and induces chondrocyte apoptosis, resulting in cartilage destruction in patients with cartilage degenerative diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Because of the limited regenerative ability of chondrocytes, defects in cartilage are irreversible and difficult to repair. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are expected to be a new tool for cartilage repair because they are present in the cartilage and are able to differentiate into multiple lineages of cells, including chondrocytes. Although clinical trials using MSCs for patients with cartilage defects have already begun, its efficacy and repair mechanisms remain unknown. A PubMed search conducted in October 2014 using the following medical subject headings (MeSH terms: mesenchymal stromal cells, chondrogenesis, and cytokines resulted in 204 articles. The titles and abstracts were screened and nine articles relevant to “inflammatory” cytokines and “human” MSCs were identified. Herein, we review the cell biology and mechanisms of chondrocyte phenotype acquisition from human MSCs in an inflammatory milieu and discuss the clinical potential of MSCs for cartilage repair.

  10. The consequences of the heterosexual norm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Johansson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Librarians may exclude people accidentally. This is so because there is a widespread use of classifications and subject headings reflecting the heterosexual norm. Critical classification theory tackles this norm for the reason that it affects the retrieval of gay literature. In order to allow a reconsideration of this exclusive practice in the LIS community I challenge two main questions: Firstly, how does the heterosexual norm appear in classification systems and subject headings lists? And secondly, what are the consequences of that practice for the retrieval of gay literature?This paper focuses on the professional practise in Swedish public libraries. If subject cataloguing prevents Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transgender (LGBT finding their literatures, then Swedish public libraries are upholders of the exclusive heterosexual norm in society.

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is highly associated with giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bei; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Jackson; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Liping; Wang, Liwei; Huang, Shaoping; Fan, Zhenyu; Zhang, Renfang; Shen, Yinzhong; Li, Lei; Liu, Baochi; Qi, Tangkai; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Jilin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exists in giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in the patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). 16 AIDS patients with a primary complaint of epigastric discomfort were examined by gastroscopy. Multiple and giant esophageal ulcers were biopsied and analyzed with pathology staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the potential pathogenic microorganisms, including HIV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV). HIV was detected in ulcer samples from 12 out of these 16 patients. Ulcers in 2 patients were infected with CMV and ulcers in another 2 patients were found HSV positive. No obvious cancerous pathological changes were found in these multiple giant esophageal ulcer specimens. HIV may be one of the major causative agents of multiple benign giant esophageal ulcers in AIDS patients.

  12. Non-Heterosexuality, Relationships, and Young Women's Contraceptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ela, Elizabeth J; Budnick, Jamie

    2017-06-01

    Non-heterosexual young women have a higher rate of unintended pregnancy than their heterosexual peers, but their fertility behaviors are understudied. We use longitudinal data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life study to investigate mechanisms contributing to non-heterosexual women's higher pregnancy risk. These data include weekly reports of relationships, sex, and contraceptive use over 30 months. We compare the relationships and fertility behaviors of three groups: exclusively heterosexual (consistent heterosexual behavior, identity, and attraction); mostly heterosexual (heterosexual identity with same-sex behavior and/or same-sex attraction); and LGBTQ (any non-heterosexual identity). We find that mostly heterosexual and LGBTQ women behave differently from exclusively heterosexual women in ways likely to elevate their risk of unintended pregnancy: more distinct partners during the study period, more sexual intercourse with men, less frequent contraceptive use, less use of a dual method (condom plus hormonal method), and more gaps in contraceptive coverage. Mostly heterosexual women resemble LGBTQ women in their contraceptive behavior but have significantly more intercourse with men, which may increase their pregnancy risk relative to both LGBTQ and exclusively heterosexual women. We conclude by considering implications for LGBTQ health and the measurement of sexual minority populations.

  13. Homotolerance and Heterosexuality as Norwegian Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothing, Ase; Svendsen, Stine Helena Bang

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research…

  14. Young Children, Gender and the Heterosexual Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paechter, Carrie

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I consider the adult focus of current mainstream gender theory. I relate this to how the concept of the heterosexual matrix originates in a social contract which excludes children from civil society. I argue that this exclusion is problematic both for theoretical reasons and from the perspective of children themselves. I start by…

  15. Conceptions of heterosexuality and attitudes toward non-heterosexuals of Psychology students from Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imhoff, Débora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the conceptions of heterosexuality of Psychology students at Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, and explores its associations with attitudes towards homosexuality. An exploratory research design was conducted, mixing qualitative and quantitative approaches, with a non probabilistic sample, 89 students (64 of the initial section of the career and 25 of the final section. Students answered a written self-report about the question: "Heterosexuality, is it natural? Why?". Seven types of conceptions of heterosexuality were identified, four of them based on essentialists views, and three presented socio-constructionist arguments. Data suggests an association between negative attitudes toward homosexuals and essentialists conceptions of heterosexuality, especially in lower grades students. This study generated questions and reflections about future therapist sexualities and gender-blind training.

  16. The legacy of medicalising ‘homosexuality’: A discussion on the historical effects of non-heterosexual diagnostic classifications

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Joël Raymond; Holland, Elise

    2015-01-01

    The classification of non-heterosexuality has changed considerably over the past century. Once considered as medical conditions attracting legal complications and serious social stigma, expressions of non-heterosexuality are now broadly considered to be normal variations of human sexuality. The historical inclusion of homosexuality in the psychiatric literature may still have implications for how sexual orientation is viewed today, including the ongoing treatment of homosexuality as an illnes...

  17. Acquired neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Trocello, Jean-Marc; Kubis, Nathalie

    2013-09-01

    Acquired neuropathies represent most of the neuropathies encountered in clinical practice. Hundreds of causes have been identified even though up to 41% of patients are still classified as idiopathic (Rajabally and Shah in J Neurol 258:1431-1436, 1). Routine evaluation relies on comprehensive medical history taking, clinical examination, nerve conduction studies and laboratory tests. Other investigations such as nerve biopsy or nerve or muscle imaging are performed in specific settings. This review focuses on recent advances in acquired neuropathies.

  18. Straight talk: HIV prevention for African-American heterosexual men: theoretical bases and intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A

    2012-10-01

    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired HIV/AIDS cases between 2005 and 2008. Few demonstrated efficacious HIV prevention interventions designed specifically for adult, African-American heterosexual men exist. Here, we describe the process used to design a theory-based HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering, and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. The intervention integrated empowerment, social identity, and rational choices theories and focused on four major content areas: HIV/AIDS testing and education; condom skills training; key relational and behavioral turning points; and masculinity and fatherhood.

  19. Behavioral surveillance survey regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among high school and junior college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhosale S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: It is necessary to know the baseline knowledge, attitude, and practices about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among young people and the changes in these with intervention to guide prevention efforts. Methods: A cross-sectional pre- and post-survey with health education as a method of intervention was carried out in four different randomly selected schools and junior colleges among the Class IX-XII students of both sex. Instrument developed by the World Health Organization (WHO/UNAIDS in their best practice recommendations was used for data collection. Results: Knowledge about all correct methods was present in 61.23% of the respondents. Knowledge of at least two methods of prevention was present in 70.31% of the respondents. Misconceptions about prevention were that good diet (33.42%, avoiding mosquito bite (49.71% and avoiding public toilets (65.14% could help in the prevention. With intervention, there was an improvement in the knowledge. However, the proportion of students with misconceptions did not come down. Correct knowledge about two methods of prevention also did not reach the WHO recommendation of 90%. Conclusion: It is very difficult to change the attitude and practices by a single health educational intervention and an ongoing behavior change communication is recommended.

  20. The human immunodeficiency virus preventive vaccine research at the French National Agency for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fischer

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic is of unprecedented gravity and is spreading rapidly, notably in the most disadvantaged regions of the world. The search for a preventive vaccine is thus an absolute priority. For over 10 years the French National Agency for AIDS research (ANRS has been committed to an original program combining basic science and clinical research. The HIV preventive vaccine research program run by the ANRS covers upstream research for the definition of immunogens, animal models, and clinical research to evaluate candidate vaccines. Most researchers in 2004 believe that it should be possible to obtain partial vaccine protection through the induction of a strong and multiepitopic cellular response. Since 1992, the ANRS has set up 15 phases I and II clinical trials in order to evaluate the safety and the capacity of the candidate vaccines for inducing cellular immune responses. The tested candidate vaccines were increasingly complex recombinant canarypox viruses (Alvac containing sequences coding for certain viral proteins, utilized alone or combined with other immunogens (whole or truncated envelope proteins. ANRS has also been developing an original strategy based on the utilization of lipopeptides. These comprise synthetic fragments of viral proteins associated with lipids that facilitate the induction of a cellular immune response. These approaches promptly allowed the assessment of a prime-boost strategy combining a viral vector and lipopeptides.

  1. New clinical and histological patterns of acute disseminated histoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollague Sierra, Jose E; Ollague Torres, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Histoplasmosis has attained increasing relevance in the past 3 decades because of the appearance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In most immunocompetent persons, the infection is asymptomatic or can produce a respiratory condition with symptoms and radiological images similar to those observed in pulmonary tuberculosis; in non-HIV+ immunocompromised patients, it can cause respiratory symptoms or evolve into a disseminated infection. The same can occur in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. We have observed a series of HIV+ patients with AIDS who presented with cutaneous histoplasmosis and in whom the clinical and histopathological features were highly unusual, including variable mucocutaneous lesions that were difficult to diagnose clinically. These patients displayed unusual, previously undescribed, histological patterns, including lichenoid pattern, nodular pseudomyxoid pattern, pyogenic granuloma-like pattern, perifollicular pattern, and superficial (S), mid (M), and deep perivascular dermatitis; and more commonly encountered patterns, such as histiocytic lobular panniculitis and focal nodular dermatitis. The novel histopathological patterns of cutaneous involvement by histoplasmosis seen in these patients resembled other common inflammatory and infectious conditions and required a high level of suspicion and the application of special stains for organisms for confirmation. These new, clinical, and histological findings do not seem to be commonly encountered in HIV- patients infected with the fungus but seem to be displayed most prominently in HIV+ patients with AIDS.

  2. Depression among people living with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Benin City, Nigeria: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikezie, U E; Otakpor, A N; Kuteyi, O B; James, B O

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common co-morbidity among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) (PLWHAs). It is associated with poor treatment adherence and higher mortality rates. Few reports have, however, emanated from developing countries where socioeconomic factors may confound this association. We conducted a cross-sectional comparative study of PLWHAs and apparently healthy staff of three LGA's. The depression module of the Schedule for the Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to diagnose depression and depression symptom severity, respectively. Depression was commonly co-morbid among individuals with HIV/AIDS. It was five times more common in PLWHAs than in apparently healthy populations (29.3% vs. 7.3%, OR: 5.25, 95% CI: 2.50-11.76). A similar trend was observed for depression symptom severity. Among PLWHAs, depression was significantly more likely among females (OR: 7.91, 95% CI: 1.83-71.00, P 3 years (OR: 7.90, P risk. Depression was commonly co-morbid among PLWHAs studied. Clinicians should be aware of risk factors for depression among PLWHAs in order to improve treatment outcomes.

  3. Risky sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS among healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khamisa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is known to have one of the highest prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS globally, with one in seven healthcare workers being HIV-positive. An HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to respond to the increasing spread of the epidemic. Objectives: Assessment of the factors contributing to high HIV prevalence rates among healthcare workers is important in planning the development of human resources. This review sought to identify and understand predominant risky sexual behaviours among healthcare workers in HIV and AIDS-affected countries. Methods: This study reviewed articles focusing on sexual behaviour among healthcare workers. Major health science databases (e.g. ProQuest, Cochrane, PubMed and CINAHL were searched for combinations of keywords including ‘healthcare workers’, ‘risky sexual behaviour’ and ‘HIV and AIDS’. Articles from a range of countries met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Findings of the study revealed three main contributing factors: unprotected sex, multiple sex partners and sexual violence. Sexual violence emerged as the dominant risk factor in the majority of the studies. Most research was conducted in developed countries where the HIV infection rate is much lower than it is in developing countries. Conclusion: More research needs to be conducted in developing countries and appropriate strategies should be implemented to reduce sexual violence among healthcare workers. Appropriate procedures on reporting sexual violence coupled with education on HIV and AIDS as well as influencing attitudes and belief systems could assist in reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS within the healthcare workforce while minimising the effect on patient care.

  4. Risky sexual behaviour and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamisa, Natasha; Mokgobi, Maboe

    2018-01-01

    South Africa is known to have one of the highest prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) globally, with one in seven healthcare workers being HIV-positive. An HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to respond to the increasing spread of the epidemic. Assessment of the factors contributing to high HIV prevalence rates among healthcare workers is important in planning the development of human resources. This review sought to identify and understand predominant risky sexual behaviours among healthcare workers in HIV and AIDS-affected countries. This study reviewed articles focusing on sexual behaviour among healthcare workers. Major health science databases (e.g. ProQuest, Cochrane, PubMed and CINAHL) were searched for combinations of keywords including 'healthcare workers', 'risky sexual behaviour' and 'HIV and AIDS'. Articles from a range of countries met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Findings of the study revealed three main contributing factors: unprotected sex, multiple sex partners and sexual violence. Sexual violence emerged as the dominant risk factor in the majority of the studies. Most research was conducted in developed countries where the HIV infection rate is much lower than it is in developing countries. More research needs to be conducted in developing countries and appropriate strategies should be implemented to reduce sexual violence among healthcare workers. Appropriate procedures on reporting sexual violence coupled with education on HIV and AIDS as well as influencing attitudes and belief systems could assist in reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS within the healthcare workforce while minimising the effect on patient care.

  5. Heterosexual Attitudes towards Same-Sex Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, David A.; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic towards lesbians than towards gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia. PMID:20390996

  6. Non-heterosexual disclosure at the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voergård-Olesen, Rikke Karen; Eskerod, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    a strategic choice concerning (non-)disclosure. Based on an empirical study, we contribute to the understanding of non-heterosexuals’ disclosure strategies and experiences at the workplace. Individual, semi-structured interviews on personal experiences and thoughts were conducted. The interviewees were eight...... non-heterosexual women, 34-44 years old, working in Denmark, open (to some degree) about their sexual orientation, and representing more industries and educational backgrounds. Even though the informants claimed openness, significant differences concerning disclosure were identified - across...... informants and across situations in the working life, e.g. at the job-interview, dealing with customers, at lunch breaks, at workplace-related parties. The empirical study shows that disclosure is not a matter of ‘once and for all’. Non-heterosexuals are on a continuous basis confronted with choice...

  7. Heterosexual attitudes toward same-sex marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, David A; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic toward lesbians than toward gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia.

  8. Lateralization for Processing Facial Emotions in Gay Men, Heterosexual Men, and Heterosexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Yusuf, Sifat

    2015-07-01

    This study tested whether male sexual orientation and gender nonconformity influenced functional cerebral lateralization for the processing of facial emotions. We also tested for the effects of sex of poser and emotion displayed on putative differences. Thirty heterosexual men, 30 heterosexual women, and 40 gay men completed measures of demographic variables, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), IQ, and the Chimeric Faces Test (CFT). The CFT depicts vertically split chimeric faces, formed with one half showing a neutral expression and the other half showing an emotional expression and performance is measured using a "laterality quotient" (LQ) score. We found that heterosexual men were significantly more right-lateralized when viewing female faces compared to heterosexual women and gay men, who did not differ significantly from each other. Heterosexual women and gay men were more left-lateralized for processing female faces. There were no significant group differences in lateralization for male faces. These results remained when controlling for age and IQ scores. There was no significant effect of CGN on LQ scores. These data suggest that gay men are feminized in some aspects of functional cerebral lateralization for facial emotion. The results were discussed in relation to the selectivity of functional lateralization and putative brain mechanisms underlying sexual attraction towards opposite-sex and same-sex targets.

  9. Heterosexual men's attitudes toward the female condom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, D W; Ehrhardt, A A

    1999-04-01

    This article addresses heterosexual men's familiarity with the female condom and their attitudes toward this barrier method. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 71 ethnically diverse and heterosexually active men who were recruited in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics or through word of mouth in communities with high HIV/STD seroprevalence in New York City during fall 1994 to fall 1995. Only one man reported previous experience with the female condom. The large majority of men had no or limited knowledge of the female condom. Men's reactions to learning about this method ranged from positive to negative, although most men reported willingness to have sex with a partner who wanted to use the female condom. Positive reactions included: endorsement of a woman-controlled condom and her right to use it, the potential for enhancing one's sexual pleasure, and an eagerness to have a new sexual experience. Negative reactions centered on the "strangeness" and "bigness" of the female condom, concerns about prevention efficacy, and concerns about reductions in sexual pleasure. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention programs that target heterosexual men and promote the use of the female condom.

  10. Double control systems for human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 by innate and acquired immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannagi, Mari; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kinpara, Shuichi; Shimizu, Yukiko; Takamori, Ayako; Utsunomiya, Atae

    2011-04-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative retrovirus of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-1-specific T-cell responses elicit antitumor and antiviral effects in experimental models, and are considered to be one of the most important determinants of the disease manifestation, since they are activated in HAM/TSP but not in ATL patients. The combination of low T-cell responses and elevated HTLV-1 proviral loads are features of ATL, and are also observed in a subpopulation of HTLV-1 carriers at the asymptomatic stage, suggesting that these features may be underlying risk factors. These risks may potentially be reduced by vaccination to activate HTLV-1-specific T-cell responses. HAM/TSP and ATL patients also differ in their levels of HTLV-1 mRNA expression, which are generally low in vivo but slightly higher in HAM/TSP patients. Our recent study indicated that viral expression in HTLV-1-infected T-cells is suppressed by stromal cells in culture through type-I IFNs. The suppression was reversible after isolation from the stromal cells, mimicking a long-standing puzzling phenomenon in HTLV-1 infection where the viral expression is very low in vivo and rapidly induced in vitro. Collectively, HTLV-1 is controlled by both acquired and innate immunity in vivo: HTLV-1-specific T-cells survey infected cells, and IFNs suppress viral expression. Both effects would contribute to a reduction in viral pathogenesis, although they may potentially influence or conflict with one another. The presence of double control systems for HTLV-1 infection provides a new concept for understanding the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-mediated malignant and inflammatory diseases. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. Acquired Methemoglobinaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Al-Lawati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acquired methemoglobinaemia is a relatively rare condition and, therefore infrequently encountered in acute medical practice. Suspicion of the condition may be triggered when the measured PaO2 is ‘out of keeping’ with the oxygen saturations that are discovered with pulse oximetry. We describe two separate cases of acquired methemoglobinaemia secondary to the recreational use of alkyl nitrites (’poppers’. The patients presented at separate times to two different teaching hospitals in London, UK. The similarity of these cases has led the authors to conclude that a raised awareness of this potentially fatal condition, and its association with a widely-available recreational drug, is necessary to ensure a correct and timely diagnosis.

  12. [The incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from Yunnan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yan; Li, Chengwen; Pei, Junhaoxiang; Bai, Jinsong; Yang, Xianghong; Duan, Kaiwen

    2014-08-01

    To assess the incidence of oral candidiasis and its influencing factors in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). An oral examination was conducted in the 1 566 HIV/AIDS patients in the Third Hospital of Kunming from March 2008 to September 2012 (M/F: 1 062/504, age range: 0.2 to 84.0 years old). The HIV viral load (HIV- RNA) and peripheral blood CD4 count were respectively analyzed by Bayer Q340 fluorescence signal surveying instrument (bDNA method) and flow cytometry analysis. The information on usage of highly active anti-retroviral (HAART) drugs and transmission of HIV were obtained through questionnaires. The incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with different HIV-RNA levels and CD4 count and the use of HAART was analyzed and compared. The total incidence of oral candidosis was 31.0% (486/1 566) and there was no difference in sex. The oral lesions were presented by three types, psudomembranous candidosis (PC), erythematous candidosis (EC) and angular cheilitis (AC), and the morbidity was 13.9% (217/1 566), 17.0% (267/1 566) and 4.9% (77/1 566), respectively. The average level of CD4 count in psudomembranous candidosis, erythematous candidosis and angular cheilitis [81.0 (146.0), 74.0 (152.0) and 69.0 (121.5) cell/µl] showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). The incidence of oral candidiasis in non-HAART and HAART subjects were 36.3% (402/1 107) and 18.3% (84/459), respectively (P = 0.000). The CD4 count and absolute counts of HIV viral load in oral candidiasis patients and non-oral candidiasis patients had significant difference (Z = -10.261, P = 0.000 and Z = -4.762, P = 0.000). The morbidity of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients in Yunnan Province was high, including PC, EC and AC and hyperplastic candidosis was not detected. The incidence was related to the degree of immune suppression and HIV viral load.

  13. Detection of sexual orientation ("gaydar") by homosexual and heterosexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Minna; Lynch, Aoife; Brewer, Gayle; Bruno, Davide

    2014-02-01

    Although there has been considerable research investigating the ability to identify sexual orientation from static images, or "gaydar," few studies have considered the role of female sexual orientation or sexual interest (for example, sociosexual orientation) in judgment accuracy. In two studies, we investigated the sexuality detection ability, and masculinity and femininity as cues used in judgment. In Study 1, we recruited heterosexual (N = 55) and homosexual (N = 71) women to rate the sexual orientation of homosexual and heterosexual male and female targets (N = 80: 20 heterosexual men, 20 homosexual men, 20 heterosexual women, and 20 homosexual women). We found that detection accuracy was better than chance levels for both male and female targets and that male targets were more likely to be falsely labeled as homosexual than female targets were. Overall, female faces were more accurately identified as heterosexual or homosexual than male faces and homosexual female raters were biased towards labeling targets as homosexual. Sociosexuality did not influence the accuracy with which targets were identified as heterosexual or homosexual. In Study 2, 100 heterosexual and 20 homosexual women rated the stimulus for masculinity and femininity. Heterosexual women were rated as more feminine and less masculine than homosexual women and homosexual men were rated as more feminine and less masculine than heterosexual men. Sexual orientation of the judges did not affect the ratings. The results were discussed with a reference to evolutionary and cultural influences affecting sexual orientation judgment accuracy.

  14. Surveillance for Travel and Domestically Acquired Multidrug-Resistant Human Shigella Infections-Pennsylvania, 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu Lung; Tewari, Deepanker; Yealy, Courtney C; Fardig, David; M'ikanatha, Nkuchia M

    2016-01-01

    Shigellosis is a leading cause of enteric infections in the United States. We compared antimicrobial resistance in Shigella infections related to overseas travel (travel-associated) and in those acquired domestically by analyzing antimicrobial resistance patterns, geographic distributions, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. We tested samples (n = 204) from a collection of isolates recovered from patients in Pennsylvania between 2006 and 2014. Isolates were grouped into travel- and non-travel-associated categories. Eighty-one (79.4%) of the Shigella isolates acquired during international travel were resistant to multiple antibiotics compared to 53 (52.1%) of the infections transmitted in domestic settings. A majority (79.4%) of isolates associated with international travel demonstrated resistance to aminoglycosides and tetracyclines, whereas 47 (46.1%) of the infections acquired domestically were resistant to tetracycline. Almost all isolates (92.2%) transmitted in domestic settings were resistant to aminoglycosides, and 5 isolates from adult male patients were resistant to azithromycin, a drug often used for empiric treatment of severe shigellosis. Twenty (19.6%) isolates associated with illnesses acquired during overseas travel in 4 countries were resistant to quinolones. One S. sonnei PFGE pattern was traced to a multidrug-resistant isolate acquired overseas that had caused a multistate outbreak of shigellosis, suggesting global dissemination of a drug-resistant species. Resistance to certain drugs-for example, tetracycline-increased in both overseas- and domestic-acquired infections during the study period. The prevalence of resistance to macrolides (azithromycin) and third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone) was less than 1%; however, efforts to better monitor changes in drug resistance over time combined with increased antimicrobial stewardship are essential at the local, national, and global levels.

  15. Parenting behaviors of homosexual and heterosexual fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigner, J J; Jacobsen, R B

    1989-01-01

    Responses of 33 homosexual (gay) fathers were compared with those of 33 heterosexual (nongay) fathers on the Iowa Parent Behavior Inventory, an empirical measure of dimensions of parenting behavior. Gay fathers did not differ significantly from nongay fathers in their reported degree of involvement nor in intimacy level with children. Gay fathers tended to be more strict, more responsive to children's needs, and to provide reasons for appropriate behavior to children more consistently than nongay fathers. Several explanations are explored for these similarities and differences in parenting styles.

  16. Consensus on context-specific strategies for reducing the stigma of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Zambézia Province, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Mukolo, Abraham; Torres, Isabel; Bechtel, Ruth M.; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma has been implicated in poor outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) care. Reducing stigma is important for HIV prevention and long-term treatment success. Although stigma reduction interventions are conducted in Mozambique, little is known about the current nature of stigma and the efficacy and effectiveness of stigma reduction initiatives. We describe action research to generate consensus on critical characteristics of HIV stigma and an...

  17. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and use of healthcare services among rural migrants: a cross-sectional study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying; Cochran, Christopher; Xu, Peng; Shen, Jay J; Zeng, Gang; Xu, Yanjun; Sun, Mei; Li, Chengyue; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui; Lu, Jun; Hao, Mo; Lu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Background Today’s rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Methods Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was...

  18. Normalizing Heterosexuality: Mothers' Assumptions, Talk, and Strategies with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karin A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, social scientists have identified not just heterosexism and homophobia as social problems, but also heteronormativity--the mundane, everyday ways that heterosexuality is privileged and taken for granted as normal and natural. There is little empirical research, however, on how heterosexuality is reproduced and then normalized for…

  19. Somatically acquired structural genetic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard Koldby, Kristina; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    Structural genetic variants like copy number variants (CNVs) comprise a large part of human genetic variation and may be inherited as well as somatically acquired. Recent studies have reported the presence of somatically acquired structural variants in the human genome and it has been suggested t...... with age.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 April 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.34....

  20. Acquired immunologic tolerance in chimeras and histocompatibility factors in cattle and their relationship to those in humans. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, W.H.

    1976-03-01

    During the course of this project we have studied 35 pairs of chimeric cattle twins. It is now clear that fractionated doses of whole-body 60 Co irradiation can cause marked shifts in the proportions of the two erythrocyte populations that make up the chimeric mixture. However, it has not been possible to eliminate one of the two cell types and thus abrogate the acquired immunologic tolerance. The results of our extensive skin-grafting experiments are remarkable because they show that a chimeric twin may mount a sufficient immune response to reject its cotwin's skin while remaining completely tolerant to erythropoietic elements of its cotwin. In conjunction with these studies, we have acquired sufficient data to define a major histocompatibility locus in cattle using alloimmune anti-lymphocyte typing sera as well as the mixed lymphocyte culture technic. This project has also yielded a considerable number of new immunogenetic parameters for cattle, monkeys and birds. Such parameters are useful for basic and applied studies in immunology

  1. Fetal Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Differentiating towards Chondrocytes Acquire a Gene Expression Profile Resembling Human Growth Plate Cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gool, S.A.; Emons, J.A.M.; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Decker, E.; Sticht, C.; van Houwelingen, J.C.; Goeman, J.J.; Kleijburg, C.; Scherjon, S.; Gretz, N.; Wit, J.M.; Rappold, G.; Post, Janine Nicole; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We used human fetal bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hfMSCs) differentiating towards chondrocytes as an alternative model for the human growth plate (GP). Our aims were to study gene expression patterns associated with chondrogenic differentiation to assess whether

  2. [Development of the Heterosexual Love Assessment Scale for Alcoholics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawarai, Tazuko; Morita, Noriaki; Nakatani, Youji

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a scale for assessing the attributes of the heterosexual love of alcoholics. Using the characteristics and categories related to the heterosexual love of alcoholics found in previous research, we created a "Heterosexual Love Assessment Scale for Alcoholics" and conducted a survey among 110 alcoholics (80 men and 30 women). The following three factors were extracted from the results: "mutual respect", "superficial intimacy", and "fear of being disliked", A high level of reliability was obtained on the scales indicated below (alpha = 63-82), and concurrent validity was confirmed between these and the Adult Attachment Scale (ECR: Experiences in Close Relationships inventory). Further, correlations were found between "mutual respect" and the benefit of heterosexual love in recovery, and between the other two factors and the impediment of heterosexual love, and between the Denial & Awareness Scale (for alcoholic). As this scale can be used to assess the type of heterosexual love of alcoholics, we predict that it will be useful in examining the effects of heterosexual love on recovery and as a tool for offering advice.

  3. Gender inequality and domestic violence: implications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kaye, Dan K

    2004-01-01

    Domestic violence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are problems of great public health worldwide, especially sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing countries. This is due to their far reaching social, economic and public health consequences. The two problems have gender inequality and gender power imbalances as the driving force behind the “epidemics”. HIV infection is mainly acquired through heterosexual relations, which themselves are greatly influenced by socio-cultu...

  4. The socioeconomic impact of human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immune deficiency syndrome in India and its relevance to eye care

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy GVS

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is aptly called the modern day ′plague′ and has the potential to decimate people in the productive age group. On the other hand, the increasing life expectancy in developing countries spirals age-related blindness. One therefore reduces economic productivity while the other increases economic dependency. Both lead to increased expenditure of households though in different proportions. Human immunodeficiency virus and blindness are bot...

  5. Radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunoassay of antibodies to the core protein (P24) of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV III). [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neurath, A R; Strick, N; Sproul, P

    1985-05-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic viruses designated HTLV III or LAV are considered to represent the causative agents of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Therefore a simple direct RIA or ELISA method for antibodies to distinct epitopes of HTLV III/LAV structural components would be of great value. The authors describe RIA and ELISA assays which obviate the need for purified virus or virus proteins, do not utilize infected cells and thus do not diminish the source for continuous production of viral antigens and are specific for a major core protein of HTLV III/LAV.

  6. Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Severe Peripheral Artery Disease in a 20-Year-Old with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purva Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection confers an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, including acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Patients with perinatally acquired HIV may be at increased risk due to the viral infection itself and exposure to HAART in utero or as part of treatment. A 20-year-old female with transplacentally acquired HIV infection presented with symptoms of transient aphasia, headache, palpitations, and blurry vision. She was admitted for hypertensive emergency with blood pressure 203/100 mmHg. Within a few hours, she complained of typical chest pain, and ECG showed marked ST depression. Troponin I levels escalated from 0.115 to 10.8. She underwent coronary angiogram showing 95% stenosis of the right coronary artery (RCA and severe peripheral arterial disease including total occlusion of both common iliacs and 95% infrarenal aortic stenosis with collateral circulation. She underwent successful percutaneous intervention with a drug-eluting stent to the mid-RCA. Patients with HIV are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Of these, coronary artery disease is one of the most critical complications of HIV. Perinatally acquired HIV infection can be a high-risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A high degree of suspicion is warranted in such patients, especially if they are noncompliant to their ART.

  7. Risk of newly detected infections and cervical abnormalities in women seropositive for naturally acquired human papillomavirus type 16/18 antibodies: analysis of the control arm of PATRICIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellsagué, Xavier; Naud, Paulo; Chow, Song-Nan; Wheeler, Cosette M; Germar, Maria Julieta V; Lehtinen, Matti; Paavonen, Jorma; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Garland, Suzanne M; Salmerón, Jorge; Apter, Dan; Kitchener, Henry; Teixeira, Julio C; Skinner, S Rachel; Limson, Genara; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y; Schwarz, Tino F; Poppe, Willy A J; Bosch, F Xavier; de Carvalho, Newton S; Peters, Klaus; Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Raillard, Alice; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence

    2014-08-15

    We examined risk of newly detected human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical abnormalities in relation to HPV type 16/18 antibody levels at enrollment in PATRICIA (Papilloma Trial Against Cancer in Young Adults; NCT00122681). Using Poisson regression, we compared risk of newly detected infection and cervical abnormalities associated with HPV-16/18 between seronegative vs seropositive women (15-25 years) in the control arm (DNA negative at baseline for the corresponding HPV type [HPV-16: n = 8193; HPV-18: n = 8463]). High titers of naturally acquired HPV-16 antibodies and/or linear trend for increasing antibody levels were significantly associated with lower risk of incident and persistent infection, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or greater (ASCUS+), and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 1/2 or greater (CIN1+, CIN2+). For HPV-18, although seropositivity was associated with lower risk of ASCUS+ and CIN1+, no association between naturally acquired antibodies and infection was demonstrated. Naturally acquired HPV-16 antibody levels of 371 (95% confidence interval [CI], 242-794), 204 (95% CI, 129-480), and 480 (95% CI, 250-5756) EU/mL were associated with 90% reduction of incident infection, 6-month persistent infection, and ASCUS+, respectively. Naturally acquired antibodies to HPV-16, and to a lesser extent HPV-18, are associated with some reduced risk of subsequent infection and cervical abnormalities associated with the same HPV type. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  8. Risk factors for AIDS among Haitians residing in the US: evidence of heterosexual transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In a study of Haitians in Miami and New York, Creole-speaking interviewers questioned 55 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (45 men and ten women) and 242 control-persons (164 men and 78 women). One male patient was homosexual, and one female patient had received blood within five years. No one admitted to intravenous drug use, hemophilia, or sexual contact with AIDS patients. Male AIDS patients were significantly more likely than control-men to have entered the US after 1977 and to have had gonorrhea, syphilis, and sexual contact with female prostitutes. Female AIDS patients were more likely to have voodoo-priest friends and to have been offered money for sex. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was probably contracted through sexual contact with infected heterosexuals

  9. Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in acquired gemcitabine-resistant human urothelial carcinoma sublines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Kao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is one of the major challenges in the treatment of cancer. A better understanding of how resistance arises and what molecular alterations correlate with resistance is the key to developing novel effective therapeutic strategies. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of gemcitabine (Gem resistance and provide possible therapeutic options, three Gem-resistant urothelial carcinoma sublines were established (NG0.6, NG0.8, and NG1.0. These cells were cross-resistant to arabinofuranosyl cytidine and cisplatin, but sensitive to 5-fluorouracil. The resistant cells expressed lower values of [hENT1 × dCK/RRM1 × RRM2] mRNA ratio. Two adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette proteins ABCD1 as well as multidrug resistance protein 1 were elevated. Moreover, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4 were upregulated, whereas extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activity were repressed significantly. Administration of p38 MAPK inhibitor significantly reduced the Gem sensitivity in NTUB1 cells, whereas that of an extracellular signal-regulated kinase MAPK inhibitor did not. Furthermore, the Gem-resistant sublines also exhibited higher migration ability. Forced expression of p38 MAPK impaired the cell migration activity and augmented Gem sensitivity in NG1.0 cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that complex mechanisms were merged in acquiring Gem resistance and provide information that can be important for developing therapeutic targets for treating Gem-resistant tumors.

  10. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eZHANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals’ social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies towards potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  11. The socioeconomic impact of human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immune deficiency syndrome in India and its relevance to eye care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Gvs

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is aptly called the modern day 'plague' and has the potential to decimate people in the productive age group. On the other hand, the increasing life expectancy in developing countries spirals age-related blindness. One therefore reduces economic productivity while the other increases economic dependency. Both lead to increased expenditure of households though in different proportions. Human immunodeficiency virus and blindness are both associated with discrimination, stigma and long-term consequences. They impact the socioeconomic fabric of the affected individuals, communities and countries. The loss in productivity and the cost of support to the affected individuals are seen in both. Each is a potent problem on its own but together they spell disaster in geometric proportions rather than a simple additive effect. Strategies need to be evolved to provide solace and improve the quality of life of an HIV-positive blind individual.

  12. The socioeconomic impact of human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immune deficiency syndrome in India and its relevance to eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy GVS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is aptly called the modern day ′plague′ and has the potential to decimate people in the productive age group. On the other hand, the increasing life expectancy in developing countries spirals age-related blindness. One therefore reduces economic productivity while the other increases economic dependency. Both lead to increased expenditure of households though in different proportions. Human immunodeficiency virus and blindness are both associated with discrimination, stigma and long-term consequences. They impact the socioeconomic fabric of the affected individuals, communities and countries. The loss in productivity and the cost of support to the affected individuals are seen in both. Each is a potent problem on its own but together they spell disaster in geometric proportions rather than a simple additive effect. Strategies need to be evolved to provide solace and improve the quality of life of an HIV-positive blind individual.

  13. Higher rates of triple-class virological failure in perinatally HIV-infected teenagers compared with heterosexually infected young adults in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Judd, A; Lodwick, R; Noguera-Julian, A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the time to, and risk factors for, triple-class virological failure (TCVF) across age groups for children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection and older adolescents and adults with heterosexually acquired HIV infection. METHODS...... compared with participants with heterosexually acquired HIV infection overall [17 (interquartile range (IQR) 4-111) vs. 8 (IQR 2-38) weeks, respectively], and highest in perinatally infected participants aged 10-14 years [49 (IQR 9-267) weeks]. The cumulative proportion with TCVF 5 years after starting ART......: We analysed individual patient data from cohorts in the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE). A total of 5972 participants starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 1998, aged

  14. Fetal mesenchymal stromal cells differentiating towards chondrocytes acquire a gene expression profile resembling human growth plate cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy A van Gool

    Full Text Available We used human fetal bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hfMSCs differentiating towards chondrocytes as an alternative model for the human growth plate (GP. Our aims were to study gene expression patterns associated with chondrogenic differentiation to assess whether chondrocytes derived from hfMSCs are a suitable model for studying the development and maturation of the GP. hfMSCs efficiently formed hyaline cartilage in a pellet culture in the presence of TGFβ3 and BMP6. Microarray and principal component analysis were applied to study gene expression profiles during chondrogenic differentiation. A set of 232 genes was found to correlate with in vitro cartilage formation. Several identified genes are known to be involved in cartilage formation and validate the robustness of the differentiating hfMSC model. KEGG pathway analysis using the 232 genes revealed 9 significant signaling pathways correlated with cartilage formation. To determine the progression of growth plate cartilage formation, we compared the gene expression profile of differentiating hfMSCs with previously established expression profiles of epiphyseal GP cartilage. As differentiation towards chondrocytes proceeds, hfMSCs gradually obtain a gene expression profile resembling epiphyseal GP cartilage. We visualized the differences in gene expression profiles as protein interaction clusters and identified many protein clusters that are activated during the early chondrogenic differentiation of hfMSCs showing the potential of this system to study GP development.

  15. Gender-Specificity in Viewing Time Among Heterosexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Rahman, Qazi; Zheng, Yong

    2017-07-01

    Measures of sexual interest tend to be more gender-specific in heterosexual men than in heterosexual women. Cognitive measures, such as viewing time to attractive stimuli, may also show similar patterns of gender-specificity or nonspecificity among men and women and thus serve as useful adjuncts to more direct measures of sexual interest. The objectives of the present research were to determine the extent of gender-specificity in women's viewing times for female pictures (varying in their perceived physical attractiveness) and explore the influence of social comparison of physical appearance on these patterns of responses. In Study 1, we recorded only women's viewing times for pictures of both genders, measured self-reported menstrual cycle phase, and manipulated the waist-to-hip ratio of the women in the female pictures. In Study 2, we recorded women's and men's viewing times, self-reported sexual attraction to pictures of males and females, and physical appearance social comparison. Study 1 found that heterosexual women's viewing time toward female pictures was not associated with manipulation of the perceived attractiveness of those pictures. Study 2 found that heterosexual men were more gender-specific than heterosexual women in their viewing time patterns. We also found that reported sexual attraction and physical appearance social comparison were associated with heterosexual women's viewing times for female pictures, while heterosexual men's viewing times were associated with sexual attraction only. Our results are discussed in relation to the utility of viewing time as an indicator of visual attention toward attractive or sexually appealing visual stimuli.

  16. Efficient gene delivery to primary human retinal pigment epithelial cells: The innate and acquired properties of vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasharrofi, Nooshin; Kouhkan, Fatemeh; Soleimani, Masoud; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Akbari Javar, Hamid; Abedin Dorkoosh, Farid

    2017-02-25

    The purpose of this study is designing non-viral gene delivery vectors for transfection of the primary human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). In the design process of gene delivery vectors, considering physicochemical properties of vectors alone does not seem to be enough since they interact with constituents of the surrounding environment and hence gain new characteristics. Moreover, due to these interactions, their cargo can be released untimely or undergo degradation before reaching to the target cells. Further, the characteristics of cells itself can also influence the transfection efficacy. For example, the non-dividing property of RPE cells can impede the transfection efficiency which in most studies was ignored by using immortal cell lines. In this study, vectors with different characteristics differing in mixing orders of pDNA, PEI polymer, and PLGA/PEI or PLGA nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. Then, their characteristics and efficacy in gene delivery to RPE cells in the presence of vitreous or fetal bovine serum (FBS) were evaluated. All formulations showed no cytotoxicity and were able to protect pDNA from premature release and degradation in extracellular media. Also, the adsorption of vitreous or serum proteins onto the surface of vectors changed their properties and hence cellular uptake and transfection efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-reported sexual and psychosocial health among non-heterosexual Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graugaard, Christian; Giraldi, Annamaria; Frisch, Morten

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the sexual and psychosocial health of non-heterosexual Danes. Based on a large population study, the aim of this article was to compare quality-of-life-related key variables of heterosexual and non-heterosexual men and women, aged 16-66. MATERIALS AND METHODS......: Cross-sectional data from the nationwide, representative Health and Morbidity Survey (n = 8496) were used to compare variables concerning both general and sexual well-being of self-identified heterosexual and non-heterosexual respondents. RESULTS: Nearly twice as many non-heterosexual than heterosexual...... men rated their sexual life as bad or very bad (22.5% versus 12.8%), while no statistical difference was seen among women (13.6% versus 10.6%). For both genders, significantly more non-heterosexuals than heterosexuals stated that their sexual needs were not met (17.9% versus 7.7% for men and 14...

  18. Management of a rare presentation of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, D; Sudharshan, S; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2017-05-01

    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH), a multisystem autoimmune bilateral panuveitis with systemic manifestations, is uncommon in immunocompromised patients such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome (AIDS). We report a rare presentation of VKH in a 45-year-old HIV-positive female on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) who presented with a history of recurrent panuveitis. A diagnosis of probable VKH was made based on ocular and systemic signs and symptoms. She was treated with topical and systemic steroids with close monitoring of CD4 counts and viral loads. After inflammation control, complicated cataract was managed surgically under perioperative steroid cover. VKH in HIV/AIDS has not been reported earlier. This case shows that significant inflammation can be seen even in HIV/AIDS patients on HAART with VKH in spite of moderate CD4 counts. Management is a challenge considering the systemic risks with long-term use of steroids.

  19. Therapeutic targeting of Neu1 sialidase with oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu® disables cancer cell survival in human pancreatic cancer with acquired chemoresistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Shea LK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leah K O'Shea,1 Samar Abdulkhalek,1 Stephanie Allison,2 Ronald J Neufeld,2 Myron R Szewczuk11Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, CanadaBackground: Resistance to drug therapy, along with high rates of metastasis, contributes to the low survival rate in patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. An alternate treatment for human pancreatic cancer involving targeting of Neu1 sialidase with oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu® was investigated in human pancreatic cancer (PANC1 cells with acquired resistance to cisplatin and gemcitabine. Its efficacy in overcoming the intrinsic resistance of the cell to chemotherapeutics and metastasis was evaluated.Methods: Microscopic imaging, immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and WST-1 cell viability assays were used to evaluate cell survival, morphologic changes, and expression levels of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and VE-cadherin before and after treatment with oseltamivir phosphate in PANC1 cells with established resistance to cisplatin, gemcitabine, or a combination of the two agents, and in archived paraffin-embedded PANC1 tumors grown in RAGxCγ double mutant mice.Results: Oseltamivir phosphate overcame the chemoresistance of PANC1 to cisplatin and gemcitabine alone or in combination in a dose-dependent manner, and disabled the cancer cell survival mechanism(s. Oseltamivir phosphate also reversed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition characteristic of the phenotypic E-cadherin to N-cadherin changes associated with resistance to drug therapy. Low-dose oseltamivir phosphate alone or in combination with gemcitabine in heterotopic xenografts of PANC1 tumors growing in RAGxCγ double mutant mice did not prevent metastatic spread to the liver and lung.Conclusion: Therapeutic targeting of Neu1 sialidase with oseltamivir phosphate at the growth factor receptor level disables the intrinsic signaling platform for cancer cell survival

  20. A HIV-1 heterosexual transmission chain in Guangzhou, China: a molecular epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhigang; Leung, Tommy W C; Zhao, Jinkou; Wang, Ming; Fan, Lirui; Li, Kai; Pang, Xinli; Liang, Zhenbo; Lim, Wilina W L; Xu, Huifang

    2009-09-25

    We conducted molecular analyses to confirm four clustering HIV-1 infections (Patient A, B, C & D) in Guangzhou, China. These cases were identified by epidemiological investigation and suspected to acquire the infection through a common heterosexual transmission chain. Env C2V3V4 region, gag p17/p24 junction and partial pol gene of HIV-1 genome from serum specimens of these infected cases were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nucleotide sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that their viral nucleotide sequences were significantly clustered together (bootstrap value is 99%, 98% and 100% in env, gag and pol tree respectively). Evolutionary distance analysis indicated that their genetic diversities of env, gag and pol genes were significantly lower than non-clustered controls, as measured by unpaired t-test (env gene comparison: p Epidemiological results and molecular analyses consistently illustrated these four cases represented a transmission chain which dispersed in the locality through heterosexual contact involving commercial sex worker.

  1. Homicides between heterosexual intimates: Criminological and victimological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeunović-Patić Biljana J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of homicidal violence between heterosexual intimates is analyzed, and the need for its treatment as a specific criminological issue denoted, having in mind many of its distinctive etiological and victimological dimensions. The presented findings of an empirical research on intimate homicides committed in Belgrade from 1985 to 1993 allowed for a testing of some hypotheses related to the factors of homicidal criminalization and victimization within the context of the intimate heterosexual relationships. The evidence on history and dynamics of deeply disturbed intimate relations, as well as some typical characteristics of male intimate partners in violent heterosexual relationships, are particularly considered. On the bases of research findings, it seems possible that the plausible preventive strategies can be developed.

  2. Substance use of lesbian, gay, bisexual and heterosexual college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Dianne L; Ding, Kele; Chaya, Julie

    2014-11-01

    To compare self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students to heterosexual peers and to each other on alcohol, tobacco and other drug (ATOD) measures and alcohol use consequences. Preexisting data (Falls 2009-2011) from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA-II) were analyzed. Bisexual college students had greater odds of ATOD use than heterosexual and gay/lesbian students. Bisexual women had the highest levels of use. LGB students had more serious consequences due to alcohol use. ATOD use among LGB students was more prevalent than heterosexuals during the past 30 days, year, and life-time. LGB students report more negative alcohol consequences.

  3. Comparing the Rates of Early Childhood Victimization across Sexual Orientations: Heterosexual, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Mostly Heterosexual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zou

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the rates of childhood victimization among individuals who identify as "mostly heterosexual" (MH in comparison to other sexual orientation groups. For the present study, we utilized a more comprehensive assessment of adverse childhood experiences to extend prior literature by examining if MH individuals' experience of victimization more closely mirrors that of sexual minority individuals or heterosexuals. Heterosexual (n = 422 and LGB (n = 561 and MH (n = 120 participants were recruited online. Respondents completed surveys about their adverse childhood experiences, both maltreatment by adults (e.g., childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction and peer victimization (i.e., verbal and physical bullying. Specifically, MH individuals were 1.47 times more likely than heterosexuals to report childhood victimization experiences perpetrated by adults. These elevated rates were similar to LGB individuals. Results suggest that rates of victimization of MH groups are more similar to the rates found among LGBs, and are significantly higher than heterosexual groups. Our results support prior research that indicates that an MH identity falls within the umbrella of a sexual minority, yet little is known about unique challenges that this group may face in comparison to other sexual minority groups.

  4. Heterosexual sexual behaviour in a sample of homosexually active men.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, R; Hart, G; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Dawson, J

    1989-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty six homosexually active men were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. Thirty two per cent had homosexual passive anal sex in the previous month and 60% in the year before interview. Anal sex and unprotected anal sex were more common with regular than non-regular partners. Heterosexual sex was reported by 4% of men in the last month and 10% for the last year. Sixteen per cent of heterosexually active men reported anal sex with a female partner...

  5. Children's gender identity in lesbian and heterosexual two-parent families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.; Sandfort, T.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared gender identity, anticipated future heterosexual romantic involvement, and psychosocial adjustment of children in lesbian and heterosexual families; it was furthermore assessed whether associations between these aspects differed between family types. Data were obtained in the

  6. Sexual economics: sex as female resource for social exchange in heterosexual interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2004-01-01

    A heterosexual community can be analyzed as a marketplace in which men seek to acquire sex from women by offering other resources in exchange. Societies will therefore define gender roles as if women are sellers and men buyers of sex. Societies will endow female sexuality, but not male sexuality, with value (as in virginity, fidelity, chastity). The sexual activities of different couples are loosely interrelated by a marketplace, instead of being fully separate or private, and each couple's decisions may be influenced by market conditions. Economic principles suggest that the price of sex will depend on supply and demand, competition among sellers, variations in product, collusion among sellers, and other factors. Research findings show gender asymmetries (reflecting the complementary economic roles) in prostitution, courtship, infidelity and divorce, female competition, the sexual revolution and changing norms, unequal status between partners, cultural suppression of female sexuality, abusive relationships, rape, and sexual attitudes.

  7. Social Support and Psychological Well-Being in Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines predictors of social support and mental health among 36 lesbian and 39 heterosexual couples who were waiting to adopt. Lesbian preadoptive partners perceived less support from family than heterosexual partners but similar levels of support from friends. Lesbian and heterosexual partners reported similar levels of well-being.…

  8. Mostly Heterosexual as a Distinct Sexual Orientation Group: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…

  9. Positive erotic picture stimuli for emotion research in heterosexual females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Gitta Anne; Arntz, Arnoud; Domes, Gregor; Reiss, Neele; Siep, Nicolette

    2011-12-30

    In most experimental studies, emotional pictures are widely used as stimulus material. However, there is still a lack of standardization of picture stimuli displaying erotic relationships, despite the association between a number of psychological problems and severe impairments and problems in intimate relationships. The aim of the study was to test a set of erotic stimuli, with the potential to be used in experimental studies, with heterosexual female subjects. Twenty International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures and an additional 100 pictures showing romantic but not explicitly sexual scenes and/or attractive single males were selected. All pictures were rated with respect to valence, arousal, and dominance by 41 heterosexual women and compared to pictures with negative, positive, and neutral emotional valence. Erotic IAPS pictures and our additional erotic pictures did not differ in any of the evaluation dimensions. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) for valence, arousal, and dominance comparing different picture valence categories showed strong effects for category. However, valence was not significantly different between erotic and positive pictures, while arousal and control were not significantly different between positive and neutral pictures. The pictures of our new set are as positive for heterosexual women as highly positive IAPS pictures, but higher in arousal and dominance. The picture set can be used in experimental psychiatric studies requiring high numbers of stimuli per category. Limitations are the restriction of stimuli application to heterosexual females only and to self-report data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Experiences of Attachment Injury in Heterosexual Couple Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelling, Cate; Arvay-Buchanan, Marla

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the lived experience of women's attachment injuries within heterosexual couple relationships. An interpretative, phenomenological approach (van Manen, 1990) was used in this exploratory study. Four women participated in three separate research interviews in order to illuminate the phenomenon of "attachment…

  11. Recollections of Sexual Socialisation among Marginalised Heterosexual Black Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen; Graves, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the sexual socialisation process of marginalised, drug-using heterosexual black men, focusing primarily on the sources and content of sexual information. Analysing qualitative interview data, we discovered that the men in our sample both learn about sex and become sexually active at an early age. They most often learn about…

  12. Predictors of Heterosexual College Students' Attitudes toward LGBT People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, Michael R.; Silverschanz, Perry; Swank, Eric; Scherrer, Kristin S.; Raiz, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the predictors of U.S. heterosexual undergraduate and graduate college students' attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people as a group rather than toward individual identities. Findings suggest that affirming LGBT attitudes are most strongly associated with liberal political ideology and whether…

  13. HIV testing behaviour among heterosexual migrants in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolte, I. G.; Gras, M.; van Benthem, B. H.; Coutinho, R. A.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.

    2003-01-01

    This cross-sectional study among heterosexual migrant groups in south-eastern Amsterdam, the city area where the largest migrant groups live, provides an insight into HIV testing behaviour in this particular group. Participants were recruited at street locations (May 1997-July 1998) and interviewed

  14. The heterosexual singles scene: putting danger into pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, R; Rosenthal, D; Moore, S

    1996-06-01

    The juxtaposition of pleasure and danger has engaged many feminist theorists and researchers in the field of sexuality. This article presents a theoretical analysis of the ambiguous and complex relationship between 'pleasure', 'danger' and contemporary feminist theory. In doing so, it offers an understanding of the ways in which the categories of pleasure and danger operate within the discourses of heterosexuality to construct perceptions of risk in the context of HIV/AIDS. Data were collected from a study of the sexual attitudes and practices of 112 sexually-active, single, heterosexual adults (58 men and 54 women), aged 20 to 40 years (mean = 27 years) who agreed to be interviewed when approached at night-clubs and public "singles' bars around Melbourne, Australia. The qualitative analysis presented here is consistent with a poststructuralist feminism. First, we discuss how sexuality cannot be cast solely as pleasurable or dangerous. Second, we demonstrate how heterosexualized notions of pleasure and danger operate to provide misperceptions of risk from HIV/AIDS transmission. Third, we identify the ways in which the logic of identity functions to obscure risk within the discourse of heterosexuality, and finally we attempt to forge new ways of practising pleasure which disrupt heterosexist discourses and allow for pleasures which incorporate danger.

  15. Knowledge, attitude, and behavioral practices pertaining to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome among secondary school adolescents in makurdi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Agbecha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents knowledge with their safe practices pertaining to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has a critical impact on the prevention of contracting and spreading HIV. Reports have shown that adolescents in the general setting engage in activities that enhance the spread of the virus. Aim: The study assessed school adolescent's HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS knowledge, with its impact on their behaviors and attitudes regarding the infection. Materials and Methods: Two hundred randomly selected adolescent students from 10 different schools in the city metropolis were involved in the cross-sectional study. Primary data were collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire on students HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, and safe practices preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS. Results: The study observed that majority of the students had good knowledge about HIV/AIDS, had good attitude toward PLWHA, and engaged in safe practices that prevent the spread of HIV. The sources of HIV/AIDS information were hospital, school, home, electronic, and print media. The study also found that HIV/AIDS knowledge instilled good attitudes and behavioral practices in the students. Conclusion: The study shows that school sex education, as well as health promotion campaigns through media platforms, could impact positively on the knowledge, attitude, and behavioral practices of adolescents in curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS.

  16. Behaviors Influencing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission in the Context of Positive Prevention among People Living with HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Iran: A Qualitative Study

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    Seyed Ramin Radfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying factors, which influence health behaviors is critical to designing appropriate and effective preventive programs. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission is highly related to people behaviors and understanding factors influencing healthy behaviors among Iranian people living with HIVs (PLHIVs/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is very important to tailor an effective response to HIV/AIDS epidemic. Methods: This study was conducted as a qualitative study by methods of focus group discussion and in-depth interview in six provinces of Iran with 64 PLHIVs to determine factors influence engagement in positive prevention. Results: Knowledge and education, feelings of responsibility and positive prevention practices were identified as the primary domains of engagement. These domains were found to be influenced by feelings of ostracism and frustration, poverty, barriers to disclosure of HIV status, access to and utilization of drug abuse treatment services and antiretroviral therapy, adherence to treatment, age, religiousness, sex work, singleness, and incarceration. Conclusions: Designing new interventions and updating current interventions directed toward the aforementioned factors should be addressed by responsible Iranian authorities in order to have a national effective response on the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  17. High Mortality and Coinfection in a Prospective Cohort of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Patients with Histoplasmosis in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samayoa, Blanca; Roy, Monika; Cleveland, Angela Ahlquist; Medina, Narda; Lau-Bonilla, Dalia; Scheel, Christina M; Gomez, Beatriz L; Chiller, Tom; Arathoon, Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    Histoplasmosis is one of the most common and deadly opportunistic infections among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Latin America, but due to limited diagnostic capacity in this region, few data on the burden and clinical characteristics of this disease exist. Between 2005 and 2009, we enrolled patients ≥ 18 years of age with suspected histoplasmosis at a hospital-based HIV clinic in Guatemala City. A case of suspected histoplasmosis was defined as a person presenting with at least three of five clinical or radiologic criteria. A confirmed case of histoplasmosis was defined as a person with a positive culture or urine antigen test for Histoplasma capsulatum . Demographic and clinical data were also collected and analyzed. Of 263 enrolled as suspected cases of histoplasmosis, 101 (38.4%) were confirmed cases. Median time to diagnosis was 15 days after presentation (interquartile range [IQR] = 5-23). Crude overall mortality was 43.6%; median survival time was 19 days (IQR = 4-69). Mycobacterial infection was diagnosed in 70 (26.6%) cases; 26 (25.7%) histoplasmosis cases were coinfected with mycobacteria. High mortality and short survival time after initial symptoms were observed in patients with histoplasmosis. Mycobacterial coinfection diagnoses were frequent, highlighting the importance of pursuing diagnoses for both diseases.

  18. Effect of traditional Chinese medicine for treating human immunodeficiency virus infections and acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Boosting immune and alleviating symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wen; Wang, Jian; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    To respond to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in China, the integration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has important implications in health outcomes, especially in China where the use of TCM is widespread. The National Free TCM Pilot Program for HIV Infected People began in 5 provinces (Henan, Hebei, Anhui, Hubei, and Guangdong) in 2004, and quickly scaled up to 19 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China including some places with high prevalence, 26,276 adults have been treated thus far. Usually, people with HIV infection seek TCM for four main reasons: to enhance immune function, to treat symptoms, to improve quality of life, and to reduce side effects related to medications. Evidences from randomized controlled clinical trials suggested some beneficial effects of use of traditional Chinese herbal medicine for HIV infections and AIDS. More proofs from large, well-designed, rigorous trials is needed to give firm support. Challenges include interaction between herbs and antiretroviral drugs, stigma and discrimination. The Free TCM Program has made considerable progress in providing the necessary alternative care and treatment for HIV-infected people in China, and has strong government support for continued improvement and expansion, establishing and improving a work mechanism integrating Chinese and Western medicines.

  19. The correlation between perceived social support and illness uncertainty in people with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Sajjadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Illness uncertainty is a source of a chronic and pervasive psychological stress for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS (PLWH, and largely affects their quality of life and the ability to cope with the disease. Based on the uncertainty in illness theory, the social support is one of the illness uncertainty antecedents, and influences the level of uncertainty perceived by patients. Aim: To examine uncertainty in PLWH and its correlation with social support in Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional correlational study was conducted with 80 PLWH presenting to AIDS Research Center, Tehran, Iran in 2013. The data collected using illness uncertainty and social support inventories were analyzed through Pearson′s correlation coefficient, Spearman′s correlation coefficient, and regression analysis. Results: The results showed a high level of illness uncertainty in PLWH and a negative significant correlation between perceived social support and illness uncertainty ( P = 0.01, r = -0.29. Conclusion: Uncertainty is a serious aspect of illness experience in Iranian PLWH. Providing adequate, structured information to patients as well as opportunities to discuss their concerns with other PLWH and receive emotional support from their health care providers may be worthwhile.

  20. A controlled study of funding for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as resource capacity building in the health system in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Donald S; Zeng, Wu; Amico, Peter; Rwiyereka, Angelique K; Avila-Figueroa, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    Because human inmmunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) receives more donor funding globally than that for all other diseases combined, some critics allege this support undermines general health care. This empirical study evaluates the impact of HIV/AIDS funding on the primary health care system in Rwanda. Using a quasi-experimental design, we randomly selected 25 rural health centers (HCs) that started comprehensive HIV/AIDS services from 2002 through 2006 as the intervention group. Matched HCs with no HIV/AIDS services formed the control group. The analysis compared growth in inputs and services between intervention and control HCs with a difference-in-difference analysis in a random-effects model. Intervention HCs performed better than control HCs in most services (seven of nine), although only one of these improvements (Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination) reached or approached statistical significance. In conclusion, this six-year controlled study found no adverse effects of the expansion of HIV/AIDS services on non-HIV services among rural health centers in Rwanda.

  1. Is human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome decreasing among Brazilian injection drug users? Recent findings and how to interpret them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco I Bastos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review findings from Brazilian settings where the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic among injection drug users (IDUs seems to be decreasing, highlighting recent findings from Rio de Janeiro and discussing methodological alternatives. Former analyses using serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion have shown that HIV incidence has been low in IDUs recruited by two different surveys carried out in Rio, where low injection frequencies and infection rates have been found among new injectors. The proportion of AIDS cases among IDUs in Rio has been fairly modest, compared to São Paulo and especially to the southernmost states. Notwithstanding, the interpretation of findings from serial surveys constitutes a challenge, magnified in the assessment of HIV spread among IDUs due to the dynamic nature of the drug scenes and limitations of sampling strategies targeting hard-to-reach populations. Assessment of epidemic trends may profit from the triangulation of data, but cannot avert biases associated with sampling errors. Efforts should be made to triangulate data from different sources, besides exploring specific studies from different perspectives. In an attempt to further assess the observed trends, we carried out original analyses using data from Brazilian AIDS databank.

  2. Musicality: instinct or acquired skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Gary F

    2012-10-01

    Is the human tendency toward musicality better thought of as the product of a specific, evolved instinct or an acquired skill? Developmental and evolutionary arguments are considered, along with issues of domain-specificity. The article also considers the question of why humans might be consistently and intensely drawn to music if musicality is not in fact the product of a specifically evolved instinct. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. Disparities between online assisted reproduction patient education for same-sex and heterosexual couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Helen; Dasgupta, Shoumita

    2016-10-01

    Does the prevalence of online education in fertility center websites differ for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) couples compared to online education for heterosexual couples? This review of fertility center websites showed that the majority of websites with patient education for heterosexual couples do not have similar materials for LGBT couples. In order to have biologically related children, LGBT individuals or couples utilize assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Fertility clinic websites provide online education to familiarize patients with the different ART procedures; however, no studies have examined the prevalence of educational information for LGBT couples compared to information for heterosexual couples utilizing ART. This website review evaluated Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-reported fertility center websites. Websites were reviewed in 2014 using the latest 2011 CDC report, and reviewed again in 2015 with the latest 2013 CDC report. Patient education information was coded using categories determined after a sample review, and differences were analyzed with χ(2) tests, with P-values calculated with Fisher's exact test. In 2014, 31.1% (121) of 389 websites with information for heterosexual couples also contained information for LGBT couples. In 2015, the number of fertility centers with information for LGBT couples increased by 52.9% to 185 (P online information on fertility center websites may not directly reflect the quality of care LGBT individuals or couples receive in the clinic, and the effect of this absence of online information on the clinical experiences of LGBT patients is unknown. These findings add to the growing body of work showing disparities in the treatment of LGBT persons compared to the overall population. To overcome these discrepancies, healthcare providers should adapt their practice to include this growing and underserved patient population. Funding was provided by the Medical Student Summer

  4. Knowledge and attitude of Indian clinical dental students towards the dental treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Marya, Charu Mohan; Sharma, Nilima; Mohanty, Vikrant; Marwah, Mohita; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-12-01

    Oral health care of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing area of concern. Information on HIV- and AIDS-related knowledge among dental students provides a crucial foundation for efforts aimed at developing an appropriate dental curriculum on HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of Indian clinical dental students towards the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS and perceived sources of information regarding HIV-related issues. Data were collected from clinical dental students (third year, fourth year and internship) from three dental institutions in Delhi National Capital Region (NCR). The questions assessed the knowledge and attitude towards treatment of patients with HIV and the perceived source of information related to HIV. The willingness to treat HIV-positive patients among dental students was 67.0%, and 74.20% were confident of treating a patient with HIV/AIDS. The potential problems in rendering treatment to these patients were effect on the attitude of other patients (49.90%) and staff fears (52.50%). The correct knowledge regarding the infection-control practice (barrier technique) was found among only 15.50% of respondents. The respondents had sufficient knowledge regarding the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS. There was no correlation between the knowledge and attitude score, demonstrating a gap between knowledge and attitude among dental students regarding treatment of HIV-infected patients. Appropriate knowledge has to be delivered through the dental education curriculum, which can instil confidence in students about their ability to manage HIV-positive patients. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  5. Knowledge and attitude about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among higher secondary school students of Jaipur city: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Chaudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: India is estimated to have the third highest number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infections in the world with about 20.89 lakh people currently living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Inadequate knowledge, negative attitudes, and ignorance among the school students are major hindrances to prevent the spread of HIV. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS among the higher secondary school students of Jaipur city. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study comprising 613 higher secondary school students (male = 390, female = 223 from Jaipur city were included in the study. The city was divided into 4 zones and one school from each zone was selected randomly. A questionnaire assessing the knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS was distributed among the senior school students. Pilot study was done among 50 students to test the validity of the questionnaire. Results: All the students (100% in our sample knew what is AIDS. About 96.2% of the students knew that AIDS is not a simple disease, the correct knowledge about the modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS was nearly 85.6% and about 94% of students would not leave the school if there was an AIDS student in their class. Eighty-four percent of students believed that students with AIDS should not go to special schools and about 95.8% students believed that HIV individuals must be supported, treated, and helped. Conclusion: The students had satisfactory knowledge about HIV/AIDS and their attitude toward this group of people was good. There is need and opportunity to provide factual and precise knowledge on HIV/AIDS for school students. There should also be a drive to increase education and awareness about HIV/AIDS in educational institutes.

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome vulnerability of men who have sex with men in a border area of West Bengal, India

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    Dibakar Haldar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studying level of living, awareness about sexually transmitted infections (STIs including human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS and sex behavior of men who have sex with men (MSMs is prerequisite for control of increasing AIDS among them in India. Objective: To assess sociodemographics, awareness about STIs including AIDS, and find out the pattern of high risk sex behavior of MSM. Methodology: Cross-sectional survey was undertaken in May, 2012 among MSMs catered by T I program via Nongovernmental Organization "Madhya Banglar Sangram" in Murshidabad District. 62 MSMs were included from five cruising spots sampled randomly out of fourteen such. Information was collected via interview and focused group discussions (FGD using questionnaire and FGD guide. Blood samples were examined for VDRL reactivity. Results: Median age was 25 years and sexual debut at 13.67 ± 4.29 years. 87% respondents were residing in parental house, 20% was married, 40% had low education, 80.33% had additional jobs but 54% reported poor income. About 56% respondents knew "what is AIDS" and its spread via anal sex, mother to child transmission, needle sharing, sex worker, and blood transfusion reported by 52.46, 50.82, 47.54, 45.90, and 34.43%, respectively. More than 2/3rd, about 40 and 34.43% MSMs played "anal and oral receptive," "anal insertive" and "oral insertive" role. About 33% used condom regularly. Majority knew main symptoms of STIs. About 2/3rd reported discrimination by neighbors. Blood examination showed 6.45% VDRL reactivity. Conclusion: Reducing vulnerability of MSMs to HIV/AIDS requires holistic programs.

  7. Clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients: A cross-sectional investigation in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peierdun, Mi-ji-ti; Liu, Wen-xian; Renaguli, Ai-ze-zi; Nurmuhammat, Amat; Li, Xiao-chun; Gulibaier, Ka-ha-er; Ainivaer, Wu-la-mu; Halmurat, Upur

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the distribution of abnormal hilit syndromes in traditional Uighur medicine (TUM) among human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients, and to find out the clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type HIV/AIDS patients. Between June and July in 2012, 307 eligible HIV/AIDS patients from in-patient department and out-patient clinics of Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region the Sixth People's Hospital in Urumqi were investigated. TUM syndrome differentiation was performed by a senior TUM physician. Each participant completed a Sign and Symptom Check-List for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (SSC-HIV) questionnaire. Depression was evaluated by using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression Questionnaire. Blood specimen was collected from each participant to test the levels of blood chemicals. Of 307 HIV/AIDS patients, 189 (61.6%) were abnormal savda syndrome type, 118 (38.4%) were non-abnormal-savda syndrome type. Mean CD4 counts of abnormal savda syndrome type patients was (227.61±192.93) cells/µL, and the prevalence of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated cystatin C were 49.7%, 28.6%, and 44.7%, which were significantly higher than those in the non-abnormal-savda syndrome type patients (26.3%, 16.0% and 25.0%,PHIV/AIDS-related symptoms such as fatigue (42.3%), back aches (40.7%), lack of appetite (33.9%), night sweats (31.7%) were more common among abnormal savda syndrome patients (PHIV/AIDS patients, and they present a more sever clinical manifestation.

  8. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallabi Dasgupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA. Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173. Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%, followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. Conclusions: The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area.

  9. Hepatitis B and C Sero-prevalence in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Izmir

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    Sabri ATALAY

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV represent a significant health problem. Co-infection with these viral agents is not uncommon as a result of the similar transmission routes. Our study was planned to investigate the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections in HIV/Acquired Immune Deficiency syndrome (AIDS patients followed up at our institution. Materials and Methods: In this study conducted in the Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology at Izmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, medical records of patients followed at the HIV/AIDS outpatient clinic between August 2002 and December 2014 were evaluated. Demographic data, main route of HIV transmission, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, anti-hepatitis B core (HBc immunoglobulin G (IgG, anti-HBs and anti-HCV results were evaluated. Results: A total of 157 treatment-naïve patients who were followed up at our HIV/AIDS outpatient clinic were included in this study. Four patients (2.6%, had HBsAg positivity. Anti-HBc IgG and anti-HBs positivity were detected in 34% and 28.4% of the patients, respectively. No patients had anti-HCV positivity. Conclusion: The prevalence of HBsAg in HIV-positive individuals was found to be similar to that in other population-based studies in our country. Absence of anti-HCV positivity suggests that hepatitis C infection is not a major health problem in this population.

  10. Estimation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in Manipur

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    Singh H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To estimate and stratify CD4 + and CD8 + T-lymphocyte levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected (asymptomatic and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients (symptomatic and correlate the clinical features of the patients with CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte level. Methods : Between April 2002 and September 2003, a total of 415 HIV seropositive adult patients (297 males and 118 females attending Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS hospitals were tested for CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes by fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS counter (Becton Dickinson. Symptomatic patients were diagnosed as per NACO clinical case definition. Results : Ranges of 0-50, 51-100, 101-200, 201-300, 301-400, 401-500 and above 500 CD4+ T-lymphocyte per microlitre were seen in 68, 52, 101, 73, 47, 31 and 43 patients respectively whereas CD8+ T-lymphocyte ranges of 0-300, 301-600, 601-900, 901-1500, 1501-2000, 2001-3500 per microlitre were seen in 29, 84, 92, 145, 40 and 25 patients respectively. One hundred and fifty patients were asymptomatic and 265 were symptomatic. CD4/CD8 ratio in asymptomatics and symptomatics were 0.13-1.69 and 0.01-0.93 respectively. Tuberculosis and candidiasis occurred in CD4+ T-lymphocyte categories between 0-400 cells per mL in symptomatics. However, cryptosporidiosis, toxoplasmosis, herpes zoster, cryptococcal meningitis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, penicilliosis and cytomegalovirus retinitis were seen in patients having CD4+ T-lymphocyte less than 200 per mL. Conclusions : CD4+ T-lymphocyte was decreased in both asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV patients, The decrease was greater in symptomatics while CD8+ T-lymphocyte was increased in both except advanced stage symptomatics. CD4:CD8 ratio was reversed in both groups. Opportunistic infections correlated with different CD4+ T-lymphocyte categories.

  11. Avian Influenza: Potential Impact on Sub-Saharan Military Populations with High Rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feldman, Robert L; Nickell, Kent

    2007-01-01

    ...)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With the arrival of avian influenza in Africa, the potential exists that some of those soldiers might also become infected with H5N1, the virus responsible for the disease...

  12. Human Primary Epithelial Cells Acquire an Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition Phenotype during Long-Term Infection by the Oral Opportunistic Pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis

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    Jungnam Lee

    2017-12-01

    proliferation inhibitor, Mitomycin C. The cellular movement was determined by microscopy. Results displayed P. gingivalis infection promoted cell migration which was slightly enhanced by co-infection with Fusobacterium nucleatum, another oral opportunistic pathogen. Therefore, this study demonstrates human primary OECs acquire initial molecular/cellular changes that are consistent with EMT induction during long-term infection by P. gingivalis and provides a critically novel framework for future mechanistic studies.

  13. Ambient workplace heterosexism: Implications for sexual minority and heterosexual employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Kathi N; Costa, Paula L

    2018-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between ambient workplace heterosexism, emotional reactions (i.e., fear and anger), and outcomes for sexual minority and heterosexual employees. Five hundred thirty-six restaurant employees (68% female, 77% White) completed an online survey assessing the variables of interest. Results showed that greater experiences of ambient workplace heterosexism were associated with heightened fear and anger and, in turn, with heightened psychological distress (for fear) and greater physical health complaints, turnover intentions, and lowered job satisfaction (for anger). Fear also mediated the relationship between ambient workplace heterosexism and psychological distress. In addition, sexual orientation moderated the relationship between ambient workplace heterosexism and fear such that sexual minority employees reported more fear than heterosexuals with greater ambient heterosexism. These effects occurred after controlling for personal experiences of interpersonal discrimination. Our findings suggest that ambient workplace heterosexism can be harmful to all employees, not only sexual minorities or targeted individuals. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Sexual and romantic jealousy in heterosexual and homosexual adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christine R

    2002-01-01

    Several theorists have claimed that men are innately more upset by a mate's sexual infidelity and women are more upset by a mate's emotional infidelity because the sexes faced different adaptive problems (for men, cuckoldry; for women, losing a mate's resources). The present work examined this theory of jealousy as a specific innate module in 196 adult men and women of homosexual and heterosexual orientations. As in previous work, heterosexuals' responses to a forced-choice question about hypothetical infidelity yielded a gender difference. However no gender differences were found when participants recalled personal experiences with a mate's actual infidelity. Men and women, regardless of sexual orientation, on average focused more on a mate's emotional infidelity than on a mate's sexual infidelity. Responses to hypothetical infidelity were uncorrelated with reactions to actual infidelity. This finding casts doubt on the validity of the hypothetical measures used in previous research.

  15. The accomplishment of happiness : feminism, pleasure, heterosexuality and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    This article explores some of the available sociological orientations towards happiness, linking these with feminist debates about pleasure, heterosexuality, agency and consumption, as well as utilizing my own autobiographical narrative from working with other feminists over the years in academia. Its central premise is that feminist debates and concerns can take forward sociological debates on happiness in new directions and in more nuanced ways. Conversely, current sociological theorizing o...

  16. Prevalence of Physical and Psychological Violence among Heterosexual Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López Angulo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: there are few studies at the population level on the prevalence of violence in heterosexual relationships. This study demonstrated the reality of this phenomenon in our context. Objective: to determine the prevalence of psychological and physical violence among heterosexual couples in the city of Cienfuegos in 2010. Methods: a cross-sectional study of adults aged 15 to 74 years was conducted in six health areas. An equal probability sample of 1873 subjects was selected. The variables included psychological and physical violence, sex, age, skin color, marital status, educational level and history of living in troubled homes. The results were processed using SPSS 15.0. Results: prevalence of psychological and physical violence among couples was approximately six out of ten with different frequency levels. Psychological violence rose to 82.3 % and physical violence to 96.3 % when the couple lived together. Women reported being victims of violence from age 35 to 44 and men from age 25 to 34. Seventy point eight percent of couples who had middle school education reported suffering physical violence while 63 % of those with university education reported psychological violence. Fifty-one point eight percent of the study population was victim of physical violence during childhood. Conclusions: prevalence of psychological and physical violence among heterosexual couples in the sample studied in Cienfuegos is higher than the mean in the general population.

  17. Gay and lesbian couples in Italy: comparisons with heterosexual couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Paolo; Dèttore, Davide; Lasagni, Irene; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Assessing couple relationships across diverse languages and cultures has important implications for both clinical intervention and prevention. This is especially true for nontraditional relationships potentially subject to various expressions of negative societal evaluation or bias. Few empirically validated measures of relationship functioning have been developed for cross-cultural applications, and none have been examined for their psychometric sufficiency for evaluating same-sex couples across different languages and cultures. The current study examined the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory - Revised (MSI-R), a 150-item 13-scale measure of couple relationship functioning, for its use in assessing the intimate relationships of gay and lesbian couples in Italy. Results for these couples were compared to data from heterosexual married and unmarried cohabiting couples from the same geographical region, as well as to previously published data for gay, lesbian, and unmarried heterosexual couples from the United States. Findings suggest that, despite unique societal pressures confronting Italian same-sex couples, these relationships appear resilient and fare well both overall and in specific domains of functioning compared to heterosexual couples both in Italy and the United States. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  18. Higher rates of triple-class virological failure in perinatally HIV-infected teenagers compared with heterosexually infected young adults in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, A; Lodwick, R; Noguera-Julian, A; Gibb, D M; Butler, K; Costagliola, D; Sabin, C; van Sighem, A; Ledergerber, B; Torti, C; Mocroft, A; Podzamczer, D; Dorrucci, M; De Wit, S; Obel, N; Dabis, F; Cozzi-Lepri, A; García, F; Brockmeyer, N H; Warszawski, J; Gonzalez-Tome, M I; Mussini, C; Touloumi, G; Zangerle, R; Ghosn, J; Castagna, A; Fätkenheuer, G; Stephan, C; Meyer, L; Campbell, M A; Chene, G; Phillips, A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the time to, and risk factors for, triple-class virological failure (TCVF) across age groups for children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection and older adolescents and adults with heterosexually acquired HIV infection. We analysed individual patient data from cohorts in the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE). A total of 5972 participants starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 1998, aged 500 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL despite ≥ 4 months of use. TCVF was defined as cumulative failure of two NRTIs, an NNRTI and a bPI. The median number of weeks between diagnosis and the start of ART was higher in participants with perinatal HIV infection compared with participants with heterosexually acquired HIV infection overall [17 (interquartile range (IQR) 4-111) vs. 8 (IQR 2-38) weeks, respectively], and highest in perinatally infected participants aged 10-14 years [49 (IQR 9-267) weeks]. The cumulative proportion with TCVF 5 years after starting ART was 9.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-12.3%] in participants with perinatally acquired infection and 4.7% (95% CI 3.9-5.5%) in participants with heterosexually acquired infection, and highest in perinatally infected participants aged 10-14 years when starting ART (27.7%; 95% CI 13.2-42.1%). Across all participants, significant predictors of TCVF were those with perinatal HIV aged 10-14 years, African origin, pre-ART AIDS, NNRTI-based initial regimens, higher pre-ART viral load and lower pre-ART CD4. The results suggest a beneficial effect of starting ART before adolescence, and starting young people on boosted PIs, to maximize treatment response during this transitional stage of development. © 2016 The Authors. HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association.

  19. The Strategies of Heterosexuals from Large Metropolitan Areas for Assessing the Risks of Exposure to HIV or Other Sexually Transmitted Infections from Partners Met Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Onaga, Marie; Verni, Rachel; Gunn, Hamish

    2017-04-01

    Heterosexuals' use of the Internet for meeting romantic or sexual partners is rapidly increasing, raising concerns about the Internet's potential to facilitate encounters that place individuals at risk for acquiring HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). For example, online sharing of personal information and self-revelations can foster virtual intimacy, promoting a false sense of familiarity that might accelerate progression to unprotected sex. Therefore, it is critical to understand how those who meet sexual partners online attempt to assess the possible risk of acquiring HIV or STIs posed by having unprotected sex with a new partner and decide whether to use a condom. To investigate this issue, in-depth interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of heterosexual male and female participants from large metropolitan cities who had had unprotected vaginal or anal sex with at least two partners met online in the past 3 months. With few exceptions, participants relied on faulty strategies and heuristics to estimate these risks; yet, most engaged in unprotected sex at their first meeting or very soon afterward. While some seemed to try to make a genuine effort to arrive at a reliable assessment of the HIV risk posed, most appeared to be looking for a way to justify their desire and intention to have unprotected sex. The findings suggest the need for more HIV and sexual health education targeted at heterosexuals, especially for those who go online to meet partners.

  20. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and use of healthcare services among rural migrants: a cross-sectional study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Cochran, Christopher; Xu, Peng; Shen, Jay J; Zeng, Gang; Xu, Yanjun; Sun, Mei; Li, Chengyue; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui; Lu, Jun; Hao, Mo; Lu, Fan

    2014-02-13

    Today's rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was applied and 2,753 rural migrants participated in this study. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Guangdong and Sichuan provinces in 2007. Descriptive analysis was used to present the essential characteristics of the respondents. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models were performed to examine the associations between identified demographic factors and high-risk sex, sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms, and access to HIV screening services among the seven types of workers. 58.6% of participants were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS transmission, but approximately 90% had a negative attitude towards the AIDS patients, and that 6.2% had engaged in high-risk sex in the past 12 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed sex, marital status, income, migration and work experience to be associated with high-risk sex. Among the 13.9% of workers who reported having STD symptoms, risk factors that were identified included female gender, high monthly income, being married, daily laborer or entertainment worker, frequent migration, and length of work experience. Only 3% of migrant workers received voluntary free HIV screening, which was positively associated with monthly income and workplace. HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices among rural migrants in China remain a thorny health issue, and use of healthcare services needs to be improved. Low levels of education and knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among housekeepers and migrant day laborers result in

  1. Do Students Eventually Get to Publish their Research Findings? The Case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munung, Ns; Vidal, L; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, O

    2014-05-01

    Scientific publication is commonly used to communicate research findings and in most academic/research settings, to evaluate the potential of a researcher and for recruitment and promotion. It has also been said that researchers have the duty to make public, the findings of their research. As a result, researchers are encouraged to share their research findings with the scientific world through peer review publications. In this study, we looked at the characteristics and publication rate of theses that documented studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Cameroon. TO CHECK IF A THESIS RESULTED IN A PUBLICATION, WE SEARCHED: A database of publications on HIV in Cameroon, African Journals Online, PubMed and Google scholar. For each publication we recorded if the student was an author, the position of the student in the author listing, the journal and where the journal was indexed. We also looked at the impact factor of the journals. One hundred and thirty theses/dissertations were included in the study, 74.6% (97/130) were written as part of a medical degree (MD), 23.8% (31/130) a postgraduate (PG) degree and 1.5% (2/130) for a Doctorate/PhD. On a whole, 13.9% (18/130) of the theses resulted in at least one publication in a scientific journal with a total of 22 journal articles, giving a mean publication rate of 0.17 article/thesis, 86.4% (11/22) were indexed on PubMed, 9.1% (2/22) on African Journals Online and 4.6% (1/22) on Google scholar. One PG thesis led to two book chapters. The student was the first author in 22.7% (5/22) of the articles and not an author in 9.1% (2/22) of the articles. Student supervisor was an author in all the articles. This study reveals that most students in Cameroon failed to transform their theses/dissertations to scientific publications. This indicates an urgent need to sensitize students on the importance of presenting their research findings in scientific meetings and peer reviewed journals

  2. Eradication of hepatitis C virus and non-liver-related non-acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related events in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Juan; Rodríguez-Castellano, Elena; Carrero, Ana; Von Wichmann, Miguel A; Montero, Marta; Galindo, María J; Mallolas, Josep; Crespo, Manuel; Téllez, María J; Quereda, Carmen; Sanz, José; Barros, Carlos; Tural, Cristina; Santos, Ignacio; Pulido, Federico; Guardiola, Josep M; Rubio, Rafael; Ortega, Enrique; Montes, María L; Jusdado, Juan J; Gaspar, Gabriel; Esteban, Herminia; Bellón, José M; González-García, Juan

    2017-08-01

    We assessed non-liver-related non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related (NLR-NAR) events and mortality in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients treated with interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV), between 2000 and 2008. The censoring date was May 31, 2014. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the adjusted hazard rate (HR) of overall death in responders and nonresponders. Fine and Gray regression analysis was conducted to determine the adjusted subhazard rate (sHR) of NLR deaths and NLR-NAR events considering death as the competing risk. The NLR-NAR events analyzed included diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, cardiovascular events, NLR-NAR cancer, bone events, and non-AIDS-related infections. The variables for adjustment were age, sex, past AIDS, HIV transmission category, nadir CD4 + T-cell count, antiretroviral therapy, HIV RNA, liver fibrosis, HCV genotype, and exposure to specific anti-HIV drugs. Of the 1,625 patients included, 592 (36%) had a sustained viral response (SVR). After a median 5-year follow-up, SVR was found to be associated with a significant decrease in the hazard of diabetes mellitus (sHR, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35-0.93; P = 0.024) and decline in the hazard of chronic renal failure close to the threshold of significance (sHR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.17-1.09; P = 0.075). Our data suggest that eradication of HCV in coinfected patients is associated not only with a reduction in the frequency of death, HIV progression, and liver-related events, but also with a reduced hazard of diabetes mellitus and possibly of chronic renal failure. These findings argue for the prescription of HCV therapy in coinfected patients regardless of fibrosis stage. (Hepatology 2017;66:344-356). © 2017 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Epidemiology and clinical parameters of adult human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome at the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in South eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleje, Gu; Ele, Pu; Okocha, Ec; Iloduba, Uc

    2014-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has continued to ravage the teeming populations in Nigeria, with disastrous consequences. Despite many studies and progress on HIV/AIDS in Africa, the data on the status of the patients at the commencement of therapy is lacking. The aim of this study is to determine the demographic, clinical and some laboratory features of adult HIV/AIDS patients, seen at the commencement of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, south-east Nigeria between July 2002 and October 2004. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Adult patients living with HIV/AIDS were studied using an interview administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using Epi Info 2008 version 3.5.1. A total of 400 respondents participated in this study. The mean age was 36.8 (8.8) years. Almost 60% patients were married and the HIV concordance rate was 53.3% (136/255). Nearly 30% of the families had at least one child positive for HIV. The most common associated risky behavior was injection administered in patent medicine stores 74.5%(302/400) and the most common clinical symptom was respiratory. Of the 400 patients recruited in this study, 19 (4.8%) were lost to follow-up on the 6 months' visit, giving a follow-up rate of 95.2% (381/400). There was statistically significant difference in the mean body weight (P = 0.02), mean total white blood cell count (P < 0.001) and mean CD4(+) count (P < 0.001) at presentation and after 6 months of ART therapy. HIV/AIDS patients present late and body weight, CD4(+) count and total white blood cell count seemed to recover quickly on commencement of ART. The prevalence of concordance among couples and mother to child transmission rates tended to be high. Administration of injectable at patent medicine stores and multiple sexual partners are the most significant risk factors.

  4. Contribution of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic to de novo presentations of heart disease in the Heart of Soweto Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Karen; Carrington, Melinda J; Becker, Anthony; Thienemann, Friedrich; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Stewart, Simon

    2012-04-01

    The contemporary impact of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic on heart disease in South Africa (>5 million people affected) is unknown. The Heart of Soweto Study provides a unique opportunity to identify the contribution of cardiac manifestations of this epidemic to de novo presentations of heart disease in an urban African community in epidemiological transition. Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital services the >1 million people living in Soweto, South Africa. A prospective, clinical registry captured data from all de novo cases of heart disease presenting to the Cardiology Unit during 2006-08. We describe all cases where HIV/AIDS was concurrently diagnosed. Overall, 518 of 5328 de novo cases of heart disease were identified as HIV-positive (9.7%) with 54% of these prescribed highly active anti-retroviral therapies on presentation. Women (62%) and Africans (97%) predominated with women being significantly younger than men 38 ± 13 vs. 42 ± 13 years (P = 0.002). The most common primary diagnosis attributable to HIV/AIDS was HIV-related cardiomyopathy (196 cases, 38%); being prescribed more anti-retroviral therapy (127/196 vs. 147/322; odds ratio 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.81-3.88) with higher viral loads [median 110 000 (inter-quartile range 26 000-510 000) vs. 19 000 (3200-87 000); P = 0.018] and a lower CD4 count [median 180 (71-315) vs. 211 (96-391); P = 0.019] than the rest. An additional 128 cases (25%) were diagnosed with pericarditis/pericardial effusion with a range of other concurrent diagnoses evident, including 42 cases (8.1%) of HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension. Only 14 of all 581 cases of coronary artery disease (CAD) (2.4%, mean age 41 ± 13 years) were confirmed HIV-positive. Cardiac manifestations of HIV/AIDS identified within this cohort were relatively infrequent. While HIV-related cardiomyopathy and pericardial disease remain important targets for early detection and treatment in

  5. Prevalence and correlates of heterosexual anal and oral sex in adolescents and adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Chandra, Anjani; Liddon, Nicole; Fenton, Kevin A; Aral, Sevgi O

    2007-12-15

    Heterosexual anal and oral sex are related to the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus infection. We examined the correlates of heterosexual anal and oral sex in the general population, using data from the National Survey of Family Growth. The sample included 12,571 men and women aged 15-44 years (79% response rate). One-third of men and women had ever had anal sex, and three-quarters had ever had oral sex. Condom use during last oral or anal sex was relatively uncommon. In separate models for men and women, having ever had anal sex was associated with white race, age of 20-44 years, and having had a non-monogamous sex partner. White race, age of 20-44 years, being married, and having higher numbers of lifetime sex partners were related to having ever given oral sex in men and women. Giving oral sex was associated with having a non-monogamous sex partner in men. Ever receiving oral sex was associated with white race and a non-monogamous sex partner in men and women. It would be beneficial to track the prevalence of heterosexual anal and oral sex and associated condom use on a more frequent basis.

  6. Enhancing masculinity by slandering homosexuals: the role of homophobic epithets in heterosexual gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaghi, Andrea; Maass, Anne; Fasoli, Fabio

    2011-12-01

    The current studies investigate the effects of homophobic labels on the self-perception of heterosexual males, hypothesizing that when exposed to homophobic epithets, they are motivated to underline their masculinity and claim a distinctly heterosexual identity by taking distance from homosexuals and, to a lesser degree, from women. Heterosexual male participants were subliminally (Study 1) and supraliminally (Study 2) primed either by a homophobic epithet or by a category label, and completed the Traditional Beliefs About Gender and Gender Identity scale. Participants stressed their heterosexual identity, but not their gender distinctiveness, when exposed to homophobic epithets, compared to category labels. Study 2 demonstrated that the relation between the homophobic label and the participants' heterosexual identity was mediated by how negatively they reacted to the antigay label. Heterosexual identity was enhanced in reaction to homophobic labels but not to an equally derogatory label referring to regional identity. Results are discussed within an intergroup framework.

  7. Opposite effects of actively and passively acquired immunity to the carrier on responses of human infants to a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Gyhrs, A; Kristensen, Kim

    1994-01-01

    hundred forty-four infants were vaccinated with HibCP-TT at 5 and 6 months. They were randomized into three groups that received TT as part of a diphtheria-tetanus-polio vaccine at either 6 and 7 months (group A), 5 and 6 months (group B), or 4 and 5 months (group C). Maternally acquired TT antibodies...

  8. Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In October 2014, CMS began reducing Medicare payments for subsection (d) hospitals that rank in the worst performing quartile with respect to hospital-acquired...

  9. Enhancing Medicares Hospital Acquired Conditions Policy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The current Medicare policy of non-payment to hospitals for Hospital Acquired Conditions (HAC) seeks to avoid payment for preventable complications identified within...

  10. Neural activation toward erotic stimuli in homosexual and heterosexual males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagerer, Sabine; Klucken, Tim; Wehrum, Sina; Zimmermann, Mark; Schienle, Anne; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2011-11-01

    Studies investigating sexual arousal exist, yet there are diverging findings on the underlying neural mechanisms with regard to sexual orientation. Moreover, sexual arousal effects have often been confounded with general arousal effects. Hence, it is still unclear which structures underlie the sexual arousal response in homosexual and heterosexual men. Neural activity and subjective responses were investigated in order to disentangle sexual from general arousal. Considering sexual orientation, differential and conjoint neural activations were of interest. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study focused on the neural networks involved in the processing of sexual stimuli in 21 male participants (11 homosexual, 10 heterosexual). Both groups viewed pictures with erotic content as well as aversive and neutral stimuli. The erotic pictures were subdivided into three categories (most sexually arousing, least sexually arousing, and rest) based on the individual subjective ratings of each participant. Blood oxygen level-dependent responses measured by fMRI and subjective ratings. A conjunction analysis revealed conjoint neural activation related to sexual arousal in thalamus, hypothalamus, occipital cortex, and nucleus accumbens. Increased insula, amygdala, and anterior cingulate gyrus activation could be linked to general arousal. Group differences emerged neither when viewing the most sexually arousing pictures compared with highly arousing aversive pictures nor compared with neutral pictures. Results suggest that a widespread neural network is activated by highly sexually arousing visual stimuli. A partly distinct network of structures underlies sexual and general arousal effects. The processing of preferred, highly sexually arousing stimuli recruited similar structures in homosexual and heterosexual males. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Disseminated cryptococcosis and fluconazole resistant oral candidiasis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothavade, Rajendra J; Oberai, Chetan M; Valand, Arvind G; Panthaki, Mehroo H

    2010-10-28

    Disseminated cryptococcosis and recurrent oral candidiasis was presented in a-heterosexual AIDS patient. Candida tropicalis (C.tropicalis) was isolated from the oral pseudomembranous plaques and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) was isolated from maculopapular lesions on body parts (face, hands and chest) and body fluids (urine, expectorated sputum, and cerebrospinal fluid). In vitro drug susceptibility testing on the yeast isolates demonstrated resistance to fluconazole acquired by C. tropicalis which was a suggestive possible root cause of recurrent oral candidiasis in this patient.

  12. Acquired bleeding disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B one marrow aplasia ... Laboratory approach to a suspected acquired bleeding disorder. (LER = leuko- .... lymphocytic leukaemia, and lymphoma). ... cells), a bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy (BMAT) is not ..... transplantation.

  13. Pneumonia - children - community acquired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children ... Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Ways your child can get CAP include: Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread ...

  14. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  15. Gender differences regarding preferences for specific heterosexual practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1994-01-01

    Few investigations of sexual attitudes have restricted their focus to individuals' preferences for specific behaviors within a heterosexual relationship. None have examined gender differences in a broad and multidimensional array of such behavioral particulars. As part of an effort to develop a measure of preferred scripts in heterosexual couples, 258 men and women reported how much they agreed or disagreed with 74 statements of preference. A reduced and factor analyzed questionnaire included 38 items and was administered to a second sample (N = 228). Results offer qualified support that, compared to women, men are more erotophilic and show a stronger preference for incorporating erotic materials as well as drugs and alcohol into sexual relations with their partner. These results were more robust in the second sample, in which almost half of the subjects were tested in same-sex groups. Across both samples, women showed stronger preferences for activities reflecting romanticism. No gender differences were evident in sexual conventionality or in preference regarding the general use of contraceptives. However, results suggest that both sexes respond more favorably to a partner-focused or unspecified contraceptive method than to a self-focused method.

  16. The inventory of dyadic heterosexual preferences: development and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1996-04-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of an instrument that measures preferences for specific sexual behaviors of heterosexual men and women in a dyadic context. In Study 1, 74 statements of preference were reduced to 46 on the basis of reliability and range of responses. Factor analysis revealed that 27 of the 46 items loaded on 6 factors: Erotophilia, Use of Contraception, Conventionality, Use of Erotica, Use of Drugs/Alcohol, and Romanticism. In Study 2, factor analysis of fresh data from a second sample cross-validated these results. To establish construct validity of the revised 27-item Inventory of Dyadic Heterosexual Preferences (IDHP), relationships between each of its 6 scales and 6 criterion measures were examined. These analyses suggested that the last scale is more accurately characterized by the term Romantic Foreplay. We conclude that the IDHP measures 6 distinct domains of sexual preference with a brief, psychometrically sound instrument. Potential applications of the IDHP, suggestions for future research, and strengths and limitations of the current investigation are discussed.

  17. Heterosexuals and HIV transmission: where do we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippax, S; Crawford, J

    1991-07-01

    A number of reports from Australia and abroad, detailing the results of surveys of heterosexuals' sexual practice, have indicated that most heterosexuals are not changing their sexual behavior despite the present context of a global HIV/AIDS pandemic, and despite there being a reasonably accurate knowledge of HIV transmission among survey respondents. However, it does appear that safe sex messages are getting through to and bringing about the gradual adoption of risk reduction behavior among young university students. Findings are reported from surveys of 18-19-year-old male and female students at Macquarie and Sydney Universities during 1987-90. 55 and 66 students were surveyed in 1987 and 1989, respectively, at the University of Sydney, while 700, 564, and 709 students were surveyed in 1988, 1989, and 1990, respectively, at Macquarie University. 45-55% of students had experienced oral/genital sex, 45-60% vaginal intercourse, and 4-7% anal sex. The students generally know that kissing and masturbation are safe sex practices, and they also appear to accept that condom use decreases the risk of exposure to HIV. The most dangerous sex practices were judged to be unprotected intercourse with regular and casual partners, but especially with casual partners, and withdrawal and oral/genital sex with casual partners. When compared with older students, these 18-19 year old students were significantly more likely to use condoms in vaginal intercourse with both regular and casual partners.

  18. Condom use by heterosexuals attending a department of GUM: attitudes and behaviour in the light of HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnex, C; Hart, G J; Williams, P; Adler, M W

    1989-01-01

    The use of condoms to prevent the further spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is one of the main themes of the government's health education campaign against AIDS. A study of the use of and attitudes towards condoms in 222 heterosexual men and women attending a department of genitourinary medicine (GUM) in central London showed that 55% (50/91) to 59% (41/70) of men or women never, and 6% (6/95) to 15% (14/91) always, used condoms with their regular or non-regular sexual pa...

  19. Effects of Attractiveness and Status in Dating Desire in Homosexual and Heterosexual Men and Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, P.T.; Berg, J.E.M. van den; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined partner preferences of homosexual and heterosexual men and woman, focusing on attractiveness and status. Homosexual (N = 591 men; M age = 28.87 years, SD = 10.21; N = 249 women; M age = 33.36 years, SD = 13.12) and heterosexual participants (N = 346 men; M age = 39.74

  20. The Effects of Premarital Heterosexual and Homosexual Experience on Dating and Marriage Desirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John D.; Jacoby, Arthur P.

    1989-01-01

    Surveyed 365 college students to investigate their attitudes toward the effects of past sexual behavior, both heterosexual and homosexual, on one's acceptability as a dating or marriage partner. Results showed that both men and women prefer partners without previous coital or oral heterosexual experience, and both strongly rejected those with any…

  1. Effect of Psychopathy on Physical Aggression Toward Gay and Heterosexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of psychopathy on antigay aggression. Participants were 84 heterosexual men who competed in an aggression paradigm in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a randomly determined fictitious opponent (heterosexual male, gay male) during a competitive reaction time…

  2. Changes in Diversity Course Student Prejudice and Attitudes toward Heterosexual Privilege and Gay Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

    2010-01-01

    This study examined diversity course influence on student prejudice against lesbians and gay men, awareness of heterosexual privilege, and support for gay marriage. The study included heterosexual female students in psychology of women, introduction to women's studies, and nondiversity psychology courses. Students in diversity courses expressed…

  3. A Comparison of Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual College Undergraduate Women on Selected Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Dianne L.; Santurri, Laura; Peters, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate selected mental health characteristics of lesbians and bisexual undergraduate college women as compared with heterosexual college women. Participants: Self-identified lesbians and bisexual and heterosexual female college students who took part in the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment…

  4. Partner-specific sexual practices among heterosexual men and women with multiple partners: results from the French national survey, ACSF. Analyse des Comportements Sexuel en France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, A; Pelletier, A

    1996-06-01

    Heterosexual men and women with several partners are at risk of acquiring and transmitting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Risk depends on parameters such as the sexual practices themselves which may vary according to the type of partner (regular vs. casual). It is therefore important to describe the sexual practices and identify the correlations between the type of partner and these practices among heterosexuals with multiple partners. A subsample of all subjects having had at least two sexual partners during the previous year (n = 1644) was obtained from the ACSF survey (n = 20,055), the French national telephone survey on sexual behavior conducted between September 1991 and February 1992. Questions concerned in particular sexual practices of the last encounter as well as type of partner. Petting and vaginal penetration were almost systematic, mutual manual stimulation and orogenital sex were common, while self-masturbation and anal sex were infrequent. On average, a condom was seldom used. However, it was used more often when the partner was occasional. Nonpenetrative and oral practices were also more frequent with occasional partners. Women tended to report lower frequencies of practices and of condom use than men. A subset of heterosexuals with multiple partners engaged in safe sex. Practices tend to be partner-specific, with safer sex practices more likely to occur with occasional partners, although the magnitude of the difference is moderate.

  5. Disparities in Depressive Symptoms Between Heterosexual and Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth in a Dutch Cohort : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    la Roi, Chaïm; Kretschmer, Tina; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth experience elevated levels of depressive symptoms compared to heterosexual youth. This study examined how differences in depressive symptoms between heterosexual and LGB youth developed from late childhood to early adulthood. The association between sexual

  6. Perceptions of Threats to Physical Safety, Sexual Autonomy, Values, and of Discrimination Drive LGB Prejudices Toward Heterosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirlott, Angela G; Rusten, Marta L; Butterfuss, Reese M

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have investigated heterosexuals' prejudices toward nonheterosexuals, yet LGB's prejudices toward heterosexuals remain largely unexplored. Therefore, we sought to determine the threats and opportunities (i.e., affordances) LGB perceive heterosexuals to pose and whether those affordances explain their sexual prejudices toward heterosexuals. Study 1 analyzed LGB's reasons for liking and disliking heterosexuals, which determined whether the threats predicted to be salient for LGB mirrored the affordances they generated. Study 2 measured these perceived affordances and examined the extent to which they drove LGB's prejudices toward heterosexuals. Generally, perceptions of discrimination and unreciprocated sexual interest threats drove anger, physical safety and sexual autonomy threats drove fear, and values threats drove moral disgust toward heterosexuals, although results varied slightly by perceiver and target groups. Goals to alleviate the tensions between heterosexuals and LGB require an understanding of the dynamics between these groups. This research provides preliminary insights into understanding those dynamics. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  7. Acquired immunologic tolerance in chimeras and histocompatibility factors in cattle and their relationship to those in humans. Final report. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, W.H.

    1976-03-01

    During the course of this project we have studied 35 pairs of chimeric cattle twins. It is now clear that fractionated doses of whole-body /sup 60/Co irradiation can cause marked shifts in the proportions of the two erythrocyte populations that make up the chimeric mixture. However, it has not been possible to eliminate one of the two cell types and thus abrogate the acquired immunologic tolerance. The results of our extensive skin-grafting experiments are remarkable because they show that a chimeric twin may mount a sufficient immune response to reject its cotwin's skin while remaining completely tolerant to erythropoietic elements of its cotwin. In conjunction with these studies, we have acquired sufficient data to define a major histocompatibility locus in cattle using alloimmune anti-lymphocyte typing sera as well as the mixed lymphocyte culture technic. This project has also yielded a considerable number of new immunogenetic parameters for cattle, monkeys and birds. Such parameters are useful for basic and applied studies in immunology.

  8. Children's Gender Identity in Lesbian and Heterosexual Two-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2010-01-01

    This study compared gender identity, anticipated future heterosexual romantic involvement, and psychosocial adjustment of children in lesbian and heterosexual families; it was furthermore assessed whether associations between these aspects differed between family types. Data were obtained in the Netherlands from children in 63 lesbian families and 68 heterosexual families. All children were between 8 and 12 years old. Children in lesbian families felt less parental pressure to conform to gender stereotypes, were less likely to experience their own gender as superior and were more likely to be uncertain about future heterosexual romantic involvement. No differences were found on psychosocial adjustment. Gender typicality, gender contentedness and anticipated future heterosexual romantic involvement were significant predictors of psychosocial adjustment in both family types.

  9. HIV Among MSM and Heterosexual Women in the United States: An Ecologic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, H Fisher; Al-Tayyib, Alia; Neaigus, Alan; Reilly, Kathleen H; Braunstein, Sarah; Brady, Kathleen A; Sey, Ekow; Risser, Jan; Padget, Paige; Lalota, Marlene; Schacht, John-Mark; Forrest, David W; Macomber, Katie; Griffin, Vivian; Higgins, Emily; Robinson, William T; Zarwell, Meagan C; Opoku, Jenevieve; Magnus, Manya; Kuo, Irene; Burt, Richard; Thiede, Hanne; Glick, Sara; Flynn, Colin; German, Danielle

    2017-07-01

    Phylogenetic studies show links between heterosexual women and men who have sex with men (MSM) that are more numerous than from heterosexual men to women suggesting that HIV infections among heterosexual women may stem from MSM. Poor communities have been associated with high rates of HIV among heterosexual women. Our analysis investigates potential transmission of HIV between MSM and female heterosexuals. National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data describe transmission risk behaviors of MSM, and HIV case reporting data describe the percentages of cases that are attributed to transmission risk categories. We examined correlations between the percentages of men who were MSM who also have sex with women and female heterosexual cases. We also examined census data to characterize each city in terms of poverty level and race/ethnicity makeup. There was a high correlation (0.93) between the percentage of reported living HIV cases attributed to male heterosexual contact and female heterosexual contact and a moderate nonsignificant correlation (0.49) between the percentage of MSM who were men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) in National HIV Behavioral Surveillance and the percentage of reported cases that were attributed to female heterosexual contact suggesting some potential overlap. Cities with high levels of poverty and African American/Black residents had higher levels of MSMW and higher levels of heterosexual female cases. Addressing HIV in cities with high levels of MSMW may have the dual effect of improving the health of MSM populations that have a high burden of HIV and to improve the health of their larger communities.

  10. Constitutional and acquired autosomal aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Cook, Colleen

    2011-12-01

    Chromosomal imbalances can result from numerical or structural anomalies. Numerical chromosomal abnormalities are often referred to as aneuploid conditions. This article focuses on the occurrence of constitutional and acquired autosomal aneuploidy in humans. Topics covered include frequency, mosaicism, phenotypic findings, and etiology. The article concludes with a consideration of anticipated advances that might allow for the development of screening tests and/or lead to improvements in our understanding and management of the role that aneuploidy plays in the aging process and acquisition of age-related and constitutional conditions.

  11. The Role of Faith-Based Organizations in the Education, Support, and Services for Persons Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Teresa M

    2018-03-01

    Faith-based organizations are in a unique position to provide resilience-enhancing efforts for persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. Many persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS report having a strong faith or religious affiliation, with a large percentage attending church services on a regular basis. Faith-based organizations can use these factors to reach out to these individuals and effectively promote health, well-being, education, and support. Faith-based organizations can contribute to the reduction of stigma and isolation for persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A neuropsychologic profile of homosexual and heterosexual men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegesin, D J

    1998-02-01

    To examine the applicability of psychosexual differentiation theory to the development of sexual orientation, heterosexual (HT) women, HT men, lesbians, and gay men (20 per group) completed a lexical-decision/semantic monitoring task (LD/SM) to assess verbal ability, as well as a Water Level Task (WLT) and two Mental Rotation (MR) Tasks designed to assess spatial ability. All tests have been shown to differentiate HT men and women. Results replicated previously reported sex differences between the HT men and women. Further, gay men performed akin to HT women on the verbal task and the MR tasks, but not in the WLT. Lesbians, however, primarily performed in a sex-typical manner. The dissociation in sex-atypicality between lesbians and gay men is discussed in relation to neurobiological factors related to the development of both sex-dimorphic cognitive ability and sexual orientation.

  13. Swings and roundabouts: management of jealousy in heterosexual swinging couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Richard; McDonald, Dee

    2007-06-01

    Swinging involves consensual mutual involvement in extra-dyadic sex. Jealousy in swinging couples is an interesting topic for social psychological research, because it is a common and acceptable response to a romantic partner's real or imagined infidelity. This qualitative study examined the management of jealousy among four active heterosexual swinging couples living in southern England. Participants highlighted the importance of discussion and negotiation to develop a shared couple identity and shared rules and boundaries that allowed them to manage jealousy so that they could better enjoy swinging. Rather than seeking to eliminate jealousy, swingers may manage their feelings of jealousy in order to increase sexual excitement and arousal. This study adds to our understanding of jealousy among swingers and the broader issue of jealousy in intimate relationships.

  14. Effects of attractiveness and status in dating desire in homosexual and heterosexual men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; van den Berg, Judith E M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna

    2012-06-01

    The present study examined partner preferences of homosexual and heterosexual men and woman, focusing on attractiveness and status. Homosexual (N=591 men; M age=28.87 years, SD=10.21; N=249 women; M age=33.36 years, SD=13.12) and heterosexual participants (N=346 men; M age=39.74 years, SD=14.26; N=400 women; M age=35.93 years, SD=13.72) rated the importance of attractiveness and social status of potential partners and then, in a vignette test, expressed their desire to date hypothetical potential partners based on photographs that varied in attractiveness and status-related profiles. With ratings, heterosexual men valued attractiveness the most, followed by homosexual men, heterosexual women, and homosexual women. Heterosexual women rated social status as most important. When status profiles were manipulated and accompanied with photographs of faces, the pattern of differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals supported the self-reported results. Overall, homosexual men and women have similar mate preferences to heterosexual men and women by showing more dating desire for attractive and high social status persons. Compared to attractiveness, status played a smaller role in dating desire.

  15. Innate signals overcome acquired TCR signaling pathway regulation and govern the fate of human CD161(hi) CD8α⁺ semi-invariant T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, Cameron J; Delrow, Jeff; Joslyn, Rochelle C; Swanson, Hillary M; Basom, Ryan; Tabellini, Laura; Delaney, Colleen; Heimfeld, Shelly; Hansen, John A; Riddell, Stanley R

    2011-09-08

    Type 17 programmed CD161(hi)CD8α(+) T cells contribute to mucosal immunity to bacteria and yeast. In early life, microbial colonization induces proliferation of CD161(hi) cells that is dependent on their expression of a semi-invariant Vα7.2(+) TCR. Although prevalent in adults, CD161(hi)CD8α(+) cells exhibit weak proliferative and cytokine responses to TCR ligation. The mechanisms responsible for the dichotomous response of neonatal and adult CD161(hi) cells, and the signals that enable their effector function, have not been established. We describe acquired regulation of TCR signaling in adult memory CD161(hi)CD8α(+) T cells that is absent in cord CD161(hi) cells and adult CD161(lo) cells. Regulated TCR signaling in CD161(hi) cells was due to profound alterations in TCR signaling pathway gene expression and could be overcome by costimulation through CD28 or innate cytokine receptors, which dictated the fate of their progeny. Costimulation with IL-1β during TCR ligation markedly increased proinflammatory IL-17 production, while IL-12-induced Tc1-like function and restored the response to TCR ligation without costimulation. CD161(hi) cells from umbilical cord blood and granulocyte colony stimulating factor-mobilized leukaphereses differed in frequency and function, suggesting future evaluation of the contribution of CD161(hi) cells in hematopoietic stem cell grafts to transplant outcomes is warranted.

  16. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  17. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besser MW

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Martin W Besser,1 Stephen G MacDonald2 1Department of Haematology, 2Department of Specialist Haemostasis, The Pathology Partnership, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is most frequently caused by hemodilution and consumption of clotting factors. The aggressive replacement of fibrinogen has become one of the core principles of modern management of massive hemorrhage. The best method for determining the patient’s fibrinogen level remains controversial, and particularly in acquired dysfibrinogenemia, could have major therapeutic implications depending on which quantification method is chosen. This review introduces the available laboratory and point-of-care methods and discusses the relative advantages and limitations. It also discusses current strategies for the correction of hypofibrinogenemia. Keywords: Clauss fibrinogen assay, fibrinogen antigen, viscoelastic testing, ­gravimetric fibrinogen assay, PT-derived fibrinogen, functional fibrinogen, direct oral anticoagulant, dysfibrinogenemia, afibrinogenemia

  18. Acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pramod

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hypertirichosis lanuginose developed rapidly in a patient with no detectable malignancy. Soft, fine, downy hair growth was noticed on the face, ears, limbs and trunk. Bilaterally symmetrical vitiliginous macules were present on the ear and preauricular region. This case is reported because of its rarity, absence of any detectable malignancy and development of vitiligo, which to our knowledge has not been reported earlier.

  19. Trends in occcurrence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, and human domestically acquired cases and travel associated cases ind Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ethelberg, Steen; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Often it causes self-limiting disease but severe or prolonged cases may require antimicrobial treatment. The agricultural use of antimicrobial agents selects for resistance among C. jejuni which is transmitted to humans via food...

  20. Testing of SNS-032 in a Panel of Human Neuroblastoma Cell Lines with Acquired Resistance to a Broad Range of Drugs12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löschmann, Nadine; Michaelis, Martin; Rothweiler, Florian; Zehner, Richard; Cinatl, Jaroslav; Voges, Yvonne; Sharifi, Mohsen; Riecken, Kristoffer; Meyer, Jochen; von Deimling, Andreas; Fichtner, Iduna; Ghafourian, Taravat; Westermann, Frank; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2013-01-01

    Novel treatment options are needed for the successful therapy of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Here, we investigated the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor SNS-032 in a panel of 109 neuroblastoma cell lines consisting of 19 parental cell lines and 90 sublines with acquired resistance to 14 different anticancer drugs. Seventy-three percent of the investigated neuroblastoma cell lines and all four investigated primary tumor samples displayed concentrations that reduce cell viability by 50% in the range of the therapeutic plasma levels reported for SNS-032 (<754 nM). Sixty-two percent of the cell lines and two of the primary samples displayed concentrations that reduce cell viability by 90% in this concentration range. SNS-032 also impaired the growth of the multidrug-resistant cisplatin-adapted UKF-NB-3 subline UKF-NB-3rCDDP1000 in mice. ABCB1 expression (but not ABCG2 expression) conferred resistance to SNS-032. The antineuroblastoma effects of SNS-032 did not depend on functional p53. The antineuroblastoma mechanism of SNS-032 included CDK7 and CDK9 inhibition-mediated suppression of RNA synthesis and subsequent depletion of antiapoptotic proteins with a fast turnover rate including X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1), baculoviral IAP repeat containing 2 (BIRC2; cIAP-1), and survivin. In conclusion, CDK7 and CDK9 represent promising drug targets and SNS-032 represents a potential treatment option for neuroblastoma including therapy-refractory cases. PMID:24466371

  1. Condom use and high-risk sexual acts in adult films: a comparison of heterosexual and homosexual films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzen, Corita R; Elliott, Marc N; Kerndt, Peter R; Schuster, Mark A; Brook, Robert H; Gelberg, Lillian

    2009-04-01

    We compared the prevalence of condom use during a variety of sexual acts portrayed in adult films produced for heterosexual and homosexual audiences to assess compliance with state Occupational Health and Safety Administration regulations. We analyzed 50 heterosexual and 50 male homosexual films released between August 1, 2005, and July 31, 2006, randomly selected from the distributor of 85% of the heterosexual adult films released each year in the United States. Penile-vaginal intercourse was protected with condoms in 3% of heterosexual scenes. Penile-anal intercourse, common in both heterosexual (42%) and homosexual (80%) scenes, was much less likely to be protected with condoms in heterosexual than in homosexual scenes (10% vs 78%; P film industry, especially the heterosexual industry, is not adhering to state occupational safety regulations.

  2. The acquired hyperostosis syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dihlmann, W.; Hering, L.; Bargon, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    Sterno-costo-clavicular hyperostosis (SCCH) is the most common manifestation of a syndrome, consisting of increased bone metabolism, mostly new bone formation and heterotopic ossification of fibrous tissue, which we have characterised as the acquired hyperostosis syndrome. In part I we discuss the terminology, radiological appearances, scintigraphy, clinical and laboratory findings, bacteriology, histology, nosology, complications, treatment and differential diagnosis of SCCH. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is regarded as a phaenotype of SCCH, depending on the age. CRMO occurs in children, adolescents and young adults, SCCH predominantly in middleaged and elderly adults. (orig.) [de

  3. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Sucar Batista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of diseases or skin disorders genetically transmitted and it is characterized by the appearance of bullae, ulcers and skin wounds. It usually appears at birth or in the first months of life. This is a case of a 72-year-old female patient who comes to the dermatology department with skin lesions of 6 months of evolution. A skin biopsy was performed, taking a sample for direct and indirect immunofluorescence. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa of unknown etiology was diagnosed. Treatment was started with low-dose colchicine to increase it later, according to the patient’s tolerance and disease progression.

  4. Individual-level factors associated with the risk of acquiring human Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Malaysia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Matthew J; Cox, Jonathan; William, Timothy; Jelip, Jenarun; Fornace, Kimberly M; Brock, Patrick M; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Barber, Bridget E; Anstey, Nicholas M; Yeo, Tsin W; Drakeley, Christopher J

    2017-06-09

    The emergence of human malaria due to the monkey parasite Plasmodium knowlesi threatens elimination efforts in southeast Asia. Changes in land use are thought to be driving the rise in reported P knowlesi cases, but the role of individual-level factors is unclear. To address this knowledge gap we assessed human and environmental factors associated with zoonotic knowlesi malaria risk. We did this population-based case-control study over a 2 year period in the state of Sabah in Malaysia. We enrolled cases with microscopy-positive, PCR-confirmed malaria who presented to two primary referral hospitals serving the adjacent districts of Kudat and Kota Marudu. We randomly selected three malaria-negative community controls per case, who were matched by village within 2 weeks of case detection. We obtained questionnaire data on demographics, behaviour, and residential malaria risk factors, and we also assessed glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme activity. We used conditional logistic regression models to evaluate exposure risk between P knowlesi cases and controls, and between P knowlesi and human-only Plasmodium spp malaria cases. From Dec 5, 2012, to Jan 30, 2015, we screened 414 patients and subsequently enrolled 229 cases with P knowlesi malaria mono-infection and 91 cases with other Plasmodium spp infection. We enrolled 953 matched controls, including 683 matched to P knowlesi cases and 270 matched to non- P knowlesi cases. Age 15 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4·16, 95% CI 2·09-8·29, pwork (3·50, CI, 1·34-9·15, p=0·011), sleeping outside (3·61, 1·48-8·85, p=0·0049), travel (2·48, 1·45-4·23, p=0·0010), being aware of the presence of monkeys in the past 4 weeks (3·35, 1·91-5·88, pworking in agricultural areas were at highest risk of knowlesi malaria, although peri-domestic transmission also occurrs. Human behavioural factors associated with P knowlesi transmission could be targeted in future public health interventions. United

  5. Heterosexual and nonheterosexual young university students' involvement in traditional and cyber forms of bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensley, Kate; Campbell, Marilyn

    2012-12-01

    Research has consistently found that school students who do not identify as self-declared completely heterosexual are at increased risk of victimization by bullying from peers. This study examined heterosexual and nonheterosexual university students' involvement in both traditional and cyber forms of bullying, as either bullies or victims. Five hundred twenty-eight first-year university students (M=19.52 years old) were surveyed about their sexual orientation and their bullying experiences over the previous 12 months. The results showed that nonheterosexual young people reported higher levels of involvement in traditional bullying, both as victims and perpetrators, in comparison to heterosexual students. In contrast, cyberbullying trends were generally found to be similar for heterosexual and nonheterosexual young people. Gender differences were also found. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of intervention and prevention of the victimization of nonheterosexual university students.

  6. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Loneliness Among LGB Adults and Heterosexual Adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingchu; Hu, Jize; Huang, Gang; Zheng, Xifu

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of life satisfaction have been linked to low self-esteem and loneliness, but this association has never been tested directly in LGB (lesbian/gay/bisexual) populations. We compared 275 Chinese LGB adults to 275 demographic-matched Chinese heterosexual controls on life satisfaction, self-esteem, and loneliness. LGB adults reported lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of loneliness than heterosexuals, but similar levels of overall life satisfaction. Self-esteem partially mediated (but did not moderate) the relationship between loneliness and life satisfaction in both groups. Hierarchical regressions indicated that demographic variables, loneliness, and self-esteem can predict life satisfaction in both LGB and heterosexual adults, but explained more variance of life satisfaction in the LGB group. Thus self-esteem and loneliness play a more important role in life satisfaction for LGB rather than heterosexual Chinese adults.

  7. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms Among HIV-Positive Concordant and Discordant Heterosexual Couples in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Ji, Guoping; Xiao, Yongkang

    2016-01-01

    HIV seropositive individuals and their heterosexual partners/spouses, either seropositive or seronegative, are facing several mental health challenges. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in depressive symptoms among HIV-positive concordant and HIV-discordant couples. We identified heterosexual couples from participants of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Anhui province, China. A total of 265 couples, comprising 129 HIV+ male/HIV− female couples, 98 HIV− ma...

  8. [Influence of growing experience on non-heterosexual orientation among male college students in Nanjing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X S; Fang, K; Zhang, M; Du, G P; Wu, S S; Song, Y; Xu, Y Y; Yan, W J; Ge, Y; Ji, Y; Wei, P M

    2017-07-06

    Objective: To analyze the influence of growing experience on non-heterosexual orientation among male college students. Methods: From October to November in 2015, a total of 2 535 male students from 96 classes in 14 colleges/departments were recruited from two colleges that participated in the experimental work of AIDS prevention by cluster random sampling method. A structured questionnaire was administered in this study, including general demographic information, growing experience and Kinsey scale (to evaluate sexual orientation). Out of 2 500 questionnaires distributed in this study, 2 332 effective copies were withdrew, with the effective rate at 93.3%. Chi square test was used to analyze the differences of non-heterosexual orientation among the individuals with different social demographic characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of non-heterosexual orientation. Results: Among the 2 332 individuals, the proportion of self-reported non-heterosexual was 6.2% (144).The proportions of male students who identify as non-heterosexual from freshman to junior year were 5.2%(63/1216),6.9%(65/941),11.7%(13/111) and 4.7%(3/64), respectively (χ(2)=9.06, P= 0.029). Compared with the individuals of very good relationship with parents, those with bad relationship ( OR= 3.3, 95 %CI: 1.7-6.5) and general relationship ( OR= 1.7, 95 %CI: 1.0-2.9) with parents had a higher risk of non-heterosexual orientation, respectively. Those encountered sexual assault had a higher risk of non-heterosexual orientation than those without encountered sexual assault ( OR= 5.9, 95 %CI: 3.2-10.9). Conclusions: This study reported a high proportion of self-reported non-heterosexual among college male students in Nanjing, and highlighted the importance of targeting students with poor parental relationships and who subjected to sexually abused.

  9. Preference for human body odors is influenced by gender and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Yolanda; Preti, George; Crabtree, Christina R; Runyan, Tamar; Vainius, Aldona A; Wysocki, Charles J

    2005-09-01

    Human body odor may contribute to selection of partners. If so, sexual orientation may influence preference for and perhaps production of human body odors. In a test of these hypotheses, heterosexual and homosexual males and females made two-alternative forced-choice preference judgments for body odors obtained from other heterosexual and homosexual males and females. Subjects chose between odors from (a) heterosexual males and gay males, (b) heterosexual males and heterosexual females, (c) heterosexual females and lesbians, and (d) gay males and lesbians. Results indicate that differences in body odor are detected and responded to on the basis of, in part, an individual's gender and sexual orientation. Possible mechanisms underlying these findings are discussed.

  10. Determinants of lesbian and gay affirmative practice among heterosexual therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Edward J; Dillon, Frank R; Kim, Hillary Mi-Sung

    2015-09-01

    The current study tested a conceptual model based on social-cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986), highlighting the influence of attitudes toward sexual minority individuals, training hours, affirmative counseling self-efficacy, and beliefs about affirmative practice on therapist engagement in lesbian and gay affirmative practice. We recruited via the Internet 443 heterosexual psychologists (n = 270), clinical social workers (n = 110), and marriage and family therapists (n = 63) residing in various parts of the United States. The majority of participants identified as female (70%) and White (88%). A path analysis indicated that beliefs and affirmative counseling self-efficacy mediated associations between attitudes and therapist engagement in affirmative practice. Furthermore, self-efficacy mediated the relation between training hours and engagement in affirmative practice. Results suggest that more affirmative attitudes are linked with higher levels of affirmative counseling self-efficacy and more positive beliefs, which in turn positively influences therapist engagement in affirmative practice. Additionally, more hours of training influence affirmative counseling self-efficacy, which in turn correlates with higher levels of therapist engagement in affirmative practice. The discussion includes implications for affirmative practice training. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. HIV testing behaviour among heterosexual migrants in Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, I G; Gras, M; Van Benthem, B H; Coutinho, R A; van den Hoek, J A

    2003-08-01

    This cross-sectional study among heterosexual migrant groups in south-eastern Amsterdam, the city area where the largest migrant groups live, provides an insight into HIV testing behaviour in this particular group. Participants were recruited at street locations (May 1997-July 1998) and interviewed using structured questionnaires. They also donated saliva for HIV testing. In total, 705 males and 769 females were included in this study (Afro-Surinamese (45%), Dutch-Antilleans (15%) and West Africans (40%)). Prior HIV testing was reported by 38% of all migrants (556/1479), of which only a minority (28%) had actively requested HIV testing. Multivariate logistic regression showed that not actively requesting HIV testing was more likely among younger (migrants, especially women (ORwomen: 4.79, p risk should be facilitated by promoting HIV testing and by improving accurate self-assessment of risk for HIV infection, especially among the groups that do not actively request HIV testing. This would increase HIV awareness and provide the opportunity of better medical care earlier in HIV infection.

  12. Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents' Experiences in Preschool Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E

    2014-01-01

    Little research has examined the school experiences of lesbian/gay (LG) parent families or adoptive parent families. The current exploratory study examined the experiences of 79 lesbian, 75 gay male, and 112 heterosexual adoptive parents of preschool-age children with respect to their (a) level of disclosure regarding their LG parent and adoptive family status at their children's schools; (b) perceived challenges in navigating the preschool environment and advocating on behalf of their children and families; and (c) recommendations to teachers and schools about how to create affirming school environments with respect to family structure, adoption, and race/ethnicity. Findings revealed that the majority of parents were open about their LG and adoptive family status, and had not encountered challenges related to family diversity. Those parents who did experience challenges tended to describe implicit forms of marginalization, such as insensitive language and school assignments. Recommendations for teachers included discussing and reading books about diverse families, tailoring assignments to meet the needs of diverse families, and offering school community-building activities and events to help bridge differences across families.

  13. Intimacy and Emotion Work in Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Lodge, Amy C

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge about how gender shapes intimacy is dominated by a heteronormative focus on relationships involving a man and a woman. In this study, the authors shifted the focus to consider gendered meanings and experiences of intimacy in same-sex and different-sex relationships. They merged the gender-as-relational perspective-that gender is co-constructed and enacted within relationships-with theoretical perspectives on emotion work and intimacy to frame an analysis of in-depth interviews with 15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 20 heterosexual couples. They found that emotion work directed toward minimizing and maintaining boundaries between partners is key to understanding intimacy in long-term relationships. Moreover, these dynamics, including the type and division of emotion work, vary for men and women depending on whether they are in a same-sex or different-sex relationship. These findings push thinking about diversity in long-term relationships beyond a focus on gender difference and toward gendered relational contexts.

  14. Intimacy and Emotion Work in Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Lodge, Amy C.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about how gender shapes intimacy is dominated by a heteronormative focus on relationships involving a man and a woman. In this study, the authors shifted the focus to consider gendered meanings and experiences of intimacy in same-sex and different-sex relationships. They merged the gender-as-relational perspective—that gender is co-constructed and enacted within relationships—with theoretical perspectives on emotion work and intimacy to frame an analysis of in-depth interviews with 15 lesbian, 15 gay, and 20 heterosexual couples. They found that emotion work directed toward minimizing and maintaining boundaries between partners is key to understanding intimacy in long-term relationships. Moreover, these dynamics, including the type and division of emotion work, vary for men and women depending on whether they are in a same-sex or different-sex relationship. These findings push thinking about diversity in long-term relationships beyond a focus on gender difference and toward gendered relational contexts. PMID:25814771

  15. The Symbolic Nature of Trust in Heterosexual Adolescent Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norona, Jerika C; Welsh, Deborah P; Olmstead, Spencer B; Bliton, Chloe F

    2017-08-01

    Trust contributes to young people's capacity for sustaining current and future successful relationships. To date, research has yet to examine the meaning of trust in early dating relationships and reasons for its deterioration. The present study focused on video-recorded conversations about trust between 34 heterosexual adolescent couples in dating relationships living in the U.S. Transcripts from these conversations were qualitatively analyzed using thematic analysis to identify adolescents' meanings of trust and reasons they provided for a lack of trust in their romantic partners. All 34 couples identified concerns specifically related to infidelity. Six major themes for not trusting romantic partners emerged. Results suggested that the lack of trust in romantic relationships might stem from several areas that are directly and indirectly related to the current relationship, including low self-esteem, the experience of betrayal in past romantic relationships, partners' extradyadic behaviors, and gossip among peers. Importantly, peers can play a defining role in influencing young people's perceptions of their romantic partners and developing or sustaining trust in their romantic relationships.

  16. Acquired cisplatin resistance in human ovarian A2780 cancer cells correlates with shift in taurine homeostasis and ability to volume regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Belinda Halling; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur Arna; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin resistance is a major challenge in the treatment of cancer and develops through reduced drug accumulation and an increased ability to avoid drug-induced cell damage, cell shrinkage, and hence initiation of apoptosis. Uptake and release of the semiessential amino acid taurine contribute...... to cell volume homeostasis, and taurine has been reported to have antiapoptotic effects. Here we find that volume-sensitive taurine release in cisplatin-sensitive [wild-type (WT)] human ovarian cancer A2780 cells is reduced in the presence of the phospholipase A2 inhibitor bromenol lactone, the 5......-induced cell death in RES A2780 cells correlates with an increased accumulation of taurine, due to an increased taurine uptake and a concomitant impairment of the volume-sensitive taurine release pathway, as well an inability to reduce cell volume after osmotic cell swelling. Downregulation of volume...

  17. The Leishmania promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is specifically recognised by Th1 cells in humans with naturally acquired immunity to L. major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Handman, E; Kemp, K

    1998-01-01

    The promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is a Leishmania parasite antigen, which can induce Th1-mediated protection against murine leishmaniasis when used as a vaccine. To evaluate PSA-2 as a human vaccine candidate the specific T-cell response to PSA-2 was characterised in individuals immune...... to cutaneous leishmaniasis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Sudanese individuals with a past history of self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis proliferated vigorously in response to PSA-2 isolated from Leishmania major, whereas the antigen did not activate cells from presumably unexposed Danes....... Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals with previous L. major infection had varying proliferative responses to PSA-2 derived from L. donovani promastigotes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells activated by PSA-2 from L. major produced high amounts of interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor...

  18. Coinfection of Leishmania guyanensis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Report of a Case of Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopina, Manuel; Aguirre, Cristina; Cevallos, William; Castillo, Alberto; Abbasi, Ibrahim; Warburg, Alon

    2017-01-01

    Reported herein is the first case of Leishmania–human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection in Ecuador. In Ecuador, HIV infections overlap endemic areas of leishmaniasis. Immunosuppression is a well-established risk factor for developing severe disease. This is a severe case of a 32-year-old man presenting with disseminated pleomorphic ulcers, papules, and cutaneous plaque-like lesions over his whole body. Numerous amastigotes were observed in both skin scrapings and biopsies. The sequence of the cytochrome b gene confirmed the presence of Leishmania guyanensis. The patient was treated but failed to respond to meglumine antimoniate and amphotericin B. Six months later, the patient died due to bacterial septic shock. PMID:28193741

  19. Positive aspects of being a heterosexual ally to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostosky, Sharon S; Black, Whitney W; Riggle, Ellen D B; Rosenkrantz, Dani

    2015-07-01

    Research on heterosexual allies has focused on heterosexual identity development models and pathways to ally activism. The positive aspects or positive experiences of identifying as an ally to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) identified individuals and communities have received little attention. Using an online survey of participants recruited from LGBT ally related social media, we collected open-ended responses to a question about the positive aspects of self-identifying as a heterosexual ally. A final analytic sample of 292 self-identified male and female heterosexual adults (age 18-71, M = 33.47, SD = 13.32) provided responses that generated 8 themes. Positive aspects of being a heterosexual ally were: (a) increased knowledge and awareness, (b) upholding values of justice, (c) beneficial individual relationships, (d) community belonging, (e) educating others, (f) being a role model, (g) using social privilege, and (h) speaking out and taking a stand. The findings suggest that being a heterosexual ally is rewarding and may enhance individual well-being. These findings provide information that may contribute to effective ally development efforts. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Correlation between Lymphocyte CD4 Count, Treatment Duration, Opportunistic Infection and Cognitive Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV-AIDS) Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Fasihah Irfani; Rambe, Aldy Safruddin; Fitri, Aida

    2018-04-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an epidemic worldwide, despite the marked benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) in reducing severe HIV-associated dementia. A milder form of neurocognitive disorders are still prevalent and remain a challenge. This study aimed to determine the correlation between plasma cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) lymphocyte, duration of ARV treatment, opportunistic infections, and cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients. A cross-sectional study involving 85 HIV-AIDS patients was conducted at Adam Malik General Hospital Medan, Indonesia. All subjects were subjected to physical, neurologic examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian Version (MoCA-INA) to assess cognitive function and measurement of lymphocyte CD4 counts. Out of the 85 subjects evaluated, the proportion concerning sexes include 52 males (61.2 %) and 33 females (38.8%). The mean age was 38.53 ± 9.77 years old. There was a significant correlation between CD4 lymphocyte counts and MoCA-INA score (r = 0.271, p = 0.012), but there was no significant correlation between duration of ARV treatment and MoCA-INA score. There was also no difference in MoCA-INA score based on the presence of opportunistic infection. Lymphocyte CD4 count was independently correlated with cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients.

  1. Sexual Violence Victimization History and Sexual Risk Indicators in a Community-Based Urban Cohort of “Mostly Heterosexual” and Heterosexual Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S. Bryn; Roberts, Andrea L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Molnar, Beth E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to examine sexual violence victimization in childhood and sexual risk indicators in young adulthood in a primarily Latina and Black cohort of “mostly heterosexual” and heterosexual women in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Methods. In 2000, a comprehensive survey that assessed sexual orientation, sexual risk indicators, and sexual abuse victimization was completed by 391 young women (aged 18 to 24 years) who had participated in PHDCN. We used multivariable regression methods to examine sexual orientation group differences in sexual risk indicators and to assess whether childhood sexual abuse may mediate relationships. Results. Compared with self-reported heterosexual women, self-reported “mostly heterosexual” women were more likely to report having been the victim of childhood sexual abuse, to have had a sexually transmitted infection, to report an earlier age of first sexual intercourse, and to have had more sexual partners. Childhood sexual abuse did not mediate relationships between sexual orientation and sexual risk indicators. Conclusions. Our findings add to the evidence that “mostly heterosexual” women experience greater health risk than do heterosexual women. In addition, “mostly heterosexual” women are at high risk for having experienced childhood sexual abuse. PMID:17901440

  2. The odyssey of a young gene: structure-function studies in human glutamate dehydrogenases reveal evolutionary-acquired complex allosteric regulation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaganas, Ioannis V; Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Borompokas, Nikolas; Arianoglou, Giovanna; Dimovasili, Christina; Latsoudis, Helen; Vlassi, Metaxia; Mastorodemos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the reversible inter-conversion of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia, interconnecting carbon skeleton and nitrogen metabolism. In addition, it functions as an energy switch by its ability to fuel the Krebs cycle depending on the energy status of the cell. As GDH lies at the intersection of several metabolic pathways, its activity is tightly regulated by several allosteric compounds that are metabolic intermediates. In contrast to other mammals that have a single GDH-encoding gene, humans and great apes possess two isoforms of GDH (hGDH1 and hGDH2, encoded by the GLUD1 and GLUD2 genes, respectively) with distinct regulation pattern, but remarkable sequence similarity (they differ, in their mature form, in only 15 of their 505 amino-acids). The GLUD2 gene is considered a very young gene, emerging from the GLUD1 gene through retro-position only recently (<23 million years ago). The new hGDH2 iso-enzyme, through random mutations and natural selection, is thought to have conferred an evolutionary advantage that helped its persistence through primate evolution. The properties of the two highly homologous human GDHs have been studied using purified recombinant hGDH1 and hGDH2 proteins obtained by expression of the corresponding cDNAs in Sf21 cells. According to these studies, in contrast to hGDH1 that maintains basal activity at 35-40 % of its maximal, hGDH2 displays low basal activity that is highly responsive to activation by rising levels of ADP and/or L-leucine which can also act synergistically. While hGDH1 is inhibited potently by GTP, hGDH2 shows remarkable GTP resistance. Furthermore, the two iso-enzymes are differentially inhibited by estrogens, polyamines and neuroleptics, and also differ in heat-lability. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie these different regulation patterns of the two iso-enzymes (and consequently the evolutionary adaptation of hGDH2 to a new functional role), we have

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infections among health care providers in Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a global problem of extraordinary dimensions and has so far resulted in nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Health care providers (HCPs) are considered to play a pivotal role in the provision of preventive and curative services to individuals suffering from HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. Pakistan, which was previously categorised as having a low-prevalence, high-risk HIV epidemic, is now facing a concentrated HIV epidemic among its most at-risk populations such as injecting drug users. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and reported practices relating to HIV/AIDS and STIs among private and public sector health care providers providing clinical services in areas where women sell sex. This was an exploratory quantitative study, where a structured questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews with 200 HCPs from the public and private sectors. Knowledge about AIDS and correct diagnosis of STIs were defined as according to the national guidelines of NACP. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed to test associations between predictors and level of knowledge of STIs in each group separately. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to indicate predicting factors for correct management of STIs. Forty-five percent of the HCPs had correct knowledge about the transmission and prevention of HIV, whereas 21% had seen a patient with advanced HIV infection, only two HCPs had been trained to manage such cases and 82% were not aware of syndromic management of STIs. Only 10% could cite the 'correct treatment' of gonorrhoea, syphilis and vaginal discharge. The odds of having the 'correct knowledge' of diagnosing gonorrhoea and syphilis were 2.1 (CI 95%, 1.2-3.8) if the HCP was a female medical doctor working in public sector. Further intensive training is needed to improve the ability of relevant HCPs to correctly diagnose and effectively treat patients

  4. Asexual populations of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, use a two-step genomic strategy to acquire accurate, beneficial DNA amplifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Guler

    Full Text Available Malaria drug resistance contributes to up to a million annual deaths. Judicious deployment of new antimalarials and vaccines could benefit from an understanding of early molecular events that promote the evolution of parasites. Continuous in vitro challenge of Plasmodium falciparum parasites with a novel dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH inhibitor reproducibly selected for resistant parasites. Genome-wide analysis of independently-derived resistant clones revealed a two-step strategy to evolutionary success. Some haploid blood-stage parasites first survive antimalarial pressure through fortuitous DNA duplications that always included the DHODH gene. Independently-selected parasites had different sized amplification units but they were always flanked by distant A/T tracks. Higher level amplification and resistance was attained using a second, more efficient and more accurate, mechanism for head-to-tail expansion of the founder unit. This second homology-based process could faithfully tune DNA copy numbers in either direction, always retaining the unique DNA amplification sequence from the original A/T-mediated duplication for that parasite line. Pseudo-polyploidy at relevant genomic loci sets the stage for gaining additional mutations at the locus of interest. Overall, we reveal a population-based genomic strategy for mutagenesis that operates in human stages of P. falciparum to efficiently yield resistance-causing genetic changes at the correct locus in a successful parasite. Importantly, these founding events arise with precision; no other new amplifications are seen in the resistant haploid blood stage parasite. This minimizes the need for meiotic genetic cleansing that can only occur in sexual stage development of the parasite in mosquitoes.

  5. A Latent Class Analysis of Heterosexual Young Men's Masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Erin A; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-07-01

    Parallel bodies of research have described the diverse and complex ways that men understand and construct their masculine identities (often termed "masculinities") and, separately, how adherence to traditional notions of masculinity places men at risk for negative sexual and health outcomes. The goal of this analysis was to bring together these two streams of inquiry. Using data from a national, online sample of 555 heterosexually active young men, we employed latent class analysis (LCA) to detect patterns of masculine identities based on men's endorsement of behavioral and attitudinal indicators of "dominant" masculinity, including sexual attitudes and behaviors. LCA identified four conceptually distinct masculine identity profiles. Two groups, termed the Normative and Normative/Male Activities groups, respectively, constituted 88 % of the sample and were characterized by low levels of adherence to attitudes, sexual scripts, and behaviors consistent with "dominant" masculinity, but differed in their levels of engagement in male-oriented activities (e.g., sports teams). Only eight percent of the sample comprised a masculinity profile consistent with "traditional" ideas about masculinity; this group was labeled Misogynistic because of high levels of sexual assault and violence toward female partners. The remaining four percent constituted a Sex-Focused group, characterized by high numbers of sexual partners, but relatively low endorsement of other indicators of traditional masculinity. Follow-up analyses showed a small number of differences across groups on sexual and substance use health indicators. Findings have implications for sexual and behavioral health interventions and suggest that very few young men embody or endorse rigidly traditional forms of masculinity.

  6. Sexual orientation, theory of mind and empathy: a comparison of male homosexual and male and female heterosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapouri, Soheil; Nejati, Vahid; Eftekhar Ardebili, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have been investigating similarities of and differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals for past few decades. Several studies have shown that in the particular domain (e.g., spatial ability), male homosexuals would resemble female heterosexuals better than male heterosexuals. Executive function, however, has received more attention than social cognition in this line of research. This study focuses on theory of mind and empathy as two important components of social cognition in male homosexuals (N=14), male heterosexuals (N=15) and female heterosexuals (N=14). Applying Reading the Mind in the Eyes test and the Empathy Quotient, no significant difference between groups was identified. This study suggests that similarities of male homosexuals and female heterosexuals may be confined to executive function and not extended to some social cognition abilities like theory of mind or empathy.

  7. Reactive, anxious and possessive forms of jealousy and their relation to relationship quality among heterosexuals and homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelds, Dick P H; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between relational quality and three different types of jealousy-reactive, anxious and possessive jealousy. The sample consisted of 76 gay men, 79 lesbians, 70 heterosexual women and 70 heterosexual men. Findings show that different types of jealousy affect relationship quality differently and do so differently for homosexuals and heterosexuals. Among heterosexuals and especially gay men--but not among lesbians--anxious jealousy was negatively related to relationship quality. In contrast, among heterosexuals--but not among gay men or lesbians--reactive jealousy was positively related to relationship quality. The present study shows that distinguishing between different types of jealousy is necessary to entangle the diverse effects of jealousy on the quality of homosexual and heterosexual relationships.

  8. Implicit sexual attitude of heterosexual, gay and bisexual individuals: disentangling the contribution of specific associations to the overall measure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Anselmi

    Full Text Available The article aims to measure implicit sexual attitude in heterosexual, gay and bisexual individuals. A Many-Facet Rasch Measurement analysis was used to disentangle the contribution of specific associations to the overall IAT measure. A preference for heterosexuals relative to homosexuals is observed in heterosexual respondents, driven most by associating positive attributes with heterosexuals rather than negative attributes with homosexuals. Differently, neither the negative nor the positive evaluation of any of the target groups play a prominent role in driving the preference for homosexuals observed in gay respondents. A preference for heterosexuals relative to homosexuals is observed in bisexual respondents, that results most from ascribing negative attributes to homosexuals rather than positive attributes to heterosexuals. The results are consistent with the expression of the need for achieving a positive self-image and with the influence of shared social norms concerning sexuality.

  9. Upset Over Sexual versus Emotional Infidelity Among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Fales, Melissa R

    2016-01-01

    One hypothesis derived from evolutionary perspectives is that men are more upset than women by sexual infidelity and women are more upset than men by emotional infidelity. The proposed explanation is that men, in contrast to women, face the risk of unwittingly investing in genetically unrelated offspring. Most studies, however, have relied on small college or community samples of heterosexual participants. We examined upset over sexual versus emotional jealousy among 63,894 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual participants. Participants imagined which would upset them more: their partners having sex with someone else (but not falling in love with them) or their partners falling in love with someone else (but not having sex with them). Consistent with this evolutionary perspective, heterosexual men were more likely than heterosexual women to be upset by sexual infidelity (54 vs. 35 %) and less likely than heterosexual women to be upset by emotional infidelity (46 vs. 65 %). This gender difference emerged across age groups, income levels, history of being cheated on, history of being unfaithful, relationship type, and length. The gender difference, however, was limited to heterosexual participants. Bisexual men and women did not differ significantly from each other in upset over sexual infidelity (30 vs. 27 %), regardless of whether they were currently dating a man (35 vs. 29 %) or woman (28 vs. 20 %). Gay men and lesbian women also did not differ (32 vs. 34 %). The findings present strong evidence that a gender difference exists in a broad sample of U.S. adults, but only among heterosexuals.

  10. Intercontrole acquiring by Framatome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Framatome group, as the worldwide leader in nuclear power plant construction, has reinforced his competences in nuclear services thanks to the acquiring of the Intercontrole company, specialized in non-destructive testing in nuclear and industrial environments. After a presentation of the functioning principle and of the safety aspects of a PWR reactor, this press dossier presents in a first part the role of nuclear services and in particular of non-destructive testing in nuclear power plants (in-service inspection, regulatory aspects, testing processes). This part is illustrated with some examples of inspection performed on some components of the primary coolant loop (steam generators, reactor vessel, pressurizer, pipes, primary pumps). A second part presents the technical centres and units of Framatome in charge of performing non-destructive inspections, while a third part describes the industrial policy and strategy of the group in this domain (market of nuclear park maintenance in France, in the USA and worldwide, creation of the 'inspection and control' centre of Framatome). A last part presents the activities of the Intercontrole company and of its daughter companies with some examples of actions realized in the nuclear and natural gas domains. (J.S.)

  11. Pediatric acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodack, Marie I

    2010-10-01

    Although pediatric patients are sometimes included in studies about visual problems in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), few studies deal solely with children. Unlike studies dealing with adult patients, in which mechanisms of brain injury are divided into cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), studies on pediatric patients deal almost exclusively with traumatic brain injury, specifically caused by accidents. Here we report on the vision problems of 4 pediatric patients, ages 3 to 18 years, who were examined in the ophthalmology/optometry clinic at a children's hospital. All patients had an internally caused brain injury and after the initial insult manifested problems in at least one of the following areas: acuity, binocularity, motility (tracking or saccades), accommodation, visual fields, and visual perceptual skills. Pediatric patients can suffer from a variety of oculo-visual problems after the onset of head injury. These patients may or may not be symptomatic and can benefit from optometric intervention. Copyright © 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Community-acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetter-Lang, S.; Herold, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often not possible based only on the clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters. For every patient with the suspicion of CAP, a chest radiograph in two planes should be carried out. Additionally, a risk stratification for the decision between outpatient therapy or hospitalization is recommended. Based on the evaluation of the different radiological patterns as well as their extent and distribution, a rough allocation to so-called pathogen groups as well as a differentiation between viral and bacterial infections are possible; however, because different pathogens cause different patterns an accurate correlation is not feasible by relying purely on imaging. The radiological findings serve as proof or exclusion of pneumonia and can also be used to evaluate the extent of the disease (e.g. monolobular, multilobular, unilateral or bilateral). In cases of prolonged disease, suspicion of complications (e.g. pleural effusion or empyema, necrotizing pneumonia or abscess) or comorbid conditions (e.g. underlying pulmonary or mediastinal diseases) computed tomography is an important diagnostic tool in addition to chest radiography. Ultrasound is often used to diagnose pleural processes (e.g. parapneumonic effusion or pleural empyema). (orig.) [de

  13. Condom Use and High-Risk Sexual Acts in Adult Films: A Comparison of Heterosexual and Homosexual Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marc N.; Kerndt, Peter R.; Schuster, Mark A.; Brook, Robert H.; Gelberg, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the prevalence of condom use during a variety of sexual acts portrayed in adult films produced for heterosexual and homosexual audiences to assess compliance with state Occupational Health and Safety Administration regulations. Methods. We analyzed 50 heterosexual and 50 male homosexual films released between August 1, 2005, and July 31, 2006, randomly selected from the distributor of 85% of the heterosexual adult films released each year in the United States. Results. Penile–vaginal intercourse was protected with condoms in 3% of heterosexual scenes. Penile–anal intercourse, common in both heterosexual (42%) and homosexual (80%) scenes, was much less likely to be protected with condoms in heterosexual than in homosexual scenes (10% vs 78%; P films. Conclusions. Heterosexual films were much less likely than were homosexual films to portray condom use, raising concerns about transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, especially among performers in heterosexual adult films. In addition, the adult film industry, especially the heterosexual industry, is not adhering to state occupational safety regulations. PMID:19218178

  14. Gender-related traits of heterosexual and homosexual men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard A

    2002-02-01

    Two studies investigated the relation between sexual orientation and gender-related traits. Analyzing data from an Internet survey, Study 1 found that gay men and lesbians differed from same-sex heterosexuals most strongly on gender diagnosticity (GD) measures, which assess male- versus female-typicality of occupational preferences (effect sizes were 1.14 for men and 0.53 for women) and least strongly on instrumentality (I) and expressiveness (E). Study 2 found that GD measures showed large differences between 289 gay and 200 heterosexual men (d = 0.95) and between 296 lesbian and 435 heterosexual women (d = 1.32), whereas I and E showed much smaller differences. In Study 2 homosexual-heterosexual diagnosticity measures, computed from men's and women's occupational preferences, correlated very strongly with GD measures (r = 0.88 for men and 0.89 for women), indicating that occupational preference items that distinguished men from women also tended to distinguish heterosexual from homosexual individuals. LISREL 8 analyses showed that self-ascribed masculinity-femininity did not mediate the strong relation between sexual orientation and GD for men or for women.

  15. Childhood family correlates of heterosexual and homosexual marriages: a national cohort study of two million Danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Morten; Hviid, Anders

    2006-10-01

    Children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than those growing up in intact families; however, little is known about other childhood factors affecting marital choices. We studied childhood correlates of first marriages (heterosexual since 1970, homosexual since 1989) in a national cohort of 2 million 18-49 year-old Danes. In multivariate analyses, persons born in the capital area were significantly less likely to marry heterosexually, but more likely to marry homosexually, than their rural-born peers. Heterosexual marriage was significantly linked to having young parents, small age differences between parents, stable parental relationships, large sibships, and late birth order. For men, homosexual marriage was associated with having older mothers, divorced parents, absent fathers, and being the youngest child. For women, maternal death during adolescence and being the only or youngest child or the only girl in the family increased the likelihood of homosexual marriage. Our study provides population-based, prospective evidence that childhood family experiences are important determinants of heterosexual and homosexual marriage decisions in adulthood.

  16. "I Want to Feel Like a Full Man": Conceptualizing Gay, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Men's Sexual Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, Lorraine K; Nielsen, Elly-Jean; McDermott, Daragh T; Davies, Nathan; Morrison, Todd G

    2018-01-01

    Current understandings of sexual difficulties originate from a model that is based on the study of heterosexual men and women. Most research has focused on sexual difficulties experienced by heterosexual men incapable of engaging in vaginal penetration. To better understand men's perceptions and experiences of sexual difficulties, seven focus groups and 29 individual interviews were conducted with gay (n = 22), bisexual (n = 5), and heterosexual (n = 25) men. In addition, the extent to which difficulties reported by gay and bisexual men differ from heterosexual men was explored. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis applying an inductive approach. Two intercorrelated conceptualizations were identified: penis function (themes: medicalization, masculine identity, psychological consequences, coping mechanisms) and pain (themes: penile pain, pain during receptive anal sex). For the most part, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men reported similar sexual difficulties; differences were evident regarding alternative masculinity, penis size competition, and pain during receptive anal sex. The results of this study demonstrate the complexity of men's sexual difficulties and the important role of sociocultural, interpersonal, and psychological factors. Limitations and suggested directions for future research are outlined.

  17. Neural basis of acquired amusia and its recovery after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Sihvonen, A.J.; Ripollés, P.; Leo, V.; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Soinila, S.; Särkämö, T.

    2016-01-01

    Although acquired amusia is a relatively common disorder after stroke, its precise neuroanatomical basis is still unknown. To evaluate which brain regions form the neural substrate for acquired amusia and its recovery, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and morphometry (VBM) study with 77 human stroke subjects. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6 month poststroke stages. Amusia and aphasia were behaviorally assessed at acute and 3 month poststroke stages using t...

  18. Learning-by-Being-Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo Gaetano; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    In horizontal acquisitions, the post-acquisition integration of the R&D function often damages the inventive labor force and results in lower innovative productivity of acquired inventors. In this paper we study post-acquisition integration in terms of R&D team reorganization-i.e., the creation...... of new teams with both inventors of the acquiring and acquired firms-and assess the impact of this integration action in the period that immediately follows the acquisition. Drawing on social identity and self-categorization theories, we argue that R&D team reorganization increases the acquired inventors...

  19. Attitudes of Heterosexual Men and Women Toward HIV Negative and Positive Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcini Pala, Andrea; Villano, Paola; Clinton, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes of Italian heterosexual men and women toward gay men, both HIV positive and negative, are poorly investigated. Italian culture is still extremely conservative and provides limited support to the gay community (e.g., lack of same-sex marriage recognition). Consequently, gay men experience social exclusion and disparities. The present study explores the association between homophobia and closeness with sexual orientation and HIV status. 261 heterosexual Italian men and women were assessed for feelings of closeness and homophobia after reading a vignette where the character was C1: heterosexual and HIV negative; C2: gay and HIV negative; or C3: gay and HIV positive. Experiences of homophobia and closeness varied depending on gender of participant and condition assigned, and higher levels of homophobia were correlated with lower levels of closeness regardless of HIV status. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  20. Examination of muscularity and body fat depictions in magazines that target heterosexual and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzieri, Nicholas; Cook, Brian J

    2013-03-01

    Previous content analyses of magazine images have typically examined within genres but failed to include comparisons between publications intended for various populations. The purpose of this study was to examine depictions of muscularity and thinness of male images in several widely distributed magazines that target male audiences from a variety of genres. Twenty-three magazine titles with the highest circulation rates that targeted heterosexual men, gay men, and general audiences were selected for image analyses. We found that magazines that target gay male audiences depicted images of men who were thinner in comparison to magazines targeting heterosexual men. Both gay and heterosexual magazines depicted male images with greater muscularity than magazines intended for general audiences. Differences in male image depictions in magazines may contribute to the promotion of an unattainable body ideal in some subgroups of gay culture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Condomless anal intercourse among males and females at high risk for heterosexual HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Danielle; Nguyen, Trang; Ogbue, Christine Powell; Flynn, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding and addressing heterosexual HIV transmission requires attention to the range and context of heterosexual sexual behaviors. We sought to determine population-based prevalence of condomless anal intercourse (CAI) among individuals at increased heterosexual HIV risk in Baltimore and to identify demographic, behavioral, and health related correlates. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional study of 185 males and 198 females at increased heterosexual risk for HIV recruited using respondent driven sampling as part of CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance Project in Baltimore, August-December 2010. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression examined factors associated with heterosexual CAI. Results The sample was majority African-American, with mean age of 38 among men and 34 among women. Forty-two percent of men (95% C.I.: 30.9, 52.0%) and 38% of women (95% C.I.: 29.4, 47.2%) reported any CAI in the past year, with variance by partner type and gender. Among men, CAI was significantly associated with homelessness, casual and exchange partners, same sex partner in past year, and substance use. Among women, CAI was significantly associated with lower education, casual and exchange partners, same sex partner in past year, multiple partners, and substance use. In adjusted gender-specific models, males and females with increasing numbers of partners were more likely to engage in CAI. Conclusions It is important to recognize the efficiency of transmission of HIV and other STIs through CAI. There is a need to broaden heterosexual sexual health promotion and HIV/STI prevention to adequately and appropriately address risks and prevention strategies for anal intercourse. PMID:25970308

  2. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Koedel, Uwe; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Wijdicks, Eelco

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space that can also involve the brain cortex and parenchyma. It can be acquired spontaneously in the community - community-acquired bacterial meningitis - or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma

  3. "I Would Just like to Be Known as an Athlete": Managing Hegemony, Femininity, and Heterosexuality in Female Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mean, Lindsey J.; Kassing, Jeffrey W.

    2008-01-01

    The community of sport is a powerful site for the construction of masculinity, male identities, and heterosexuality. Consequently, the increased entry of women into the sporting arena has been actively resisted, with women athletes either excluded or framed within traditional, sexualized discourses of femininity and heterosexuality. Yet Title IX…

  4. Hombres Sanos: evaluation of a social marketing campaign for heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Zellner, Jennifer A; Sañudo, Fernando; Fernandez-Cerdeño, Araceli; Hovell, Melbourne F; Sipan, Carol L; Engelberg, Moshe; Carrillo, Hector

    2010-12-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of Hombres Sanos [Healthy Men] a social marketing campaign to increase condom use and HIV testing among heterosexually identified Latino men, especially among heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women (MSMW). Hombres Sanos was implemented in northern San Diego County, California, from June 2006 through December 2006. Every other month we conducted cross-sectional surveys with independent samples of heterosexually identified Latino men before (n = 626), during (n = 752), and after (n = 385) the campaign. Respondents were randomly selected from 12 targeted community venues to complete an anonymous, self-administered survey on sexual practices and testing for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. About 5.6% of respondents (n = 98) were heterosexually identified Latino MSMW. The intervention was associated with reduced rates of recent unprotected sex with both females and males among heterosexually identified Latino MSMW. The campaign was also associated with increases in perception of HIV risk, knowledge of testing locations, and condom carrying among heterosexual Latinos. Social marketing represents a promising approach for abating HIV transmission among heterosexually identified Latinos, particularly for heterosexually identified Latino MSMW. Given the scarcity of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions for these populations, this prevention strategy warrants further investigation.

  5. Reports of Parental Maltreatment during Childhood in a United States Population-Based Survey of Homosexual, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined childhood maltreatment among 2917 heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual adults. Homosexual/bisexual men reported higher rates than heterosexual men of childhood emotional and physical maltreatment by their mothers and major physical maltreatment by their fathers. Homosexual/bisexual women reported higher rates of major physical…

  6. Reactive, anxious and possessive forms of jealousy and their relation to relationship quality among heterosexuals and homosexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between relational quality and three different types of jealousy-reactive, anxious and possessive jealousy. The sample consisted of 76 gay men, 79 lesbians, 70 heterosexual women and 70 heterosexual men. Findings show that different types of jealousy

  7. The Influence of Body Mass Index on the Physical Attractiveness Preferences of Feminist and Nonfeminist Heterosexual Women and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Tovee, Martin J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined associations between lesbian and feminist identity and predictors of female physical attractiveness. Seventy-two nonfeminist heterosexuals, 38 feminist heterosexuals, 75 nonfeminist lesbians, and 33 feminist lesbians were asked to rate according to physical attractiveness a set of images of real women with known body…

  8. Comparing Sexual-Minority and Heterosexual Young Women's Friends and Parents as Sources of Support for Sexual Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carly K.; Morgan, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141 heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an…

  9. The role of conditioning on heterosexual and homosexual partner preferences in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2012-01-01

    Partner preferences are expressed by many social species, including humans. They are commonly observed as selective contacts with an individual, more time spent together, and directed courtship behavior that leads to selective copulation. This review discusses the effect of conditioning on the development of heterosexual and homosexual partner preferences in rodents. Learned preferences may develop when a conditioned stimulus (CS) is associated in contingency with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) that functions as a reinforcer. Consequently, an individual may display preference for a partner that bears a CS. Some UCS may be more or less reinforcing, depending on when they are experienced, and may be different for males and females. For example, it could be that, only during periods of early development, that stimuli associated with nurture and juvenile play become conditioned. In adulthood, other stimuli such as sexual reward, cohabitation, mild stress, or even pharmacological manipulations may function as reinforcers to condition partner preferences. Evolutionary biologists and psychologists must take into consideration the idea that an individual's experience with reward (i.e. sexual and pharmacological) can override presumably 'innate' mate choices (e.g. assortativeness and orientation) or mate strategies (e.g. monogamy or polygamy) by means of Pavlovian and operant contingencies. In fact, it is likely as innate to learn about the environment in ways that maximize reward and minimize aversive outcomes, making so-called 'proximate' causes (e.g. pleasure) ultimately more powerful predictors of social behavior and choice than so-called 'ultimate' causes (e.g. genetic or reproductive fitness).

  10. Oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and their correlation to cluster of differentiation lymphocyte count in population of North-East India in highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Kumar Nayak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection which manifests as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is a disease involving the defects of the T-lymphocyte arm of the immune system. Certain laboratory parameters such as the cluster of differentiation (CD4 count and clinical parameters have long been used as markers of disease progression. In industrialized countries, many studies show a highly correlation between the incidence of oral lesions and immunosuppression and hence, can be used as a marker of immunosuppression. This might not be applicable to a developing country like India. In this study, efforts have been made to supplement the present knowledge on various aspects of oral manifestations in HIV patients in the Indian subcontinent. Aims: To correlate the oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients to the level of circulating CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and their effect in anti-retroviral therapy (ART. Subjects and Methods: A total of 104 HIV positive patients were examined for oral lesions. The CD4 count estimated on the same day by fluorescent activated cell sort count machine was then correlated with various oral lesions. Results: Oral manifestations appeared when CD4 count decreased below 500 cells/mm3. Moreover, oral lesions found at different stages showed very strong correlation to their respective CD4 count. Furthermore, there was considerable decline in the incidence of oral manifestations in patients undergoing highly active ART. Conclusions: Oral manifestations are highly predictive markers of severe immune deterioration and disease progression in HIV patients.

  11. HPV knowledge, burden and genital wart location among heterosexually identified versus homosexually identified men who have sex with men in Lima, Peru: cross-sectional results from a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Jerome T; León, Segundo R; Peinado, Jesús; Calvo, Gino; Zamora, Jonathan; Sánchez, Hugo; Brown, Brandon J

    2017-10-24

    The relationship between sexual practices, identity and role among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV risk is the subject of ongoing investigation but less is known about how these aspects of sexuality relate to human papilloma-virus (HPV), an independent risk factor for HIV. This observational study investigated the relationship between HPV and sexual practices, identity and role as well as other sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV risk factors among HIV-negative heterosexually and homosexually identified Peruvian MSM. Community-based clinic for MSM in Lima, Peru. 756 subjects were screened based on inclusion criteria of: born anatomically male; age ≥18 years; had any anal intercourse with a man during the previous 12 months; residing in metropolitan Lima; HIV negative; willing to commit to twice-yearly clinic visits for 24 months; had not participated in an HIV or HPV vaccine study. 600/756 participants met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled, of whom 48% (284) identified as homosexual and 10% (57) as heterosexual, the basis of the analyses performed. Compared with homosexually identified MSM, heterosexually identified MSM had completed fewer years of formal education and were less likely to have: anogenital HPV or visible anal warts; given oral sex to a man; or used a condom with their most recent female sexual partner (all p<0.05). Conversely, heterosexually identified MSM were more likely to have: visible penile warts; used a condom during last anal intercourse; smoked cigarettes; had transactional sex; and used drugs during sex in the previous month (all p<0.01). There was no difference found between heterosexually and homosexually identified MSM by syphilis or high-risk HPV prevalence. HPV burden, wart type (penile vs anal) and select HIV/STI risk behaviours differed between heterosexually and homosexually identified Peruvian MSM. Understanding the implications of these differences can lead to tailored HIV/STI prevention interventions

  12. The Impact of Hospital-Acquired Conditions on Medicare..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in The Impact of Hospital-Acquired Conditions on Medicare Program Payments, published in Volume 4, Issue 4 of the Medicare and...

  13. Examination of the Accuracy of Coding Hospital-Acquired...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A new study, Examination of the Accuracy of Coding Hospital-Acquired Pressure Ulcer Stages, published in Volume 4, Issue 1 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  14. Heterosexual transmission of HIV in the Dominican Republic: gendered indicators are associated with disparities in condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Michelle M; Andrade, Flavia C D; Raffaelli, Marcela; Iwelunmor, Juliet

    2015-11-23

    Gendered dynamics in heterosexual relationships compromise women's self-efficacy and increase their vulnerability to acquiring HIV. This study examines the impact of socioeconomic determinants, media exposure, and sexual expectations on sexual behaviors of men and women in the Dominican Republic (DR). We analyzed cross-sectional data from 51,018 adults in the Dominican Republic age 15 to 45 years collected by the Demographics and Health Survey (DHS) in 2007. Measures included demographic and socioeconomic indicators, social exposures, sexual expectations and sexual behaviors. Logistic regression models explored gender differences in condom use. Study findings indicated that women were less likely to use a condom at last intercourse than men (odds ratio [OR] = 0.29; 95 % CI = 0.27, 0.31). Among men, secondary (OR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.16, 1.76) and higher education (OR = 1.58; 95 % CI = 1.25, 2.00), being in the richest quintile (OR = 1.25; 95 % CI = 1.07, 1.47), and living in a female-headed household (OR = 1.13; 95 % CI 1.03, 1.23) increased the likelihood of condom use. Compared to never married men, currently and formerly married men were less likely to use condoms (OR = 0.03; 95 % CI = 0.03, 0.04 and OR = 0.67; 95 % CI = 0.60, 0.75, respectively). The odds of condom use increased for young women 15-19 years old in comparison with women age 30-34 years, but decreased as they grew older. For women, being in the richer quintile (OR = 1.28; 95 % CI = 1.06, 1.54), living in a female-headed household (OR = 1.26; 1.12, 1.41), and having good access to media (OR = 1.24; 95 % CI = 1.12, 1.42) increased the likelihood of condom use. Being currently married or formerly married and living in rural areas decreased such likelihood among women. Study findings provide evidence that, in the DHS, socioeconomic and cultural differences between men and women affects condom use. Efforts to reduce HIV transmission

  15. Condom Use among Heterosexual Immigrant Latino Men in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipper, Emily; Rhodes, Scott D.; Lindstrom, Kristen; Bloom, Fred R.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Montano, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We examined correlates of condom use among adult heterosexual Latino men who are members of a large multicounty soccer league in rural North Carolina. Of 222 participants, the mean (plus or minus SD) age…

  16. Heterosexual Persons' Perceptions Regarding Language Use in Counseling: Extending Dorland and Fischer (2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amanda D.; Waehler, Charles A.; Gray, Torie N.

    2013-01-01

    An important original study by Dorland and Fischer noted how the use of inclusive language can affect the therapeutic relationship positively for gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients. In this extension of that study with heterosexual participants ("N" = 179), there seemed to be low, but positive, salience of the language used by the…

  17. School Motivation in Secondary Schools: A Survey of LGB and Heterosexual Students in Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Saskia; Van Houtte, Mieke; Dewaele, Alexis; Cox, Nele; Vincke, John

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the school motivation of LGB (lesbian, gay, and bisexual) students in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, a fairly LGB-friendly country. The authors hypothesize that LGB students in Flemish secondary schools are less motivated for school than heterosexual students because they experience less sense of school belonging and…

  18. Social Support and Well-Being among Lesbian and Heterosexual Women: A Structural Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayment, Heidi A.; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    1995-01-01

    Examines the types of social support that lesbian and heterosexual women receive from their social networks and the link between support and psychological well-being. Results indicate that both groups reported receiving equivalent overall amounts of support from their social networks, and that coupled women reported greater well-being than single…

  19. The Masculinity of Mr. Right: Feminist Identity and Heterosexual Women's Ideal Romantic Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Faedra R.; Mahalik, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Our study explored the relationship between feminist identity and women's report of an ideal male partner's conformity to masculine gender role norms. Heterosexual, mostly White, college women (N = 183) completed measures assessing feminist beliefs and the masculinity characteristics of an ideal male partner. Results indicated that feminist…

  20. the effect of heterosexual contact on libido and mating dexterity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stages of sexual development on adult behaviour are avail- able. Consequently. the present experiment was executed to determine the effects of total isolation as well as that of heterosexual contact during the pre· -and post-puberal phase on libido, mating dexterity and the occurrence of homosexuality in Karakul rams.

  1. The Relationship between Gender and Heterosexual Attitudes toward Homosexuality at a Conservative Christian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFave, Adam D.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; Gomez, Omar

    2014-01-01

    This research looked at the relationships and differences between sex and race as it relates to religious fundamentalism, attitudes, and comfortability toward homosexuality. Patterns in previous research have shown that men and women do differ in their attitudes toward homosexuals. This study proposed that heterosexual men will show a…

  2. Gender Differences in Beliefs about Condom Use among Young, Heterosexual Australian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Fiona J.; Newton, Joshua D.; Windisch, Lydia; Ewing, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate gender differences in beliefs about condom use among young, sexually active, heterosexual Australian adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey of 1,113 adults aged 18-26 years. Setting: Higher education institutions across New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Method: Participants were recruited during higher-education…

  3. Barriers to Use of Family Planning Methods Among Heterosexual Mexican Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, María Luisa Flores; Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Soto, Norma Elva Sáenz; Tovar, Marlene; Dávila, Sandra Paloma Esparza

    2017-05-01

    Family planning has become increasingly important as a fundamental component of sexual health and as such is offered via public health systems worldwide. Identification of barriers to use of family planning methods among heterosexual couples living in Mexico is indicated to facilitate access to family planning methods. Barriers to family planning methods were assessed among Mexican heterosexual, sexually active males and females of reproductive age, using a modified Spanish version of the Barriers to the Use of Family Planning Methods scale (Cronbach's alpha = .89, subscales ranging from .53 to .87). Participants were recruited via convenience sampling in ambulatory care clinics within a metropolitan area in Central Mexico. Participants included 52 heterosexual couples aged 18-35 years (N = 104). Sociodemographic comparisons by gender identified older age and higher education, income, and numbers of sexual partners among men than women. More men (50%) than women (25%) were currently using family planning methods; however, 80% overall indicated intentions for its use. Overall, male condoms were used and intended for use most often by men than women. Significant gender-specific differences were found, with men (71.15%) reporting no family planning barriers, whereas women (55.66%) reported barriers including low socioeconomic status, medical concerns, and stigma. The modified Spanish translation demonstrated usefulness for measuring barriers to family planning methods use in Mexico among heterosexual males and females of reproductive age. Barriers identified by Mexican women in this study may be addressed to reduce potential barriers to family planning among Mexican populations.

  4. "That's so Gay": Heterosexual Male Undergraduates and the Perpetuation of Sexual Orientation Microagressions on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, Michael R.; Howell, Michael L.; Kulick, Alex; Silverschanz, Perry

    2013-01-01

    "That's so gay," a popular expression on campuses, is a sexual orientation microaggression that can contribute to a hostile environment for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students. Using data from a campus climate survey conducted at a large urban university, we investigated use of the phrase among heterosexual male undergraduates who…

  5. Finding your Soulmate: Homosexual and heterosexual age preferences in online dating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conway, J.R.; Noë, N.; Stulp, G.; Pollet, T.V.

    2015-01-01

    Heterosexual age preferences have been extensively studied by evolutionary psychologists, social psychologists, and demographers. Much less is known about such preferences in homosexual men and women. Around two decades ago, D. T. Kenrick, R. C. Keefe, A. Bryan, A. Barr, and S. Brown (1995) examined

  6. Heterosexual Privilege Awareness, Prejudice, and Support of Gay Marriage among Diversity Course Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kim; Stewart, Briana

    2010-01-01

    Although most research investigating diversity courses focuses on attitudes toward racial minorities and women, these courses may also influence student attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. The current study assessed student awareness of heterosexual privilege, prejudice against lesbians and gay men, and support for same-sex marriage. Students…

  7. Suicidality and Associated Risk Factors among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Compared to Heterosexual Austrian Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploderl, Martin; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2005-01-01

    This is the first study in German-speaking countries to compare the suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (n = 358) with matched heterosexual adults (n = 267). The former had significantly elevated incidences of current suicide ideation (28% vs. 13%) and lifetime suicide attempts defined in three ways (14% vs. 1% to 10% vs. 2%),…

  8. Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents' Perceptions of Inclusivity and Receptiveness in Early Childhood Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Black, Kaitlin; Sweeney, Kristin; Moyer, April

    2017-01-01

    Little research has examined the experiences of lesbian/gay (LG) parent families or adoptive parent families in early childhood education settings. This study uses interview data to examine the perceptions and experiences of 45 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples (90 individuals) with 10 adopted children with respect to their (1) openness with…

  9. Coparenting among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples: Associations with Adopted Children's Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Rachel H.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2013-01-01

    Coparenting is associated with child behavior in families with heterosexual parents, but less is known about coparenting among lesbian- and gay-parent families. Associations were studied among self-reported divisions of labor, coparenting observations, and child adjustment ("M[subscript age]" = 3 years) among 104 adoptive families headed…

  10. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Anxiety on Heterosexual Attraction Over a Series of Five Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.

    1975-01-01

    The "information availability model" of heterosexual attraction was tested by having subjects go on a series of five encounters. It was found that both physical attractiveness and the personality variable, anxiety, had early and continuous effects on liking. It was concluded the model is an inadequate explanation of heterosexual…

  11. Illicit Drug Use in a Community-Based Sample of Heterosexually Identified Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkitis, Perry N.; Manasse, Ashley N.; McCready, Karen C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we assess lifetime and recent drug use patterns among 261 heterosexually identified 18- to 25-year-olds through brief street intercept surveys conducted in New York City. Marijuana, hallucinogens, powder cocaine, and ecstasy were the most frequently reported drugs for both lifetime and recent use. Findings further suggest significant…

  12. Relationship between interaction parent-child with addictability rate and heterosexual orientation in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Hosseinkhanzadeh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the purpose of this study was to study relationship between interaction parent-child with addictability rate and heterosexual orientation in students. Method: The statistical population consisted of all students of Guilan University in 2012-2013 academic year, which among them a sample of 200 students were selected by random cluster sampling method and they completed preparation to addiction scale relationship between parent–child scale and attitude and heterosexual orientation before marriage. Findings: Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between addictability in female students and male students with relationship with father, and positive affect, interlace and communication subscales. The relationship between female students’ addictability with relationship with mother and positive affect, hurt and confusion and communication subscales was observed significant negative correlation, also there is a significant negative relationship between male students’ addictability with the relationship with mother. There is significant negative relationship between heterosexual orientations in male students with relation with father, positive affects and interlace. Results of regression analysis showed that relationship with father and relationship with mother can anticipate addict ability in female and male students. Conclusion: If parents cannot establish an appropriate and constructive interaction with their child cause child face with affection and emotional deprivation and this poor emotional and affection deprivation may cause he or she bring to the addict ability and heterosexual orientation.

  13. Gender-Typed Behavior Over Time in Children with Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Garcia, Randi L.

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined patterns and predictors of parent-reported gender-typed play behavior in adopted boys and girls in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual two-parent families, across early childhood (Mage = 2.82 to 6.06 years). Specifically, using a sample of 181 couples (56 lesbian couples, 48 gay male couples, and 77 heterosexual couples), we examined parent reports of children’s gender-typed play behavior on the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993) at three time points (mean age = 2.82 years at T1, 3.93 years at T2, and 6.06 years at T3). Family structure variables (i.e., parents’ gender and sexual orientation; children’s gender and sibling status) were included as predictors. At T1, according to parent reports, children in lesbian-parent families had less gender-differentiated behavior (boys were less masculine, girls were less feminine) than children in heterosexual- and gay-parent families, whereas the degree of gender differentiation did not differ between heterosexual- versus gay-parent families. Findings from a Common Fate Growth Model (Ledermann & Macho, 2014) revealed that, regardless of family type, the parent-reported gender-typed behavior of boys, but not girls, significantly changed over time (i.e., boys’ behavior became more masculine). Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents, particularly those who are being raised by two mothers or two fathers. PMID:27416364

  14. Heterosexual social competence, anxiety, avoidance and self-judged physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K R; Orr, F E

    1976-10-01

    The relationship between self-judged physical attractiveness and opposite-sex behavior was examined as part of a large survey on the interaction patterns of 963 college students. The findings suggest that a self-rated negative physical image is related to significantly high levels of heterosexual difficulties.

  15. Predictors of feminist activism among sexual-minority and heterosexual college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carly K; Ayres, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in activism is related to several aspects of social development in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Therefore, it is important to examine the correlates of different forms of activism, such as feminist collective action, among all youth. However, previous research has not investigated young sexual-minority women's engagement with feminist collective action. This study examined predictors of college-aged heterosexual and sexual-minority women's commitment to and participation in feminist activism. Sexual orientation, number of years in college, social support, experiences with discrimination, and gender identity were tested as predictors of commitment to and participation in feminist activism with a sample of 280 college-aged women (173 heterosexuals and 107 sexual minorities). Similar predictors were related to both commitment to and participation in feminist activism. However, for sexual-minority women, but not heterosexual women, the number of years in college was correlated with participation in feminist activism. Young sexual-minority women reported more participation in feminist activism than did heterosexual women, even after controlling for social support, discrimination, and gender identity.

  16. Sexual Revictimization and Mental Health: A Comparison of Lesbians, Gay Men, and Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has several deleterious effects on health and well-being, including increased risk for rape in adulthood. Such revictimization experiences are linked to negative mental health outcomes. The vast majority of literature on prevalence and impact of sexual revictimization has focused on heterosexual women. In an effort to…

  17. Brief Report: Activities in Heterosexual Romantic Relationships--Grade Differences and Associations with Relationship Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Wendy; Rose, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas much research addresses relations of youths' heterosexual romantic relationships with sexual and/or delinquent activities, less attention has been paid to youths' more normative, day-to-day activities with romantic partners. This gap in the literature is problematic given that these activities define the substance of the relationships and…

  18. Victimization Over the Life Span: A Comparison of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Rothblum, Esther D.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2005-01-01

    Lifetime victimization was examined in a primarily European American sample that comprised 557 lesbian/gay, 163 bisexual, and 525 heterosexual adults. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) participants were recruited via LGB e-mail lists, periodicals, and organizations; these participants recruited 1 or more siblings for participation in the study (81%…

  19. Marriage is not a safe place : Heterosexual marriage and HIV-related vulnerability in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacubowski, Nadja

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the link between heterosexual marriage and women's vulnerability to HIV in Indonesia. In this country, gender relations are currently dominated by traditional beliefs and practices and by religious morality. Data for the current study were collected by means of documentary

  20. Acquired ichthyosis with hoffman's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyanarayana B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A middle aged man presented with features of acquired ichthyosis with Hoffman's syndrome. Laboratory tests support hypothyodism. Myoedema and hypertrophy of muscles were present. Patient was previously treated for Pellagra.

  1. Resourceful masculinities: exploring heterosexual Black men's vulnerability to HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Winston; Oakes, Wesley; Mbulaheni, Tola; Ongoïba, Fanta; Pierre-Pierre, Valérie; Luyombya, Henry

    2017-10-29

    Heterosexually active Black men are alleged to endorse masculine norms that increase their and their female partners' vulnerability to HIV. These norms include Black men's inability or reluctance to productively engage their own health-related personal and interpersonal vulnerabilities. We draw on data from the iSpeak research study in Ontario, Canada, to assess whether and how heterosexual Black men cope with personal and inter-personal vulnerability, namely that heterosexual Black men: avoid emotionally supportive relationships with other men (and women), which diminishes their capacity to productively acknowledge and resolve their health-related challenges; are reticent to productively acknowledge and address HIV and health on a personal level; and are pathologically secretive about their health, which compounds their vulnerability and precipitates poor health outcomes. iSpeak was implemented in 2011 to 2013, and included two focus groups with HIV-positive and HIV-negative self-identified heterosexual men (N = 14) in Toronto and London, a focus group with community-based health promotion practitioners who provide HIV-related services to Black communities in Ontario (N = 6), and one-on-one interviews with four researchers distinguished for their scholarship with/among Black communities in Toronto. Participants in the men's focus group were recruited discretely through word-of-mouth. Focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Team members independently read the transcripts, and then met to identify, discuss and agree on the emerging themes. We demonstrate that iSpeak participants (a) engage their personal and interpersonal vulnerabilities creatively and strategically, (b) complicate and challenge familiar interpretations of Black men's allegedly transgressive masculinity through their emotional and practical investment in their health, and (c) demonstrate a form of resourceful masculinity that ambiguously aligns with patriarchy. We conclude

  2. Development of muscularity and weight concerns in heterosexual and sexual minority males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P; Corliss, Heather L; Blood, Emily A; Field, Alison E; Austin, S Bryn

    2013-01-01

    To examine the development of muscularity and weight concerns among heterosexual and sexual minority males in adolescence. Participants were 5,868 males from the Growing Up Today Study, a U.S. prospective cohort spanning ages 9-25 years. Generalized estimating equations were used to test sexual orientation differences in the development of muscularity concerns, weight gain attempts, and weight and shape concern. Desire for bigger muscles increased slightly each year across adolescence (β = .10, 95% C.I. = .09, .11) regardless of sexual orientation, but gay and bisexual participants reported greater desire for toned muscles than completely and mostly heterosexual males (β = .39, 95% C.I. = .21, .57). Desire for toned muscles did not change with age. Attempts to gain weight increased threefold across adolescence, with up to 30% reporting weight gain attempts by age 16. Although underweight males (the smallest weight status class) were most likely to attempt to gain weight, most of the observed weight gain attempts were by healthy (69%) and overweight/obese (27%) males, suggesting that most attempts were medically unnecessary and could lead to overweight. Sexual minority participants were 20% less likely to report weight gain attempts than completely heterosexual participants. Weight and shape concern increased with age, with gay and bisexual participants experiencing a significantly greater increase than heterosexual males. Sexual orientation modifies the development and expression of male weight and muscularity concerns. The findings have implications for early interventions for the prevention of obesity and eating disorder risk in heterosexual and sexual minority males. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. School absenteeism and mental health among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent school absenteeism is associated with negative outcomes such as conduct disorders, substance abuse, and dropping out of school. Mental health factors, such as depression and anxiety, have been found to be associated with increased absenteeism from school. Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay, lesbian, or bisexual identity) are a group at risk for increased absenteeism due to fear, avoidance, and higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual peers. The present study used longitudinal data to compare sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth on excused and unexcused absences from school and to evaluate differences in the relations between depression and anxiety symptoms and school absences among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth. A total of 108 14- to 19-years-old adolescents (71% female and 26% sexual minority) completed self-report measures of excused and unexcused absences and depression and anxiety symptoms. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported more excused and unexcused absences and more depression and anxiety symptoms. Sexual minority status significantly moderated the effects of depression and anxiety symptoms on unexcused absences such that depression and anxiety symptoms were stronger predictors of unexcused absences for sexual minority youth than for heterosexual youth. The results demonstrate that sexual minority status and mental health are important factors to consider when assessing school absenteeism and when developing interventions to prevent or reduce school absenteeism among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Heterosexual assumptions in verbal and non-verbal communication in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röndahl, Gerd; Innala, Sune; Carlsson, Marianne

    2006-11-01

    This paper reports a study of what lesbian women and gay men had to say, as patients and as partners, about their experiences of nursing in hospital care, and what they regarded as important to communicate about homosexuality and nursing. The social life of heterosexual cultures is based on the assumption that all people are heterosexual, thereby making homosexuality socially invisible. Nurses may assume that all patients and significant others are heterosexual, and these heteronormative assumptions may lead to poor communication that affects nursing quality by leading nurses to ask the wrong questions and make incorrect judgements. A qualitative interview study was carried out in the spring of 2004. Seventeen women and 10 men ranging in age from 23 to 65 years from different parts of Sweden participated. They described 46 experiences as patients and 31 as partners. Heteronormativity was communicated in waiting rooms, in patient documents and when registering for admission, and nursing staff sometimes showed perplexity when an informant deviated from this heteronormative assumption. Informants had often met nursing staff who showed fear of behaving incorrectly, which could lead to a sense of insecurity, thereby impeding further communication. As partners of gay patients, informants felt that they had to deal with heterosexual assumptions more than they did when they were patients, and the consequences were feelings of not being accepted as a 'true' relative, of exclusion and neglect. Almost all participants offered recommendations about how nursing staff could facilitate communication. Heterosexual norms communicated unconsciously by nursing staff contribute to ambivalent attitudes and feelings of insecurity that prevent communication and easily lead to misconceptions. Educational and management interventions, as well as increased communication, could make gay people more visible and thereby encourage openness and awareness by hospital staff of the norms that they

  5. Depression and Associated Factors Among Gay and Heterosexual Male University Students in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginni, Olakunle A; Mosaku, Kolawole S; Mapayi, Boladale M; Akinsulore, Adesanmi; Afolabi, Temitope O

    2018-05-01

    Homosexuality is a recognized risk factor for depression in high-income countries; however, there is little research investigating the relationship between depression and sexual orientation in developing countries, especially in Africa. In this first study to investigate psychopathology in sexual minority men in Nigeria, the prevalence rates of depression in Nigerian gay and heterosexual individuals were compared as well as the explanatory power of risk and resilience factors in both groups. Eighty-one gay and 81 heterosexual male university students were, respectively, recruited from the Obafemi Awolowo University. Both groups were assessed for depression and other clinical factors, including alcohol and other substance use, suicidal ideation, and resilience. Gay students were further assessed for sexuality-related variables, including minority stress factors such as internalized homophobia and perceived stigma. The prevalence rates of depression among gay and heterosexual students were, respectively, 16 and 4.9% (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.15-11.82), and this increased likelihood for depression was significantly attenuated by resilience. Clinical factors correlated significantly with depression in both groups, explaining 31% of the variance in depression in gay and heterosexual students, respectively. Sexuality-related variables including internalized homophobia and perceived stigma were further associated with depression in gay students-accounting for a further 14% of the variance of depression in gay students. The findings highlight the importance of minority stress factors in understanding depression among non-heterosexual individuals in a developing country, and the need for further research to investigate the mechanisms of these relationships in such settings.

  6. Air assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with solidification of the floating organic droplets (AA-DLLME-SFO) and UHPLC-PDA method: Application to antibiotics analysis in human plasma of hospital acquired pneumonia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrone, Vincenzo; Cotellese, Roberto; Carlucci, Maura; Di Marco, Lorenzo; Carlucci, Giuseppe

    2018-03-20

    An ultra high-performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method with PDA detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of metronidazole, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, linezolid and piperacillin in human plasma and applied to patients suffering from hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP). The method uses an air assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for sample preparation. All parameters in the extraction step, including selection of extractant, amount of extractant, ionic strength, pH, and extraction cycles, were investigated and optimized. Chromatography was carried out using a Poroshell 120 SB C 18 (50 × 2.1 mm I.D. 2.6 μm particle size) column and a gradient mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate buffer (10 mM, pH 4.0) (eluent A); and a mixture of acetonitrile-methanol in a ratio (80/20)(eluent B). Ulifloxacin was used as internal standard. The method demonstrated good linearity with correlation coefficients, r 2  > 0.9995 for the drugs, as well as high precision (RSD% ≤ 9.87%), accuracy ranged from -8.14% to +8.98. The enrichment factor (EF) obtained ranged within 87 and 121. During the validation, the concentrations of the analytes were found to be stable after 3 freeze-thaw cycles and for at least 24 h after extraction. Subsequently, this method was used to quantify the drugs in patients with HAP in order to establish if the dosage regimen given was sufficient to eradicate the infection at the target site. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Neural circuits of disgust induced by sexual stimuli in homosexual and heterosexual men: An fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Minming; Hu Shaohua; Xu Lijuan; Wang Qidong; Xu Xiaojun; Wei Erqing; Yan Leqin; Hu Jianbo; Wei Ning; Zhou Weihua; Huang Manli; Xu Yi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies demonstrated neural circuits related to disgust were influenced by internal sexual orientation in male. Here we used fMRI to study the neural responses to disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men to investigate that issue. Thirty-two healthy male volunteers (sixteen homosexual and sixteen heterosexual) were scanned while viewing alternating blocks of three types of erotic film: heterosexual couples (F-M), male homosexual couples (M-M), and female homosexual couples (F-F) engaged in sexual activity. All the participants rated their level of disgust and sexual arousal as well. The F-F and M-M stimuli induced disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men, respectively. The common activations related to disgusting stimuli included: bilateral frontal gyrus and occipital gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, and right thalamus. Homosexual men had greater neural responses in the left medial frontal gyrus than did heterosexual men to the sexual disgusting stimuli; in contrast, heterosexual men showed significantly greater activation than homosexual men in the left cuneus. ROI analysis showed that negative correlation were found between the magnitude of MRI signals in the left medial frontal gyrus and scores of disgust in homosexual subjects (p < 0.05). This study indicated that there were regions in common as well as regions specific for each type of erotic stimuli during disgust of homosexual and heterosexual men.

  8. Neural circuits of disgust induced by sexual stimuli in homosexual and heterosexual men: An fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Minming [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Hu Shaohua [Department of Mental Health, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qing Chun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310003 (China); Xu Lijuan [National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Wang Qidong [Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Xu Xiaojun [Department of Radiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Wei Erqing [College of Pharmacology, Zhejiang University (China); Yan Leqin [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Virginia Harris Cockrell Cancer Research Center, University of Texas, Austin (United States); Hu Jianbo; Wei Ning; Zhou Weihua; Huang Manli [Department of Mental Health, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qing Chun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310003 (China); Xu Yi, E-mail: xuyi61@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Mental Health, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qing Chun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310003 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Few studies demonstrated neural circuits related to disgust were influenced by internal sexual orientation in male. Here we used fMRI to study the neural responses to disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men to investigate that issue. Thirty-two healthy male volunteers (sixteen homosexual and sixteen heterosexual) were scanned while viewing alternating blocks of three types of erotic film: heterosexual couples (F-M), male homosexual couples (M-M), and female homosexual couples (F-F) engaged in sexual activity. All the participants rated their level of disgust and sexual arousal as well. The F-F and M-M stimuli induced disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men, respectively. The common activations related to disgusting stimuli included: bilateral frontal gyrus and occipital gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, and right thalamus. Homosexual men had greater neural responses in the left medial frontal gyrus than did heterosexual men to the sexual disgusting stimuli; in contrast, heterosexual men showed significantly greater activation than homosexual men in the left cuneus. ROI analysis showed that negative correlation were found between the magnitude of MRI signals in the left medial frontal gyrus and scores of disgust in homosexual subjects (p < 0.05). This study indicated that there were regions in common as well as regions specific for each type of erotic stimuli during disgust of homosexual and heterosexual men.

  9. Comparing Heterosexuals' and Gay Men/Lesbians' Responses to Relationship Problems and the Effects of Internalized Homophobia on Gay Men/Lesbians' Responses to Relationship Problems in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutan, Nur; Buyuksahin Sunal, Ayda; Sakalli Ugurlu, Nuray

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effects of sexual orientation (heterosexuals and gay men/lesbians) and gender difference on responses to romantic relationship problems (Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect [EVLN] responses) and of perceived partner's EVLN responses in Turkey, and (2) to examine whether internalized homophobia was associated with EVLN responses and perceived partner's EVLN responses for gay men and lesbians. Responses to Dissatisfaction Scale-Accommodation Instrument, Internalized Homophobia, and Demographics Information were administered to 187 participants (44 lesbians, 44 gay men, 53 heterosexual women, 46 heterosexual men).The MANCOVA results showed that men reported higher loyalty than women, whereas women presented more exit responses than men. Further, the interactions between gender and sexual orientation on the participants' EVLN responses and on the perceived partner's EVLN responses were significant. With respect to heterosexual women, heterosexual men displayed more loyalty responses. Lesbians had higher scores on loyalty than did heterosexual women. Lesbians also had higher scores on perceived partner's exit response than did heterosexual women and gay men. On the contrary, heterosexual women reported more perceived partner's voice response than lesbians. In addition, lesbians reported higher perceived partner's neglect responses than heterosexual women. Compared to heterosexual women, heterosexual men reported higher perceived partner's exit response. Finally, internalized homophobia was associated with destructive responses for both lesbians and gay men.

  10. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    Objective: To explore how home economics was taught in Denmark before the recent Danish school reform, which also revised the objectives and content of home economics, naming it Food Knowledge (Madkundskab) Methods: Participant observation was done in home economic lessons in two case schools...... appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...... process of taste acquiring and to a call for further research into taste acquiring in complex real life contexts as home economics lessons....

  11. Esofagites em pacientes com síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida: estudo histológico e imunoistoquímico Esophagitis in patients with acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome: an histological and immunohistochemistry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Aguiar Vidal

    2007-12-01

    citomegalovírus, respectivamente. O emprego da técnica de imunoistoquímica auxilia no diagnóstico das esofagites virais e torna possível detectar o citomegalovírus em esôfagos normais à endoscopia e/ou ao exame histopatológico.BACKGROUND: Almost all patients with acquired immunodeficiency virus syndrome will have gastrointestinal symptoms during the course of their illness. The high prevalence and complications of esophagitis are well documented. AIM: Graduate esophagitis; identify microorganisms like Candida sp, cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus and mycobacteria; identify by immunohistochemical staining viral agents cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus I, herpesvirus II, Epstein-Barr Virus, human papilloma virus and human immunodeficiency virus; verify how immunohistochemistry changes the profile of esophagitis; verify the association between the histological and endoscopical findings; verify the relevance of the number of fragments studied in the characterization of the histological agents. METHODS: We studied retrospectively esophageal biopsies in 227 patients with acquired immunodeficiency virus syndrome using hematoxylin and eosin, PAS (periodic acid of Schiff, Groccott and Ziehl-Nielsen stains and immunoperoxidase stains to detect opportunistic agents. Endoscopic aspects were studied. RESULTS: The non-specific esophagitis grade III, in the inferior third of the esophagus, was the most frequent type. Candida sp was the most frequent agent, followed by viruses cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus and mycobacteria. The presence of plaque and ulceration suggested the diagnosis of esophageal candidiasis and cytomegalovirus esophagitis. Immunohistochemical allowed the characterization of cytomegalovirus and of herpesvirus in those cases where other techniques could not achieve it, furthermore the cytomegalovirus was also found in histological normal cases, making the use of this technique advisable in routine diagnosis. The herpesvirus I was not found isolated but associated to

  12. "It's an Uphill Battle Everyday": Intersectionality, Low-Income Black Heterosexual Men, and Implications for HIV Prevention Research and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2013-01-01

    This interview study, the initial qualitative phase of a larger mixed methods HIV prevention study focused on Black heterosexual men, used intersectionality as a theoretical framework to explore: (1) How a sample of Black heterosexual men describe and experience the multiple intersections of race, gender, and SES; and (2) How these descriptions reflected interlocking systems of social inequality for Black men at the social-structural level. Participants were 30 predominantly low-income self-identified Black heterosexual men between the ages of 18 and 44. Analyses highlighted four themes that demonstrate how participants' individual-level experiences as Black men reflect macro social-structural inequality: (1) racial discrimination and microaggressions; (2) unemployment; (3) incarceration; and (4) police surveillance and harassment. We discuss the study's findings within the context of social-structural factors that disproportionately and adversely impact Black men. We also highlight the implications of the intersectionality perspective for HIV prevention research and interventions for Black heterosexual men.

  13. "I'm not gay. . . . I'm a real man!": Heterosexual Men's Gender Self-Esteem and Sexual Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Mugny, Gabriel

    2009-09-01

    Five studies examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men, but not heterosexual women, endorse negative attitudes toward homosexuality (i.e., sexual prejudice) in order to maintain a positive gender-related identity that is unambiguously different from a homosexual identity. Studies 1 and 2 showed that men's (but not women's) gender self-esteem (but not personal self-esteem) was positively related to sexual prejudice: The more positive heterosexual men's gender self-esteem, the more negative their attitude toward homosexuality. Studies 3 and 4 showed that this link appears specifically among men motivated to maintain psychological distance from gay men. Study 5 experimentally manipulated the perceived biological differences between homosexual and heterosexual men. The previously observed link between men's gender self-esteem and sexual prejudice appeared in the control and no-differences conditions but disappeared in the differences condition. These findings are discussed in terms of men's attitudes as a defensive function against threat to masculinity.

  14. Narcissism and self-esteem among homosexual and heterosexual male students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Gidi

    2010-01-01

    According to orthodox psychoanalytical theory, narcissism and homosexuality are strongly associated. This association played a major role in pathologizing homosexuality. The present study compared self-esteem and two measures of narcissism among 90 homosexual and 109 heterosexual male students, who filled in a demographic questionnaire, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, which addresses both grandiose and vulnerable subtypes of narcissism. The hypothesis, which is based on the Freudian connection between narcissism and homosexuality, is supported by the results, indicating that the homosexual students score higher in both measures of narcissism and lower on the self-esteem measure, compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Intra-psychic, as well as environmental, interpretations of the results are suggested in the discussion.

  15. Tackling femininity: the heterosexual paradigm and women's soccer in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa

    2011-01-01

    Sport is a social institution that perpetuates gendered ideologies in the wider society through appealing to discourses of the naturalness of men's privilege and domination in society. Heteronormativity regulates the roles, behaviours, appearances and sexualities of, and relationships between and among, women and men. Moreover, heteronormative discourses normalise a particular relationship between sex, gender and sexuality that posits woman/feminine/heterosexual (and man/masculine/heterosexual) as a natural order from which variance is considered a punishable deviance. This paper outlines the effects of heteronormative discourses in the lives of women footballers in South Africa, through drawing on interviews with a wide range of women footballers. The paper shows how heteronormative discourses nurture homophobic attitudes that serve to regulate the appearances and performances of South African women.

  16. Correlates of homophobia, transphobia, and internalized homophobia in gay or lesbian and heterosexual samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriner, Katrina; Nagoshi, Craig T; Nagoshi, Julie L

    2013-01-01

    This research assessed the correlates of homophobia and transphobia in heterosexual and homosexual individuals, based on a theory of different sources of perceived symbolic threat to social status. Compared to 310 heterosexual college students, a sample of 30 gay male and 30 lesbian college students scored lower on homophobia, transphobia, and religious fundamentalism. Mean gender differences were smaller for gay men and lesbians for homophobia, aggressiveness, benevolent sexism, masculinity, and femininity. Fundamentalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and hostile and benevolent sexism were correlated only with homophobia in lesbians, whereas fundamentalism and authoritarianism were correlated only with transphobia in gay men. Correlates of internalized homophobia were different than those found for homophobia and transphobia, which was discussed in terms of gender differences in threats to status based on sexual orientation versus gender identity.

  17. Mental health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual siblings: effects of gender, sexual orientation, and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Kimberly F; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Mickey, Ruth M; Rothblum, Esther D

    2005-08-01

    Self-identified lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) individuals were recruited via convenience sampling, and they in turn recruited their siblings (79% heterosexual, 19% LGB). The resulting sample of 533 heterosexual, 558 lesbian or gay male, and 163 bisexual participants was compared on mental health variables and their use of mental health services. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that sexual orientation predicted suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, self-injurious behavior, use of psychotherapy, and use of psychiatric medications over and above the effects of family adjustment. Sexual orientation was unrelated to current psychological distress, psychiatric hospitalizations, and self-esteem. This is the 1st study to model family effects on the mental health of LGB participants and their siblings. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Coupling Processes and Experiences of Never Married Heterosexual Black Men and Women: A Phenomenological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awosan, Christiana I; Hardy, Kenneth V

    2017-07-01

    Over the past decades, the decline in Black marriages and the upsurge of never-married Blacks have stimulated much theoretical focus, but researchers conducted few studies on never-married heterosexual Black adults' coupling unions. Guided by an integrated framework of Africana womanism and symbolic interactionism, this qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological study used comprehensive individual interviews to explore the experiences of 26 never-married heterosexual Black men and women between the ages 25 and 35 about their attempts to cultivate and maintain intimate romantic relationships as well as their desire for marriage. Findings revealed mixed emotions from participants' lived experiences in developing and sustaining romantic relationships. Clinical implications highlighted the need to effectively attend to Black romantic relationships and experiences in their sociohistorical and sociocultural contexts. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  19. Comparative dermatology: acquired digital fibrokeratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz da

    2008-01-01

    Demonstra-se quadro característico de fibroqueratoma digital adquirido em trabalhadora rural de 42 anos de idade, que se compara a corno de rinoceronte.It is presented a case of a 42 year-old white female farmer with the classical feature of acquired digital fibrokeratoma, which is compared to rhinoceros horn.

  20. Radical heterosexuality: Straight teacher activism in schools : Does ally-led activism work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Potvin

    2016-06-01

    Here, I explore the efficacy of straight teacher allies, the importance of understanding straight privilege, and the significance of radical heterosexuality for straight people doing LGBTQ activism. Relying on queer theory and decolonizing/Indigenous queer theory, I argue that it is necessary for straight teachers to acknowledge their straight privilege in order to challenge homophobia's companions: heterosexism and heteronormativity. In addressing the latter two covert forms of oppression in schools, teachers and students could shift into deeper, more effective resistance measures.

  1. Gender-typed behavior over time in children with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Garcia, Randi L

    2016-10-01

    The current longitudinal study examined patterns and predictors of parent-reported gender-typed play behavior in adopted boys and girls in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual 2-parent families, across early childhood (Mage = 2.82 to 6.06 years). Specifically, using a sample of 181 couples (56 lesbian couples, 48 gay male couples, and 77 heterosexual couples), we examined parent reports of children's gender-typed play behavior on the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993) at 3 time points (mean age = 2.82 years at T1, 3.93 years at T2, and 6.06 years at T3). Family structure variables (i.e., parents' gender and sexual orientation; children's gender and sibling status) were included as predictors. At T1, according to parent reports, children in lesbian-parent families had less gender-differentiated behavior (boys were less masculine, girls were less feminine) than children in heterosexual- and gay-parent families, whereas the degree of gender differentiation did not differ between heterosexual- versus gay-parent families. Findings from a Common Fate Growth Model (Ledermann & Macho, 2014) revealed that, regardless of family type, the parent-reported gender-typed behavior of boys, but not girls, significantly changed over time (i.e., boys' behavior became more masculine). Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents, particularly those who are being raised by 2 mothers or 2 fathers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Determinants of Heterosexual Adolescents Having Sex with Female Sex Workers in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junice Y S Ng

    Full Text Available We assessed the proportion of and socio-ecological factors associated with ever having had sex with female sex workers (FSWs among heterosexual adolescents. We also described the characteristics of the adolescents who reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs.This is a cross-sectional study (response rate: 73% of 300 heterosexually active male adolescents of 16 to 19 years attending a national STI clinic in Singapore between 2009 and 2014. We assessed the ecological factors (individual, parental, peer, school and medial influences and sexual risk behaviors using a self-reported questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR and confidence intervals (CI.The proportion of heterosexual male adolescents who had ever had sex with FSWs was 39%. Multivariate analysis showed that significant factors associated with ever having had sex with FSWs were sex initiation before 16 years old (aPR 1.79 CI: 1.30-2.46, never had a sexually active girlfriend (aPR 1.75 CI 1.28-2.38, reported lower self-esteem score (aPR 0.96 CI: 0.93-0.98, higher rebelliousness score (aPR 1.03 CI: 1.00-1.07 and more frequent viewing of pornography (aPR 1.47 CI: 1.04-2.09. Lifetime inconsistent condom use with FSWs was 30%.A significant proportion of heterosexual male adolescents attending the public STI clinic had ever had sex with FSWs. A targeted intervention that addresses different levels of influence to this behavior is needed. This is even more so because a considerable proportion of adolescents reported inconsistent condom use with FSWs, who may serve as a bridge of STI transmission to the community. National surveys on adolescent health should include the assessment of frequency of commercial sex visits and condom use with FSWs for long-term monitoring and surveillance.

  3. Molecular phylodynamics of the heterosexual HIV epidemic in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth J Hughes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The heterosexual risk group has become the largest HIV infected group in the United Kingdom during the last 10 years, but little is known of the network structure and dynamics of viral transmission in this group. The overwhelming majority of UK heterosexual infections are of non-B HIV subtypes, indicating viruses originating among immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. The high rate of HIV evolution, combined with the availability of a very high density sample of viral sequences from routine clinical care has allowed the phylodynamics of the epidemic to be investigated for the first time. Sequences of the viral protease and partial reverse transcriptase coding regions from 11,071 patients infected with HIV of non-B subtypes were studied. Of these, 2774 were closely linked to at least one other sequence by nucleotide distance. Including the closest sequences from the global HIV database identified 296 individuals that were in UK-based groups of 3 or more individuals. There were a total of 8 UK-based clusters of 10 or more, comprising 143/2774 (5% individuals, much lower than the figure of 25% obtained earlier for men who have sex with men (MSM. Sample dates were incorporated into relaxed clock phylogenetic analyses to estimate the dates of internal nodes. From the resulting time-resolved phylogenies, the internode lengths, used as estimates of maximum transmission intervals, had a median of 27 months overall, over twice as long as obtained for MSM (14 months, with only 2% of transmissions occurring in the first 6 months after infection. This phylodynamic analysis of non-B subtype HIV sequences representing over 40% of the estimated UK HIV-infected heterosexual population has revealed heterosexual HIV transmission in the UK is clustered, but on average in smaller groups and is transmitted with slower dynamics than among MSM. More effective intervention to restrict the epidemic may therefore be feasible, given effective diagnosis programmes.

  4. Repeat Chlamydia trachomatis testing among heterosexual STI outpatient clinic visitors in the Netherlands: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maartje; van Aar, Fleur; Koedijk, Femke D H; Kampman, Carolina J G; Heijne, Janneke C M

    2017-12-20

    Chlamydia infections are common in both men and women, are often asymptomatic and can cause serious complications. Repeat testing in high-risk groups is therefore indicated. In the Netherlands, guidelines on repeat chlamydia testing differ between testing facilities, and knowledge on repeat testing behaviour is limited. Here, we analyse the current repeat testing behaviour of heterosexual STI clinic visitors, and aim to identify groups for which repeat testing advice could be advantageous. Longitudinal surveillance data from all Dutch STI outpatient clinics were used, which included all STI clinic consultations carried out among heterosexual men and women between June 2014 and December 2015. Repeat testing was defined as returning to the same STI clinic between 35 days and 12 months after initial consultation. We calculated chlamydia positivity at repeat test stratified by initial test result and time between consultations. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of repeat testing, and predictors of having a chlamydia positive repeat test. In total, 140,486 consultations in 75,487 women and 46,286 men were available for analyses. Overall, 15.4% of women and 11.1% of men returned to the STI clinic within the study period. Highest chlamydia positivity at repeat test was seen 3-5 months after initial positive test. Among both women and men, repeat testing was associated with non-Western ethnicity, having had more than two sex partners in the past 6 months, reporting STI symptoms, having a history of STI, and having a chlamydia positive initial test. Among repeat testers, chlamydia positive repeat test was most strongly associated with younger age, followed by a chlamydia positive initial test. Repeat testing most often resulted in a positive test result among young heterosexuals (<25) and heterosexuals of any age with a chlamydia infection at the initial consultation. Further efforts are needed to determine optimal repeat testing strategies.

  5. A Pilot Intervention to Promote Safer Sex in Heterosexual Puerto Rican Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David Wyatt; Ronis, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Although the sexual transmission of HIV occurs in the context of an intimate relationship, preventive interventions with couples are scarce, particularly those designed for Hispanics. In this article, we present the effect of a pilot intervention directed to prevent HIV/AIDS in heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico. The intervention was theory-based and consisted of five three-hour group sessions. Primary goals included increasing male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as a saf...

  6. Sexual scripts among young heterosexually active men and women: Continuity and change

    OpenAIRE

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    While gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding “disjunctures” between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18-25, we delineated ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships. Findings suggest that althou...

  7. Transition to parenthood and quality of parenting among gay, lesbian and heterosexual couples who conceived through assisted reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, B; Vecho, O; Gross, M; Van Rijn-van Gelderen, L; Bos, H; Ellis-Davies, K; Winstanley, A; Golombok, S; Lamb, ME

    2017-01-01

    Little research has focused on the emotions felt during pregnancy and early parenthood as well as the initial quality of parenting displayed by first-time parents who conceived using assisted reproduction technologies (surrogacy, donor insemination, and in vitro fertilization). Research on primary and secondary caregivers in gay, lesbian, and heterosexual families is especially sparse. The current study examined 35 gay-father families, 58 lesbian-mother families and 41 heterosexual-parent fam...

  8. Neural Correlates of Sexual Orientation in Heterosexual, Bisexual, and Homosexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safron, Adam; Sylva, David; Klimaj, Victoria; Rosenthal, A. M.; Li, Meng; Walter, Martin; Bailey, J. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Studies of subjective and genital sexual arousal in monosexual (i.e. heterosexual and homosexual) men have repeatedly found that erotic stimuli depicting men’s preferred sex produce strong responses, whereas erotic stimuli depicting the other sex produce much weaker responses. Inconsistent results have previously been obtained in bisexual men, who have sometimes demonstrated distinctly bisexual responses, but other times demonstrated patterns more similar to those observed in monosexual men. We used fMRI to investigate neural correlates of responses to erotic pictures and videos in heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men, ages 25–50. Sixty participants were included in video analyses, and 62 were included in picture analyses. We focused on the ventral striatum (VS), due to its association with incentive motivation. Patterns were consistent with sexual orientation, with heterosexual and homosexual men showing female-favoring and male-favoring responses, respectively. Bisexual men tended to show less differentiation between male and female stimuli. Consistent patterns were observed in the whole brain, including the VS, and also in additional regions such as occipitotemporal, anterior cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortices. This study extends previous findings of gender-specific neural responses in monosexual men, and provides initial evidence for distinct brain activity patterns in bisexual men. PMID:28145518

  9. Childhood gender nonconformity and harassment as predictors of suicidality among gay, lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual Austrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöderl, Martin; Fartacek, Reinhold

    2009-06-01

    The role of childhood gender role nonconformity (CGNC) and childhood harassment (CH) in explaining suicidality (suicide ideation, aborted suicide attempts, and suicide attempts) was examined in a sample of 142 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and 148 heterosexual adults in Austria. Current and previous suicidality, CGNC, and CH were significantly greater in LGB participants compared to heterosexual participants. After controlling for CGNC, the effect of sexual orientation on CH diminished. CGNC correlated significantly with current suicidality in the LGB but not in the heterosexual group, and only non-significant correlations were found for CGNC with previous suicidality. Controlling for CH and CGNC diminished the effect of sexual orientation on current suicidality. Bayesian multivariate analysis indicated that current suicidality, but not previous suicidality, depended directly on CGNC. CH and CGNC are likely implicated in the elevated levels of current suicidality among adult LGB participants. As for previous suicidality, the negative impact of CGNC on suicidality might be overshadowed by stress issues affecting sexual minorities around coming out. The association of CGNC with current suicidality suggests an enduring effect of CGNC on the mental health and suicide risk of LGB individuals.

  10. Anti-Gay Prejudice and All-Cause Mortality Among Heterosexuals in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellatorre, Anna; Muennig, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined whether individuals who harbor antigay prejudice experience elevated mortality risk. Methods. Data on heterosexual sexual orientation (n = 20 226, aged 18–89 years), antigay attitudes, and mortality risk factors came from the General Social Survey, which was linked to mortality data from the National Death Index (1988–2008). We used Cox proportional hazard models to examine whether antigay prejudice was associated with mortality risk among heterosexuals. Results. Heterosexuals who reported higher levels of antigay prejudice had higher mortality risk than those who reported lower levels (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09, 1.42), with control for multiple risk factors for mortality, including demographics, socioeconomic status, and fair or poor self-rated health. This result translates into a life expectancy difference of approximately 2.5 years (95% CI = 1.0, 4.0 years) between individuals with high versus low levels of antigay prejudice. Furthermore, in sensitivity analyses, antigay prejudice was specifically associated with increased risk of cardiovascular-related causes of death in fully adjusted models (HR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.60). Conclusions. The findings contribute to a growing body of research suggesting that reducing prejudice may improve the health of both minority and majority populations. PMID:24328664

  11. Predictors of Relationship Dissolution in Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Garcia, Randi

    2015-01-01

    Little work has examined relationship dissolution or divorce in adoptive parents or same-sex parent couples. The current study examined predictors of relationship dissolution across the first 5 years of parenthood among a sample of heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male adoptive couples. Of the 190 couples in the study, 15 (7.9%) dissolved their relationships during the first 5 years of adoptive parenthood. Specifically, 7 of 57 lesbian couples (12.3%), 1 of 49 gay male couples (2.0%), and 7 of 84 heterosexual couples (8.3%) dissolved their unions. Results of our logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of relationship dissolution were significantly higher for (a) couples who adopted a non-infant (i.e., older) child); (b) participants who reported feeling less prepared for the adoption, three months post-adoptive placement; and (c) couples in which both partners reported very low, or very high, pre-adoption levels of relationship maintenance behaviors. Findings have implications for adoption professionals seeking to support same-sex and heterosexual prospective adopters, as well as societal debates and policy regarding same-sex relationships and parenting. PMID:26053348

  12. Potentialities of radioisotope aniocardiography in diagnosis of acquired heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malov, G.A.; Mikaelyan, R.S.; Dumpe, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    On the base of the examination of 40 patients with acquired heart diseases and 5 people without heart diseases for control determined are the most charactreristic signs of the acquired heart disease of visual observation on RPP transit (albumin of human serum labelled by sup(99m)Tc) through the heart cavities and magistral vessels. It is shown that there is a close connection between central and intracardial hemodynamics which permjts to judge on the cardiac output on the base of mean circulation time (MCT). Radioisotopic angiocardiography permits to find redistribution of lung blood flow in patients with acquired heart diseases, which can serve as indirect index of long hypertension

  13. Neural circuits of disgust induced by sexual stimuli in homosexual and heterosexual men: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minming; Hu, Shaohua; Xu, Lijuan; Wang, Qidong; Xu, Xiaojun; Wei, Erqing; Yan, Leqin; Hu, Jianbo; Wei, Ning; Zhou, Weihua; Huang, Manli; Xu, Yi

    2011-11-01

    Few studies demonstrated neural circuits related to disgust were influenced by internal sexual orientation in male. Here we used fMRI to study the neural responses to disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men to investigate that issue. Thirty-two healthy male volunteers (sixteen homosexual and sixteen heterosexual) were scanned while viewing alternating blocks of three types of erotic film: heterosexual couples (F-M), male homosexual couples (M-M), and female homosexual couples (F-F) engaged in sexual activity. All the participants rated their level of disgust and sexual arousal as well. The F-F and M-M stimuli induced disgust in homosexual and heterosexual men, respectively. The common activations related to disgusting stimuli included: bilateral frontal gyrus and occipital gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum, and right thalamus. Homosexual men had greater neural responses in the left medial frontal gyrus than did heterosexual men to the sexual disgusting stimuli; in contrast, heterosexual men showed significantly greater activation than homosexual men in the left cuneus. ROI analysis showed that negative correlation were found between the magnitude of MRI signals in the left medial frontal gyrus and scores of disgust in homosexual subjects (pmen. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contraceptive Use Effectiveness and Pregnancy Prevention Information Preferences Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt-Vinti, Heather D; Thompson, Erika L; Griner, Stacey B

    2018-04-14

    Previous research shows that sexual minority women have higher rates of unintended pregnancy than heterosexual women, but has not considered the wide range of contraceptive method effectiveness when exploring this disparity. We examine contraceptive use effectiveness and desire for pregnancy prevention information among college women across sexual orientation identity as a risk factor for unintended pregnancy. Using the National College Health Assessment Fall-2015 dataset, restricted to women who reported engaging in vaginal sex and not wanting to be pregnant (N = 6,486), logistic regression models estimated the odds of contraceptive method effectiveness and desire for pregnancy prevention information by sexual orientation. Most women (57%) reported using a moderately effective contraceptive method (e.g., pill, patch, ring, shot) at last vaginal sex. Compared with heterosexual women, bisexual (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.62), lesbian (aOR, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02-0.06), pansexual/queer (aOR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.25-.56) and other (aOR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.30-0.81) women were significantly less likely to have used a moderately effective method compared with no method. Only 9% of the sample used a highly effective method; asexual (aOR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.92) and lesbian (aOR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.03-0.20) women were significantly less likely than heterosexual women to have used these methods. Pansexual/queer and bisexual women were more likely than heterosexual women to desire pregnancy prevention information. Several groups of sexual minority women were less likely than heterosexual women to use highly or moderately effective contraceptive methods, putting them at increased risk for unintended pregnancy, but desired pregnancy prevention information. These findings bring attention to the importance of patient-centered sexual and reproductive care to reduce unintended pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published

  15. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  16. [The association of bullying with suicide ideation, plan, and attempt among adolescents with GLB or unsure sexual identity, heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction or behavior, or heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction or behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Richard; Thombs, Brett; Igartua, Karine J

    Context Bullying is a known risk factor for suicidality, and suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents. Both are increased in sexual minority youth (SMY). As SMY are comprised of youth who self-identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual (GLB) or who have same-sex attractions or behaviors, our previous finding that different subgroups have different risks for suicidality is understandable. Given that the difference was along sexual identity lines (GLB vs heterosexual SMY), the analysis of bullying data in the same subgroups was felt to be important.Objective To compare the association of bullying and suicide among heterosexual students without same-sex attractions or behaviors, heterosexual students with same-sex attractions and behaviors, and students with gay, lesbian or bisexual (GLB) or unsure sexual identities.Design The 2004 Quebec Youth Risk Behavior Survey (QYRBS) questionnaire was based on the 2001 Center for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and included items assessing the three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction and behavior), health risk behaviors, experiences of harassment, and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts.Methods A total of 1852 students 14-18 years of age from 14 public and private high schools in Montréal Québec were surveyed anonymously during the 2004-2005 academic year.Main outcome measure Self reports of suicidal ideation, suicidal plan and suicide attempts in the last 12 months.Results In all, 117 students (6.3%) had a non-heterosexual identity (GLB or unsure) and 115 students (6.3%) had a heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction or behavior. Bullying occurred in 24% of heterosexual students without same-sex attraction or behavior, 32% of heterosexual students with same-sex attraction or behavior, and 48% of non-heterosexually identified students. In multivariable analysis, the common risk factors of age, gender, depressed mood, drug use, fighting, physical and sexual abuse, and

  17. Plasma concentration of prolactin, testosterone might be associated with brain response to visual erotic stimuli in healthy heterosexual males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Younghee; Jeong, Bumseok; Kim, Ji-Woong; Choi, Jeewook

    2009-09-01

    Many studies have showed that excess or lack of sexual hormones, such as prolactin and testosterone, induced the sexual dysfunction in humans. Little, however, is known about the role of sexual hormones showing normal range in, especially, the basal state unexposed to any sexual stimulation. We hypothesized sexual hormones in the basal state may affect sexual behavior. We investigated the association of the sexual hormones level in the basal hormonal state before visual sexual stimulation with the sexual response-related brain activity during the stimulation. Twelve heterosexual men were recorded the functional MRI signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Both plasma prolacitn and testosterone concentrations were measured before functional MR scanning. A voxel wise regression analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of sexual hormones in basal state and brain activity elicited by ERO minus HA, not food minus nature, contrast. The plasma concentration of prolactin in basal state showed positive association with the activity of the brain involving cognitive component of sexual behavior including the left middle frontal gyrus, paracingulate/superior frontal/anterior cingulate gyri, bilateral parietal lobule, right angular, bilateral precuneus and right cerebellum. Testosterone in basal state was positively associated with the brain activity of the bilateral supplementary motor area which related with motivational component of sexual behavior. Our results suggested sexual hormones in basal state may have their specific target regions or network associated with sexual response.

  18. [Acquired disorders of color vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.

  19. Universal acquired melanosis (Carbon baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviarasan P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 3-year-old girl born with fair complexion which became darker. The color change was insidious in onset at the age of 5 months, asymptomatic and progressive involving the entire body surface. Histopathology revealed increased pigmentation of the epidermal basal layer. Universal acquired melanosis is a rare form of hypermelanosis which was synonymously referred to as "Carbon baby". This is a rare presentation with only one earlier case report.

  20. Acquired Aplastic Anemia in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Helge D.; Olson, Timothy S.; Bessler, Monica

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article provides a practice-based and concise review of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of acquired aplastic anemia in children. Bone marrow transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and supportive care are discussed in detail. The aim is to provide the clinician with a better understanding of the disease and to offer guidelines for the management of children with this uncommon yet serious disorder. PMID:24237973

  1. Swedish or American heterosexual college youth: who is more permissive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, M S; Lottes, I L; Shaver, F M

    1995-08-01

    Theories of human sexuality have proposed that two factors reduce the double standard of sexuality and lead to a convergence of male and female sexual behavior: the degree of social benefits and amount of power women have in basic societal institutions and the extent to which a society accepts permissive sexual norms. As these factors increase, the strength of the double standard will decrease and the convergence between male and female behaviors will increase. Compared to the United States, Sweden has instituted more policies to promote gender equality and has been thought to accept more permissive premarital sexual attitudes. The focus of the research reported here is to examine country and gender differences in sexual attitudes and sexual behavior for a sample of university students in the United States (N = 407) and Sweden (N = 570). Results indicate that Swedish students endorsed more similar sexual standards for women and men and reported more accepting attitudes than did American students. For sexual behavior, American men reported the most sexual experience, Swedish men the least, with the women of both countries generally in the middle category. Notwithstanding this more permissive behavior on the part of American men, gender convergence with respect to sexual behavior is stronger in Sweden on several of the dimensions examined: age of first engaging in partner-related sexual activities for those who were sexually experienced, relationship with first partner, number of partners both in the last year and in their lifetime, and affective reactions to first coitus. Gender convergence, however, is weaker in Sweden than in the United States with respect to the incidence and frequency of various sexual activities and the degree of satisfaction with current sex life. Findings are discussed with respect to the questions they raise about the current theories that framed this research and the differential amount of sex education provided in the two countries.

  2. Measurement Noninvariance of Safer Sex Self-Efficacy Between Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Black Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Donald; Budd, Elizabeth L; Plax, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Black and lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning (LGBQ) youth in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Although self-efficacy is strongly, positively associated with safer sex behaviors, no studies have examined the validity of a safer sex self-efficacy scale used by many federally funded HIV/STD prevention programs. This study aims to test factor validity of the Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine if scale validity varies between heterosexual and LGBQ Black youth. The study uses cross-sectional data collected through baseline surveys with 226 Black youth (15 to 24 years) enrolled in community-based HIV-prevention programs. Participants use a 4-point Likert-type scale to report their confidence in performing 6 healthy sexual behaviors. CFAs are conducted on 2 factor structures of the scale. Using the best-fitting model, the scale is tested for measurement invariance between the 2 groups. A single-factor model with correlated errors of condom-specific items fits the sample well and, when tested with the heterosexual group, the model demonstrates good fit. However, when tested with the LGBQ group, the same model yields poor fit, indicating factorial noninvariance between the groups. The Sexual Self-Efficacy Scale does not perform equally well among Black heterosexual and LGBQ youth. Study findings suggest additional research is needed to inform development of measures for safer sex self-efficacy among Black LGBQ youth to ensure validity of conceptual understanding and to accurately assess effectiveness of HIV/STD prevention interventions among this population.

  3. Predictors of school engagement among same-sex and heterosexual adoptive parents of Kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2014-10-01

    Little research has explored parental engagement in schools in the context of adoptive parent families or same-sex parent families. The current cross-sectional study explored predictors of parents' self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, in a sample of 103 female same-sex, male same-sex, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples (196 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about positive or neutral topics (e.g., their child's good grades) reported more involvement and greater satisfaction with schools, regardless of family type. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about negative topics (e.g., their child's behavior problems) reported better relationships with teachers but lower school satisfaction, regardless of family type. Regarding the broader school context, across all family types, parents who felt more accepted by other parents reported more involvement and better parent-teacher relationships; socializing with other parents was related to greater involvement. Regarding the adoption-specific variables, parents who perceived their children's schools as more culturally sensitive were more involved and satisfied with the school, regardless of family type. Perceived cultural sensitivity mattered more for heterosexual adoptive parents' relationships with their teachers than it did for same-sex adoptive parents. Finally, heterosexual adoptive parents who perceived high levels of adoption stigma in their children's schools were less involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma, whereas same-sex adoptive parents who perceived high levels of stigma were more involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma. Our findings have implications for school professionals, such as school psychologists, who work with diverse families. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting Parents’ School Engagement Among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents of Kindergarteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2014-01-01

    Little research has explored parental engagement in schools in the context of adoptive parent families or same-sex parent families. The current cross-sectional study explored predictors of parents’ self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, in a sample of 103 female same-sex, male same-sex, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples (196 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about positive or neutral topics (e.g., their child’s good grades) reported more involvement and greater satisfaction with schools, regardless of family type. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about negative topics (e.g., their child’s behavior problems) reported better relationships with teachers but lower school satisfaction, regardless of family type. Regarding the broader school context, across all family types, parents who felt more accepted by other parents reported more involvement and better parent–teacher relationships; socializing with other parents was related to greater involvement. Regarding the adoption-specific variables, parents who perceived their children’s schools as more culturally sensitive were more involved and satisfied with the school, regardless of family type. Perceived cultural sensitivity mattered more for heterosexual adoptive parents’ relationships with their teachers than it did for same-sex adoptive parents. Finally, heterosexual adoptive parents who perceived high levels of adoption stigma in their children’s schools were less involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma, whereas same-sex adoptive parents who perceived high levels of stigma were more involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma. Our findings have implications for school professionals, such as school psychologists, who work with diverse families. PMID:25267169

  5. Fecundity of paternal and maternal non-parental female relatives of homosexual and heterosexual men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Camperio Ciani

    Full Text Available A variety of social, developmental, biological and genetic factors influence sexual orientation in males. Thus, several hypotheses have attempted to explain the sustenance of genetic factors that influence male homosexuality, despite decreased fecundity within the homosexuals. Kin selection, the existence of maternal effects and two forms of balancing selection, sexually antagonistic selection and overdominance, have been proposed as compensatory mechanisms for reduced homosexual fecundity. Here, we suggest that the empirical support for kin selection and maternal effects cannot account for the low universal frequency and stability of the distribution of homosexuals. To identify the responsible compensatory mechanism, we analyzed fecundity in 2,100 European female relatives, i.e., aunts and grandmothers, of either homosexual or heterosexual probands who were matched in terms of age, culture and sampling strategy. Female relatives were chosen to avoid the sampling bias of the fraternal birth order effect, which occurs when indirectly sampling mothers though their homosexual sons. We observed that the maternal aunts and grandmothers of homosexual probands were significantly more fecund compared with the maternal aunts and maternal grandmothers of the heterosexual probands. No difference in fecundity was observed in the paternal female lines (grandmothers or aunts from either of the two proband groups. Moreover, due to the selective increase in maternal female fecundity, the total female fecundity was significantly higher in homosexual than heterosexual probands, thus compensating for the reduced fecundity of homosexuals. Altogether, these data support an X-linked multi-locus sexually antagonistic hypothesis rather than an autosomal multi-locus overdominance hypothesis.

  6. Lesbian mothers and their children: a comparison with solo parent heterosexual mothers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R; Mandel, J B; Hotvedt, M E; Gray, J; Smith, L

    1986-04-01

    Two types of single-parent households and their effects on children ages 3-11 years were compared. One type comprised 50 homosexual mothers and their 56 children, and the other was a group of 40 heterosexual mothers and their 48 children. There were 30 daughters and 26 sons of homosexual mothers and 28 daughters and 20 sons of heterosexual mothers. The sexual identity and social relationships of the children were assessed in relation to the sexual orientation of the mothers. The samples consisted of families from rural and urban areas in 10 American states. All have lived without adult males (18 years or older) in the household for a minimum of 2 years (average 4). Families with heterosexual mothers were matched to families with homosexual mothers on age and race of mother; length of mother and child separation from father; educational level and income of mother; and number, age, and sex of children. Data are reported from childrens' tests designed to provide information on general intelligence, core-morphologic sexual identity, gender-role preferences, family and peer group relationships, and adjustment to the single-parent family. No significant differences were found between the two types of households for boys and few significant differences for girls. Concerns that being raised by a homosexual mother might produce sexual identity conflict and peer group stigmatization were not supported by the research findings. Data also revealed more similarities than differences in parenting experiences, marital history, and present living situations of the two groups of mothers. The postulated compromised parental fitness of lesbian mothers, commonly asserted in child custody cases, is not supported by these data.

  7. Acquired Duodenal Obstruction in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hung Chien

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic intramural hematoma of the duodenum is a rare cause of acquired duodenal obstruction in children, and a high degree of suspicion is therefore required to make an early and accurate diagnosis. We report a 6-year-old boy whose epigastrium was impacted by the handlebar of his bicycle during a traffic accident. The boy then experienced epigastralgia. Six days later, progressive bilious vomiting suggestive of gastrointestinal obstruction was noted. Imaging studies revealed a large hematoma extending from the fourth portion of the duodenum to the jejunum. Conservative methods of treatment failed to manage his condition. He underwent laparoscopic surgery to evacuate the hematoma. We also report a case of duodenal obstruction in a previously healthy 2-year-old girl who presented for the first time with acute symptoms of proximal intestinal obstruction. Contrast examinations showed apparent barium retention over the stomach and proximal duodenum. She underwent surgery due to persistent obstruction, and a mushroom-like foreign body was detected embedded in the orifice of the windsock duodenal web. After duodenoduodenostomy and removal of the bezoar, she had a smooth recovery and tolerated feeding well. We conclude that blunt abdominal trauma and incomplete duodenal obstruction, such as that caused by duodenal web, should be considered as possible causes of acquired proximal gastrointestinal obstruction in previously healthy children, despite their rarity.

  8. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Community-acquired Acinetobacter pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, E; Wüst, J; Speich, R; Flury, G; Krause, M

    1993-08-21

    We report the history of a 38-year-old male native of Sri Lanka admitted to the emergency ward because of chest pain and shortness of breath. On physical and radiographic examination a bilateral predominantly right-sided pneumonia was found. The patient was admitted to the medical ICU and an antibiotic regimen with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and erythromycin was initiated. Shortly afterwards septic shock developed. The patient was intubated and received high doses of catecholamines. He died 30 hours after admission to the hospital. Cultures from sputum, tracheal aspirate and blood grew Acinetobacter baumanni. Acinetobacter is an ubiquitous gram-negative rod with coccobacillary appearance in clinical specimens, that may appear gram-positive due to poor discoloration on Gram-stain. It is a well known causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in intensive care units. Community-acquired pneumonias, however, are quite rare. Sporadic cases have been reported from the US, Papua-New Guinea and Australia. Interestingly, these pneumonias are fulminant and have a high mortality. Chronic obstructive lung disease, diabetes, and tobacco and alcohol consumption appear to be predisposing factors. Due to the rapid course and poor prognosis, prompt diagnosis and adequate antibiotic treatment are indicated. Antibiotics use for community-acquired pneumonias, such as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or macrolides, are not sufficient. Appropriate antibiotics for the initial treatment of suspected Acinetobacter infections include imipenem and carboxy- and ureidopenicillins combined with an aminoglycoside.

  10. Foodborne listeriosis acquired in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Benjamin J; McCoy, Morgan H; Iwamoto, Martha; Griffin, Patricia M

    2014-08-15

    Listeriosis is characterized by bacteremia or meningitis. We searched for listeriosis case series and outbreak investigations published in English by 2013, and assessed the strength of evidence for foodborne acquisition among patients who ate hospital food. We identified 30 reports from 13 countries. Among the case series, the median proportion of cases considered to be hospital-acquired was 25% (range, 9%-67%). The median number of outbreak-related illnesses considered to be hospital-acquired was 4.0 (range, 2-16). All patients were immunosuppressed in 18 of 24 (75%) reports with available data. Eight outbreak reports with strong evidence for foodborne acquisition in a hospital implicated sandwiches (3 reports), butter, precut celery, Camembert cheese, sausage, and tuna salad (1 report each). Foodborne acquisition of listeriosis among hospitalized patients is well documented internationally. The number of listeriosis cases could be reduced substantially by establishing hospital policies for safe food preparation for immunocompromised patients and by not serving them higher-risk foods. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Waiting for the right time: how and why young Thai women manage to avoid heterosexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supametaporn, Pinhatai; Stern, Phyllis Noerager; Rodcumdee, Branom; Chaiyawat, Waraporn

    2010-08-01

    Nineteen young Thai women were purposively selected from networks of nongovernmental organizations involving children and youths in Bangkok. Our grounded theory findings indicated that these young women used the basic social process they called "waiting for the right time" in order to maintain heterosexual abstinence. Waiting for the right time involved one overarching condition, honoring parental love, and included three overlapping properties: learning rules, planning life path, and ways of preserving virginity. The findings provide information that may lead to the development of culturally competent interventions for middle-class Thai youths to remain healthy and avoid pregnancy.

  12. Sexuality and HIV/AIDS: an exploration of older heterosexual women's knowledge levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pamela; Humble, Áine M; Blum, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality research tends to ignore older populations, and little is known about older women's sexual health knowledge. To fill this research gap, 186 Canadian heterosexual women 50 years and older were surveyed about their knowledge regarding sexuality and HIV/AIDS. Respondents had moderate levels of overall knowledge of sexual health and aging, correctly answering, on average, 60% of the 35 questions. They had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge, correctly answering just over 50% of the 25 questions. Results indicate the need for social awareness and education in this group regarding both general sexual health later in life and HIV/AIDS.

  13. Functional characteristics of HIV-1 subtype C compatible with increased heterosexual transmissibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Brandon L; Armitage, Andrew E; Graham, Stephen C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the existence of over 50 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms of HIV-1, subtype C dominates the heterosexual pandemic causing approximately 56% of all infections. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether viral genetic factors may contribute to the observed subtype-C predominance. ....... CONCLUSION: As CD4-CCR5-T cells are key targets for genital HIV infection and cervical selection can favor compact V1-V2 loops and 316T, which increase viral infectivity, we propose that these conserved subtype-C motifs may contribute to transmission and spread of this subtype....

  14. A Bit too Skinny for Me: Women's Homosocial Constructions of Heterosexual Desire in Online Dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler

    2018-01-01

    , online dating practices are rich fields for investigating the workings of desire. Based on audiovisual recordings of two Danish female friends engaging in online dating activities, this article demonstrates how participants, through joint stance-taking, co-construct shared desire and adjust individually......-produced desire to create homosocial affiliation. Hence, in this case, heterosexual desire construction is a collaborative undertaking generated through homosocial bonding. The performed desire carries a strong physical focus, partly produced by the participants’ attention to bodily detail and partly through...

  15. Time dysperception perspective for acquired brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica ePiras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortions of time perception are presented by a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we survey timing abilities in clinical populations with acquired brain injuries in key cerebral areas recently implicated in human studies of timing. We purposely analyzed the complex relationship between cognitive and contextual factors involved in time estimation, as to characterize the correlation between timed and other cognitive behaviors in each group. We assume that interval timing is a solid construct to study cognitive dysfunctions following brain injury, as timing performance is a sensitive metric of information processing, while temporal cognition has the potential of influencing a wide range of cognitive processes. Moreover, temporal performance is a sensitive assay of damage to the underlying neural substrate after a brain insult. Further research in neurological and psychiatric patients will definitively answer the question of whether time distortions are manifestations of cognitive and behavioral symptoms of brain damage and definitively clarify their mechanisms.

  16. Acquired hyperostosis syndrome. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dihlmann, W.; Hering, L.; Bargon, G.W.

    1988-12-01

    In the second part of this publication, we describe some additional findings in cases of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH). These include focal hyperostosis of the spine, in the pelvis and in the extremities and psoriatric skin lesions and severe forms of acne (acne conglobata, acne fulminans). An analysis of our 13 patients and of the relevant literature indicates that the hyperostosis is due to increased bone metabolism and heterotopic ossification of fibrous tissue and that these are the pathogenic bases of the changes in the axial skeleton, the pelvis and the bones of the extremities. We have suggested a scheme which would categorise the syndrom into complete, incomplete and possibly acquired forms. (orig./GDG).

  17. And the Winner is - Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    New entrants to a market tend to be superior to incumbents in originating radical innovations. We provide a new explanation for this phenomenon, based on markets for technology. It applies in industries where successful entrepreneurial firms, or their technologies, are acquired by incumbents...... that then commercialize the innovation. To this end we analyze an innovation game between one incumbent and a large number of entrants. In the first stage, firms compete to develop innovations of high quality. They do so by choosing, at equal cost, the success probability of their R&D approach, where a lower probability...... the incumbent performs the least radical project. Entrants pick pairwise different projects; the bigger the number of entrants, the more radical the most radical project. Generally, entrants tend to choose more radical R&D approaches and generate the highest value innovation in case of success. We illustrate...

  18. Pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severiche, Diego

    1998-01-01

    This is the first published case report en Colombia about pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia. This uncommon pathogen is from the epidemiological standpoint a very important one and medical community should be aware to look after it in those patients where no other etiological pathogen is recovered. A brief summary about epidemiology is showed, emphasizing those regions where it can be found. Likewise, comments about the differential diagnosis are important since it should be considered in those patients where tuberculosis is suspected. This is particularly representative for countries with high tuberculosis rates. Furthermore, a microbiological review is shown, emphasizing on isolation techniques, descriptions about therapeutics and other regarding treatment issues according international standards. Finally; a description about the clinical picture, laboratory findings, treatment and evolution of the case reported are shown for discussion

  19. Influence of gender role orientation (masculinity versus femininity) on body satisfaction and eating attitudes in homosexuals, heterosexuals and transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Stefania; Iannaccone, Mara; Cotrufo, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gender role orientation and eating disorder attitudes and behaviors and body dissatisfaction in a sample of homosexuals, heterosexuals, and transsexuals. We screened 132 homosexuals, 178 heterosexuals (both male and female), and 15 MtF transsexuals by means of an ad hoc socio-demographic schedule; the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 and Symptom Checklist; the Body Uneasiness Test and the Bem Sex Role Inventory. Differences between homosexual, heterosexual, and transsexual participants emerged, but those data seem to be best explained by the constructs of femininity and masculinity than by the biological gender. The empirical evidence of a positive correlation between femininity and eating problems, and the negative correlation between masculinity and eating problems, is full of implications. Eating disorders appear to be diseases of femininity; masculinity seems to be a protective factor, independently by the biological gender.

  20. Mental Health Trainees' Explicit and Implicit Attitudes Toward Transracial Adoptive Families Headed by Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tony Xing; Jordan-Arthur, Brittany; Garafano, Jeffrey S; Curran, Laura

    2017-01-01

    We investigated 109 (79.8% female; 76% White, and 83.5% Heterosexual) mental health trainees' explicit and implicit attitudes toward heterosexual, lesbian, and gay White couples adopting and raising Black children. To determine explicit attitudes, we used a vignette depicting a Black child ready for adoption and three types of equally qualified White families who were headed by a heterosexual couple, gay couple, or lesbian couple. The trainees were asked to indicate which type of family they preferred to adopt the child. To determine implicit attitudes, we used the computer programed latency-based multifactor implicit association test (IAT) protocol. The IAT data were collected from each participant individually. Explicit data showed that over 80% of the participants indicated no strong preference in terms of which type of family should adopted the child. However, IAT data showed that the trainees implicitly preferred lesbian couples. Overall, the degree of congruence between explicit and implicit was very low. Implications for training were discussed.

  1. Non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity in sexual minority and heterosexual young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacefield, Katharine; Negy, Charles

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an STI or emotional concerns) during sexual activity. Participants were matched on gender (96 males and 104 females), age, and ethnicity, and completed questionnaires assessing frequency of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity, as well as measures of additional variables (trait and body image anxiety, attitudes toward sexual minorities, self-esteem, and religiosity). Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced significantly more cognitive distractions related to body image, physical performance, and STIs during sexual activity than heterosexuals. Regarding gender, men reported more distractions related to STIs than women. Interaction effects were observed between sexual orientation and gender for body image-, disease-, and external/emotional-based distractions. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. The invisibility of heterosexuality in HIV/AIDS prevention for men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Fachel Leal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTHeterosexual men have been a forgotten group for HIV/AIDS interventions and research. Our goal was to identify the different elements that interfere in the prevention of HIV/AIDS among heterosexual men, covering both traditional methods of prevention (especially safe sex practices and testing and new strategies for prevention (pre- and post-sexual exposure prophylaxis, prevention treatment, and circumcision in this population. This exploratory article consists of a nonsystematic review of the literature. We discuss the invisibility of heterosexual men in policies, in programs, and in health services. The several interventions analyzed are still poorly monitored and evaluated, so there is a lack of consistent evidence regarding the impact of prevention strategies in this population. Different masculinities, including hegemonic conceptions of masculinity, must be the foundation for interventions targeting men. Men must not be seen merely as a "bridge" in the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, but also as victims of gender patterns that make them vulnerable.

  3. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical correlates of inconsistent condom use in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchacz, K; van der Straten, A; Saul, J; Shiboski, S C; Gomez, C A; Padian, N

    2001-11-01

    We examined sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics associated with inconsistent condom use in a cross-sectional analysis of 145 sexually active HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples who participated in the California Partners Study II. All couples were aware of their HIV-serodiscordant status. Forty-five percent of couples reported having had unprotected vaginal or anal sex in the previous 6 months. In the multivariate couple-level analyses, factors independently associated with inconsistent (i.e., <100%) condom use in the previous 6 months included lower educational level, unemployment, African-American ethnicity, and practice of anal sex by the couple. Injection drug use was associated with inconsistent condom use among couples with younger HIV-infected partners. In addition, couples with HIV-infected partners who had higher CD4 cell counts and couples in which the HIV-infected male partner ever had sex with a man were more likely to use condoms inconsistently. Consistency of condom use did not depend on the gender of the HIV-infected partner or duration of sexual relationship. The findings suggest that many HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples remain at high risk of HIV transmission and may benefit not only from behavioral interventions but also from structural interventions aimed at improving their social and economic conditions.

  4. A gender discrepancy analysis of heterosexual sexual behaviors in two university samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Satinsky, Sonya A

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to (1) offer a large-scale enumeration of college students' lifetime sexual behaviors and sexual behaviors at last event, and (2) apply a gender discrepancy lens to college students' sexual behaviors in order to examine potential gender differences in heterosexual college students' experiences. Nine-hundred and seventy college students between the ages of 18 and 27 from two large universities in the United States participated in the current study. Participants filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire during the last 30 min of class. Measures of lifetime sexual behaviors and engagement in behaviors at last sexual event were replicated from the National Survey of Sexual Health Behavior. Most college students engaged in some form of sexual behavior (manual, oral, vaginal-penile, anal). Men more frequently reported engaging in receptive sexual behaviors (e.g., receiving oral sex) where as women were more likely to engage in performative sexual behaviors (e.g., performing oral sex). At most recent sexual event, men were more likely than women to report being the sexual initiator. Findings highlight gender differences in sexual behavior and provide a foundation for social norms interventions. Holistic sexual health promotion for young adults includes acknowledging and discouraging sites of disparity in equity and pleasure. Therefore, college-level sexual health educators should pay attention to the potential pleasure gap between men and women in heterosexual encounters, and to see pleasure as an important part of sexual health that should be included in social norms campaigns.

  5. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms Among HIV-Positive Concordant and Discordant Heterosexual Couples in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Lin, Chunqing; Ji, Guoping; Xiao, Yongkang

    2017-03-01

    HIV seropositive individuals and their heterosexual partners/spouses, either seropositive or seronegative, are facing several mental health challenges. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in depressive symptoms among HIV-positive concordant and HIV-discordant couples. We identified heterosexual couples from participants of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Anhui province, China. A total of 265 couples, comprising 129 HIV+ male/HIV- female couples, 98 HIV- male/HIV+ female couples, and 38 HIV-positive concordant couples, were included in the analyses. We collected data using the computer-assisted personal interview method. We used a linear mixed-effects regression model to assess whether gender differences in depressive symptoms varied across couple types. HIV-positive women reported a significantly higher level of depressive symptoms than their partners/spouses. HIV-positive women with HIV-positive partners had higher depressive symptoms than those with HIV-negative partners, whereas HIV-positive men reported similar levels of depressive symptoms regardless of their partners' serostatus. Among the concordant couples, those with the highest annual family income showed the greatest gender differences in depressive symptoms. We suggest that family interventions should be gender- and couple-type specific and that mental health counseling is warranted not only for HIV-positive women but also for HIV-negative women in an HIV-affected relationship.

  6. Barriers and facilitators of HIV prevention with heterosexual Latino couples: beliefs of four stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W; Serrano-García, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men's involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Determinants of Behavior Change Intention Among Heterosexual Thai Males Diagnosed with Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thato, Ratsiri; Daengsaard, Ekkachai

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to identify factors associated with intention to change sexual practices among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI clinic patients (n = 247) reported their sexual behaviors and condom use during the previous 3 months. STI and HIV knowledge, motivation to change sexual practices, and behavioral skills were assessed. Then, self-reported behavior change intention, including consistent condom use, reducing number of sexual partners, not using drugs and alcohol when having sex, and refusal of condomless sex, was examined. Consistent condom use in the past 3 months by Thai males diagnosed with STIs was low across all types of sexual partners (lover 13.8%, casual partner 14.9%, and sex worker 2.5%). Risk reduction self-efficacy (p behavior change intention. Significant predictors of behavior change intention were risk reduction self-efficacy (p behavior change intention variance. Intervention aimed at enhancing motivation and behavioral skills to adopt preventive behaviors should be developed to prevent recurrent STIs, including HIV infection, among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with STIs.

  8. Theory of planned behavior interventions for reducing heterosexual risk behaviors: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Mandy; Covey, Judith; Rosenthal, Harriet E S

    2014-12-01

    The meta-analysis reported here examined interventions informed by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) or theory of reasoned action (TRA) aimed at reducing heterosexual risk behaviors (prevention of STDs and unwanted pregnancy). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were either randomized control trials or quasi-experimental studies that compared the TPB-based intervention against a control group. Search strategy consisted of articles identified in previous reviews, keyword search through search engines, examination of key journals, and contacting key experts. Forty-seven intervention studies were included in the meta-analysis. Random effects models revealed that pooled effect sizes for TPB-based interventions had small but significant effects on behavior and other secondary outcomes (i.e., knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, and intentions). Significant heterogeneity found between effect sizes was explored using metaregression. Larger effects were found for interventions that provided opportunities for social comparison. The TPB provides a valuable framework for designing interventions to change heterosexual risk behaviors. However, effect sizes varied quite substantially between studies, and further research is needed to explore the reasons why.

  9. Oxytocin's impact on social face processing is stronger in homosexual than heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienel, Matthias; Heinrichs, Markus; Fischer, Stefan; Ott, Volker; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin is an evolutionarily highly preserved neuropeptide that contributes to the regulation of social interactions including the processing of facial stimuli. We hypothesized that its improving effect on social approach behavior depends on perceived sexual features and, consequently, on sexual orientation. In 19 homosexual and 18 heterosexual healthy young men, we investigated the acute effect of intranasal oxytocin (24IU) and placebo, respectively, on the processing of social stimuli as assessed by ratings of trustworthiness, attractiveness and approachability for male and female faces. Faces were each presented with a neutral, a happy, and an angry expression, respectively. In heterosexual subjects, the effect of oxytocin administration was restricted to a decrease in ratings of trustworthiness for angry female faces (poxytocin administration robustly increased ratings of attractiveness and approachability for male faces regardless of the facial expression (all p ≤ 0.05), as well as ratings of approachability for happy female faces (poxytocin's enhancing impact on social approach tendencies, suggesting that differences in sexual orientation imply differential oxytocinergic signaling. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Qualitative analysis of an educational intervention with HIV-discordant heterosexual Latino couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E

    2011-12-01

    This qualitative analysis elucidates the potential elements of the intervention that may be effective in terms of a) increasing knowledge about HIV/ AIDS in the members of this population; b) increasing the use of male condoms and the practice of mutual masturbation; and c) changing opinions toward male condom use and mutual masturbation. Five heterosexual HIV-discordant couples participated in the adapted intervention, which consisted of four three-hour-long sessions. One month after the intervention, we conducted a qualitative semi-structured interview with every participant to evaluate issues related to the process and content of the activities comprising the intervention, the impact of the intervention, logistics, and recruitment and retention as well as to make a more general evaluation. The information was submitted to qualitative content analysis. After the intervention, participants reported having better attitudes regarding safer sex, particularly in terms of condom use. A reason given by the participants to feel more positive toward condom use and mutual masturbation was that these practices could prevent the infection of the HIV-negative partner. This study provides important evidence of an intervention that promises to be efficacious in preventing some high-risk sexual behaviors among Latino HIV-discordant heterosexual couples. The evidence presented seems to suggest that an intervention that includes basic relevant information about HIV/AIDS, that explains the benefits of condom use and other safer sex options, and that provides effective negotiation and communication strategies could significantly reduce HIV transmission among these couples.

  11. Barriers and Facilitators of HIV Prevention With Heterosexual Latino Couples: Beliefs of Four Stakeholder Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W.; Serrano-García, Irma

    2012-01-01

    Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men’s involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19209976

  12. Sexual identities and lifestyles among non-heterosexual urban Chiang Mai adolescents: implications for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Banwell, Cathy; Carmichael, Gordon; Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Sleigh, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon quantitative and qualitative data we explore perspectives on and experiences of sexual lifestyles and relationships among more than 1,750 adolescents aged 17-20 years who reside in urban Chiang Mai, Thailand. We focus on respondents’ representations and understandings of their sexual/gender identities derived mainly from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, supplemented with observations and field notes. Our results show that while many young Thais described themselves as heterosexual males or females others described themselves as gay, kathoey, tom, dii, bisexual or something else. Some were still questioning their own identities. The terms gay, kathoey, tom and dii are commonly used by these Thais to describe a range of sexual/gender identities relating to persons who are sexually or romantically attracted to the same biological sex. We use case studies to illustrate the distinctive characterizations, sexual lifestyles and relationships of each of these identities. We conclude that the sexual lifestyles encountered among Northern Thai non-heterosexual adolescents could lead to negative health consequences and indicated a need for improved relationship education, counselling and sensitive sexual health services. PMID:20665299

  13. Perceived norms of premarital heterosexual relationships and sexuality among female college students in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalajabadi Farahani, Farideh; Cleland, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes perceptions of the societal acceptability and acceptability among peers of different types of premarital heterosexual relationships in Iran. Sources of variation in subjective norms are assessed. Results derive from a survey conducted in 2005 of a representative sample of 1743 female college students from four multidisciplinary universities in Tehran using two-stage random cluster sampling. An anonymous pilot-tested questionnaire was used. Respondents displayed remarkable heterogeneity and ambiguity concerning the social acceptability of premarital heterosexual friendship, dating and physical contact, but expressed greater certainty about the unacceptability of premarital sex. The majority (77.5%) reported that premarital sex was socially prohibited, while about one third (33.1%) were unsure about the social acceptability of having a boyfriend and dating before marriage. Peer norms were perceived to be more liberal but, nevertheless, very few peers were thought to be in favour of premarital intercourse. Older students, those with educated fathers and those studying in a mixed-sex university perceived norms to be more liberal than their counterparts. Access to satellite television, a major source of exposure to new information and values about sexuality, was a major predictor of liberal peer norms. It appears that a significant proportion of young people in Tehran have broken with tradition with regard to premarital social interaction and romantic friendships, but the majority still conforms to traditional cultural and religious values regarding abstinence before marriage.

  14. A little thing called love: condom use in high-risk primary heterosexual relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, A Michelle; Dickson-Gómez, Julia; Hilario, Helena; Weeks, Margaret R

    2009-12-01

    Condoms are less likely to be used in primary relationships than in other relationship types. An understanding of what women and men expect when entering into these relationships, as well as how they make decisions about condom use and other prevention behaviors, is essential to efforts to curb the spread of HIV. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 high-risk heterosexual couples, including HIV-serodiscordant couples, participating in a trial of the female condom in Hartford in 2004-2007. Data were coded and analyzed in an iterative inductive and deductive process. Participants described nonuse of condoms as a strategy to fi nd and maintain a primary relationship, establish trust and increase intimacy. Many had unprotected intercourse while recognizing their risk of HIV and other STDs, placing their love for their partner and other emotional needs over concerns about their health. Several couples reduced their STD risk by practicing negotiated safety (i.e., using condoms until their serostatus had been determined) or similar strategies, including sharing sexual or drug use history, disclosing HIV test results and using condoms until they decided that their relationship would be monogamous. HIV prevention approaches must recognize the importance of love and the needs that primary relationships satisfy if they are to be considered relevant by those at greatest risk. Negotiated safety and similar strategies may be an important risk reduction tool for heterosexuals, particularly those in HIV-affected relationships, but their potential effectiveness may vary.

  15. Who Wears the Pants: The Implications of Gender and Power for Youth Heterosexual Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y; Maguin, Eugene; Bruns, Anne E

    2018-01-01

    Relationships in which power is equally distributed are consistently associated with greater quality (e.g., deeper intimacy, less turmoil, more pleasure), but it can be difficult to strike such a balance. Furthermore, dominant gender scripts and norms are complexly intertwined with power in heterosexual relationships. We studied the joint implications of power and gender for relationship quality using 114 U.S. emerging adults' quantitative and qualitative assessments of 395 heterosexual relationships. Linear mixed method analyses indicated that participants found relationships in which they shared power or were dominant to be more intimate and stable than those in which they felt subordinate, but we found no link between power and pleasure. Gender acted as a moderator such that women rated relationships in which they felt subordinate as less intimate and more tumultuous than those in which they felt dominant, whereas men's ratings did not vary by whether they felt subordinate or dominant. Qualitative data also showed power imbalances to be more problematic for women: Of the 17 relationships involving an abusive or controlling partner, 15 were reported by women. We conclude that while both young men and young women may feel subordinate in relationships, the consequences thereof are more detrimental for young women.

  16. Racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms as pathways to sexual HIV risk behaviors among urban Black heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa; Fitz, Caroline C; Burkholder, Gary J; Massie, Jenne S; Wahome, Rahab; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    In light of evidence that racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are neither rare nor extraordinary for many Black urban men, we examined the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual HIV risk behaviors in a predominantly low-income sample of 526 urban Black heterosexually identified men; 64% of whom were unemployed and 55% of whom reported a history of incarceration. We tested the hypothesis that PTSS would mediate the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk. Participants in the predominantly low-income urban sample ranged in age from 18 to 45 (M = 28.80, SD = 7.57). Three multiple regression models were used to test the study's mediational model. As hypothesized, PTSS mediated the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk behaviors. Most participants (97%) reported experiences with everyday racial discrimination. Results empirically support the notion of racial discrimination-based traumatic stress as a pathway to Black heterosexual men's increased sexual risk behaviors. Results also highlighted key demographic differences with older men reporting fewer PTSS and sexual risk behaviors compared with younger men. Incarceration was related to both PTSS and sexual risk, underscoring the role that incarceration may play in Black heterosexual men's adverse health outcomes. Our study highlights the need for more qualitative and quantitative research to understand the nature of PTSS in Black heterosexual men and mechanisms such as substance use that may link traumatic experiences and sexual risk. Future research could also assess experiences with childhood sexual abuse, violence, and incarceration to gain a more in-depth understanding of the sources of traumatic stress in Black heterosexual men's lives. We advocate for the development of community-based individual and structural-level interventions to help Black heterosexual men in urban areas develop effective strategies to

  17. HIV risk behaviors among African American men in Los Angeles County who self-identify as heterosexual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Amy Rock; Johnson, Denise F; Lu, Sharon; Jordan, Wilbert; Beall, Gildon; Currier, Judith; Simon, Paul A

    2002-11-01

    There are limited data on high-risk behaviors among heterosexual African American men with HIV infection. Risk behaviors were examined in a case-control study of HIV-infected (n = 90) and uninfected (n = 272) African American men who self-identified as heterosexual. Of men who self-identified as heterosexual, 31% (n = 28) of the infected men and 16% (n = 43) of the uninfected men reported having had anal sex with men. Among the heterosexual men reporting anal sex with men, 100% of the infected and 67% of the uninfected men reported inconsistent condom use during anal sex with men. Few of the infected (12%) and uninfected (2%) men reported oral sex with other men. Of the men who self-identified as heterosexual, 46% of those who were HIV-positive and 37% of those who were HIV-negative reported anal sex with women with infrequent condom use. An increasing risk for HIV was associated with decreasing age at first sexual experience (chi2, 9.3; p = .002). A history of injecting drugs (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.8, 5.4) and amphetamine (OR, 4.3; 95% CIs, 1.1, 16.7) and methamphetamine (OR, 2.9; 95% CIs, 1.4, 6.3) use were associated with HIV. Innovative HIV prevention strategies are needed that move beyond the traditional gay versus straight model to effectively access hard-to-reach African American men who self-identify as heterosexual.

  18. The Influence on Premarital Heterosexual Relationships on Marital Timing and Marital Desire among College Students in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    فريده خلج‌آبادي‌فراهاني

    2015-04-01

    In the first phase of the survey, 2031 university students aged 18-40 from among 7 universities (both public and private in Tehran were selected using two stage stratified cluster sampling method. Data collection was completed between January 2010 and May 2011 using an anonymous self-administer valid and reliable questionnaire. The mean age of respondents was 22.5, 12% were married with a mean age at marriage of 27(SD=6.32. The influence of premarital heterosexual relationships on marriage age was assessed among married and on desire to marry among single students. The results show that after control of gender, economic and cultural situation of the family, the experience of progressive (sexual relationship between opposite sex is one of the determinant factors of marriage age among university students. Reporting experience of progressive premarital heterosexual relationships and intimacy are associated with about two years delay in marriage (b-coefficient=1.7, P<0/05 Moreover, There is a gender difference in the relations between premarital heterosexual relationships and desire for marriage. So as, both heterosexual friendships and intimacy was significantly linked with greater desire for marriage among females, while among men, only progressive intimacy was inversely linked with desire for marriage. Men with greater experiences showed lower desire for marriage, while premarital heterosexual friendship was not associated with marital desire and propensity.  The changes in trends of premarital heterosexual relationships among young people and recent types of partnerships needs to be considered more than before in evolution of marriage and the family in Iran and also differing implications of such relationships between men and women needs greater consideration.

  19. Relationship satisfaction in lesbian and heterosexual couples before and after assisted reproduction: a longitudinal follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borneskog, Catrin; Lampic, Claudia; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Svanberg, Agneta Skoog

    2014-12-12

    More and more lesbian couples are planning parenthood through donor insemination and IVF and the number of planned lesbian families is growing in Sweden and other western countries. Research has shown that lesbian couples report as much overall satisfaction in their relationships as do heterosexual couples. However, although parenthood is highly desired, many parents are unaware of the demands of parenthood and the strain on their relationship that the arrival of the baby might bring. The aim of this study was to compare lesbian and heterosexual couples' perceptions of relationship satisfaction at a three-year follow up after assisted reproduction. The present study is a part of the Swedish study on gamete donation, a prospective longitudinal cohort study. The present study constitutes a three-year follow up assessment of lesbian and heterosexual couples after assisted reproduction. Participants requesting assisted reproduction at all fertility clinics performing gamete donation in Sweden, were recruited consecutively during 2005-2008. A total of 114 lesbian women (57 treated women and 57 partners) and 126 heterosexual women and men (63 women and 63 men) participated. Participants responded to the ENRICH inventory at two time points during 2005-2011; at the commencement of treatment (time point 1) and about three years after treatment termination (time point 3). To evaluate the bivariate relationships between the groups (heterosexual and lesbian) and socio-demographic factors Pearson's Chi- square test was used. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for testing of normality, Mann-Whitney U- test to examine differences in ENRICH between the groups and paired samples t-test to examine scores over time. Lesbian couples reported higher relationship satisfaction than heterosexual couples, however the heterosexual couples satisfaction with relationship quality was not low. Both lesbian and heterosexual couples would be classified accordingly to ENRICH-typology as vitalized or

  20. Sexually Explicit Media Use by Sexual Identity: A Comparative Analysis of Gay, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Scheinmann, Roberta; Antebi-Gruszka, Nadav; Hirshfield, Sabina

    2017-08-01

    Advances in production and distribution of sexually explicit media (SEM) online have resulted in widespread use among men. Limited research has compared contexts of use and behaviors viewed in Internet SEM by sexual identity. The current study examined differences in recent SEM use (past 6 months) by sexual identity among an ethnically diverse sample of 821 men who completed an online survey in 2015. Both gay and bisexual men reported significantly more frequent use of Internet SEM compared to heterosexual men. Although most participants reported viewing SEM at home (on a computer, tablet, or smartphone), significantly more gay men reported SEM use at a sex party or commercial sex venue than either heterosexual or bisexual men. Sexual identity predicted viewing of high-risk and protective behaviors in separate logistic regression models. Specifically, compared to heterosexual men, gay and bisexual men had increased odds of viewing condomless anal sex (gay OR 5.20, 95 % CI 3.35-8.09; bisexual OR 3.99, 95 % CI 2.24-7.10) and anal sex with a condom (gay OR 3.93, 95 % CI 2.64-5.83; bisexual OR 4.59, 95 % CI 2.78-7.57). Compared to gay men, heterosexual and bisexual men had increased odds of viewing condomless vaginal sex (heterosexual OR 27.08, 95 % CI 15.25-48.07; bisexual OR 5.59, 95 % CI 3.81-8.21) and vaginal sex with a condom (heterosexual OR 7.90, 95 % CI 5.19-12.03; bisexual OR 4.97, 95 % CI 3.32-7.44). There was also evidence of identity discrepant SEM viewing as 20.7 % of heterosexual-identified men reported viewing male same-sex behavior and 55.0 % of gay-identified men reported viewing heterosexual behavior. Findings suggest the importance of assessing SEM use across media types and contexts and have implications for research to address the potential influence of SEM on sexual behavior (e.g., investigate associations between viewing condomless vaginal sex and engaging in high-risk encounters with female partners).

  1. The Preliminary Findings of a Study Exploring the Perceptions of a Sample of Young Heterosexual Males regarding HIV Prevention Education Programming in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahagan, Jacqueline; Rehman, Laurene; Barbour, Laura; McWilliam, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasing numbers of young Canadian females becoming infected with HIV through heterosexual transmission with an infected male sexual partner, the majority of current HIV prevention programs and services in Canada continue to ignore the needs of young heterosexual males. This research is derived from 30 in-depth interviews, 9 focus…

  2. Suicidal Ideation and Attempt among Adolescents Reporting "Unsure" Sexual Identity or Heterosexual Identity Plus Same-Sex Attraction or Behavior: Forgotten Groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Montoro, Richard; Igartua, Karine; Thombs, Brett D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare risk of suicide ideation and attempts in adolescents with 1) gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) identity, 2) "unsure" identity, or 3) heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior, to heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior. Method: A total of 1,856 students 14 years…

  3. Plasma Concentration of Prolactin, Testosterone Might Be Associated with Brain Response to Visual Erotic Stimuli in Healthy Heterosexual Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Younghee; Kim, Ji-Woong; Choi, Jeewook

    2009-01-01

    Objective Many studies have showed that excess or lack of sexual hormones, such as prolactin and testosterone, induced the sexual dysfunction in humans. Little, however, is known about the role of sexual hormones showing normal range in, especially, the basal state unexposed to any sexual stimulation. We hypothesized sexual hormones in the basal state may affect sexual behavior. Methods We investigated the association of the sexual hormones level in the basal hormonal state before visual sexual stimulation with the sexual response-related brain activity during the stimulation. Twelve heterosexual men were recorded the functional MRI signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Both plasma prolacitn and testosterone concentrations were measured before functional MR scanning. A voxel wise regression analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between the concentration of sexual hormones in basal state and brain activity elicited by ERO minus HA, not food minus nature, contrast. Results The plasma concentration of prolactin in basal state showed positive association with the activity of the brain involving cognitive component of sexual behavior including the left middle frontal gyrus, paracingulate/superior frontal/anterior cingulate gyri, bilateral parietal lobule, right angular, bilateral precuneus and right cerebellum. Testosterone in basal state was positively associated with the brain activity of the bilateral supplementary motor area which related with motivational component of sexual behavior. Conclusion Our results suggested sexual hormones in basal state may have their specific target regions or network associated with sexual response. PMID:20046395

  4. Seagull to acquire arkla exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Seagull Energy Corp., Houston, has agreed to acquire Arkla Exploration Inc. from Arkla Inc., Shreveport, La., for about $402 million. The transaction-expected to net Seagull reserves totaling about 578 bcf of gas and 7.3 million bbl of oil and condensate-would more than double Seagull's proved reserves and nearly double its total assets. According to Seagull's 1991 annual report, the company's reserves at yearend 1991 were estimated at 401.2 bcf of gas equivalent (bcfe), including 335.1 bcf of gas and 11 million bbl of oil. Independent engineers at yearend 1991 estimated Arkla's proved reserves at 635 bcf of gas and 9 million bbl of liquids. Seagull Chairman Barry J. Galt said the company plans to keep many of Arkla Exploration's employees and to establish a meaningful presence in Shreveport. Arkla's already got good people in Shreveport and an operating base, a Seagull official said. We want to move in, put our name on the door, and continue the good operations Arkla already has. Seagull has lined up financing for the acquisition from a group of major U.S. banks. A new credit facility-consisting of a $475 million line of revolving credit and a $150 million 3 year term loan-will replace an exiting $225 million line of revolving credit. Boards of both companies have approved the deal, which Seagull and Arkla hope to close before yearend, subject to regulatory approvals and purchase price adjustments

  5. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction.

  6. Clinicopathological associations of acquired erythroblastopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Gursel; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Yasar, Hatime Arzu; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Demiroglu, Haluk; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Aksu, Salih; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Goker, Hakan; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Acquired erythroblastopenia (AE) is a rare clinical situation. It is characterized by the reduction of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow together with the low reticulocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Main secondary causes of AE are drugs, Parvovirus B19 and other infectious reasons, lymphoid and myeloid neoplasia, autoimmune diseases, thymoma and pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the frequencies and clinical associations of AE via analyzing 12340 bone marrow samples in a retrospective manner. Bone marrow aspirations which were obtained from patients who applied to Hacettepe University Hematology Clinic between 2002 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Thirty four erythroblastopenia cases were found. Patients ranged in age from 16 to 80 years with a median of 38 years. Fifteen patients were men (44%) and nineteen were women (56%). In these patients, detected causes of erythroblastopenia were MDS, idiopathic pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), parvovirus infection, post chemotherapy aplasia, plasma proliferative diseases, copper deficiency due to secondary amyloidosis, fever of unknown origin, hemophagocytic syndrome, enteric fever and legionella pneumonia. We found that between those reasons the most common causes of erythroblastopenia are MDS (17.7%) and idiopathic PRCA (17.7%). As a result, erythroblastopenia in the bone marrow may be an early sign of MDS. In those AE cases possibility of being MDS must be kept in mind as it can be mistaken for PRCA. To conclude, in adults MDS without excess blast is one of the most common causes of erythroblastopenia in clinical practice and in case of erythroblastopenia the presence of MDS should be investigated.

  7. Wellbeing of gay fathers with children born through surrogacy: a comparison with lesbian-mother families and heterosexual IVF parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rijn-van Gelderen, L; Bos, H W M; Jorgensen, T D; Ellis-Davies, K; Winstanley, A; Golombok, S; Rubio, B; Gross, M; Vecho, O; Lamb, M E

    2018-01-01

    Are there differences in levels of parental wellbeing (parental stress, psychological adjustment and partner relationship satisfaction) between gay-father families with infants born through surrogacy, lesbian-mother families with infants born through donor insemination, and heterosexual-parent families with infants born through IVF? There were no differences in parental wellbeing. The only other study of parental wellbeing in gay-father families formed through surrogacy (mean age children: 4 years old) found no difference in couple relationship satisfaction between these families and lesbian-mother families formed through donor insemination and heterosexual-parent families formed without assisted reproductive technologies. This cross-sectional study is part of an international research project involving 38 gay-father families, 61 lesbian-mother families and 41 heterosexual-parent families with 4-month-olds. In each country (the UK, the Netherlands and France), participants were recruited through several sources, such as specialist lawyers with expertise in surrogacy (for the recruitment of gay fathers), lesbian and gay parenting support groups, fertility clinics (for the recruitment of lesbian and heterosexual parents), and/or online forums and magazines. During a home visit when their infants were between 3.5 and 4.5 months old, participants completed standardized measures of parental stress, parental psychological adjustment (anxiety and depression) and partner relationship satisfaction. All parents reported relatively low levels of parental stress, anxiety and depression, and were all relatively satisfied with their intimate relationships. After controlling for caregiver role (primary or secondary caregiver role), there were no significant family type differences in parental stress, P = 0.949, depression, P = 0.089, anxiety, P = 0.117, or relationship satisfaction, P = 0.354. The findings cannot be generalized to all first-time ART parents with infants because

  8. Commitment in Age-Gap Heterosexual Romantic Relationships: A Test of Evolutionary and Socio-Cultural Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmiller, Justin J.; Agnew, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    Little research has addressed age-gap romantic relationships (romantic involvements characterized by substantial age differences between partners). Drawing on evolutionary and socio-cultural perspectives, the present study examined normative beliefs and commitment processes among heterosexual women involved in age-gap and age-concordant…

  9. How long-distance truck drivers and villagers in rural southeastern Tanzania think about heterosexual anal sex: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mtenga, S.; Shamba, D.; Wamoyi, J.; Kakoko, D.; Haafkens, J.; Mongi, A.; Kapiga, S.; Geubbels, E.

    2015-01-01

    To explore ideas of truck drivers and villagers from rural Tanzania about heterosexual anal sex (HAS) and the associated health risks. Qualitative study using 8 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 2 focus group discussions (FGDs) with truck drivers and 16 IDIs and 4 FGDs with villagers from the Morogoro

  10. How long-distance truck drivers and villagers in rural southeastern Tanzania think about heterosexual anal sex: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mtenga, S.; Shamba, D.; Wamoyi, J.; Kakoko, D.; Haafkens, J.; Mongi, A.; Kapiga, S.; Geubbels, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore ideas of truck drivers and villagers from rural Tanzania about heterosexual anal sex (HAS) and the associated health risks. Methods: Qualitative study using 8 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and 2 focus group discussions (FGDs) with truck drivers and 16 IDIs and 4 FGDs with

  11. The Dark Triad and three types of jealousy : Its’ relations among heterosexuals and homosexuals involved in a romantic relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P.H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Groothof, Hinke A.K.; Pastoor, Charlotte D.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between the three Dark Triad (DT) traits and three types of jealousy, among both heterosexual and homosexual men and women involved in a romantic relationship (n = 439). It was hypothesized that the three DT traits would be related positively to those types

  12. Emotional Intimacy Among Coupled Heterosexual and Gay/Bisexual Croatian Men: Assessing the Role of Minority Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šević, Sandra; Ivanković, Iva; Štulhofer, Aleksandar

    2016-07-01

    Emotional intimacy cuts across contexts as diverse as sexual motivation and satisfaction, psychological and physical health, and relational well-being. Although the experience of intimacy and its effects on sex life may be gender and sexual orientation-specific, the role of intimacy in personal and sexual relationships has been studied mostly among heterosexual individuals and couples. Using the minority stress framework (Meyer, 2003) to address this gap in knowledge, the present study comparatively explored levels and predictors/correlates of emotional intimacy, and its association with sexual satisfaction among coupled heterosexual and gay/bisexual men sampled online in a predominantly homonegative country (Croatia). Heterosexual participants (n = 860; M age = 36.4, SD = 9.09) were recruited in 2011 and gay/bisexual participants (n = 250; M age = 29.4, SD = 7.13) in 2013. Controlling for age and relationship duration, gay/bisexual men reported higher levels of emotional intimacy than heterosexual men. Suggesting that the role of emotional intimacy in sexual satisfaction is not sexual orientation-specific, the strength of the association between these two constructs was similar in both samples. However, internalized homonegativity, which was negatively associated with emotional intimacy in this study, remains a challenge to creating and maintaining intimacy in male same-sex relationships.

  13. 'The full has never been told': building a theory of sexual health for heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Candice N; Delgado-Romero, Edward A; Mosley, Della V; Huynh, Sophia

    2016-08-01

    Research on Black sexual health often fails to represent the heterogeneity of Black ethnic groups. For people of Caribbean descent in the USA, ethnicity is a salient cultural factor that influences definitions and experiences of sexual health. Most research on people of Caribbean descent focuses on the relatively high rate of STIs, but sexual health is defined more broadly than STI prevalence. Psychological and emotional indicators and the voice of participants are important to consider when exploring the sexual health of a minority culture. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent define and understand sexual health for themselves. Eleven men who self-identified as Black, Caribbean and heterosexual participated in three focus groups and were asked to define sexual health, critique behaviours expertly identified as healthy and address what encourages and discourages sexual health in their lives. Findings point to six dimensions of sexual health for heterosexual Black men of Caribbean descent. These include: heterosexually privileged, protective, contextual, interpersonal, cultural and pleasurable dimensions. There were some notable departures from current expert definitions of sexual health. Recommendations for further theory development are provided.

  14. Comparing sexual-minority and heterosexual young women's friends and parents as sources of support for sexual issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carly K; Morgan, Elizabeth M

    2009-08-01

    The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141 heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an inquiry about a time they went to friends and parents for support for a issue related to their sexuality. Responses indicated that the majority of participants had sought support from either a parent or a friend and that mothers and female friends were more likely involved than fathers or male friends, respectively. Sexual issues that participants reported discussing with parents and friends were inductively grouped into five categories: dating and romantic relationships, sexual behavior, sexual health, identity negotiation, and discrimination and violence. Issues that were discussed differed based on sexual orientation identity and the source of support (parent or friend); they did not differ by age. Participants generally perceived parents and friends' responses as helpful, though sexual-minority participants perceived both parents and friends' responses as less helpful than did heterosexual participants. Overall, results suggest both similarities and differences between sexual-minority and heterosexual young women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends.

  15. Ironic Effects of Sexual Minority Group Membership: Are Lesbians Less Susceptible to Invoking Negative Female Stereotypes than Heterosexual Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedlich, Claudia; Steffens, Melanie C; Krause, Jacqueline; Settke, Elisabeth; Ebert, Irena D

    2015-07-01

    The traditional stereotype of the typical woman has been described as "nice, but incompetent." However, such general gender stereotypes are applied to individual targets only under certain conditions: They are used to "fill in the blanks" (Heilman, 2012) if little personal information is provided about a target. "Typical lesbians" are regarded to have more typically masculine (agentic) characteristics such as task competence than the typical woman does. We thus hypothesized that if a woman displays behavior coinciding with the stereotype of the typical woman, it is more readily interpreted as stereotypically female if performed by a heterosexual woman than by a lesbian. Participants (N = 296) read a hypothetical job interview in which we manipulated the target's sexual orientation (between subjects). Findings demonstrated that a lesbian was judged as more competent than a heterosexual woman in the presence of behavior that may be interpreted as gender-stereotypical (Experiments 1 and 2). This difference in competence judgments was not found in the absence of gender-stereotypical behavior (Experiment 1). Judging the heterosexual woman as low in masculinity was related to a judgment of lower competence (Experiment 2). Our findings demonstrate that there are conditions under which lesbians, a group often stereotyped negatively, are less susceptible to invoking negative female stereotypes than heterosexual women are.

  16. Attitudes of College Graduates, Faculty, and Human Resource Managers Regarding the Importance of Skills Acquired in College and Needed for Job Performance and Career Advancement Potential in the Retail Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimler, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically examine college graduate, faculty, and human resource manager descriptions of needed, received, and further training in eight employability dimensions of literacy and numeracy, critical thinking, management, leadership, interpersonal, information technology, systems thinking skills, and work ethic…

  17. Fournier’s Gangrene in a Heterosexual Man: A Complication of Neisseria meningitidis Urethritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq A. Khemees

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 55-year-old heterosexual male presented to the emergency department with a symptomatology consistent with urethritis and Fournier’s gangrene. Urethral swab and operative tissue cultures were positive for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and an intracellular Gram-negative diplococcus. The latter was initially thought to be Neisseria gonorrhea; however, DNA sequencing technique confirmed it to be Neisseria meningitidis. The patient required three separate surgical debridements to control widespread necrotizing infection. Following documentation of sterile wound healing with appropriate antibiotics, four reconstructive surgeries were necessary to manage the resultant wound defects. To our knowledge, Neisseria meningitidis as a causative organism in Fournier’s gangrene has not been reported in the literature.

  18. Gender inequality dynamics in the prevention of a heterosexual HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathuta, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This paper critiques the approach to the elimination of gender inequality as an HIV prevention strategy in the just ended era of the Millennium Development Goals, with the aim of contributing to the formulation of policy guidelines for sub-Saharan Africa in the Sustainable Development Goals. The aim is to underscore the mutual responsibility of women and men in achieving a sustainable HIV response and ending the epidemic. While taking into account the real vulnerability of women, prevention programmes can reflect gender dynamics more accurately so that attention is given to the role of both sexes in propagating - or stemming - a predominantly heterosexual HIV epidemic. More emphasis could be given to the harm caused to both men and women by certain norms related to masculinity and sexuality, and the subsequent need for combined efforts in reducing intimate partner violence and concurrency. The empowerment and engagement of both women and men as agents of change would need to be dealt with more creatively.

  19. Gendered power in cultural contexts: Part II. Middle class African American heterosexual couples with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdery, Randi S; Scarborough, Norma; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Seshadri, Gita; Lewis, Monique E; Mahoney, Anne Rankin

    2009-03-01

    When race and gender intersect, understanding gendered power may be complicated. The authors first describe the historical context that serves as important background for understanding gender and power in heterosexual African American relationships. Then they show how family solidarity in the face of social injustices often overrides gender equality as a goal for middle class African American couples with young children. The findings illustrate pragmatic equality within couple relationships and the willful suspension of gender roles for the well-being of the family as a whole. However, gendered power impacts couples in a variety of ways. Sometimes a woman's fear that the man might leave, for example, diminished her power in the relationship. Often a woman accommodated a man's greater power in the family because of her perception that he was often denied power in the larger society. Societal discrimination of women was less visible to couples. Implications for practice are provided.

  20. Perceived Cross-Orientation Infidelity: Heterosexual Perceptions of Same-Sex Cheating in Exclusive Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Benjamin L; Bowman, Jonathan M

    2017-01-01

    For individuals in exclusive romantic relationships, the dynamics of sexual experimentation are nuanced. Extradyadic behavior outside of a relationship may be perceived as cheating or infidelity, with much of those perceptions driven by the biological sex of the perceiver. This study significantly reframes seminal research on perceptions of cheating with third-party friends by Kruger et al. (2013), to further nuance an evolutionary threat-based model. In doing so, this furthers our understanding of the associated perceptions of individuals in heterosexual relationships when confronted by partners' cheating with their same-sex cross-orientation friends. Results indicate that perceptions of same-sex infidelity vary widely depending on the nature of the behaviors, with decreasing attribution given to sexual and erotic behaviors, close relational behaviors, and casual social interaction behaviors, respectively. Implications are discussed for a variety of sexual communities, as well as the impact of gender and relational status on perceptions of infidelity.

  1. Prospects of implicit measures in assessment of defensive function of explicit homophobia in heterosexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Ljiljana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some authors state that one of the functions of explicit homophobia is defensive, and that it has roots in latent attraction towards same sex. Large body of evidence suggests that implicit techniques enable assessment of those cognitions hidden from conscious awareness. Sample of 277 heterosexuals completed several implicit (Implicit Association Test-IAT and Affective Priming-AP and explicit measures of attitude (Test of homophobia and Connotative differential. Multi-group SEM analysis was done to investigate cross-sample stability of the model postulating influence of IAT and AP factors on latent explicit factor. Analyses suggest that both in males and females IAT latent factor predicts negative explicit attitude. Results revealed that explicit homophobia is related to implicit, negative attitude toward homosexuals and not to implicit attraction towards same sex. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018 i br. 179033

  2. Relational Motives Reduce Attentional Adhesion to Attractive Alternatives in Heterosexual University Students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuli; Maner, Jon K; Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2017-02-01

    In heterosexual individuals, attention is automatically captured by physically attractive members of the opposite sex. Although helpful for selecting new mates, attention to attractive relationship alternatives can threaten satisfaction with and commitment to an existing romantic relationship. The current study tested the hypothesis that although a mating prime would increase selective attention to attractive opposite-sex targets (relative to less attractive targets) among single participants, this effect would be reduced among people already committed to a long-term romantic partner. Consistent with hypotheses, whereas single participants responded to a mating prime with greater attentional adhesion to physically attractive opposite-sex targets (relative to less attractive targets), participants in a committed romantic relationship showed no such effect. These findings extend previous research suggesting the presence of relationship maintenance mechanisms that operate at early stages of social cognition.

  3. [Sexual Behavior and Self-Efficacy for the Negotiation of Safer Sex in Heterosexual Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Serrano-García, Irma

    2009-05-01

    Self-efficacy has been defined as one of the factors that may facilitate or impede safer sex. Studies reveal that peoples in steady relationships practice safer sex less often that those in casual relationships. We conducted a study with 447 sexually active heterosexual adults. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to study the sexual behavior, the male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation, and the self-efficacy toward these practices. Results show that most men are sexually active and that there is a low frequency of male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as safer sex. The majority of those who use the male condom are engage in casual relationships. However, participants have high levels of self-efficacy toward these practices. Although self-efficacy is one of the factors that influence in deciding to practice safer sex, it is not sufficient to reach this goal.

  4. Perceived Similarity With Gay Men Mediates the Effect of Antifemininity on Heterosexual Men's Antigay Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carmen; Vázquez, Carolina; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate themselves from gay men mediates the relationship between the antifemininity norm of masculinity and antigay prejudice. We assessed masculinity through three concepts: status, thoughness, and antifemininity. Participants then reported their perceived similarity with gay men and their antigay prejudice. The results showed that antifemininity was the best predictor of both perceived similarity and antigay prejudice: The more people endorsed the antifemininity norm, the more they perceived themselves as dissimilar from gay men and showed antigay prejudice. More important, perceived similarity mediated the effect of antifemininity on antigay prejudice. These findings provide direct evidence for the link between masculinity and the motivation to differentiate oneself from gay men, and they suggest that antigay prejudice accomplishes the identity function of maintaining unambiguous gender boundaries.

  5. Satisfaction with sex life in sexually active heterosexual couples dealing with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottmann, Nina; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; dePont Christensen, René

    2017-01-01

    Background: A breast cancer (BC) diagnosis can profoundly affect the sex life of patient and partner within a couple. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether individual and partner sexual functioning, affectionate behavior, emotional closeness and depressive symptoms are associated...... with change over time in satisfaction with sex life of sexually active heterosexual couples dealing with BC and to explore whether the associations differ between patients and partners after adjustment for basic sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity and BC treatment. Material and methods: Women...... vaginal discomfort and more vaginal lubrication were associated with increases in patients’ satisfaction with sex life. Patients’ and partners’ satisfaction increased with higher ratings of their own orgasm ability and of partners’ timing of ejaculation. Patients’ reports of affectionate behavior were...

  6. Qualitative Analysis of an Educational Intervention with HIV-Discordant Heterosexual Latino Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This qualitative analysis elucidates the potential elements of the intervention that may be effective in terms of a) increasing knowledge about HIV/AIDS in the members of this population; b) increasing the use of male condoms and the practice of mutual masturbation; and c) changing opinions toward male condom use and mutual masturbation. Methods Five heterosexual HIV-discordant couples participated in the adapted intervention, which consisted of four three-hour-long sessions. One month after the intervention, we conducted a qualitative semi-structured interview with every participant to evaluate issues related to the process and content of the activities comprising the intervention, the impact of the intervention, logistics, and recruitment and retention as well as to make a more general evaluation. The information was submitted to qualitative content analysis. Results After the intervention, participants reported having better attitudes regarding safer sex, particularly in terms of condom use. A reason given by the participants to feel more positive toward condom use and mutual masturbation was that these practices could prevent the infection of the HIV-negative partner. Conclusion This study provides important evidence of an intervention that promises to be efficacious in preventing some high-risk sexual behaviors among Latino HIV-discordant heterosexual couples. The evidence presented seems to suggest that an intervention that includes basic relevant information about HIV/AIDS, that explains the benefits of condom use and other safer sex options, and that provides effective negotiation and communication strategies could significantly reduce HIV transmission among these couples. PMID:22263299

  7. Estimating PMTCT's Impact on Heterosexual HIV Transmission: A Mathematical Modeling Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya S Khanna

    Full Text Available Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT strategies include combined short-course antiretrovirals during pregnancy (Option A, triple-drug antiretroviral treament (ART during pregnancy and breastfeeding (Option B, or lifelong ART (Option B+. The WHO also recommends ART for HIV treatment and prevention of sexual transmission of HIV. The impact of PMTCT strategies on prevention of sexual HIV transmission of HIV is not known. We estimated the population-level impact of PMTCT interventions on heterosexual HIV transmission in southwestern Uganda and KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, two regions with different HIV prevalence and fertility rates.We constructed and validated dynamic, stochastic, network-based HIV transmission models for each region. PMTCT Options A, B, and B+ were simulated over ten years under three scenarios: 1 current ART and PMTCT coverage, 2 current ART and high PMTCT coverage, and 3 high ART and PMTCT coverage. We compared adult HIV incidence after ten years of each intervention to Option A (and current ART at current coverage.At current coverage, Options B and B+ reduced heterosexual HIV incidence by about 5% and 15%, respectively, in both countries. With current ART and high PMTCT coverage, Option B+ reduced HIV incidence by 35% in Uganda and 19% in South Africa, while Option B had smaller, but meaningful, reductions. The greatest reductions in HIV incidence were achieved with high ART and PMTCT coverage. In this scenario, all PMTCT strategies yielded similar results.Implementation of Options B/B+ reduces adult HIV incidence, with greater effect (relative to Option A at current levels in Uganda than South Africa. These results are likely driven by Uganda's higher fertility rates.

  8. Is Pornography Use Associated with Sexual Difficulties and Dysfunctions among Younger Heterosexual Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landripet, Ivan; Štulhofer, Aleksandar

    2015-05-01

    Recent epidemiological studies reported high prevalence rates of erectile dysfunction (ED) among younger heterosexual men (≤40). It has been suggested that this "epidemic" of ED is related to increased pornography use. However, empirical evidence for such association is currently lacking. This study analyzes associations between pornography use and sexual health disturbances among younger heterosexual men using four large-scale online samples from three European countries. The analyses were carried out using a 2011 cross-sectional online study of Croatian, Norwegian, and Portuguese men (Study 1; N = 2,737) and a 2014 cross-sectional online study of Croatian men (Study 2; N = 1,211). Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were used to explore the associations between pornography use and sexual difficulties. In Study 1, erectile difficulties, inability to reach orgasm, and a lack of sexual desire were measured using the Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behavior indicators. In Study 2, ED was measured with the abridged International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). Delayed ejaculation and a decrease of sexual desire were assessed with one-item indicators. In Study 1, only the relationship between pornography use and ED among Croatian men was statistically significant (χ(2) [2] = 18.76, P pornography, moderate but not high frequency of pornography use increased the odds of reporting ED (adjusted odds ratio = 0.53, P pornography use and male sexual dysfunctions were observed. We found little evidence of the association between pornography use and male sexual health disturbances. Contrary to raising public concerns, pornography does not seem to be a significant risk factor for younger men's desire, erectile, or orgasmic difficulties. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Cybersex addiction in heterosexual female users of internet pornography can be explained by gratification hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laier, Christian; Pekal, Jaro; Brand, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    In the context of Internet addiction, cybersex is considered to be an Internet application in which users are at risk for developing addictive usage behavior. Regarding males, experimental research has shown that indicators of sexual arousal and craving in response to Internet pornographic cues are related to severity of cybersex addiction in Internet pornography users (IPU). Since comparable investigations on females do not exist, the aim of this study is to investigate predictors of cybersex addiction in heterosexual women. We examined 51 female IPU and 51 female non-Internet pornography users (NIPU). Using questionnaires, we assessed the severity of cybersex addiction in general, as well as propensity for sexual excitation, general problematic sexual behavior, and severity of psychological symptoms. Additionally, an experimental paradigm, including a subjective arousal rating of 100 pornographic pictures, as well as indicators of craving, was conducted. Results indicated that IPU rated pornographic pictures as more arousing and reported greater craving due to pornographic picture presentation compared with NIPU. Moreover, craving, sexual arousal rating of pictures, sensitivity to sexual excitation, problematic sexual behavior, and severity of psychological symptoms predicted tendencies toward cybersex addiction in IPU. Being in a relationship, number of sexual contacts, satisfaction with sexual contacts, and use of interactive cybersex were not associated with cybersex addiction. These results are in line with those reported for heterosexual males in previous studies. Findings regarding the reinforcing nature of sexual arousal, the mechanisms of learning, and the role of cue reactivity and craving in the development of cybersex addiction in IPU need to be discussed.

  10. A Pilot Intervention to Promote Safer Sex in Heterosexual Puerto Rican Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David Wyatt; Ronis, David L

    2014-09-01

    Although the sexual transmission of HIV occurs in the context of an intimate relationship, preventive interventions with couples are scarce, particularly those designed for Hispanics. In this article, we present the effect of a pilot intervention directed to prevent HIV/AIDS in heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico. The intervention was theory-based and consisted of five three-hour group sessions. Primary goals included increasing male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as a safer sex method, and promoting favorable attitudes toward these behaviors. Twenty-six couples participated in this study. Fifteen were randomly assigned to the intervention group and eleven to a control group. Retention rates at post-intervention and follow-up were 82% for the whole sample. Results showed that there was a significant increase in the use of male condoms with main partners in the intervention group when compared with the control group. Couples in the intervention group also had better scores on secondary outcomes, such as attitudes toward condom use and mutual masturbation, HIV information, sexual decision-making, and social support. We found that these effects persisted over the three month follow up. A significant effect was also observed for the practice of mutual masturbation, but not for sexual negotiation. These results showed that promoting male condom use in dyadic interventions among heterosexual couples in Puerto Rico is feasible. Our findings suggest that because vaginal penetration has been constructed as the sexual script endpoint among many Hispanic couples, promoting other non-penetrative practices, such as mutual masturbation, may be difficult.

  11. Absence of transmission from HIV-infected individuals with HAART to their heterosexual serodiscordant partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Romero, Jorge; Río, Isabel; Castilla, Jesús; Baza, Begoña; Paredes, Vanessa; Vera, Mar; Rodríguez, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Further studies are needed to evaluate the level of effectiveness and durability of HAART to reduce the risk of HIV sexual transmission in serodiscordant couples having unprotected sexual practices. A cross-sectional study was conducted with prospective cohort of heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples where the only risk factor for HIV transmission to the uninfected partner (sexual partner) was the sexual relationship with the infected partner (index case). HIV prevalence in sexual partners at enrolment and seroconversions in follow-up were compared by antiretroviral treatment in the index partner, HIV plasma viral load in index cases and sexual risk exposures in sexual partners. In each visit, an evaluation of the risks for HIV transmission, preventive counselling and screening for genitourinary infections in the sexual partner was performed, as well as the determination of the immunological and virological situation and antiretroviral treatment in the index case. At enrolment no HIV infection was detected in 202 couples where the index case was taking HAART. HIV prevalence in sexual partners was 9.6% in 491 couples where the index case was not taking antiretroviral treatment (p<0.001). During follow-up there was no HIV seroconversion among 199 partners whose index case was taking HAART, accruing 7600 risky sexual exposures and 85 natural pregnancies. Among 359 couples whose index case was not under antiretroviral treatment, over 13,000 risky sexual exposures and 5 HIV seroconversions of sexual partners were recorded. The percentage of seroconversion among couples having risky sexual intercourse was 2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-5.6) when the index case did not undergo antiretroviral treatment and zero (95% CI: 0-3.2) when the index case received HAART. The risk of sexual transmission of HIV from individuals with HAART to their heterosexual partners can become extremely low. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  12. HIV, syphilis and heterosexual bridging among Peruvian men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, Stephen; Sanchez, Jorge; Lama, Javier; Goicochea, Pedro; Campos, Pablo; Rouillon, Manuel; Cairo, Jose Luis; Ueda, Lucia; Watts, Douglas; Celum, Connie; Holmes, King K

    2002-06-14

    To determine prevalence of and risk factors associated with HIV and syphilis seropositivity and estimate incidence of HIV infection among Peruvian men who have sex with men (MSM) and characterize behaviors of men who report sex with both men and women ('bridgers'). Cross-sectional study of MSM in Lima, Peru. Four-hundred and fifty-one MSM (of whom 442 responded to the question regarding sexual orientation) recruited through street outreach. Each was interviewed and underwent serologic testing for syphilis and HIV, including the less sensitive enzyme immunoassay test to estimate HIV incidence. Overall, HIV and syphilis prevalence were 18.5% and 16.0%, respectively, with highest prevalence among cross-dressers (33.3% and 51.1%, respectively). The estimated overall HIV seroincidence was 11.2% per year (95% confidence interval, 4.8-23.6). Overall, 47.1% of men reported ever having sex with a woman: 78.6% of men self-identifying as heterosexuals, 85.1% of bisexuals, 35.5% of homosexuals, and 12.5% of cross-dressers. Of these, 26.5% were 'bridgers', of whom 55% reported two or more female partners during the last year. 'Bridgers' were less likely to have always used condoms during the past year for vaginal sex (17%) than for insertive anal sex with men (25.5%). Among MSM in Peru, HIV and syphilis prevalence and HIV incidence were high, especially among cross-dressers. The high prevalence of bisexuality and low rates of consistent condom use, especially with female sexual partners indicates potential HIV transmission into the heterosexual population.

  13. Differences in Orgasm Frequency Among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Men and Women in a U.S. National Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; John, H Kate St; Garcia, Justin R; Lloyd, Elisabeth A

    2018-01-01

    There is a notable gap between heterosexual men and women in frequency of orgasm during sex. Little is known, however, about sexual orientation differences in orgasm frequency. We examined how over 30 different traits or behaviors were associated with frequency of orgasm when sexually intimate during the past month. We analyzed a large US sample of adults (N = 52,588) who identified as heterosexual men (n = 26,032), gay men (n = 452), bisexual men (n = 550), lesbian women (n = 340), bisexual women (n = 1112), and heterosexual women (n = 24,102). Heterosexual men were most likely to say they usually-always orgasmed when sexually intimate (95%), followed by gay men (89%), bisexual men (88%), lesbian women (86%), bisexual women (66%), and heterosexual women (65%). Compared to women who orgasmed less frequently, women who orgasmed more frequently were more likely to: receive more oral sex, have longer duration of last sex, be more satisfied with their relationship, ask for what they want in bed, praise their partner for something they did in bed, call/email to tease about doing something sexual, wear sexy lingerie, try new sexual positions, anal stimulation, act out fantasies, incorporate sexy talk, and express love during sex. Women were more likely to orgasm if their last sexual encounter included deep kissing, manual genital stimulation, and/or oral sex in addition to vaginal intercourse. We consider sociocultural and evolutionary explanations for these orgasm gaps. The results suggest a variety of behaviors couples can try to increase orgasm frequency.

  14. Online or off-line victimisation and psychological well-being: a comparison of sexual-minority and heterosexual youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sexual-minority and heterosexual youths' exposure to sexual abuse off-line, problematic sexual meetings off-line with person/s met online and online harassment with regard to prevalence, psychological well-being and support seeking. A nationally representative sample of 3,432 Swedish high school seniors completed an anonymous school-based survey about sexuality, health, sexual abuse and online-related sexual victimisation or harassment. Sexual-minority adolescents reported a greater rate of sexual abuse, problematic sexual meetings off-line with person/s met online and online harassment, compared to heterosexual youth. When compared to non-victimised heterosexual adolescents, victimised heterosexual adolescents and non-victimised and victimised sexual-minority adolescents reported more psychiatric symptoms, lower self-esteem and a weaker sense of coherence. Same-sex sexual orientation was related to more psychiatric symptoms, lower self-esteem and a weaker sense of coherence even when controlled for victimisation and gender. Compared to victimised heterosexual adolescents, victimised sexual-minority adolescents were more likely to seek support because of sexual abuse (females) or Internet-related problems (males and females). Results for sexual-minority youth were basically the same whether sexual orientation was assessed as sexual identity or as sexual or emotional attraction. Health care providers are challenged to not only provide the same care to sexual-minority youth who seek counselling or psychiatric treatment for mental health problems or problems related to victimisation that all adolescents should receive but also to find ways to address topics like prevention of sexual abuse and risk-taking behaviour online or off-line.

  15. Brain activation during human male ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, Ger; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Paans, Anne M.J.; Meiners, Linda C.; Graaf, Ferdinand H.C.E. van der; Reinders, A.A.T.Simone

    2003-01-01

    Brain mechanisms that control human sexual behavior in general, and ejaculation in particular, are poorly understood. We used positron emission tomography to measure increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during ejaculation compared with sexual stimulation in heterosexual male volunteers.

  16. Hyperthyroidism caused by acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-J; Zhou, J-J; Yuan, X-L; Li, C-Y; Sheng, H; Su, B; Sheng, C-J; Qu, S; Li, H

    2014-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an immune deficiency disease. The etiology of hyperthyroidism, which can also be immune-related, is usually divided into six classical categories, including hypophyseal, hypothalamic, thyroid, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of highly active antimicrobial therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hyperthyroidism caused directly by AIDS has not been previously reported. A 29-year-old man who complained of dyspnea and asthenia for 1 month, recurrent fever for more than 20 days, and breathlessness for 1 week was admitted to our hospital. The thyroid function test showed that the level of free thyroxine (FT4) was higher than normal and that the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was below normal. He was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Additional investigations revealed a low serum albumin level and chest infection, along with diffuse lung fibrosis. Within 1 month, he experienced significant weight loss, no hand tremors, intolerance of heat, and perspiration proneness. We recommended an HIV examination; subsequently, AIDS was diagnosed based on the laboratory parameters. This is the first reported case of hyperthyroidism caused by AIDS. AIDS may cause hyperthyroidism by immunization regulation with complex, atypical, and easily ignored symptoms. Although hyperthyroidism is rare in patients with AIDS, clinicians should be aware of this potential interaction and should carefully monitor thyroid function in HIV-positive patients.

  17. Acquired acid resistance of human enamel treated with laser (Er:YAG laser and Co 2 laser and acidulated phosphate fluoride treatment: An in vitro atomic emission spectrometry analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is essentially a process of diffusion and dissolution. If the aspect of dissolution can be curtailed some degree of prevention can be achieved. Aims: The present study was carried out to evaluate and compare the effect of Er:YAG laser and Co 2 laser irradiation combined with acidulated phosphate fluoride treatment on in vitro acid resistance of human enamel. Design: An in vitro study was carried out on 30 human premolars to evaluate the enamel′s acid resistance using an atomic emission spectrometry analysis. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 enamel specimens were prepared from 30 human premolars and were randomly assigned to 6 groups: (1 Untreated (control; (2 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF gel application alone for 4 min; (3 Er:YAG laser treatment alone; (4 Co 2 laser treatment alone; (5 Er:YAG laser + APF gel application; (6 Co 2 laser + APF gel application. The specimens were then individually immersed in 5 ml of acetate buffer solution (0.1 mol/L, pH 4.5 and incubated at 37°C for 24 h, and the acid resistance was evaluated by determining the calcium ion concentration using the atomic emission spectrometry. Statistical Analysis: An ANOVA model was constructed (P value of 0.05, followed by Tukey′s test for multiple pair wise comparisons of mean values. Results: Significant differences were found between the control group and the test groups ( P < 0.001. Conclusions: Combining acidulated phosphate fluoride with either Er:YAG or Co 2 laser had a synergistic effect in decreasing the enamel demineralization more than either fluoride treatment or laser treatment alone.

  18. Structural characterization and lipid composition of acquired cholesteatoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Svane-Knudsen, Viggo; Sørensen, Jens A

    2012-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: The goal of this work is to characterize the morphology and lipid composition of acquired cholesteatoma. We hypothesize that constitutive lipid membranes are present in the cholesteatoma and resemble those found in human skin stratum corneum. METHODS: We performed a comparative...... noninvasive structural and lipid compositional study of acquired cholesteatoma and control human skin using multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy-related techniques and high-performance thin-layer chromatography. RESULTS: The structural arrangement of the cholesteatoma is morphologically invariant...... along a depth of more than 200 μm and resembles the stratum corneum of hyperorthokeratotic skin. Lipid compositional analyses of the cholesteatoma show the presence of all major lipid classes found in normal skin stratum corneum (ceramides, long chain fatty acids, and cholesterol). Consistent with this...

  19. And the Winner is – Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    value in case of success—that is, a more radical innovation. In the second stage, successful entrants bid to be acquired by the incumbent. We assume that entrants cannot survive on their own, so being acquired amounts to a ‘prize’ in a contest. We identify an equilibrium in which the incumbent chooses...

  20. Acquired Inventors’ Productivity after Horizontal Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    Effective integration of the R&D functions of the acquired and acquiring firms is essential for knowledge recombination after acquisition. However, prior research suggests that the post-acquisition integration process often damages the inventive labor force. We argue that an examination of the mu...

  1. Acquired intrathoracic kidney in thoracic kyphosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Sadayuki; Kawashima, Akira; Ohuchida, Toshiyuki; Russell, W.J.

    1986-12-01

    Two cases of acquired intrathoracic kidney associated with thoracic kyphosis are reported, with emphasis on the radiographic manifestations. A search of the scientific literature disclosed that the acquired type of this abnormality is rare. The importance of recognizing this entity from a differential diagnostic standpoint is underscored. (author)

  2. Sexual function and satisfaction among heterosexual and sexual minority U.S. adults: A cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Flynn

    Full Text Available Despite known health disparities for sexual minorities, few studies have described sexual function by sexual orientation using a robust approach to measurement of sexual function. We compared recent sexual function and satisfaction by sexual orientation among English-speaking US adults.Cross-sectional surveys were administered by KnowledgePanel® (GfK, an online panel that uses address-based probability sampling and is representative of the civilian, noninstitutionalized US population. Data were collected in 2013 from the general population (n = 3314, 35% response rate and in 2014 from self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults (n = 1011, 50% response rate. Sexual function and satisfaction were measured using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® Sexual Function and Satisfaction measure version 2.0 (PROMIS SexFS v2. The PROMIS SexFS v2 is a comprehensive, customizable measurement system with evidence for validity in diverse populations. A score of 50 (SD 10 on each domain corresponds to the average for US adults sexually active in the past 30 days. We adjusted all statistics for the complex sample designs and report differences within each sex where the 95% CIs do not overlap, corresponding to p<0.01. Among US men who reported any sexual activity in the past 30 days, there were no differences in erectile function or orgasm-ability. Compared to heterosexual men, sexual minority men reported higher oral dryness and lower orgasm-pleasure and satisfaction. Compared to heterosexual men, gay men reported lower interest, higher anal discomfort and higher oral discomfort. Among sexually active women, there were no differences in the domains of vulvar discomfort-clitoral, orgasm-pleasure, or satisfaction. Compared to heterosexual women, sexual minority women reported higher oral dryness. Lesbian women reported lower vaginal discomfort than other women; lesbian women reported higher lubrication and orgasm-ability than

  3. HIV-1 subtype F1 epidemiological networks among Italian heterosexual males are associated with introduction events from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alessia; Simonetti, Francesco R; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; De Luca, Andrea; Micheli, Valeria; Meraviglia, Paola; Corsi, Paola; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Almi, Paolo; Zoncada, Alessia; Paolucci, Stefania; Gonnelli, Angela; Colao, Grazia; Tacconi, Danilo; Franzetti, Marco; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Zazzi, Maurizio; Balotta, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    About 40% of the Italian HIV-1 epidemic due to non-B variants is sustained by F1 clade, which circulates at high prevalence in South America and Eastern Europe. Aim of this study was to define clade F1 origin, population dynamics and epidemiological networks through phylogenetic approaches. We analyzed pol sequences of 343 patients carrying F1 subtype stored in the ARCA database from 1998 to 2009. Citizenship of patients was as follows: 72.6% Italians, 9.3% South Americans and 7.3% Rumanians. Heterosexuals, Homo-bisexuals, Intravenous Drug Users accounted for 58.1%, 24.0% and 8.8% of patients, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 70% of sequences clustered in 27 transmission networks. Two distinct groups were identified; the first clade, encompassing 56 sequences, included all Rumanian patients. The second group involved the remaining clusters and included 10 South American Homo-bisexuals in 9 distinct clusters. Heterosexual modality of infection was significantly associated with the probability to be detected in transmission networks. Heterosexuals were prevalent either among Italians (67.2%) or Rumanians (50%); by contrast, Homo-bisexuals accounted for 71.4% of South Americans. Among patients with resistant strains the proportion of clustering sequences was 57.1%, involving 14 clusters (51.8%). Resistance in clusters tended to be higher in South Americans (28.6%) compared to Italian (17.7%) and Rumanian patients (14.3%). A striking proportion of epidemiological networks could be identified in heterosexuals carrying F1 subtype residing in Italy. Italian Heterosexual males predominated within epidemiological clusters while foreign patients were mainly Heterosexual Rumanians, both males and females, and South American Homo-bisexuals. Tree topology suggested that F1 variant from South America gave rise to the Italian F1 epidemic through multiple introduction events. The contact tracing also revealed an unexpected burden of resistance in epidemiological

  4. Self-Reported Sexual Behavioral Interests and Polymorphisms in the Dopamine Receptor D4 (DRD4) Exon III VNTR in Heterosexual Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, Andrew C; Boretsky, Melanie; Puts, David A; Shriver, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Polymorphisms in the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) have previously been shown to associate with a variety of human behavioral phenotypes, including ADHD pathology, alcohol and tobacco craving, financial risk-taking in males, and broader personality traits such as novelty seeking. Recent research has linked the presence of a 7-repeat (7R) allele in a 48-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) along exon III of DRD4 to age at first sexual intercourse, sexual desire, arousal and function, and infidelity and promiscuity. We hypothesized that carriers of longer DRD4 alleles may report interest in a wider variety of sexual behaviors and experiences than noncarriers. Participants completed a 37-item questionnaire measuring sexual interests as well as Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory, and were genotyped for the 48-bp VNTR on exon III of DRD4. Based on our final genotyped sample of female (n = 139) and male (n = 115) participants, we found that 7R carriers reported interest in a wider variety of sexual behaviors (r = 0.16) within a young adult heterosexual sample of European descent. To our knowledge, this is the first reported association between DRD4 exon III VNTR genotype and interest in a variety of sexual behaviors. We discuss these findings within the context of DRD4 research and broader trends in human evolutionary history.

  5. Not a surgical vaccine: there is no case for boosting infant male circumcision to combat heterosexual transmission of HIV in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Robert; Van Howe, Robert

    2011-10-01

    To conduct a critical review of recent proposals that widespread circumcision of male infants be introduced in Australia as a means of combating heterosexually transmitted HIV infection. These arguments are evaluated in terms of their logic, coherence and fidelity to the principles of evidence-based medicine; the extent to which they take account of the evidence for circumcision having a protective effect against HIV and the practicality of circumcision as an HIV control strategy; the extent of its applicability to the specifics of Australia's HIV epidemic; the benefits, harms and risks of circumcision; and the associated human rights, bioethical and legal issues. Our conclusion is that such proposals ignore doubts about the robustness of the evidence from the African random-controlled trials as to the protective effect of circumcision and the practical value of circumcision as a means of HIV control; misrepresent the nature of Australia's HIV epidemic and exaggerate the relevance of the African random-controlled trials findings to it; underestimate the risks and harm of circumcision; and ignore questions of medical ethics and human rights. The notion of circumcision as a 'surgical vaccine' is criticised as polemical and unscientific. Circumcision of infants or other minors has no place among HIV control measures in the Australian and New Zealand context; proposals such as these should be rejected. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. A cross-sectional analysis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant African couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, Aaron F; Baeten, Jared M; Rustagi, Alison S; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Lingappa, Jairam R; Mugo, Nelly R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Kapiga, Saidi; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Celum, Connie; Barnabas, Ruanne V

    2017-11-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent curable STI worldwide and has been associated with adverse health outcomes and increased HIV-1 transmission risk. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among couples to assess how characteristics of both individuals in sexual partnerships are associated with the prevalence of male and female T. vaginalis infection. African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples were concurrently tested for trichomoniasis at enrolment into two clinical trials. T. vaginalis testing was by nucleic acid amplification or culture methods. Using Poisson regression with robust standard errors, we identified characteristics associated with trichomoniasis. Among 7531 couples tested for trichomoniasis, 981 (13%) couples contained at least one infected partner. The prevalence was 11% (n=857) among women and 4% (n=319) among men, and most infected individuals did not experience signs or symptoms of T. vaginalis . Exploring concordance of T. vaginalis status within sexual partnerships, we observed that 61% (195/319) of T. vaginalis -positive men and 23% (195/857) of T. vaginalis -positive women had a concurrently infected partner. In multivariable analysis, having a T. vaginalis -positive partner was the strongest predictor of infection for women (relative risk (RR) 4.70, 95% CI 4.10 to 5.38) and men (RR 10.09, 95% CI 7.92 to 12.85). For women, having outside sex partners, gonorrhoea, and intermediate or high Nugent scores for bacterial vaginosis were associated with increased risk of trichomoniasis, whereas age 45 years and above, being married, having children and injectable contraceptive use were associated with reduced trichomoniasis risk. Additionally, women whose male partners were circumcised, had more education or earned income had lower risk of trichomoniasis. We found that within African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples, the prevalence of trichomoniasis was high among partners of T. vaginalis -infected individuals, suggesting

  7. 'What does it take to be a man? What is a real man?': ideologies of masculinity and HIV sexual risk among Black heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa; Teti, Michelle; Massie, Jenné S; Patel, Aditi; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M

    2011-05-01

    Research documents the link between traditional ideologies of masculinity and sexual risk among multi-ethnic male adolescents and White male college students, but similar research with Black heterosexual men is scarce. This exploratory study addressed this gap through six focus groups with 41 Black, low- to middle-income heterosexual men aged 19 to 51 years in Philadelphia, PA. Analyses highlighted two explicit ideologies of masculinity: that Black men should have sex with multiple women, often concurrently, and that Black men should not be gay or bisexual. Analyses also identified two implicit masculinity ideologies: the perception that Black heterosexual men cannot decline sex, even risky sex, and that women should be responsible for condom use. The study's implications for HIV prevention with Black heterosexual men are discussed. © 2011 Taylor & Francis

  8. “What Does it Take to be a Man? What is a Real Man?”: Ideologies of masculinity and HIV sexual risk among Black heterosexual men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa; Teti, Michelle; Massie, Jenné S.; Patel, Aditi; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Research documents the link between traditional ideologies of masculinity and sexual risk among multi-ethnic male adolescents and White male college students, but similar research with Black heterosexual men is scarce. This exploratory study addressed this gap through six focus groups with 41 Black, low to middle income heterosexual men aged 19 to 51 years in Philadelphia, PA. Analyses highlighted two explicit ideologies of masculinity: that Black men should have sex with multiple women, often concurrently; and that Black men should not be gay or bisexual. Analyses also identified two implicit masculinity ideologies: the perception that Black heterosexual men cannot decline sex, even risky sex; and that women are primarily responsible for condom use. The study’s implications for HIV prevention with Black heterosexual men are discussed. PMID:21390949

  9. Corpus callosum demyelination associated with acquired stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Barbara McElwee; Guitar, Barry; Solomon, Andrew

    2018-04-21

    Compared with developmental stuttering, adult onset acquired stuttering is rare. However, several case reports describe acquired stuttering and an association with callosal pathology. Interestingly, these cases share a neuroanatomical localisation also demonstrated in developmental stuttering. We present a case of adult onset acquired stuttering associated with inflammatory demyelination within the corpus callosum. This patient's disfluency improved after the initiation of immunomodulatory therapy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Rethinking Gender, Heterosexual Men, and Women’s Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: Time to Shift the Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Jenny A.; Hoffman, Susie; Dworkin, Shari L.

    2010-01-01

    Most HIV prevention literature portrays women as especially “vulnerable” to HIV infection by way of biological susceptibility and men’s sexual power and privilege. Conversely, heterosexual men are perceived as active transmitters of HIV but not active agents in prevention. Although the women’s vulnerability paradigm was a radical revision of earlier views of women in the epidemic, mounting challenges undermine its current usefulness. This paper reviews the etiology and successes of the paradi...

  11. Wellbeing of gay fathers with children born through surrogacy: a comparison with lesbian mother families and heterosexual IVF parent families

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rijn-van Gelderen, L; Bos, HWM; Joregnsen, TD; Ellis-Davies, K; Winstanley, A; Golombok, S; Rubio, B; Gross, M; Vecho, O; Lamb, ME

    2018-01-01

    Study question:\\ud Are there differences in levels of parental wellbeing (parental stress, psychological adjustment, and partner relationship satisfaction) between gay-father families with infants born through surrogacy, lesbian-mother families with infants born through donor insemination, and heterosexual-parent families with infants born through IVF?\\ud \\ud Summary answer:\\ud There were no differences in parental wellbeing.\\ud \\ud What is known already: \\ud The only other study of parental ...

  12. Application of Theory of Planned Behavior in Predicting of effective Factors on heterosexual relationship in girls Adolescence of Birjand city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Sarzehi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Puberty is one of the most critical periods in life that makes individual to feel and behave in a different way. One of the major issues faced young people is the conflict between spiritual values, customary and familiar to the freedom or non-freedom of heterosexual relationships and how to deal with it. Therefore, this study aimed to determine Predicting Factors heterosexual relationship in girls Adolescence of Birjand city. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, samples were collected from   girl students in high schools in different regions of Birjand in 2015. The survey was carried out via simple random sampling of 395 students. Data were collected by the validated and reliable questionnaire based on theory of planned behavior. The gathered data were analyzed using SPSS20 and descriptive statistical tests and , Pearson correlation, logistic regression , t- test and ANOVA tests in significant level less than 0.05... Results: Among the adolescents participating in this study 43.9% with an average duration was about 15±7 months. Logistic regression analysis showed that attitudes (P≤0.001, intention (P≤0.001, mother's occupation (p=0.03, family size (p=0.01, birth (p=0.03 and the satellite programs watching (p=0.01 strong predictor for the heterosexual relationship individuals were studied. Conclusion: According to the results of this study showed that the attitude and intention for the relationship with the opposite sex were strong predictors. So the theory of planned behavior can be used as an effective method for planning and intervention to prevent heterosexual relationship.

  13. Heterosexual anal intercourse and HIV infection risks in the context of alcohol serving venues, Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey Kate B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most efficient sexual behavior for HIV transmission is unprotected receptive anal intercourse. However, it is unclear what role heterosexual unprotected anal sex is playing in the world's worst HIV epidemics of southern Africa. The objective is to examine the prevalence of heterosexual unprotected anal intercourse among men and women who drink at informal alcohol serving establishments (shebeens in South Africa. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were collected from a convenience sample of 5037 patrons of 10 shebeens in a peri-urban township of Cape Town, South Africa. Analyses concentrated on establishing the rates of unprotected anal intercourse practiced by men and women as well as the factors associated with practicing anal intercourse. Results We found that 15% of men and 11% of women reported anal intercourse in the previous month, with 8% of men and 7% of women practicing any unprotected anal intercourse. Multiple logistic regression showed that younger age, having primary and casual sex partners, and meeting sex partners at shebeens were independently associated with engaging in anal intercourse. Mathematical modeling showed that individual risks are significantly impacted by anal intercourse but probably not to the degree needed to drive a generalized HIV epidemic. Conclusions Anal intercourse likely plays a significant role in HIV infections among a small minority of South Africans who patronize alcohol serving establishments. Heterosexual anal intercourse, the most risky sexual behavior for HIV transmission, should not be ignored in HIV prevention for South African heterosexuals. However, this relatively infrequent behavior should not become the focus of prevention efforts.

  14. Grandparents’ Stories of Family Life After Donor Conception (Parents of heterosexual couples with children conceived using donor sperm or eggs)

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Hazel; Nordqvist, Petra; Smart, Carol

    2015-01-01

    This leaflet is written for the parents of heterosexual couples who have, or are planning, children using donor conception. It is based on many hours of research interviews, during which parents and grandparents of donor-conceived children told usabout their experiences of family life after donor conception.This leaflet is one of a series of four, written for parents and grandparents with donor-conceived children. They are based on research from the Relative Strangers project.

  15. Contact Between Birth and Adoptive Families During the First Year Post-Placement: Perspectives of Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, Rachel H.; Goldberg, Abbie E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite growing visibility of lesbian- and gay-parent adoption, only one qualitative study has examined birth family contact among adoptive families with lesbian and gay parents (Goldberg, Kinkler, Richardson, & Downing, 2011). We studied adoptive parents’ (34 lesbian, 32 gay, and 37 heterosexual; N = 103 families) perspectives of birth family contact across the first year post-placement. Using questionnaire and interview data, we found few differences in openness dynamics by parental sexual ...

  16. Lessons From the Viagra Study: Methodological Challenges in Recruitment of Older and Minority Heterosexual Men for Research on Sexual Practices and Risk Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Sande Gracia; Patsdaughter, Carol A.; Martinez Cardenas, Vicente Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Although all sexually active persons may be at potential risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), there is a common misperception that older heterosexual adults are not at risk (Smith & Christakis, 2009). HIV is a continuing concern in persons ages 50 and older (Goodroad, 2003; Savasta, 2004). Therefore, research with this population is warranted. However, little literature addresses the recruitment of middle aged and older heterosexual men, particularly minority men, into...

  17. Heterosexual Partnerships and the Need for HIV Prevention and Testing for Men Who Have Sex With Men and Women in China: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sijia; Song, Dandan; Huang, Wen; He, Huan; Wang, Min; Manning, David; Zaller, Nickolas; Zhang, Hongbo; Operario, Don

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have reported that approximately 30% of men who have sex with men (MSM) in China have concurrent female partners. Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) might "bridge" HIV transmission to their female sex partners. This study aimed to explore (a) motivations for why MSMW in China engage in relationships and sexual behaviors with female partners; (b) patterns of sexual behaviors and condom use between MSMW and their female partners; and (c) barriers to and strategies for encouraging MSMW and their female partners to undergo HIV testing. The authors conducted in-depth interviews with 30 MSMW in two urban cities in China, Guangzhou and Chengdu, and used thematic analysis methods to code and interpret the data. MSMW described family, social, and workplace pressures to have a female partner, and expressed futility about their ability to form stable same-sex relationships. Although participants reported concern about the risk of personally acquiring and transmitting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to their female partners, they described the challenges to using condoms with female partners. HIV-positive participants described how stigma restricted their ability to disclose their HIV status to female partners, and HIV-negative participants displayed less immediate concern about the need for female partners to undergo HIV testing. Participants described a range of possible strategies to encourage HIV testing among female partners. These findings highlight the urgent need for HIV risk reduction and testing interventions for Chinese MSMW in the context of heterosexual partnerships, and they also underscore the additional need for privacy and cultural sensitivity when designing future studies.

  18. Characteristics of adenovirus urethritis among heterosexual men and men who have sex with men: a review of clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaraweera, Geethani R; Garcia, Katherine; Druce, Julian; Williams, Henrietta; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K; Chow, Eric Pf; Denham, Ian M; Read, Timothy R H; Chen, Marcus Y

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the clinical features of adenovirus urethritis in men and to compare the frequency of these between heterosexual men and men who have sex with men (MSM). This was a review of the clinical and laboratory information from men diagnosed with PCR-confirmed adenovirus urethritis at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between January 2006 and April 2014. 102 adenovirus urethritis cases were reported, among which 61 were heterosexual men and 41 MSM. Eighty-nine per cent (n=91) had signs of meatitis or conjunctivitis: 51% had meatitis only; 32% meatitis together with conjunctivitis and 6% with conjunctivitis only. The distribution of symptoms and signs was similar among heterosexual men and MSM (p values >0.1). Adenovirus was the sole pathogen found in 93% of cases, excluding gonorrhoea, chlamydia, Mycoplasma genitalium and herpes simplex virus. Only 37% had ≥5 polymorphs per high-power field from a urethral smear. Where samples were still available for adenoviral sequencing (n=20), all were subgroup D. The clinical features of adenovirus urethritis in men can be distinctive and aid diagnosis, distinguishing it from other treatable causes of male urethritis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Sexual communication self-efficacy, hegemonic masculine norms and condom use among heterosexual couples in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, Anna; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Dladla, Sibongile; de Bruyn, Guy; Darbes, Lynae

    2016-01-01

    Hegemonic masculine norms (HMN), which promote sexual risk-taking among males and the subordination of women, are believed to play a key role in the HIV epidemic among heterosexual couples in South Africa (SA). Sexual communication self-efficacy (SCSE) (i.e., a couple's confidence in their ability to communicate about HIV prevention) may be a key leverage point for increasing HIV prevention behaviors among this population. We interviewed 163 sexually active heterosexual couples in Soweto, SA to investigate the association between SCSE, HMN, and consistent condom use. We collected information on demographics, relationship dynamics, and sexual activity. We utilized the SCSE scale to measure couples' SCSE, and a subscale of the Gender Equitable Men scale to measure HMN among males. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses to determine the association of consistent condom use with couples' SCSE as well as the male partner's endorsement of HMN. We found that couples with higher SCSE have greater odds of consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.15-1.47). Furthermore, male endorsement of HMN was found to be negatively associated with consistent condom use among couples (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.24-0.89). Joint HIV serostatus was not significantly associated with the outcome. Future interventions that equip heterosexual couples with sexual communication skills, while simultaneously promoting more gender equitable norms, may increase consistent condom use and thereby reduce the transmission of HIV among this at-risk population.

  20. HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Risk Behaviors Among Heterosexual, Bisexual, and Lesbian Women Who Inject Drugs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Jenny; Dolan, Kate; Ezard, Nadine; Maher, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Women who inject drugs (WWID) are vulnerable to a range of harms, including exposure to sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections, abusive relationships, physical and sexual violence and mental health issues. Lesbians and bisexual women are at greater risk than heterosexual women for substance use disorders. This study aimed to compare a large sample of heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian WWID and to identify correlates of sexual orientation. The Australian Needle and Syringe Program (NSP) Survey is an annual cross-sectional survey. People who inject drugs (PWID) who attend NSP services are invited to complete a brief self-administered questionnaire and provide a capillary dried blood spot. Of 22,791 survey respondents between 2004-2013, one third were women (n=7,604). Analyses were restricted to the first participation record for each respondent. Of the 5,378 individual women, 4,073 (76%) identified as heterosexual, 1,007 (19%) identified as bisexual, and 298 (6%) identified as lesbian. HIV prevalence was low (sexual orientation and risk behavior identified bisexual orientation as independently associated with increased risk. Services that target PWID need to recognise and address a broad range of sexual identities and behaviors. Future research should explore reasons for increased risk in sexual minority women.

  1. From awareness to action: Examining predictors of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) activism for heterosexual people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K Nicole; Brewster, Melanie E

    2017-01-01

    In recent history, heterosexual allies have played an integral role in promoting change for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations in the United States; however, questions have been raised as to what drives heterosexual allies to promote change via activism. To delineate factors important in engagement in activism, 207 self-identified heterosexual allies completed an online survey measuring components associated with LGBT activism using Bandura's (1986) model of triadic reciprocal determinism: personal factors (ally identity, social justice self-efficacy and outcome expectations, empathetic perspective taking, and gender) and environmental factors (social justice related supports and barriers, positive marginality, and education level) to predict behaviors (LGBT activism). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed a model accounting for 62% of the variance in LGBT activism, with dimensions of ally identification, social justice self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and education level emerging as significant predictors of engagement in activism behaviors. Empathetic perspective taking and social justice related barriers predicted lack of engagement in LGBT activism, however. Supporting the notion that personal and environmental factors simultaneously impact engagement in LGBT activism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Planning for Future Care and the End of Life: A Qualitative Analysis of Gay, Lesbian, and Heterosexual Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Donnelly, Rachel; Reczek, Corinne; Umberson, Debra

    2017-12-01

    Two key components of end-of-life planning are (1) informal discussions about future care and other end-of-life preferences and (2) formal planning via living wills and other legal documents. We leverage previous work on the institutional aspects of marriage and on sexual-minority discrimination to theorize why and how heterosexual, gay, and lesbian married couples engage in informal and formal end-of-life planning. We analyze qualitative dyadic in-depth interviews with 45 midlife gay, lesbian, and heterosexual married couples ( N = 90 spouses). Findings suggest that same-sex spouses devote considerable attention to informal planning conversations and formal end-of-life plans, while heterosexual spouses report minimal formal or informal planning. The primary reasons same-sex spouses give for making end-of-life preparations are related to the absence of legal protections and concerns about discrimination from families. These findings raise questions about future end-of-life planning for same- and different-sex couples given a rapidly shifting legal and social landscape.

  3. Maintaining distinctions under threat: heterosexual men endorse the biological theory of sexuality when equality is the norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan M; Hegarty, Peter

    2014-12-01

    According to social identity theory, group members sometimes react to threats to their group's distinctiveness by asserting the distinctiveness of their group. In four studies (n = 261) we tested the hypothesis that heterosexual men with a greater propensity to be threatened by homosexuality would react to egalitarian norms by endorsing biological theories of sexuality. Heterosexual men, but not women, with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group endorsed biological theories the most (Study 1). Heterosexual men with higher gender self-esteem, with heterosexist attitudes, who endorsed traditional gender roles, and with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group, endorsed the biological theories more when egalitarian norms rather than anti-egalitarian norms (Studies 2 and 3) or pro-minority ideologies that emphasized group differences (Study 4) were made salient. These findings show group-level reactive distinctiveness among members of a high-status group in a context of threat to the unique privileges that they once enjoyed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Positive and Negative Affect During Sexual Activity: Differences Between Homosexual and Heterosexual Men and Women, With and Without Sexual Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-01-02

    Empirical research suggests that emotional response during sexual activity discriminates between sexually functional and dysfunctional heterosexual men and women, with clinics presenting lower positive and higher negative affect. However, there is no evidence about the role of emotions in gay men and lesbian women with sexual problems. The present study analyzed affective states during sexual activity in homosexual and heterosexual men and women, with and without sexual problems. Participants in this study were 156 men and 168 women. A 2 (group) × 2 (sexual orientation) multivariate analysis of variance was performed. Participants completed a web-survey assessing sexual functioning and the Positive Affect-Negative Affect Scale. Findings indicated a main effect of group, with groups with sexual problems reporting significantly more negative and lower positive affect compared with men and women without sexual problems, regardless of sexual orientation. However, findings have also shown an interaction effect in the male sample with gay men, contrary to heterosexual men, reporting similar affective responses regardless of having a sexual dysfunction or not. Overall, findings emphasize the role of affective responses during sexual activity in men and women with sexual problems, suggesting the importance of addressing emotional responses in assessment and treatment of sexual problems in individuals with different sexual orientations.

  5. "I kiss them because I love them": the emergence of heterosexual men kissing in British institutes of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric; Adams, Adi; Rivers, Ian

    2012-04-01

    In this article, we combined data from 145 interviews and three ethnographic investigations of heterosexual male students in the U.K. from multiple educational settings. Our results indicate that 89% have, at some point, kissed another male on the lips which they reported as being non-sexual: a means of expressing platonic affection among heterosexual friends. Moreover, 37% also reported engaging in sustained same-sex kissing, something they construed as non-sexual and non-homosexual. Although the students in our study understood that this type of kissing remains somewhat culturally symbolized as a taboo sexual behavior, they nonetheless reconstructed it, making it compatible with heteromasculinity by recoding it as homosocial. We hypothesize that both these types of kissing behaviors are increasingly permissible due to rapidly decreasing levels of cultural homophobia. Furthermore, we argue that there has been a loosening of the restricted physical and emotional boundaries of traditional heteromasculinity in these educational settings, something which may also gradually assist in the erosion of prevailing heterosexual hegemony.

  6. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.

  7. The relationship between age and brain response to visual erotic stimuli in healthy heterosexual males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Y; Jeong, B; Kim, J-W; Choi, J

    2010-01-01

    The various changes of sexuality, including decreased sexual desire and erectile dysfunction, are also accompanied with aging. To understand the effect of aging on sexuality, we explored the relationship between age and the visual erotic stimulation-related brain response in sexually active male subjects. Twelve healthy, heterosexual male subjects (age 22-47 years) were recorded the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals of their brain activation elicited by passive viewing erotic (ERO), happy-faced (HA) couple, food and nature pictures. Mixed effect analysis and correlation analysis were performed to investigate the relationship between the age and the change of brain activity elicited by erotic stimuli. Our results showed age was positively correlated with the activation of right occipital fusiform gyrus and amygdala, and negatively correlated with the activation of right insula and inferior frontal gyrus. These findings suggest age might be related with functional decline in brain regions being involved in both interoceptive sensation and prefrontal modulation while it is related with the incremental activity of the brain region for early processing of visual emotional stimuli in sexually healthy men.

  8. Ureaplasma urealyticum is significantly associated with non-gonococcal urethritis in heterosexual Sydney men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couldwell, D L; Gidding, H F; Freedman, E V; McKechnie, M L; Biggs, K; Sintchenko, V; Gilbert, G L

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the prevalence of various genital organisms in 268 men with (cases) and 237 men without (controls) urethral symptoms/signs (urethral discharge, dysuria and/or urethral irritation) from two sexual health clinics in Sydney between April 2006 and November 2007. The presence of urethral symptoms/signs was defined as non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) for this study. Specific aims were to investigate the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum in NGU and the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in our population. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based reverse line blot (mPCR/RLB) assay was performed to detect 14 recognized or putative genital pathogens, including Chlamydia trachomatis, M. genitalium, U. urealyticum and U. parvum. U. urealyticum was associated with NGU in men without another urethral pathogen (odds ratio [OR] 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.8; P = 0.04); this association remained after controlling for potential confounding by age and history of unprotected vaginal sex in the last four weeks (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9; P = 0.03). C. trachomatis (OR 7.5, P urethral pathogens. Further research should investigate the role of U. urealyticum subtypes among heterosexual men with NGU.

  9. Expressions of commitment and independence: Exploring men’s emotional responsibility in heterosexual couple relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Thagaard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines men’s contributions to the division of emotional labour in heterosexual couple relationships by exploring the dimensions of commitment and independence, and how couples deal with challenges. The study is based on individual interviews with each of the partners in ten urban middle-class couples in Norway. The results indicate diversity in middle-class men’s approaches to emotional responsibility, which is expressed through three models. The model of shared responsibility implies that the man’s contributions in the relationship represent expressions of responsive commitment. The man finds a balance between giving priority to his personal interests and considering shared interests; a pattern we refer to as collaborative independence, and he shares the responsibility for coping with challenges with his partner. The model of gendered responsibility implies that the man’s contributions in the relationship are characterized by non-responsive commitment. The man gives priority to his personal interests in a way we refer to as conflicting independence, and refrains from sharing the responsibility for coping with challenges with his partner. Finally, a third model, termed partial responsibility, is also evident in the data. This model is a combination of collaborative independence and non-responsive commitment, and may represent a phase of transition towards collaboration on an equal basis. A discussion of interpretations of the diversity in men’s approaches to commitment and independence concludes the paper.

  10. Masculinity and HIV disclosure among heterosexual South African men: implications for HIV/AIDS intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dageid, Wenche; Govender, Kaymarlin; Gordon, Sarah F

    2012-01-01

    Relationships and constructions of masculinity are central to understanding the process of male HIV disclosure, which is an important step towards accessing HIV-related services. Data from in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions with 23 HIV-positive, self-identified heterosexual, Black South African men were used to explore the disclosure process and how this process was negotiated in the context of constructions of masculinity. Of these men, 20 had disclosed to one or more persons, with partners and siblings being the preferred confidants. Disclosure was dependent on the acceptance of HIV status, perceived support and healthy relationships with others, HIV counselling and participation in educational and training activities. Non-disclosure was explained as a result of stigma, fear of rejection, discrimination, a lack of healthy relationships with others and lack of access to suitable disclosure strategies. Negative perceptions of HIV and hegemonic conceptions of masculinity hindered men from disclosing and seeking health services. Many men, however, managed to renegotiate their masculine identities to become responsible, knowledgeable HIV-positive individuals, protecting their families and becoming community educators. Findings suggest the need to consider gendered, contextual, skills-building/income-generating and guided interventions to promote male HIV disclosure and service uptake.

  11. Correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexual methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    While many studies have examined correlates of trading sex for money, few have examined factors associated with exclusive trading of sex for drugs. We identified sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological correlates of trading sex for methamphetamine in a sample of HIV-negative heterosexual men and women who were enrolled in a sexual risk reduction intervention in San Diego, California. Of 342 participants, 26% overall (21% of males and 31% of females) reported trading sex for methamphetamine in the past two months. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that recently trading sex for methamphetamine was independently associated with being female, homeless, binging on methamphetamine, sexual victimization in the past two months, engaging in anal sex 24 or more times in the past two months, and higher sexual compulsivity scores. Effective interventions for this high-risk population should consider gender-focused counseling for sexual abuse, motivational enhancement therapy, social-cognitive skills training, as well as enhanced access and utilization of social services, including drug treatment.

  12. Sexual communication among young adult heterosexual Latinos: a qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Carmen Paula; Villarruel, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Sexual communication between sexual partners is an important component in prevention efforts against unintended consequences of sex. The purpose of this study was to describe sexual communication among young adult Latinos. Four semistructured, sex-segregated focus groups were used for this study. Participants (N = 20) were 18-30 years old self-identified Latinos who were in heterosexual and sexually active relationships (more than 3 months). Participants revealed that initial sexual communication with their partners was avoided related to a lack of interest in a partner's sexual history, feeling embarrassed about the topic, or concern for offending one's partner or partner's family. As a result of these beliefs and attitudes, initial sexual communication was nonverbal and focused on sexual pleasure. After the initiation of sexual activity, verbal sexual communication expanded to include sexual history. These findings highlight the importance of attitudes and subjective norms toward verbal sexual communication. Attitudes and subjective norms toward sexual communication in the context of a romantic relationship and how it may impact sexual behavior in the relationship should be further explored.

  13. A Common-Fate Analysis of Pornography Acceptance, Use, and Sexual Satisfaction Among Heterosexual Married Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cameron C; Carroll, Jason S; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Busby, Dean M; Willoughby, Brian J; Larson, Jeffry H

    2017-02-01

    Using matched, heterosexual couple data from the Relationship Evaluation Questionnaire (RELATE; n = 326 couples), an adapted common-fate approach was used to examine both common and unique attributes of husbands' and wives' acceptance of pornography and sexual satisfaction as well as husbands' and wives' pornography use. It was expected that spouses' unique as well as shared variance of pornography acceptance would be significantly associated with husbands' and wives' levels of personal pornography use and that these use patterns would be significantly associated with husbands' and wives' unique as well as shared variance of sexual satisfaction. It was also expected that pornography use would significantly mediate the relationship between pornography acceptance and sexual satisfaction. Results indicated that the shared variance of pornography acceptance was positively associated with both spouses' pornography use and that spouses' pornography use was negatively associated with their own sexual satisfaction. Wives' pornography use was found to be positively associated with the couple's shared variance of sexual satisfaction, but pornography use did not significantly mediate the relationship between pornography acceptance and sexual satisfaction. These findings emphasize the complexity of pornography use in couple relationships and the importance of studying pornography acceptance and use as a coupling dynamic within marriages rather than just an individual behavior.

  14. Heterosexual experience prevents the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Chena-Becerra, Florencia; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2017-03-01

    Sexual partner preferences can be strengthened, weakened or even drastically modified via Pavlovian conditioning. For example, conditioned same-sex partner preference develops in sexually-naïve male rats that undergo same-sex cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Here, we assessed the effect of prior heterosexual experience on the probability to develop a conditioned same-sex preference. Naïve or Sexually-experienced males received either Saline or QNP and cohabited during 24h with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4days for a total of three trials and resulted in four groups (Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced, QNP-naïve, QNP-experienced). Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced and QNP-experienced displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex). By contrast, only QNP-naïve males displayed a same-sex preference. Accordingly, QNP-experienced males were not affected by the conditioning process and continued to prefer females. We discuss the effects of copulation and D2 agonists on the facilitation and/or disruption of conditioned partner preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Heterosexual Men's Ratings of Sexual Attractiveness of Adolescent Girls: A Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul; Lowe, Rob; Petrova, Hristina

    2015-11-01

    Following an identical procedure to the one we previously reported (O'Donnell, Lowe, Brotherton, & Bennett, 2014), we examined ratings of sexual attraction to photographs of (the same) adolescent girls (Tanner stages 3-4) labelled as either 14-15 years or 16-17 years old, women, and men. Ratings were made by Bulgarian heterosexual men by pressing buttons on a response box which recorded the ratings made and the time in milliseconds taken to respond. Despite the age of sexual consent in Bulgaria being 14 years, the pattern of findings did not differ from those found in the UK, where the age of consent is 16 years. That is, mean ratings of the sexual attractiveness of the girls labelled as younger were lower than those of the (same) girls labelled as older, and those of the women. In addition, correlations revealed significantly longer responding times when younger girls (and men) were rated as more highly sexually attractive. These associations were reversed in response to the photographs of women. We take these findings to indicate an inhibitory effect arising from generalized sexual norms relating to the inappropriateness of sexual attraction to young girls; the greater the attraction, the higher the inhibition. This second replication of our initial findings suggests a robust effect that may be of benefit in exploration of pedophile or sex offender groups.

  16. Family conflict and depression in HIV-negative heterosexuals: the role of methamphetamine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Zians, Jim; Patterson, Thomas L

    2009-06-01

    Previous research has reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms among methamphetamine users, but little attention has been paid to possible links between family environment and psychological distress. This study examined relationships between family conflict, substance use, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 104 heterosexual methamphetamine users in San Diego, California. Eighty-nine percent of the sample reported conflict with a family member in the past year. Conflict was reported most often with parents and siblings. Sources of conflict included drug use, lifestyle issues, interpersonal and communication issues, and concern for other family members. In regression analyses, being female, being a polydrug user, and facing social and legal stressors were associated with higher levels of family conflict. Multiple regression analyses also revealed a positive association between family conflict and depressive symptoms. Contrary to expectation, methamphetamine dose did not moderate the relationship between family conflict and depressive symptoms. Reducing family conflict may be an important first step toward ameliorating depressive symptoms and creating more supportive environments for methamphetamine users who are in urgent need of effective interventions. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Use of the male condom by heterosexual adolescents and young people: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Leah; Jackson, Debra; O'Brien, Louise; Peters, Kathleen

    2007-07-01

    This paper is a report of a literature review to explore issues influencing condom use in heterosexual adolescents and young people. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major international health issue and adolescents and young people are particularly vulnerable. Efforts to address the rapid spread of STIs have largely focused on promoting the use of condoms as a protective 'safer sex' measure. However, use of the male condom is still inconsistent and the incidence of STIs continues to increase. A search of the literature using EBSCO Host databases was undertaken in 2006, with a focus on women, young people, condoms and STIs. Papers published in English from 1992 to 2006 were sought. Only research papers are included in this review. Factors impeding decisions to use protection by young people include lack of knowledge about prevalence of STIs, ambiguity around contraception and safer sex practices, and the difficulty faced by young women in particular in negotiating safer sex. The notion of romantic love confounds the assessment of risk and can render young people, particularly young women, ineffective in negotiating safer sex practices. Adolescents and young adults are particularly vulnerable in relation to STIs. There is a need to ensure that accurate messages are delivered about safer sex and contraception to this very vulnerable group. Furthermore, it is important to recognize that romantic love comprises strong emotions that have a role in decision-making and options for reducing personal-health risk during sexual activity.

  18. Predictors of Parenting Stress in Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Adoptive Parents During Early Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.

    2014-01-01

    Little work has examined parenting stress in adoptive parents, particularly lesbian and gay adoptive parents. The current longitudinal study examined parent-reported child characteristics (measured post-placement) and parent and family characteristics (measured pre-placement) as predictors of post-placement parenting stress and change in parenting stress across three time points during the first 2 years of adoptive parenthood, among 148 couples (50 lesbian, 40 gay, and 58 heterosexual) who were first-time parents. Children in the sample were, on average, 5.61 months (SD = 10.26) when placed, and 2.49 years (SD = .85) at the 2 year post-placement follow-up. Findings revealed that parents who had been placed with older children, and parents who perceived severe emotional/behavioral problems in their children, reported more post-placement stress. In addition, parents who reported fewer depressive symptoms, more love for their partners, and more family and friend support during the pre-placement period, had less post-placement stress. Parenting stress decreased for parents who perceived severe emotional/behavioral problems in their children, while it increased somewhat for those who reported developmental problems in their children. Findings highlight vulnerabilities and resources that may shape adoptive parents’ experiences of stress in early parenthood, and have implications for both researchers and professionals who wish to support adoptive family adjustment. PMID:24611690

  19. Singleness, Marriage, and the Construction of Heterosexual Masculinities: Australian Men Teaching English in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn Appleby

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a study of Australian men and their accounts of living and working in Japan as English language teachers. In this site, recent research has explored Japanese discourses of desire for the West, Western men, and English language learning. These patterns of desire have afforded white Western men a privileged personal and professional status in Japan, and enabled access to employment opportunities as teachers of English language. At the same time, white Western men working as English language teachers face the challenge of negotiating competing discourses that threaten their social status. In particular, their employment in a lowly-regarded profession and a reputation for sexual promiscuity potentially position Western male language teachers as the ‘white trash’ of Asia. My analysis of interview data focuses on the ways in which the men negotiate these discourses, and construct ‘respectable’ Western heterosexual masculinities by mobilising a binary distinction between singleness and marriage. Marriage to a Japanese spouse is presented as a bulwark against alignment with problematic discourses that threaten the status of white masculinity: it is associated with fidelity and maturity, and with integration into Japanese social, linguistic and professional communities. However, the articulation of marital status also reinforces a marginalised position for teachers who do not conform to heteronormative expectations.

  20. Genotype-Specific Concordance of Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection Within Heterosexual Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillinger, Julia A; Katz, Barry P; Markowitz, Lauri E; Braslins, Phillip G; Shrier, Lydia A; Madico, Guillermo; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Orr, Donald P; Rice, Peter A; Batteiger, Byron E

    2016-12-01

    Sexual transmission rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) cannot be measured directly; however, the study of concordance of Ct infection in sexual partnerships (dyads) can help to illuminate factors influencing Ct transmission. Heterosexual men and women with Ct infection and their sex partners were enrolled and partner-specific coital and behavioral data collected for the prior 30 days. Microbiological data included Ct culture, and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT), quantitative Ct polymerase chain reaction, and ompA genotyping. We measured Ct concordance in dyads and factors (correlates) associated with concordance. One hundred twenty-one women and 125 men formed 128 dyads. Overall, 72.9% of male partners of NAAT-positive women and 68.6% of female partners of NAAT-positive men were Ct-infected. Concordance was more common in dyads with culture-positive members (78.6% of male partners, 77% of female partners). Partners of women and men who were NAAT-positive only had lower concordance (33.3%, 46.4%, respectively). Women in concordant dyads had significantly higher median endocervical quantitative Ct polymerase chain reaction values (3,032) compared with CT-infected women in discordant dyads (1013 inclusion forming units DNA equivalents per mL; P model coitus-specific transmission probabilities.

  1. The Feasibility of Interventions to Reduce HIV Risk and Drug Use among Heterosexual Methamphetamine Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Karen F; Lehman, Wayne E; Min, Sung-Joon; Lance, Shannon P; Speer, Nicole; Booth, Robert E; Shoptaw, Steve

    2012-06-04

    This paper reports on a feasibility study that examined contingency management among out-of-treatment, heterosexual methamphetamine users and the reduction of drug use and HIV risk. Fifty-eight meth users were recruited through street outreach in Denver from November 2006 through March 2007. The low sample size reflects that this was a pilot study to see if CM is feasible in an out-of-treatment, street-recruited population of meth users. Secondary aims were to examine if reductions and drug use and risk behavior could be found. Subjects were randomly assigned to contingency management (CM) or CM plus strengths-based case management (CM/SBCM), with follow-up at 4 and 8 months. Participants were primarily White (90%), 52% male and averaged 38 years old. Eighty-three percent attended at least one CM session, with 29% attending at least fifteen. All participants reduced meth use significantly at follow-up. Those who attended more sessions submitted more stimulant-free urines than those who attended fewer sessions. Participants assigned to CM/SBCM attended more sessions and earned more vouchers than clients in CM. Similarly, participants reported reduced needle-sharing and sex risk. Findings demonstrate that CM and SBCM may help meth users reduce drug use and HIV risk.

  2. Sexual scripts among young heterosexually active men and women: continuity and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, N Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M

    2013-01-01

    Whereas gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding "disjunctures" between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18 to 25, the ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships were delineated. Findings suggest that, although most participants' culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships. Specifically, three styles of working with sexual scripts were found: conforming, in which personal gender scripts for sexual behavior overlapped with traditional scripts; exception-finding, in which interviewees accepted culture-level gender scripts as a reality, but created exceptions to gender rules for themselves; and transforming, in which participants either attempted to remake culture-level gender scripts or interpreted their own nontraditional styles as equally normative. Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and well-being, particularly for women, but for men as well.

  3. Common acquired kidney diseases in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5. Common acquired kidney diseases in children. Examination of the urine is probably the most important investigation ... result from the same streptococcal infection. .... musculoskeletal system. ... Prediction of histopathology from clinical.

  4. How are Concepts of Infinity Acquired?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzęsicki Kazimierz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Concepts of infinity have been subjects of dispute since antiquity. The main problems of this paper are: is the mind able to acquire a concept of infinity? and: how are concepts of infinity acquired? The aim of this paper is neither to say what the meanings of the word “infinity” are nor what infinity is and whether it exists. However, those questions will be mentioned, but only in necessary extent.

  5. Differences in microbiological profile between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and hospital-acquired infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Teresa; Ribeiro, Orquídea; Aragão, Irene; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Sarmento, António

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological profiles were analysed and compared for intra-abdominal, urinary, respiratory and bloodstream infections according to place of acquisition: community-acquired, with a separate analysis of healthcare-associated, and hospital-acquired. Prospective cohort study performed at a university tertiary care hospital over 1 year. Inclusion criteria were meeting the Centers for Disease Control definition of intra-abdominal, urinary, respiratory and bloodstream infections. A total of 1035 patients were included in the study. More than 25% of intra-abdominal infections were polymicrobial; multi-drug resistant gram-negatives were 38% in community-acquired, 50% in healthcare-associated and 57% in hospital-acquired. E. coli was the most prevalent among urinary infections: 69% in community-acquired, 56% in healthcare-associated and 26% in hospital-acquired; ESBL producers' pathogens were 10% in healthcare-associated and 3% in community-acquired and hospital-acquired. In respiratory infections Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most prevalent in community-acquired (54%) and MRSA in healthcare-associated (24%) and hospital-acquired (24%). A significant association was found between MRSA respiratory infection and hospitalization in the previous year (adjusted OR = 6.3), previous instrumentation (adjusted OR = 4.3) and previous antibiotic therapy (adjusted OR = 5.7); no cases were documented among patients without risk factors. Hospital mortality rate was 10% in community-acquired, 14% in healthcare-associated and 19% in hospital-acquired infection. This study shows that healthcare-associated has a different microbiologic profile than those from community or hospital acquired for the four main focus of infection. Knowledge of this fact is important because the existing guidelines for community-acquired are not entirely applicable for this group of patients.

  6. Acquiring neural signals for developing a perception and cognition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Yunyi; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Lynch, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The understanding of how humans process information, determine salience, and combine seemingly unrelated information is essential to automated processing of large amounts of information that is partially relevant, or of unknown relevance. Recent neurological science research in human perception, and in information science regarding contextbased modeling, provides us with a theoretical basis for using a bottom-up approach for automating the management of large amounts of information in ways directly useful for human operators. However, integration of human intelligence into a game theoretic framework for dynamic and adaptive decision support needs a perception and cognition model. For the purpose of cognitive modeling, we present a brain-computer-interface (BCI) based humanoid robot system to acquire brainwaves during human mental activities of imagining a humanoid robot-walking behavior. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model. The BCI system consists of a data acquisition unit with an electroencephalograph (EEG), a humanoid robot, and a charge couple CCD camera. An EEG electrode cup acquires brainwaves from the skin surface on scalp. The humanoid robot has 20 degrees of freedom (DOFs); 12 DOFs located on hips, knees, and ankles for humanoid robot walking, 6 DOFs on shoulders and arms for arms motion, and 2 DOFs for head yaw and pitch motion. The CCD camera takes video clips of the human subject's hand postures to identify mental activities that are correlated to the robot-walking behaviors. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model.

  7. Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High-Risk for HIV Infection in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya eGwadz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The CDC recommends persons at high-risk for HIV infection in the United States receive annual HIV testing to foster early HIV diagnosis and timely linkage to health care. Heterosexuals make up a significant proportion of incident HIV infections (>25%, but test for HIV less frequently than those in other risk categories. Yet factors that promote or impede annual HIV testing among heterosexuals are poorly understood. The present study examines individual/attitudinal-, social-, and structural-level factors associated with past-year HIV testing among heterosexuals at high-risk for HIV. Methods. Participants were African American/Black and Hispanic heterosexual adults (N=2307 residing in an urban area with both high poverty and HIV prevalence rates. Participants were recruited by respondent-driven sampling (RDS in 2012-2015 and completed a computerized structured assessment battery covering background factors, multi-level putative facilitators of HIV testing, and HIV testing history. Separate logistic regression analysis for males and females identified factors associated with past-year HIV testing.Results. Participants were mostly male (58%, African American/Black (75%, and 39 years old on average (SD = 12.06 years. Lifetime homelessness (54% and incarceration (62% were common. Half reported past-year HIV testing (50% and 37% engaged in regular, annual HIV testing. Facilitators of HIV testing common to both genders included sexually transmitted infection (STI testing or STI diagnosis, peer norms supporting HIV testing, and HIV testing access. Among women, access to general medical care and extreme poverty further predicted HIV testing, while recent drug use reduced the odds of past-year HIV testing. Among men, past-year HIV testing was also associated with lifetime incarceration and substance use treatment.Conclusions. The present study identified gaps in rates of HIV testing among heterosexuals at high-risk for HIV, and both common and

  8. Localization of Haemophilus ducreyi in naturally acquired chancroidal ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Margaret E; Townsend, Carisa A; Ronald, Allan R; Spinola, Stanley M

    2006-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease chancroid. In human inoculation experiments, bacteria colocalize with neutrophils and macrophages but remain extracellular. The organism also colocalizes with collagen and fibrin but not with keratinocytes, fibroblasts, laminin, or fibronectin. These relationships are established by 48 h postinoculation and persist through the pustular stage of disease. To extend these observations to the ulcerative stage of disease, and to compare results in the human model with those of natural disease, we obtained biopsies from patients with naturally acquired chancroid. All ulcers were culture positive for H. ducreyi and histologically very similar to pustules from the human model. Staining with H. ducreyi-specific monoclonal antibodies demonstrated H. ducreyi within 5 biopsies. The organism was chiefly found within the granulocytic infiltrate of the ulcer. Dual staining for H. ducreyi and eukaryotic tissue components showed that H. ducreyi colocalized with neutrophils and fibrin at the ulcerative stage of disease. No bacteria were associated with keratinocytes, fibroblasts, or collagen. Overall, these findings are consistent with results from the human model. This is the first reported study to localize bacteria specifically identified as H. ducreyi within naturally acquired chancroid.

  9. Saúde auditiva, o vírus da imunodeficiência humana e a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: uma revisão Hearing health, the human immunodeficiency virus and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Catalani Morata

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: a Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (SIDA/AIDS é causada pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (VIH/HIV, e resulta numa imunidade reduzida, o que torna o indivíduo mais susceptível a doenças e infecções oportunistas. Com o avanço da doença as estruturas do sistema auditivo central podem ser comprometidas pela ação direta do vírus ou decorrente de infecções secundárias e neoplasias. O portador do HIV/AIDS pode também se tornar mais vulnerável a outras patologias do ouvido. OBJETIVO: o objetivo desta revisão foi exploratório, visando identificar os possíveis pontos de interseção entre distúrbios auditivos e a Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida. Realizou-se uma revisão da literatura sobre a saúde auditiva dos portadores de HIV/AIDS e foi discutido o impacto potencial de patologias auditivas na qualidade de vida. CONCLUSÃO: a literatura sugere que várias possiveis associações existam entre os distúrbios auditivos e a Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida e o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana. Profissionais de saúde, inclusive aqueles dos serviços públicos no Brasil, deveriam examinar a necessidade de iniciativas de saúde auditiva dirigida aos portadores de HIV/AIDS para prevenir patologias auditivas ou reduzir seu impacto na qualidade de vida.BACKGROUND: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (or Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or AIDS is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and results in reduced immunity, leaving affected individuals more susceptible to illness and opportunistic infections. As the disease progresses, structures within the central auditory system can be affected either by the direct action of the virus or as a consequence of secondary infections. Other areas of the auditory system may also be more vulnerable to pathology in people living with HIV or AIDS. PURPOSE: the goal of this review was exploratory, to identify possible points of intersection between auditory

  10. Reasons for not Using Condoms among Heterosexual Men in Belgrade, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjekić, Milan; Sipetić-Grujičić, Sandra; Vlajinac, Hristina; Nikolić, Aleksandra

    2018-04-01

    Dear Editor, Proper and consistent use of male condoms can be a highly effective method of preventing the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV (1), but this method relies on men's willingness and ability to use condoms. In the United States of America, about 20% overall and less than 50% of adults with multiple partners used a condom at last intercourse (2). In Serbia in 2013 (3), 50.0% of women and 62.5% of men aged 15-49 who had more than one partner in the past year used a condom during their last intercourse. Heterosexual men often use condoms to prevent pregnancy rather than the transmission of venereal diseases (4). For better public promotion of condom use, it is necessary to know the reasons for its inconsistent or incorrect use. With this in mind, we asked 200 consecutive chlamydia-positive heterosexual men admitted to the City Institute for Skin and Venereal Diseases in Belgrade to complete an anonymous questionnaire, taken from a Danish study (5), about their attitudes to/or experience with condoms. Patients were divided into two groups; Group I consisted of 109 (54.5%) men who reported that they had never or sometimes used condoms during intercourse and Group II consisted of 91 (45.5%) men who had used a condom often or always. The majority of participants (68.5%) were ≤30 years old, while the rest were older. The analysis of differences between these two groups was performed using a chi-square test. Attitudes concerning use of condoms are presented in Table 1. The majority of our participants (43.5%) did not use a condom because they had sexual intercourse with regular partners. This may be explained by trust and misperception of risk of contracting STIs during sex with a regular partner or lack of discussion with the partner about condom use. The results of another study about condom use with a steady partner (6) have shown that 31% of participants reported using condoms consistently with steady partners. The second most

  11. A Latent Class Analysis of Heterosexual Young Men’s Masculinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Parallel bodies of research have described the diverse and complex ways that men understand and construct their masculine identities (often termed“masculinities”) and, separately, how adherence to traditional notions of masculinity places men at risk for negative sexual and health outcomes. The goal of this analysis was to bring together these two streams of inquiry. Using data from a national, online sample of 555 hetero-sexually active young men, we employed latent class analysis (LCA) to detect patterns of masculine identities based on men’s endorsement of behavioral and attitudinal indicators of“dominant” masculinity, including sexual attitudes and behaviors. LCA identified four conceptually distinct masculine identity profiles. Twogroups, termed the Normative and Normative/Male Activities groups, respectively, constituted 88 % of the sample and were characterized by low levels of adherence to attitudes, sexual scripts, and behaviors consistent with“dominant”masculinity, but differed in their levels of engagement in male-oriented activities (e.g., sports teams). Only eight percent of the sample comprised a masculinity profile consistent with “traditional” ideas about masculinity; this group was labeled Misogynistic because of high levels of sexual assault and violence toward female partners. The remaining four percent constituted a Sex-Focused group, characterized by high numbers of sexual partners, but relatively low endorsement of other indicators of traditional masculinity. Follow-up analyses showed a small number of differences across groups on sexual and substance use health indicators. Findings have implications for sexual and behavioral health interventions and suggest that very few young men embody or endorse rigidly traditional forms of masculinity. PMID:26496914

  12. Associations Between Sex Education and Contraceptive Use Among Heterosexually Active, Adolescent Males in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Nicole; Buhi, Eric R; Elder, John P; Corliss, Heather L

    2017-05-01

    This study examined associations between reports of receiving education on topics commonly included in sex education (e.g., abstinence only, comprehensive) prior to age 18 years and contraceptive use at the last sex among heterosexually active, 15- to 20-year-old males in the United States. Cross-sectional data from 539 males participating in the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth were analyzed. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusting for confounding estimated associations between receipt of seven sex education topics (e.g., information on HIV/AIDS, how to say no to sex) and contraceptive use at the last sex (i.e., dual barrier and female-controlled effective methods, female-controlled effective method only, barrier method only, and no method). Nearly, all participants (99%) reported receiving sex education on at least one topic. Education on sexually transmitted diseases (94.7%) and HIV/AIDS (92.0%) were the most commonly reported topics received; education on where to get birth control was the least common (41.6%). Instruction about birth control methods (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32-6.87) and how to say no to sex (AOR = 3.39; CI = 1.33-8.64) were positively associated with dual contraception compared to no use. For each additional sex education topic respondents were exposed to, their odds of using dual methods compared to no method was 47% greater (AOR = 1.47; CI = 1.16-1.86). Exposure to a larger number of sex education topics is associated with young men's report of dual contraception use at the last sex. Comprehensive sex education, focusing on a range of topics, may be most effective at promoting safer sex among adolescent males. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceived consequences of casual online sexual activities on heterosexual relationships: a u.s. Online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Royce, Tracy; Lever, Janet

    2011-04-01

    Some researchers have illustrated how the Internet can provide users with an ideal atmosphere to explore sexuality; however, most have stressed the Internet's negative impact on intimate relationships. Notably, much of this research has focused on the small minority of men who compulsively engage in online sexual activities (OSA), overlooking the majority of men and women who use OSA recreationally (either individually or with a partner). Addressing these limitations, data on heterosexual adults in committed relationships were taken from the 2004 "ELLE/msnbc.com Cyber-sex and Romance Survey" (n = 8,376). In quantitative analyses, men were less likely than women to express concerns and more likely to hold favorable attitudes about their partner's OSA. With regard to the impact of OSA on intimate relationships, men and women did not differ in becoming "more open to new things," and finding it easier "to talk about what [they] want sexually." Negative impacts were also identified, with women more likely to indicate they had less sex as a result of a partner's OSA, and men more likely to indicate they were less aroused by real sex as a result of their own OSA. Generally, qualitative results mirrored quantitative ones. Additionally, qualitative data suggested that moderate or light amounts of OSA yield relationship benefits for both female and male users, including increases in the quality and frequency of sex, and increased intimacy with real partners. In addition, men who used the Internet moderately, and men and women who reported being light users, stated that engaging in tandem OSA fostered better sexual communication with partners. Findings underscore the need to explore further the impact that online sexual activities can have on real-life committed relationships.

  14. Symptoms of non-gonococcal urethritis in heterosexual men: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, P; Read, Tr H; Tabrizi, S; Bradshaw, C; Lee, D; Horvarth, L; Garland, S; Denham, I; Fairley, C K

    2005-04-01

    To determine microbial and behavioural factors contributing to non-gonococcal urethral symptoms in men. Case-control study of heterosexual men with non-gonococcal urethral symptoms (cases) and without urethral symptoms (controls) attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia. Sexual behaviour and condom use were measured by questionnaire. First stream urine was tested for potential pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis (ligase chain reaction), Mycoplasma genitalium (polymerase chain reaction, PCR), Ureaplasma urealyticum (culture and PCR), and Streptococcus spp, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Haemophilus species (culture). Urethral smears from cases were examined for polymorphonuclear leucocytes. 80 cases and 79 controls were recruited over 4 months in 2002-3. 49 cases (61%) had urethritis by microscopic criteria, 17 (21%) had Chlamydia trachomatis (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 27 (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4 to 222)), five (6%) had Mycoplasma genitalium (OR 6.1 (95% CI: 0.6 to 61)), and 11 (14%) had Gardnerella vaginalis (OR 9.0 (95% CI: 1.6 to 52)). Other organisms were not significantly associated with urethral symptoms. The presence of urethritis on urethral smear did not predict the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis (OR 1.7 (95% CI: 0.5 to 5.4)). Urethral symptoms were significantly associated with unprotected vaginal sex with more than one casual partner (OR 9.3 (95% CI: 1.3 to 65)) and unprotected anal sex with a regular partner in the past month (OR 3.5 (95% CI: 1.0 to 13)). Gardnerella vaginalis and unprotected anal sex may cause symptoms of non-gonococcal urethritis. Microscopy of the urethral smear to diagnose urethritis in this population does not help to identify which men with urethral symptoms require treatment for chlamydia.

  15. Neurocognitive and personality factors in homo- and heterosexual pedophiles and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tillmann H C; Schiffer, Boris

    2011-06-01

    Several neuropsychological studies have suggested an association between pedophilia, neurocognitive disturbances, and specific personality profiles. However, inconsistencies in the findings have not been explained sufficiently, because many studies did not control for possible confounding factors, such as age, education level, or gender orientation. Therefore, the present investigation examined neurocognitive performance and personality profiles in pedophiles in dependence of sexual gender preferences and sexual deviance, as well as with regard to age and education level. Scores on the different neurocognitive tests, personality questionnaires, and Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV (SCID) interviews. An extensive neurocognitive test battery (including a reduced version of the German Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Wisconsin card-sorting test, d2 Attention-Deficit Test, and the Corsi block-tapping test) as well as two personality questionnaires (Minnessota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI-2] and the Multiphasic Sex Inventory [MSI]) were used to examine a consecutive sample of 20 psychiatrically assessed (SCID I and II) pedophile inpatients (nine exclusively attracted to females and 11 to males) from two high security forensic hospitals and 28 healthy controls (14 heterosexual, 14 homosexual). Compared with controls, pedophiles showed neurocognitive impairments and personality specifics in the majority of tests and questionnaires, such as reduced values on the intelligence scale and weaker performances in information processing, together with high scores for psychopathy and paranoia, and signs of sexual obsessiveness and sexual dysfunction. In contrast to previous reports, some of these alterations were at least partly explained by factors other than pedophilia, such as education level or age. These alterations may be seen to be in line with the hypothesis of a perturbation of

  16. Racial differences in sexual prejudice and its correlates among heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daboin, Irene; Peterson, John L; Parrott, Dominic J

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has consistently found sexual prejudice to be a predictor of antigay aggression and has also revealed specific correlates and antecedents of sexual prejudice. However, extant literature reveals mixed findings about potential racial group differences in sexual prejudice, and few studies have examined racial differences in the correlates of sexual prejudice. The aims of this descriptive study were to determine whether there are (a) racial group differences in reports of sexual prejudice and (b) racial group differences in previously identified correlates of sexual prejudice. Participants were 195 heterosexual males, ages 18 to 30 (98 Blacks and 97 Whites), recruited from a large metropolitan city in the southeastern United States. Based on cultural differences in the influence of religion and in attitudes about male sexuality, it was hypothesized that Black participants would report higher sexual prejudice than White participants. Additionally, based on cultural differences in racial views on masculinity and in sociocultural experiences of male gender roles, it was hypothesized that Blacks would report greater endorsement of religious fundamentalism and the traditional male role norm of status than Whites. Results confirmed all of the hypothesized racial differences and revealed additional differences, including a differential effect of the traditional male role norm of status on sexual prejudice, which explains, at least in part, the racial differences found in sexual prejudice. These findings may reflect underlying cultural differences between Black and White males and may aid in the development of future efforts to reduce sexual prejudice and consequently antigay aggression toward sexual minorities. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Condom-associated erection problems: behavioural responses and attributions in young, heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brandon J; Sanders, Stephanie A; Crosby, Richard A; Ingelhart, Kara N; Janssen, Erick

    2015-10-01

    Background Previous studies have associated men who experience condom-associated erection problems (CAEP) with incomplete condom use and/or foregoing using condoms altogether. However, how men respond to CAEP and what they attribute CAEP to, remains unclear. Understanding young men's CAEP responses and attributions could help improve sexually transmissible infections (STI)/HIV prevention programs and interventions. Behavioural responses to, and attributions for, CAEP during application (CAEP-Application) and/or during penile-vaginal intercourse (CAEP-PVI) were reported using an online questionnaire by 295 young, heterosexual men (aged 18-24 years) who were recruited via social media websites and university Listservs across major cities in the Midwestern USA. Behavioural responses to CAEP-Application included receiving oral or manual stimulation, stimulating a partner, self-stimulation, foregoing condom use and applying the condom after starting intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-Application included: distraction, fit and feel problems, application taking too long and having consumed too much alcohol. Behavioural responses to CAEP-PVI included increasing the intensity of intercourse, removing the condom to receive oral or manual stimulation and removing condom and continuing intercourse. Attributions for CAEP-PVI included: lack of sensation, taking too long to orgasm, not being 'turned on' enough, fit and feel problems and partner-related factors. Men who report CAEP respond with both STI/HIV risk-reducing and potentially risk-increasing behaviours (e.g. forgoing condom use). Men attribute their experiences to a wide range of individual- and partner-level factors. Addressing men's CAEP behavioural responses and attributions may increase the efficacious value of condom programs and STI/HIV prevention interventions - particularly among men who experience CAEP.

  18. Perceived Consequences of Casual Online Sexual Activities on Heterosexual Relationships: A U.S. Online Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Royce, Tracy; Lever, Janet

    2018-01-01

    Some researchers have illustrated how the Internet can provide users with an ideal atmosphere to explore sexuality; however, most have stressed the Internet’s negative impact on intimate relationships. Notably, much of this research has focused on the small minority of men who compulsively engage in online sexual activities (OSA), overlooking the majority of men and women who use OSA recreationally (either individually or with a partner). Addressing these limitations, data on heterosexual adults in committed relationships were taken from the 2004 “ELLE/msnbc.com Cyber-sex and Romance Survey” (n = 8,376). In quantitative analyses, men were less likely than women to express concerns and more likely to hold favorable attitudes about their partner’s OSA. With regard to the impact of OSA on intimate relationships, men and women did not differ in becoming “more open to new things,” and finding it easier “to talk about what [they] want sexually.” Negative impacts were also identified, with women more likely to indicate they had less sex as a result of a partner’s OSA, and men more likely to indicate they were less aroused by real sex as a result of their own OSA. Generally, qualitative results mirrored quantitative ones. Additionally, qualitative data suggested that moderate or light amounts of OSA yield relationship benefits for both female and male users, including increases in the quality and frequency of sex, and increased intimacy with real partners. In addition, men who used the Internet moderately, and men and women who reported being light users, stated that engaging in tandem OSA fostered better sexual communication with partners. Findings underscore the need to explore further the impact that online sexual activities can have on real-life committed relationships. PMID:20174862

  19. Pennzoil to acquire part of Chevron's production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Pennzoil Co., Houston, will exchange 48% of its $2.2 billion investment in Chevron Corp. for a chunk of chevron's U.S. producing leases. The trade is to involve a tax free exchange of 15.75 million chevron Corp. shares held by Pennzoil for all the stock of Chevron PBC Inc., a Chevron unit owning Gulf of Mexico, Gulf Coast, Permian basin, and other U.S. oil and gas producing leases. Sixty percent of the acquired reserves are in the Gulf of Mexico and Gulf Coast where Pennzoil's operations are concentrated, and 60% of the acquired reserves consist of natural gas, mirroring Pennzoil's reserve ratios

  20. Aetiological considerations of acquired aplastic anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S.; Sarwar, I.; Mehmood, T.; Naz, F.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anaemia is one of the important causes of pancytopenia. This study was conducted to observe the mode of presentation of acquired aplastic anaemia and to find out its possible etiological factors. Methods: It is a hospital based descriptive study of 100 patients of acquired aplastic anaemia. Results: Out of 100 patients 60 were male and 40 female. Majority (44%) of the patients were between 12 - 20 years of age. Patient presented with variable symptoms majority (40%) with fever. Most of the patients had haemoglobin levels between 4 - 6 gm/dl. (53%). Seventy percent of the cases had no obvious cause, while in 30% some known causative factors were found. Chloramphenicol was found to be the most common causative drug. Mortality was 35%. Thirty patients were partially treated and 15 were lost to follow up. Twenty patients showed improvement with treatment. Conclusions: Acquired aplastic anaemia is common among males and more prevalent in younger age group. It is idiopathic in 70% cases while 30% had some cause. It has very high mortality. Doctors need to keep in mind this fatal condition in patients presenting with anaemia and should properly investigate before prescribing antibiotics and haematinics. (author)

  1. How Did Light Acquire a Velocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauginie, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how light acquired a velocity through history, from the ancient Greeks to the early modern era. Combining abstract debates, models of light, practical needs, planned research and chance, this history illustrates several key points that should be brought out in science education.

  2. Acquired dysfibrinogenemia secondary to multiple myeloma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotlín, R.; Sobotková, A.; Riedel, Tomáš; Salaj, P.; Suttnar, J.; Reicheltová, Z.; Májek, P.; Khaznadar, T.; Dyr, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 2 (2008), s. 75-81 ISSN 0001-5792 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : acquired dysfibrinogenemia * amorphous clot * fibrinogen Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.191, year: 2008

  3. Acquired secondary Grynfeltt's hernia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renck, Decio Valente; Lopes Junior, Joao Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Lumbar hernia is a rare condition whose diagnosis is hardly achieved. The prevalence is higher in elderly men. The present case report describes the case of a male, 78-year-old patient who underwent pleural effusion drainage 17 years before presenting with clinical manifestations and tomographic findings compatible with acquired secondary Grynfeltt's hernia. (author)

  4. Radiological pulmonary manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiori, Edson; Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Ossa, Alfonso Jaramillo

    1999-01-01

    In this article are reviewed the principal radiologic manifestations of inflammatory and tumoral diseases the compromise the lungs of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In the group of inflammatory diseases the radiologic aspects of pneumocystosis, cytomegalovirus disease, cryptococcosis, tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonias are emphasized. In the neoplasic diseases' group the aspects of lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma are specially presented. (author)

  5. Some Characteristics of Patients with Community Acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a dearth of studies relating the information from the history of patients with community-acquired pneumonia to the mortality of the disease. The relationship between age, sex, occupation, marital status, smoking history, alcohol use, concomitant COPD / bronchial asthma, source of referral and the mortality of patients ...

  6. Immunomodulation in community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmelts, H.H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease with considerable morbidity and mortality, despite effective antibiotic treatment. In this thesis, we showed that the major causative microorganisms in CAP trigger distinct inflammatory response profiles in the host. While an inflammatory

  7. A Case Of Bilateral Acquired Localized Lipoatrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Tanrıkulu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipoatrophy is characterized by inflammation and tissue loss in fatty tissue. This disease may be congenital or acquired, primary or secondary. Secondary lipoatrophy develops with infections, collagen tissue diseases, tumors and drug injections. In this report, we present the case of a 14-year-old female patient who developed lipoatrophy following intramuscular steroid injection to both buttocks.

  8. Comparing perceived effectiveness of FDA-proposed cigarette packaging graphic health warnings between sexual and gender minorities and heterosexual adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A; Nagler, Rebekah H; Minsky, Sara; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2017-10-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration proposed nine graphic health warnings (GHWs) on cigarette packaging that were rated equally effective across racial/ethnic, education, or income groups of adult smokers. However, data on GHW effectiveness among sexual and gender minority (SGM) adults, who have higher smoking prevalence, are currently lacking. This study analyzed whether perceived effectiveness of GHWs differed by gender and sexual orientation. Data came from a randomized experiment among 1,200 adults with an oversample from low socioeconomic status groups, conducted between 2013 and 2014 in three Massachusetts communities. Participants viewed and rated the effectiveness of nine GHWs. Mixed effects regression models predicted perceived effectiveness with gender and sexual orientation, adjusting for repeated measurements, GHWs viewed, age, race, ethnicity, smoking status, and health status. Female heterosexuals rated GHWs as more effective than male heterosexual, lesbian, and transgender and other gender respondents. There was no significant difference between female and male heterosexuals versus gay, male bisexual, or female bisexual respondents. Differences by gender and sexual orientation were consistent across all nine GHWs. Significant correlates of higher perceived effectiveness included certain GHWs, older age, being African-American (vs white), being Hispanic (vs non-Hispanic), having less than high school education (vs associate degree or higher), and being current smokers (vs non-smokers). Perceived effectiveness of GHWs was lower in certain SGM groups. We recommend further studies to understand the underlying mechanisms for these findings and investments in research and policy to communicate anti-smoking messages more effectively to SGM populations.

  9. "He's more typically female because he's not afraid to cry": connecting heterosexual gender relations and men's depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Wong, Sabrina T

    2011-09-01

    Depression, a disorder often thought of as a women's health issue, is underreported in men, and little is known about how heterosexual couples respond when the male partner is depressed. Within the context of men's depression, couples may be challenged to make life adjustments that impact their gender relations. The findings detailed in this article are drawn from an innovative qualitative study of 26 Canadian heterosexual couples (26 men and their 26 women partners) in which the man had a formal diagnosis and/or self-identified as depressed. Participants completed individual, semi structured interviews that focused on exploring how masculinities and femininities intersect to forge particular heterosexual gender relations in the context of men's depression. A social constructionist gender analysis revealed three couple patterns: trading places, business as usual, and edgy tensions. Trading places refers to couples who embodied some atypical masculine and feminine roles to compensate for the men's depression-induced losses (e.g., men as homemakers and women as breadwinners). Women partners in these dyads broke with feminine ideals in how they provided partner support by employing tough love strategies for self-protection and a means of prompting the men's self-management of their depression. Couples involved in business as usual co-constructed men's alignment with masculine workman ideals and women's support of their partner to counter and conceal men's depression induced-deficits. Also described were edgy tensions, where a mismatch of gender expectations fueled resentment and dysfunction that threatened the viability of some relationships. Overall, the limits of women's resilience and care-giving were evident, yet the findings also reveal how men's management of their depression was directly influenced by their partner. Opportunities for couples to assess their relationship dynamics within a broad range of gender relations might support couples' connectedness and

  10. Hypermasculinity, intimate partner violence, sexual aggression, social support, and child maltreatment risk in urban, heterosexual fathers taking parenting classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez Guerrero, Desi Alonzo

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between hypermasculinity, sexual aggression, intimate partner violence, social support, and child maltreatment risk among heterosexual fathers completing parenting classes. Hypermasculinity scores were found to be significant predictors of study participants' reported verbal, physical, and sexual aggression toward their intimate partners. Only lack of social support, operationalized as the reported frequency of participants' conversations with friends, relatives, or neighbors about their problems, was found to be a significant predictor of child maltreatment risk. Alcohol frequency, education, and monthly income were not found to be unique, significant predictors of any dependent variables. Implications for clinical practice and research as well as limitations to the current study are discussed.

  11. The central masturbation fantasy in heterosexual males across the life cycle: masturbation fantasies across the normality-pathology spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarusso, Calvin A

    2012-10-01

    Moses Laufer described the central masturbation fantasy as an essentially adolescent phenomenon that leads to the final sexual organization. In this paper the central masturbation fantasy, formulated during the preoedipal and oedipal years, consolidated in adolescence, and in a process of continuous evolution across the life cycle, is considered an essential concept for understanding sexuality in heterosexual males. Sex and aggression, as posited in Freud's dual theory of the drives, are core components of all masturbation fantasies, across the diagnostic spectrum, from the most normal/neurotic to the most criminally bizarre. Clinical examples illustrate both points. The tendency among clinicians, particularly clinical associates, to avoid analyzing all aspects of masturbation is discussed.

  12. Preferences for Home-Based HIV Testing Among Heterosexuals at Increased Risk for HIV/AIDS: New Orleans, Louisiana, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, William T; Zarwell, Meagan; Gruber, DeAnn

    2017-07-01

    Participants in the New Orleans arm of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance of Heterosexuals at Increased Risk for HIV were asked about potential utilization of self-administered home-based tests for HIV. The majority (86%) would use a free home-based test if provided by mail and 99% would seek treatment based on a positive result. In addition, more than half of respondents would return test results in some format to the test provider, whereas most of the remaining participants preferred to discuss results only with their doctor. These findings point toward a potential method for advancing the National HIV/AIDS Strategy.

  13. A bit too skinny for me: women’s homosocial constructions of heterosexual desire in online dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler

    2015-01-01

    relations. Thus, online dating practices are rich fields for investigating the workings of desire. Based on audiovisual recordings of two Danish female friends engaging in online dating activities, this article demonstrates how participants, through joint stance-taking, co-construct shared desire and adjust...... individually-produced desire to create homosocial affiliation. Hence, in this case,heterosexual desire construction is a collaborative undertaking generated through homosocial bonding. The performed desire carries a strong physical focus, partly produced by the participants' attention to bodily detail...

  14. Contact Between Birth and Adoptive Families During the First Year Post-Placement: Perspectives of Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Rachel H; Goldberg, Abbie E

    Despite growing visibility of lesbian- and gay-parent adoption, only one qualitative study has examined birth family contact among adoptive families with lesbian and gay parents (Goldberg, Kinkler, Richardson, & Downing, 2011). We studied adoptive parents' (34 lesbian, 32 gay, and 37 heterosexual; N = 103 families) perspectives of birth family contact across the first year post-placement. Using questionnaire and interview data, we found few differences in openness dynamics by parental sexual orientation. Most reported some birth mother contact, most had legally finalized their adoption, and few described plans to withhold information from children. We discuss implications for clinical practice, policy, and research.

  15. ‘In love, she remains whole’: Heterosexual Love in Contemporary Arab American Poetry Written by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bosch Vilarrubias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of Arab American feminism in the 1990s, Arab American women writers have become prominent figures in the field of Arab American literature. At the same time, the victimization of Arab women and the stereotyping of Arab men have grown in the West. Given this mainstream perception of Arabs, this article aims at exploring the positioning of Arab American women towards Arab men, taking into account the feminist fight against sexism and racism. Analyzing the articulations of heterosexual love made by Arab American women in their poetry (including Mohja Kahf, Suheir Hammad and Pauline Kaldas, this article will examine the potential political use of poetry.

  16. Effects of Victimization and Violence on Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors Among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouris, Alida; Everett, Bethany G; Heath, Ryan D; Elsaesser, Caitlin E; Neilands, Torsten B

    2016-04-01

    Sexual minority youth (SMY) are at higher risk for victimization and suicide than are heterosexual youth (HY). Relatively little research has examined which types of victimization are most closely linked to suicide, which is necessary to develop targeted prevention interventions. The present study was conducted to address this deficit. The data come from the 2011 Chicago Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 1,907). Structural equation modeling (SEM) in Mplus evaluated the direct, indirect, and total effects of sexual orientation on a latent indicator of suicidal ideation and behaviors via seven types of victimization. Four indicators of victimization were school-specific (e.g., harassment due to sexual orientation or gender identity (SO/GID), bullying, threatened or injured with a weapon, and skipping school due to safety concerns), and three indicators assessed other types of victimization (e.g., electronic bullying, intimate partner violence, and sexual abuse). Thirteen percent of youth were classified as SMY. Significantly more SMY than HY reported suicidal ideation (27.95% vs. 13.64%), a suicide plan (22.78% vs. 12.36%), and at least one suicide attempt (29.92% vs. 12.43%) in the past year (all P harassment, skipping school, electronic bullying, and sexual abuse. Sexual orientation was not directly related to suicidal ideation and behaviors in SEM. Rather, SMY's elevated risk of suicidality functioned indirectly through two forms of school-based victimization: being threatened or injured with a weapon (B = .19, SE = .09, P ≤ .05) and experiencing SO/GID-specific harassment (B = .40, SE = .15, P ≤ .01). There also was a trend for SMY to skip school as a strategy to reduce suicide risk. Although SMY experience higher rates of victimization than do HY, school-based victimization that involves weapons or is due to one's SO/GID appear to be the most deleterious. That SMY may skip school to reduce their risk of suicidal ideation and

  17. Effects of Victimization and Violence on Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors Among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G.; Heath, Ryan D.; Elsaesser, Caitlin E.; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Sexual minority youth (SMY) are at higher risk for victimization and suicide than are heterosexual youth (HY). Relatively little research has examined which types of victimization are most closely linked to suicide, which is necessary to develop targeted prevention interventions. The present study was conducted to address this deficit. Methods: The data come from the 2011 Chicago Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 1,907). Structural equation modeling (SEM) in Mplus evaluated the direct, indirect, and total effects of sexual orientation on a latent indicator of suicidal ideation and behaviors via seven types of victimization. Four indicators of victimization were school-specific (e.g., harassment due to sexual orientation or gender identity (SO/GID), bullying, threatened or injured with a weapon, and skipping school due to safety concerns), and three indicators assessed other types of victimization (e.g., electronic bullying, intimate partner violence, and sexual abuse). Results: Thirteen percent of youth were classified as SMY. Significantly more SMY than HY reported suicidal ideation (27.95% vs. 13.64%), a suicide plan (22.78% vs. 12.36%), and at least one suicide attempt (29.92% vs. 12.43%) in the past year (all P harassment, skipping school, electronic bullying, and sexual abuse. Sexual orientation was not directly related to suicidal ideation and behaviors in SEM. Rather, SMY's elevated risk of suicidality functioned indirectly through two forms of school-based victimization: being threatened or injured with a weapon (B = .19, SE = .09, P ≤ .05) and experiencing SO/GID-specific harassment (B = .40, SE = .15, P ≤ .01). There also was a trend for SMY to skip school as a strategy to reduce suicide risk. Conclusion: Although SMY experience higher rates of victimization than do HY, school-based victimization that involves weapons or is due to one's SO/GID appear to be the most deleterious. That SMY may skip school to

  18. Epidemiology of Domestically Acquired Amebiasis in Japan, 2000–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikane, Masahiro; Arima, Yuzo; Kanayama, Atsuhiro; Takahashi, Takuri; Yamagishi, Takuya; Yahata, Yuichiro; Matsui, Tamano; Sunagawa, Tomimasa; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Oishi, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Notifications of amebiasis have been increasing in Japan. Using national surveillance data during 2000–2013, reported cases of amebiasis were analyzed. A case of amebiasis was defined as laboratory-confirmed Entamoeba histolytica infection, regardless of presence of symptoms. We described temporal trends and analyzed correlates of asymptomatic versus symptomatic cases based on odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression. Of 9,946 cases reported during 2000–2013, 7,403 were domestic cases. During this period, the proportion of domestic cases increased from 63% to 85%. Among male cases, majority were middle aged, and from 2008, the number of cases attributed to heterosexual contact surpassed that of homosexual contact. During 2010–2013, increase in notifications was associated with asymptomatic cases, colonoscopy diagnosis, and males with unknown or heterosexual route of infection. Among males, colonoscopy (OR = 31.5; 95% CI = 14.0–71.0) and cases with unknown route of infection, relative to homosexual contact (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.3–3.9), were associated with asymptomatic infections in multivariate analysis. Although the recent rise may have been due to enhanced detection by colonoscopy or reporting, the large number of asymptomatic cases, with reportedly unknown or heterosexual route of infection, has led to a better understanding of amebiasis in Japan and highlights the potential public health concern. PMID:26976888

  19. Sexual imprinting on facial traits of opposite-sex parents in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowska, Urszula M; Rantala, Markus J

    2012-09-05

    Positive sexual imprinting is a process by which individuals use the phenotype of their opposite-sex parent as a template for acquiring mates. Recent studies in humans have concluded that an imprinting-like mechanism influences human mate choice in facial traits. However, some of the previous studies have had methodological problems or flaws which might have invalidated or led to an overgeneralization of the original interpretation of their results. In this study, 70 heterosexual adults were used to test if their partners resembled facially their opposite-sex parent as the sexual imprinting hypothesis predicts. Judges assessed the subjective facial similarity between each participant's partner and their parent. We found that there was no perceived facial similarity between women's partners and their fathers. However, men tended to pair more often with women that were perceived as resembling the men's own mothers. In contrast to previous studies, the quality of the relationship between participants and their parents did not predict the level of facial resemblance between the participant's spouse and their parent.

  20. Sexual Imprinting on Facial Traits of Opposite-Sex Parents in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula M Marcinkowska

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Positive sexual imprinting is a process by which individuals use the phenotype of their opposite-sex parent as a template for acquiring mates. Recent studies in humans have concluded that an imprinting-like mechanism influences human mate choice in facial traits. However, some of the previous studies have had methodological problems or flaws which might have invalidated or led to an overgeneralization of the original interpretation of their results. In this study, 70 heterosexual adults were used to test if their partners resembled facially their opposite-sex parent as the sexual imprinting hypothesis predicts. Judges assessed the subjective facial similarity between each participant's partner and their parent. We found that there was no perceived facial similarity between women's partners and their fathers. However, men tended to pair more often with women that were perceived as resembling the men's own mothers. In contrast to previous studies, the quality of the relationship between participants and their parents did not predict the level of facial resemblance between the participant's spouse and their parent.

  1. PATHOGENETIC MECHANISMS OF CHRONIC ACQUIRED TOXOPLASMOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotsyna S.S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan that infects approximately one-third of the world’s population. Infection in human generally occurs through consuming food or drink contaminated with oocysts and tissue cysts from undercooked meat. Although latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent of human infections, it has been generally assumed that, except for congenital transmission, it is asymptomatic. Different conditions such as, number of parasite, virulence of the organism, genetic background, sex, and immunological status seem to affect the course of infection The demonstration that Toxoplasma infections can alter behavior, reproductive function in patients has led to a reconsideration of this assumption. During chronic acquired toxoplasmosis (САT identified the regularities of changes in the ratio of the immune system and the basal levels of sex hormones available informative methods, which made it possible to evaluate the severity of the flow chart and predict treatment outcome without resorting to complex research methods. Found that the host-parasite relationships and clinical manifestations of chronic toxoplasmosis depend largely on protective and adaptive responses and compensatory abilities of the human body. Material & methods. 112 patients attended in the 6 Department of Kharkiv Regional Infectious Diseases Hospital №22 (Department of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Diseases of Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, in Kharkiv, Ukraine were enrolled in the study. Forty four patients (39,3±4,6% were male and sixty eight (60,7±4,6% were female. The age of the patients was 18 till 72 years. Results & discussion. All of 112 CAT patients had subjective clinical symptoms in various combinations: increased fatigue 99,1 ± 0,9%, headache and tiredness 95,5 ± 1,9%, pain in the liver 88,4 ± 3,1%, bitter taste in the mouth 93,8 ± 2,2%, muscle pain 81,3 ± 3,7% and joint pain

  2. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; Mota Junior, Americo, E-mail: andreafariasm@gmail.com [Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira de Pernambuco (IMIP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-07-15

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common - increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. (author)

  3. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; Mota Junior, Americo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common - increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. (author)

  4. Phylogenetically Acquired Representations and Evolutionary Algorithms.

    OpenAIRE

    Wozniak , Adrianna

    2006-01-01

    First, we explain why Genetic Algorithms (GAs), inspired by the Modern Synthesis, do not accurately model biological evolution, being rather an artificial version of artificial, rather than natural selection. Being focused on optimisation, we propose two improvements of GAs, with the aim to successfully generate adapted, desired behaviour. The first one concerns phylogenetic grounding of meaning, a way to avoid the Symbol Grounding Problem. We give a definition of Phylogenetically Acquired Re...

  5. Acquiring Procedural Skills from Lesson Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-13

    Teachers of Mathematics . Washington, D)C: NCTM . Brueckner, I..J. (1930) Diagnostic aund remedial teaching in arithmetic. Philadelphia. PA: Winston. Burton...arithmetic and algebra, fr-m multi-lesson curricula. The central hypothesis is that students and teachers obey cc: :-.entions that cause the goal hierarchy...students and • . teachers obey conventions that cause the goal hierarchy of the acquired procedure to be a particular structural function of the sequential

  6. Brucella abortus infection acquired in microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, P L; Mastrandrea, S; Rappelli, P; Cappuccinelli, P

    2000-05-01

    We report an outbreak of laboratory-acquired Brucella abortus infection originating in the accidental breakage of a centrifuge tube. A total of 12 laboratory workers were infected (attack rate of 31%), with an incubation time ranging from 6 weeks to 5 months. Antibody titers were evaluated weekly in all personnel exposed, allowing the diagnosis of the infection in most cases before the onset of clinical symptoms, so that specific therapy could be administrated.

  7. Reversible chronic acquired complete atrioventricular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovec, P; Milcinski, G; Voga, G; Korsic, L

    1982-01-01

    The return of atrioventricular conduction is reported in a case after nearly four years of complete acquired heart block. After recovery from atrioventricular block, right bundle branch block persisted, but P-R interval and H-V interval were normal. Three months later a relapse of second degree infranodal atrioventricular block was noted. A short review of similar cases from the literature is given.

  8. Domestically Acquired Fascioliasis in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberg, Scott A.; Perlada, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Two cases of domestically acquired fascioliasis are reported. Patient One was a 63-year-old male who developed a febrile illness 2 months after eating watercress in Marin County. Patient Two was a 38-year-old male who had eaten watercress with Patient One, and also developed a febrile illness. Both patients had eosinophilia and liver lesions on imaging. Diagnosis was made by serology and treatment was with triclabendazole. PMID:23836562

  9. Domestically acquired fascioliasis in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberg, Scott A; Perlada, David E

    2013-09-01

    Two cases of domestically acquired fascioliasis are reported. Patient One was a 63-year-old male who developed a febrile illness 2 months after eating watercress in Marin County. Patient Two was a 38-year-old male who had eaten watercress with Patient One, and also developed a febrile illness. Both patients had eosinophilia and liver lesions on imaging. Diagnosis was made by serology and treatment was with triclabendazole.

  10. System Acquires Data On Reactivities Of Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1994-01-01

    Data-acquisition and -plotting system, called DAPS(TM), developed enabling accurate and objective determination of physical properties related to reactivities of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams. Automated, computer-controlled test apparatus that acquires data on rates of rise, rise profiles, exothermic temperatures, and internal pressures of foams prepared from both manual and machine-mixed batches. Data used to determine minute differences between reaction kinetics and exothermic profiles of foam formulations, properties of end products which are statistically undifferentiated.

  11. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sociodemographic Factors Prospectively Associated with Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among South African Heterosexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelman, Anne M; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Jemmott, John B; Icard, Larry; O'Leary, Ann; Ali, Samira; Ngwane, Zolani; Makiwane, Monde

    2017-04-01

    Intimate partner violence directed at women by men continues to be a global concern. However, little is known about the factors associated with perpetrating intimate partner violence among heterosexual men. History of childhood sexual abuse and other sociodemographic variables were examined as potential factors associated with severe intimate partner violence perpetration toward women in a sample of heterosexual men in South Africa. Longitudinal logistic generalized estimating equations examined associations of childhood sexual abuse and sociodemographic variables at baseline with intimate partner violence perpetration at subsequent time points. Among participants with a steady female partner, 21.81 % (190/ 871) reported perpetrating intimate partner violence in the past year at baseline. Having a history of childhood sexual abuse (p sexual impulses in order to use a condom (p = .006) at baseline were associated with self-reported intimate partner violence perpetration in the past year at subsequent time points. With high levels of recent severe physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence perpetration in South Africa, comprehensive interventions are urgently needed. To more fully address gender-based violence, it is important to address associated factors, including exposure to childhood sexual abuse that could impact behavior later in life and that have long-lasting and deleterious effects on men and their female partners.

  12. Turn it off! the effects of exposure to male-male erotic imagery on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golom, Frank D; Mohr, Jonathan J

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recent proliferation of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) thematic content in U.S. media, there have been relatively few empirical investigations examining its impact on heterosexuals' attitudes toward LGB individuals. This study examined the effect of one type of content, male-male homoerotic imagery, on male and female heterosexuals' attitudes toward, stereotypes about, and affective reactions to gay men. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate students were assigned to either a male-male or male-female erotica condition, and their corresponding attitudes toward gay men were assessed. Results revealed that the effect of erotic imagery (male-male vs. male-female) on participants' stereotype and affect scores differed for men and women at varying levels of sexual anxiety. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of the literature on exposure to erotic imagery and attitudes toward gay men. In particular, the study highlights the need for additional research that acknowledges within-gender heterogeneity with respect to antigay attitude valence, extremity, and function.

  13. Automatic Direction of Spatial Attention to Male Versus Female Stimuli: A Comparison of Heterosexual Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Robert J; Curl, Catriona; Jobbins, Katherine; Lavington, Chloe; Gray, Nicola S

    2016-05-01

    Abundant research has shown that men's sexual attractions are more category-specific in relation to gender than women's are. We tested whether the early automatic allocation of spatial attention reflects these sexual attractions. The dot-probe task was used to assess whether spatial attention was attracted to images of either male or female models that were naked or partially clothed. In Experiment 1, men were faster if the target appeared after the female stimulus, whereas women were equally quick to respond to targets after male or female stimuli. In Experiment 2, neutral cues were introduced. Men were again faster to female images in comparison to male or neutral images, but showed no bias on the male versus neutral test. Women were faster to both male and female pictures in comparison to neutral pictures. However, in this experiment they were also faster to female pictures than to male pictures. The results suggest that early attentional processes reveal category-specific interest to the preferred sexual category for heterosexual men, and suggest that heterosexual women do not have category-specific guidance of attentional mechanisms. The technique may have promise in measuring sexual interest in other situations where participants may not be able, or may not be willing, to report upon their sexual interests (e.g., assessment of paedophilic interest).

  14. HIV prevention and transmission myths among heterosexually active adults in low-income areas of South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Dano W; Lalota, Marlene; Metsch, Lisa R; Cardenas, Gabriel A; Forrest, David W; Lieb, Spencer; Liberti, Thomas M

    2012-04-01

    Misconceptions about HIV transmission and prevention may inhibit individuals' accurate assessment of their level of risk. We used venue-based sampling to conduct a cross-sectional study of heterosexually active adults (N = 1,221) within areas exhibiting high poverty and HIV/AIDS rates in Miami-Dade and Broward counties in 2007. Two logistic regression analyses identified correlates of holding inaccurate beliefs about HIV transmission and prevention. Belief in incorrect HIV prevention methods (27.2%) and modes of transmission (38.5%) was common. Having at least one incorrect prevention belief was associated with being Hispanic compared to white (non-Hispanic), being depressed, and not knowing one's HIV status. Having at least one incorrect transmission belief was associated with being younger, heavy alcohol use, being depressed, not having seen a physician in the past 12 months, and not knowing one's HIV status. Among low-income heterosexuals, HIV prevention and transmission myths are widespread. Debunking them could have HIV prevention value.

  15. Individual and couple-level risk factors for hepatitis C infection among heterosexual drug users: a multilevel dyadic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, James M; Pouget, Enrique R; Tortu, Stephanie

    2007-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common bloodborne pathogen in the United States and is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Although it is known that HCV is most commonly transmitted among injection drug users, the role of sexual transmission in the spread of HCV remains controversial because of inconsistent findings across studies involving heterosexual couples. A novel multilevel modeling technique designed to overcome the limitations of previous research was performed to assess multiple risk factors for HCV while partitioning the source of risk at the individual and couple level. The analysis was performed on risk exposure and HCV screening data obtained from 265 drug-using couples in East Harlem, New York City. In multivariable analysis, significant individual risk factors for HCV included a history of injection drug use, tattooing, and older age. At the couple level, HCV infection tended to cluster within couples, and this interdependence was accounted for by couples' drug-injection behavior. Individual and couple-level sexual behavior was not associated with HCV infection. Our results are consistent with prior research indicating that sexual contact plays little role in HCV transmission. Rather, couples' injection behavior appears to account for the clustering of HCV within heterosexual dyads.

  16. Factors associated with nonuse of condoms in heterosexual men and women attending an HIV testing clinic in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskolne, V; Maayan, S

    1998-01-01

    To examine gender differences in HIV-related knowledge, perceived vulnerability, beliefs in self-control, type of sexual partnership, and their associations with nonuse of condoms. Heterosexual men and women who voluntarily attended an HIV testing clinic in Israel were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire. Scales of HIV knowledge and control and a single item for vulnerability were used. Type of sexual relationship (monogamous vs. nonmonogramous) and condom use in vaginal sex (never vs. ever) referred to the previous 6 months. Response rate was 84%; 154 men and 109 women participated. Beliefs in self-control did not form a reliable scale and single items were used. No statistically significant gender differences were found in knowledge, vulnerability, or beliefs in self-control. Levels of correct HIV-related knowledge were high, but so were some misconceptions. The vast majority (87%) perceived themselves as vulnerable to HIV infection. The beliefs in self-control were moderate in some items, and low in others. In logistic regression models, different factors were significantly associated with nonuse of condoms in the two genders: the belief that their lifestyle protected them against HIV infection (OR = 2.72, CI = 1.06-7.03) among men, and being monogamous (OR = 3.72, CI = 1.28-10.8) among women. Heterosexual men and women attending an HIV testing clinic need counseling to further lower misconceptions about HIV transmission and additional gender-specific counseling to address HIV-related beliefs.

  17. Marketing HIV prevention for heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women: the Hombres Sanos campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Cerdeño, Araceli; Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Zellner, Jennifer A; Sañudo, Fernando; Carrillo, Héctor; Engelberg, Moshe; Sipan, Carol; Hovell, Melbourne

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development process of Hombres Sanos, a social marketing campaign to promote HIV testing and condom use for heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women. The steps included qualitative formative research and a social marketing analytic framework to understand our target audience better, identify incentives and barriers to risk reduction, guide product development, define an optimal promotional campaign, and inform the selection of campaign platforms. A better grasp of the authors' target beneficiaries' needs and values led to an innovative dual strategy for audience segmentation and targeting. The campaign had consumer-centered, culturally sensitive, and theory-driven communication materials. The authors found communication materials and events to be appealing and effective. The campaign was well received among the wider community, and evaluation showed promising results among Latino men in general and among heterosexually identified Latino men who have sex with men and women in particular. The authors provide a step-by-step overview of the project's formative research, including research methods and findings, and how these were translated into a social marketing campaign. In addition, the authors discuss the challenges encountered in this process and the potential of social marketing to reduce HIV risk among Latinos.

  18. A comparison of heterosexual and LGBTQ cancer survivors' outlooks on relationships, family building, possible infertility, and patient-doctor fertility risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Russell, Andrea; Galvin, Kathleen M; Harper, Maya M; Clayman, Marla L

    2016-10-01

    Little research about cancer-related infertility has examined the experiences and needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) cancer survivors. This research seeks to understand how LGBTQ survivors are similar to or different from heterosexual survivors with respect to cancer treatments' effects on relationships, plans for parenthood, and fertility preservation decision making. Semi-structured telephone interviews conducted with adolescent or young adult (AYA) cancer survivors (n = 56) were coded for themes. Interviews consisted of questions about pre- and post-diagnosis thoughts about relationships, parenthood, possible infertility, and how information about fertility risks was received. While LGBTQ (n = 22) and heterosexual (n = 34) survivors reported similar challenges when dating post-diagnosis, heterosexual survivors were more likely to report fertility concerns as affecting romantic relationships (p LGBTQ survivors seemed more open to raising non-biological children or not becoming a parent than heterosexual survivors. LGBTQ survivors generally reported being satisfied with or indifferent to the information that they were given regarding fertility loss, despite reporting receiving similar amounts of information as compared to heterosexual patients (p LGBTQ patients' views on relationships, parenthood, and family building seemed to result in less distress when faced with infertility. However, interventions facilitating information exchange about dating, fertility risks, and family building options may be valuable to LGBTQ and heterosexual cancer survivors. LGBTQ cancer survivors may display more adaptive coping with respect to relationships and fertility loss. Oncology professionals may want to proactively introduce positive coping strategies to reduce distress among AYA cancer survivors at risk for infertility.

  19. Agent-based and phylogenetic analyses reveal how HIV-1 moves between risk groups: injecting drug users sustain the heterosexual epidemic in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graw, Frederik; Leitner, Thomas; Ribeiro, Ruy M.

    2012-01-01

    Injecting drug users (IDU) are a driving force for the spread of HIV-1 in Latvia and other Baltic States, accounting for a majority of cases. However, in recent years, heterosexual cases have increased disproportionately. It is unclear how the changes in incidence patterns in Latvia can be explained, and how important IDU are for the heterosexual sub-epidemic. We introduce a novel epidemic model and use phylogenetic analyses in parallel to examine the spread of HIV-1 in Latvia between 1987 and 2010. Using a hybrid framework with a mean-field description for the susceptible population and an agent-based model for the infecteds, we track infected individuals and follow transmission histories dynamically formed during the simulation. The agent-based simulations and the phylogenetic analysis show that more than half of the heterosexual transmissions in Latvia were caused by IDU, which sustain the heterosexual epidemic. Indeed, we find that heterosexual clusters are characterized by short transmission chains with up to 63% of the chains dying out after the first introduction. In the simulations, the distribution of transmission chain sizes follows a power law distribution, which is confirmed by the phylogenetic data. Our models indicate that frequent introductions reduced the extinction probability of an autonomously spreading heterosexual HIV-1 epidemic, which now has the potential to dominate the spread of the overall epidemic in the future. Furthermore, our model shows that social heterogeneity of the susceptible population can explain the shift in HIV-1 incidence in Latvia over the course of the epidemic. Thus, the decrease in IDU incidence may be due to local heterogeneities in transmission, rather than the implementation of control measures. Increases in susceptibles, through social or geographic movement of IDU, could lead to a boost in HIV-1 infections in this risk group. Targeting individuals that bridge social groups would help prevent further spread of the

  20. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Kasprian, Gregor; Witzani, Linde; Helmer, Hanns; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Langer, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  1. Acquired Credit Unions: Drivers of Takeover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raymond Sant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study acquired credit unions and analyze their financial performance up to six years prior to merger, on a quarterly basis. The primary focus is on balance sheet (asset liability management and profitability variables (return on assets. We find that acquired credit unions during the period 2008 (third quarter to 2014 (first quarter experienced negative return on assets for several quarters prior to their takeover. This was the result of a declining loan portfolio and increasing charge offs. In spite of decreasing lending activity, such credit unions continued to increase their deposits, i.e., adding to their cost base. Due to declining loans, their net interest margin as a proportion of deposits was also in decline. We argue that this is an indicator of poor management ability. Furthermore, our analysis finds that operating expenses were increasing over time, something that has been documented in previous literature also for smaller credit unions and is attributable to lack of economies of scale. The average asset size of the acquired credit unions in our sample is about $22 million just before acquisition. We attribute our findings to poor business strategy followed by such credit unions. We also conclude that signs of trouble are evident up to two years before merger on average and regulatory policy may have to become more proactive to manage the consolidation challenge faced by the credit union industry in general.

  2. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  3. Differential Associations of Communication and Love in Heterosexual, Lesbian, and Bisexual Women's Perceptions and Experiences of Chronic Vulvar and Pelvic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Karen L; Pukall, Caroline F; Smith, Kelly B; Cappell, Jaclyn

    2015-01-01

    The literature on genital and pelvic pain has largely focused on heterosexual women. An online study examined characteristics of vulvar pain in 839 lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women 18-45 years of age and investigated associations between relationship qualities such as love and communication with participants' perceptions of pain's influence on relationships. Characteristics of vulvar pain were similar across groups. Groups differed in how they perceived pain to impact their relationships, such that better communication for same-sex couples and more love for mixed-sex couples was associated with the perception of their pain as having less of an effect on their relationship functioning.

  4. 48 CFR 1845.502-70 - Contractor-acquired property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contractor-acquired... Possession of Contractors 1845.502-70 Contractor-acquired property. All contractor-acquired property must be... contractor-acquired. (2) Submission of DD Form 1419, DOD Industrial Plant Requisition, or equivalent format...

  5. O ciúme romântico e os relacionamentos amorosos heterossexuais contemporâneos Romantic jealousy and heterosexual contemporary loving relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Almeida

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo pretende discorrer a respeito do ciúme romântico heterossexual, na tentativa de compreender um dos sentimentos mais presentes na vida do ser humano. Mesmo que para muitos o ciúme possa representar uma manifestação de amor, ele é, na verdade, um sentimento que produz angústia em muitos parceiros e pode atingir formas doentias, e abalar a saúde mental. Mas também é inevitável, porque em maior ou menor grau, todos estão sujeitos a ele, o que nos obriga a ficar atentos para saber elaborá-lo em favor de nossa vida amorosa. É preciso conhecer profundamente esse sentimento para que se possa compreendê-lo, e elaborarmos estratégias profícuas de enfrentamento para lidarmos com esse fenômeno.The present study intends to discuss the heterosexual romantic jealousy, in an attempt to understand it, as one of the most present feelings in the human life. Even for many people the jealousy may represent a love manifestation, it is, actually, a feeling that produces anguish in many partners and it can reach unhealthy forms, and to affect the mental health. However, it is also inevitable, because in larger or smaller degree, all of us are subject to it, what forces us to be attentive to know to elaborate it in favor of our loving life. In order for us to understand this feeling, it is necessary to know it deeply so that we may be able to elaborate useful strategies of confrontation of this phenomenon.

  6. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  7. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Li, Jing; Zhao, Pengfei; Lv, Han; Dong, Cheng; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Zhenchang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition

  8. Functionality predictors in acquired brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Hoyas, E; Pedrero Pérez, E J; Águila Maturana, A M; García López-Alberca, S; González Alted, C

    2015-01-01

    Most individuals who have survived an acquired brain injury present consequences affecting the sensorimotor, cognitive, affective or behavioural components. These deficits affect the proper performance of daily living activities. The aim of this study is to identify functional differences between individuals with unilateral acquired brain injury using functional independence, capacity, and performance of daily activities. Descriptive cross-sectional design with a sample of 58 people, with right-sided injury (n=14 TBI; n=15 stroke) or left-sided injury (n = 14 TBI, n = 15 stroke), right handed, and with a mean age of 47 years and time since onset of 4 ± 3.65 years. The functional assessment/functional independence measure (FIM/FAM) and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) were used for the study. The data showed significant differences (P<.000), and a large size effect (dr=0.78) in the cross-sectional estimates, and point to fewer restrictions for patients with a lesion on their right side. The major differences were in the variables 'speaking' and 'receiving spoken messages' (ICF variables), and 'Expression', 'Writing' and 'intelligible speech' (FIM/FAM variables). In the linear regression analysis, the results showed that only 4 FIM/FAM variables, taken together, predict 44% of the ICF variance, which measures the ability of the individual, and up to 52% of the ICF, which measures the individual's performance. Gait alone predicts a 28% of the variance. It seems that individuals with acquired brain injury in the left hemisphere display important differences regarding functional and communication variables. The motor aspects are an important prognostic factor in functional rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Minireview: Hormones and Human Sexual Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex...

  10. The role of acquired immunity and periodontal disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yen-Tung A

    2003-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenesis in human periodontal diseases is limited by the lack of specific and sensitive tools or models to study the complex microbial challenges and their interactions with the host's immune system. Recent advances in cellular and molecular biology research have demonstrated the importance of the acquired immune system not only in fighting the virulent periodontal pathogens but also in protecting the host from developing further devastating conditions in periodontal infections. The use of genetic knockout and immunodeficient mouse strains has shown that the acquired immune response-in particular, CD4+ T-cells-plays a pivotal role in controlling the ongoing infection, the immune/inflammatory responses, and the subsequent host's tissue destruction. In particular, studies of the pathogen-specific CD4+ T-cell-mediated immunity have clarified the roles of: (i) the relative diverse immune repertoire involved in periodontal pathogenesis, (ii) the contribution of pathogen-associated Th1-Th2 cytokine expressions in periodontal disease progression, and (iii) micro-organism-triggered periodontal CD4+ T-cell-mediated osteoclastogenic factor, 'RANK-L', which is linked to the induction of alveolar bone destruction in situ. The present review will focus on some recent advances in the acquired immune responses involving B-cells, CD8+ T-cells, and CD4+ T-cells in the context of periodontal disease progression. New approaches will further facilitate our understanding of their underlying molecular mechanisms that may lead to the development of new treatment modalities for periodontal diseases and their associated complications.

  11. Acquired apraxia of speech: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knollman-Porter, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is an acquired adult neurogenic communication disorder that often occurs following stroke. The purpose of this article is to review current research studies addressing the diagnostic and therapeutic management of AOS. Traditional definitions and characteristics are compared with current features that assist in the differential diagnosis of AOS. Prognostic indicators are reviewed in addition to how neuroplasticity may impact treatment in chronic AOS. Treatment techniques discussed include the articulatory kinematic approach (AKA), use of augmentative/alternative communication devices, intersystemic facilitation/reorganization, and constraint-induced therapy. Finally, the need to address functional communication through support groups, outside the therapeutic environment, is discussed.

  12. Acquired Methemoglobinemia - A Sporadic Holi Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masavkar, Sanjeevani Satish; Mauskar, Anupama; Patwardhan, Gaurav; Bhat, Vasudeva; Manglani, Mamta V

    2017-06-15

    To study clinical profile and outcome in patients with methemoglobinemia following exposure to toxic colors during Holi festival. This retrospective study included 112 children (5 to 12 years) admitted with methemoglobinemia after playing Holi. Clinical and treatment details were reviewed. The common symptoms were giddiness, vomiting and headache. Treatment included thorough skin wash, intravenous fluid and methylene blue in 111 children. Age 7-9 and > 11 years, vomiting, giddiness, cyanosis, PaO2 < 80 mm Hg and oxygen saturation < 95% were associated with higher need for methylene blue. All children had a good outcome. Timely diagnosis and management of acquired methemoglobinemia can save lives.

  13. Cerebral involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestin, G.P.; Juergens, R.; Steinbrich, W.; Diederich, N.; Koeln Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is usually due to opportunistic infections; these frequently offer a difficult differential diagnostic problem. Imaging methods play an important part in the elucidation of symptoms. CT and MR findings were analysed in 13 patients with AIDS and neurological symptoms. Some infections of the central nervous system (encephalitis of unknown aetiology, cytomegalic encephalitis, meningitis) may show cerebral atrophy or even no morphological changes. Toxoplasmosis and PML are the most common opportunistic infections typical changes on CT and MR may lead to diagnosis. MR offers advantages compared with CT in its higher sensitivity for the demonstration even of small lesions. (orig.) [de

  14. It’s a Process: Reactions to HIV Diagnosis and Engagement in HIV Care among High-Risk Heterosexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra H. Kutnick

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available After HIV diagnosis, heterosexuals in high-poverty urban areas evidence delays in linkage to care and antiretroviral therapy initiation compared to other groups. Yet barriers to/facilitators of HIV care among these high-risk heterosexuals are understudied. Under the theory of triadic influence, putative barriers to HIV care engagement include individual/attitudinal-level (e.g., fear, medical distrust, social-level (e.g., stigma, and structural-level influences (e.g., poor access. Participants were African-American/Black and Hispanic adults found newly diagnosed with HIV (N = 25 as part of a community-based HIV testing study with heterosexuals in a high-poverty, high-HIV-incidence urban area. A sequential explanatory mixed-methods design was used. We described linkage to HIV care and clinical outcomes [CD4 counts, viral load (VL levels] over 1 year, and then addressed qualitative research questions about the experience of receiving a new HIV diagnosis, its effects on timely engagement in HIV care, and other barriers and facilitators. Participants were assessed five times, receiving a structured interview battery, laboratory tests, data extraction from the medical record, a post-test counseling session, and in-person/phone contacts to foster linkage to care. Participants were randomly selected for qualitative interviews (N = 15/25 that were recorded and transcribed, then analyzed using systematic content analysis. Participants were 50 years old, on average (SD = 7.2 years, mostly male (80%, primarily African-American/Black (88%, and low socioeconomic status. At the first follow-up, rates of engagement in care were high (78%, but viral suppression was modest (39%. Rates improved by the final follow-up (96% engaged, 62% virally suppressed. Two-thirds (69% were adequately retained in care over 1 year. Qualitative results revealed multi-faceted responses to receiving an HIV diagnosis. Problems accepting and internalizing one

  15. Inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying tuberculosis in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Bustamante, Jacinta; El-Baghdadi, Jamila; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Parvaneh, Nima; Azbaoui, Safaa El; Agader, Aomar; Hassani, Amal; Hafidi, Naima El; Mrani, Nidal Alaoui; Jouhadi, Zineb; Ailal, Fatima; Najib, Jilali; Reisli, Ismail; Zamani, Adil; Yosunkaya, Sebnem; Gulle-Girit, Saniye; Yildiran, Alisan; Cipe, Funda Erol; Torun, Selda Hancerli; Metin, Ayse; Atikan, Basak Yildiz; Hatipoglu, Nevin; Aydogmus, Cigdem; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Dogu, Figen; Karaca, Neslihan; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil; Keser-Emiroglu, Melike; Somer, Ayper; Tanir, Gonul; Aytekin, Caner; Adimi, Parisa; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Mamishi, Setareh; Bousfiha, Aziz; Sanal, Ozden; Mansouri, Davood; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and a few related mycobacteria, is a devastating disease, killing more than a million individuals per year worldwide. However, its pathogenesis remains largely elusive, as only a small proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease either during primary infection or during reactivation from latency or secondary infection. Subacute, hematogenous, and extrapulmonary disease tends to be more frequent in infants, children, and teenagers than in adults. Life-threatening primary TB of childhood can result from known acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies, although the vast majority of cases remain unexplained. We review here the conditions conferring a predisposition to childhood clinical diseases caused by mycobacteria, including not only M.tb but also weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. Infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria are much rarer than TB, but the inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying these infections are much better known. Their study has also provided genetic and immunological insights into childhood TB, as illustrated by the discovery of single-gene inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlying severe cases of TB. Novel findings are expected from ongoing and future human genetic studies of childhood TB in countries that combine a high proportion of consanguineous marriages, a high incidence of TB, and an excellent clinical care, such as Iran, Morocco, and Turkey. PMID:25703555

  16. Electrical Signaling, Photosynthesis and Systemic Acquired Acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szechyńska-Hebda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrical signaling in higher plants is required for the appropriate intracellular and intercellular communication, stress responses, growth and development. In this review, we have focus on recent findings regarding the electrical signaling, as a major regulator of the systemic acquired acclimation (SAA and the systemic acquired resistance (SAR. The electric signaling on its own cannot confer the required specificity of information to trigger SAA and SAR, therefore, we have also discussed a number of other mechanisms and signaling systems that can operate in combination with electric signaling. We have emphasized the interrelation between ionic mechanism of electrical activity and regulation of photosynthesis, which is intrinsic to a proper induction of SAA and SAR. In a special way, we have summarized the role of non-photochemical quenching and its regulator PsbS. Further, redox status of the cell, calcium and hydraulic waves, hormonal circuits and stomatal aperture regulation have been considered as components of the signaling. Finally, a model of light-dependent mechanisms of electrical signaling propagation has been presented together with the systemic regulation of light-responsive genes encoding both, ion channels and proteins involved in regulation of their activity. Due to space limitations, we have not addressed many other important aspects of hormonal and ROS signaling, which were presented in a number of recent excellent reviews.

  17. Acquired pulmonary artery stenosis in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scansen, Brian A; Schober, Karsten E; Bonagura, John D; Smeak, Daniel D

    2008-04-15

    4 dogs with acquired pulmonary artery stenosis (PAS) were examined for various clinical signs. One was a mixed-breed dog with congenital valvular PAS that subsequently developed peripheral PAS, one was a Golden Retriever with pulmonary valve fibrosarcoma, one was a Pembroke Welsh Corgi in which the left pulmonary artery had inadvertently been ligated during surgery for correction of patent ductus arteriosus, and one was a Boston Terrier with a heart-base mass compressing the pulmonary arteries. All 4 dogs were evaluated with 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography to characterize the nature and severity of the stenoses; other diagnostic tests were also performed. The mixed-breed dog with valvular and peripheral PAS was euthanized, surgical resection of the pulmonic valve mass was performed in the Golden Retriever, corrective surgery was performed on the Pembroke Welsh Corgi with left pulmonary artery ligation, and the Boston Terrier with the heart-base mass was managed medically. Acquired PAS in dogs may manifest as a clinically silent heart murmur, syncope, or right-sided heart failure. The diagnosis is made on the basis of imaging findings, particularly results of 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. Treatment may include surgical, interventional, or medical modalities and is targeted at resolving the inciting cause.

  18. Software for Acquiring Image Data for PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Cheung, H. M.; Kressler, Brian

    2003-01-01

    PIV Acquisition (PIVACQ) is a computer program for acquisition of data for particle-image velocimetry (PIV). In the PIV system for which PIVACQ was developed, small particles entrained in a flow are illuminated with a sheet of light from a pulsed laser. The illuminated region is monitored by a charge-coupled-device camera that operates in conjunction with a data-acquisition system that includes a frame grabber and a counter-timer board, both installed in a single computer. The camera operates in "frame-straddle" mode where a pair of images can be obtained closely spaced in time (on the order of microseconds). The frame grabber acquires image data from the camera and stores the data in the computer memory. The counter/timer board triggers the camera and synchronizes the pulsing of the laser with acquisition of data from the camera. PIVPROC coordinates all of these functions and provides a graphical user interface, through which the user can control the PIV data-acquisition system. PIVACQ enables the user to acquire a sequence of single-exposure images, display the images, process the images, and then save the images to the computer hard drive. PIVACQ works in conjunction with the PIVPROC program which processes the images of particles into the velocity field in the illuminated plane.

  19. “It’s an Uphill Battle Everyday”: Intersectionality, Low-Income Black Heterosexual Men, and Implications for HIV Prevention Research and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This interview study, the initial qualitative phase of a larger mixed methods HIV prevention study focused on Black heterosexual men, used intersectionality as a theoretical framework to explore: (1) How a sample of Black heterosexual men describe and experience the multiple intersections of race, gender, and SES; and (2) How these descriptions reflected interlocking systems of social inequality for Black men at the social-structural level. Participants were 30 predominantly low-income self-identified Black heterosexual men between the ages of 18 and 44. Analyses highlighted four themes that demonstrate how participants’ individual-level experiences as Black men reflect macro social-structural inequality: (1) racial discrimination and microaggressions; (2) unemployment; (3) incarceration; and (4) police surveillance and harassment. We discuss the study’s findings within the context of social-structural factors that disproportionately and adversely impact Black men. We also highlight the implications of the intersectionality perspective for HIV prevention research and interventions for Black heterosexual men. PMID:23482810

  20. The people living with HIV stigma survey UK 2015: HIV-related sexual rejection and other experiences of stigma and discrimination among gay and heterosexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, M; Crenna-Jennings, W; Kirwan, P; Benton, L; Lut, I; Okala, S; Asboe, D; Jeffries, J; Kunda, C; Mbewe, R; Morris, S; Morton, J; Nelson, M; Thorley, L; Paterson, H; Ross, M; Reeves, I; Sharp, L; Sseruma, W; Valiotis, G; Wolton, A; Jamal, Z; Hudson, A; Delpech, V

    2018-05-27

    We aim to understand the difference in stigma and discrimination, in particular sexual rejection, experienced between gay and heterosexual men living with HIV in the UK. The People Living with HIV StigmaSurvey UK 2015 recruited a convenience sample of persons with HIV through over 120 cross sector community organisations and 46 HIV clinics to complete an online survey. 1162 men completed the survey, 969 (83%) gay men and 193 (17%) heterosexual men, 92% were on antiretroviral therapy. Compared to heterosexual men, gay men were significantly more likely to report worrying about workplace treatment in relation to their HIV (21% vs. 11%), worrying about HIV-related sexual rejection (42% vs 21%), avoiding sex because of their HIV status (37% vs. 23%), and experiencing HIV-related sexual rejection (27% vs. 9%) in the past 12 months. In a multivariate logistic regression controlling for other sociodemographic factors, being gay was a predictor of reporting HIV-related sexual rejection in the past 12 months (aOR 2.17, CI 1.16, 4.02). Both gay and heterosexual men living with HIV experienced stigma and discrimination in the past 12 months, and this was higher for gay men in terms of HIV-related sexual rejection. Due to the high proportion of men reporting sexual rejection, greater awareness and education of the low risk of transmission of HIV among people on effective treatment is needed to reduce stigma and sexual prejudice towards people living with HIV.