Conboy, Gary; Spencer, Howard J.; Angioni, Enrico; Kanibolotsky, Alexander L.; Findlay, Neil J.; Coles, Simon J.; Wilson, Claire; Pitak, Mateusz B.; Risko, Chad; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Skabara, Peter J.
2016-01-01
We consider the roles of heteroatoms (mainly nitrogen, the halogens and the chalcogens) in dictating the conformation of linear conjugated molecules and polymers through non-covalent intramolecular interactions. Whilst hydrogen bonding is a competitive and sometimes more influential interaction, we provide unambiguous evidence that heteroatoms are able to determine the conformation of such materials with reasonable predictability.
Conboy, Gary
2016-04-26
We consider the roles of heteroatoms (mainly nitrogen, the halogens and the chalcogens) in dictating the conformation of linear conjugated molecules and polymers through non-covalent intramolecular interactions. Whilst hydrogen bonding is a competitive and sometimes more influential interaction, we provide unambiguous evidence that heteroatoms are able to determine the conformation of such materials with reasonable predictability.
Casbarra, Annarita; Birolo, Leila; Infusini, Giuseppe; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Svensson, Malin; Pucci, Piero; Svanborg, Catharina; Marino, Gennaro
2004-05-01
A combination of hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange and limited proteolysis experiments coupled to mass spectrometry analysis was used to depict the conformation in solution of HAMLET, the folding variant of human alpha-lactalbumin, complexed to oleic acid, that induces apoptosis in tumor and immature cells. Although near- and far-UV CD and fluorescence spectroscopy were not able to discriminate between HAMLET and apo-alpha-lactalbumin, H/D exchange experiments clearly showed that they correspond to two distinct conformational states, with HAMLET incorporating a greater number of deuterium atoms than the apo and holo forms. Complementary proteolysis experiments revealed that HAMLET and apo are both accessible to proteases in the beta-domain but showed substantial differences in accessibility to proteases at specific sites. The overall results indicated that the conformational changes associated with the release of Ca2+ are not sufficient to induce the HAMLET conformation. Metal depletion might represent the first event to produce a partial unfolding in the beta-domain of alpha-lactalbumin, but some more unfolding is needed to generate the active conformation HAMLET, very likely allowing the protein to bind the C18:1 fatty acid moiety. On the basis of these data, a putative binding site of the oleic acid, which stabilizes the HAMLET conformation, is proposed.
Direct Correlation of Cell Toxicity to Conformational Ensembles of Genetic Aβ Variants
Somavarapu, Arun Kumar; Kepp, Kasper Planeta
2015-01-01
We report a systematic analysis of conformational ensembles generated from multiseed molecular dynamics simulations of all 15 known genetic variants of Aβ42. We show that experimentally determined variant toxicities are largely explained by random coil content of the amyloid ensembles (correlatio...
Inhibitory activity and conformational transition of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor variants
Schulze, A.J.; Huber, R.; Degryse, E.; Speck, D.; Bischoff, Rainer
1991-01-01
Several variants of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI) were investigated by spectroscopic methods and characterized according to their inhibitory activity. Replacement of Thr345 (P14) with Arg in alpha 1-PI containing an Arg residue in position 358 (yielding [Thr345----Arg,
Heegaard, Niels H H; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Cheng, Lei
2006-01-01
Capillary electrophoretic separation profiles of cleaved variants of beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) reflect the conformational equilibria existing in solutions of these proteins. The characterization of these equilibria is of interest since beta2m is responsible for amyloid formation in dialysis-re...
Pesarrodona, Mireia; Conchillo-Solé, Oscar; Unzueta, Ugutz; Xu, Zhikun; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Daura, Xavier; Vázquez, Esther; Villaverde, Antonio; Fernández, Yolanda; Foradada, Laia; Schwartz, Simó Jr; Abasolo, Ibane; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejandro; Roldán, Mónica; Villegas, Sandra; Rinas, Ursula
2016-01-01
Biofabrication is attracting interest as a means to produce nanostructured functional materials because of its operational versatility and full scalability. Materials based on proteins are especially appealing, as the structure and functionality of proteins can be adapted by genetic engineering. Furthermore, strategies and tools for protein production have been developed and refined steadily for more than 30 years. However, protein conformation and therefore activity might be sensitive to production conditions. Here, we have explored whether the downstream strategy influences the structure and biological activities, in vitro and in vivo, of a self-assembling, CD44-targeted protein-only nanoparticle produced in Escherichia coli. This has been performed through the comparative analysis of particles built from soluble protein species or protein versions obtained by in vitro protein extraction from inclusion bodies, through mild, non-denaturing procedures. These methods have been developed recently as a convenient alternative to the use of toxic chaotropic agents for protein resolubilization from protein aggregates. The results indicate that the resulting material shows substantial differences in its physicochemical properties and its biological performance at the systems level, and that its building blocks are sensitive to the particular protein source. (paper)
Heteroatom doped graphene in photocatalysis: A review
Putri, Lutfi Kurnianditia; Ong, Wee-Jun; Chang, Wei Sea; Chai, Siang-Piao
2015-01-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Doping graphene with foreign atoms extends its function in the photocatalyst system. • Chemically doped graphene improved the electrical conductivity. • Chemically doped graphene outperform conventional rGO as a semiconductor support. • Chemically doped graphene cause bandgap opening and formation of catalytic sites. • Chemically doped graphene can behave as functional standalone photocatalyst. - Abstract: Photocatalysis has been a focus of great attention due to its useful environmental applications such as eliminating hazardous pollutants and generating sustainable energy. Coincidentally, graphene, a 2D allotrope of carbon, has also infiltrated many research fields due to its outstanding properties – photocatalysis being no exception. As of recent, there has been growing research focus on heteroatom (O, N, B, P and S) doping of graphene and its emergent application opportunities. In this study, rather than the familiar graphene as the electron transfer medium that is normally integrated in a photocatalyst system, we contrarily explore the implication of heteroatom doped graphene and the underlying mechanism behind their advantageous uses in photocatalysis. This review surveys the literature and highlights recent progress and challenges in the development of chemically doped graphene in the photocatalysis scene. It is desired that this review will promote awareness and encourage further investigations for the development in this budding research area.
Heteroatom-Doped Carbon Materials for Electrocatalysis.
Asefa, Tewodros; Huang, Xiaoxi
2017-08-10
Fuel cells, water electrolyzers, and metal-air batteries are important energy systems that have started to play some roles in our renewable energy landscapes. However, despite much research works carried out on them, they have not yet found large-scale applications, mainly due to the unavailability of sustainable catalysts that can catalyze the reactions employed in them. Currently, noble metal-based materials are the ones that are commonly used as catalysts in most commercial fuel cells, electrolyzers, and metal-air batteries. Hence, there has been considerable research efforts worldwide to find alternative noble metal-free and metal-free catalysts composed of inexpensive, earth-abundant elements for use in the catalytic reactions employed in these energy systems. In this concept paper, a brief introduction on catalysis in renewable energy systems, followed by the recent efforts to develop sustainable, heteroatom-doped carbon and non-noble metal-based electrocatalysts, the challenges to unravel their structure-catalytic activity relationships, and the authors' perspectives on these topics and materials, are discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Mimmi, Maria C; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Pettirossi, Fabio
2006-01-01
-58 is removed. We find that the solution stability of both variants, especially of beta2-microglobulin from which lysine-58 is removed, is much reduced compared to wild-type beta2-microglobulin and is strongly dependent on temperature and protein concentration. 1H-NMR spectroscopy and amide hydrogen......Cleavage of the small amyloidogenic protein beta2-microglobulin after lysine-58 renders it more prone to unfolding and aggregation. This is important for dialysis-related beta2-microglobulin amyloidosis, since elevated levels of cleaved beta2-microglobulin may be found in the circulation...
Heegaard, Niels H H; Rovatti, Luca; Nissen, Mogens H
2003-01-01
The small (Mr = 11729) serum protein beta2-microglobulin is prone to precipitate as amyloid in a protein conformational disorder (PCD) that occurs in a significant number of patients on chronic hemodialysis. Analyses by capillary electrophoresis (CE) were undertaken to study beta2-microglobulin...
Doyle, Colleen M; Rumfeldt, Jessica A; Broom, Helen R; Sekhar, Ashok; Kay, Lewis E; Meiering, Elizabeth M
2016-03-08
The chemical shifts of backbone amide protons in proteins are sensitive reporters of local structural stability and conformational heterogeneity, which can be determined from their readily measured linear and nonlinear temperature-dependences, respectively. Here we report analyses of amide proton temperature-dependences for native dimeric Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (holo pWT SOD1) and structurally diverse mutant SOD1s associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Holo pWT SOD1 loses structure with temperature first at its periphery and, while having extremely high global stability, nevertheless exhibits extensive conformational heterogeneity, with ∼1 in 5 residues showing evidence for population of low energy alternative states. The holo G93A and E100G ALS mutants have moderately decreased global stability, whereas V148I is slightly stabilized. Comparison of the holo mutants as well as the marginally stable immature monomeric unmetalated and disulfide-reduced (apo(2SH)) pWT with holo pWT shows that changes in the local structural stability of individual amides vary greatly, with average changes corresponding to differences in global protein stability measured by differential scanning calorimetry. Mutants also exhibit altered conformational heterogeneity compared to pWT. Strikingly, substantial increases as well as decreases in local stability and conformational heterogeneity occur, in particular upon maturation and for G93A. Thus, the temperature-dependence of amide shifts for SOD1 variants is a rich source of information on the location and extent of perturbation of structure upon covalent changes and ligand binding. The implications for potential mechanisms of toxic misfolding of SOD1 in disease and for general aspects of protein energetics, including entropy-enthalpy compensation, are discussed.
Mountassif, Driss; Fabre, Lucien; Zaid, Younes; Halawani, Dalia; Rouiller, Isabelle
2015-12-25
Single amino acid mutations in valosin containing protein (VCP/p97), a highly conserved member of the ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA) family of ATPases has been linked to a severe degenerative disease affecting brain, muscle and bone tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of VCP mutations in altering the ATPase activity of the D2 ring; however the structural consequences of these mutations remain unclear. In this study, we report the three-dimensional (3D) map of the pathogenic VCP variant, R155P, as revealed by single-particle Cryo-Electron Microscopy (EM) analysis at 14 Å resolution. We show that the N-terminal R155P mutation induces a large structural reorganisation of the D2 ATPase ring. Results from docking studies using crystal structure data of available wild-type VCP in the EM density maps indicate that the major difference is localized at the interface between two protomers within the D2 ring. Consistent with a conformational change, the VCP R155P variant shifted the isoelectric point of the protein and reduced its interaction with its well-characterized cofactor, nuclear protein localization-4 (Npl4). Together, our results demonstrate that a single amino acid substitution in the N-terminal domain can relay long-range conformational changes to the distal D2 ATPase ring. Our results provide the first structural clues of how VCP mutations may influence the activity and function of the D2 ATPase ring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mountassif, Driss; Fabre, Lucien [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Groupe de recherche axé sur la structure des protéines (GRASP), Groupe d' Étude des Proteines Membranaires (GÉPROM), 3640 University Street, Montreal H3A 0C7 (Canada); Zaid, Younes [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Groupe de recherche axé sur la structure des protéines (GRASP), Groupe d' Étude des Proteines Membranaires (GÉPROM), 3640 University Street, Montreal H3A 0C7 (Canada); Current address: Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Halawani, Dalia [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Groupe de recherche axé sur la structure des protéines (GRASP), Groupe d' Étude des Proteines Membranaires (GÉPROM), 3640 University Street, Montreal H3A 0C7 (Canada); Current address: Department of Cell Biology, Lerner Research Institute, 9500 Euclid Avenue NC10, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Rouiller, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.rouiller@mcgill.ca [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Groupe de recherche axé sur la structure des protéines (GRASP), Groupe d' Étude des Proteines Membranaires (GÉPROM), 3640 University Street, Montreal H3A 0C7 (Canada)
2015-12-25
Single amino acid mutations in valosin containing protein (VCP/p97), a highly conserved member of the ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA) family of ATPases has been linked to a severe degenerative disease affecting brain, muscle and bone tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of VCP mutations in altering the ATPase activity of the D2 ring; however the structural consequences of these mutations remain unclear. In this study, we report the three-dimensional (3D) map of the pathogenic VCP variant, R155P, as revealed by single-particle Cryo-Electron Microscopy (EM) analysis at 14 Å resolution. We show that the N-terminal R155P mutation induces a large structural reorganisation of the D2 ATPase ring. Results from docking studies using crystal structure data of available wild-type VCP in the EM density maps indicate that the major difference is localized at the interface between two protomers within the D2 ring. Consistent with a conformational change, the VCP R155P variant shifted the isoelectric point of the protein and reduced its interaction with its well-characterized cofactor, nuclear protein localization-4 (Npl4). Together, our results demonstrate that a single amino acid substitution in the N-terminal domain can relay long-range conformational changes to the distal D2 ATPase ring. Our results provide the first structural clues of how VCP mutations may influence the activity and function of the D2 ATPase ring. - Highlights: • p97{sub R155P} and p97{sub A232E} decrease the ability of p97 to bind to its co-factor Npl4. • p97{sub R155P} has a different isoelectric point than that of p97{sub R95G}, p97{sub A232E} and p97{sub WT}. • Mutation R155P changes principally the conformation of the D2 ring. • Mutation R155P modifies the interface between two protomers within the D2 ring.
Mountassif, Driss; Fabre, Lucien; Zaid, Younes; Halawani, Dalia; Rouiller, Isabelle
2015-01-01
Single amino acid mutations in valosin containing protein (VCP/p97), a highly conserved member of the ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA) family of ATPases has been linked to a severe degenerative disease affecting brain, muscle and bone tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated the role of VCP mutations in altering the ATPase activity of the D2 ring; however the structural consequences of these mutations remain unclear. In this study, we report the three-dimensional (3D) map of the pathogenic VCP variant, R155P, as revealed by single-particle Cryo-Electron Microscopy (EM) analysis at 14 Å resolution. We show that the N-terminal R155P mutation induces a large structural reorganisation of the D2 ATPase ring. Results from docking studies using crystal structure data of available wild-type VCP in the EM density maps indicate that the major difference is localized at the interface between two protomers within the D2 ring. Consistent with a conformational change, the VCP R155P variant shifted the isoelectric point of the protein and reduced its interaction with its well-characterized cofactor, nuclear protein localization-4 (Npl4). Together, our results demonstrate that a single amino acid substitution in the N-terminal domain can relay long-range conformational changes to the distal D2 ATPase ring. Our results provide the first structural clues of how VCP mutations may influence the activity and function of the D2 ATPase ring. - Highlights: • p97 R155P and p97 A232E decrease the ability of p97 to bind to its co-factor Npl4. • p97 R155P has a different isoelectric point than that of p97 R95G , p97 A232E and p97 WT . • Mutation R155P changes principally the conformation of the D2 ring. • Mutation R155P modifies the interface between two protomers within the D2 ring.
n-Electrons of heteroatoms in hydrogen bond and luminescence
Karyakin, A.V.
1985-01-01
Hydrogen bond energy in the process of interaction between water molecules, water molecules and heteroatoms of organic solvents, water molecules and inorganic compounds, is determined, its mechanism being studied. On the basis of X-ray structure and IR-spectroscopic data water state in easily hydrolized compounds of zirconium and hafnium, including sulfates, nitrates, oxychlorides etc. is analyzed. Water state in uranyl nitrate hydrates, the structure of the compounds and their behaviour when they are extracted by TBP, are considered. The reasons for stability of uranyl nitrate hydrates are discussed. The effect of n-electrons of heteroatoms of simple aromatic compound on structural spectra of luminescence in aliphatic and inorganic matrices is investigated
Krzysztof Lepek
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Monitoring and control of infections are key parts of surveillance systems and epidemiological risk prevention. In the case of influenza A viruses (IAVs, which show high variability, a wide range of hosts, and a potential of reassortment between different strains, it is essential to study not only people, but also animals living in the immediate surroundings. If understated, the animals might become a source of newly formed infectious strains with a pandemic potential. Special attention should be focused on pigs, because of the receptors specific for virus strains originating from different species, localized in their respiratory tract. Pigs are prone to mixed infections and may constitute a reservoir of potentially dangerous IAV strains resulting from genetic reassortment. It has been reported that a quadruple reassortant, A(H1N1pdm09, can be easily transmitted from humans to pigs and serve as a donor of genetic segments for new strains capable of infecting humans. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop a simple, cost-effective, and rapid method for evaluation of IAV genetic variability. We describe a method based on multitemperature single-strand conformational polymorphism (MSSCP, using a fragment of the hemagglutinin (HA gene, for detection of coinfections and differentiation of genetic variants of the virus, difficult to identify by conventional diagnostic.
Sun, Lin; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Xinyang; Qiu, Feng; Xue, Minzhao; Tregnago, Giulia; Cacialli, Franco; Osella, Silvio; Beljonne, David; Feng, Xinliang
2015-03-01
Complexation of a boron atom with a series of bidentate heterocyclic ligands successfully gives rise to corresponding BF2-chelated heteroarenes, which could be considered as novel boron(III)-cored dyes. These dye molecules exhibit planar structures and expanded π-conjugated backbones due to the locked conformation with a boron center. The geometric and electronic structures of these BF2 complexes can be tailored by embedding heteroatoms in the unique modes to form positional isomer and isoelectronic structures. The structure-property relationship is further elucidated by studying the photophysical properties, electrochemical behavior and quantum-chemical calculations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Rapid heteroatom transfer to arylmetals utilizing multifunctional reagent scaffolds
Gao, Hongyin; Zhou, Zhe; Kwon, Doo-Hyun; Coombs, James; Jones, Steven; Behnke, Nicole Erin; Ess, Daniel H.; Kürti, László
2017-07-01
Arylmetals are highly valuable carbon nucleophiles that are readily and inexpensively prepared from aryl halides or arenes and widely used on both laboratory and industrial scales to react directly with a wide range of electrophiles. Although C-C bond formation has been a staple of organic synthesis, the direct transfer of primary amino (-NH2) and hydroxyl (-OH) groups to arylmetals in a scalable and environmentally friendly fashion remains a formidable synthetic challenge because of the absence of suitable heteroatom-transfer reagents. Here, we demonstrate the use of bench-stable N-H and N-alkyl oxaziridines derived from readily available terpenoid scaffolds as efficient multifunctional reagents for the direct primary amination and hydroxylation of structurally diverse aryl- and heteroarylmetals. This practical and scalable method provides one-step synthetic access to primary anilines and phenols at low temperature and avoids the use of transition-metal catalysts, ligands and additives, nitrogen-protecting groups, excess reagents and harsh workup conditions.
Multiple-heteroatom-containing sulfur compounds in a high sulfur coal
Winans, R.E.; Neill, P.H.
1990-01-01
Flash vacuum pyrolysis of a high sulfur coal has been combined with high resolution mass spectrometry yielding information on aromatic sulfur compounds containing an additional heteroatom. Sulfur emission from coal utilization is a critical problem and in order to devise efficient methods for removing organic sulfur, it is important to know what types of molecules contain sulfur. A high sulfur Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal (Argonne Premium Coal Sample No. 3) was pyrolyzed on a platinum grid using a quartz probe inserted into a modified all glass heated inlet system and the products characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). A significant number of products were observed which contained both sulfur and an additional heteroatom. In some cases two additional heteroatoms were observed. These results are compared to those found in coal extracts and liquefaction products
Huang, X.; Zou, X.; Meng, Y.; Mikmeková, Eliška; Chen, H.; Voiry, D.; Goswami, A.; Chhowalla, M.; Asefa, T.
2015-01-01
Roč. 7, č. 3 (2015), s. 1978-1986 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : yeast * heteroatom-doped carbon * oxygen reduction * ORR * hydrazine electrooxidation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 7.145, year: 2015
Chua, C. K.; Ambrosi, A.; Sofer, Z.; Macková, Anna; Havránek, Vladimír; Tomandl, Ivo; Pumera, M.
2014-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 48 (2014), s. 15760-15767 ISSN 1521-3765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : doping * graphene * heteroatoms * oxidation * synthetic methods Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders
Monestier, Auriane; Aleksandrov, Alexey; Coureux, Pierre-Damien; Panvert, Michel; Mechulam, Yves; Schmitt, Emmanuelle
2017-05-01
Translation initiation in eukaryotes and archaea involves a methionylated initiator tRNA delivered to the ribosome in a ternary complex with e/aIF2 and GTP. Eukaryotic and archaeal initiator tRNAs contain a highly conserved A 1 -U 72 base pair at the top of the acceptor stem. The importance of this base pair to discriminate initiator tRNAs from elongator tRNAs has been established previously using genetics and biochemistry. However, no structural data illustrating how the A 1 -U 72 base pair participates in the accurate selection of the initiator tRNAs by the translation initiation systems are available. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a mutant E. coli initiator tRNA f Met A 1 -U 72 , aminoacylated with methionine, in which the C 1 :A 72 mismatch at the end of the tRNA acceptor stem has been changed to an A 1 -U 72 base pair. Sequence alignments show that the mutant E. coli tRNA is a good mimic of archaeal initiator tRNAs. The crystal structure, determined at 2.8 Å resolution, shows that the A 1 -U 72 pair adopts an unusual arrangement. A 1 is in a syn conformation and forms a single H-bond interaction with U 72 This interaction requires protonation of the N1 atom of A 1 Moreover, the 5' phosphoryl group folds back into the major groove of the acceptor stem and interacts with the N7 atom of G 2 A possible role of this unusual geometry of the A 1 -U 72 pair in the recognition of the initiator tRNA by its partners during eukaryotic and archaeal translation initiation is discussed. © 2017 Monestier et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.
Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks
Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André
2017-08-01
Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.
Ryttov, Thomas Aaby; Sannino, Francesco
2010-01-01
fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated bounds of the conformal windows when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions...... at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms...
Bimetallic promotion of cooperative hydrogen transfer and heteroatom removal in coal liquefaction
Eisch, J.J.
1992-04-07
The ultimate objective of this research has been to uncover novel reagents and experimental conditions for heteroatom removal and hydrogen transfer processes, which would be applicable to the liquefaction of coal under low-severity conditions. To this end, one phase of this research has investigated the cleavage of carbon-heteroatom bonds involving sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and halogen by subvalent transition-metal complexes. A second phase of the study has assessed the capability of the same transition-metal complexes or of organoaluminum Lewis acids to catalyze the cleavage of carbon-hydrogen bonds in aromatics and hence to promote hydrogen shuttling. Finally, a third phase of our work has uncovered a remarkable synergistic effect of combinations of transition metals with organoaluminum Lewis acids on hydrogen shuttling between aromatics and hydroaromatics. (VC)
Yoshii, Daichi; Jin, Xiongjie; Yatabe, Takafumi; Hasegawa, Jun-Ya; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka
2016-12-06
In the presence of Au nanoparticles supported on manganese oxide OMS-2 (Au/OMS-2), various kinds of β-heteroatom-substituted α,β-unsaturated ketones (heteroatom = N, O, S) can be synthesized through α,β-dehydrogenation of the corresponding saturated ketones using O 2 (in air) as the oxidant. The catalysis of Au/OMS-2 is truly heterogeneous, and the catalyst can be reused.
Analysis and removal of heteroatom containing species in coal liquid distillate over NiMo catalysts
S.D. Sumbogo Murtia; Ki-Hyouk Choi; Kinya Sakanishi; Osamu Okuma; Yozo Korai; Isao Mochida [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering
2005-02-01
Heteroatom containing molecules in South Banko coal liquid (SBCL) distillate were identified with a gas chromatograph equipped with an atomic emission detector (GC-AED). Thiophenes and benzothiophenes were found to be the major sulfur compounds. Pyridines, anilines, and phenols were the major nitrogen and oxygen compounds, respectively. Reactivities of heteroatom containing species in hydrotreatment over conventional NiMoS/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiMoS/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} catalysts were very different according to their cyclic structure as well as the kind of heteroatom in the species. The sulfur species were completely desulfurized over the catalysts examined in the present study by 60 min at 360{degree}C under initial hydrogen pressure of 5 MPa. However, hydrodenitrogenation was more difficult than hydrodesulfurization even at 450{degree}C. Anilines were found the most refractory ones among the nitrogen species. Hydrodeoxygenation of SBCL was also difficult in the hydrotreatment conditions examined in the present study. Dibenzofuran was the most refractory molecule among the oxygen species. A two-stage reaction configuration at 340 and 360{degree}C improved HDN and HDO reactivities, although the conversions were still insufficient. Increasing the acidity of the support as well as the loading of the metals on the NiMoS/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts improved very much the heteroatom reduction to achieve complete removal of nitrogen by two-stage reaction configuration at 340-360{degree}C and oxygen at 360{degree}C, respectively. The addition of H{sub 2}S in the reaction atmosphere inhibited the HDN reaction but increased markedly the HDO conversion. The acidic support increased the activity in hydrotreatment through enhancing the hydrogenation activity, while H{sub 2}S maintained the catalyst in a sufficiently sulfided state. 19 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.
Zdanowska Sandra; Pyzalska Magdalena; Drabowicz Józef; Kulawik Damian; Pavlyuk Volodymyr; Girek Tomasz; Ciesielski Wojciech
2016-01-01
This paper concentrates on electrochemical properties of groups of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) functionalized with substituents containing a stereogenic heteroatom bonded covalently to the surface of the carbon nanotube. This system was tested in Swagelok-type cells. The cells comprised a system (functionalized CNT with salts containing S and P atoms) with a working electrode, microfiber separators soaked with electrolyte solution, and a lithium foil counter/reference (commercial Li...
Heteroatom-doped porous carbon from methyl orange dye wastewater for oxygen reduction
Yiqing Wang
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Banana peel-derived porous carbon (BPPC was prepared from banana peel and used as an adsorbent for methyl orange (MO wastewater removal. BPPC-MO50 is a N,S-doped BPPC obtained via secondary carbonization. The BPPC-MO50 exhibited a high specific surface area of 1774.3 m2/g. Heteroatom-doped porous carbon (PC was successfully synthesized from the BPPC absorbed MO at high temperature and used for oxygen reduction. The BPPC-MO50 displayed the highest ORR onset potential among all carbon-based electrocatalysts, i.e., 0.93 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE. This is the first report to describe porous carbon-activated materials from agriculture and forestry waste that is used for adsorption of dyes from wastewater via an enhanced heteroatom (N,S content. These results may contribute to the sustainable development of dye wastewater treatment by transforming saturated PC into an effective material and has potential applications in fuel cells or as energy sources. Keywords: Banana peel, Dye wastewater, Porous carbon, Heteroatom doping, Oxygen reduction reaction
This section provides information on: current laws, regulations and guidance, policy and technical guidance, project-level conformity, general information, contacts and training, adequacy review of SIP submissions
Nikolay Ivantchev
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Conformism was studied among 46 workers with different kinds of occupations by means of two modified scales measuring conformity by Santor, Messervey, and Kusumakar (2000 – scale for perceived peer pressure and scale for conformism in antisocial situations. The hypothesis of the study that workers’ conformism is expressed in a medium degree was confirmed partly. More than a half of the workers conform in a medium degree for taking risk, and for the use of alcohol and drugs, and for sexual relationships. More than a half of the respondents conform in a small degree for anti-social activities (like a theft. The workers were more inclined to conform for risk taking (10.9%, then – for the use of alcohol, drugs and for sexual relationships (8.7%, and in the lowest degree – for anti-social activities (6.5%. The workers who were inclined for the use of alcohol and drugs tended also to conform for anti-social activities.
Masahide Yasuda
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Photocatalytic H2 evolution was examined using Pt-loaded TiO2-photocatalyst in the presence of amines as sacrificial agents. In the case of amines with all of the carbon attached to the hetero-atom such as 2-aminoethanol, 1,2-diamonoethane, 2-amino-1,3-propanediol, and 3-amino-1,2-propanediol, they were completely decomposed into CO2 and water to quantitatively evolve H2. On the other hand, the amines with both hetero-atoms and one methyl group at the β-positions (neighboring carbons of amino group such as 2-amino-1-propanol and 1,2-diaminopropane were partially decomposed. Also, the photocatalytic H2 evolution using amines without the hetero-atoms at the β-positions such as ethylamine, propylamine, 1-butylamine, 1,3-diaminopropane, 2-propylamine, and 2-butylamine was inefficient. Thus, it was found that the neighboring hetero-atom strongly assisted the degradation of sacrificial amines. Moreover, rate constants for H2 evolution were compared among amines. In conclusion, the neighboring hetero-atom did not affect the rate constants but enhanced the yield of hydrogen evolution.
Upgrading including heteroatom removal from Victorian brown coal-derived liquids
Larkins, F.P.; Youings, J.C.; Jackson, W.R.; Park, D. (University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia))
1989-10-01
It has been shown using model compounds that the hydrodeoxygenation performance of a catalyst is severely inhibited by the presence of nitrogen-containing compounds under conditions of moderate reaction severity. For a low molecular weight coal-derived liquid commercial catalysts were effective for HDO and HDN at 400{degree}C, 10 MPa H{sub 2} for 30 min reaction time. For a coal-derived liquid high in asphaltene commercial catalysts and others prepared and tested in this study were ineffective. Alternative catalysts and hydrotreating conditions of greater severity will be required for such materials to effect acceptable heteroatom removal. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.
Frauendiener Jörg
2000-08-01
Full Text Available The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, ``conformal infinity'' is related with almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved out of physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation and how it lends itself very naturally to solve radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.
Frauendiener, Jörg
2004-01-01
The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, "conformal infinity" is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation, and how it lends itself very naturally to the solution of radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.
Frauendiener Jörg
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, 'conformal infinity' is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation, and how it lends itself very naturally to the solution of radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.
The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.
Frauendiener, J?rg
2000-01-01
The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, 'conformal infinity' is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory...
Sodium-ion supercapacitors based on nanoporous pyroproteins containing redox-active heteroatoms
Cho, Se Youn; Yoon, Hyeon Ji; Kim, Na Rae; Yun, Young Soo; Jin, Hyoung-Joon
2016-10-01
Nanostructured carbon-based materials fabricated via simple methods from renewable bio-resources have great potential in rechargeable energy storage systems. In this study, nanoporous pyroproteins containing a large amount of redox-active heteroatoms (H-NPs) were fabricated from silk fibroin by an in situ carbonization/activation method. The H-NPs have a large surface area of ∼3050 m2 g-1, which is mainly comprised of nanometer-scale pores. Also, these H-NPs have oxygen and nitrogen heteroatoms of 17.4 wt% and 2.9 wt%, respectively. Synergistic sodium ion storage behaviors originate from electrochemical double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance, leading to very high electrochemical performances of H-NPs in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolyte systems. Sodium-ion supercapacitors (NISs) based on commercial graphite//H-NPs show a high specific power of ∼1900 W kg-1 at ∼77 Wh kg-1. Also, NISs based on commercial hard carbon//H-NPs exhibit a high specific energy of ∼217 Wh kg-1 at ∼42 W kg-1. In addition, outstanding cycling performances over 30,000 cycles are achieved for symmetric NISs.
Shimoyama, Iwao, E-mail: shimoyama.iwao@jaea.go.jp [Material Science Research Center, Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura 2-4, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Baba, Yuji [Fukushima Administrative Department, Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura 2-4, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hirao, Norie [Material Science Research Center, Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura 2-4, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)
2017-05-31
Highlights: • Micro-orientation control method for organic polysilane thin films is proposed. • This method utilizes surface modification of graphite using heteroatom doping. • Lying, standing, and random orientations can be freely controlled by this method. • Micro-pattering of a polysilane film with controlled orientations is achieved. - Abstract: Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy is applied to study orientation structures of polydimethylsilane (PDMS) films deposited on heteroatom-doped graphite substrates prepared by ion beam doping. The Si K-edge NEXAFS spectra of PDMS show opposite trends of polarization dependence for non irradiated and N{sub 2}{sup +}-irradiated substrates, and show no polarization dependence for an Ar{sup +}-irradiated substrate. Based on a theoretical interpretation of the NEXAFS spectra via first-principles calculations, we clarify that PDMS films have lying, standing, and random orientations on the non irradiated, N{sub 2}{sup +}-irradiated, and Ar{sup +}-irradiated substrates, respectively. Furthermore, photoemission electron microscopy indicates that the orientation of a PDMS film can be controlled with microstructures on the order of μm by separating irradiated and non irradiated areas on the graphite surface. These results suggest that surface modification of graphite using ion beam doping is useful for micro-orientation control of organic thin films.
Heteroatom Doped-Carbon Nanospheres as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries.
Pappas, George S; Ferrari, Stefania; Huang, Xiaobin; Bhagat, Rohit; Haddleton, David M; Wan, Chaoying
2016-01-09
Long cycle performance is a crucial requirement in energy storage devices. New formulations and/or improvement of "conventional" materials have been investigated in order to achieve this target. Here we explore the performance of a novel type of carbon nanospheres (CNSs) with three heteroatom co-doped (nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur) and high specific surface area as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The CNSs were obtained from carbonization of highly-crosslinked organo (phosphazene) nanospheres (OPZs) of 300 nm diameter. The OPZs were synthesized via a single and facile step of polycondensation reaction between hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP) and 4,4'-sulphonyldiphenol (BPS). The X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed a high heteroatom-doping content in the structure of CNSs while the textural evaluation from the N₂ sorption isotherms revealed the presence of micro- and mesopores and a high specific surface area of 875 m²/g. The CNSs anode showed remarkable stability and coulombic efficiency in a long charge-discharge cycling up to 1000 cycles at 1C rate, delivering about 130 mA·h·g -1 . This study represents a step toward smart engineering of inexpensive materials with practical applications for energy devices.
Heteroatom Doped-Carbon Nanospheres as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries
George S. Pappas
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Long cycle performance is a crucial requirement in energy storage devices. New formulations and/or improvement of “conventional” materials have been investigated in order to achieve this target. Here we explore the performance of a novel type of carbon nanospheres (CNSs with three heteroatom co-doped (nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur and high specific surface area as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The CNSs were obtained from carbonization of highly-crosslinked organo (phosphazene nanospheres (OPZs of 300 nm diameter. The OPZs were synthesized via a single and facile step of polycondensation reaction between hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP and 4,4′-sulphonyldiphenol (BPS. The X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS analysis showed a high heteroatom-doping content in the structure of CNSs while the textural evaluation from the N2 sorption isotherms revealed the presence of micro- and mesopores and a high specific surface area of 875 m2/g. The CNSs anode showed remarkable stability and coulombic efficiency in a long charge–discharge cycling up to 1000 cycles at 1C rate, delivering about 130 mA·h·g−1. This study represents a step toward smart engineering of inexpensive materials with practical applications for energy devices.
Wagner, Sasha; Riedel, Thomas; Niggemann, Jutta; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Dittmar, Thorsten; Jaffé, Rudolf
2015-12-01
Large world rivers are significant sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the oceans. Watershed geomorphology and land use can drive the quality and reactivity of DOM. Determining the molecular composition of riverine DOM is essential for understanding its source, mobility and fate across landscapes. In this study, DOM from the main stem of 10 global rivers covering a wide climatic range and land use features was molecularly characterized via ultrahigh-resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). FT-ICR mass spectral data revealed an overall similarity in molecular components among the rivers. However, when focusing specifically on the contribution of nonoxygen heteroatomic molecular formulas (CHON, CHOS, CHOP, etc.) to the bulk molecular signature, patterns relating DOM composition and watershed land use became apparent. Greater abundances of N- and S-containing molecular formulas were identified as unique to rivers influenced by anthropogenic inputs, whereas rivers with primarily forested watersheds had DOM signatures relatively depleted in heteroatomic content. A strong correlation between cropland cover and dissolved black nitrogen was established when focusing specifically on the pyrogenic class of compounds. This study demonstrated how changes in land use directly affect downstream DOM quality and could impact C and nutrient cycling on a global scale.
Yoshitaka Fujimoto
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Doping with heteroatoms is one of the most effective methods to tailor the electronic properties of carbon nanomaterials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, and such nanomaterials doped with heteroatom dopants might therefore provide not only new physical and chemical properties but also novel nanoelectronics/optoelectronics device applications. The boron and nitrogen are neighboring elements to carbon in the periodic table, and they are considered to be good dopants for carbon nanomaterials. We here review the recent work of boron and nitrogen doping effects into graphene monolayer as well as bilayer on the basis of the first-principles electronic structure calculations in the framework of the density-functional theory. We show the energetics and the electronic properties of boron and nitrogen defects in graphene monolayer and bilayer. As for the nitrogen doping, we further discuss the stabilities, the growth processes, and the electronic properties associated with the plausible nitrogen defect formation in graphene which is suggested by experimental observations.
Conformation radiotherapy and conformal radiotherapy
Morita, Kozo
1999-01-01
In order to coincide the high dose region to the target volume, the 'Conformation Radiotherapy Technique' using the multileaf collimator and the device for 'hollow-out technique' was developed by Prof. S. Takahashi in 1960. This technique can be classified a type of 2D-dynamic conformal RT techniques. By the clinical application of this technique, the late complications of the lens, the intestine and the urinary bladder after radiotherapy for the maxillary cancer and the cervical cancer decreased. Since 1980's the exact position and shape of the tumor and the surrounding normal tissues can be easily obtained by the tremendous development of the CT/MRI imaging technique. As a result, various kinds of new conformal techniques such as the 3D-CRT, the dose intensity modulation, the tomotherapy have been developed since the beginning of 1990'. Several 'dose escalation study with 2D-/3D conformal RT' is now under way to improve the treatment results. (author)
Hooft, G.
2012-01-01
The dynamical degree of freedom for the gravitational force is the metric tensor, having 10 locally independent degrees of freedom (of which 4 can be used to fix the coordinate choice). In conformal gravity, we split this field into an overall scalar factor and a nine-component remainder. All unrenormalizable infinities are in this remainder, while the scalar component can be handled like any other scalar field such as the Higgs field. In this formalism, conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. An imperative demand on any healthy quantum gravity theory is that black holes should be described as quantum systems with micro-states as dictated by the Hawking-Bekenstein theory. This requires conformal symmetry that may be broken spontaneously but not explicitly, and this means that all conformal anomalies must cancel out. Cancellation of conformal anomalies yields constraints on the matter sector as described by some universal field theory. Thus black hole physics may eventually be of help in the construction of unified field theories. (author)
Blazej, Robert; Toriello, Nicholas; Emrich, Charles; Cohen, Richard N.; Koppel, Nitzan
2015-07-14
This invention provides novel variant cellulolytic enzymes having improved activity and/or stability. In certain embodiments the variant cellulotyic enzymes comprise a glycoside hydrolase with or comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to one or more of residues F64, A226, and/or E246 in Thermobifida fusca Cel9A enzyme. In certain embodiments the glycoside hydrolase is a variant of a family 9 glycoside hydrolase. In certain embodiments the glycoside hydrolase is a variant of a theme B family 9 glycoside hydrolase.
Zhijie Wang
2018-04-01
Full Text Available In this work, high-level heteroatom doped two-dimensional hierarchical carbon architectures (H-2D-HCA are developed for highly efficient Li-ion storage applications. The achieved H-2D-HCA possesses a hierarchical 2D morphology consisting of tiny carbon nanosheets vertically grown on carbon nanoplates and containing a hierarchical porosity with multiscale pore size. More importantly, the H-2D-HCA shows abundant heteroatom functionality, with sulfur (S doping of 0.9% and nitrogen (N doping of as high as 15.5%, in which the electrochemically active N accounts for 84% of total N heteroatoms. In addition, the H-2D-HCA also has an expanded interlayer distance of 0.368 nm. When used as lithium-ion battery anodes, it shows excellent Li-ion storage performance. Even at a high current density of 5 A g−1, it still delivers a high discharge capacity of 329 mA h g−1 after 1,000 cycles. First principle calculations verifies that such unique microstructure characteristics and high-level heteroatom doping nature can enhance Li adsorption stability, electronic conductivity and Li diffusion mobility of carbon nanomaterials. Therefore, the H-2D-HCA could be promising candidates for next-generation LIB anodes.
Zdanowska Sandra
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper concentrates on electrochemical properties of groups of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT functionalized with substituents containing a stereogenic heteroatom bonded covalently to the surface of the carbon nanotube. This system was tested in Swagelok-type cells. The cells comprised a system (functionalized CNT with salts containing S and P atoms with a working electrode, microfiber separators soaked with electrolyte solution, and a lithium foil counter/reference (commercial LiCoO2 electrode. The electrolyte solution was 1 M LiPF6 in propylene carbonate. Using standard techniques (cyclic voltammetry/chronopotentiometry, galvanostatic cycling was performed on the cells at room temperature with a CH Instruments Model 600E potentiostat/galvanostat electrochemical measurements. Methods of functionalization CNT were compared in terms of the electrochemical properties of the studied systems. In all systems, the process of charge/discharge was observed.
Esnal, I; Duran-Sampedro, G; Agarrabeitia, A R; Bañuelos, J; García-Moreno, I; Macías, M A; Peña-Cabrera, E; López-Arbeloa, I; de la Moya, S; Ortiz, M J
2015-03-28
Linking amino and hydroxycoumarins to BODIPYs through the amino or hydroxyl group lets the easy construction of unprecedented photostable coumarin-BODIPY hybrids with broadened and enhanced absorption in the UV spectral region, and outstanding wavelength-tunable laser action within the green-to-red spectral region (∼520-680 nm). These laser dyes allow the generation of a valuable tunable UV (∼260-350 nm) laser source by frequency doubling, which is essential to study accurately the photochemistry of biological molecules under solar irradiation. The tunability is achieved by selecting the substitution pattern of the hybrid. Key factors are the linking heteroatom (nitrogen vs. oxygen), the number of coumarin units joined to the BODIPY framework and the involved linking positions.
Kaplan, David B.; Lee, Jong-Wan; Son, Dam T.; Stephanov, Mikhail A.
2009-01-01
We consider zero-temperature transitions from conformal to nonconformal phases in quantum theories. We argue that there are three generic mechanisms for the loss of conformality in any number of dimensions: (i) fixed point goes to zero coupling, (ii) fixed point runs off to infinite coupling, or (iii) an IR fixed point annihilates with a UV fixed point and they both disappear into the complex plane. We give both relativistic and nonrelativistic examples of the last case in various dimensions and show that the critical behavior of the mass gap behaves similarly to the correlation length in the finite temperature Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition in two dimensions, ξ∼exp(c/|T-T c | 1/2 ). We speculate that the chiral phase transition in QCD at large number of fermion flavors belongs to this universality class, and attempt to identify the UV fixed point that annihilates with the Banks-Zaks fixed point at the lower end of the conformal window.
C. Doyranli
2016-09-01
Full Text Available A series of carbazole-based polymers were synthesized via Suzuki polymerization between N-(2-ethylhexylcarbazole-3,6-bis(ethyleneboronate (Cbz and dibromobenzazole unit. Three different polymers, PCBN, PCBS and PCBSe were obtained from 4,7-dibromo-2-hexyl-2H-benzotriazole (BN, 4,7-dibromo-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole- (BS and 4,7-dibromo-2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole (BSe, respectively. It is observed that, the variation of heteroatoms (N,S and Se on the benzazole unit have most important effect on electro-optic properties of the PCBX polymers. Neutral state color of the polymer films and their electrochromic performances are also influenced. Among the synthesized polymers, the PCBS bearing 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole as acceptor units has a broad absorption and 50% of ΔT in the near-IR regime at the oxidized state. This property of PCBS is a great advantage for near-IR electrochromic applications.
Yang, Xiaodong; Gao, Ya; Huang, Zhibing; Chen, Xiaohui; Ke, Zhiyong; Zhao, Peiliang; Yan, Yichen; Liu, Ruiyuan; Qu, Jinqing
2015-01-01
A novel fluorescent probe based on heteroatom containing styrylcyanine is synthesized. The fluorescence of probe is bright green in basic and neutral media but dark orange in strong acidic environments, which could be reversibly switched. Such behavior enables it to work as a fluorescent pH sensor in the solution state and a chemosensor for detecting acidic and basic volatile organic compounds. Analyses by NMR spectroscopy confirm that the protonation or deprotonation of pyridinyl moiety is responsible for the sensing process. In addition, the fluorescent microscopic images of probe in live cells and zebrafish are achieved successfully, suggesting that the probe has good cell membrane permeability and low cytotoxicity. - Graphical abstract: A novel styrylcyanine-based fluorescent pH probe was designed and synthesized, the fluorescence of which is bright green in basic and neutral media but dark orange in strong acidic environments. Such behavior enables it to work as a fluorescent pH sensor in solution states, and a chemosensor for detecting volatile organic compounds with high acidity and basicity in solid state. In addition, it can be used for fluorescent imaging in living cell and living organism. - Highlights: • Bright green fluorescence was observed in basic and neutral media. • Dark orange fluorescence was found in strong acidic environments. • Volatile organic compounds with high acidity and basicity could be detected. • Bioimaging in living cell and living organism was achieved successfully
Goldfarb, Jillian L.; Suuberg, Eric M.
2010-01-01
The vapor pressures of seven heteroatom-containing cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ranging in molecular weight from (168.19 to 208.21) g . mol -1 were measured over the temperature range of (301 to 486) K using the isothermal Knudsen effusion technique. The compounds measured include: anthraquinone, 9-fluorenone, 9-fluorenone oxime, phenoxazine, phenoxathiin, and 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole. These solid-state sublimation measurements provided values that are compared to vapor pressures of parent aromatic compounds (anthracene and fluorene) and to others with substituent groups in order to examine the effects of alcohol, ketone, pyridine, and pyrrole functionality on this property. The enthalpies and entropies of sublimation for each compound were determined from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Though there is no consistent trend in terms of the effects of substitutions on changes in the enthalpy or entropy of sublimation, we note that the prevalence of enthalpic or entropic driving forces on vapor pressure depend on molecule-specific factors and not merely molecular weight of the substituents.
Hierarchically porous and heteroatom doped carbon derived from tobacco rods for supercapacitors
Zhao, Yong-Qing; Lu, Min; Tao, Peng-Yu; Zhang, Yun-Jie; Gong, Xiao-Ting; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Li, Hu-Lin
2016-03-01
A novel tobacco rods-derived carbon (TC) has been prepared by hydrothermal carbonization and potassium hydroxide activation strategy for supercapacitors application. The physicochemical properties of TC are investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, Scanning electron microscopy, Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and four-probe tests. Results show TC derived from different tobacco rods possesses similar properties, such as amorphous state, high specific surface area, hierarchical porous structure, numerous heteroatom groups, and good electrical conductivity. The electrochemical characteristics of TC are examined via cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. In a three-electrode system, TC exhibits high capacitance with 286.6 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, excellent rate performance with 212.1 F g-1 even at 30 A g-1, and outstanding cyclic stability with 96% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles at 5 A g-1. Furthermore, TC supercapacitor devices can deliver an energy density of 31.3 Wh kg-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and power density of 11.8 kW kg-1 at 15 A g-1. Therefore, this novel concept of tobacco use, namely tobacco rods from cigarette (the harmful) to high-performance carbon for supercapacitors (the beneficial), is an extremely promising strategy for developing high-performance carbon from renewable sources, and supporting the tobacco control.
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of graphitic carbon nanomaterials doped with heteroatoms
Toma Susi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS is one of the best tools for studying the chemical modification of surfaces, and in particular the distribution and bonding of heteroatom dopants in carbon nanomaterials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although these materials have superb intrinsic properties, these often need to be modified in a controlled way for specific applications. Towards this aim, the most studied dopants are neighbors to carbon in the periodic table, nitrogen and boron, with phosphorus starting to emerge as an interesting new alternative. Hundreds of studies have used XPS for analyzing the concentration and bonding of dopants in various materials. Although the majority of works has concentrated on nitrogen, important work is still ongoing to identify its precise atomic bonding configurations. In general, care should be taken in the preparation of a suitable sample, consideration of the intrinsic photoemission response of the material in question, and the appropriate spectral analysis. If this is not the case, incorrect conclusions can easily be drawn, especially in the assignment of measured binding energies into specific atomic configurations. Starting from the characteristics of pristine materials, this review provides a practical guide for interpreting X-ray photoelectron spectra of doped graphitic carbon nanomaterials, and a reference for their binding energies that are vital for compositional analysis via XPS.
Goldfarb, Jillian L., E-mail: JillianLGoldfarb@gmail.co [Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Suuberg, Eric M., E-mail: Eric_Suuberg@brown.ed [Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)
2010-06-15
The vapor pressures of seven heteroatom-containing cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, ranging in molecular weight from (168.19 to 208.21) g . mol{sup -1} were measured over the temperature range of (301 to 486) K using the isothermal Knudsen effusion technique. The compounds measured include: anthraquinone, 9-fluorenone, 9-fluorenone oxime, phenoxazine, phenoxathiin, and 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole. These solid-state sublimation measurements provided values that are compared to vapor pressures of parent aromatic compounds (anthracene and fluorene) and to others with substituent groups in order to examine the effects of alcohol, ketone, pyridine, and pyrrole functionality on this property. The enthalpies and entropies of sublimation for each compound were determined from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Though there is no consistent trend in terms of the effects of substitutions on changes in the enthalpy or entropy of sublimation, we note that the prevalence of enthalpic or entropic driving forces on vapor pressure depend on molecule-specific factors and not merely molecular weight of the substituents.
Tomaschitz, R
2000-01-01
We study tachyons conformally coupled to the background geometry of a Milne universe. The causality of superluminal signal transfer is scrutinized in this context. The cosmic time of the comoving frame determines a distinguished time order for events connected by superluminal signals. An observer can relate his rest frame to the galaxy frame, and compare so the time order of events in his proper time to the cosmic time order. All observers can in this way arrive at identical conclusions on the causality of events connected by superluminal signals. An unambiguous energy concept for tachyonic rays is defined by means of the cosmic time of the comoving reference frame, without resorting to an antiparticle interpretation. On that basis we give an explicit proof that no signals can be sent into the past of observers. Causality violating signals are energetically forbidden, as they would have negative energy in the rest frame of the emitting observer. If an observer emits a superluminal signal, the tachyonic respon...
J Gordon Millichap
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The clinical manifestations in 15 patients (6 boys and 9 girls with middle interhemispheric variant (MIH of holoprosencephaly (HPE were compared with classic subtypes (alobar, semilobar, and lobar of HPE in a multicenter study at Stanford University School of Medicine and Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital; Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; University of California at San Francisco; Texas Scottish Rite Hospital, Dallas; and Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD.
Conformal field theory in conformal space
Preitschopf, C.R.; Vasiliev, M.A.
1999-01-01
We present a new framework for a Lagrangian description of conformal field theories in various dimensions based on a local version of d + 2-dimensional conformal space. The results include a true gauge theory of conformal gravity in d = (1, 3) and any standard matter coupled to it. An important feature is the automatic derivation of the conformal gravity constraints, which are necessary for the analysis of the matter systems
Navarro, Amparo, E-mail: anavarro@ujaen.es; Fernández-Liencres, M. Paz; Peña-Ruiz, Tomás; Granadino-Roldán, José M.; Fernández-Gómez, Manuel [Departamento de Química Física y Analítica, Universidad de Jaén, Campus Las Lagunillas, E23071 Jaén (Spain); García, Gregorio [Instituto de Energía Solar and Departamento TFB, E.T.S.I. Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid 28040 (Spain)
2016-08-07
Density functional theory calculations were carried out to investigate the evolvement of charge transport properties of a set of new discotic systems as a function of ring and heteroatom (B, Si, S, and Se) substitution on the basic structure of perylene. The replacement of six-membered rings by five-membered rings in the reference compound has shown a prominent effect on the electron reorganization energy that decreases ∼0.2 eV from perylene to the new carbon five-membered ring derivative. Heteroatom substitution with boron also revealed to lower the LUMO energy level and increase the electron affinity, therefore lowering the electron injection barrier compared to perylene. Since the rate of the charge transfer between two molecules in columnar discotic systems is strongly dependent on the orientation of the stacked cores, the total energy and transfer integral of a dimer as a disc is rotated with respect to the other along the stacking axis have been predicted. Aimed at obtaining a more realistic approach to the bulk structure, the molecular geometry of clusters made up of five discs was fully optimized, and charge transfer rate and mobilities were estimated for charge transport along a one dimensional pathway. Heteroatom substitution with selenium yields electron transfer integral values ∼0.3 eV with a relative disc orientation of 25°, which is the preferred angle according to the dimer energy profile. All the results indicate that the tetraselenium-substituted derivative, not synthetized so far, could be a promising candidate among those studied in this work for the fabrication of n-type semiconductors based on columnar discotic liquid crystals materials.
Rhodium-Catalyzed C-C Bond Formation via Heteroatom-Directed C-H Bond Activation
Colby, Denise; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan
2010-05-13
Once considered the 'holy grail' of organometallic chemistry, synthetically useful reactions employing C-H bond activation have increasingly been developed and applied to natural product and drug synthesis over the past decade. The ubiquity and relative low cost of hydrocarbons makes C-H bond functionalization an attractive alternative to classical C-C bond forming reactions such as cross-coupling, which require organohalides and organometallic reagents. In addition to providing an atom economical alternative to standard cross - coupling strategies, C-H bond functionalization also reduces the production of toxic by-products, thereby contributing to the growing field of reactions with decreased environmental impact. In the area of C-C bond forming reactions that proceed via a C-H activation mechanism, rhodium catalysts stand out for their functional group tolerance and wide range of synthetic utility. Over the course of the last decade, many Rh-catalyzed methods for heteroatom-directed C-H bond functionalization have been reported and will be the focus of this review. Material appearing in the literature prior to 2001 has been reviewed previously and will only be introduced as background when necessary. The synthesis of complex molecules from relatively simple precursors has long been a goal for many organic chemists. The ability to selectively functionalize a molecule with minimal pre-activation can streamline syntheses and expand the opportunities to explore the utility of complex molecules in areas ranging from the pharmaceutical industry to materials science. Indeed, the issue of selectivity is paramount in the development of all C-H bond functionalization methods. Several groups have developed elegant approaches towards achieving selectivity in molecules that possess many sterically and electronically similar C-H bonds. Many of these approaches are discussed in detail in the accompanying articles in this special issue of Chemical Reviews. One approach
Huba, Anna Katarina; Huba, Kristina; Gardinali, Piero R.
2016-01-01
Understanding the composition of crude oil and its changes with weathering is essential when assessing its provenience, fate, and toxicity. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has provided the opportunity to address the complexity of crude oil by assigning molecular formulae, and sorting compounds into “classes” based on heteroatom content. However, factors such as suppression effects and discrimination towards certain components severely limit a truly comprehensive mass spectrometric characterization, and, despite the availability of increasingly better mass spectrometers, a complete characterization of oil still represents a major challenge. In order to fully comprehend the significance of class abundances, as well as the nature and identity of compounds detected, a good understanding of the ionization efficiency of the various compound classes is indispensable. The current study, therefore, analyzed model compounds typically found in crude oils by high-resolution mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and electrospray ionization (ESI), in order to provide a better understanding of benefits and drawbacks of each source. The findings indicate that, overall, APPI provides the best results, being able to ionize the broadest range of compounds, providing the best results with respect to ionization efficiencies, and exhibiting the least suppression effects. However, just like in the other two sources, in APPI several factors have shown to affect the ionization efficiency of petroleum model compounds. The main such factor is the presence or absence of functional groups that can be easily protonated/deprotonated, in addition to other factors such as size, methylation level, presence of heteroatoms, and ring structure. Overall, this study evidences the intrinsic limitations and benefits of each of the three sources, and should provide the fundamental knowledge required to expand the
Huba, Anna Katarina; Huba, Kristina [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida International University, 3000 NE 151 Street, Biscayne Bay Campus, North Miami, Florida 33181 (United States); Gardinali, Piero R. [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida International University, 3000 NE 151 Street, Biscayne Bay Campus, North Miami, Florida 33181 (United States); Southeast Environmental Research Center (SERC), Florida International University, 3000 NE 151 Street, Biscayne Bay Campus, North Miami, Florida 33181 (United States)
2016-10-15
Understanding the composition of crude oil and its changes with weathering is essential when assessing its provenience, fate, and toxicity. High-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has provided the opportunity to address the complexity of crude oil by assigning molecular formulae, and sorting compounds into “classes” based on heteroatom content. However, factors such as suppression effects and discrimination towards certain components severely limit a truly comprehensive mass spectrometric characterization, and, despite the availability of increasingly better mass spectrometers, a complete characterization of oil still represents a major challenge. In order to fully comprehend the significance of class abundances, as well as the nature and identity of compounds detected, a good understanding of the ionization efficiency of the various compound classes is indispensable. The current study, therefore, analyzed model compounds typically found in crude oils by high-resolution mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and electrospray ionization (ESI), in order to provide a better understanding of benefits and drawbacks of each source. The findings indicate that, overall, APPI provides the best results, being able to ionize the broadest range of compounds, providing the best results with respect to ionization efficiencies, and exhibiting the least suppression effects. However, just like in the other two sources, in APPI several factors have shown to affect the ionization efficiency of petroleum model compounds. The main such factor is the presence or absence of functional groups that can be easily protonated/deprotonated, in addition to other factors such as size, methylation level, presence of heteroatoms, and ring structure. Overall, this study evidences the intrinsic limitations and benefits of each of the three sources, and should provide the fundamental knowledge required to expand the
Koten, G. van; Donkervoort, J.G.; Vicario, J.L.; Rijnberg, E.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Kooijman, H.; Spek, A.L.
1998-01-01
The heteroatom assisted lithiation of 1, 3-bis[1-(dimethylamino)ethyl]benzene with n-BuLi afforded 2,6-bis[1-(dimethylamino)ethyl]phenyllithium. An X-ray crystal structure determination revealed a dimeric aggregate in which the four benzylic chiral centers are identical, pointing to stereoselective
Viscous conformal gauge theories
Toniato, Arianna; Sannino, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H.
2017-01-01
We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories.......We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories....
Kozameh, C.N.; Newman, E.T.; Tod, K.P.
1985-01-01
Conformal transformations in four-dimensional. In particular, a new set of two necessary and sufficient conditions for a space to be conformal to an Einstein space is presented. The first condition defines the class of spaces conformal to C spaces, whereas the last one (the vanishing of the Bach tensor) gives the particular subclass of C spaces which are conformally related to Einstein spaces. (author)
Raje, A.; Liaw, S.J.; Chary, K.V.R.; Davis, B.H. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research
1995-03-16
The hydrotreatment of naphtha derived from Illinois No. 6 coal was investigated using molybdenum sulfide and nitride catalysts. The two catalysts are compared on the basis of total catalyst weight. Molybdenum sulfide is more active than molybdenum nitride for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of a coal-derived naphtha. The rate of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the naphtha over both catalysts are comparable. For hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), the sulfide is more active than the nitride only at higher temperatures ({gt}325{degree}C). Based upon conversion data, the naphtha can be lumped into a reactive and a less reactive fraction with each following first-order kinetics for heteroatom removal. The HDS and HDN rates and activation energies of the less reactive lump are smaller for the nitride than for the sulfide catalyst.
Ji, Guijie; Duan, Yanan; Zhang, Shaochun; Fei, Benhua; Chen, Xiufang; Yang, Yong
2017-09-11
Highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) immobilized on heteroatom-doped hierarchical porous carbon supports (N,O-carbon) with large specific surface areas are synthesized by a wet chemical reduction method. The N,O-carbon derived from naturally abundant bamboo shoots is fabricated by a tandem hydrothermal-carbonization process without assistance of any templates, chemical activation reagents, or exogenous N or O sources in a simple and ecofriendly manner. The prepared Pd/N,O-carbon catalyst shows extremely high activity and excellent chemoselectivity for semihydrogenation of a broad range of alkynes to versatile and valuable alkenes under ambient conditions. The catalyst can be readily recovered for successive reuse with negligible loss in activity and selectivity, and is also applicable for practical gram-scale reactions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Superspace conformal field theory
Quella, Thomas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2013-07-15
Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.
Superspace conformal field theory
Quella, Thomas
2013-07-01
Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.
Non-conformable, partial and conformable transposition
König, Thomas; Mäder, Lars Kai
2013-01-01
and the Commission regarding a directive’s outcome, play a much more strategic role than has to date acknowledged in the transposition literature. Whereas disagreement of a member state delays conformable transposition, it speeds up non-conformable transposition. Disagreement of the Commission only prolongs...... the transposition process. We therefore conclude that a stronger focus on an effective sanctioning mechanism is warranted for safeguarding compliance with directives....
The Biological Bases of Conformity
Morgan, T. J. H.; Laland, K. N.
2012-01-01
Humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information and recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favor adaptive learning strategies that facilitate effective copying and decision making. One strategy that has attracted particular attention is conformist transmission, defined as the disproportionately likely adoption of the most common variant. Conformity has historically been emphasized as significant in the social psychology literature, and recently there have also been reports of conformist behavior in non-human animals. However, mathematical analyses differ in how important and widespread they expect conformity to be, and relevant experimental work is scarce, and generates findings that are both mutually contradictory and inconsistent with the predictions of the models. We review the relevant literature considering the causation, function, history, and ontogeny of conformity, and describe a computer-based experiment on human subjects that we carried out in order to resolve ambiguities. We found that only when many demonstrators were available and subjects were uncertain was subject behavior conformist. A further analysis found that the underlying response to social information alone was generally conformist. Thus, our data are consistent with a conformist use of social information, but as subjects’ behavior is the result of both social and asocial influences, the resultant behavior may not be conformist. We end by relating these findings to an embryonic cognitive neuroscience literature that has recently begun to explore the neural bases of social learning. Here conformist transmission may be a particularly useful case study, not only because there are well-defined and tractable opportunities to characterize the biological underpinnings of this form of social learning, but also because early findings imply that humans may possess specific cognitive adaptations for effective social learning. PMID:22712006
The Biological Bases of Conformity
Thomas Joshau Henry Morgan
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information and recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favour adaptive learning strategies that facilitate effective use of social information in decision making. One strategy that has attracted particular attention is conformist transmission, defined as the disproportionately likely adoption of the most common variant. Conformity has historically been emphasized as significant in the social psychology literature, and recently there have also been reports of conformist behaviour in nonhuman animals. However, mathematical analyses differ in how important and widespread they expect conformity to be, and relevant experimental work is scarce, and generates findings that are both mutually contradictory and inconsistent with the predictions of the models. We review the relevant literature considering the causation, function, history and ontogeny of conformity and describe a computer-based experiment on human subjects that we carried out in order to resolve ambiguities. We found that only when many demonstrators were available and subjects were uncertain was subject behaviour conformist. A further analysis found that the underlying response to social information alone was generally conformist. Thus, our data are consistent with a conformist use of social information, but as subject’s behaviour is the result of both social and asocial influences, the resultant behaviour may not be conformist. We end by relating these findings to an embryonic cognitive neuroscience literature that has recently begun to explore the neural bases of social learning. Here conformist transmission may be a particularly useful case study, not only because there are well-defined and tractable opportunities to characterize the biological underpinnings of this form of social learning, but also because early findings imply that humans may possess specific cognitive adaptations for
Eisch, J.J.
1992-04-07
The ultimate objective of this research has been to uncover novel reagents and experimental conditions for heteroatom removal and hydrogen transfer processes, which would be applicable to the liquefaction of coal under low-severity conditions. To this end, one phase of this research has investigated the cleavage of carbon-heteroatom bonds involving sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and halogen by subvalent transition-metal complexes. A second phase of the study has assessed the capability of the same transition-metal complexes or of organoaluminum Lewis acids to catalyze the cleavage of carbon-hydrogen bonds in aromatics and hence to promote hydrogen shuttling. Finally, a third phase of our work has uncovered a remarkable synergistic effect of combinations of transition metals with organoaluminum Lewis acids on hydrogen shuttling between aromatics and hydroaromatics. (VC)
Performance of Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator in Aerothermal Environments
Thornton, Jeremy; Fan, Wendy; Stackpoole, Mairead; Kao, David; Skokova, Kristina; Chavez-Garcia, Jose
2012-01-01
Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator, a cousin of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a lightweight thermal protection system under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. PICA is made using a brittle carbon substrate, which has a very low strain to failure. Conformable PICA is made using a flexible carbon substrate, a felt in this case. The flexible felt significantly increases the strain to failure of the ablator. PICA is limited by its thermal mechanical properties. Future NASA missions will require heatshields that are more fracture resistant than PICA and, as a result, NASA Ames is working to improve PICA's performance by developing conformable PICA to meet these needs. Research efforts include tailoring the chemistry of conformable PICA with varying amounts of additives to enhance mechanical properties and testing them in aerothermal environments. This poster shows the performance of conformable PICA variants in arc jets tests. Some mechanical and thermal properties will also be presented.
Conformational stability and self-association equilibrium in biologics.
Clarkson, Benjamin R; Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto
2016-02-01
Biologics exist in equilibrium between native, partially denatured, and denatured conformational states. The population of any of these states is dictated by their Gibbs energy and can be altered by changes in physical and solution conditions. Some conformations have a tendency to self-associate and aggregate, an undesirable phenomenon in protein therapeutics. Conformational equilibrium and self-association are linked thermodynamic functions. Given that any associative reaction is concentration dependent, conformational stability studies performed at different protein concentrations can provide early clues to future aggregation problems. This analysis can be applied to the selection of protein variants or the identification of better formulation solutions. In this review, we discuss three different aggregation situations and their manifestation in the observed conformational equilibrium of a protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nicolle, Simon M; Hayes, Christopher J; Moody, Christopher J
2015-03-16
Highly reactive metal carbenes, generated from simple ketones via diazo compounds, including diazo-amides and -phosphonates, using a recyclable reagent in-flow, are transient but versatile electrophiles for heteroatom alkylation reactions and for epoxide formation. The method produces no organic waste, with the only by-products being water, KI and nitrogen, without the attendant hazards of isolation of intermediate diazo compounds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Wu, Zhong-Shuai; Parvez, Khaled; Winter, Andreas; Vieker, Henning; Liu, Xianjie; Han, Sheng; Turchanin, Andrey; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus
2014-07-09
Highly uniform, ultrathin, layer-by-layer heteroatom (N, B) co-doped graphene films are fabricated for high-performance on-chip planar micro-supercapacitors with an ultrahigh volumetric capacitance of ∼488 F cm(-3) and excellent rate capability due to the synergistic effect of nitrogen and boron co-doping. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Kimura, Kimito; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Kuwahara, Shigefumi; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Tode, Chisato; Wada, Akimori; Osakabe, Naomi; Suhara, Yoshitomo
2017-03-23
We synthesized novel vitamin K 2 analogues that incorporated a heteroatom and an aromatic ring in the side chain and evaluated their effect on the selective differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells into neurons in vitro. The results showed that a menaquinone-2 analogue bearing a p-fluoroaniline had the most potent activity, which was more than twice as great as the control. In addition, the neuronal selectivity was more than 3 times greater than the control.
Liu, Xiuyun; Zhang, Bo; Fei, Benhua; Chen, Xiufang; Zhang, Junyi; Mu, Xindong
2017-09-21
The search for and exploitation of efficient catalytic systems for selective conversion of furfural into various high value-added chemicals remains a huge challenge for green synthesis in the chemical industry. Here, novel Pt nanoparticles supported on bamboo shoot-derived porous heteroatom doped carbon materials were designed as highly active catalysts for controlled hydrogenation of furfural in aqueous media. The porous heteroatom doped carbon supported Pt catalysts were endowed with a large surface area with a hierarchical porous structure, a high content of nitrogen and oxygen functionalities, a high dispersion of the Pt nanoparticles, good water dispersibility and reaction stability. Benefiting from these features, the novel Pt catalysts displayed a high activity and controlled tunable selectivity for furfural hydrogenation to produce furfuryl alcohol and cyclopentanone in water. The product selectivity could be easily modulated by controlling the carbonization temperature of the porous heteroatom doped carbon support and the reaction conditions (temperature and H 2 pressure). Under mild conditions (100 °C, 1 MPa H 2 ), furfuryl alcohol was obtained in water with complete conversion of the furfural and an impressive furfuryl alcohol selectivity of >99% in the presence of Pt/NC-BS-500. A higher reaction temperature, in water, favored rearrangement of the furfural (FFA) with Pt/NC-BS-800 as the catalyst, which resulted in a high cyclopentanone yield of >76% at 150 °C and 3 MPa H 2 . The surface properties and pore structure of the heteroatom doped carbon support, adjusted using the carbonization temperature, might determine the interactions between the Pt nanoparticles, carbon support and catalytic reactants in water, which in turn could have led to a good selectivity control. The effect of different reaction temperatures and reaction times on the product selectivity was also explored. Combined with exploration of the distribution of the reaction products, a
Induced quantum conformal gravity
Novozhilov, Y.V.; Vassilevich, D.V.
1988-11-01
Quantum gravity is considered as induced by matter degrees of freedom and related to the symmetry breakdown in the low energy region of a non-Abelian gauge theory of fundamental fields. An effective action for quantum conformal gravity is derived where both the gravitational constant and conformal kinetic term are positive. Relation with induced classical gravity is established. (author). 15 refs
Thickenings and conformal gravity
Lebrun, Claude
1991-07-01
A twistor correspondence is given for complex conformal space-times with vanishing Bach and Eastwood-Dighton tensors; when the Weyl curvature is algebraically general, these equations are precisely the conformal version of Einstein's vacuum equations with cosmological constant. This gives a fully curved version of the linearized correspondence of Baston and Mason [B-M].
Thickenings and conformal gravity
LeBrun, C. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (USA). Dept. of Mathematics)
1991-07-01
A twistor correspondence is given for complex conformal space-times with vanishing Bach and Eastwood-Dighton tensors; when the Weyl curvature is algebraically general, these equations are precisely the conformal version of Einstein's vacuum equations with cosmological constant. This gives a fully curved version of the linearized correspondence of Baston and Mason (B-M). (orig.).
Thickenings and conformal gravity
LeBrun, C.
1991-01-01
A twistor correspondence is given for complex conformal space-times with vanishing Bach and Eastwood-Dighton tensors; when the Weyl curvature is algebraically general, these equations are precisely the conformal version of Einstein's vacuum equations with cosmological constant. This gives a fully curved version of the linearized correspondence of Baston and Mason [B-M]. (orig.)
Conformal transformations in superspace
Dao Vong Duc
1977-01-01
The spinor extension of the conformal algebra is investigated. The transformation law of superfields under the conformal coordinate inversion R defined in the superspace is derived. Using R-technique, the superconformally covariant two-point and three-point correlation functions are found
Conformational stability of calreticulin
Jørgensen, C.S.; Trandum, C.; Larsen, N.
2005-01-01
The conformational stability of calreticulin was investigated. Apparent unfolding temperatures (T-m) increased from 31 degrees C at pH 5 to 51 degrees C at pH 9, but electrophoretic analysis revealed that calreticulin oligomerized instead of unfolding. Structural analyses showed that the single C......-terminal a-helix was of major importance to the conformational stability of calreticulin....
Liu, Sisi; Wang, Mengfan; Sun, Xinyi; Xu, Na; Liu, Jie; Wang, Yuzhou; Qian, Tao; Yan, Chenglin
2018-01-01
Driven by the intensified demand for energy storage systems with high-power density and safety, all-solid-state zinc-air batteries have drawn extensive attention. However, the electrocatalyst active sites and the underlying mechanisms occurring in zinc-air batteries remain confusing due to the lack of in situ analytical techniques. In this work, the in situ observations, including X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, of a heteroatom-doped carbon air cathode are reported, in which the chemisorption of oxygen molecules and oxygen-containing intermediates on the carbon material can be facilitated by the electron deficiency caused by heteroatom doping, thus improving the oxygen reaction activity for zinc-air batteries. As expected, solid-state zinc-air batteries equipped with such air cathodes exhibit superior reversibility and durability. This work thus provides a profound understanding of the reaction principles of heteroatom-doped carbon materials in zinc-air batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Feuvret, Loic; Noel, Georges; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Bey, Pierre
2006-01-01
We present a critical analysis of the conformity indices described in the literature and an evaluation of their field of application. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, with or without intensity modulation, is based on medical imaging techniques, three-dimensional dosimetry software, compression accessories, and verification procedures. It consists of delineating target volumes and critical healthy tissues to select the best combination of beams. This approach allows better adaptation of the isodose to the tumor volume, while limiting irradiation of healthy tissues. Tools must be developed to evaluate the quality of proposed treatment plans. Dosimetry software provides the dose distribution in each CT section and dose-volume histograms without really indicating the degree of conformity. The conformity index is a complementary tool that attributes a score to a treatment plan or that can compare several treatment plans for the same patient. The future of conformal index in everyday practice therefore remains unclear
Lei, Shuijin; Chen, Lianfu; Zhou, Wei; Deng, Peiqin; Liu, Yan; Fei, Linfeng; Lu, Wei; Xiao, Yanhe; Cheng, Baochang
2018-03-01
Carbon materials are deemed to be competitive candidate electrode materials for energy storage systems. It is still a great challenge to explore advanced carbon-based electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors by a facile, economical and efficient method. In this work, N-, P-, S-, O-self-doped carbon nanosheets with high surface area and well-developed porosity are successfully prepared by pyrolysis carbonization and post KOH activation from silkworm excrement, a novel abundant, low-cost and eco-friendly agricultural waste. Thanks to their unique multi-heteroatom doping and porous structure, the obtained carbon materials exhibit high charge storage capacity with a specific capacitance of 401 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1 in 6 M KOH and good cycling stability with a capacitance retention of 93.8% over 10000 cycles. A symmetric supercapacitor device using 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous solution as the electrolyte can deliver a specific capacitance of 41.7 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1, and a high energy density of 23.17 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 500 W kg-1 with a wide voltage window of 2.0 V. This work develops a new strategy to produce favorable carbon-based electrode materials for supercapacitors with high electrochemical performances.
Conformal invariance in supergravity
Bergshoeff, E.A.
1983-01-01
In this thesis the author explains the role of conformal invariance in supergravity. He presents the complete structure of extended conformal supergravity for N <= 4. The outline of this work is as follows. In chapter 2 he briefly summarizes the essential properties of supersymmetry and supergravity and indicates the use of conformal invariance in supergravity. The idea that the introduction of additional symmetry transformations can make clear the structure of a field theory is not reserved to supergravity only. By means of some simple examples it is shown in chapter 3 how one can always introduce additional gauge transformations in a theory of massive vector fields. Moreover it is shown how the gauge invariant formulation sometimes explains the quantum mechanical properties of the theory. In chapter 4 the author defines the conformal transformations and summarizes their main properties. He explains how these conformal transformations can be used to analyse the structure of gravity. The supersymmetric extension of these results is discussed in chapter 5. Here he describes as an example how N=1 supergravity can be reformulated in a conformally-invariant way. He also shows that beyond N=1 the gauge fields of the superconformal symmetries do not constitute an off-shell field representation of extended conformal supergravity. Therefore, in chapter 6, a systematic method to construct the off-shell formulation of all extended conformal supergravity theories with N <= 4 is developed. As an example he uses this method to construct N=1 conformal supergravity. Finally, in chapter 7 N=4 conformal supergravity is discussed. (Auth.)
Conformal expansions and renormalons
Rathsman, J.
2000-02-07
The coefficients in perturbative expansions in gauge theories are factorially increasing, predominantly due to renormalons. This type of factorial increase is not expected in conformal theories. In QCD conformal relations between observables can be defined in the presence of a perturbative infrared fixed-point. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion the authors study the effect of the large-order behavior of the perturbative series on the conformal coefficients. The authors find that in general these coefficients become factorially increasing. However, when the factorial behavior genuinely originates in a renormalon integral, as implied by a postulated skeleton expansion, it does not affect the conformal coefficients. As a consequence, the conformal coefficients will indeed be free of renormalon divergence, in accordance with previous observations concerning the smallness of these coefficients for specific observables. The authors further show that the correspondence of the BLM method with the skeleton expansion implies a unique scale-setting procedure. The BLM coefficients can be interpreted as the conformal coefficients in the series relating the fixed-point value of the observable with that of the skeleton effective charge. Through the skeleton expansion the relevance of renormalon-free conformal coefficients extends to real-world QCD.
Conformal sequestering simplified
Schmaltz, Martin; Sundrum, Raman
2006-01-01
Sequestering is important for obtaining flavor-universal soft masses in models where supersymmetry breaking is mediated at high scales. We construct a simple and robust class of hidden sector models which sequester themselves from the visible sector due to strong and conformally invariant hidden dynamics. Masses for hidden matter eventually break the conformal symmetry and lead to supersymmetry breaking by the mechanism recently discovered by Intriligator, Seiberg and Shih. We give a unified treatment of subtleties due to global symmetries of the CFT. There is enough review for the paper to constitute a self-contained account of conformal sequestering
Conformally connected universes
Cantor, M.; Piran, T.
1983-01-01
A well-known difficulty associated with the conformal method for the solution of the general relativistic Hamiltonian constraint is the appearance of an aphysical ''bag of gold'' singularity at the nodal surface of the conformal factor. This happens whenever the background Ricci scalar is too large. Using a simple model, it is demonstrated that some of these singular solutions do have a physical meaning, and that these can be considered as initial data for Universe containing black holes, which are connected, in a conformally nonsingular way with each other. The relation between the ADM mass and the horizon area in this solution supports the cosmic censorship conjecture. (author)
Kalscheuer, Vera M.; Hennig, Friederike; Leonard, Helen; Downs, Jenny; Clarke, Angus; Benke, Tim A.; Armstrong, Judith; Pineda, Mercedes; Bailey, Mark E.S.; Cobb, Stuart R.
2017-01-01
Objective: To provide new insights into the interpretation of genetic variants in a rare neurologic disorder, CDKL5 deficiency, in the contexts of population sequencing data and an updated characterization of the CDKL5 gene. Methods: We analyzed all known potentially pathogenic CDKL5 variants by combining data from large-scale population sequencing studies with CDKL5 variants from new and all available clinical cohorts and combined this with computational methods to predict pathogenicity. Results: The study has identified several variants that can be reclassified as benign or likely benign. With the addition of novel CDKL5 variants, we confirm that pathogenic missense variants cluster in the catalytic domain of CDKL5 and reclassify a purported missense variant as having a splicing consequence. We provide further evidence that missense variants in the final 3 exons are likely to be benign and not important to disease pathology. We also describe benign splicing and nonsense variants within these exons, suggesting that isoform hCDKL5_5 is likely to have little or no neurologic significance. We also use the available data to make a preliminary estimate of minimum incidence of CDKL5 deficiency. Conclusions: These findings have implications for genetic diagnosis, providing evidence for the reclassification of specific variants previously thought to result in CDKL5 deficiency. Together, these analyses support the view that the predominant brain isoform in humans (hCDKL5_1) is crucial for normal neurodevelopment and that the catalytic domain is the primary functional domain. PMID:29264392
Conformable variational iteration method
Omer Acan
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In this study, we introduce the conformable variational iteration method based on new defined fractional derivative called conformable fractional derivative. This new method is applied two fractional order ordinary differential equations. To see how the solutions of this method, linear homogeneous and non-linear non-homogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations are selected. Obtained results are compared the exact solutions and their graphics are plotted to demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the method.
Delineating the conformal window
Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael
2011-01-01
We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....
Sheng, Haiyang; Wei, Min; D'Aloia, Alyssa; Wu, Gang
2016-11-09
Current supercapacitors suffer from low energy density mainly due to the high degree of microporosity and insufficient hydrophilicity of their carbon electrodes. Development of a supercapacitor capable of simultaneously storing as much energy as a battery, along with providing sufficient power and long cycle stability would be valued for energy storage applications and innovations. Differing from commonly studied reduced graphene oxides, in this work we identified an inexpensive heteroatom polymer (polyaniline-PANI) as a carbon/nitrogen precursor, and applied a controlled thermal treatment at elevated temperature to convert PANI into 3D high-surface-area graphene-sheet-like carbon materials. During the carbonization process, various transition metals including Fe, Co, and Ni were added, which play critical roles in both catalyzing the graphitization and serving as pore forming agents. Factors including post-treatments, heating temperatures, and types of metal were found crucial for achieving enhanced capacitance performance on resulting carbon materials. Using FeCl 3 as precursor along with optimal heating temperature 1000 °C and mixed acid treatment (HCl+HNO 3 ), the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 1645 m 2 g -1 was achieved on the mesopore dominant graphene-sheet-like carbon materials. The unique morphologies featured with high-surface areas, dominant mesopores, proper nitrogen doping, and 3D graphene-like structures correspond to remarkably enhanced electrochemical specific capacitance up to 478 Fg -1 in 1.0 M KOH at a scan rate of 5 mV s -1 . Furthermore, in a real two-electrode system of a symmetric supercapacitor, a specific capacitance of 235 Fg -1 using Nafion binder is obtained under a current density of 1 Ag -1 by galvanostatic charge-discharge tests in 6.0 M KOH. Long-term cycle stability up to 5000 cycles by using PVDF binder in electrode was systematically evaluated as a function of types of metals and current densities.
Abdelmoaty, Yomna H; Tessema, Tsemre-Dingel; Norouzi, Nazgol; El-Kadri, Oussama M; Turner, Joseph B McGee; El-Kaderi, Hani M
2017-10-18
Development of efficient sorbents for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture from flue gas or its removal from natural gas and landfill gas is very important for environmental protection. A new series of heteroatom-doped porous carbon was synthesized directly from pyrazole/KOH by thermolysis. The resulting pyrazole-derived carbons (PYDCs) are highly doped with nitrogen (14.9-15.5 wt %) as a result of the high nitrogen-to-carbon ratio in pyrazole (43 wt %) and also have a high oxygen content (16.4-18.4 wt %). PYDCs have a high surface area (SA BET = 1266-2013 m 2 g -1 ), high CO 2 Q st (33.2-37.1 kJ mol -1 ), and a combination of mesoporous and microporous pores. PYDCs exhibit significantly high CO 2 uptakes that reach 2.15 and 6.06 mmol g -1 at 0.15 and 1 bar, respectively, at 298 K. At 273 K, the CO 2 uptake improves to 3.7 and 8.59 mmol g -1 at 0.15 and 1 bar, respectively. The reported porous carbons also show significantly high adsorption selectivity for CO 2 /N 2 (128) and CO 2 /CH 4 (13.4) according to ideal adsorbed solution theory calculations at 298 K. Gas breakthrough studies of CO 2 /N 2 (10:90) at 298 K showed that PYDCs display excellent separation properties. The ability to tailor the physical properties of PYDCs as well as their chemical composition provides an effective strategy for designing efficient CO 2 sorbents.
Conformity and statistical tolerancing
Leblond, Laurent; Pillet, Maurice
2018-02-01
Statistical tolerancing was first proposed by Shewhart (Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product, (1931) reprinted 1980 by ASQC), in spite of this long history, its use remains moderate. One of the probable reasons for this low utilization is undoubtedly the difficulty for designers to anticipate the risks of this approach. The arithmetic tolerance (worst case) allows a simple interpretation: conformity is defined by the presence of the characteristic in an interval. Statistical tolerancing is more complex in its definition. An interval is not sufficient to define the conformance. To justify the statistical tolerancing formula used by designers, a tolerance interval should be interpreted as the interval where most of the parts produced should probably be located. This tolerance is justified by considering a conformity criterion of the parts guaranteeing low offsets on the latter characteristics. Unlike traditional arithmetic tolerancing, statistical tolerancing requires a sustained exchange of information between design and manufacture to be used safely. This paper proposes a formal definition of the conformity, which we apply successively to the quadratic and arithmetic tolerancing. We introduce a concept of concavity, which helps us to demonstrate the link between tolerancing approach and conformity. We use this concept to demonstrate the various acceptable propositions of statistical tolerancing (in the space decentring, dispersion).
Axiomatic conformal field theory
Gaberdiel, M.R.; Goddard, P.
2000-01-01
A new rigourous approach to conformal field theory is presented. The basic objects are families of complex-valued amplitudes, which define a meromorphic conformal field theory (or chiral algebra) and which lead naturally to the definition of topological vector spaces, between which vertex operators act as continuous operators. In fact, in order to develop the theory, Moebius invariance rather than full conformal invariance is required but it is shown that every Moebius theory can be extended to a conformal theory by the construction of a Virasoro field. In this approach, a representation of a conformal field theory is naturally defined in terms of a family of amplitudes with appropriate analytic properties. It is shown that these amplitudes can also be derived from a suitable collection of states in the meromorphic theory. Zhu's algebra then appears naturally as the algebra of conditions which states defining highest weight representations must satisfy. The relationship of the representations of Zhu's algebra to the classification of highest weight representations is explained. (orig.)
Lu, Mingjie; Yu, Wenhua; Shi, Jing; Liu, Wei; Chen, Shougang; Wang, Xin; Wang, Huanlei
2017-01-01
Highlights: •Self-doped carbon architectures with nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur are derived from Carrageen. •The obtained carbon materials exhibit excellent electrochemical property. •The strategy provides a one-step synthesis route to design advanced anodes for batteries. -- Abstract: Nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur tridoped porous carbons have been successfully synthesized from natural biomass algae-Carrageen by using a simultaneous carbonization and activation procedure. The doped carbons with sponge-like interconnected architecture, partially ordered graphitic structure, and abundant heteroatom doping perform outstanding features for electrochemical energy storage. When tested as lithium-ion battery anodes, a high reversible capacity of 839 mAh g −1 can be obtained at the current density of 0.1 A g −1 after 100 cycles, while a high capacity of 228 mAh g −1 can be maintained at 10 A g −1 . Tested against sodium, a high specific capacity of 227 can be delivered at 0.1 A g −1 after 100 cycles, while a high capacity of 109 mAh g −1 can be achieved at 10 A g −1 . These results turn out that the doped carbons would be potential anode materials for lithium- and sodium-ion batteries, which can be achieved by a one-step and large-scale synthesis route. Our observation indicates that heteroatom doping (especially sulfur) can significantly promote ion storage and reduce irreversible ion trapping to some extent. This work gives a general route for designing carbon nanostructures with heteroatom doping for efficient energy storage.
Variants of cellobiohydrolases
Bott, Richard R.; Foukaraki, Maria; Hommes, Ronaldus Wilhelmus; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley R.; Kralj, Slavko; Nikolaev, Igor; Sandgren, Mats; Van Lieshout, Johannes Franciscus Thomas; Van Stigt Thans, Sander
2018-04-10
Disclosed are a number of homologs and variants of Hypocrea jecorina Ce17A (formerly Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I or CBH1), nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The homologs and variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted and/or deleted.
Goddard, Peter
1990-01-01
The algebra of the group of conformal transformations in two dimensions consists of two commuting copies of the Virasoro algebra. In many mathematical and physical contexts, the representations of ν which are relevant satisfy two conditions: they are unitary and they have the ''positive energy'' property that L o is bounded below. In an irreducible unitary representation the central element c takes a fixed real value. In physical contexts, the value of c is a characteristic of a theory. If c < 1, it turns out that the conformal algebra is sufficient to ''solve'' the theory, in the sense of relating the calculation of the infinite set of physically interesting quantities to a finite subset which can be handled in principle. For c ≥ 1, this is no longer the case for the algebra alone and one needs some sort of extended conformal algebra, such as the superconformal algebra. It is these algebras that this paper aims at addressing. (author)
Algebraic conformal field theory
Fuchs, J.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica
1991-11-01
Many conformal field theory features are special versions of structures which are present in arbitrary 2-dimensional quantum field theories. So it makes sense to describe 2-dimensional conformal field theories in context of algebraic theory of superselection sectors. While most of the results of the algebraic theory are rather abstract, conformal field theories offer the possibility to work out many formulae explicitly. In particular, one can construct the full algebra A-bar of global observables and the endomorphisms of A-bar which represent the superselection sectors. Some explicit results are presented for the level 1 so(N) WZW theories; the algebra A-bar is found to be the enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra L-bar which is an extension of the chiral symmetry algebra of the WZW theory. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs
Logarithmic conformal field theory
Gainutdinov, Azat; Ridout, David; Runkel, Ingo
2013-12-01
theories including those with boundaries, supersymmetry and galilean relativity. Gurarie has written an historical overview of his seminal contributions to this field, putting his results (and those of his collaborators) in the context of understanding applications to condensed matter physics. This includes the link between the non-diagonalisability of L0 and logarithmic singularities, a study of the c → 0 catastrophe, and a proposed resolution involving supersymmetric partners for the stress-energy tensor and its logarithmic partner field. Henkel and Rouhani describe a direction in which logarithmic singularities are observed in correlators of non-relativistic field theories. Their review covers the appropriate modifications of conformal invariance that are appropriate to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, strongly anisotropic critical points and certain variants of TMG. The main variation away from the standard relativistic idea of conformal invariance is that time is explicitly distinguished from space when considering dilations and this leads to a variety of algebraic structures to explore. In this review, the link between non-diagonalisable representations and logarithmic singularities in correlators is generalised to these algebras, before two applications of the theory are discussed. Huang and Lepowsky give a non-technical overview of their work on braided tensor structures on suitable categories of representations of vertex operator algebras. They also place their work in historic context and compare it to related approaches. The authors sketch their construction of the so-called P(z)-tensor product of modules of a vertex operator algebra, and the construction of the associativity isomorphisms for this tensor product. They proceed to give a guide to their works leading to the first authorrsquo;s proof of modularity for a class of vertex operator algebras, and to their works, joint with Zhang, on logarithmic intertwining operators and the resulting tensor
Killing tensors and conformal Killing tensors from conformal Killing vectors
Rani, Raffaele; Edgar, S Brian; Barnes, Alan
2003-01-01
Koutras has proposed some methods to construct reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors (which are, in general, irreducible) when a pair of orthogonal conformal Killing vectors exist in a given space. We give the completely general result demonstrating that this severe restriction of orthogonality is unnecessary. In addition, we correct and extend some results concerning Killing tensors constructed from a single conformal Killing vector. A number of examples demonstrate that it is possible to construct a much larger class of reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors than permitted by the Koutras algorithms. In particular, by showing that all conformal Killing tensors are reducible in conformally flat spaces, we have a method of constructing all conformal Killing tensors, and hence all the Killing tensors (which will in general be irreducible) of conformally flat spaces using their conformal Killing vectors
Faria, F. F.
2014-01-01
We construct a massive theory of gravity that is invariant under conformal transformations. The massive action of the theory depends on the metric tensor and a scalar field, which are considered the only field variables. We find the vacuum field equations of the theory and analyze its weak-field approximation and Newtonian limit.
Moore, G.; Seiberg, N.
1989-01-01
All known rational conformal field theories may be obtained from (2+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theories by appropriate choice of gauge group. We conjecture that all rational field theories are classified by groups via (2+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theories. (orig.)
Maia, M.D.
2006-01-01
It is shown that the information loss/recovery theorem based on the ADS/CFT correspondence is not consistent with the stability of the Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrom black holes. Nonetheless, the conformal invariance of Yang-Mills theory points to new relativity principle compatible with quantum unitarity near those black holes
Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?
van Schaik, Carel P
2012-05-22
Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parafermionic conformal field theory
Kurak, V.
1989-09-01
Conformal parafermionic field theories are reviewed with emphasis on the computation of their OPE estructure constants. It is presented a simple computational of these for the Z(N) parafermions, unveilling their Lie algebra content. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Quantifying polypeptide conformational space: sensitivity to conformation and ensemble definition.
Sullivan, David C; Lim, Carmay
2006-08-24
Quantifying the density of conformations over phase space (the conformational distribution) is needed to model important macromolecular processes such as protein folding. In this work, we quantify the conformational distribution for a simple polypeptide (N-mer polyalanine) using the cumulative distribution function (CDF), which gives the probability that two randomly selected conformations are separated by less than a "conformational" distance and whose inverse gives conformation counts as a function of conformational radius. An important finding is that the conformation counts obtained by the CDF inverse depend critically on the assignment of a conformation's distance span and the ensemble (e.g., unfolded state model): varying ensemble and conformation definition (1 --> 2 A) varies the CDF-based conformation counts for Ala(50) from 10(11) to 10(69). In particular, relatively short molecular dynamics (MD) relaxation of Ala(50)'s random-walk ensemble reduces the number of conformers from 10(55) to 10(14) (using a 1 A root-mean-square-deviation radius conformation definition) pointing to potential disconnections in comparing the results from simplified models of unfolded proteins with those from all-atom MD simulations. Explicit waters are found to roughen the landscape considerably. Under some common conformation definitions, the results herein provide (i) an upper limit to the number of accessible conformations that compose unfolded states of proteins, (ii) the optimal clustering radius/conformation radius for counting conformations for a given energy and solvent model, (iii) a means of comparing various studies, and (iv) an assessment of the applicability of random search in protein folding.
Cai, Yijin; Luo, Ying; Xiao, Yong; Zhao, Xiao; Liang, Yeru; Hu, Hang; Dong, Hanwu; Sun, Luyi; Liu, Yingliang; Zheng, Mingtao
2016-12-07
In this paper, we demonstrate that Moringa oleifera branches, a renewable biomass waste with abundant protein content, can be employed as novel precursor to synthesize three-dimensional heteroatom-doped and hierarchical egg-box-like carbons (HEBLCs) by a facile room-temperature pretreatment and direct pyrolysis process. The as-prepared HEBLCs possess unique egg-box-like frameworks, high surface area, and interconnected porosity as well as the doping of heteroatoms (oxygen and nitrogen), endowing its excellent electrochemical performances (superior capacity, high rate capability, and outstanding cycling stability). Therefore, the resultant HEBLC manifests a maximum specific capacitance of 355 F g -1 at current density of 0.5 A g -1 and remarkable rate performance. Moreover, 95% of capacitance retention of HEBLCs can be also achieved after 20 000 charge-discharge cycles at an extremely high current density (20 A g -1 ), indicating a prominent cycling stability. Furthermore, the as-assembled HEBLC//HEBLC symmetric supercapacitor displays a superior energy density of 20 Wh kg -1 in aqueous electrolyte and remarkable capacitance retention (95.6%) after 10 000 charge-discharge cycles. This work provides an environmentally friendly and reliable method to produce higher-valued carbon nanomaterials from renewable biomass wastes for energy storage applications.
Goldfarb, Jillian L.; Suuberg, Eric M.
2008-01-01
Knowledge of vapor pressures of high molar mass organics is essential to predicting their behavior in combustion systems as well as their fate and transport within the environment. This study involved polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) containing halogen hetero-atoms, including bromine and chlorine. The vapor pressures of eight PACs, ranging in molar mass from (212 to 336) g . mol -1 , were measured using the isothermal Knudsen effusion technique over the temperature range of (296 to 408) K. These compounds included those with few or no data available in the literature, namely: 1,4-dibromonaphthalene, 5-bromoacenaphthene, 9-bromoanthracene, 1,5-dibromoanthracene, 9,10-dibromoanthracene, 2-chloroanthracene, 9,10-dichloroanthracene, and 1-bromopyrene. Enthalpies of sublimation of these compounds were determined via application of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. An analysis is presented on the effects of the addition of halogen hetero-atoms to pure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using these data as well as available literature data. As expected, the addition of halogens onto these PACs increases their enthalpies of sublimation and decreases their vapor pressures as compared to the parent compounds
Ismail, K.; Sirkecioglu, O.; Andresen, J.M.; Brown, S.D.; Hall, P.J.; Snape, C.E. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry
1996-09-01
In order to probe the formation of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing gases during the pyrolysis and combustion of coals and other solid fuels, non-softening model substrates are required. In this respect phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins are ideal since they readily facilitate the incorporation of individual heteroatomic functions into a highly crosslinked matrix. A series of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing co-resites were prepared using phenol with, as the second component, thiophene, dibenzothiophene, diphenylsulfide, benzyl phenyl sulfide, thioanisole, 8-hydroxyquinoline and 2-hydroxycarbazole. A mole ratio of 3:1 (phenol: heteroatom-containing component) was used. Resoles containing diphenyldisulfide were also prepared but, due to the comparable bond strengths of the S-S and C-O linkages, a curing temperature of only 130{degree}C was used to avoid cleavage of the disulfide bond. The virtually complete elimination of ether and methylol functions from the resoles by curing at 200{degree}C was monitored by solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The resultant resites were also characterized by sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Simple air oxidation was found to selectively convert the aliphatic-bound sulfur to a mixture of sulfones and sulfoxides. Applications of the resites in fuel science are described.
Pouya Karimi
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Stability of the π-π stacking interactions in the Ben||N-substituted-coronene complexes was stu-died using the computational quantum chemistry methods (where Ben is benzene and || denotes π-π stacking interaction, and N-substituted-coronene is coronene molecule which substituted with different number of N atoms. The results reveal simultaneous effects of structure and number of Heteroatom on the π-π stacking interactions with N-substituted-coronenes. Changing the number of Heteroatom N in N-substituted-coronenes and substitution of 8N-coronene with electron-withdrawing or electron-donating X groups alter the electron charge density at rings of this molecule and leads to different binding energies in the Ben||X-8N-substituted-coronene com-plexes. Results indicate that electron-withdrawing groups lead to higher π–π stacking binding energies compared to electron-donating ones in the Ben||X-8N-substituted-coronene complexes.
... Headaches in Children FAQ Migraine Variants In Children Children Get Migraines Too! Learn More Migraine Information Find Help Doctors & Resources Get Connected Join the Conversation Follow Us on Social Media Company About News Resources Privacy Policy Contact Phone: ...
Transportation Conformity Training and Presentations
EPA's OTAQ has provided multiple conformity training sessions in the past to assist state and local governments in implementing conformity requirements. As training information is prepared for other venues, it will be posted on this page.
Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2010-01-01
of flavors. Surprisingly this number, if computed to the order g^2, agrees with previous predictions for the lower boundary of the conformal window for nonsupersymmetric gauge theories. The higher order results tend to predict a higher number of critical flavors. These are universal properties, i......We compute the nonzero temperature free energy up to the order g^6 \\ln(1/g) in the coupling constant for vector like SU(N) gauge theories featuring matter transforming according to different representations of the underlying gauge group. The number of matter fields, i.e. flavors, is arranged...... in such a way that the theory develops a perturbative stable infrared fixed point at zero temperature. Due to large distance conformality we trade the coupling constant with its fixed point value and define a reduced free energy which depends only on the number of flavors, colors and matter representation. We...
Conformational flexibility of aspartame.
Toniolo, Claudio; Temussi, Pierandrea
2016-05-01
L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester, better known as aspartame, is not only one of the most used artificial sweeteners, but also a very interesting molecule with respect to the correlation between molecular structure and taste. The extreme conformational flexibility of this dipeptide posed a huge difficulty when researchers tried to use it as a lead compound to design new sweeteners. In particular, it was difficult to take advantage of its molecular model as a mold to infer the shape of the, then unknown, active site of the sweet taste receptor. Here, we follow the story of the 3D structural aspects of aspartame from early conformational studies to recent docking into homology models of the receptor. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 376-384, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Conformal description of spinning particles
Todorov, I.T.
1986-01-01
This book is an introduction to the application of the conformal group to quantum field theory of particles with spin. After an introduction to the twistor representations of the conformal group of a conformally flat space-time and twistor flag manifolds with Su(2,2) orbits the classical phase space of conformal spinning particles is described. Thereafter the twistor description of classical zero mass fields is considered together with the quantization. (HSI)
Conformal boundaries of warped products
Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby
2006-01-01
In this note we prove a result on how to determine the conformal boundary of a type of warped product of two length spaces in terms of the individual conformal boundaries. In the situation, that we treat, the warping and conformal distortion functions are functions of distance to a base point....... The result is applied to produce examples of CAT(0)-spaces, where the conformal and ideal boundaries differ in interesting ways....
Conformal radiotherapy: a glossary
Dubray, B.; Giraud, P.; Beaudre, A.
1999-01-01
Most of the concepts and terms related to conformal radiotherapy were produced by English-speaking authors and eventually validated by international groups of experts, whose working language was also English. Therefore, a significant part of this literature is poorly accessible to the French-speaking radiation oncology community. The present paper gathers the 'official' definitions already published in French, along with propositions for the remaining terms which should be submitted to a more formal and representative validation process. (author)
Conformational analysis by intersection: CONAN.
Smellie, Andrew; Stanton, Robert; Henne, Randy; Teig, Steve
2003-01-15
As high throughput techniques in chemical synthesis and screening improve, more demands are placed on computer assisted design and virtual screening. Many of these computational methods require one or more three-dimensional conformations for molecules, creating a demand for a conformational analysis tool that can rapidly and robustly cover the low-energy conformational spaces of small molecules. A new algorithm of intersection is presented here, which quickly generates (on average heuristics are applied after intersection to generate a small representative collection of conformations that span the conformational space. In a study of approximately 97,000 randomly selected molecules from the MDDR, results are presented that explore these conformations and their ability to cover low-energy conformational space. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 24: 10-20, 2003
Conformal superalgebras via tractor calculus
Lischewski, Andree
2015-01-01
We use the manifestly conformally invariant description of a Lorentzian conformal structure in terms of a parabolic Cartan geometry in order to introduce a superalgebra structure on the space of twistor spinors and normal conformal vector fields formulated in purely algebraic terms on parallel sections in tractor bundles. Via a fixed metric in the conformal class, one reproduces a conformal superalgebra structure that has been considered in the literature before. The tractor approach, however, makes clear that the failure of this object to be a Lie superalgebra in certain cases is due to purely algebraic identities on the spinor module and to special properties of the conformal holonomy representation. Moreover, it naturally generalizes to higher signatures. This yields new formulas for constructing new twistor spinors and higher order normal conformal Killing forms out of existing ones, generalizing the well-known spinorial Lie derivative. Moreover, we derive restrictions on the possible dimension of the space of twistor spinors in any metric signature.
Classical extended conformal symmetries
Viswanathan, R.
1990-02-01
Extensions of the Virasoro algebra are constructed as Poisson brackets of higher spin fields which appear as coefficient fields in certain covariant derivative operators of order N. These differential operators are constructed so as to be covariant under reparametrizations on fields of definite conformal dimension. Factorization of such an N-th order operator in terms of first order operators, together with the inclusion of a spin one U(1) current, is shown to lead to a two-parameter W-algebra. One of these parameters plays the role of interpolating between W-algebras based on different Lie algebras of the same rank. (author). 11 refs
Variante de Dandy Walker: relato de caso = Dandy Walker variant: a case report
Khan, Richard Lester
2009-01-01
Conclusões: este artigo procura caracterizar a variante de Dandy Walker, que é uma malformação congênita do sistema nervoso central e é o tipo mais comum da Síndrome de Dandy Walker. Seu fenótipo é variável, devendo-se sempre pesquisar malformações tanto intra quanto extracranianas, visto que o risco de mortalidade pós-natal aumenta quando existe esta associação. O tratamento envolve equipe multidisciplinar e o prognóstico é reservado, variando conforme o fenótipo
Conformally symmetric traversable wormholes
Boehmer, Christian G.; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2007-01-01
Exact solutions of traversable wormholes are found under the assumption of spherical symmetry and the existence of a nonstatic conformal symmetry, which presents a more systematic approach in searching for exact wormhole solutions. In this work, a wide variety of solutions are deduced by considering choices for the form function, a specific linear equation of state relating the energy density and the pressure anisotropy, and various phantom wormhole geometries are explored. A large class of solutions impose that the spatial distribution of the exotic matter is restricted to the throat neighborhood, with a cutoff of the stress-energy tensor at a finite junction interface, although asymptotically flat exact solutions are also found. Using the 'volume integral quantifier', it is found that the conformally symmetric phantom wormhole geometries may, in principle, be constructed by infinitesimally small amounts of averaged null energy condition violating matter. Considering the tidal acceleration traversability conditions for the phantom wormhole geometry, specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity are also deduced
Supergravitational conformal Galileons
Deen, Rehan; Ovrut, Burt
2017-08-01
The worldvolume actions of 3+1 dimensional bosonic branes embedded in a five-dimensional bulk space can lead to important effective field theories, such as the DBI conformal Galileons, and may, when the Null Energy Condition is violated, play an essential role in cosmological theories of the early universe. These include Galileon Genesis and "bouncing" cosmology, where a pre-Big Bang contracting phase bounces smoothly to the presently observed expanding universe. Perhaps the most natural arena for such branes to arise is within the context of superstring and M -theory vacua. Here, not only are branes required for the consistency of the theory, but, in many cases, the exact spectrum of particle physics occurs at low energy. However, such theories have the additional constraint that they must be N = 1 supersymmetric. This motivates us to compute the worldvolume actions of N = 1 supersymmetric three-branes, first in flat superspace and then to generalize them to N = 1 supergravitation. In this paper, for simplicity, we begin the process, not within the context of a superstring vacuum but, rather, for the conformal Galileons arising on a co-dimension one brane embedded in a maximally symmetric AdS 5 bulk space. We proceed to N = 1 supersymmetrize the associated worldvolume theory and then generalize the results to N = 1 supergravity, opening the door to possible new cosmological scenarios
Ward identities for conformal models
Lazzarini, S.; Stora, R.
1988-01-01
Ward identities which express the symmetry of conformal models are treated. Diffeomorphism invariance or locally holomorphic coordinate transformations are used. Diffeomorphism invariance is then understood in terms of Riemannian geometry. Two different sets of Ward identities expressing diffeomorphism invariance in a conformally invariant way are found for the free bosonic string. Using a geometrical argument, the correct invariance for a large class of conformal models is given
Conformational analysis of lignin models
Santos, Helio F. dos
2001-01-01
The conformational equilibrium for two 5,5' biphenyl lignin models have been analyzed using a quantum mechanical semiempirical method. The gas phase and solution structures are discussed based on the NMR and X-ray experimental data. The results obtained showed that the observed conformations are solvent-dependent, being the geometries and the thermodynamic properties correlated with the experimental information. This study shows how a systematic theoretical conformational analysis can help to understand chemical processes at a molecular level. (author)
On the linear conformal gravitation
Pal'chik, M.Ya.; Fradkin, E.S.
1984-01-01
Conformal gravitation is analyzed under the assumption that its solution possesses the property of conformal symmetry. This assumption has sense in the case of small distances and only for definite types of matter fields, namely: at special choice of matter fields and their interactions, providing a lack of conformal anomalies; or at definite magnitudes of binding constants, coinciding with the zeroes of the Gell-Mann-Low function. The field equations, of the group-theoretical natura are obtained
Fermion-scalar conformal blocks
Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2016-04-13
We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.
Instantons in conformal gravity
Strominger, A.; Horowitz, G.T.; Perry, M.J.
1984-01-01
Fe study extrema of the general conformally invariant action: Ssub(c)=∫1/sub(α) 2 Csup(abcd)Csub(abcd)+γRsup(abcd*)Rsup(*)sub(abcd)+iTHETARsup(abcd)*Rsub(abcd). We find the first examples in four dimensions of asymptotically euclidean gravitational instantons. These have arbitrary Euler number and Hirzebruch signature. Some of these instantons represent tunneling between zero-curvature vacua that are not related by small gauge transformations. Others represent tunneling between flat space and topologically non-trivial zero-energy initial data. A general formula for the one-loop determinant is derived in terms of the renormalization group invariant masses, the volume of space-time, the Euler number and the Hirzebruch signature. (orig.)
Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Neergaard, Peter; Thusgaard Pedersen, Janni
2013-01-01
This paper analyses how large Danish companies are responding to new governmental regulation which requires them to report on corporate social responsibility (CSR). The paper is based on an analysis of 142 company annual reports required by the new Danish regulation regarding CSR reporting, plus 10...... interviews with first-time reporting companies and six interviews with companies that failed to comply with the new law. It is concluded that coercive pressures from government have an impact on CSR reporting practices. Further, the analysis finds traces of mimetic isomorphism which inspires a homogenisation...... in CSR reporting practices. Finally, it is argued that non-conformance with the new regulatory requirements is not solely about conscious resistance but may also be caused by, for example, lack of awareness, resource limitations, misinterpretations, and practical difficulties....
Reflections on Conformal Spectra
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink
Conformal boundary loop models
Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Saleur, Hubert
2008-01-01
We study a model of densely packed self-avoiding loops on the annulus, related to the Temperley-Lieb algebra with an extra idempotent boundary generator. Four different weights are given to the loops, depending on their homotopy class and whether they touch the outer rim of the annulus. When the weight of a contractible bulk loop x≡q+q -1 element of (-2,2], this model is conformally invariant for any real weight of the remaining three parameters. We classify the conformal boundary conditions and give exact expressions for the corresponding boundary scaling dimensions. The amplitudes with which the sectors with any prescribed number and types of non-contractible loops appear in the full partition function Z are computed rigorously. Based on this, we write a number of identities involving Z which hold true for any finite size. When the weight of a contractible boundary loop y takes certain discrete values, y r ≡([r+1] q )/([r] q ) with r integer, other identities involving the standard characters K r,s of the Virasoro algebra are established. The connection with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in the O(n) model is discussed in detail, and new scaling dimensions are derived. When q is a root of unity and y=y r , exact connections with the A m type RSOS model are made. These involve precise relations between the spectra of the loop and RSOS model transfer matrices, valid in finite size. Finally, the results where y=y r are related to the theory of Temperley-Lieb cabling
Brodsky, S
2003-11-19
Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that the QCD coupling becomes constant at small virtuality; i.e., {alpha}{sub s}(Q{sup 2}) develops an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. For example, the hadronic decays of the {tau} lepton can be used to determine the effective charge {alpha}{sub {tau}}(m{sub {tau}{prime}}{sup 2}) for a hypothetical {tau}-lepton with mass in the range 0 < m{sub {tau}{prime}} < m{sub {tau}}. The {tau} decay data at low mass scales indicates that the effective charge freezes at a value of s = m{sub {tau}{prime}}{sup 2} of order 1 GeV{sup 2} with a magnitude {alpha}{sub {tau}} {approx} 0.9 {+-} 0.1. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer and why there are no significant running coupling corrections to quark counting rules for exclusive processes. The AdS/CFT correspondence of large N{sub c} supergravity theory in higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter space with supersymmetric QCD in 4-dimensional space-time also has interesting implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for exclusive processes and light-front wavefunctions. The utility of light-front quantization and light-front Fock wavefunctions for analyzing nonperturbative QCD and representing the dynamics of QCD bound states is also discussed.
Histone variants and lipid metabolism
Borghesan, Michela; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Oben, Jude; Pazienza, Valerio; Vinciguerra, Manlio
2014-01-01
Within nucleosomes, canonical histones package the genome, but they can be opportunely replaced with histone variants. The incorporation of histone variants into the nucleosome is a chief cellular strategy to regulate transcription and cellular metabolism. In pathological terms, cellular steatosis
Logarithmic conformal field theory through nilpotent conformal dimensions
Moghimi-Araghi, S.; Rouhani, S.; Saadat, M.
2001-01-01
We study logarithmic conformal field theories (LCFTs) through the introduction of nilpotent conformal weights. Using this device, we derive the properties of LCFTs such as the transformation laws, singular vectors and the structure of correlation functions. We discuss the emergence of an extra energy momentum tensor, which is the logarithmic partner of the energy momentum tensor
A dominant-negative mutant inhibits multiple prion variants through a common mechanism.
Fen Pei
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Prions adopt alternative, self-replicating protein conformations and thereby determine novel phenotypes that are often irreversible. Nevertheless, dominant-negative prion mutants can revert phenotypes associated with some conformations. These observations suggest that, while intervention is possible, distinct inhibitors must be developed to overcome the conformational plasticity of prions. To understand the basis of this specificity, we determined the impact of the G58D mutant of the Sup35 prion on three of its conformational variants, which form amyloids in S. cerevisiae. G58D had been previously proposed to have unique effects on these variants, but our studies suggest a common mechanism. All variants, including those reported to be resistant, are inhibited by G58D but at distinct doses. G58D lowers the kinetic stability of the associated amyloid, enhancing its fragmentation by molecular chaperones, promoting Sup35 resolubilization, and leading to amyloid clearance particularly in daughter cells. Reducing the availability or activity of the chaperone Hsp104, even transiently, reverses curing. Thus, the specificity of inhibition is determined by the sensitivity of variants to the mutant dosage rather than mode of action, challenging the view that a unique inhibitor must be developed to combat each variant.
Replacement between conformity and counter-conformity in consumption decisions.
Chou, Ting-Jui; Chang, En-Chung; Dai, Qi; Wong, Veronica
2013-02-01
This study assessed, in a Chinese context, how self-esteem interacts with perceived similarity and uniqueness to yield cognitive dissonance, and whether the dissonance leads to self-reported conformity or counter-conformity behavior. Participants were 408 respondents from 4 major Chinese cities (M age = 33.0 yr., SD = 4.3; 48% men). Self-perceptions of uniqueness, similarity, cognitive dissonance, self-esteem and need to behave in conformity or counter-conformity were measured. A theoretical model was assessed in four situations, relating the ratings of self-esteem and perceived similarity/uniqueness to the way other people at a wedding were dressed, and the resultant cognitive dissonance and conformity/ counter-conformity behavior. Regardless of high or low self-esteem, all participants reported cognitive dissonance when they were told that they were dressed extremely similarly to or extremely differently from the other people attending the wedding. However, the conforming/counter-conforming strategies used by participants to resolve the cognitive dissonance differed. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme uniqueness of dress, participants with low self-esteem tended to say they would dress next time so as to conform with the way others were dressed, while those with high self-esteem indicated they would continue their counter-conformity in attire. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme similarity to others, both those with high and low self-esteem tended to say they would dress in an unorthodox manner to surprise other people in the future.
On Associative Conformal Algebras of Linear Growth
Retakh, Alexander
2000-01-01
Lie conformal algebras appear in the theory of vertex algebras. Their relation is similar to that of Lie algebras and their universal enveloping algebras. Associative conformal algebras play a role in conformal representation theory. We introduce the notions of conformal identity and unital associative conformal algebras and classify finitely generated simple unital associative conformal algebras of linear growth. These are precisely the complete algebras of conformal endomorphisms of finite ...
TOWARDS UNDERSTANDING OF HELIX B BASED CONFORMATIONAL DISEASES IN SERPIN
Mohamad Aman Jairajpuri
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Serine protease inhibitors (serpins are a unique family of protease inhibitors that are prone to polymer formation due to their metastable nature and a complex inhibition mechanism that involves large scale conformational change. Helix B is in the shutter region near the strand 2A and strand 3A of �-sheet A, where reactive centre loop inserts during the serpin inhibition mechanism. Helix B region in serpins is a mutation hotspot for naturally occurring variants that result in pathological conditions due to polymerization. Helix B residues are completely buried in the native state and loop inserted latent state but not in the inhibitory loop inserted cleaved conformation. Native to cleaved transition during inhibition forms a large cavity in the shutter region, which invariably is the largest cavity in most serpins in native state. In a recent paper we had for the first time hypothesized that exposure of helix B at the N-terminal end is important for smooth insertion of the reactive center loop during serpin inhibition mechanism. It is therefore possible that natural variant that induces conformational deformation of helix B probably alter the cavity size which increases the rate of loop-sheet interaction between the monomers resulting in increased polymerization.
Recent advancements in conformal gravity
O’Brien, James G.; Chaykov, Spasen S.; Moss, Robert J.; Dentico, Jeremy; Stulge, Modestas; Stefanski, Brian
2017-01-01
In recent years, due to the lack of direct observed evidence of cold dark matter, coupled with the shrinking parameter space to search for new dark matter particles, there has been increased interest in Alternative Gravitational theories. This paper, addresses three recent advances in conformal gravity, a fourth order renormalizable metric theory of gravitation originally formulated by Weyl, and later advanced by Mannheim and Kazanas. The first section of the paper applies conformal gravity to the rotation curves of the LITTLE THINGS survey, extending the total number of rotation curves successfully fit by conformal gravity to well over 200 individual data sets without the need for additional dark matter. Further, in this rotation curve study, we show how MOND and conformal gravity compare for each galaxy in the sample. Second, we look at the original Zwicky problem of applying the virial theorem to the Coma cluster in order to get an estimate for the cluster mass. However, instead of using the standard Newtonian potential, here we use the weak field approximation of conformal gravity. We show that in the conformal case we can get a much smaller mass estimate and thus there is no apparent need to include dark matter. We then show that this calculation is in agreement with the observational data from other well studied clusters. Last, we explore the calculation of the deflection of starlight through conformal gravity, as a first step towards applying conformal gravity to gravitaitonal lensing. (paper)
Conformal invariance in harmonic superspace
Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ogievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.
1985-01-01
N=2 conformal supersymmetry is realized in harmonic superspace, its peculiarities are analyzed. The coordinate group and analytical prepotentials for N=2 conformal supergravity are found. A new version of the N=2 Einstein supergravity with infinite number of auxiliary fields is suggested. A hypermultiplet without central charges and constraints is used as a compensator
Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?
McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn
2009-01-01
The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.
Variants of glycoside hydrolases
Teter, Sarah [Davis, CA; Ward, Connie [Hamilton, MT; Cherry, Joel [Davis, CA; Jones, Aubrey [Davis, CA; Harris, Paul [Carnation, WA; Yi, Jung [Sacramento, CA
2011-04-26
The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.
Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks
Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito
2016-09-12
In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.
Conformal algebra of Riemann surfaces
Vafa, C.
1988-01-01
It has become clear over the last few years that 2-dimensional conformal field theories are a crucial ingredient of string theory. Conformal field theories correspond to vacuum solutions of strings; or more precisely we know how to compute string spectrum and scattering amplitudes by starting from a formal theory (with a proper value of central charge of the Virasoro algebra). Certain non-linear sigma models do give rise to conformal theories. A lot of progress has been made in the understanding of conformal theories. The author discusses a different view of conformal theories which was motivated by the development of operator formalism on Riemann surfaces. The author discusses an interesting recent work from this point of view
The logarithmic conformal field theories
Rahimi Tabar, M.R.; Aghamohammadi, A.; Khorrami, M.
1997-01-01
We study the correlation functions of logarithmic conformal field theories. First, assuming conformal invariance, we explicitly calculate two- and three-point functions. This calculation is done for the general case of more than one logarithmic field in a block, and more than one set of logarithmic fields. Then we show that one can regard the logarithmic field as a formal derivative of the ordinary field with respect to its conformal weight. This enables one to calculate any n-point function containing the logarithmic field in terms of ordinary n-point functions. Finally, we calculate the operator product expansion (OPE) coefficients of a logarithmic conformal field theory, and show that these can be obtained from the corresponding coefficients of ordinary conformal theory by a simple derivation. (orig.)
Conformal solids and holography
Esposito, A.; Garcia-Saenz, S.; Nicolis, A.; Penco, R.
2017-12-01
We argue that a SO( d) magnetic monopole in an asymptotically AdS space-time is dual to a d-dimensional strongly coupled system in a solid state. In light of this, it would be remiss of us not to dub such a field configuration solidon. In the presence of mixed boundary conditions, a solidon spontaneously breaks translations (among many other symmetries) and gives rise to Goldstone excitations on the boundary — the phonons of the solid. We derive the quadratic action for the boundary phonons in the probe limit and show that, when the mixed boundary conditions preserve conformal symmetry, the longitudinal and transverse sound speeds are related to each other as expected from effective field theory arguments. We then include backreaction and calculate the free energy of the solidon for a particular choice of mixed boundary conditions, corresponding to a relevant multi-trace deformation of the boundary theory. We find such free energy to be lower than that of thermal AdS. This suggests that our solidon undergoes a solid-to-liquid first order phase transition by melting into a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as the temperature is raised.
Intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy
Noel, Georges; Moty-Monnereau, Celine; Meyer, Aurelia; David, Pauline; Pages, Frederique; Muller, Felix; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; David, Denis Jean
2006-12-01
This publication reports the assessment of intensity-modulated conformal radiotherapy (IMCR). This assessment is based on a literature survey which focussed on indications, efficiency and safety on the short term, on the risk of radio-induced cancer on the long term, on the role in the therapeutic strategy, on the conditions of execution, on the impact on morbidity-mortality and life quality, on the impact on the health system and on public health policies and program. This assessment is also based on the opinion of a group of experts regarding the technical benefit of IMCR, its indications depending on the cancer type, safety in terms of radio-induced cancers, and conditions of execution. Before this assessment, the report thus indicates indications for which the use of IMCR can be considered as sufficient or not determined. It also proposes a technical description of IMCR and helical tomo-therapy, discusses the use of this technique for various pathologies or tumours, analyses the present situation of care in France, and comments the identification of this technique in foreign classifications
Zotto, Michele Del; Heckman, Jonathan J.; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Vafa, Cumrun
2015-01-01
A single M5-brane probing G, an ADE-type singularity, leads to a system which has G×G global symmetry and can be viewed as “bifundamental” (G,G) matter. For the A N series, this leads to the usual notion of bifundamental matter. For the other cases it corresponds to a strongly interacting (1,0) superconformal system in six dimensions. Similarly, an ADE singularity intersecting the Hořava-Witten wall leads to a superconformal matter system with E 8 ×G global symmetry. Using the F-theory realization of these theories, we elucidate the Coulomb/tensor branch of (G,G ′ ) conformal matter. This leads to the notion of fractionalization of an M5-brane on an ADE singularity as well as fractionalization of the intersection point of the ADE singularity with the Hořava-Witten wall. Partial Higgsing of these theories leads to new 6d SCFTs in the infrared, which we also characterize. This generalizes the class of (1,0) theories which can be perturbatively realized by suspended branes in IIA string theory. By reducing on a circle, we arrive at novel duals for 5d affine quiver theories. Introducing many M5-branes leads to large N gravity duals.
A guide for functional analysis of BRCA1 variants of uncertain significance
Millot, Gaël A; Carvalho, Marcelo A; Caputo, Sandrine M
2012-01-01
of these variants, the effect on protein function is unknown making it difficult to infer the consequences on risks of breast and ovarian cancers. Thus, many individuals undergoing genetic testing for BRCA1 mutations receive test results reporting a variant of uncertain clinical significance (VUS), leading...... to issues in risk assessment, counseling, and preventive care. Here, we describe functional assays for BRCA1 to directly or indirectly assess the impact of a variant on protein conformation or function and how these results can be used to complement genetic data to classify a VUS as to its clinical...
Towards conformal loop quantum gravity
Wang, Charles H-T
2006-01-01
A discussion is given of recent developments in canonical gravity that assimilates the conformal analysis of gravitational degrees of freedom. The work is motivated by the problem of time in quantum gravity and is carried out at the metric and the triad levels. At the metric level, it is shown that by extending the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) phase space of general relativity (GR), a conformal form of geometrodynamics can be constructed. In addition to the Hamiltonian and Diffeomorphism constraints, an extra first class constraint is introduced to generate conformal transformations. This phase space consists of York's mean extrinsic curvature time, conformal three-metric and their momenta. At the triad level, the phase space of GR is further enlarged by incorporating spin-gauge as well as conformal symmetries. This leads to a canonical formulation of GR using a new set of real spin connection variables. The resulting gravitational constraints are first class, consisting of the Hamiltonian constraint and the canonical generators for spin-gauge and conformorphism transformations. The formulation has a remarkable feature of being parameter-free. Indeed, it is shown that a conformal parameter of the Barbero-Immirzi type can be absorbed by the conformal symmetry of the extended phase space. This gives rise to an alternative approach to loop quantum gravity that addresses both the conceptual problem of time and the technical problem of functional calculus in quantum gravity
Benchmarking Commercial Conformer Ensemble Generators.
Friedrich, Nils-Ole; de Bruyn Kops, Christina; Flachsenberg, Florian; Sommer, Kai; Rarey, Matthias; Kirchmair, Johannes
2017-11-27
We assess and compare the performance of eight commercial conformer ensemble generators (ConfGen, ConfGenX, cxcalc, iCon, MOE LowModeMD, MOE Stochastic, MOE Conformation Import, and OMEGA) and one leading free algorithm, the distance geometry algorithm implemented in RDKit. The comparative study is based on a new version of the Platinum Diverse Dataset, a high-quality benchmarking dataset of 2859 protein-bound ligand conformations extracted from the PDB. Differences in the performance of commercial algorithms are much smaller than those observed for free algorithms in our previous study (J. Chem. Inf. 2017, 57, 529-539). For commercial algorithms, the median minimum root-mean-square deviations measured between protein-bound ligand conformations and ensembles of a maximum of 250 conformers are between 0.46 and 0.61 Å. Commercial conformer ensemble generators are characterized by their high robustness, with at least 99% of all input molecules successfully processed and few or even no substantial geometrical errors detectable in their output conformations. The RDKit distance geometry algorithm (with minimization enabled) appears to be a good free alternative since its performance is comparable to that of the midranked commercial algorithms. Based on a statistical analysis, we elaborate on which algorithms to use and how to parametrize them for best performance in different application scenarios.
Accurate genotyping across variant classes and lengths using variant graphs
Sibbesen, Jonas Andreas; Maretty, Lasse; Jensen, Jacob Malte
2018-01-01
of read k-mers to a graph representation of the reference and variants to efficiently perform unbiased, probabilistic genotyping across the variation spectrum. We demonstrate that BayesTyper generally provides superior variant sensitivity and genotyping accuracy relative to existing methods when used...... collecting a set of candidate variants across discovery methods, individuals and databases, and then realigning the reads to the variants and reference simultaneously. However, this realignment problem has proved computationally difficult. Here, we present a new method (BayesTyper) that uses exact alignment...... to integrate variants across discovery approaches and individuals. Finally, we demonstrate that including a ‘variation-prior’ database containing already known variants significantly improves sensitivity....
Conformal invariance in harmonic superspace
Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ogievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.
1987-01-01
In the present paper we show how the N = 2 superconformal group is realised in harmonic superspace and examine conformal invariance of N = 2 off-shell theories. We believe that the example of N = O self-dual Yang-Mills equations can serve as an instructive introduction to the subject of harmonic superspace and this is examined. The rigid N = 2 conformal supersymmetry and its local version, i.e. N = 2 conformal supergravity is also discussed. The paper is a contribution to the book commemorating the sixtieth birthday of E.S. Fradkin. (author)
Two dimensional infinite conformal symmetry
Mohanta, N.N.; Tripathy, K.C.
1993-01-01
The invariant discontinuous (discrete) conformal transformation groups, namely the Kleinian and Fuchsian groups Gamma (with an arbitrary signature) of H (the Poincare upper half-plane l) and the unit disc Delta are explicitly constructed from the fundamental domain D. The Riemann surface with signatures of Gamma and conformally invariant automorphic forms (functions) with Peterson scalar product are discussed. The functor, where the category of complex Hilbert spaces spanned by the space of cusp forms constitutes the two dimensional conformal field theory. (Author) 7 refs
Harmony of spinning conformal blocks
Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Sobko, Evgeny [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics
2016-12-07
Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.
Harmony of spinning conformal blocks
Schomerus, Volker [DESY Hamburg, Theory Group,Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Sobko, Evgeny [Nordita and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)
2017-03-15
Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.
Mass generation within conformal invariant theories
Flato, M.; Guenin, M.
1981-01-01
The massless Yang-Mills theory is strongly conformally invariant and renormalizable; however, when masses are introduced the theory becomes nonrenormalizable and weakly conformally invariant. Conditions which recover strong conformal invariance are discussed in the letter. (author)
Zhou, Panwang; Ning, Cai; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Han, Keli
2016-10-05
The effects of the incorporated heteroatoms Si and S on tuning the optical properties of rhodamine- and fluorescein-based fluorescence probes is investigated using DFT and time-dependent DFT with four different functionals. As previously proposed, the large redshift (90 nm) produced by a Si atom in both the absorption and emission spectra can be attributed to the σ*-π* conjugation between the σ* orbital of the Si atom and the π* orbital of the adjacent carbon atoms. However, the presence of a Si atom does not alter the fluorescence quenching mechanism of the nonfluorescent forms of the investigated compounds. For the first time, these theoretical results indicate that the n orbital of the S atom plays an important role in determining the optical properties of the nonfluorescent form of rhodamine-based fluorescence probes. It alters the fluorescence quenching mechanism by lowering the energy of the dark nπ* state, which is due to breakage of the C10-S52 bond upon photoexcitation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Wang, Yu; Pan, Ying; Zhu, Liangkui; Guo, Ningning; Wang, Runwei; Zhang, Zongtao; Qiu, Shilun
2018-01-01
A novel 3D foam-like porous carbon architectures with homogeneous N doping and unique mesopore-in-macropore structures have been fabricated from metal-organic complex via a facile template-free solid state method, which show high specific surface area (2732 m2 g-1), large pore volume (3.31 cm3 g-1), interconnected hierarchical pore structures with macro/meso/micro multimodal distribution and abundant surface functionality N doping (5.36 wt%). These characteristics afford high catalytic performance for oxygen reduction with an onset potential of 0.98 V (vs RHE) and a half-wave potential of 0.83 V (vs RHE) in alkaline media, which are comparable with those of the commercial 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst and many state-of-the-art noble-metal-free catalysts. These results demonstrate the significant advantages of the unique mesopore-in-macropore porous structures with efficient heteroatom doping, which provides abundant of accessible active sites for highly mass and charge transports. The present work pave a new facile and environmentally benign synthesis strategy for the preparation of 3D porous carbon architectures as efficient electrochemical energy devices and give deep insights into fabricating advanced nanostructured materials.
Madhu, Rajesh; Veeramani, Vediyappan; Chen, Shen-Ming
2014-04-01
For the first time, high-surface-area (approximately 1465 m2 g-1), highly porous and heteroatom-enriched activated carbon (HAC) was prepared from banana stems (Musa paradisiaca, Family: Musaceae) at different carbonization temperatures of 700, 800 and 900°C (HAC) using a simple and eco-friendly method. The amounts of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur in the HAC are 61.12, 2.567, 0.4315, and 0.349%, respectively. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD), CHNS elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy, the prepared activated carbon appears amorphous and disordered in nature. Here, we used HAC for an electrochemical application of nitrite (NO2-) sensor to control the environmental pollution. In addition, HAC exhibits noteworthy performance for the highly sensitive determination of nitrite. The limit of detection (LODs) of the nitrite sensor at HAC-modified GCE is 0.07 μM. In addition, the proposed method was applied to determine nitrite in various water samples with acceptable results.
Wang, Yu
2018-01-09
A novel 3D foam-like porous carbon architectures with homogeneous N doping and unique mesopore-in-macropore structures have been fabricated from metal-organic complex via a facile template-free solid state method, which show high specific surface area (2732 m2 g-1), large pore volume (3.31 cm3 g-1), interconnected hierarchical pore structures with macro/meso/micro multimodal distribution and abundant surface functionality N doping (5.36 wt%). These characteristics afford high catalytic performance for oxygen reduction with an onset potential of 0.98 V (vs RHE) and a half-wave potential of 0.83 V (vs RHE) in alkaline media, which are comparable with those of the commercial 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst and many state-of-the-art noble-metal-free catalysts. These results demonstrate the significant advantages of the unique mesopore-in-macropore porous structures with efficient heteroatom doping, which provides abundant of accessible active sites for highly mass and charge transports. The present work pave a new facile and environmentally benign synthesis strategy for the preparation of 3D porous carbon architectures as efficient electrochemical energy devices and give deep insights into fabricating advanced nanostructured materials.
Champagne, Pier Alexandre; Houk, K N
2017-10-20
The geometries, stabilities, and 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactivities of 24 mesoionic azomethine ylides and imines were investigated using density functional theory calculations at the M06-2X/6-311+G-(d,p)/M06-2X/6-31G-(d) level. The computed structures highlight how the commonly used "aromatic" resonance form should be replaced by two more accurate resonance structures. Stabilities of the dipoles were assessed by various homodesmotic schemes and are consistent with these compounds being nonaromatic. The activation free energies with ethylene or acetylene range from 11.8 to 36.6 kcal/mol. Within each dipole type, the predicted cycloaddition reactivities correlate with the reaction energies and the resonance stabilization energies provided by the various substituents. Endocyclic (X) heteroatoms increase the reactivity of the 1,3-dipoles in the order of O > NH ≅ S, whereas exocyclic (Y) substituents increase it in the order of CH 2 > NH > O > S. Distortion/interaction analysis indicated that the difference in reactivity between differently substituted 1,3-dipoles is driven by distortion, whereas the difference between azomethine ylides and imines is related to lower interaction energies of imines with the dipolarophiles.
Higher-derivative generalization of conformal mechanics
Baranovsky, Oleg
2017-08-01
Higher-derivative analogs of multidimensional conformal particle and many-body conformal mechanics are constructed. Their Newton-Hooke counterparts are derived by applying appropriate coordinate transformations.
Naturality in conformal field theory
Moore, G.; Seiberg, N.
1989-01-01
We discuss constraints on the operator product coefficients in diagonal and nondiagonal rational conformal field theories. Nondiagonal modular invariants always arise from automorphisms of the fusion rule algebra or from extensions of the chiral algebra. Moreover, when the chiral algebra has been maximally extended a strong form of the naturality principle of field theory can be proven for rational conformal field theory: operator product coefficients vanish if and only if the corresponding fusion rules vanish; that is, if and only if the vanishing can be understood in terms of a symmetry. We illustrate these ideas with several examples. We also generalize our ideas about rational conformal field theories to a larger class of theories: 'quasi-rational conformal field theories' and we explore some of their properties. (orig.)
Steady states in conformal theories
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
A novel conjecture regarding the steady state behavior of conformal field theories placed between two heat baths will be presented. Some verification of the conjecture will be provided in the context of fluid dynamics and holography.
National Automated Conformity Inspection Process -
Department of Transportation — The National Automated Conformity Inspection Process (NACIP) Application is intended to expedite the workflow process as it pertains to the FAA Form 81 0-10 Request...
Aspect of the conformal invariance
Bauer, M.
1990-11-01
This thesis is about the study of several physical and mathematical aspects of critical phenomena at two dimensions. These phenomena have remarkable symmetry properties in the coordonnates changes keeping the angles. They are named conformal theories
Some Progress in Conformal Geometry
Sun-Yung A. Chang
2007-12-01
Full Text Available This is a survey paper of our current research on the theory of partial differential equations in conformal geometry. Our intention is to describe some of our current works in a rather brief and expository fashion. We are not giving a comprehensive survey on the subject and references cited here are not intended to be complete. We introduce a bubble tree structure to study the degeneration of a class of Yamabe metrics on Bach flat manifolds satisfying some global conformal bounds on compact manifolds of dimension 4. As applications, we establish a gap theorem, a finiteness theorem for diffeomorphism type for this class, and diameter bound of the $sigma_2$-metrics in a class of conformal 4-manifolds. For conformally compact Einstein metrics we introduce an eigenfunction compactification. As a consequence we obtain some topological constraints in terms of renormalized volumes.
Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 5
Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the conformity SIP adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 5 (IL, IN, MI, OH, WI) is provided here.
Inverse bootstrapping conformal field theories
Li, Wenliang
2018-01-01
We propose a novel approach to study conformal field theories (CFTs) in general dimensions. In the conformal bootstrap program, one usually searches for consistent CFT data that satisfy crossing symmetry. In the new method, we reverse the logic and interpret manifestly crossing-symmetric functions as generating functions of conformal data. Physical CFTs can be obtained by scanning the space of crossing-symmetric functions. By truncating the fusion rules, we are able to concentrate on the low-lying operators and derive some approximate relations for their conformal data. It turns out that the free scalar theory, the 2d minimal model CFTs, the ϕ 4 Wilson-Fisher CFT, the Lee-Yang CFTs and the Ising CFTs are consistent with the universal relations from the minimal fusion rule ϕ 1 × ϕ 1 = I + ϕ 2 + T , where ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 are scalar operators, I is the identity operator and T is the stress tensor.
Flowers, Dancing, Dresses, and Dolls: Picture Book Representations of Gender-Variant Males
Sciurba, Katie
2017-01-01
Over the past fifty years, children's picture books have made great strides toward literary equity by including more perspectives from and stories about marginalized groups, such as those whose gender identities do not conform to heteronormative standards. While texts featuring gender-variant male characters engage in topics that are far too often…
Conformal radiotherapy: principles and classification
Rosenwald, J.C.; Gaboriaud, G.; Pontvert, D.
1999-01-01
'Conformal radiotherapy' is the name fixed by usage and given to a new form of radiotherapy resulting from the technological improvements observed during the last ten years. While this terminology is now widely used, no precise definition can be found in the literature. Conformal radiotherapy refers to an approach in which the dose distribution is more closely 'conformed' or adapted to the actual shape of the target volume. However, the achievement of a consensus on a more specific definition is hampered by various difficulties, namely in characterizing the degree of 'conformality'. We have therefore suggested a classification scheme be established on the basis of the tools and the procedures actually used for all steps of the process, i.e., from prescription to treatment completion. Our classification consists of four levels: schematically, at level 0, there is no conformation (rectangular fields); at level 1, a simple conformation takes place, on the basis of conventional 2D imaging; at level 2, a 3D reconstruction of the structures is used for a more accurate conformation; and level 3 includes research and advanced dynamic techniques. We have used our personal experience, contacts with colleagues and data from the literature to analyze all the steps of the planning process, and to define the tools and procedures relevant to a given level. The corresponding tables have been discussed and approved at the European level within the Dynarad concerted action. It is proposed that the term 'conformal radiotherapy' be restricted to procedures where all steps are at least at level 2. (author)
Conformal Cosmology and Supernova Data
Behnke, Danilo; Blaschke, David; Pervushin, Victor; Proskurin, Denis
2000-01-01
We define the cosmological parameters $H_{c,0}$, $\\Omega_{m,c}$ and $\\Omega_{\\Lambda, c}$ within the Conformal Cosmology as obtained by the homogeneous approximation to the conformal-invariant generalization of Einstein's General Relativity theory. We present the definitions of the age of the universe and of the luminosity distance in the context of this approach. A possible explanation of the recent data from distant supernovae Ia without a cosmological constant is presented.
Scalar perturbations and conformal transformation
Fabris, J.C.; Tossa, J.
1995-11-01
The non-minimal coupling of gravity to a scalar field can be transformed into a minimal coupling through a conformal transformation. We show how to connect the results of a perturbation calculation, performed around a Friedman-Robertson-Walker background solution, before and after the conformal transformation. We work in the synchronous gauge, but we discuss the implications of employing other frames. (author). 16 refs
Variants of Moreau's sweeping process
Siddiqi, A.H.; Manchanda, P.
2001-07-01
In this paper we prove the existence and uniqueness of two variants of Moreau's sweeping process -u'(t) is an element of Nc (t) (u(t)), where in one variant we replace u(t) by u'(t) in the right-hand side of the inclusion and in the second variant u'(t) and u(t) are respectively replaced by u''(t) and u'(t). (author)
Quadri, Mohammad I.; Al-Sheikh, Iman H.
2001-01-01
Hairy cell leukaemia variant is a very rare chronic lymphoproliferative disorder and is closely related to hairy cell leukemia. We hereby describe a case of hairy cell leukaemia variant for the first time in Saudi Arabia. An elderly Saudi man presented with pallor, massive splenomegaly, and moderate hepatomegaly. Hemoglobin was 7.7 g/dl, Platelets were 134 x109/l and white blood count was 140x10 9/l with 97% being abnormal lymphoid cells with cytoplasmic projections. The morphology, cytochemistry, and immunophenotype of the lymphoid cells were classical of hairy cell leukaemia variant. The bone marrow was easily aspirated and findings were consistent with hairy cell leukaemia variant. (author)
Product Variant Master as a Means to Handle Variant Design
Hildre, Hans Petter; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup
1996-01-01
be implemented in the CAD system I-DEAS. A precondition for high degree of computer support is identification of a product variant master from which new variants can be derived. This class platform defines how a product build up fit certain production methods and rules governing determination of modules...
Quantum Conformal Algebras and Closed Conformal Field Theory
Anselmi, D
1999-01-01
We investigate the quantum conformal algebras of N=2 and N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. Phenomena occurring at strong coupling are analysed using the Nachtmann theorem and very general, model-independent, arguments. The results lead us to introduce a novel class of conformal field theories, identified by a closed quantum conformal algebra. We conjecture that they are the exact solution to the strongly coupled large-N_c limit of the open conformal field theories. We study the basic properties of closed conformal field theory and work out the operator product expansion of the conserved current multiplet T. The OPE structure is uniquely determined by two central charges, c and a. The multiplet T does not contain just the stress-tensor, but also R-currents and finite mass operators. For this reason, the ratio c/a is different from 1. On the other hand, an open algebra contains an infinite tower of non-conserved currents, organized in pairs and singlets with respect to renormalization mixing. T mixes with a se...
Ravichandran, Akshaya; Gu, Ganyu; Escano, Jerome; Lu, Shi-En; Smith, Leif
2014-01-01
Occidiofungin is a cyclic nonribosomally synthesized antifungal peptide with submicromolar activity produced by Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia contaminans. The biosynthetic gene cluster was confirmed to contain two cyclase thioesterases. NMR analysis revealed that the presence of both thioesterases is used to increase the conformational repertoire of the cyclic peptide. The loss of the OcfN cyclic thioesterase by mutagenesis results in a reduction of conformational variants and an appreciable decrease in bioactivity against Candida species. Presumably, the presence of both asparagine and β-hydroxyasparagine variants coordinate the enzymatic function of both of the cyclase thioesterases. OcfN has presumably evolved to be part of the biosynthetic gene cluster due to its ability to produce structural variants that enhance antifungal activity against some fungi. The enhancement of the antifungal activity from the incorporation of an additional cyclase thioesterase into the biosynthetic gene cluster of occidiofungin supports the need to explore new conformational variants of other therapeutic or potentially therapeutic cyclic peptides. PMID:23394257
García-González, Iván; Mata, Lara; Corzana, Francisco; Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Avenoza, Alberto; Busto, Jesús H; Peregrina, Jesús M
2015-01-12
We synthesized and carried out the conformational analysis of several hybrid dipeptides consisting of an α-amino acid attached to a quaternary glyco-β-amino acid. In particular, we combined a S-glycosylated β(2,2)-amino acid and two different types of α-amino acid, namely, aliphatic (alanine) and aromatic (phenylalanine and tryptophan) in the sequence of hybrid α/β-dipeptides. The key step in the synthesis involved the ring-opening reaction of a chiral cyclic sulfamidate, inserted in the peptidic sequence, with a sulfur-containing nucleophile by using 1-thio-β-D-glucopyranose derivatives. This reaction of glycosylation occurred with inversion of configuration at the quaternary center. The conformational behavior in aqueous solution of the peptide backbone and the glycosidic linkage for all synthesized hybrid glycopeptides was analyzed by using a protocol that combined NMR experiments and molecular dynamics with time-averaged restraints (MD-tar). Interestingly, the presence of the sulfur heteroatom at the quaternary center of the β-amino acid induced θ torsional angles close to 180° (anti). Notably, this value changed to 60° (gauche) when the peptidic sequence displayed aromatic α-amino acids due to the presence of CH-π interactions between the phenyl or indole ring and the methyl groups of the β-amino acid unit. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Gauge fixing problem in the conformal QED
Ichinose, Shoichi
1986-01-01
The gauge fixing problem in the conformal (spinor and scalar) QED is examined. For the analysis, we generalize Dirac's manifestly conformal-covariant formalism. It is shown that the (vector and matter) fields must obey a certain mixed (conformal and gauge) type of transformation law in order to fix the local gauge symmetry preserving the conformal invariance in the Lagrangian. (orig.)
40 CFR 93.154 - Conformity analysis.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 93.154 Section 93...) DETERMINING CONFORMITY OF FEDERAL ACTIONS TO STATE OR FEDERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 93.154 Conformity analysis. Any Federal...
Conformational Clusters of Phosphorylated Tyrosine.
Abdelrasoul, Maha; Ponniah, Komala; Mao, Alice; Warden, Meghan S; Elhefnawy, Wessam; Li, Yaohang; Pascal, Steven M
2017-12-06
Tyrosine phosphorylation plays an important role in many cellular and intercellular processes including signal transduction, subcellular localization, and regulation of enzymatic activity. In 1999, Blom et al., using the limited number of protein data bank (PDB) structures available at that time, reported that the side chain structures of phosphorylated tyrosine (pY) are partitioned into two conserved conformational clusters ( Blom, N.; Gammeltoft, S.; Brunak, S. J. Mol. Biol. 1999 , 294 , 1351 - 1362 ). We have used the spectral clustering algorithm to cluster the increasingly growing number of protein structures with pY sites, and have found that the pY residues cluster into three distinct side chain conformations. Two of these pY conformational clusters associate strongly with a narrow range of tyrosine backbone conformation. The novel cluster also highly correlates with the identity of the n + 1 residue, and is strongly associated with a sequential pYpY conformation which places two adjacent pY side chains in a specific relative orientation. Further analysis shows that the three pY clusters are associated with distinct distributions of cognate protein kinases.
Zhou, Xiangyang; Xi, Lihua; Chen, Feng; Bai, Tao; Wang, Biao; Yang, Juan
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A facile hydrothermal method is proposed to prepare cross-linked NSG/CNTs@SnO 2 . • The graphene/CNTs anchored with untrasmall SnO 2 nanoparticles can be obtained. • The N, S are successfully incorporated into the carbon matrix. • The NSG/CNTs@SnO 2 presents enhanced cycling stability and good high-rate capacity. - Abstract: SnO 2 -based nanostructures have attracted considerable interest as a promising high-capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries. We present herein a facile one step hydrothermal approach for in situ growth of SnO 2 nanoparticles in heteroatoms doped cross-linked carbon framework (NSG/CNTs@SnO 2 ). Thiourea is employed as a single source of nitrogen and sulfur in the cross-linked carbon framework (NSG/CNTs). Characterization shows that the SnO 2 nanoparticles with an average size of 6–10 nm are uniformly anchored on NSG/CNTs matrix. When evaluated for the electrochemical properties in lithium ion batteries, the obtained NSG/CNTs@SnO 2 composite with ultrasmall SnO 2 particle size (6–10 nm) delivers a high reversible capacity of 999 mAh g −1 at 200 mA g −1 after 120 cycles and excellent rate performance. Such outstanding electrochemical performance of the peculiar cross-linked NSG/CNTs@SnO 2 composite can be primarily attributed to the synergistic effect of the ultrasmall anchored SnO 2 nanoparticles and the dual-doped NSG/CNTs matrix. The uniformly distributed SnO 2 nanoparticles can deliver large capacity and the robust dual-doped NSG/CNTs matrix can guarantee the good structural integrity and high electrical conductivity during cycling. Besides, the porous structure can provide free space for the volume expansion of SnO 2 and accommodate the strain formed during repeated lithiation/delithiation processes.
Renyi entropy and conformal defects
Bianchi, Lorenzo [Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Meineri, Marco [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Smolkin, Michael [California Univ., Berkely, CA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics
2016-04-18
We propose a field theoretic framework for calculating the dependence of Renyi entropies on the shape of the entangling surface in a conformal field theory. Our approach rests on regarding the corresponding twist operator as a conformal defect and in particular, we define the displacement operator which implements small local deformations of the entangling surface. We identify a simple constraint between the coefficient defining the two-point function of the displacement operator and the conformal weight of the twist operator, which consolidates a number of distinct conjectures on the shape dependence of the Renyi entropy. As an example, using this approach, we examine a conjecture regarding the universal coefficient associated with a conical singularity in the entangling surface for CFTs in any number of spacetime dimensions. We also provide a general formula for the second order variation of the Renyi entropy arising from small deformations of a spherical entangling surface, extending Mezei's results for the entanglement entropy.
Conformal dimension theory and application
Mackay, John M
2010-01-01
Conformal dimension measures the extent to which the Hausdorff dimension of a metric space can be lowered by quasisymmetric deformations. Introduced by Pansu in 1989, this concept has proved extremely fruitful in a diverse range of areas, including geometric function theory, conformal dynamics, and geometric group theory. This survey leads the reader from the definitions and basic theory through to active research applications in geometric function theory, Gromov hyperbolic geometry, and the dynamics of rational maps, amongst other areas. It reviews the theory of dimension in metric spaces and of deformations of metric spaces. It summarizes the basic tools for estimating conformal dimension and illustrates their application to concrete problems of independent interest. Numerous examples and proofs are provided. Working from basic definitions through to current research areas, this book can be used as a guide for graduate students interested in this field, or as a helpful survey for experts. Background needed ...
Elementary introduction to conformal invariance
Grandati, Y.
1992-01-01
These notes constitute an elementary introduction to the concept of conformal invariance and its applications to the study of bidimensional critical phenomena. The aim is to give an access as pedestrian as possible to this vast subject. After a brief account of the general properties of conformal transformation in D dimensions, we study more specifically the case D = 2. The center of the discussion is then the consequences of the action of this symmetry group on bidimensional field theories, and in particular the links between the representations of the Virasoro algebra and the structure of the correlation functions of conformal field theories. Finally after showing how the Ising model reduces to a Majorana fermionic field theory, we see how the general formalism previously discussed can be applied to the Ising case at the critical point. (orig.)
Conformal geometry and quasiregular mappings
Vuorinen, Matti
1988-01-01
This book is an introduction to the theory of spatial quasiregular mappings intended for the uninitiated reader. At the same time the book also addresses specialists in classical analysis and, in particular, geometric function theory. The text leads the reader to the frontier of current research and covers some most recent developments in the subject, previously scatterd through the literature. A major role in this monograph is played by certain conformal invariants which are solutions of extremal problems related to extremal lengths of curve families. These invariants are then applied to prove sharp distortion theorems for quasiregular mappings. One of these extremal problems of conformal geometry generalizes a classical two-dimensional problem of O. Teichmüller. The novel feature of the exposition is the way in which conformal invariants are applied and the sharp results obtained should be of considerable interest even in the two-dimensional particular case. This book combines the features of a textbook an...
Renyi entropy and conformal defects
Bianchi, Lorenzo; Myers, Robert C.; Smolkin, Michael
2016-01-01
We propose a field theoretic framework for calculating the dependence of Renyi entropies on the shape of the entangling surface in a conformal field theory. Our approach rests on regarding the corresponding twist operator as a conformal defect and in particular, we define the displacement operator which implements small local deformations of the entangling surface. We identify a simple constraint between the coefficient defining the two-point function of the displacement operator and the conformal weight of the twist operator, which consolidates a number of distinct conjectures on the shape dependence of the Renyi entropy. As an example, using this approach, we examine a conjecture regarding the universal coefficient associated with a conical singularity in the entangling surface for CFTs in any number of spacetime dimensions. We also provide a general formula for the second order variation of the Renyi entropy arising from small deformations of a spherical entangling surface, extending Mezei's results for the entanglement entropy.
A variant of special relativity and long-distance astronomy.
Segal, I E
1974-03-01
THE REDSHIFT, MICROWAVE BACKGROUND, AND OTHER OBSERVABLE ASTRONOMICAL FEATURES ARE DEDUCED FROM TWO THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS: (1) global space-time is a certain variant of Minkowski space, locally indistinguishable in causality and covariance features but globally admitting the full conformal group as symmetries although having a spherical space component; (2) the true energy operator corresponds to a certain generator of this group which is not globally scale-covariant, whereas laboratory frequency measurements are inevitably such and correspond to the conventional energy operator [unk]/i[unk]/[unk]t.
SUSY Unparticle and Conformal Sequestering
Nakayama, Yu; Nakayama, Yu
2007-07-17
We investigate unparticle physics with supersymmetry (SUSY). The SUSY breaking effects due to the gravity mediation induce soft masses for the SUSY unparticles and hence break the conformal invariance. The unparticle physics observable in near future experiments is only consistent if the SUSY breakingeffects from the hidden sector to the standard model sector are dominated by the gauge mediation, or if the SUSY breaking effects to the unparticle sector are sufficiently sequestered. We argue that the natural realization of the latter possibility is the conformal sequestering scenario.
Epigenetic dominance of prion conformers.
Eri Saijo
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Although they share certain biological properties with nucleic acid based infectious agents, prions, the causative agents of invariably fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative disorders such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, sheep scrapie, and human Creutzfeldt Jakob disease, propagate by conformational templating of host encoded proteins. Once thought to be unique to these diseases, this mechanism is now recognized as a ubiquitous means of information transfer in biological systems, including other protein misfolding disorders such as those causing Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. To address the poorly understood mechanism by which host prion protein (PrP primary structures interact with distinct prion conformations to influence pathogenesis, we produced transgenic (Tg mice expressing different sheep scrapie susceptibility alleles, varying only at a single amino acid at PrP residue 136. Tg mice expressing ovine PrP with alanine (A at (OvPrP-A136 infected with SSBP/1 scrapie prions propagated a relatively stable (S prion conformation, which accumulated as punctate aggregates in the brain, and produced prolonged incubation times. In contrast, Tg mice expressing OvPrP with valine (V at 136 (OvPrP-V136 infected with the same prions developed disease rapidly, and the converted prion was comprised of an unstable (U, diffusely distributed conformer. Infected Tg mice co-expressing both alleles manifested properties consistent with the U conformer, suggesting a dominant effect resulting from exclusive conversion of OvPrP-V136 but not OvPrP-A136. Surprisingly, however, studies with monoclonal antibody (mAb PRC5, which discriminates OvPrP-A136 from OvPrP-V136, revealed substantial conversion of OvPrP-A136. Moreover, the resulting OvPrP-A136 prion acquired the characteristics of the U conformer. These results, substantiated by in vitro analyses, indicated that co-expression of OvPrP-V136 altered the conversion potential of OvPrP-A136 from the S to
Topics in conformal field theory
Kiritsis, E.B.
1988-01-01
In this work two major topics in Conformal Field Theory are discussed. First a detailed investigation of N = 2 Superconformal theories is presented. The structure of the representations of the N = 2 superconformal algebras is investigated and the character formulae are calculated. The general structure of N = 2 superconformal theories is elucidated and the operator algebra of the minimal models is derived. The first minimal system is discussed in more detail. Second, applications of the conformal techniques are studied in the Ashkin-Teller model. The c = 1 as well as the c = 1/2 critical lines are discussed in detail
Enzymatic Detoxication, Conformational Selection, and the Role of Molten Globule Active Sites*
Honaker, Matthew T.; Acchione, Mauro; Zhang, Wei; Mannervik, Bengt; Atkins, William M.
2013-01-01
The role of conformational ensembles in enzymatic reactions remains unclear. Discussion concerning “induced fit” versus “conformational selection” has, however, ignored detoxication enzymes, which exhibit catalytic promiscuity. These enzymes dominate drug metabolism and determine drug-drug interactions. The detoxication enzyme glutathione transferase A1–1 (GSTA1–1), exploits a molten globule-like active site to achieve remarkable catalytic promiscuity wherein the substrate-free conformational ensemble is broad with barrierless transitions between states. A quantitative index of catalytic promiscuity is used to compare engineered variants of GSTA1–1 and the catalytic promiscuity correlates strongly with characteristics of the thermodynamic partition function, for the substrate-free enzymes. Access to chemically disparate transition states is encoded by the substrate-free conformational ensemble. Pre-steady state catalytic data confirm an extension of the conformational selection model, wherein different substrates select different starting conformations. The kinetic liability of the conformational breadth is minimized by a smooth landscape. We propose that “local” molten globule behavior optimizes detoxication enzymes. PMID:23649628
Cleaved beta 2-microglobulin partially attains a conformation that has amyloidogenic features
Heegaard, Niels H H; Roepstorff, Peter; Melberg, Steen G
2002-01-01
)) that as a trimmed form (Lys(58) is removed) can be demonstrated in the circulation in patients with chronic disease. An unexpected electrophoretic heterogeneity of these two cleaved variants was demonstrated by capillary electrophoresis under physiological conditions. Each separated into a fast and a slow component...... with analysis of the differences in circular dichroism, the results suggest that beta(2)-microglobulin cleaved after Lys(58) readily adopts two equilibrium conformations under native conditions. In the cleaved and trimmed beta(2)-microglobulin that appears in vivo, the less populated conformation...
Spin-4 extended conformal algebras
Kakas, A.C.
1988-01-01
We construct spin-4 extended conformal algebras using the second hamiltonian structure of the KdV hierarchy. In the presence of a U(1) current a family of spin-4 algebras exists but the additional requirement that the spin-1 and spin-4 currents commute fixes the algebra uniquely. (orig.)
Defects in conformal field theory
Billò, Marco; Gonçalves, Vasco; Lauria, Edoardo; Meineri, Marco
2016-01-01
We discuss consequences of the breaking of conformal symmetry by a flat or spherical extended operator. We adapt the embedding formalism to the study of correlation functions of symmetric traceless tensors in the presence of the defect. Two-point functions of a bulk and a defect primary are fixed by conformal invariance up to a set of OPE coefficients, and we identify the allowed tensor structures. A correlator of two bulk primaries depends on two cross-ratios, and we study its conformal block decomposition in the case of external scalars. The Casimir equation in the defect channel reduces to a hypergeometric equation, while the bulk channel blocks are recursively determined in the light-cone limit. In the special case of a defect of codimension two, we map the Casimir equation in the bulk channel to the one of a four-point function without defect. Finally, we analyze the contact terms of the stress-tensor with the extended operator, and we deduce constraints on the CFT data. In two dimensions, we relate the displacement operator, which appears among the contact terms, to the reflection coefficient of a conformal interface, and we find unitarity bounds for the latter.
Conformal symmetry and holographic cosmology
Bzowski, A.W.
2013-01-01
This thesis presents a novel approach to cosmology using gauge/gravity duality. Analysis of the implications of conformal invariance in field theories leads to quantitative cosmological predictions which are in agreement with current data. Furthermore, holographic cosmology extends the theory of
Checking behavioral conformance of artifacts
Fahland, D.; Leoni, de M.; Dongen, van B.F.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.
2011-01-01
The usefulness of process models (e.g., for analysis, improvement, or execution) strongly depends on their ability to describe reality. Conformance checking is a technique to validate how good a given process model describes recorded executions of the actual process. Recently, artifacts have been
Conformation analysis of oligomeric flavanoids
Jan P. Steynberg; E. Vincent Brandt; Daneel Ferreira; Carin A. Helfer; Wayne L. Mattice; Dominika Gornik; Richard W. Hemingway
1995-01-01
The profisetinidins are the most important polyflavanoids of commerce, making up the major constituents of wattle and quebracho tannins. Within the dimeric profisetinidins, substantial complexity exists because of stereo-, regio, rotational and conformational isomers. Definition of the stereochemistry of the upper and lower flavan units, the location of the...
Conformational analysis of oligomeric flavanoids
Jan P. Steynberg; E. Vincent Brandt; Daneel Ferreira; Carin A. Helfer; Wayne L. Mattice; Dominika Gornik; Richard W. Hemingway
1995-01-01
The profisetinidins are the most important polyflavanoids of commerce, making up the major constituents of wattle and quebracho tannins. Even within the dimeric profisetinidins, substantial complexity exists because of stereo-, regio-, rotational and conformational isomers. Definition of the stereochemistry of the upper and lower flavan units, the location of the...
Inversion theory and conformal mapping
Blair, David E
2000-01-01
It is rarely taught in an undergraduate or even graduate curriculum that the only conformal maps in Euclidean space of dimension greater than two are those generated by similarities and inversions in spheres. This is in stark contrast to the wealth of conformal maps in the plane. The principal aim of this text is to give a treatment of this paucity of conformal maps in higher dimensions. The exposition includes both an analytic proof in general dimension and a differential-geometric proof in dimension three. For completeness, enough complex analysis is developed to prove the abundance of conformal maps in the plane. In addition, the book develops inversion theory as a subject, along with the auxiliary theme of circle-preserving maps. A particular feature is the inclusion of a paper by Carath�odory with the remarkable result that any circle-preserving transformation is necessarily a M�bius transformation, not even the continuity of the transformation is assumed. The text is at the level of advanced undergr...
Defects in conformal field theory
Billò, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1 I-10125 Torino (Italy); Gonçalves, Vasco [Centro de Física do Porto,Departamento de Física e Astronomia Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research Instituto de Física Teórica,UNESP - University Estadual Paulista,Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lauria, Edoardo [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Meineri, Marco [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Scuola Normale Superiore, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - sezione di Pisa,Piazza dei Cavalieri 7 I-56126 Pisa (Italy)
2016-04-15
We discuss consequences of the breaking of conformal symmetry by a flat or spherical extended operator. We adapt the embedding formalism to the study of correlation functions of symmetric traceless tensors in the presence of the defect. Two-point functions of a bulk and a defect primary are fixed by conformal invariance up to a set of OPE coefficients, and we identify the allowed tensor structures. A correlator of two bulk primaries depends on two cross-ratios, and we study its conformal block decomposition in the case of external scalars. The Casimir equation in the defect channel reduces to a hypergeometric equation, while the bulk channel blocks are recursively determined in the light-cone limit. In the special case of a defect of codimension two, we map the Casimir equation in the bulk channel to the one of a four-point function without defect. Finally, we analyze the contact terms of the stress-tensor with the extended operator, and we deduce constraints on the CFT data. In two dimensions, we relate the displacement operator, which appears among the contact terms, to the reflection coefficient of a conformal interface, and we find unitarity bounds for the latter.
Supertwistor connection and conformal supergravity
Merkulov, S.A.
1985-01-01
Supersymmetry expansion of the geometry of local twistors is suggested. Definition of the space of local supertwistors is given and its differential geometry is formulated. Variational principles are discussed, and it is shown that corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations also coincide and result in superzero equations of N=1 conformal supergravitation, which generalize Bach equations
Conformal symmetry and string theories
Kumar, A.
1987-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the study of various aspects of the 2-dimensional conformal field theory and its applications to strings. We make a short review of the conformal field theory and its supersymmetric extension, called superconformal field theory. We present an elegant superspace formulation of these theories and solve the condition for the closure of the superconformal algebra. The we go on to classify the superconformal field theories according to these solutions. We prove that N ≥ 5 superconformal algebra, with N being the number of supersymmetries, does not have central charge. We find the primary representations of all the interesting superconformal algebra. We study the quantization of the superconformal theories and derive the constraints on the central charge of the algebra that has to be satisfied for a consistent quantum theory. This quantization process also determines the ground state energy of the system and the spectrum of the model. We study the global aspects of the conformal symmetry and its role in the construction of consistent heterotic string theories. We prove the uniqueness of heterotic superstring theories in 10 dimensions in the fermionic constructions. We show how the vertex operators are closely associated with the primary field representation of the conformal algebra. We utilize these vertex operator constructions to obtain tree amplitudes in the 10-dimensional heterotic string theory. We show by explicit calculation at the 3-point level that the scattering amplitudes derived from the heterotic superstring are same as the ones obtained from 10-dimensional supergravity theories
Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows
Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Ryttov, Thomas
2012-01-01
We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according...
Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons
Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within...
Puizdar, Vida; Zajc, Tajana; Žerovnik, Eva; Renko, Miha; Pieper, Ursula; Eswar, Narayanan; Šali, Andrej; Dolenc, Iztok; Turk, Vito
2014-01-01
Cathepsin E splice variant 2 appears in a number of gastric carcinoma. Here, we report detecting this variant in HeLa cells using polyclonal antibodies and biotinylated inhibitor pepstatin A. An overexpression of GFP fusion proteins of cathepsin E and its splice variant within HEK-293T cells was performed to show their localization. Their distribution under a fluorescence microscope showed that they are colocalized. We also expressed variant 1 and variant 2 of cathepsins E, with propeptide and without it, in Echerichia coli. After refolding from the inclusion bodies, the enzymatic activity and circular dichroism spectra of the splice variant 2 were compared to those of the wild-type mature active cathepsins E. While full-length cathepsin E variant1 is activated at acid pH, the splice variant remains inactive. In contrast to the active cathepsin E, the splice variant 2 predominantly assumes β-sheet structure, prone to oligomerization, at least under in vitro conditions, as shown by Atomic Force Microscopy as shallow disk-like particles. A comparative structure model of splice variant 2 was computed based on its alignment to the known structure of cathepsin E intermediate (Protein Data Bank code 1TZS), and used to rationalize its conformational properties and loss of activity. PMID:22718633
New realizations of 𝒩 = 2l-conformal Newton-Hooke superalgebra
Masterov, Ivan
2015-04-01
By applying Niederer-like transformation, we construct a representation of the 𝒩 = 2l-conformal Newton-Hooke (NH) superalgebra for the case of a negative cosmological constant in terms of linear differential operators as well as its dynamical realization. Another variant of 𝒩 = 2 supersymmetric Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator for a particular choice of its frequencies is proposed. The advantages of such realizations as compared to their analogues introduced in [I. Masterov, J. Math. Phys.53, 072904 (2012)], are discussed.
Conformal and Nearly Conformal Theories at Large N
Tarnoplskiy, Grigory M.
In this thesis we present new results in conformal and nearly conformal field theories in various dimensions. In chapter two, we study different properties of the conformal Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) in continuous dimension d. At first we study conformal QED using large Nf methods, where Nf is the number of massless fermions. We compute its sphere free energy as a function of d, ignoring the terms of order 1/Nf and higher. For finite Nf we use the epsilon-expansion. Next we use a large Nf diagrammatic approach to calculate the leading corrections to CT, the coefficient of the two-point function of the stress-energy tensor, and CJ, the coefficient of the two-point function of the global symmetry current. We present explicit formulae as a function of d and check them versus the expectations in 2 and 4 - epsilon dimensions. In chapter three, we discuss vacuum stability in 1 + 1 dimensional conformal field theories with external background fields. We show that the vacuum decay rate is given by a non-local two-form. This two-form is a boundary term that must be added to the effective in/out Lagrangian. The two-form is expressed in terms of a Riemann-Hilbert decomposition for background gauge fields, and is given by its novel "functional'' version in the gravitational case. In chapter four, we explore Tensor models. Such models possess the large N limit dominated by the melon diagrams. The quantum mechanics of a real anti-commuting rank-3 tensor has a large N limit similar to the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model. We also discuss the quantum mechanics of a complex 3-index anti-commuting tensor and argue that it is equivalent in the large N limit to a version of SYK model with complex fermions. Finally, we discuss models of a commuting tensor in dimension d. We study the spectrum of the large N quantum field theory of bosonic rank-3 tensors using the Schwinger-Dyson equations. We compare some of these results with the 4 - epsilon expansion, finding perfect agreement. We
Conformal invariance in the quantum field theory
Kurak, V.
1975-09-01
Basic features concerning the present knowledge of conformal symmetry are illustrated in a simple model. Composite field dimensions of this model are computed and related to the conformal group. (author) [pt
The Conformational Behaviour of Glucosamine
Peña, Isabel; Kolesniková, Lucie; Cabezas, Carlos; Bermúdez, Celina; Berdakin, Matías; Simao, Alcides; Alonso, José L.
2014-06-01
A laser ablation method has been successfully used to vaporize the bioactive amino monosaccharide D-glucosamine. Three cyclic α-4C1 pyranose forms have been identified using a combination of CP-FTMW and LA-MB-FTMW spectroscopy. Stereoelectronic hyperconjugative factors, like those associated with anomeric or gauche effects, as well as the cooperative OH\\cdotsO, OH\\cdotsN and NH\\cdotsO chains, extended along the entire molecule, are the main factors driving the conformational behavior. All observed conformers exhibit a counter-clockwise arrangement (cc) of the network of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The results are compared with those recently obtained for D-glucose. J. L. Alonso, M. A. Lozoya, I. Peña, J. C. López, C. Cabezas, S. Mata, S. Blanco, Chem. Sci. 2014, 5, 515.
Conformal invariance from nonconformal gravity
Meissner, Krzysztof A.; Nicolai, Hermann
2009-01-01
We discuss the conditions under which classically conformally invariant models in four dimensions can arise out of nonconformal (Einstein) gravity. As an 'existence proof' that this is indeed possible we show how to derive N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with any compact gauge group G from nonconformal gauged N=4 supergravity as a special flat space limit. We stress the role that the anticipated UV finiteness of the (so far unknown) underlying theory of quantum gravity would have to play in such a scheme, as well as the fact that the masses of elementary particles would have to arise via quantum gravitational effects which mimic the conformal anomalies of standard (flat space) UV divergent quantum field theory.
Conformal methods in general relativity
Valiente Kroon, Juan A
2016-01-01
This book offers a systematic exposition of conformal methods and how they can be used to study the global properties of solutions to the equations of Einstein's theory of gravity. It shows that combining these ideas with differential geometry can elucidate the existence and stability of the basic solutions of the theory. Introducing the differential geometric, spinorial and PDE background required to gain a deep understanding of conformal methods, this text provides an accessible account of key results in mathematical relativity over the last thirty years, including the stability of de Sitter and Minkowski spacetimes. For graduate students and researchers, this self-contained account includes useful visual models to help the reader grasp abstract concepts and a list of further reading, making this the perfect reference companion on the topic.
Gel dosimetry for conformal radiotherapy
Gambarini, G [Department of Physics of the University and INFN, Milan (Italy)
2005-07-01
With the continuum development of conformal radio therapies, aimed at delivering high dose to tumor tissue and low dose to the healthy tissue around, the necessities has appeared of suitable improvement of dosimetry techniques giving the possibility of obtaining dose images to be compared with diagnostic images. Also if wide software has been developed for calculating dose distributions in the fields of various radiotherapy units, experimental verifications are necessary, in particular in the case of complex geometries in conformal radiotherapy. Gel dosimetry is a promising method for imaging the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantoms, with the possibility of 3D reconstruction of the spatial dose distribution, with milli metric resolution. Optical imaging of gel dosimeters, based on visible light absorbance analysis, has shown to be a reliable technique for achieving dose distributions. (Author)
Conformal FDTD modeling wake fields
Jurgens, T.; Harfoush, F.
1991-05-01
Many computer codes have been written to model wake fields. Here we describe the use of the Conformal Finite Difference Time Domain (CFDTD) method to model the wake fields generated by a rigid beam traveling through various accelerating structures. The non- cylindrical symmetry of some of the problems considered here requires the use of a three dimensional code. In traditional FDTD codes, curved surfaces are approximated by rectangular steps. The errors introduced in wake field calculations by such an approximation can be reduced by increasing the mesh size, therefore increasing the cost of computing. Another approach, validated here, deforms Ampere and Faraday contours near a media interface so as to conform to the interface. These improvements of the FDTD method result in better accuracy of the fields at asymptotically no computational cost. This method is also capable of modeling thin wires as found in beam profile monitors, and slots and cracks as found in resistive wall motions. 4 refs., 5 figs.
Conformal manifolds: ODEs from OPEs
Behan, Connor
2018-03-01
The existence of an exactly marginal deformation in a conformal field theory is very special, but it is not well understood how this is reflected in the allowed dimensions and OPE coefficients of local operators. To shed light on this question, we compute perturbative corrections to several observables in an abstract CFT, starting with the beta function. This yields a sum rule that the theory must obey in order to be part of a conformal manifold. The set of constraints relating CFT data at different values of the coupling can in principle be written as a dynamical system that allows one to flow arbitrarily far. We begin the analysis of it by finding a simple form for the differential equations when the spacetime and theory space are both one-dimensional. A useful feature we can immediately observe is that our system makes it very difficult for level crossing to occur.
Conformal field theories and critical phenomena
Xu, Bowei
1993-01-01
In this article we present a brief review of the conformal symmetry and the two dimensional conformal quantum field theories. As concrete applications of the conformal theories to the critical phenomena in statistical systems, we calculate the value of central charge and the anomalous scale dimensions of the Z 2 symmetric quantum chain with boundary condition. The results are compatible with the prediction of the conformal field theories
Conformal group actions and Segal's cosmology
Werth, J.-E.
1984-01-01
A mathematical description of Segal's cosmological model in the framework of conformal group actions is presented. The relation between conformal and causal group actions on time-orientable Lorentzian manifolds is analysed and several examples are discussed. A criterion for the conformality of a map between Lorentzian manifolds is given. The results are applied to Segal's 'conformal compactification' of Minkowski space. Furthermore, the 'unitary formulation' of Segal's cosmology is regarded. (Author) [pt
Generative Models of Conformational Dynamics
Langmead, Christopher James
2014-01-01
Atomistic simulations of the conformational dynamics of proteins can be performed using either Molecular Dynamics or Monte Carlo procedures. The ensembles of three-dimensional structures produced during simulation can be analyzed in a number of ways to elucidate the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system. The goal of this chapter is to review both traditional and emerging methods for learning generative models from atomistic simulation data. Here, the term ‘generative’ refers to a...
Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance
Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, 212 College Ave., Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2009-11-01
We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV.
Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance
Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander
2009-01-01
We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV
Integrability of conformal fishnet theory
Gromov, Nikolay; Kazakov, Vladimir; Korchemsky, Gregory; Negro, Stefano; Sizov, Grigory
2018-01-01
We study integrability of fishnet-type Feynman graphs arising in planar four-dimensional bi-scalar chiral theory recently proposed in arXiv:1512.06704 as a special double scaling limit of gamma-deformed N = 4 SYM theory. We show that the transfer matrix "building" the fishnet graphs emerges from the R-matrix of non-compact conformal SU(2 , 2) Heisenberg spin chain with spins belonging to principal series representations of the four-dimensional conformal group. We demonstrate explicitly a relationship between this integrable spin chain and the Quantum Spectral Curve (QSC) of N = 4 SYM. Using QSC and spin chain methods, we construct Baxter equation for Q-functions of the conformal spin chain needed for computation of the anomalous dimensions of operators of the type tr( ϕ 1 J ) where ϕ 1 is one of the two scalars of the theory. For J = 3 we derive from QSC a quantization condition that fixes the relevant solution of Baxter equation. The scaling dimensions of the operators only receive contributions from wheel-like graphs. We develop integrability techniques to compute the divergent part of these graphs and use it to present the weak coupling expansion of dimensions to very high orders. Then we apply our exact equations to calculate the anomalous dimensions with J = 3 to practically unlimited precision at any coupling. These equations also describe an infinite tower of local conformal operators all carrying the same charge J = 3. The method should be applicable for any J and, in principle, to any local operators of bi-scalar theory. We show that at strong coupling the scaling dimensions can be derived from semiclassical quantization of finite gap solutions describing an integrable system of noncompact SU(2 , 2) spins. This bears similarities with the classical strings arising in the strongly coupled limit of N = 4 SYM.
Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation
Lidka Rodak
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.
Conformational kinetics of aliphatic tails
Ferrarini, Alberta; Moro, Giorgio; Nordio, Pier Luigi
The master equation describing the random walk between sites identified with the stable conformers of a chain molecule, represents the extension to the time domain of the Rotational Isomeric State model. The asymptotic analysis of the multidimensional diffusion equation in the continuous torsional variables subjected to the configurational potential, provides a rigorous justification for the discrete models, and it supplies, without resorting to phenomenological parameters, molecular definitions of the kinetic rates for the conformational transitions occurring at each segment of the chain. The coupling between the torsional variables is fully taken into account, giving rise to cooperative effects. A complete calculation of the specific correlation functions which describe the time evolution of the angular functions probed by N.M.R. and dielectric relaxation measurements, has been performed for alkyl chains attached to a massive core. The resulting behaviour has been compared with the decay of trans and gauche populations of specific bonds, expressed in terms of suitable correlation functions whose time integrals lead quite naturally to the definition of effective kinetic constants for the conformational transitions.
Anomalies, conformal manifolds, and spheres
Gomis, Jaume [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Hsin, Po-Shen [Department of Physics, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Komargodski, Zohar; Schwimmer, Adam [Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Seiberg, Nathan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Theisen, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,14476 Golm (Germany)
2016-03-04
The two-point function of exactly marginal operators leads to a universal contribution to the trace anomaly in even dimensions. We study aspects of this trace anomaly, emphasizing its interpretation as a sigma model, whose target space M is the space of conformal field theories (a.k.a. the conformal manifold). When the underlying quantum field theory is supersymmetric, this sigma model has to be appropriately supersymmetrized. As examples, we consider in some detail N=(2,2) and N=(0,2) supersymmetric theories in d=2 and N=2 supersymmetric theories in d=4. This reasoning leads to new information about the conformal manifolds of these theories, for example, we show that the manifold is Kähler-Hodge and we further argue that it has vanishing Kähler class. For N=(2,2) theories in d=2 and N=2 theories in d=4 we also show that the relation between the sphere partition function and the Kähler potential of M follows immediately from the appropriate sigma models that we construct. Along the way we find several examples of potential trace anomalies that obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions, but can be ruled out by a more detailed analysis.
Electrophysiological precursors of social conformity
Rieskamp, Jörg; Tugin, Sergey; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Krutitskaya, Janina; Klucharev, Vasily
2013-01-01
Humans often change their beliefs or behavior due to the behavior or opinions of others. This study explored, with the use of human event-related potentials (ERPs), whether social conformity is based on a general performance-monitoring mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that conflicts with a normative group opinion evoke a feedback-related negativity (FRN) often associated with performance monitoring and subsequent adjustment of behavior. The experimental results show that individual judgments of facial attractiveness were adjusted in line with a normative group opinion. A mismatch between individual and group opinions triggered a frontocentral negative deflection with the maximum at 200 ms, similar to FRN. Overall, a conflict with a normative group opinion triggered a cascade of neuronal responses: from an earlier FRN response reflecting a conflict with the normative opinion to a later ERP component (peaking at 380 ms) reflecting a conforming behavioral adjustment. These results add to the growing literature on neuronal mechanisms of social influence by disentangling the conflict-monitoring signal in response to the perceived violation of social norms and the neural signal of a conforming behavioral adjustment. PMID:22683703
CONFORMITY IN CHRIST 1. THE TRANSFORMATION PROCESS
This essay investigates the notion of conformity in Christ as it is part of a compre- hensive, multilayered process of transformation. In the first part it focuses on the process of transformation in creation, re-creation, conformity, love and glory. In the second part it discusses transformation in Christ by looking at conformation and ...
40 CFR 52.938 - General conformity.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conformity. 52.938 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.938 General conformity. The General Conformity regulations were submitted on November 10, 1995, and adopted into the Kentucky State...
40 CFR 51.854 - Conformity analysis.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 51.854 Section 51... FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 51.854 Conformity analysis. Link to an...
40 CFR 52.2133 - General conformity.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conformity. 52.2133 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Carolina § 52.2133 General conformity. The General Conformity regulations adopted into the South Carolina State Implementation Plan which...
Conformity in Christ | Waaijman | Acta Theologica
This essay investigates the notion of conformity in Christ as it is part of a comprehensive, multilayered process of transformation. In the first part it focuses on the process of transformation in creation, re-creation, conformity, love and glory. In the second part it discusses transformation in Christ by looking at conformation and ...
Conformal symmetry inheritance in null fluid spacetimes
Tupper, B O J; Keane, A J; Hall, G S; Coley, A A; Carot, J
2003-01-01
We define inheriting conformal Killing vectors for null fluid spacetimes and find the maximum dimension of the associated inheriting Lie algebra. We show that for non-conformally flat null fluid spacetimes, the maximum dimension of the inheriting algebra is seven and for conformally flat null fluid spacetimes the maximum dimension is eight. In addition, it is shown that there are two distinct classes of non-conformally flat generalized plane wave spacetimes which possess the maximum dimension, and one class in the conformally flat case
Structural Basis for Degenerate Recognition of Natural HIV Peptide Variants by Cytotoxic Lymphocytes
Martinez-Hackert, E.; Anikeeva, N.; Kalams, S.; Walker, B.; Hendrickson, W.; Sykulev, Y.
2006-01-01
It is well established that even small changes in amino acid side chains of antigenic peptide bound to MHC protein may completely abrogate recognition of the peptide-MHC (pMHC) complex by the T-cell receptor (TCR). Often, however, several non-conservative substitutions in the peptide antigen are accommodated and do not impair its recognition by TCR. For example, a preponderance of natural sequence variants of the HIV p17 Gag-derived peptide SLYNTVATL (SL9) are recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), which implies that interactions with SL9 variants are degenerate both with respect to the class I MHC molecule and with respect to TCR. Here we study the molecular basis for this degenerate recognition of SL9 variants. We show that several SL9 variants bind comparably well to soluble HLA-A2 and to a particular soluble TCR and that these variants are active in the cognate cytotoxicity assay. Natural SL9 variation is restricted by its context in the HIV p17 matrix protein, and we have used synthetic variants to explore the wider spectrum of recognition. High-resolution crystal structures of seven selected SL9 variants bound to HLA-A2 all have remarkably similar peptide conformations and side-chain dispositions outside sites of substitution. This preservation of the peptide conformation despite epitope variations suggests a mechanism for the observed degeneracy in pMHC recognition by TCR, and may contribute to the persistence of SL9-mediated immune responses in chronically infected individuals
Families and degenerations of conformal field theories
Roggenkamp, D.
2004-09-01
In this work, moduli spaces of conformal field theories are investigated. In the first part, moduli spaces corresponding to current-current deformation of conformal field theories are constructed explicitly. For WZW models, they are described in detail, and sigma model realizations of the deformed WZW models are presented. The second part is devoted to the study of boundaries of moduli spaces of conformal field theories. For this purpose a notion of convergence of families of conformal field theories is introduced, which admits certain degenerated conformal field theories to occur as limits. To such a degeneration of conformal field theories, a degeneration of metric spaces together with additional geometric structures can be associated, which give rise to a geometric interpretation. Boundaries of moduli spaces of toroidal conformal field theories, orbifolds thereof and WZW models are analyzed. Furthermore, also the limit of the discrete family of Virasoro minimal models is investigated. (orig.)
Forneris, Federico; Burnley, B. Tom; Gros, Piet
2014-01-01
Ensemble-refinement analysis of native and mutant factor D (FD) crystal structures indicates a dynamical transition in FD from a self-inhibited inactive conformation to a substrate-bound active conformation that is reminiscent of the allostery in thrombin. Comparison with previously observed dynamics in thrombin using NMR data supports the crystallographic ensembles. Human factor D (FD) is a self-inhibited thrombin-like serine proteinase that is critical for amplification of the complement immune response. FD is activated by its substrate through interactions outside the active site. The substrate-binding, or ‘exosite’, region displays a well defined and rigid conformation in FD. In contrast, remarkable flexibility is observed in thrombin and related proteinases, in which Na + and ligand binding is implied in allosteric regulation of enzymatic activity through protein dynamics. Here, ensemble refinement (ER) of FD and thrombin crystal structures is used to evaluate structure and dynamics simultaneously. A comparison with previously published NMR data for thrombin supports the ER analysis. The R202A FD variant has enhanced activity towards artificial peptides and simultaneously displays active and inactive conformations of the active site. ER revealed pronounced disorder in the exosite loops for this FD variant, reminiscent of thrombin in the absence of the stabilizing Na + ion. These data indicate that FD exhibits conformational dynamics like thrombin, but unlike in thrombin a mechanism has evolved in FD that locks the unbound native state into an ordered inactive conformation via the self-inhibitory loop. Thus, ensemble refinement of X-ray crystal structures may represent an approach alternative to spectroscopy to explore protein dynamics in atomic detail
Motai, Yuichi
2015-01-01
Describes and discusses the variants of kernel analysis methods for data types that have been intensely studied in recent years This book covers kernel analysis topics ranging from the fundamental theory of kernel functions to its applications. The book surveys the current status, popular trends, and developments in kernel analysis studies. The author discusses multiple kernel learning algorithms and how to choose the appropriate kernels during the learning phase. Data-Variant Kernel Analysis is a new pattern analysis framework for different types of data configurations. The chapters include
Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules
Mimbs, Scott M.
2010-01-01
The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement
Conformal covariance of general relativity
Ionescu-Pallas, N.; Gottlieb, I.
1980-01-01
The Einstein's equations of General Relativity are written in a conformal metric, resulting as a consequence of geometrizing the pressure forces. Accordingly, the trajectory of a test body pursues a geodetic line even inside the source of gravitational field. Moreover, the pressure, entering the perfect fluid scheme, may be replaced by a certain scalar interaction. This new manner of interpreting General Relativity is then applied to Cosmology, in order to build up a model of Universe whose static limit should coincide with that of Einstein. At the same time, the cosmological constant is connected to the scalar interaction acquiring a plausible explanation. (author)
Appelquist, T.; Fleming, G. T.; Neil, E. T.; Avakian, A.; Babich, R.; Brower, R. C.; Cohen, S. D.; Rebbi, C.; Schaich, D.; Cheng, M.; Vranas, P.; Clark, M. A.; Kiskis, J.; Osborn, J. C.
2010-01-01
We study the chiral properties of an SU(3) gauge theory with N f massless Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation when N f is increased from 2 to 6. For N f =2, our lattice simulations lead to a value of /F 3 , where F is the Nambu-Goldstone-boson decay constant and is the chiral condensate, which agrees with the measured QCD value. For N f =6, this ratio shows significant enhancement, presaging an even larger enhancement anticipated as N f increases further, toward the critical value for transition from confinement to infrared conformality.
Introduction to twisted conformal fields
Kazama, Y.
1988-01-01
A pedagogical account is given of the recent developments in the theory of twisted conformal fields. Among other things, the main part of the lecture concerns the construction of the twist-emission vertex operator, which is a generalization of the fermion emission vertex in the superstring theory. Several different forms of the vertex are derived and their mutural relationships are clarified. In this paper, the authors include a brief survey of the history of the fermion emission vertex, as it offers a good perspective in which to appreciate the logical development
Novel genetic variants in miR-191 gene and familial ovarian cancer
Shen, Jie; DiCioccio, Richard; Odunsi, Kunle; Lele, Shashikant B; Zhao, Hua
2010-01-01
Half of the familial aggregation of ovarian cancer can't be explained by any known risk genes, suggesting the existence of other genetic risk factors. Some of these unknown factors may not be traditional protein encoding genes. MicroRNA (miRNA) plays a critical role in tumorigenesis, but it is still unknown if variants in miRNA genes lead to predisposition to cancer. Considering the fact that miRNA regulates a number of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and oncogenes, genetic variations in miRNA genes could affect the levels of expression of TSGs or oncogenes and, thereby, cancer risk. To test this hypothesis in familial ovarian cancer, we screened for genetic variants in thirty selected miRNA genes, which are predicted to regulate key ovarian cancer genes and are reported to be misexpressed in ovarian tumor tissues, in eighty-three patients with familial ovarian cancer. All of the patients are non-carriers of any known BRCA1/2 or mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations. Seven novel genetic variants were observed in four primary or precursor miRNA genes. Among them, three rare variants were found in the precursor or primary precursor of the miR-191 gene. In functional assays, the one variant located in the precursor of miR-191 resulted in conformational changes in the predicted secondary structures, and consequently altered the expression of mature miR-191. In further analysis, we found that this particular variant exists in five family members who had ovarian cancer. Our findings suggest that there are novel genetic variants in miRNA genes, and those certain genetic variants in miRNA genes can affect the expression of mature miRNAs and, consequently, might alter the regulation of TSGs or oncogenes. Additionally, the variant might be potentially associated with the development of familial ovarian cancer
Unusual Phenotype of the Brownell-Oppenheimer Variant of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
Dronacharya Lamichhane
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare, transmissible, neurodegenerative disease caused by conformationally changed abnormal prion protein. Most patients present with cognitive impairment, myoclonus, ataxia, visual impairment alone or in combination. Patients who present with ataxia only at the onset are said to have Brownell-Oppenheimer variant of the disease. However, here we present a case where visual symptoms preceded the clinical presentation and hallucinations accompanied the ataxia at the onset of the disease.
GCPII Variants, Paralogs and Orthologs
Hlouchová, Klára; Navrátil, Václav; Tykvart, Jan; Šácha, Pavel; Konvalinka, Jan
2012-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 9 (2012), s. 1316-1322 ISSN 0929-8673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/12/0847 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : PSMA * GCPIII * NAALADase L * splice variants * homologs * PSMAL Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.070, year: 2012
Odontogenic keratocyst: a peripheral variant.
Vij, H; Vij, R; Gupta, V; Sengupta, S
2011-01-01
Odontogenic keratocyst, which is developmental in nature, is an intraosseous lesion though on rare occasions it may occur in an extraosseous location. The extraosseous variant is referred to as peripheral odontogenic keratocyst. Though, clinically, peripheral odontogenic keratocyst resembles the gingival cyst of adults, it has histologic features that are pathognomonic of odontogenic keratocyst. This article presents a case of this uncommon entity.
Generative Models of Conformational Dynamics
Langmead, Christopher James
2014-01-01
Atomistic simulations of the conformational dynamics of proteins can be performed using either Molecular Dynamics or Monte Carlo procedures. The ensembles of three-dimensional structures produced during simulation can be analyzed in a number of ways to elucidate the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system. The goal of this chapter is to review both traditional and emerging methods for learning generative models from atomistic simulation data. Here, the term ‘generative’ refers to a model of the joint probability distribution over the behaviors of the constituent atoms. In the context of molecular modeling, generative models reveal the correlation structure between the atoms, and may be used to predict how the system will respond to structural perturbations. We begin by discussing traditional methods, which produce multivariate Gaussian models. We then discuss GAMELAN (GrAphical Models of Energy LANdscapes), which produces generative models of complex, non-Gaussian conformational dynamics (e.g., allostery, binding, folding, etc) from long timescale simulation data. PMID:24446358
On bidimensional Lagrangian conformal models
Lazzarini, S.
1990-04-01
The main topic of this thesis is the study of Conformal Field Theories defined on an arbitrary compact Riemann surface without boundary. The Beltrami parametrization of complexe structures endowing such a surface provides a local bidimensional diffeomorphism invariance of the theory and the holomorphic factorization. The perturbative quantization a la Feynman is then constrained by local factorized Ward identities. The renormalization is analysed in the Esptein-Glaser scheme. A first part deals with the simplest free field models where one checks the interesting conjecture that renormalized perturbative expansions could be resumed by a Polyakov's formula which is a Wess-Zumino action for the diffeomorphism anomaly. For a higher genus surface, only a differential version is proposed. The second part of this thesis is devoted to the characterization of some observables of the free bosonic string in the corresponding gauge theory with the aid of the nilpotent Slavnov s-operator. It is conjectured that part of the observables of this theory is labelled by the local cohomology of s modulo d and corresponds to the vertex operators, as it is verified for the tachyon vertex in the conformal gauge [fr
Focused conformational sampling in proteins
Bacci, Marco; Langini, Cassiano; Vymětal, Jiří; Caflisch, Amedeo; Vitalis, Andreas
2017-11-01
A detailed understanding of the conformational dynamics of biological molecules is difficult to obtain by experimental techniques due to resolution limitations in both time and space. Computer simulations avoid these in theory but are often too short to sample rare events reliably. Here we show that the progress index-guided sampling (PIGS) protocol can be used to enhance the sampling of rare events in selected parts of biomolecules without perturbing the remainder of the system. The method is very easy to use as it only requires as essential input a set of several features representing the parts of interest sufficiently. In this feature space, new states are discovered by spontaneous fluctuations alone and in unsupervised fashion. Because there are no energetic biases acting on phase space variables or projections thereof, the trajectories PIGS generates can be analyzed directly in the framework of transition networks. We demonstrate the possibility and usefulness of such focused explorations of biomolecules with two loops that are part of the binding sites of bromodomains, a family of epigenetic "reader" modules. This real-life application uncovers states that are structurally and kinetically far away from the initial crystallographic structures and are also metastable. Representative conformations are intended to be used in future high-throughput virtual screening campaigns.
Nathan C Edwards
Full Text Available Synonymous variations, which are defined as codon substitutions that do not change the encoded amino acid, were previously thought to have no effect on the properties of the synthesized protein(s. However, mounting evidence shows that these "silent" variations can have a significant impact on protein expression and function and should no longer be considered "silent". Here, the effects of six synonymous and six non-synonymous variations, previously found in the gene of ADAMTS13, the von Willebrand Factor (VWF cleaving hemostatic protease, have been investigated using a variety of approaches. The ADAMTS13 mRNA and protein expression levels, as well as the conformation and activity of the variants have been compared to that of wild-type ADAMTS13. Interestingly, not only the non-synonymous variants but also the synonymous variants have been found to change the protein expression levels, conformation and function. Bioinformatic analysis of ADAMTS13 mRNA structure, amino acid conservation and codon usage allowed us to establish correlations between mRNA stability, RSCU, and intracellular protein expression. This study demonstrates that variants and more specifically, synonymous variants can have a substantial and definite effect on ADAMTS13 function and that bioinformatic analysis may allow development of predictive tools to identify variants that will have significant effects on the encoded protein.
Prion protein β2-α2 loop conformational landscape.
Caldarulo, Enrico; Barducci, Alessandro; Wüthrich, Kurt; Parrinello, Michele
2017-09-05
In transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), which are lethal neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and a wide range of other mammalian species, the normal "cellular" prion protein ([Formula: see text]) is transformed into amyloid aggregates representing the "scrapie form" of the protein ([Formula: see text]). Continued research on this system is of keen interest, since new information on the physiological function of [Formula: see text] in healthy organisms is emerging, as well as new data on the mechanism of the transformation of [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] In this paper we used two different approaches: a combination of the well-tempered ensemble (WTE) and parallel tempering (PT) schemes and metadynamics (MetaD) to characterize the conformational free-energy surface of [Formula: see text] The focus of the data analysis was on an 11-residue polypeptide segment in mouse [Formula: see text](121-231) that includes the [Formula: see text]2-[Formula: see text]2 loop of residues 167-170, for which a correlation between structure and susceptibility to prion disease has previously been described. This study includes wild-type mouse [Formula: see text] and a variant with the single-residue replacement Y169A. The resulting detailed conformational landscapes complement in an integrative manner the available experimental data on [Formula: see text], providing quantitative insights into the nature of the structural transition-related function of the [Formula: see text]2-[Formula: see text]2 loop.
Conformal symmetries of FRW accelerating cosmologies
Kehagias, A.; Riotto, A.
2014-01-01
We show that any accelerating Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) cosmology with equation of state w<−1/3 (and therefore not only a de Sitter stage with w=−1) exhibits three-dimensional conformal symmetry on future constant-time hypersurfaces if the bulk theory is invariant under bulk conformal Killing vectors. We also offer an alternative derivation of this result in terms of conformal Killing vectors and show that long wavelength comoving curvature perturbations of the perturbed FRW metric are just conformal Killing motions of the FRW background. We then extend the boundary conformal symmetry to the bulk for accelerating cosmologies. Our findings indicate that one can easily generate perturbations of scalar fields which are not only scale invariant, but also fully conformally invariant on super-Hubble scales. Measuring a scale-invariant power spectrum for the cosmological perturbation does not automatically imply that the universe went through a de Sitter stage
Maxwell equations in conformal invariant electrodynamics
Fradkin, E.S.; AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Avtomatiki i Ehlektrometrii); Kozhevnikov, A.A.; Palchik, M.Ya.; Pomeransky, A.A.
1983-01-01
We consider a conformal invariant formulation of quantum electrodynamics. Conformal invariance is achieved with a specific mathematical construction based on the indecomposable representations of the conformal group associated with the electromagnetic potential and current. As a corolary of this construction modified expressions for the 3-point Green functions are obtained which both contain transverse parts. They make it possible to formulate a conformal invariant skeleton perturbation theory. It is also shown that the Euclidean Maxwell equations in conformal electrodynamics are manifestations of its kinematical structure: in the case of the 3-point Green functions these equations follow (up to constants) from the conformal invariance while in the case of higher Green functions they are equivalent to the equality of the kernels of the partial wave expansions. This is the manifestation of the mathematical fast of a (partial) equivalence of the representations associated with the potential, current and the field tensor. (orig.)
Operator algebras and conformal field theory
Gabbiani, F.; Froehlich, J.
1993-01-01
We define and study two-dimensional, chiral conformal field theory by the methods of algebraic field theory. We start by characterizing the vacuum sectors of such theories and show that, under very general hypotheses, their algebras of local observables are isomorphic to the unique hyperfinite type III 1 factor. The conformal net determined by the algebras of local observables is proven to satisfy Haag duality. The representation of the Moebius group (and presumably of the entire Virasoro algebra) on the vacuum sector of a conformal field theory is uniquely determined by the Tomita-Takesaki modular operators associated with its vacuum state and its conformal net. We then develop the theory of Mebius covariant representations of a conformal net, using methods of Doplicher, Haag and Roberts. We apply our results to the representation theory of loop groups. Our analysis is motivated by the desire to find a 'background-independent' formulation of conformal field theories. (orig.)
Measuring the mechanical properties of molecular conformers
Jarvis, S. P.; Taylor, S.; Baran, J. D.; Champness, N. R.; Larsson, J. A.; Moriarty, P.
2015-09-01
Scanning probe-actuated single molecule manipulation has proven to be an exceptionally powerful tool for the systematic atomic-scale interrogation of molecular adsorbates. To date, however, the extent to which molecular conformation affects the force required to push or pull a single molecule has not been explored. Here we probe the mechanochemical response of two tetra(4-bromophenyl)porphyrin conformers using non-contact atomic force microscopy where we find a large difference between the lateral forces required for manipulation. Remarkably, despite sharing very similar adsorption characteristics, variations in the potential energy surface are capable of prohibiting probe-induced positioning of one conformer, while simultaneously permitting manipulation of the alternative conformational form. Our results are interpreted in the context of dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations which reveal significant differences in the diffusion barriers for each conformer. These results demonstrate that conformational variation significantly modifies the mechanical response of even simple porpyhrins, potentially affecting many other flexible molecules.
Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses
... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Virus Language: English (US) Español Recommend ...
Lown, J.W.; Chauhan, S.M.S.
1981-01-01
The synthesis of certain specifically 15 N, 13 C, and 2 H isotope labeled 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-alkyl-1-nitrosoureas (CENUs) is described. Spectroscopic examination of CENUs and their isotope-labeled counterparts by 1 H, 15 N, and 13 C NMR and infrared spectra indicates that they adopt preferred conformations in nonpolar aprotic solvents in which the NO group is aligned toward the 2-chloroethyl group. The result is in accord with the conformation of MeCCNU in the crystalline state derived from X-ray diffraction. The chemical shifts and coupling constants in the CENUs change with both solvent polarity and basicity. In aqueous phosphate buffer there is evidence for the formation of a tetrahedral intermediate, the conformation of which alters according to the reaction conditions and ultimately controls the formation of the aqueous decomposition products of CENUs. This is revealed most clearly by 13 C NMR of carbonyl- 13 C- and nitroso- 15 N-labeled BCNU and CCNU where two distinct 15 N-coupled 13 C doublets with different chemical shifts are observed. The rate of conformational change is comparable with the rate of decomposition of CENUs (via the second conformer) and may therefore represent the critical initial step of the latter process in vivo. The intermediacy of the postulated tetrahedral intermediates for CENUs is supported by observed 18 O exchange into the carbonyl group in 18 O-enriched water. Consideration of the conformations of the intermediates and of the alignment of the heteroatom lone pairs provides a satisfactory interpretation of the reactions of CENUs in aqueous solution as well as their pH dependence in terms of strict steroelectronic control and accounts for the formation of the observed products
Lattice models and conformal field theories
Saleur, H.
1988-01-01
Theoretical studies concerning the connection between critical physical systems and the conformal theories are reviewed. The conformal theory associated to a critical (integrable) lattice model is derived. The obtention of the central charge, critical exponents and torus partition function, using renormalization group arguments, is shown. The quantum group structure, in the integrable lattice models, and the theory of Visaro algebra representations are discussed. The relations between off-critical integrable models and conformal theories, in finite geometries, are studied
Multichannel conformal blocks for scattering amplitudes
Belitsky, A. V.
2018-05-01
By performing resummation of small fermion-antifermion pairs within the pentagon form factor program to scattering amplitudes in planar N = 4 superYang-Mills theory, we construct multichannel conformal blocks within the flux-tube picture for N-sided NMHV polygons. This procedure is equivalent to summation of descendants of conformal primaries in the OPE framework. The resulting conformal partial waves are determined by multivariable hypergeometric series of Lauricella-Saran type.
Conformal hyperbolicity of Lorentzian warped products
Markowitz, M.J.
1982-01-01
A space-time M is said to be conformally hyperbolic if the intrinsic conformal Lorentz pseudodistance dsub(M) is a true distance. In this paper criteria are derived which insure the conformal hyperbolicity of certain space-times which are generalizations of the Robertson-Walker spaces. Then dsub(M) is determined explicitly for Einstein-de Sitter space, and important cosmological model. (author)
Conformal hyperbolicity of Lorentzian warped products
Markowitz, M.J. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Mathematics)
1982-12-01
A space-time M is said to be conformally hyperbolic if the intrinsic conformal Lorentz pseudodistance dsub(M) is a true distance. In this paper criteria are derived which insure the conformal hyperbolicity of certain space-times which are generalizations of the Robertson-Walker spaces. Then dsub(M) is determined explicitly for Einstein-de Sitter space, and important cosmological model.
Conformational changes in glycine tri- and hexapeptide
Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.
2006-01-01
conformations and calculated the energy barriers for transitions between them. Using a thermodynamic approach, we have estimated the times of the characteristic transitions between these conformations. The results of our calculations have been compared with those obtained by other theoretical methods...... also investigated the influence of the secondary structure of polypeptide chains on the formation of the potential energy landscape. This analysis has been performed for the sheet and the helix conformations of chains of six amino acids....
Geometrical formulation of the conformal Ward identity
Kachkachi, M.
2002-08-01
In this paper we use deep ideas in complex geometry that proved to be very powerful in unveiling the Polyakov measure on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces and lead to obtain the partition function of perturbative string theory for 2, 3, 4 loops. Indeed, a geometrical interpretation of the conformal Ward identity in two dimensional conformal field theory is proposed: the conformal anomaly is interpreted as a deformation of the complex structure of the basic Riemann surface. This point of view is in line with the modern trend of geometric quantizations that are based on deformations of classical structures. Then, we solve the conformal Ward identity by using this geometrical formalism. (author)
Fabrication challenges associated with conformal optics
Schaefer, John; Eichholtz, Richard A.; Sulzbach, Frank C.
2001-09-01
A conformal optic is typically an optical window that conforms smoothly to the external shape of a system platform to improve aerodynamics. Conformal optics can be on-axis, such as an ogive missile dome, or off-axis, such as in a free form airplane wing. A common example of conformal optics is the automotive head light window that conforms to the body of the car aerodynamics and aesthetics. The unusual shape of conformal optics creates tremendous challenges for design, manufacturing, and testing. This paper will discuss fabrication methods that have been successfully demonstrated to produce conformal missile domes and associated wavefront corrector elements. It will identify challenges foreseen with more complex free-form configurations. Work presented in this paper was directed by the Precision Conformal Optics Consortium (PCOT). PCOT is comprised of both industrial and academic members who teamed to develop and demonstrate conformal optical systems suitable for insertion into future military programs. The consortium was funded under DARPA agreement number MDA972-96-9-08000.
Gluon amplitudes as 2 d conformal correlators
Pasterski, Sabrina; Shao, Shu-Heng; Strominger, Andrew
2017-10-01
Recently, spin-one wave functions in four dimensions that are conformal primaries of the Lorentz group S L (2 ,C ) were constructed. We compute low-point, tree-level gluon scattering amplitudes in the space of these conformal primary wave functions. The answers have the same conformal covariance as correlators of spin-one primaries in a 2 d CFT. The Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion relation between three- and four-point gluon amplitudes is recast into this conformal basis.
Noncommutative geometry and twisted conformal symmetry
Matlock, Peter
2005-01-01
The twist-deformed conformal algebra is constructed as a Hopf algebra with twisted coproduct. This allows for the definition of conformal symmetry in a noncommutative background geometry. The twisted coproduct is reviewed for the Poincare algebra and the construction is then extended to the full conformal algebra. The case of Moyal-type noncommutativity of the coordinates is considered. It is demonstrated that conformal invariance need not be viewed as incompatible with noncommutative geometry; the noncommutativity of the coordinates appears as a consequence of the twisting, as has been shown in the literature in the case of the twisted Poincare algebra
Unconstrained multiplet in N=2 conformal supergravity
Hayashi, Masahito; Uehara, Shozo.
1985-02-01
An unconstrained (general) multiplet was studied in N = 2 conformal supergravity. Transformation law, embedding formula and multiplication rule are explicitly presented at the linearized level. (author)
Superintegrability of d-dimensional conformal blocks
Isachenkov, Mikhail
2016-02-01
We observe that conformal blocks of scalar 4-point functions in a d-dimensional conformal field theory can mapped to eigenfunctions of a 2-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled Poeschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension d, is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions and a remarkable duality that relates the blocks of theories in different dimensions.
Superintegrability of d-dimensional conformal blocks
Isachenkov, Mikhail [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astronomy; Schomerus, Volker [DESY Theory Group, Hamburg (Germany)
2016-02-15
We observe that conformal blocks of scalar 4-point functions in a d-dimensional conformal field theory can mapped to eigenfunctions of a 2-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled Poeschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension d, is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions and a remarkable duality that relates the blocks of theories in different dimensions.
Riemann monodromy problem and conformal field theories
Blok, B.
1989-01-01
A systematic analysis of the use of the Riemann monodromy problem for determining correlators (conformal blocks) on the sphere is presented. The monodromy data is constructed in terms of the braid matrices and gives a constraint on the noninteger part of the conformal dimensions of the primary fields. To determine the conformal blocks we need to know the order of singularities. We establish a criterion which tells us when the knowledge of the conformal dimensions of primary fields suffice to determine the blocks. When zero modes of the extended algebra are present the analysis is more difficult. In this case we give a conjecture that works for the SU(2) WZW case. (orig.)
Rotational Spectroscopy Unveils Eleven Conformers of Adrenaline
Cabezas, C.; Cortijo, V.; Mata, S.; Lopez, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.
2013-06-01
Recent improvements in our LA-MB-FTMW instrumentation have allowed the characterization of eleven and eight conformers for the neurotransmitters adrenaline and noradrenaline respectively. The observation of this rich conformational behavior is in accordance with the recent observation of seven conformers for dopamine and in sharp contrast with the conformational reduction proposed for catecholamines. C. Cabezas, I. Peña, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2013, 4, 486. H. Mitsuda, M. Miyazaki, I. B. Nielsen, P. Carcabal,C. Dedonder, C. Jouvet, S. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1130.
Conformal Dimensions via Large Charge Expansion.
Banerjee, Debasish; Chandrasekharan, Shailesh; Orlando, Domenico
2018-02-09
We construct an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm that overcomes the severe signal-to-noise ratio problems and helps us to accurately compute the conformal dimensions of large-Q fields at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in the O(2) universality class. Using it, we verify a recent proposal that conformal dimensions of strongly coupled conformal field theories with a global U(1) charge can be obtained via a series expansion in the inverse charge 1/Q. We find that the conformal dimensions of the lowest operator with a fixed charge Q are almost entirely determined by the first few terms in the series.
Conformal maps between pseudo-Finsler spaces
Voicu, Nicoleta
The paper aims to initiate a systematic study of conformal mappings between Finsler spacetimes and, more generally, between pseudo-Finsler spaces. This is done by extending several results in pseudo-Riemannian geometry which are necessary for field-theoretical applications and by proposing a technique that reduces some problems involving pseudo-Finslerian conformal vector fields to their pseudo-Riemannian counterparts. Also, we point out, by constructing classes of examples, that conformal groups of flat (locally Minkowskian) pseudo-Finsler spaces can be much richer than both flat Finslerian and pseudo-Euclidean conformal groups.
Conformal frame dependence of inflation
Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao
2015-01-01
Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case
Conformable eddy current array delivery
Summan, Rahul; Pierce, Gareth; Macleod, Charles; Mineo, Carmelo; Riise, Jonathan; Morozov, Maxim; Dobie, Gordon; Bolton, Gary; Raude, Angélique; Dalpé, Colombe; Braumann, Johannes
2016-02-01
The external surface of stainless steel containers used for the interim storage of nuclear material may be subject to Atmospherically Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking (AISCC). The inspection of such containers poses a significant challenge due to the large quantities involved; therefore, automating the inspection process is of considerable interest. This paper reports upon a proof-of-concept project concerning the automated NDT of a set of test containers containing artificially generated AISCCs. An Eddy current array probe with a conformable padded surface from Eddyfi was used as the NDT sensor and end effector on a KUKA KR5 arc HW robot. A kinematically valid cylindrical raster scan path was designed using the KUKA|PRC path planning software. Custom software was then written to interface measurement acquisition from the Eddyfi hardware with the motion control of the robot. Preliminary results and analysis are presented from scanning two canisters.
Conformal frame dependence of inflation
Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: guillem.domenech@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2015-04-01
Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case.
Strings, conformal fields and topology
Kaku, Michio
1991-01-01
String Theory has advanced at an astonishing pace in the last few years, and this book aims to acquaint the reader with the most active topics of research in the field. Building on the foundations laid in his Introduction to Superstrings, Professor Kaku discusses such topics as the classification of conformal string theories, knot theory, the Yang-Baxter relation, quantum groups, the non-polynominal closed string field theory, matrix models, and topological field theory. Several chapters review the fundamentals of string theory, making the presentation of the material self-contained while keeping overlap with the earlier book to a minimum. The book conveys the vitality of current research in string theory and places readers at its forefront. (orig.) With 40 figs. in 50 parts
Light gauginos and conformal sequestering
Hanaki, Kentaro; Ookouchi, Yutaka
2011-01-01
In a wide class of direct and semidirect gauge mediation models, it has been observed that the gaugino masses vanish at leading order. It implies that there is a hierarchy between the gaugino and sfermion masses, invoking a fine-tuning problem in the Higgs sector via radiative corrections. In this paper, we explore the possibility of solving this anomalously light gaugino problem exploiting strong conformal dynamics in the hidden sector. With a mild assumption on the anomalous dimensions of the hidden sector operators, we show that the next-to-leading order contributions to the gaugino masses can naturally be in the same order as the sfermion masses. The μ/B μ problem is also discussed.
Coronary artery anatomy and variants
Malago, Roberto; Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Alfonsi, Ugolino; Nicoli, Lisa; Caliari, Giuliana; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University of Verona, Department of Radiology, Verona (Italy)
2011-12-15
Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions. (orig.)
Microcystic Variant of Urothelial Carcinoma
Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma is one of the new variants of urothelial carcinoma that was added to the WHO classification in 2004. Aims. To review the literature on microcystic variant of urothelial carcinoma. Methods. Various internet search engines were used to identify reported cases of the tumour. Results. Microscopic features of the tumour include: (i Conspicuous intracellular and intercellular lumina/microcysts encompassed by malignant urothelial or squamous cells. (ii The lumina are usually empty; may contain granular eosinophilic debris, mucin, or necrotic cells. (iii The cysts may be variable in size; round, or oval, up to 2 mm; lined by urothelium which are either flattened cells or low columnar cells however, they do not contain colonic epithelium or goblet cells; are infiltrative; invade the muscularis propria; mimic cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis; occasionally exhibit neuroendocrine differentiation. (iv Elongated and irregular branching spaces are usually seen. About 17 cases of the tumour have been reported with only 2 patients who have survived. The tumour tends to be of high-grade and high-stage. There is no consensus opinion on the best option of treatment of the tumour. Conclusions. It would prove difficult at the moment to be dogmatic regarding its prognosis but it is a highly aggressive tumour. New cases of the tumour should be reported in order to document its biological behaviour.
Pedersen, Christina Bak; Bross, P.; Winter, V.S.
2003-01-01
and aggregation of variant SCAD proteins. In this study we investigated the processing of a set of disease-causing variant SCAD proteins (R22W, G68C, W153R, R359C, and Q341H) and two common variant proteins (R147W and G185S) that lead to reduced SCAD activity. All SCAD proteins, including the wild type, associate...... proteolytic degradation by mitochondrial proteases or, especially at elevated temperature, aggregation of non-native conformers. The latter finding may indicate that accumulation of aggregated SCAD proteins may play a role in the pathogenesis of SCAD deficiency.......Short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency is an inborn error of the mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism caused by rare variations as well as common susceptibility variations in the SCAD gene. Earlier studies have shown that a common variant SCAD protein (R147W) was impaired in folding...
Characterization of form variants of Xenorhabdus luminescens.
Gerritsen, L J; de Raay, G; Smits, P H
1992-01-01
From Xenorhabdus luminescens XE-87.3 four variants were isolated. One, which produced a red pigment and antibiotics, was luminescent, and could take up dye from culture media, was considered the primary form (XE-red). A pink-pigmented variant (XE-pink) differed from the primary form only in pigmentation and uptake of dye. Of the two other variants, one produced a yellow pigment and fewer antibiotics (XE-yellow), while the other did not produce a pigment or antibiotics (XE-white). Both were less luminescent, did not take up dye, and had small cell and colony sizes. These two variants were very unstable and shifted to the primary form after 3 to 5 days. It was not possible to separate the primary form and the white variant completely; subcultures of one colony always contained a few colonies of the other variant. The white variant was also found in several other X. luminescens strains. DNA fingerprints showed that all four variants are genetically identical and are therefore derivatives of the same parent. Protein patterns revealed a few differences among the four variants. None of the variants could be considered the secondary form. The pathogenicity of the variants decreased in the following order: XE-red, XE-pink, XE-yellow, and XE-white. The mechanism and function of this variability are discussed. Images PMID:1622273
The butane condensed matter conformational problem
Weber, A.C.J.; de Lange, C.A.; Meerts, W.L.; Burnell, E.E.
2010-01-01
From the dipolar couplings of orientationally ordered n-butane obtained by NMR spectroscopy we have calculated conformer probabilities using the modified Chord (Cd) and Size-and-Shape (CI) models to estimate the conformational dependence of the order matrix. All calculation methods make use of
Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children
Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael
2011-01-01
Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…
Dissecting the large-scale galactic conformity
Seo, Seongu
2018-01-01
Galactic conformity is an observed phenomenon that galaxies located in the same region have similar properties such as star formation rate, color, gas fraction, and so on. The conformity was first observed among galaxies within in the same halos (“one-halo conformity”). The one-halo conformity can be readily explained by mutual interactions among galaxies within a halo. Recent observations however further witnessed a puzzling connection among galaxies with no direct interaction. In particular, galaxies located within a sphere of ~5 Mpc radius tend to show similarities, even though the galaxies do not share common halos with each other ("two-halo conformity" or “large-scale conformity”). Using a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, Illustris, we investigate the physical origin of the two-halo conformity and put forward two scenarios. First, back-splash galaxies are likely responsible for the large-scale conformity. They have evolved into red galaxies due to ram-pressure stripping in a given galaxy cluster and happen to reside now within a ~5 Mpc sphere. Second, galaxies in strong tidal field induced by large-scale structure also seem to give rise to the large-scale conformity. The strong tides suppress star formation in the galaxies. We discuss the importance of the large-scale conformity in the context of galaxy evolution.
Conformal deformation of Riemann space and torsion
Pyzh, V.M.
1981-01-01
Method for investigating conformal deformations of Riemann spaces using torsion tensor, which permits to reduce the second ' order equations for Killing vectors to the system of the first order equations, is presented. The method is illustrated using conformal deformations of dimer sphere as an example. A possibility of its use when studying more complex deformations is discussed [ru
Conformal invariance and two-dimensional physics
Zuber, J.B.
1993-01-01
Actually, physicists and mathematicians are very interested in conformal invariance: geometric transformations which keep angles. This symmetry is very important for two-dimensional systems as phase transitions, string theory or node mathematics. In this article, the author presents the conformal invariance and explains its usefulness
Fusion rules in conformal field theory
Fuchs, J.
1993-06-01
Several aspects of fusion rings and fusion rule algebras, and of their manifestations in two-dimensional (conformal) field theory, are described: diagonalization and the connection with modular invariance; the presentation in terms of quotients of polynomial rings; fusion graphs; various strategies that allow for a partial classification; and the role of the fusion rules in the conformal bootstrap programme. (orig.)
A viewpoint on nearly conformally symmetric manifold
Rahman, M.S.
1990-06-01
Some observations, with definition, on Nearly Conformally Symmetric (NCS) manifold are made. A number of theorems concerning conformal change of metric and parallel tensors on NCS manifolds are presented. It is illustrated that a manifold M = R n-1 x R + 1 , endowed with a special metric, is NCS but not of harmonic curvature. (author). 8 refs
Closed forms for conformally flat Green's functions
Brown, M.R.; Grove, P.G.; Ottewill, A.C.
1981-01-01
A closed form is obtained for the massless scalar Green's function on Rindler space. This is related by conformal transformation to the Green's function for a massless, conformally coupled scalar field on the open Einstein universe. A closed form is also obtained for the corresponding Green's function on the Einstein static universe. (author)
Vertex operator algebras and conformal field theory
Huang, Y.Z.
1992-01-01
This paper discusses conformal field theory, an important physical theory, describing both two-dimensional critical phenomena in condensed matter physics and classical motions of strings in string theory. The study of conformal field theory will deepen the understanding of these theories and will help to understand string theory conceptually. Besides its importance in physics, the beautiful and rich mathematical structure of conformal field theory has interested many mathematicians. New relations between different branches of mathematics, such as representations of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras and Lie groups, Riemann surfaces and algebraic curves, the Monster sporadic group, modular functions and modular forms, elliptic genera and elliptic cohomology, Calabi-Yau manifolds, tensor categories, and knot theory, are revealed in the study of conformal field theory. It is therefore believed that the study of the mathematics involved in conformal field theory will ultimately lead to new mathematical structures which would be important to both mathematics and physics
Conformation Generation: The State of the Art.
Hawkins, Paul C D
2017-08-28
The generation of conformations for small molecules is a problem of continuing interest in cheminformatics and computational drug discovery. This review will present an overview of methods used to sample conformational space, focusing on those methods designed for organic molecules commonly of interest in drug discovery. Different approaches to both the sampling of conformational space and the scoring of conformational stability will be compared and contrasted, with an emphasis on those methods suitable for conformer sampling of large numbers of drug-like molecules. Particular attention will be devoted to the appropriate utilization of information from experimental solid-state structures in validating and evaluating the performance of these tools. The review will conclude with some areas worthy of further investigation.
Conformal Symmetry Patterns in Baryon Spectra
Kirchbach, Mariana; Compean, Cliffor B
2011-01-01
Attention is drawn to the fact that the spectra of the baryons of the lightest flavors, the nucleon and the Δ, carry quantum numbers characteristic for an unitary representation of the conformal group. We show that the above phenomenon is well explained for baryons whose internal structure is dominated by a quark-diquark configuration that resides in a conformally compactified Minkowski space time, R 1 x S 3 , and is described by means of the conformal scale equation there. The R 1 x S 3 space-time represents the boundary of the conformally compactified AdS 5 , on which one expects to encounter a conformal theory in accord with the gauge-gravity duality. Within this context, our model is congruent with AdS 5 /CFT 4 .
Conformal symmetry in two-dimensional space: recursion representation of conformal block
Zamolodchikov, A.B.
1988-01-01
The four-point conformal block plays an important part in the analysis of the conformally invariant operator algebra in two-dimensional space. The behavior of the conformal block is calculated in the present paper in the limit in which the dimension Δ of the intermediate operator tends to infinity. This makes it possible to construct a recursion relation for this function that connects the conformal block at arbitrary Δ to the blocks corresponding to the dimensions of the zero vectors in the degenerate representations of the Virasoro algebra. The relation is convenient for calculating the expansion of the conformal block in powers of the uniformizing parameters q = i π tau
Conformal invariance in hydrodynamic turbulence
Falkovich, Gregory
2007-01-01
This short survey is written by a physicist. It contains neither theorems nor precise definitions. Its main content is a description of the results of numerical solution of the equations of fluid mechanics in the regime of developed turbulence. Due to limitations of computers, the results are not very precise. Despite being neither exact nor rigorous, the findings may nevertheless be of interest for mathematicians. The main result is that the isolines of some scalar fields (vorticity, temperature) in two-dimensional turbulence belong to the class of conformally invariant curves called SLE (Scramm-Loewner evolution) curves. First, this enables one to predict and find a plethora of quantitative relations going far beyond what was known previously about turbulence. Second, it suggests relations between phenomena that seemed unrelated, like the Euler equation and critical percolation. Third, it shows that one is able to get exact analytic results in statistical hydrodynamics. In short, physicists have found something unexpected and hope that mathematicians can help to explain it.
A monomeric variant of insulin degrading enzyme (IDE loses its regulatory properties.
Eun Suk Song
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE is a key enzyme in the metabolism of both insulin and amyloid beta peptides. IDE is unique in that it is subject to allosteric activation which is hypothesized to occur through an oligomeric structure.IDE is known to exist as an equilibrium mixture of monomers, dimers, and higher oligomers, with the dimer being the predominant form. Based on the crystal structure of IDE we deleted the putative dimer interface in the C-terminal region, which resulted in a monomeric variant. Monomeric IDE retained enzymatic activity, however instead of the allosteric behavior seen with wild type enzyme it displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetic behavior. With the substrate Abz-GGFLRKHGQ-EDDnp, monomeric IDE retained approximately 25% of the wild type activity. In contrast with the larger peptide substrates beta-endorphin and amyloid beta peptide 1-40, monomeric IDE retained only 1 to 0.25% of wild type activity. Unlike wild type IDE neither bradykinin nor dynorphin B-9 activated the monomeric variant of the enzyme. Similarly, monomeric IDE was not activated by polyphosphates under conditions in which the activity of wild type enzyme was increased more than 50 fold.These findings serve to establish the dimer interface in IDE and demonstrate the requirement for an oligomeric form of the enzyme for its regulatory properties. The data support a mechanism where the binding of activators to oligomeric IDE induces a conformational change that cannot occur in the monomeric variant. Since a conformational change from a closed to a more open structure is likely the rate-determining step in the IDE reaction, the subunit induced conformational change likely shifts the structure of the oligomeric enzyme to a more open conformation.
47 CFR 2.1072 - Limitation on Declaration of Conformity.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. 2.1072... Conformity § 2.1072 Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. (a) The Declaration of Conformity signifies that...'s rules. (b) A Declaration of Conformity by the responsible party is effective until a termination...
C-metric solution for conformal gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field
Meng, Kun, E-mail: mengkun@tjpu.edu.cn [School of Science, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhao, Liu, E-mail: lzhao@nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)
2017-02-15
The C-metric solution of conformal gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field is presented. The solution belongs to the class of Petrov type D spacetimes and is conformal to the standard AdS C-metric appeared in vacuum Einstein gravity. For all parameter ranges, we identify some of the physically interesting static regions and the corresponding coordinate ranges. The solution may contain a black hole event horizon, an acceleration horizon, either of which may be cut by the conformal infinity or be hidden behind the conformal infinity. Since the model is conformally invariant, we also discussed the possible effects of the conformal gauge choices on the structure of the spacetime.
Berkhout Ben
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously described the selection of a T20-dependent human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 variant in a patient on T20 therapy. The fusion inhibitor T20 targets the viral envelope (Env protein by blocking a conformational switch that is critical for viral entry into the host cell. T20-dependent viral entry is the result of 2 mutations in Env (GIA-SKY, creating a protein that undergoes a premature conformational switch, and the presence of T20 prevents this premature switch and rescues viral entry. In the present study, we performed 6 independent evolution experiments with the T20-dependent HIV-1 variant in the absence of T20, with the aim to identify second site compensatory changes, which may provide new mechanistic insights into Env function and the T20-dependence mechanism. Results Escape variants with improved replication capacity appeared within 42 days in 5 evolution cultures. Strikingly, 3 cultures revealed the same single amino acid change in the CD4 binding region of Env (glycine at position 431 substituted for arginine: G431R. This mutation was sufficient to abolish the T20-dependence phenotype and restore viral replication in the absence of T20. The GIA-SKY-G431R escape variant produces an Env protein that exhibits reduced syncytia formation and reduced cell-cell fusion activity. The escape variant was more sensitive to an antibody acting on an early gp41 intermediate, suggesting that the G431R mutation helps preserve a pre-fusion Env conformation, similar to T20 action. The escape variant was also less sensitive to soluble CD4, suggesting a reduced CD4 receptor affinity. Conclusion The forced evolution experiments indicate that the premature conformational switch of the T20-dependent HIV-1 Env variant (GIA-SKY can be corrected by a second site mutation in Env (GIA-SKY-G431R that affects the interaction with the CD4 receptor.
Shift-Variant Multidimensional Systems.
1985-05-29
x,y;u,v) is the system response at (x,y) to an unit impulse applied at (u,v). The presence of additive noise in the preceding input-output model of a...space model developed works very effi- ciently to deblur images affected by 2-D linear shift- varying blurs, its use, in presence of noise needs to be...causal linear shift-variant (LSV) system, whose impulse res- ponse is a K-th order degenerate sequence, a K-th order state-space model was obtained
Understanding modern magnets through conformal mapping
Halbach, K.
1989-10-01
I want to show with the help of a number of examples that conformal mapping is a unique and enormously powerful tool for thinking about, and solving, problems. Usually one has to write down only a few equations, and sometimes none at all exclamation point When I started getting involved in work for which conformal mapping seemed to be a powerful tool, I did not think that I would ever be able to use that technique successfully because it seemed to require a nearly encyclopedic memory, an impression that was strengthened when I saw K. Kober's Dictionary of Conformal Representations. This attitude changed when I started to realize that beyond the basics of the theory of a function of a complex variable, I needed to know only about a handful of conformal maps and procedures. Consequently, my second goal for this talk is to show that in most cases conformal mapping functions can be obtained by formulating the underlying physics appropriately. This means particularly that encyclopedic knowledge of conformal maps is not necessary for successful use of conformal mapping techniques. To demonstrate these facts I have chosen examples from an area of physics/engineering in which I am active, namely accelerator physics. In order to do that successfully I start with a brief introduction into high energy charged particle storage ring technology, even though not all examples used in this paper to elucidate my points come directly from this particular field of accelerator technology
On functional representations of the conformal algebra
Rosten, Oliver J.
2017-07-15
Starting with conformally covariant correlation functions, a sequence of functional representations of the conformal algebra is constructed. A key step is the introduction of representations which involve an auxiliary functional. It is observed that these functionals are not arbitrary but rather must satisfy a pair of consistency equations corresponding to dilatation and special conformal invariance. In a particular representation, the former corresponds to the canonical form of the exact renormalization group equation specialized to a fixed point whereas the latter is new. This provides a concrete understanding of how conformal invariance is realized as a property of the Wilsonian effective action and the relationship to action-free formulations of conformal field theory. Subsequently, it is argued that the conformal Ward Identities serve to define a particular representation of the energy-momentum tensor. Consistency of this construction implies Polchinski's conditions for improving the energy-momentum tensor of a conformal field theory such that it is traceless. In the Wilsonian approach, the exactly marginal, redundant field which generates lines of physically equivalent fixed points is identified as the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. (orig.)
Entanglement evolution across a conformal interface
Wen, Xueda; Wang, Yuxuan; Ryu, Shinsei
2018-05-01
For two-dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs) in the ground state, it is known that a conformal interface along the entanglement cut can suppress the entanglement entropy from to , where L is the length of the subsystem A, and is the effective central charge which depends on the transmission property of the conformal interface. In this work, by making use of conformal mappings, we show that a conformal interface has the same effect on entanglement evolution in non-equilibrium cases, including global, local and certain inhomogeneous quantum quenches. I.e. a conformal interface suppresses the time evolution of entanglement entropy by effectively replacing the central charge c with , where is exactly the same as that in the ground state case. We confirm this conclusion by a numerical study on a critical fermion chain. Furthermore, based on the quasi-particle picture, we conjecture that this conclusion holds for an arbitrary quantum quench in CFTs, as long as the initial state can be described by a regularized conformal boundary state.
Conformational effects in photoelectron circular dichroism
Turchini, S.
2017-12-01
Photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) is a novel type of spectroscopy, which presents surprising sensitivity to conformational effects in chiral systems. While classical photoelectron spectroscopy mainly responds to conformational effects in terms of energy level shifts, PECD provides a rich and detailed response to tiny changes in electronic and structural properties by means of the intensity dispersion of the circular dichroism as a function of photoelectron kinetic energy. In this work, the basics of PECD will be outlined, emphasizing the role of interference from the l,l+/- 1 outgoing partial wave of the photoelectron in the PECD transition matrix element, which is responsible for the extreme sensitivity to conformational effects. Examples using molecular systems and interfaces will shed light on the powerful application of PECD to classical conformational effects such as group substitution, isomerism, conformer population and clustering. Moreover, the PECD results will be reported in challenging new fields where conformations play a key role, such as vibrational effects, transient chirality and time- resolved experiments. To date, PECD has mostly been based on synchrotron radiation facilities, but it also has a future as a table-top lab experiment by means of multiphoton ionization. An important application of PECD as an analytical tool will be reported. The aim of this review is to illustrate that in PECD, the presence of conformational effects is essential for understanding a wide range of effects from a new perspective, making it different from classical spectroscopy.
Conformity index for brain cancer patients
Petkovska, Sonja; Tolevska, Cveta; Kraleva, Slavica; Petreska, Elena
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study is to present the level of conformity achieved by using 3D conformal radiotherapy for brain cancer patients. Conformity index is a helpful quantitative tool for assessing (evaluating) the quality of a treatment plan. Treatment plans made for ninety patients with brain tumor are worked on this paper. The patients are in supine position and immobilized with thermoplastic masks for the head. Computed tomography data sets with 5 mm scan thickness are used to create a 3D image. All structures of interest are contoured. In order to obtain an optimal dose distribution, treatment fields are fit around target volume with set-up margins of 7mm in each direction. The conformity index values are between 1.21 and 2.04. Value of 1.8 is exceeded in eighteen cases; nine of them are bigger than 1.9 and only three of them are above 2. The target volume for each of these extreme CI values is ideal covered (between 95% and 105% of the prescribed dose). The most acceptable conformity index value in this paper belongs to the plan with the lowest minimal dose (84.7%). It can be concluded that conformity index is necessary but not sufficient factor for assessing radiation treatment plan conformity. To be able to estimate the acceptability of some treatment plan in daily practice, additional information as minimal, maximal and mean dose into target volume, as well as health tissues coverage must be taken into account.(Author)
Conformation-dependent DNA attraction
Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang
2014-05-01
Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg2+ ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg2+ or Na+, benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg2+ bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by
Spectra of conformal sigma models
Tlapak, Vaclav
2015-04-01
In this thesis the spectra of conformal sigma models defined on (generalized) symmetric spaces are analysed. The spaces where sigma models are conformal without the addition of a Wess-Zumino term are supermanifolds, in other words spaces that include fermionic directions. After a brief review of the general construction of vertex operators and the background field expansion, we compute the diagonal terms of the one-loop anomalous dimensions of sigma models on semi-symmetric spaces. We find that the results are formally identical to the symmetric case. However, unlike for sigma models on symmetric spaces, off diagonal terms that lead to operator mixing are also present. These are not computed here. We then present a detailed analysis of the one-loop spectrum of the supersphere S 3 vertical stroke 2 sigma model as one of the simplest examples. The analysis illustrates the power and simplicity of the construction. We use this data to revisit a duality with the OSP(4 vertical stroke 2) Gross-Neveu model that was proposed by Candu and Saleur. With the help of a recent all-loop result for the anomalous dimension of (1)/(2)BPS operators of Gross-Neveu models, we are able to recover the entire zero-mode spectrum of the supersphere model. We also argue that the sigma model constraints and its equations of motion are implemented correctly in the Gross-Neveu model, including the one-loop data. The duality is further supported by a new all-loop result for the anomalous dimension of the ground states of the sigma model. However, higher-gradient operators cannot be completely recovered. It is possible that this discrepancy is related to a known instability of the sigma model. The instability of sigma models is due to symmetry preserving high-gradient operators that become relevant at arbitrarily small values of the coupling. This feature has been observed long ago in one-loop calculations of the O(N)-vector model and soon been realized to be a generic property of sigma models
Conformation-dependent DNA attraction.
Li, Weifeng; Nordenskiöld, Lars; Zhou, Ruhong; Mu, Yuguang
2014-06-21
Understanding how DNA molecules interact with other biomolecules is related to how they utilize their functions and is therefore critical for understanding their structure-function relationships. For a long time, the existence of Z-form DNA (a left-handed double helical version of DNA, instead of the common right-handed B-form) has puzzled the scientists, and the definitive biological significance of Z-DNA has not yet been clarified. In this study, the effects of DNA conformation in DNA-DNA interactions are explored by molecular dynamics simulations. Using umbrella sampling, we find that for both B- and Z-form DNA, surrounding Mg(2+) ions always exert themselves to screen the Coulomb repulsion between DNA phosphates, resulting in very weak attractive force. On the contrary, a tight and stable bound state is discovered for Z-DNA in the presence of Mg(2+) or Na(+), benefiting from their hydrophobic nature. Based on the contact surface and a dewetting process analysis, a two-stage binding process of Z-DNA is outlined: two Z-DNA first attract each other through charge screening and Mg(2+) bridges to phosphate groups in the same way as that of B-DNA, after which hydrophobic contacts of the deoxyribose groups are formed via a dewetting effect, resulting in stable attraction between two Z-DNA molecules. The highlighted hydrophobic nature of Z-DNA interaction from the current study may help to understand the biological functions of Z-DNA in gene transcription.
Willmore energy estimates in conformal Berger spheres
Barros, Manuel; Ferrandez, Angel
2011-01-01
Highlights: → The Willmore energy is computed in a wide class of surfaces. → Isoperimetric inequalities for the Willmore energy of Hopf tori are obtained. → The best possible lower bound is achieved on isoareal Hopf tori. - Abstract: We obtain isoperimetric inequalities for the Willmore energy of Hopf tori in a wide class of conformal structures on the three sphere. This class includes, on the one hand, the family of conformal Berger spheres and, on the other hand, a one parameter family of Lorentzian conformal structures. This allows us to give the best possible lower bound of Willmore energies concerning isoareal Hopf tori.
Dilogarithm identities in conformal field theory
Nahm, W.; Recknagel, A.; Terhoeven, M.
1992-11-01
Dilogarithm identities for the central charges and conformal dimensions exist for at least large classes of rational conformally invariant quantum field theories in two dimensions. In many cases, proofs are not yet known but the numerical and structural evidence is convincing. In particular, close relations exist to fusion rules and partition identities. We describe some examples and ideas, and present conjectures useful for the classification of conformal theories. The mathematical structures seem to be dual to Thurston's program for the classification of 3-manifolds. (orig.)
Conformal Gravity: Dark Matter and Dark Energy
Robert K. Nesbet
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This short review examines recent progress in understanding dark matter, dark energy, and galactic halos using theory that departs minimally from standard particle physics and cosmology. Strict conformal symmetry (local Weyl scaling covariance, postulated for all elementary massless fields, retains standard fermion and gauge boson theory but modifies Einstein–Hilbert general relativity and the Higgs scalar field model, with no new physical fields. Subgalactic phenomenology is retained. Without invoking dark matter, conformal gravity and a conformal Higgs model fit empirical data on galactic rotational velocities, galactic halos, and Hubble expansion including dark energy.
The decomposition of global conformal invariants
Alexakis, Spyros
2012-01-01
This book addresses a basic question in differential geometry that was first considered by physicists Stanley Deser and Adam Schwimmer in 1993 in their study of conformal anomalies. The question concerns conformally invariant functionals on the space of Riemannian metrics over a given manifold. These functionals act on a metric by first constructing a Riemannian scalar out of it, and then integrating this scalar over the manifold. Suppose this integral remains invariant under conformal re-scalings of the underlying metric. What information can one then deduce about the Riemannian scalar? Dese
Non-local Effects of Conformal Anomaly
Meissner, Krzysztof A.; Nicolai, Hermann
2018-03-01
It is shown that the nonlocal anomalous effective actions corresponding to the quantum breaking of the conformal symmetry can lead to observable modifications of Einstein's equations. The fact that Einstein's general relativity is in perfect agreement with all observations including cosmological or recently observed gravitational waves imposes strong restrictions on the field content of possible extensions of Einstein's theory: all viable theories should have vanishing conformal anomalies. It is shown that a complete cancellation of conformal anomalies in D=4 for both the C^2 invariant and the Euler (Gauss-Bonnet) invariant can only be achieved for N-extended supergravity multiplets with N ≥ 5.
Static validation of licence conformance policies
Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2008-01-01
Policy conformance is a security property gaining importance due to commercial interest like Digital Rights Management. It is well known that static analysis can be used to validate a number of more classical security policies, such as discretionary and mandatory access control policies, as well...... as communication protocols using symmetric and asymmetric cryptography. In this work we show how to develop a Flow Logic for validating the conformance of client software with respect to a licence conformance policy. Our approach is sufficiently flexible that it extends to fully open systems that can admit new...
Conformation sensitive charge transport in conjugated polymers
Mattias Andersson, L.; Hedström, Svante; Persson, Petter
2013-01-01
Temperature dependent charge carrier mobility measurements using field effect transistors and density functional theory calculations are combined to show how the conformation dependent frontier orbital delocalization influences the hole- and electron mobilities in a donor-acceptor based polymer. A conformationally sensitive lowest unoccupied molecular orbital results in an electron mobility that decreases with increasing temperature above room temperature, while a conformationally stable highest occupied molecular orbital is consistent with a conventional hole mobility behavior and also proposed to be one of the reasons for why the material works well as a hole transporter in amorphous bulk heterojunction solar cells
Multiresolution Computation of Conformal Structures of Surfaces
Xianfeng Gu
2003-10-01
Full Text Available An efficient multiresolution method to compute global conformal structures of nonzero genus triangle meshes is introduced. The homology, cohomology groups of meshes are computed explicitly, then a basis of harmonic one forms and a basis of holomorphic one forms are constructed. A progressive mesh is generated to represent the original surface at different resolutions. The conformal structure is computed for the coarse level first, then used as the estimation for that of the finer level, by using conjugate gradient method it can be refined to the conformal structure of the finer level.
77 FR 14979 - Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments
2012-03-14
... Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is amending the transportation conformity rule to finalize provisions that were proposed on August 13, 2010. These amendments restructure several sections of the transportation conformity...
Solid state conformational classification of eight-membered rings
Pérez, J.; García, L.; Kessler, M.
2005-01-01
A statistical classification of the solid state conformation in the title complexes using data retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) has been made. Phosphate and phosphinate complexes show a chair conformation preferably. In phosphonate complexes, the most frequent conformations...
SCit: web tools for protein side chain conformation analysis
Gautier, R.; Camproux, A.-C.; Tufféry, P.
2004-01-01
SCit is a web server providing services for protein side chain conformation analysis and side chain positioning. Specific services use the dependence of the side chain conformations on the local backbone conformation, which is described using a structural alphabet that describes the conformation of fragments of four-residue length in a limited library of structural prototypes. Based on this concept, SCit uses sets of rotameric conformations dependent on the local backbone conformation of each...
Stochastic Loewner evolution as an approach to conformal field theory
Mueller-Lohmann, Annekathrin
2008-01-01
The main focus on this work lies on the relationship between two-dimensional boundary Conformal Field Theories (BCFTs) and SCHRAMM-LOEWNER Evolutions (SLEs) as motivated by their connection to the scaling limit of Statistical Physics models at criticality. The BCFT approach used for the past 25 years is based on the algebraic formulation of local objects such as fields and their correlations in these models. Introduced in 1999, SLE describes the physical properties from a probabilistic point of view, studying measures on growing curves, i.e. global objects such as cluster interfaces. After a short motivation of the topic, followed by a more detailed introduction to two-dimensional boundary Conformal Field Theory and SCHRAMM-LOEWNER Evolution, we present the results of our original work. We extend the method of obtaining SLE variants for a change of measure of the single SLE to derive the most general BCFT model that can be related to SLE. Moreover, we interpret the change of the measure in the context of physics and Probability Theory. In addition, we discuss the meaning of bulk fields in BCFT as bulk force-points for the SLE variant SLE (κ, vector ρ). Furthermore, we investigate the short-distance expansion of the boundary condition changing fields, creating cluster interfaces that can be described by SLE, with other boundary or bulk fields. Thereby we derive new SLE martingales related to the existence of boundary fields with vanishing descendant on level three. We motivate that the short-distance scaling law of these martingales as adjustment of the measure can be interpreted as the SLE probability of curves coming close to the location of the second field. Finally, we extend the algebraic κ-relation for the allowed variances in multiple SLE, arising due to the commutation requirement of the infinitesimal growth operators, to the joint growth of two SLE traces. The analysis straightforwardly suggests the form of the infinitesimal LOEWNER mapping of joint
Conformal anomalies in curved space--time
Duncan, A.
1976-11-01
The general form of the conformal anomaly in a dimensionally regularized theory of massless fermions in a background metric is shown to be determined by the first few terms of weak field perturbation theory.
Steffensen's integral inequality for conformable fractional integrals
Mehmet Zeki Sarikaya
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish some Steffensen’s type inequalities for conformable fractional integral. The results presented here would provide generalizations of those given in earlier works.
Some Improvements of Conformable Fractional Integral Inequalities
Fuat Usta
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In this study, we wish to set up and present some new conformable fractional integral inequalities of the Gronwall type which have a great variety of implementation area in differential and integral equations.
UV conformal window for asymptotic safety
Bond, Andrew D.; Litim, Daniel F.; Vazquez, Gustavo Medina; Steudtner, Tom
2018-02-01
Interacting fixed points in four-dimensional gauge theories coupled to matter are investigated using perturbation theory up to three loop order. It is shown how fixed points, scaling exponents, and anomalous dimensions are obtained as a systematic power series in a small parameter. The underlying ordering principle is explained and contrasted with conventional perturbation theory and Weyl consistency conditions. We then determine the conformal window with asymptotic safety from the complete next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbation theory. Limits for the conformal window arise due to fixed point mergers, the onset of strong coupling, or vacuum instability. A consistent picture is uncovered by comparing various levels of approximation. The theory remains perturbative in the entire conformal window, with vacuum stability dictating the tightest constraints. We also speculate about a secondary conformal window at strong coupling and estimate its lower limit. Implications for model building and cosmology are indicated.
Timed Safety Automata and Logic Conformance
Young, Frank
1999-01-01
Timed Logic Conformance (TLC) is used to verify the behavioral and timing properties of detailed digital circuits against abstract circuit specifications when both are modeled as Timed Safety Automata (TSA...
Surface Design Based on Discrete Conformal Transformations
Duque, Carlos; Santangelo, Christian; Vouga, Etienne
Conformal transformations are angle-preserving maps from one domain to another. Although angles are preserved, the lengths between arbitrary points are not generally conserved. As a consequence there is always a given amount of distortion associated to any conformal map. Different uses of such transformations can be found in various fields, but have been used by us to program non-uniformly swellable gel sheets to buckle into prescribed three dimensional shapes. In this work we apply circle packings as a kind of discrete conformal map in order to find conformal maps from the sphere to the plane that can be used as nearly uniform swelling patterns to program non-Euclidean sheets to buckle into spheres. We explore the possibility of tuning the area distortion to fit the experimental range of minimum and maximum swelling by modifying the boundary of the planar domain through the introduction of different cutting schemes.
Conformal invariance of extended spinning particle mechanics
Siegel, W.
1988-01-01
Recently a mechanics action has been considered with extended, local, one-dimensional supersymmetry. The authors show this action is conformally invariant in arbitrary spacetime dimensions, and derive the corresponding quantum mechanical restriction on the Lorentz representations it describes
A Novel, Low-Cost Conformable Lander
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary focus of this activity will be to outline a preliminary mechanical design for this conforming lander. Salient issues to be worked include (1) determining...
Hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes
Chen Bin; Long Jiang; Zhang Jiaju
2010-01-01
We study the hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes. We introduce a new set of conformal coordinates to write the SL(2,R) generators. We find that the Laplacian of the scalar field in many extremal black holes, including Kerr(-Newman), Reissner-Nordstrom, warped AdS 3 , and null warped black holes, could be written in terms of the SL(2,R) quadratic Casimir. This suggests that there exist dual conformal field theory (CFT) descriptions of these black holes. From the conformal coordinates, the temperatures of the dual CFTs could be read directly. For the extremal black hole, the Hawking temperature is vanishing. Correspondingly, only the left (right) temperature of the dual CFT is nonvanishing, and the excitations of the other sector are suppressed. In the probe limit, we compute the scattering amplitudes of the scalar off the extremal black holes and find perfect agreement with the CFT prediction.
Conformal Killing horizons and their thermodynamics
Nielsen, Alex B.; Shoom, Andrey A.
2018-05-01
Certain dynamical black hole solutions can be mapped to static spacetimes by conformal metric transformations. This mapping provides a physical link between the conformal Killing horizon of the dynamical black hole and the Killing horizon of the static spacetime. Using the Vaidya spacetime as an example, we show how this conformal relation can be used to derive thermodynamic properties of such dynamical black holes. Although these horizons are defined quasi-locally and can be located by local experiments, they are distinct from other popular notions of quasi-local horizons such as apparent horizons. Thus in the dynamical Vaidya spacetime describing constant accretion of null dust, the conformal Killing horizon, which is null by construction, is the natural horizon to describe the black hole.
Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.
Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel
2017-10-01
Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.
Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness.
Smaldino, Paul E; Epstein, Joshua M
2015-03-01
We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.
General Information for Transportation and Conformity
Transportation conformity is required by the Clean Air Act section 176(c) (42 U.S.C. 7506(c)) to ensure that federal funding and approval are given to highway and transit projects that are consistent with SIP.
Film dosimetry in conformal radiotherapy
Danciu, C; Proimos, B S [Patras Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Medical Physics
1995-12-01
Dosimetry, through a film sandwiched in a transverse cross-section of a solid phantom, is a method of choice in Conformal Radiotherapy because: (a) the blackness (density) of the film at each point offers a measure of the total dose received at that point, and (b) the film is easily calibrated by exposing a film strip in the same cross-section, through a stationary field. The film must therefore have the following properties: (a) it must be slow, in order not to be overexposed, even at a therapeutic dose of 200 cGy, and (b) the response of the film (density versus dose curve) must be independent of the photon energy spectrum. A few slow films were compared. It was found that the Kodak X-Omat V for therapy verification was the best choice. To investigate whether the film response was independent of the photon energy, response curves for six depths, starting from the depth of maximum dose to the depth of 25 cm, in solid phantom were derived. The vertical beam was perpendicular to the anterior surface of the phantom, which was at the distance of 100 cm from the source and the field was 15x15 cm at that distance. This procedure was repeated for photon beams emitted by a Cobalt-60 unit, two 6 MV and 15 MV Linear Accelerators, as well as a 45 MV Betatron. For each of those four different beams the film response was the same for all six depths. The results, as shown in the diagrams, are very satisfactory. The response curve under a geometry similar to that actually applied, when the film is irradiated in a transverse cross-section of the phantom, was derived. The horizontal beam was almost parallel (angle of 85) to the plane of the film. The same was repeated with the central ray parallel to the film (angle 90) and at a distance of 1.5 cm from the horizontal film. The field size was again 15x15 at the lateral entrance surface of the beam. The response curves remained the same, as when the beam was perpendicular to the films.
Degiovanni, P.
1990-01-01
We compute the modular properties of the possible genus-one characters of some Rational Conformal Field Theories starting from their fusion rules. We show that the possible choices of S matrices are indexed by some automorphisms of the fusion algebra. We also classify the modular invariant partition functions of these theories. This gives the complete list of modular invariant partition functions of Rational Conformal Field Theories with respect to the A N (1) level one algebra. (orig.)
Analytic aspects of rational conformal field theories
Kiritsis, E.B.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA
1990-01-01
The problem of deriving linear differential equations for correlation functions of Rational Conformal Field Theories is considered. Techniques from the theory of fuchsian differential equations are used to show that knowledge of the central charge, dimensions of primary fields and fusion rules are enough to fix the differential equations for one- and two-point functions on the tours. Any other correlation function can be calculated along similar lines. The results settle the issue of 'exact solution' of rational conformal field theories. (orig.)
Virtual and solution conformations of oligosaccharides
Cumming, D.A.; Carver, J.P.
1987-01-01
The possibility that observed nuclear Overhauser enhancements and bulk longitudinal relaxation times, parameters measured by 1 H NMR and often employed in determining the preferred solution conformation of biologically important molecules, are the result of averaging over many conformational states is quantitatively evaluated. Of particular interest was to ascertain whether certain 1 H NMR determined conformations are virtual in nature; i.e., the fraction of the population of molecules actually found at any time within the subset of conformational space defined as the solution conformation is vanishingly small. A statistical mechanics approach was utilized to calculate an ensemble average relaxation matrix from which (NOE)'s and (T 1 )'s are calculated. Model glycosidic linkages in four oligosaccharides were studied. The nature of the resultant population distributions is such that 50% of the molecular population is found within 1% of available microstates, while 99% of the molecular population occupies about 10% of the ensemble microstates, a number roughly equal to that sterically allowed. From this analysis the authors conclude that in many cases quantitative interpretation of NMR relaxation data, which attempts to define a single set of allowable torsion angle values consistent with the observed data, will lead to solution conformations that are either virtual or reflect torsion angle values possessed by a minority of the molecular population. Observed values of NMR relaxation data are the result of the complex interdependence of the population distribution and NOE (or T 1 ) surfaces in conformational space. In conformational analyses, NMR data can therefore be used to test different population distributions calculated from empirical potential energy functions
Effective Conformal Descriptions of Black Hole Entropy
Steven Carlip
2011-07-01
Full Text Available It is no longer considered surprising that black holes have temperatures and entropies. What remains surprising, though, is the universality of these thermodynamic properties: their exceptionally simple and general form, and the fact that they can be derived from many very different descriptions of the underlying microscopic degrees of freedom. I review the proposal that this universality arises from an approximate conformal symmetry, which permits an effective “conformal dual” description that is largely independent of the microscopic details.
On the Conformable Fractional Quantum Mechanics
Mozaffari, F. S.; Hassanabadi, H.; Sobhani, H.; Chung, W. S.
2018-05-01
In this paper, a conformable fractional quantum mechanic has been introduced using three postulates. Then in such a formalism, Schr¨odinger equation, probability density, probability flux and continuity equation have been derived. As an application of considered formalism, a fractional-radial harmonic oscillator has been considered. After obtaining its wave function and energy spectrum, effects of the conformable fractional parameter on some quantities have been investigated and plotted for different excited states.
94: Treatment plan optimization for conformal therapy
Rosen, I.I.; Lane, R.G.
1987-01-01
Computer-controlled conformal radiation therapy techniques can deliver complex treatments utilizing large numbers of beams, gantry angles and beam shapes. Linear programming is well-suited for planning conformal treatments. Given a list of available treatment beams, linear programming calculates the relative weights of the beams such that the objective function is optimized and doses to constraint points are within the prescribed limits. 5 refs.; 3 figs
Testing conformal mapping with kitchen aluminum foil
Haas, S.; Cooke, D. A.; Crivelli, P.
2016-01-01
We report an experimental verification of conformal mapping with kitchen aluminum foil. This experiment can be reproduced in any laboratory by undergraduate students and it is therefore an ideal experiment to introduce the concept of conformal mapping. The original problem was the distribution of the electric potential in a very long plate. The correct theoretical prediction was recently derived by A. Czarnecki (Can. J. Phys. 92, 1297 (2014)).
Conformal (WEYL) invariance and Higgs mechanism
Zhao Shucheng.
1991-10-01
A massive Yang-Mills field theory with conformal invariance and gauge invariance is proposed. It involves gravitational and various gauge interactions, in which all the mass terms appear as a uniform form of interaction m(x) KΦ(x). When the conformal symmetry is broken spontaneously and gravitation is ignored, the Higgs field emerges naturally, where the imaginary mass μ can be described as a background curvature. (author). 7 refs
Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD
Brodsky, S
2004-08-04
Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero {beta} function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as {tau} decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized.
Rapid roll inflation with conformal coupling
Kofman, Lev; Mukohyama, Shinji
2008-01-01
Usual inflation is realized with a slow rolling scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. In contrast, we consider dynamics of a scalar with a flat effective potential, conformally coupled to gravity. Surprisingly, it contains an attractor inflationary solution with the rapidly rolling inflaton field. We discuss models with the conformal inflaton with a flat potential (including hybrid inflation). There is no generation of cosmological fluctuations from the conformally coupled inflaton. We consider realizations of modulated (inhomogeneous reheating) or curvaton cosmological fluctuations in these models. We also implement these unusual features for the popular string-theoretic warped inflationary scenario, based on the interacting D3-D3 branes. The original warped brane inflation suffers a large inflaton mass due to conformal coupling to 4-dimensional gravity. Instead of considering this as a problem and trying to cure it with extra engineering, we show that warped inflation with the conformally coupled, rapidly rolling inflaton is yet possible with N=37 efoldings, which requires low-energy scales 1-100 TeV of inflation. Coincidentally, the same warping numerology can be responsible for the hierarchy. It is shown that the scalars associated with angular isometries of the warped geometry of compact manifold (e.g. S 3 of Klebanov-Strassler (KS) geometry) have solutions identical to conformally coupled modes and also cannot be responsible for cosmological fluctuations. We discuss other possibilities
Rapid roll inflation with conformal coupling
Kofman, Lev; Mukohyama, Shinji
2008-02-01
Usual inflation is realized with a slow rolling scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. In contrast, we consider dynamics of a scalar with a flat effective potential, conformally coupled to gravity. Surprisingly, it contains an attractor inflationary solution with the rapidly rolling inflaton field. We discuss models with the conformal inflaton with a flat potential (including hybrid inflation). There is no generation of cosmological fluctuations from the conformally coupled inflaton. We consider realizations of modulated (inhomogeneous reheating) or curvaton cosmological fluctuations in these models. We also implement these unusual features for the popular string-theoretic warped inflationary scenario, based on the interacting D3-D¯3 branes. The original warped brane inflation suffers a large inflaton mass due to conformal coupling to 4-dimensional gravity. Instead of considering this as a problem and trying to cure it with extra engineering, we show that warped inflation with the conformally coupled, rapidly rolling inflaton is yet possible with N=37 efoldings, which requires low-energy scales 1 100 TeV of inflation. Coincidentally, the same warping numerology can be responsible for the hierarchy. It is shown that the scalars associated with angular isometries of the warped geometry of compact manifold (e.g. S3 of Klebanov-Strassler (KS) geometry) have solutions identical to conformally coupled modes and also cannot be responsible for cosmological fluctuations. We discuss other possibilities.
Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings
Bai, Chengming [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Chern Institute of Mathematics; Fuchs, Juergen [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Huang, Yi-Zhi [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Kong, Liang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. for Advanced Study; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph (eds.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics
2014-08-01
First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.
Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings
Bai, Chengming; Fuchs, Juergen; Huang, Yi-Zhi; Kong, Liang; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph
2014-01-01
First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.
Universal hydrodynamics of non-conformal branes
Kanitscheider, Ingmar; Skenderis, Kostas
2009-01-01
We examine the hydrodynamic limit of non-conformal branes using the recently developed precise holographic dictionary. We first streamline the discussion of holography for backgrounds that asymptote locally to non-conformal brane solutions by showing that all such solutions can be obtained from higher dimensional asymptotically locally AdS solutions by suitable dimensional reduction and continuation in the dimension. As a consequence, many holographic results for such backgrounds follow from the corresponding results of the Asymptotically AdS case. In particular, the hydrodynamics of non-conformal branes is fully determined in terms of conformal hydrodynamics. Using previous results on the latter we predict the form of the non-conformal hydrodynamic stress tensor to second order in derivatives. Furthermore we show that the ratio between bulk and shear viscosity is fixed by the generalized conformal structure to be ζ/η = 2(1/(d-1)-c s 2 ), where c s is the speed of sound in the fluid.
Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD
Brodsky, S
2004-01-01
Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero β function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as τ decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized
Developing consistent pronunciation models for phonemic variants
Davel, M
2006-09-01
Full Text Available Pronunciation lexicons often contain pronunciation variants. This can create two problems: It can be difficult to define these variants in an internally consistent way and it can also be difficult to extract generalised grapheme-to-phoneme rule sets...
Semantic prioritization of novel causative genomic variants
Boudellioua, Imene
2017-04-17
Discriminating the causative disease variant(s) for individuals with inherited or de novo mutations presents one of the main challenges faced by the clinical genetics community today. Computational approaches for variant prioritization include machine learning methods utilizing a large number of features, including molecular information, interaction networks, or phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate the PhenomeNET Variant Predictor (PVP) system that exploits semantic technologies and automated reasoning over genotype-phenotype relations to filter and prioritize variants in whole exome and whole genome sequencing datasets. We demonstrate the performance of PVP in identifying causative variants on a large number of synthetic whole exome and whole genome sequences, covering a wide range of diseases and syndromes. In a retrospective study, we further illustrate the application of PVP for the interpretation of whole exome sequencing data in patients suffering from congenital hypothyroidism. We find that PVP accurately identifies causative variants in whole exome and whole genome sequencing datasets and provides a powerful resource for the discovery of causal variants.
Semantic prioritization of novel causative genomic variants
Boudellioua, Imene; Mohamad Razali, Rozaimi; Kulmanov, Maxat; Hashish, Yasmeen; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Goncalves-Serra, Eva; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Gkoutos, Georgios V.; Schofield, Paul N.; Hoehndorf, Robert
2017-01-01
Discriminating the causative disease variant(s) for individuals with inherited or de novo mutations presents one of the main challenges faced by the clinical genetics community today. Computational approaches for variant prioritization include machine learning methods utilizing a large number of features, including molecular information, interaction networks, or phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate the PhenomeNET Variant Predictor (PVP) system that exploits semantic technologies and automated reasoning over genotype-phenotype relations to filter and prioritize variants in whole exome and whole genome sequencing datasets. We demonstrate the performance of PVP in identifying causative variants on a large number of synthetic whole exome and whole genome sequences, covering a wide range of diseases and syndromes. In a retrospective study, we further illustrate the application of PVP for the interpretation of whole exome sequencing data in patients suffering from congenital hypothyroidism. We find that PVP accurately identifies causative variants in whole exome and whole genome sequencing datasets and provides a powerful resource for the discovery of causal variants.
Fundamental Characteristics of Industrial Variant Specification Systems
Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars
2004-01-01
fundamental concepts related to this task, which are relevant to understand for academia and practitioners working with the subject. This is done through a description of variant specification tasks and typical aspects of system solutions. To support the description of variant specification tasks and systems...
Characterization of form variants of Xenorhabdus luminescens.
Gerritsen, L.J.M.; Raay, de G.; Smits, P.H.
1992-01-01
From Xenorhabdus luminescens XE-87.3 four variants were isolated. One, which produced a red pigment and antibiotics, was luminescent, and could take up dye from culture media, was considered the primary form (XE-red). A pink-pigmented variant (XE-pink) differed from the primary form only in
CLEVER: Clique-Enumerating Variant Finder
Marschall, T.; Costa, I.; Canzar, S.; bauer, m; Klau, G.W.; Schliep, A.; Schönhuth, A.
2012-01-01
Motivation: Next-generation sequencing techniques have facilitated a large-scale analysis of human genetic variation. Despite the advances in sequencing speed, the computational discovery of structural variants is not yet standard. It is likely that many variants have remained undiscovered in most
Variant Review with the Integrative Genomics Viewer.
Robinson, James T; Thorvaldsdóttir, Helga; Wenger, Aaron M; Zehir, Ahmet; Mesirov, Jill P
2017-11-01
Manual review of aligned reads for confirmation and interpretation of variant calls is an important step in many variant calling pipelines for next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. Visual inspection can greatly increase the confidence in calls, reduce the risk of false positives, and help characterize complex events. The Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV) was one of the first tools to provide NGS data visualization, and it currently provides a rich set of tools for inspection, validation, and interpretation of NGS datasets, as well as other types of genomic data. Here, we present a short overview of IGV's variant review features for both single-nucleotide variants and structural variants, with examples from both cancer and germline datasets. IGV is freely available at https://www.igv.org Cancer Res; 77(21); e31-34. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
Local binary patterns new variants and applications
Jain, Lakhmi; Nanni, Loris; Lumini, Alessandra
2014-01-01
This book introduces Local Binary Patterns (LBP), arguably one of the most powerful texture descriptors, and LBP variants. This volume provides the latest reviews of the literature and a presentation of some of the best LBP variants by researchers at the forefront of textual analysis research and research on LBP descriptors and variants. The value of LBP variants is illustrated with reported experiments using many databases representing a diversity of computer vision applications in medicine, biometrics, and other areas. There is also a chapter that provides an excellent theoretical foundation for texture analysis and LBP in particular. A special section focuses on LBP and LBP variants in the area of face recognition, including thermal face recognition. This book will be of value to anyone already in the field as well as to those interested in learning more about this powerful family of texture descriptors.
Congenital anomalies and normal skeletal variants
Guebert, G.M.; Yochum, T.R.; Rowe, L.J.
1987-01-01
Congenital anomalies and normal skeletal variants are a common occurrence in clinical practice. In this chapter a large number of skeletal anomalies of the spine and pelvis are reviewed. Some of the more common skeletal anomalies of the extremities are also presented. The second section of this chapter deals with normal skeletal variants. Some of these variants may simulate certain disease processes. In some instances there are no clear-cut distinctions between skeletal variants and anomalies; therefore, there may be some overlap of material. The congenital anomalies are presented initially with accompanying text, photos, and references, beginning with the skull and proceeding caudally through the spine to then include the pelvis and extremities. The normal skeletal variants section is presented in an anatomical atlas format without text or references
Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Guosheng; Duan, Qing; Chai, Shengjie; Zhang, Baqun; Wu, Cong; Jin, Fulai; Yue, Feng; Li, Yun; Hu, Ming
2016-03-11
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of genetic variants associated with complex traits and diseases. However, most of them are located in the non-protein coding regions, and therefore it is challenging to hypothesize the functions of these non-coding GWAS variants. Recent large efforts such as the ENCODE and Roadmap Epigenomics projects have predicted a large number of regulatory elements. However, the target genes of these regulatory elements remain largely unknown. Chromatin conformation capture based technologies such as Hi-C can directly measure the chromatin interactions and have generated an increasingly comprehensive catalog of the interactome between the distal regulatory elements and their potential target genes. Leveraging such information revealed by Hi-C holds the promise of elucidating the functions of genetic variants in human diseases. In this work, we present HiView, the first integrative genome browser to leverage Hi-C results for the interpretation of GWAS variants. HiView is able to display Hi-C data and statistical evidence for chromatin interactions in genomic regions surrounding any given GWAS variant, enabling straightforward visualization and interpretation. We believe that as the first GWAS variants-centered Hi-C genome browser, HiView is a useful tool guiding post-GWAS functional genomics studies. HiView is freely accessible at: http://www.unc.edu/~yunmli/HiView .
Warped conformal field theory as lower spin gravity
Hofman, Diego M.; Rollier, Blaise
2015-08-01
Two dimensional Warped Conformal Field Theories (WCFTs) may represent the simplest examples of field theories without Lorentz invariance that can be described holographically. As such they constitute a natural window into holography in non-AdS space-times, including the near horizon geometry of generic extremal black holes. It is shown in this paper that WCFTs posses a type of boost symmetry. Using this insight, we discuss how to couple these theories to background geometry. This geometry is not Riemannian. We call it Warped Geometry and it turns out to be a variant of a Newton-Cartan structure with additional scaling symmetries. With this formalism the equivalent of Weyl invariance in these theories is presented and we write two explicit examples of WCFTs. These are free fermionic theories. Lastly we present a systematic description of the holographic duals of WCFTs. It is argued that the minimal setup is not Einstein gravity but an SL (2, R) × U (1) Chern-Simons Theory, which we call Lower Spin Gravity. This point of view makes manifest the definition of boundary for these non-AdS geometries. This case represents the first step towards understanding a fully invariant formalism for WN field theories and their holographic duals.
Warped conformal field theory as lower spin gravity
Diego M. Hofman
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Two dimensional Warped Conformal Field Theories (WCFTs may represent the simplest examples of field theories without Lorentz invariance that can be described holographically. As such they constitute a natural window into holography in non-AdS space–times, including the near horizon geometry of generic extremal black holes. It is shown in this paper that WCFTs posses a type of boost symmetry. Using this insight, we discuss how to couple these theories to background geometry. This geometry is not Riemannian. We call it Warped Geometry and it turns out to be a variant of a Newton–Cartan structure with additional scaling symmetries. With this formalism the equivalent of Weyl invariance in these theories is presented and we write two explicit examples of WCFTs. These are free fermionic theories. Lastly we present a systematic description of the holographic duals of WCFTs. It is argued that the minimal setup is not Einstein gravity but an SL(2,R×U(1 Chern–Simons Theory, which we call Lower Spin Gravity. This point of view makes manifest the definition of boundary for these non-AdS geometries. This case represents the first step towards understanding a fully invariant formalism for WN field theories and their holographic duals.
Application of Conformational Space Search in Drug Action | Adikwu ...
The role of conformational space in drug action is presented. Two examples of molecules in different therapeutic groups are presented. Conformational space search will lead to isolating the exact conformation with the desired medicinal properties. Many conformations of a plant isolate may exist which are active, weakly ...
47 CFR 2.906 - Declaration of Conformity.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Declaration of Conformity. 2.906 Section 2.906... Conformity. (a) A Declaration of Conformity is a procedure where the responsible party, as defined in § 2.909... of Conformity attaches to all items subsequently marketed by the responsible party which are...
40 CFR 91.106 - Certificate of conformity.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of conformity. 91.106... Provisions § 91.106 Certificate of conformity. (a) Every manufacturer of a new marine SI engine produced... obtain a certificate of conformity covering each engine family. The certificate of conformity must be...
47 CFR 68.320 - Supplier's Declaration of Conformity.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. 68.320... Approval § 68.320 Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. (a) Supplier's Declaration of Conformity is a... Supplier's Declaration of Conformity attaches to all items subsequently marketed by the responsible party...
21 CFR 26.70 - Conformity assessment bodies.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conformity assessment bodies. 26.70 Section 26.70...Frameworkâ Provisions § 26.70 Conformity assessment bodies. Each party recognizes that the conformity... conformity in relation to its requirements as specified in subpart B of this part. The parties shall specify...
A note on fashion cycles, novelty and conformity
Federica Alberti
2013-01-01
We develop a model in which novelty and conformity motivate fashion behavior. Fashion cycles occur if conformity is not too high. The duration of fashion cycles depends on individual-specific conformity, novelty, and the number of available styles. The use of individual-specific novelty and conformity allows us to also identify fashion leaders.
NMR backbone resonance assignments of the prodomain variants of BDNF in the urea denatured state.
Wang, Jing; Bains, Henrietta; Anastasia, Agustin; Bracken, Clay
2018-04-01
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of proteins which plays a central role in neuronal survival, growth, plasticity and memory. A single Val66Met variant has been identified in the prodomain of human BDNF that is associated with anxiety, depression and memory disorders. The structural differences within the full-length prodomain Val66 and Met66 isoforms could shed light on the mechanism of action of the Met66 and its impact on the development of neuropsychiatric-associated disorders. In the present study, we report the backbone 1 H, 13 C, and 15 N NMR assignments of both full-length Val66 and Met66 prodomains in the presence of 2 M urea. These conditions were utilized to suppress residual structure and aid subsequent native state structural investigations aimed at mapping and identifying variant-dependent conformational differences under native-state conditions.
Conformal anomaly of super Wilson loop
Belitsky, A.V., E-mail: andrei.belitsky@asu.edu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)
2012-09-11
Classically supersymmetric Wilson loop on a null polygonal contour possesses all symmetries required to match it onto non-MHV amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. However, to define it quantum mechanically, one is forced to regularize it since perturbative loop diagrams are not well defined due to presence of ultraviolet divergences stemming from integration in the vicinity of the cusps. A regularization that is adopted by practitioners by allowing one to use spinor helicity formalism, on the one hand, and systematically go to higher orders of perturbation theory is based on a version of dimensional regularization, known as Four-Dimensional Helicity scheme. Recently it was demonstrated that its use for the super Wilson loop at one loop breaks both conformal symmetry and Poincare supersymmetry. Presently, we exhibit the origin for these effects and demonstrate how one can undo this breaking. The phenomenon is alike the one emerging in renormalization group mixing of conformal operators in conformal theories when one uses dimensional regularization. The rotation matrix to the diagonal basis is found by means of computing the anomaly in the Ward identity for the conformal boost. Presently, we apply this ideology to the super Wilson loop. We compute the one-loop conformal anomaly for the super Wilson loop and find that the anomaly depends on its Grassmann coordinates. By subtracting this anomalous contribution from the super Wilson loop we restore its interpretation as a dual description for reduced non-MHV amplitudes which are expressed in terms of superconformal invariants.
Seed conformal blocks in 4D CFT
Echeverri, Alejandro Castedo; Elkhidir, Emtinan; Karateev, Denis [SISSA and INFN,Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Serone, Marco [SISSA and INFN,Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, I-34151 Trieste (Italy)
2016-02-29
We compute in closed analytical form the minimal set of “seed' conformal blocks associated to the exchange of generic mixed symmetry spinor/tensor operators in an arbitrary representation (ℓ,ℓ̄) of the Lorentz group in four dimensional conformal field theories. These blocks arise from 4-point functions involving two scalars, one (0,|ℓ−ℓ̄|) and one (|ℓ−ℓ̄|,0) spinors or tensors. We directly solve the set of Casimir equations, that can elegantly be written in a compact form for any (ℓ,ℓ̄), by using an educated ansatz and reducing the problem to an algebraic linear system. Various details on the form of the ansatz have been deduced by using the so called shadow formalism. The complexity of the conformal blocks depends on the value of p=|ℓ−ℓ̄| and grows with p, in analogy to what happens to scalar conformal blocks in d even space-time dimensions as d increases. These results open the way to bootstrap 4-point functions involving arbitrary spinor/tensor operators in four dimensional conformal field theories.
SCit: web tools for protein side chain conformation analysis.
Gautier, R; Camproux, A-C; Tufféry, P
2004-07-01
SCit is a web server providing services for protein side chain conformation analysis and side chain positioning. Specific services use the dependence of the side chain conformations on the local backbone conformation, which is described using a structural alphabet that describes the conformation of fragments of four-residue length in a limited library of structural prototypes. Based on this concept, SCit uses sets of rotameric conformations dependent on the local backbone conformation of each protein for side chain positioning and the identification of side chains with unlikely conformations. The SCit web server is accessible at http://bioserv.rpbs.jussieu.fr/SCit.
Somatic cancer variant curation and harmonization through consensus minimum variant level data
Deborah I. Ritter
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background To truly achieve personalized medicine in oncology, it is critical to catalog and curate cancer sequence variants for their clinical relevance. The Somatic Working Group (WG of the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen, in cooperation with ClinVar and multiple cancer variant curation stakeholders, has developed a consensus set of minimal variant level data (MVLD. MVLD is a framework of standardized data elements to curate cancer variants for clinical utility. With implementation of MVLD standards, and in a working partnership with ClinVar, we aim to streamline the somatic variant curation efforts in the community and reduce redundancy and time burden for the interpretation of cancer variants in clinical practice. Methods We developed MVLD through a consensus approach by i reviewing clinical actionability interpretations from institutions participating in the WG, ii conducting extensive literature search of clinical somatic interpretation schemas, and iii survey of cancer variant web portals. A forthcoming guideline on cancer variant interpretation, from the Association of Molecular Pathology (AMP, can be incorporated into MVLD. Results Along with harmonizing standardized terminology for allele interpretive and descriptive fields that are collected by many databases, the MVLD includes unique fields for cancer variants such as Biomarker Class, Therapeutic Context and Effect. In addition, MVLD includes recommendations for controlled semantics and ontologies. The Somatic WG is collaborating with ClinVar to evaluate MVLD use for somatic variant submissions. ClinVar is an open and centralized repository where sequencing laboratories can report summary-level variant data with clinical significance, and ClinVar accepts cancer variant data. Conclusions We expect the use of the MVLD to streamline clinical interpretation of cancer variants, enhance interoperability among multiple redundant curation efforts, and increase submission of
Structural Plasticity of PAM Recognition by Engineered Variants of the RNA-Guided Endonuclease Cas9.
Anders, Carolin; Bargsten, Katja; Jinek, Martin
2016-03-17
The RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9) forms the core of a powerful genome editing technology. DNA cleavage by SpCas9 is dependent on the presence of a 5'-NGG-3' protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) in the target DNA, restricting the choice of targetable sequences. To address this limitation, artificial SpCas9 variants with altered PAM specificities have recently been developed. Here we report crystal structures of the VQR, EQR, and VRER SpCas9 variants bound to target DNAs containing their preferred PAM sequences. The structures reveal that the non-canonical PAMs are recognized by an induced fit mechanism. Besides mediating sequence-specific base recognition, the amino acid substitutions introduced in the SpCas9 variants facilitate conformational remodeling of the PAM region of the bound DNA. Guided by the structural data, we engineered a SpCas9 variant that specifically recognizes NAAG PAMs. Taken together, these studies inform further development of Cas9-based genome editing tools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The conformal method and the conformal thin-sandwich method are the same
Maxwell, David
2014-01-01
The conformal method developed in the 1970s and the more recent Lagrangian and Hamiltonian conformal thin-sandwich methods are techniques for finding solutions of the Einstein constraint equations. We show that they are manifestations of a single conformal method: there is a straightforward way to convert back and forth between the parameters for these methods so that the corresponding solutions of the Einstein constraint equations agree. The unifying idea is the need to clearly distinguish tangent and cotangent vectors to the space of conformal classes on a manifold, and we introduce a vocabulary for working with these objects without reference to a particular representative background metric. As a consequence of these conceptual advantages, we demonstrate how to strengthen previous near-CMC (constant mean curvature) existence and non-existence theorems for the original conformal method to include metrics with scalar curvatures that change sign. (paper)
Markham, George D.; Norrby, Per-Ola; Bock, Charles W.
2002-01-01
S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and other sulfonium ions play central roles in the metabolism of all organisms. The conformational preferences of AdoMet and two other biologically important sulfonium ions, S-methylmethionine and dimethylsulfonioproprionic acid, have been investigated by NMR...... and computational studies. Molecular mechanics parameters for the sulfonium center have been developed for the AMBER force field to permit analysis of NMR results and to enable comparison of the relative energies of the different conformations of AdoMet that have been found in crystal structures of complexes...... with proteins. S-Methylmethionine and S-dimethylsulfonioproprionate adopt a variety of conformations in aqueous solution; a conformation with an electrostatic interaction between the sulfonium sulfur and the carboxylate group is not noticeably favored, in contrast to the preferred conformation found by in vacuo...
Mojie Duan
Full Text Available The amyloid fibrils formed by islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP are associated with type II diabetes. One of the proposed mechanisms of the toxicity of IAPP is that it causes membrane damage. The fatal mutation of S20G human IAPP was reported to lead to early onset of type II diabetes and high tendency of amyloid formation in vitro. Characterizing the structural features of the S20G mutant in its monomeric state is experimentally difficult because of its unusually fast aggregation rate. Computational work complements experimental studies. We performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations of the monomeric state of human variants in the membrane. Our simulations are validated by extensive comparisons with experimental data. We find that a helical disruption at His18 is common to both human variants. An L-shaped motif of S20G mutant is observed in one of the conformational families. This motif that bends at His18 resembles the overall topology of IAPP fibrils. The conformational preorganization into the fibril-like topology provides a possible explanation for the fast aggregation rate of S20G IAPP.
The conforming brain and deontological resolve.
Pincus, Melanie; LaViers, Lisa; Prietula, Michael J; Berns, Gregory
2014-01-01
Our personal values are subject to forces of social influence. Deontological resolve captures how strongly one relies on absolute rules of right and wrong in the representation of one's personal values and may predict willingness to modify one's values in the presence of social influence. Using fMRI, we found that a neurobiological metric for deontological resolve based on relative activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) during the passive processing of sacred values predicted individual differences in conformity. Individuals with stronger deontological resolve, as measured by greater VLPFC activity, displayed lower levels of conformity. We also tested whether responsiveness to social reward, as measured by ventral striatal activity during social feedback, predicted variability in conformist behavior across individuals but found no significant relationship. From these results we conclude that unwillingness to conform to others' values is associated with a strong neurobiological representation of social rules.
Double-trace deformations of conformal correlations
Giombi, Simone; Kirilin, Vladimir; Perlmutter, Eric
2018-02-01
Large N conformal field theories often admit unitary renormalization group flows triggered by double-trace deformations. We compute the change in scalar four-point functions under double-trace flow, to leading order in 1/ N. This has a simple dual in AdS, where the flow is implemented by a change of boundary conditions, and provides a physical interpretation of single-valued conformal partial waves. We extract the change in the conformal dimensions and three-point coefficients of infinite families of double-trace composite operators. Some of these quantities are found to be sign-definite under double-trace flow. As an application, we derive anomalous dimensions of spinning double-trace operators comprised of non-singlet constituents in the O( N) vector model.
Causality Constraints in Conformal Field Theory
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d-dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the (∂φ)4 coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinni...
Asymptotic mass degeneracies in conformal field theories
Kani, I.; Vafa, C.
1990-01-01
By applying a method of Hardy and Ramanujan to characters of rational conformal field theories, we find an asymptotic expansion for degeneracy of states in the limit of large mass which is exact for strings propagating in more than two uncompactified space-time dimensions. Moreover we explore how the rationality of the conformal theory is reflected in the degeneracy of states. We also consider the one loop partition function for strings, restricted to physical states, for arbitrary (irrational) conformal theories, and obtain an asymptotic expansion for it in the limit that the torus degenerates. This expansion depends only on the spectrum of (physical and unphysical) relevant operators in the theory. We see how rationality is consistent with the smoothness of mass degeneracies as a function of moduli. (orig.)
Hidden symmetries of integrable conformal mechanical systems
Hakobyan, Tigran; Krivonos, Sergey; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Nersessian, Armen
2010-01-01
We split the generic conformal mechanical system into a 'radial' and an 'angular' part, where the latter is defined as the Hamiltonian system on the orbit of the conformal group, with the Casimir function in the role of the Hamiltonian. We reduce the analysis of the constants of motion of the full system to the study of certain differential equations on this orbit. For integrable mechanical systems, the conformal invariance renders them superintegrable, yielding an additional series of conserved quantities originally found by Wojciechowski in the rational Calogero model. Finally, we show that, starting from any N=4 supersymmetric 'angular' Hamiltonian system one may construct a new system with full N=4 superconformal D(1,2;α) symmetry.
The conforming brain and deontological resolve.
Melanie Pincus
Full Text Available Our personal values are subject to forces of social influence. Deontological resolve captures how strongly one relies on absolute rules of right and wrong in the representation of one's personal values and may predict willingness to modify one's values in the presence of social influence. Using fMRI, we found that a neurobiological metric for deontological resolve based on relative activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC during the passive processing of sacred values predicted individual differences in conformity. Individuals with stronger deontological resolve, as measured by greater VLPFC activity, displayed lower levels of conformity. We also tested whether responsiveness to social reward, as measured by ventral striatal activity during social feedback, predicted variability in conformist behavior across individuals but found no significant relationship. From these results we conclude that unwillingness to conform to others' values is associated with a strong neurobiological representation of social rules.
An introduction to conformal field theory
Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge
2000-01-01
A comprehensive introduction to two-dimensional conformal field theory is given. The structure of the meromorphic subtheory is described in detail, and a number of examples are presented explicitly. Standard constructions such as the coset and the orbifold construction are explained. The concept of a representation of the meromorphic theory is introduced, and the role of Zhu's algebra in classifying highest weight representations is elucidated. The fusion product of two representations and the corresponding fusion rules are defined, and Verlinde's formula is explained. Finally, higher correlation functions are considered, and the polynomial relations of Moore and Seiberg and the quantum group structure of chiral conformal field theory are discussed. The treatment is relatively general and also allows for a description of less well known classes of theories such as logarithmic conformal field theories. (author)
Coadjoint orbits and conformal field theory
Taylor, W. IV.
1993-08-01
This thesis is primarily a study of certain aspects of the geometric and algebraic structure of coadjoint orbit representations of infinite-dimensional Lie groups. The goal of this work is to use coadjoint orbit representations to construct conformal field theories, in a fashion analogous to the free-field constructions of conformal field theories. The new results which are presented in this thesis are as follows: First, an explicit set of formulae are derived giving an algebraic realization of coadjoint orbit representations in terms of differential operators acting on a polynomial Fock space. These representations are equivalent to dual Verma module representations. Next, intertwiners are explicitly constructed which allow the construction of resolutions for irreducible representations using these Fock space realizations. Finally, vertex operators between these irreducible representations are explicitly constructed as chain maps between the resolutions; these vertex operators allow the construction of rational conformal field theories according to an algebraic prescription
Conformal geometry computational algorithms and engineering applications
Jin, Miao; He, Ying; Wang, Yalin
2018-01-01
This book offers an essential overview of computational conformal geometry applied to fundamental problems in specific engineering fields. It introduces readers to conformal geometry theory and discusses implementation issues from an engineering perspective. The respective chapters explore fundamental problems in specific fields of application, and detail how computational conformal geometric methods can be used to solve them in a theoretically elegant and computationally efficient way. The fields covered include computer graphics, computer vision, geometric modeling, medical imaging, and wireless sensor networks. Each chapter concludes with a summary of the material covered and suggestions for further reading, and numerous illustrations and computational algorithms complement the text. The book draws on courses given by the authors at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Tsinghua University, and will be of interest to senior undergraduates, gradua...
Causality constraints in conformal field theory
Hartman, Thomas; Jain, Sachin; Kundu, Sandipan [Department of Physics, Cornell University,Ithaca, New York (United States)
2016-05-17
Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the (∂ϕ){sup 4} coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinning operators.
Synthesis of spatially variant lattices.
Rumpf, Raymond C; Pazos, Javier
2012-07-02
It is often desired to functionally grade and/or spatially vary a periodic structure like a photonic crystal or metamaterial, yet no general method for doing this has been offered in the literature. A straightforward procedure is described here that allows many properties of the lattice to be spatially varied at the same time while producing a final lattice that is still smooth and continuous. Properties include unit cell orientation, lattice spacing, fill fraction, and more. This adds many degrees of freedom to a design such as spatially varying the orientation to exploit directional phenomena. The method is not a coordinate transformation technique so it can more easily produce complicated and arbitrary spatial variance. To demonstrate, the algorithm is used to synthesize a spatially variant self-collimating photonic crystal to flow a Gaussian beam around a 90° bend. The performance of the structure was confirmed through simulation and it showed virtually no scattering around the bend that would have arisen if the lattice had defects or discontinuities.
Different Variants of Fundamental Portfolio
Tarczyński Waldemar
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The paper proposes the fundamental portfolio of securities. This portfolio is an alternative for the classic Markowitz model, which combines fundamental analysis with portfolio analysis. The method’s main idea is based on the use of the TMAI1 synthetic measure and, in limiting conditions, the use of risk and the portfolio’s rate of return in the objective function. Different variants of fundamental portfolio have been considered under an empirical study. The effectiveness of the proposed solutions has been related to the classic portfolio constructed with the help of the Markowitz model and the WIG20 market index’s rate of return. All portfolios were constructed with data on rates of return for 2005. Their effectiveness in 2006- 2013 was then evaluated. The studied period comprises the end of the bull market, the 2007-2009 crisis, the 2010 bull market and the 2011 crisis. This allows for the evaluation of the solutions’ flexibility in various extreme situations. For the construction of the fundamental portfolio’s objective function and the TMAI, the study made use of financial and economic data on selected indicators retrieved from Notoria Serwis for 2005.
Conformal boundary state for the rectangular geometry
Bondesan, R., E-mail: roberto.bondesan@cea.fr [Institute de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); LPTENS, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris (France); Institut Henri Poincare, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France); Dubail, J. [Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States); Jacobsen, J.L. [LPTENS, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris (France); Institut Henri Poincare, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Saleur, H. [Institute de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institut Henri Poincare, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France); Physics Department, USC, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0484 (United States)
2012-09-11
We discuss conformal field theories (CFTs) in rectangular geometries, and develop a formalism that involves a conformal boundary state for the 1+1d open system. We focus on the case of homogeneous boundary conditions (no insertion of a boundary condition changing operator), for which we derive an explicit expression of the associated boundary state, valid for any arbitrary CFT. We check the validity of our solution, comparing it with known results for partition functions, numerical simulations of lattice discretizations, and coherent state expressions for free theories.
Theories of inflation and conformal transformations
Kalara, S.; Kaloper, N.; Olive, K.A.
1990-01-01
We show that several different theories of inflation including R 2 , Brans-Dicke, and induced-gravity inflation are all related to generalized or power-law inflation by means of conformal transformations. These theories all involve non-standard gravity, and the use of conformal transformations allows one to obtain standard inflationary predictions such as the expansion time-scale, reheating and density perturbations in each case very simply. We also discuss the possibilities of this method to be applied to string theory. (orig.)
Wilson loop invariants from WN conformal blocks
Oleg Alekseev
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Knot and link polynomials are topological invariants calculated from the expectation value of loop operators in topological field theories. In 3D Chern–Simons theory, these invariants can be found from crossing and braiding matrices of four-point conformal blocks of the boundary 2D CFT. We calculate crossing and braiding matrices for WN conformal blocks with one component in the fundamental representation and another component in a rectangular representation of SU(N, which can be used to obtain HOMFLY knot and link invariants for these cases. We also discuss how our approach can be generalized to invariants in higher-representations of WN algebra.
Conformal pure radiation with parallel rays
Leistner, Thomas; Paweł Nurowski
2012-01-01
We define pure radiation metrics with parallel rays to be n-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian metrics that admit a parallel null line bundle K and whose Ricci tensor vanishes on vectors that are orthogonal to K. We give necessary conditions in terms of the Weyl, Cotton and Bach tensors for a pseudo-Riemannian metric to be conformal to a pure radiation metric with parallel rays. Then, we derive conditions in terms of the tractor calculus that are equivalent to the existence of a pure radiation metric with parallel rays in a conformal class. We also give analogous results for n-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian pp-waves. (paper)
Spherical conformal models for compact stars
Takisa, P.M.; Maharaj, S.D.; Manjonjo, A.M.; Moopanar, S. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)
2017-10-15
We consider spherical exact models for compact stars with anisotropic pressures and a conformal symmetry. The conformal symmetry condition generates an integral relationship between the gravitational potentials. We solve this condition to find a new anisotropic solution to the Einstein field equations. We demonstrate that the exact solution produces a relativistic model of a compact star. The model generates stellar radii and masses consistent with PSR J1614-2230, Vela X1, PSR J1903+327 and Cen X-3. A detailed physical examination shows that the model is regular, well behaved and stable. The mass-radius limit and the surface red shift are consistent with observational constraints. (orig.)
Nilpotent weights in conformal field theory
S. Rouhani
2001-12-01
Full Text Available Logarithmic conformal field theory can be obtained using nilpotent weights. Using such scale transformations various properties of the theory were derived. The derivation of four point function needs a knowledge of singular vectors which is derived by including nilpotent variables into the Kac determinant. This leads to inhomogeneous hypergeometric functions. Finally we consider the theory near a boundary and also introduce the concept of superfields where a multiplet of conformal fields are dealt with together. This leads to the OPE of superfields and a logarithmic partner for the energy momentum tensor.
Conformal invariance in quantum field theory
Grensing, G.
1978-01-01
We study the transformation law of interacting fields under the universal covering group of the conformal group. It is defined with respect to the representations of the discrete series. These representations are field representations in the sense that they act on finite component fields defined over Minkowski space. The conflict with Einstein causality is avoided as in the case of free fields with canonical dimension. Furthermore, we determine the conformal invariant two-point function of arbitrary spin. Our result coincides with that obtained by Ruehl. In particular, we investigate the two-point function of symmetric and traceless tensor fields and give the explicit form of the trace terms
A Framework for Online Conformance Checking
Burattin, Andrea; Carmona, Josep
2017-01-01
is quantified after the completion of the process instance. In this paper we propose a framework for online conformance checking: not only do we quantify (non-)conformant behavior as the execution is running, we also restrict the computation to constant time complexity per event analyzed, thus enabling...... the online analysis of a stream of events. The framework is instantiated with ideas coming from the theory of regions, and state similarity. An implementation is available in ProM and promising results have been obtained....
Recent progress in irrational conformal field theory
Halpern, M.B.
1993-09-01
In this talk, I will review the foundations of irrational conformal field theory (ICFT), which includes rational conformal field theory as a small subspace. Highlights of the review include the Virasoro master equation, the Ward identities for the correlators of ICFT and solutions of the Ward identities. In particular, I will discuss the solutions for the correlators of the g/h coset construction and the correlators of the affine-Sugawara nests on g contains h 1 contains hor-ellipsis contains h n . Finally, I will discuss the recent global solution for the correlators of all the ICFT's in the master equation
Graded associative conformal algebras of finite type
Kolesnikov, Pavel
2011-01-01
In this paper, we consider graded associative conformal algebras. The class of these objects includes pseudo-algebras over non-cocommutative Hopf algebras of regular functions on some linear algebraic groups. In particular, an associative conformal algebra which is graded by a finite group $\\Gamma $ is a pseudo-algebra over the coordinate Hopf algebra of a linear algebraic group $G$ such that the identity component $G^0$ is the affine line and $G/G^0\\simeq \\Gamma $. A classification of simple...
Ultrasonographic imaging of papillary thyroid carcinoma variants
Shin, Jung Hee [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-04-15
Ultrasonography (US) is routinely used to evaluate thyroid nodules. The US features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most common thyroid malignancy, include hypoechogenicity, spiculated/microlobulated margins, microcalcifications, and a nonparallel orientation. However, many PTC variants have been identified, some of which differ from the classic type of PTC in terms of biological behavior and clinical outcomes. This review describes the US features and clinical implications of the variants of PTC. With the introduction of active surveillance replacing immediate biopsy or surgical treatment of indolent, small PTCs, an understanding of the US characteristics of PTC variants will facilitate the individualized management of patients with PTC.
Stamogiannos, Athanasios; Maben, Zachary; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Mpakali, Anastasia; Kokkala, Paraskevi; Georgiadis, Dimitris; Stern, Lawrence J; Stratikos, Efstratios
2017-03-14
Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) is an intracellular enzyme that is important for the generation of antigenic epitopes and major histocompatibility class I-restricted adaptive immune responses. ERAP1 processes a vast variety of different peptides but still shows length and sequence selectivity, although the mechanism behind these properties is poorly understood. X-ray crystallographic analysis has revealed that ERAP1 can assume at least two distinct conformations in which C-terminal domain IV is either proximal or distal to active site domain II. To improve our understanding of the role of this conformational change in the catalytic mechanism of ERAP1, we used site-directed mutagenesis to perturb key salt bridges between domains II and IV. Enzymatic analysis revealed that these mutations, although located away from the catalytic site, greatly reduce the catalytic efficiency and change the allosteric kinetic behavior. The variants were more efficiently activated by small peptides and bound a competitive inhibitor with weaker affinity and faster dissociation kinetics. Molecular dynamics analysis suggested that the mutations affect the conformational distribution of ERAP1, reducing the population of closed states. Small-angle X-ray scattering indicated that both the wild type and the ERAP1 variants are predominantly in an open conformational state in solution. Overall, our findings suggest that electrostatic interactions between domains II and IV in ERAP1 are crucial for driving a conformational change that regulates the structural integrity of the catalytic site. The extent of domain opening in ERAP1 probably underlies its specialization for antigenic peptide precursors and should be taken into account in inhibitor development efforts.
Helical Propensity Affects the Conformational Properties of the Denatured State of Cytochrome c'.
Danielson, Travis A; Bowler, Bruce E
2018-01-23
Changing the helical propensity of a polypeptide sequence might be expected to affect the conformational properties of the denatured state of a protein. To test this hypothesis, alanines at positions 83 and 87 near the center of helix 3 of cytochrome c' from Rhodopseudomonas palustris were mutated to serine to decrease the stability of this helix. A set of 13 single histidine variants in the A83S/A87S background were prepared to permit assessment of the conformational properties of the denatured state using histidine-loop formation in 3 M guanidine hydrochloride. The data are compared with previous histidine-heme loop formation data for wild-type cytochrome c'. As expected, destabilization of helix 3 decreases the global stabilities of the histidine variants in the A83S/A87S background relative to the wild-type background. Loop stability versus loop size data yields a scaling exponent of 2.1 ± 0.2, similar to the value of 2.3 ± 0.2 obtained for wild-type cytochrome c'. However, the stabilities of all histidine-heme loops, which contain the helix 3 sequence segment, are increased in the A83S/A87S background compared to the wild-type background. Rate constants for histidine-heme loop breakage are similar for the wild-type and A83S/A87S variants. However, for histidine-heme loops that contain the helix 3 sequence segment, the rate constants for loop formation increase in the A83S/A87S background compared to the wild-type background. Thus, residual helical structure appears to stiffen the polypeptide chain slowing loop formation in the denatured state. The implications of these results for protein folding mechanisms are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
RAGE splicing variants in mammals.
Sterenczak, Katharina Anna; Nolte, Ingo; Murua Escobar, Hugo
2013-01-01
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of environmental stressors which plays key roles in pathophysiological processes, including immune/inflammatory disorders, Alzheimer's disease, diabetic arteriosclerosis, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Besides the full-length RAGE protein in humans nearly 20 natural occurring RAGE splicing variants were described on mRNA and protein level. These naturally occurring isoforms are characterized by either N-terminally or C-terminally truncations and are discussed as possible regulators of the full-length RAGE receptor either by competitive ligand binding or by displacing the full-length protein in the membrane. Accordingly, expression deregulations of the naturally occurring isoforms were supposed to have significant effect on RAGE-mediated disorders. Thereby the soluble C-truncated RAGE isoforms present in plasma and tissues are the mostly focused isoforms in research and clinics. Deregulations of the circulating levels of soluble RAGE forms were reported in several RAGE-associated pathological disorders including for example atherosclerosis, diabetes, renal failure, Alzheimer's disease, and several cancer types. Regarding other mammalian species, the canine RAGE gene showed high similarities to the corresponding human structures indicating RAGE to be evolutionary highly conserved between both species. Similar to humans the canine RAGE showed a complex and extensive splicing activity leading to a manifold pattern of RAGE isoforms. Due to the similarities seen in several canine and human diseases-including cancer-comparative structural and functional analyses allow the development of RAGE and ligand-specific therapeutic approaches beneficial for human and veterinary medicine.
Isolation of a variant of Candida albicans.
Buckley, H R; Price, M R; Daneo-Moore, L
1982-01-01
During the course of Candida albicans antigen production, a variant of this organism was encountered which did not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. Presented here are some of the characteristics of this variant. It produces hyphae at 25 degrees C on cornmeal agar and synthetic medium plus N-acetylglucosamine and Tween 80. At 37 degrees C, it does not produce hyphae on these media, although C. albicans normally does produce hyphae under these circumstances. In liquid synthetic medium, this variant does not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. The variant strain was analyzed for DNA, RNA, protein content, and particle size. After 50 to 70 h in balanced exponential-phase growth, particle size distribution was narrow, and there were no differences in the DNA, RNA, or protein content per particle in the two strains. When balanced exponential-phase cultures were brought into stationary phase, both strains contained the same amount of DNA per cell. Images PMID:6752021
Isolation of a variant of Candida albicans.
Buckley, H R; Price, M R; Daneo-Moore, L
1982-09-01
During the course of Candida albicans antigen production, a variant of this organism was encountered which did not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. Presented here are some of the characteristics of this variant. It produces hyphae at 25 degrees C on cornmeal agar and synthetic medium plus N-acetylglucosamine and Tween 80. At 37 degrees C, it does not produce hyphae on these media, although C. albicans normally does produce hyphae under these circumstances. In liquid synthetic medium, this variant does not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. The variant strain was analyzed for DNA, RNA, protein content, and particle size. After 50 to 70 h in balanced exponential-phase growth, particle size distribution was narrow, and there were no differences in the DNA, RNA, or protein content per particle in the two strains. When balanced exponential-phase cultures were brought into stationary phase, both strains contained the same amount of DNA per cell.
Genetic variants of ghrelin in metabolic disorders.
Ukkola, Olavi
2011-11-01
An increasing understanding of the role of genes in the development of obesity may reveal genetic variants that, in combination with conventional risk factors, may help to predict an individual's risk for developing metabolic disorders. Accumulating evidence indicates that ghrelin plays a role in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis and it is a reasonable candidate gene for obesity-related co-morbidities. In cross-sectional studies low total ghrelin concentrations and some genetic polymorphisms of ghrelin have been associated with obesity-associated diseases. The present review highlights many of the important problems in association studies of genetic variants and complex diseases. It is known that population-specific differences in reported associations exist. We therefore conclude that more studies on variants of ghrelin gene are needed to perform in different populations to get deeper understanding on the relationship of ghrelin gene and its variants to obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Conformal Killing vectors in Robertson-Walker spacetimes
Maartens, R.; Maharaj, S.d.
1986-01-01
It is well known that Robertson-Walker spacetimes admit a conformal Killingl vector normal to the spacelike homogeneous hypersurfaces. Because these spacetimes are conformally flat, there are a further eight conformal Killing vectors, which are neither normal nor tangent to the homogeneous hypersurfaces. The authors find these further conformal Killing vectors and the Lie algebra of the full G 15 of conformal motions. Conditions on the metric scale factor are determined which reduce some of the conformal Killing vectors to homothetic Killing vectors or Killing vectors, allowing one to regain in a unified way the known special geometries. The non-normal conformal Killing vectors provide a counter-example to show that conformal motions do not, in general, map a fluid flow conformally. These non-normal vectors are also used to find the general solution of the null geodesic equation and photon Liouville equation. (author)
Borba, Ana; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Fausto, Rui
2006-01-01
Dimethyl sulfite has three conformers of low energy, GG, GT and GG0, which have significant populations in the gas phase at room temperature. According to theoretical predictions, the GT and GG0 conformers are higher in energy than the GG conformer by 0.83 and 1.18 kJ molK1, respectively, while the barriers associated with the GG0/GT and GT/GG isomerizations are 1.90 and 9.64 kJ molK1, respectively. Experimental data obtained for the compound isolated in solid argon, krypton and xenon demonst...
Conformational Diffusion and Helix Formation Kinetics
Hummer, Gerhard; Garcia, Angel E.; Garde, Shekhar
2000-01-01
The time, temperature, and sequence dependences of helix formation kinetics of fully atomistic peptide models in explicit solvent are described quantitatively by a diffusive search within the coil state with barrierless transitions into the helical state. Conformational diffusion leads to nonexponential kinetics and jump-width dependences in temperature jump experiments. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Zero curvature conditions and conformal covariance
Akemann, G.; Grimm, R.
1992-05-01
Two-dimensional zero curvature conditions were investigated in detail, with special emphasis on conformal properties, and the appearance of covariant higher order differential operators constructed in terms of a projective connection was elucidated. The analysis is based on the Kostant decomposition of simple Lie algebras in terms of representations with respect to their 'principal' SL(2) subalgebra. (author) 27 refs
Chromatin conformation capture strategies in molecular diagnostics
de Vree, Pauline J.P.
2015-01-01
In this thesis I have explored the clinical potential of the 4C-technology and worked on development of a novel chromatin conformation capture based technology, called TLA. In chapter 2 I describe how the 4C-technology can be applied as a targeted strategy to identify putative fusion-genes or
On the physical origin of galactic conformity
Hearin, Andrew P.; Behroozi, Peter S.; van den Bosch, Frank C.
2016-09-01
Correlations between the star formation rates (SFRs) of nearby galaxies (so-called galactic conformity) have been observed for projected separations up to 4 Mpc, an effect not predicted by current semi-analytic models. We investigate correlations between the mass accretion rates (dMvir/dt) of nearby haloes as a potential physical origin for this effect. We find that pairs of host haloes `know about' each others' assembly histories even when their present-day separation is greater than thirty times the virial radius of either halo. These distances are far too large for direct interaction between the haloes to explain the correlation in their dMvir/dt. Instead, halo pairs at these distances reside in the same large-scale tidal environment, which regulates dMvir/dt for both haloes. Larger haloes are less affected by external forces, which naturally gives rise to a mass dependence of the halo conformity signal. SDSS measurements of galactic conformity exhibit a qualitatively similar dependence on stellar mass, including how the signal varies with distance. Based on the expectation that halo accretion and galaxy SFR are correlated, we predict the scale-, mass- and redshift-dependence of large-scale galactic conformity, finding that the signal should drop to undetectable levels by z ≳ 1. These predictions are testable with current surveys to z ˜ 1; confirmation would establish a strong correlation between dark matter halo accretion rate and central galaxy SFR.
Conformal anomaly actions for dilaton interactions
Rose Luigi Delle
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss, in conformally invariant field theories such as QCD with massless fermions, a possible link between the perturbative signature of the conformal anomaly, in the form of anomaly poles of the 1-particle irreducible effective action, and its descrip- tion in terms of Wess-Zumino actions with a dilaton. The two descriptions are expected to capture the UV and IR behaviour of the conformal anomaly, in terms of fundamental and effective degrees of freedom respectively, with the dilaton effective state appearing in a nonlinear realization. As in the chiral case, conformal anomalies seem to be related to the appearance of these effective interactions in the 1PI action in all the gauge-invariant sectors of the Standard Model. We show that, as a consequence of the underlying anomalous symmetry, the infinite hierarchy of recurrence relations involving self-interactions of the dilaton is entirely determined only by the first four of them. This relation can be generalized to any even space-time dimension.
Conformal branching rules and modular invariants
Walton, M.A.
1989-01-01
Using the outer automorphisms of the affine algebra SU(n), we show how the branching rules for the conformal subalgebra SU(pq) contains SU(p) x SU(q) may be simply calculated. We demonstrate that new modular invariant combinations of SU(n) characters are obtainable from the branching rules. (orig.)
Conformal constraint in canonical quantum gravity
t Hooft, G.
2010-01-01
Perturbative canonical quantum gravity is considered, when coupled to a renormalizable model for matter fields. It is proposed that the functional integral over the dilaton field should be disentangled from the other integrations over the metric fields. This should generate a conformally invariant
Synthesis and conformational features of sym ,',"-triarylguanidines
A one pot reaction involving sym ,'-diarylthiourea and the respective arylamine in the presence of aq. KOH in nitrobenzene at ≥ 105°C afforded sym ,',"-triarylguanidine in fair to good yield and the products have been characterized. Sym ,',"-tri(4-tolyl)guanidine possesses (7) anti-anti conformation, sym ,' ...
Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Protein Conformational Disorders
EstherShlomi
protein misfolding of α-synuclein involves conformational changes in the protein .... upon association with a membrane surface its can adopt a helical form with an 11/3 ... case of α-synuclein electrostatic interactions exist between positively ...
Surveillance and Conformity in Competitive Youth Swimming
Lang, Melanie
2010-01-01
Underpinned by a Foucauldian analysis of sporting practices, this paper identifies the disciplinary mechanism of surveillance at work in competitive youth swimming. It highlights the ways in which swimmers and their coaches are subject to and apply this mechanism to produce embodied conformity to normative behaviour and obedient, docile bodies.…
Conformally covariant composite operators in quantum chromodynamics
Craigie, N.S.; Dobrev, V.K.; Todorov, I.T.
1983-03-01
Conformal covariance is shown to determine renormalization properties of composite operators in QCD and in the C 6 3 -model at the one-loop level. Its relevance to higher order (renormalization group improved) perturbative calculations in the short distance limit is also discussed. Light cone operator product expansions and spectral representations for wave functions in QCD are derived. (author)
Squaraine rotaxanes with boat conformation macrocycles.
Fu, Na; Baumes, Jeffrey M; Arunkumar, Easwaran; Noll, Bruce C; Smith, Bradley D
2009-09-04
Mechanical encapsulation of fluorescent, deep-red bis(anilino)squaraine dyes inside Leigh-type tetralactam macrocycles produces interlocked squaraine rotaxanes. The surrounding macrocycles are flexible and undergo rapid exchange of chair and boat conformations in solution. A series of X-ray crystal structures show how the rotaxane co-conformational exchange process involves simultaneous lateral oscillation of the macrocycle about the center of the encapsulated squaraine thread. Rotaxane macrocycles with 1,4-phenylene sidewalls and 2,6-pyridine dicarboxamide bridging units are more likely to adopt boat conformations in the solid state than analogous squaraine rotaxane systems with isophthalamide-containing macrocycles. A truncated squaraine dye, with a secondary amine attached directly to the central C(4)O(2) core, is less electrophilic than the extended bis(anilino)squaraine analogue, but it is still susceptible to chemical and photochemical bleaching. Its stability is greatly enhanced when it is encapsulated as an interlocked squaraine rotaxane. An X-ray crystal structure of this truncated squaraine rotaxane shows the macrocycle in a boat conformation, and NMR studies indicate that the boat is maintained in solution. Encapsulation as a rotaxane increases the dye's brightness by a factor of 6. The encapsulation process appears to constrain the dye and reduce deformation of the chromophore from planarity. This study shows how mechanical encapsulation as a rotaxane can be used as a rational design parameter to fine-tune the chemical and photochemical properties of squaraine dyes.
Dilaton vs Higgs: Nearly Conformal Physics
Kozlov, G. A.
2016-04-01
We consider the model in which the conformal symmetry can be broken spontaneously, and a light scalar dilaton could emerge in the low-energy spectrum. The contribution of the dark photon production relevant to two photons decays of a Higgs boson/dilaton is discussed.
Conformable Pressurized Structures : Design and Analysis
Geuskens, F.J.J.M.M.
2012-01-01
There are many applications where volume needs to be pressurised within a geometrical space for which conventional pressure vessels do not provide suitable solutions. Applications are for example found in pressure cabins for Blended Wing Body Aircraft and conformable pressure vessels for an
Conformable Fractional Bessel Equation and Bessel Functions
Gökdoğan, Ahmet; Ünal, Emrah; Çelik, Ercan
2015-01-01
In this work, we study the fractional power series solutions around regular singular point x=0 of conformable fractional Bessel differential equation and fractional Bessel functions. Then, we compare fractional solutions with ordinary solutions. In addition, we present certain property of fractional Bessel functions.
Conformal anomalies and the Einstein field equations
Godazgar, Hadi [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Meissner, Krzysztof A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Nicolai, Hermann [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany)
2017-04-28
We compute corrections to the Einstein field equations which are induced by the anomalous effective actions associated to the type A conformal anomaly, both for the (non-local) Riegert action, as well as for the local action with dilaton. In all cases considered we find that these corrections can be very large.
Remarks on Multi-Dimensional Conformal Mechanics
Cestmír Burdík
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, Galajinsky, Lechtenfeld and Polovnikov proposed an elegant group-theoretical transformation of the generic conformal-invariant mechanics to the free one. Considering the classical counterpart of this transformation, we relate this transformation with the Weil model of Lobachewsky space.
An introduction to conformal field theory
Zuber, J.B.
1995-01-01
The aim of these lectures is to present an introduction at a fairly elementary level to recent developments in two dimensional field theory, namely in conformal field theory. We shall see the importance of new structures related to infinite dimensional algebras: current algebras and Virasoro algebra. These topics will find physically relevant applications in the lectures by Shankar and Ian Affeck. (author)
Conformation of hindered piperidines: Spectroscopic evidence for ...
Administrator
presence of an equilibrium mixture of boat forms B1 and B2 for Z isomers of 5–8. For the E isomers of. 5–8, boat form B1 ... C NMR; conformational analysis; boat forms. 1. Introduction. Many piperidine derivatives are found to possess pharmacological activity and form an essential part of the molecular structure of important ...
Local supertwistors and N=2 conformal supergravity
Merkulov, S.A.
1989-01-01
N = 2 sypersymmetric extension of the local twistor theory is formulated. A supertwistor superconnection determined by the superconformal structure of the base superspace is introduced on the bundle of N = 2 local supertwistors. It is proved that the Yang - Mills equations for this superconnection coincide exactly with the Bach equations describing the dynamics of N 2 conformal supergravity
Dynamical interpretation of nonrelativistic conformal groups
Andrzejewski, K.; Gonera, J.
2013-01-01
It is shown that N-Galilean conformal algebra with N odd and nontrivial central charge is the maximal symmetry algebra for higher derivative free theory both on classical and quantum levels. By maximal symmetry algebra the Lie algebra of the maximal group of space–time symmetry transformations is understood which preserves higher order free dynamics
Does Your Annual Financial Report Conform?
Foster, Charles W.
1977-01-01
Requirements for consideration of the Certificate of Conformance award sponsored by the Association of School Business Officials to encourage school districts to adopt and use generally accepted accounting and reporting principles for all funds used in the financial management of the school systems. (Author/MLF)
Conformational change of spin labelled myoglobin
Wajnberg, E.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Nascimento, O.R.; Bemski, G.
1978-01-01
A conformational change of spin labelled myoglobin have been followed by measuring the spin label's (isothiocyanate) correlation time for temperatures between 18 0 C and 44 0 C. The correlation time was calculated from Electrom Paramagnetic Ressonance Spectra using the components of the espectroscopic and hiperfine tensors obtained by fitting the powder spectra using Lefebvre and Maruani's program- [pt
Conformational Diffusion and Helix Formation Kinetics
Hummer, Gerhard [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, Building 5, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520 (United States); Garcia, Angel E. [Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group T-10, MS K710, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Garde, Shekhar [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)
2000-09-18
The time, temperature, and sequence dependences of helix formation kinetics of fully atomistic peptide models in explicit solvent are described quantitatively by a diffusive search within the coil state with barrierless transitions into the helical state. Conformational diffusion leads to nonexponential kinetics and jump-width dependences in temperature jump experiments. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
On holography for (pseudo-)conformal cosmology
Libanov, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect, 7a, 117312, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Rubakov, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect, 7a, 117312, Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Particle Physics and Cosmology, Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Vorobjevy Gory, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sibiryakov, S., E-mail: sibir@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect, 7a, 117312, Moscow (Russian Federation); Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); FSB/ITP/LPPC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2015-02-04
We propose a holographic dual for (pseudo-)conformal cosmological scenario, with a scalar field that forms a moving domain wall in adS{sub 5}. The domain wall separates two vacua with unequal energy densities. Unlike in the existing construction, the 5d solution is regular in the relevant space–time domain.
Black Hole Monodromy and Conformal Field Theory
Castro, A.; Lapan, J.M.; Maloney, A.; Rodriguez, M.J.
2013-01-01
The analytic structure of solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation in a black hole background, as represented by monodromy data, is intimately related to black hole thermodynamics. It encodes the "hidden conformal symmetry" of a nonextremal black hole, and it explains why features of the inner event
Conformity to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign International ...
Background: There are emerging therapies for managing septic critically-ill patients. There is little data from the developing world on their usage. Objectives: To determine the conformity rate for resuscitation and management bundles for septic patients amongst physicians in a general intensive care unit. Design: Cross ...
Conformational regulation of urokinase receptor function
Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Jacobsen, Benedikte; Kriegbaum, Mette C
2011-01-01
PA per se into the hydrophobic ligand binding cavity of uPAR that modulates the function of this receptor. Based on these data, we now propose a model in which the inherent interdomain mobility in uPAR plays a major role in modulating its function. Particularly one uPAR conformation, which is stabilized...
Holographic applications of logarithmic conformal field theories
Grumiller, D.; Riedler, W.; Rosseel, J.; Zojer, T.
2013-01-01
We review the relations between Jordan cells in various branches of physics, ranging from quantum mechanics to massive gravity theories. Our main focus is on holographic correspondences between critically tuned gravity theories in anti-de Sitter space and logarithmic conformal field theories in
On holography for (pseudo-)conformal cosmology
Libanov, M.; Sibiryakov, S.
2015-01-01
We propose a holographic dual for (pseudo-)conformal cosmological scenario, with a scalar field that forms a moving domain wall in adS_5. The domain wall separates two vacua with unequal energy densities. Unlike in the existing construction, the 5d solution is regular in the relevant space-time domain.
Giovanna Sattin
Full Text Available Telomeres are guanine-rich sequences that protect the ends of chromosomes. These regions can fold into G-quadruplex structures and their stabilization by G-quadruplex ligands has been employed as an anticancer strategy. Genetic analysis in human telomeres revealed extensive allelic variation restricted to loop bases, indicating that the variant telomeric sequences maintain the ability to fold into G-quadruplex. To assess the effect of mutations in loop bases on G-quadruplex folding and stability, we performed a comprehensive analysis of mutant telomeric sequences by spectroscopic techniques, molecular dynamics simulations and gel electrophoresis. We found that when the first position in the loop was mutated from T to C or A the resulting structure adopted a less stable antiparallel topology; when the second position was mutated to C or A, lower thermal stability and no evident conformational change were observed; in contrast, substitution of the third position from A to C induced a more stable and original hybrid conformation, while mutation to T did not significantly affect G-quadruplex topology and stability. Our results indicate that allelic variations generate G-quadruplex telomeric structures with variable conformation and stability. This aspect needs to be taken into account when designing new potential anticancer molecules.
Kurpiewska, Katarzyna, E-mail: kurpiews@chemia.uj.edu.pl [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Crystal Chemistry and Crystal Physics, Protein Crystallography Group, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Kraków (Poland); Dziubek, Kamil; Katrusiak, Andrzej [Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Umultowska 89b, 61-61 Poznań (Poland); Font, Josep [School of Medical Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Ribò, Marc; Vilanova, Maria [Universitat de Girona, Laboratorid’Enginyeria de Proteïnes, Departament de Biologia, Facultat de Ciències, Campus de Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Lewiński, Krzysztof [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Crystal Chemistry and Crystal Physics, Protein Crystallography Group, Ingardena 3, 30-060 Kraków (Poland)
2016-04-01
Highlights: • A unique crystallographic studies of wild-type and mutated form of the same protein under high pressure. • Compressibility of RNase A molecule is significantly affected by a single amino acid substitution. • High pressure protein crystallography helps understanding protein flexibility and identify conformational substrates. - Abstract: Hydrostatic pressure in range 0.1–1.5 GPa is used to modify biological system behaviour mostly in biophysical studies of proteins in solution. Due to specific influence on the system equilibrium high pressure can act as a filter that enables to identify and investigate higher energy protein conformers. The idea of the presented experiments is to examine the behaviour of RNase A molecule under high pressure before and after introduction of destabilizing mutation. For the first time crystal structures of wild-type bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A and its markedly less stable variant modified at position Ile106 were determined at different pressures. X-ray diffraction experiments at high pressure showed that the secondary structure of RNase A is well preserved even beyond 0.67 GPa at room temperature. Detailed structural analysis of ribonuclease A conformation observed under high pressure revealed that pressure influences hydrogen bonds pattern, cavity size and packing of molecule.
Kurpiewska, Katarzyna; Dziubek, Kamil; Katrusiak, Andrzej; Font, Josep; Ribò, Marc; Vilanova, Maria; Lewiński, Krzysztof
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A unique crystallographic studies of wild-type and mutated form of the same protein under high pressure. • Compressibility of RNase A molecule is significantly affected by a single amino acid substitution. • High pressure protein crystallography helps understanding protein flexibility and identify conformational substrates. - Abstract: Hydrostatic pressure in range 0.1–1.5 GPa is used to modify biological system behaviour mostly in biophysical studies of proteins in solution. Due to specific influence on the system equilibrium high pressure can act as a filter that enables to identify and investigate higher energy protein conformers. The idea of the presented experiments is to examine the behaviour of RNase A molecule under high pressure before and after introduction of destabilizing mutation. For the first time crystal structures of wild-type bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A and its markedly less stable variant modified at position Ile106 were determined at different pressures. X-ray diffraction experiments at high pressure showed that the secondary structure of RNase A is well preserved even beyond 0.67 GPa at room temperature. Detailed structural analysis of ribonuclease A conformation observed under high pressure revealed that pressure influences hydrogen bonds pattern, cavity size and packing of molecule.
TREM2 Variants in Alzheimer's Disease
Guerreiro, Rita; Wojtas, Aleksandra; Bras, Jose; Carrasquillo, Minerva; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Majounie, Elisa; Cruchaga, Carlos; Sassi, Celeste; Kauwe, John S.K.; Younkin, Steven; Hazrati, Lilinaz; Collinge, John; Pocock, Jennifer; Lashley, Tammaryn; Williams, Julie; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Amouyel, Philippe; Goate, Alison; Rademakers, Rosa; Morgan, Kevin; Powell, John; St. George-Hyslop, Peter; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John
2013-01-01
BACKGROUND Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in TREM2, encoding the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 protein, have previously been associated with an autosomal recessive form of early-onset dementia. METHODS We used genome, exome, and Sanger sequencing to analyze the genetic variability in TREM2 in a series of 1092 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 1107 controls (the discovery set). We then performed a meta-analysis on imputed data for the TREM2 variant rs75932628 (predicted to cause a R47H substitution) from three genomewide association studies of Alzheimer's disease and tested for the association of the variant with disease. We genotyped the R47H variant in an additional 1887 cases and 4061 controls. We then assayed the expression of TREM2 across different regions of the human brain and identified genes that are differentially expressed in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and in control mice. RESULTS We found significantly more variants in exon 2 of TREM2 in patients with Alzheimer's disease than in controls in the discovery set (P = 0.02). There were 22 variant alleles in 1092 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 5 variant alleles in 1107 controls (P<0.001). The most commonly associated variant, rs75932628 (encoding R47H), showed highly significant association with Alzheimer's disease (P<0.001). Meta-analysis of rs75932628 genotypes imputed from genomewide association studies confirmed this association (P = 0.002), as did direct genotyping of an additional series of 1887 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 4061 controls (P<0.001). Trem2 expression differed between control mice and a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS Heterozygous rare variants in TREM2 are associated with a significant increase in the risk of Alzheimer's disease. (Funded by Alzheimer's Research UK and others.) PMID:23150934
Advanced Small Animal Conformal Radiation Therapy Device.
Sharma, Sunil; Narayanasamy, Ganesh; Przybyla, Beata; Webber, Jessica; Boerma, Marjan; Clarkson, Richard; Moros, Eduardo G; Corry, Peter M; Griffin, Robert J
2017-02-01
We have developed a small animal conformal radiation therapy device that provides a degree of geometrical/anatomical targeting comparable to what is achievable in a commercial animal irradiator. small animal conformal radiation therapy device is capable of producing precise and accurate conformal delivery of radiation to target as well as for imaging small animals. The small animal conformal radiation therapy device uses an X-ray tube, a robotic animal position system, and a digital imager. The system is in a steel enclosure with adequate lead shielding following National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements 49 guidelines and verified with Geiger-Mueller survey meter. The X-ray source is calibrated following AAPM TG-61 specifications and mounted at 101.6 cm from the floor, which is a primary barrier. The X-ray tube is mounted on a custom-made "gantry" and has a special collimating assembly system that allows field size between 0.5 mm and 20 cm at isocenter. Three-dimensional imaging can be performed to aid target localization using the same X-ray source at custom settings and an in-house reconstruction software. The small animal conformal radiation therapy device thus provides an excellent integrated system to promote translational research in radiation oncology in an academic laboratory. The purpose of this article is to review shielding and dosimetric measurement and highlight a few successful studies that have been performed to date with our system. In addition, an example of new data from an in vivo rat model of breast cancer is presented in which spatially fractionated radiation alone and in combination with thermal ablation was applied and the therapeutic benefit examined.
Enhanced conformational sampling using enveloping distribution sampling.
Lin, Zhixiong; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F
2013-10-14
To lessen the problem of insufficient conformational sampling in biomolecular simulations is still a major challenge in computational biochemistry. In this article, an application of the method of enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) is proposed that addresses this challenge and its sampling efficiency is demonstrated in simulations of a hexa-β-peptide whose conformational equilibrium encompasses two different helical folds, i.e., a right-handed 2.7(10∕12)-helix and a left-handed 3(14)-helix, separated by a high energy barrier. Standard MD simulations of this peptide using the GROMOS 53A6 force field did not reach convergence of the free enthalpy difference between the two helices even after 500 ns of simulation time. The use of soft-core non-bonded interactions in the centre of the peptide did enhance the number of transitions between the helices, but at the same time led to neglect of relevant helical configurations. In the simulations of a two-state EDS reference Hamiltonian that envelops both the physical peptide and the soft-core peptide, sampling of the conformational space of the physical peptide ensures that physically relevant conformations can be visited, and sampling of the conformational space of the soft-core peptide helps to enhance the transitions between the two helices. The EDS simulations sampled many more transitions between the two helices and showed much faster convergence of the relative free enthalpy of the two helices compared with the standard MD simulations with only a slightly larger computational effort to determine optimized EDS parameters. Combined with various methods to smoothen the potential energy surface, the proposed EDS application will be a powerful technique to enhance the sampling efficiency in biomolecular simulations.
Frank, Martin
2015-01-01
Complex carbohydrates usually have a large number of rotatable bonds and consequently a large number of theoretically possible conformations can be generated (combinatorial explosion). The application of systematic search methods for conformational analysis of carbohydrates is therefore limited to disaccharides and trisaccharides in a routine analysis. An alternative approach is to use Monte-Carlo methods or (high-temperature) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to explore the conformational space of complex carbohydrates. This chapter describes how to use MD simulation data to perform a conformational analysis (conformational maps, hydrogen bonds) of oligosaccharides and how to build realistic 3D structures of large polysaccharides using Conformational Analysis Tools (CAT).
Lie algebra of conformal Killing–Yano forms
Ertem, Ümit
2016-01-01
We provide a generalization of the Lie algebra of conformal Killing vector fields to conformal Killing–Yano forms. A new Lie bracket for conformal Killing–Yano forms that corresponds to slightly modified Schouten–Nijenhuis bracket of differential forms is proposed. We show that conformal Killing–Yano forms satisfy a graded Lie algebra in constant curvature manifolds. It is also proven that normal conformal Killing–Yano forms in Einstein manifolds also satisfy a graded Lie algebra. The constructed graded Lie algebras reduce to the graded Lie algebra of Killing–Yano forms and the Lie algebras of conformal Killing and Killing vector fields in special cases. (paper)
Zamolodchikov, A.B.
1984-01-01
An explicit recurrence relation for the conformal block functions is presented. This relation permits one to evaluate the X-expansion of these functions order-by-order and appropriate for numerical calculations. (orig.)
Detection of a new variant of Citrus tristeza virus in Greek citrus crops
Elisavet K. CHATZIVASSILIOU
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Citrus tristeza virus (CTV, the most destructive virus of citrus, is a quarantine pathogen in Greece. Since 2000, several accidental imports of infected propagation material have been detected in the country, and while eradication measures were applied, a few disease foci still remain. CTV isolates were collected from Chania (Crete and the “lemonwood” of Poros (Peloponnese, and their genetic variability was studied using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP. One previously characterized isolate from Argolida grafted on a Mexican lime (GR3 and two Italian isolates from Calamondin were also included in the study. ELISA and RT-PCR tests confirmed CTV presence, and SSCP analysis of the virus amplified coat protein (CP gene was used to separate either distinct virus isolates for cloning the CP gene or variants (haplotypes for sequencing. Analyses showed that selected variants of four representative isolates clustered into three of the seven defined phylogenetic groups: groups 3b and 5 (severe isolates and group M (mild isolates. The prevalent haplotypes detected in the CTV from lemonwood of Poros (GR9 were in group 3b, confirming previous results. However, one sequence variant was identified as a recombinant between haplotypes from groups 3b and 5. Variants of these two groups were also detected in the Italian Calamondin isolate. In the grafted Mexican lime isolate (GR3 from Argolida, only one haplotype was found which belonged to group M, while in the field isolate from Chania (GR6 the only haplotype detected was in group 5. This is the first report of variants of group 5 in Greece, suggesting an unknown virus introduction. The prevalence of severe isolates in the area is of particular concern, and implications for the future of the CTV epidemics are discussed.
Beta-glucosidase variants and polynucleotides encoding same
Wogulis, Mark; Harris, Paul; Osborn, David
2017-06-27
The present invention relates to beta-glucosidase variants, e.g. beta-glucosidase variants of a parent Family GH3A beta-glucosidase from Aspergillus fumigatus. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the beta-glucosidase variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the beta-glucosidase variants.
Tiscia, Giovanni; Favuzzi, Giovanni; Chinni, Elena; Colaizzo, Donatella; Fischetti, Lucia; Intrieri, Mariano; Margaglione, Maurizio; Grandone, Elvira
2017-01-01
This study aimed at attempting to correlate genotype and phenotype in factor VII deficiency. Here, we present molecular and clinical findings of 10 patients with factor VII deficiency. From 2013 to 2016, 10 subjects were referred to our center because of a prolonged prothrombin time identified during routine or presurgery examinations or after a laboratory assessment of a bleeding episode. Mutation characterization was performed using the bioinformatics applications PROMO, SIFT, and Polyphen-2. Structural changes in the factor VII protein were analyzed using the SPDB viewer tool. Of the 10 variants we identified, 1 was responsible for a novel missense change (c.1199G>C, p.Cys400Ser); in 2 cases we identified the c.-54G>A and c.509G>A (p.Arg170His) polymorphic variants in the 5'-upstream region of the factor VII gene and exon 6, respectively. To our knowledge, neither of these polymorphic variants has been described previously in factor VII-deficient patients. In silico predictions showed differences in binding sites for transcription factors caused by the c.-54G>A variant and a probable damaging effect of the p.Cys400Ser missense change on factor VII active conformation, leading to breaking of the Cys400-Cys428 disulfide bridge. Our findings further suggest that, independently of factor VII levels and of variants potentially affecting factor VII levels, environmental factors, e.g., trauma, could heavily influence the clinical phenotype of factor VII-deficient patients.
Otero, Toribio F
2017-01-18
In this perspective the empirical kinetics of conducting polymers exchanging anions and solvent during electrochemical reactions to get dense reactive gels is reviewed. The reaction drives conformational movements of the chains (molecular motors), exchange of ions and solvent with the electrolyte and structural (relaxation, swelling, shrinking and compaction) gel changes. Reaction-driven structural changes are identified and quantified from electrochemical responses. The empirical reaction activation energy (E a ), the reaction coefficient (k) and the reaction orders (α and β) change as a function of the conformational energy variation during the reaction. This conformational energy becomes an empirical magnitude. E a , k, α and β include and provide quantitative conformational and structural information. The chemical kinetics becomes structural chemical kinetics (SCK) for reactions driving conformational movements of the reactants. The electrochemically stimulated conformational relaxation model describes empirical results and some results from the literature for biochemical reactions. In parallel the development of an emerging technological world of soft, wet, multifunctional and biomimetic tools and anthropomorphic robots driven by reactions of the constitutive material, as in biological organs, can be now envisaged being theoretically supported by the kinetic model.
Genetic analyses for conformation traits in South African Jersey and ...
JACO
Genetic trends for conformation traits of the South African Holstein show that ... conformation traits can be used to improve stayability, fertility and disease resistance (Rogers et al., 1999; .... Genetic correlations among protein yield, productive.
Conformal invariant quantum field theory and composite field operators
Kurak, V.
1976-01-01
The present status of conformal invariance in quantum field theory is reviewed from a non group theoretical point of view. Composite field operators dimensions are computed in some simple models and related to conformal symmetry
The Role of Conserved Waters in Conformational Transitions of Q61H K-ras
Prakash, Priyanka; Sayyed-Ahmad, Abdallah; Gorfe, Alemayehu A.
2012-01-01
To investigate the stability and functional role of long-residence water molecules in the Q61H variant of the signaling protein K-ras, we analyzed all available Ras crystal structures and conformers derived from a series of independent explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations totaling 1.76 µs. We show that the protein samples a different region of phase space in the presence and absence of several crystallographically conserved and buried water molecules. The dynamics of these waters is coupled with the local as well as the global motions of the protein, in contrast to less buried waters whose exchange with bulk is only loosely coupled with the motion of loops in their vicinity. Aided by two novel reaction coordinates involving the distance (d) between the Cα atoms of G60 at switch 2 and G10 at the P-loop and the N-Cα-C-O dihedral (ξ) of G60, we further show that three water molecules located in lobe1, at the interface between the lobes and at lobe2, are involved in the relative motion of residues at the two lobes of Q61H K-ras. Moreover, a d/ξ plot classifies the available Ras x-ray structures and MD-derived K-ras conformers into active GTP-, intermediate GTP-, inactive GDP-bound, and nucleotide-free conformational states. The population of these states and the transition between them is modulated by water-mediated correlated motions involving the functionally critical switch 2, P-loop and helix 3. These results suggest that water molecules act as allosteric ligands to induce a population shift among distinct switch 2 conformations that differ in effector recognition. PMID:22359497
A new fundamental type of conformational isomerism
Canfield, Peter J.; Blake, Iain M.; Cai, Zheng-Li; Luck, Ian J.; Krausz, Elmars; Kobayashi, Rika; Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Crossley, Maxwell J.
2018-06-01
Isomerism is a fundamental chemical concept, reflecting the fact that the arrangement of atoms in a molecular entity has a profound influence on its chemical and physical properties. Here we describe a previously unclassified fundamental form of conformational isomerism through four resolved stereoisomers of a transoid (BF)O(BF)-quinoxalinoporphyrin. These comprise two pairs of enantiomers that manifest structural relationships not describable within existing IUPAC nomenclature and terminology. They undergo thermal diastereomeric interconversion over a barrier of 104 ± 2 kJ mol-1, which we term `akamptisomerization'. Feasible interconversion processes between conceivable synthesis products and reaction intermediates were mapped out by density functional theory calculations, identifying bond-angle inversion (BAI) at a singly bonded atom as the reaction mechanism. We also introduce the necessary BAI stereodescriptors parvo and amplo. Based on an extended polytope formalism of molecular structure and stereoisomerization, BAI-driven akamptisomerization is shown to be the final fundamental type of conformational isomerization.
Radial expansion for spinning conformal blocks
Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, João; Trevisani, Emilio
2016-07-12
This paper develops a method to compute any bosonic conformal block as a series expansion in the optimal radial coordinate introduced by Hogervorst and Rychkov. The method reduces to the known result when the external operators are all the same scalar operator, but it allows to compute conformal blocks for external operators with spin. Moreover, we explain how to write closed form recursion relations for the coefficients of the expansions. We study three examples of four point functions in detail: one vector and three scalars; two vectors and two scalars; two spin 2 tensors and two scalars. Finally, for the case of two external vectors, we also provide a more efficient way to generate the series expansion using the analytic structure of the blocks as a function of the scaling dimension of the exchanged operator.
A probabilistic model of RNA conformational space
Frellsen, Jes; Moltke, Ida; Thiim, Martin
2009-01-01
, the discrete nature of the fragments necessitates the use of carefully tuned, unphysical energy functions, and their non-probabilistic nature impairs unbiased sampling. We offer a solution to the sampling problem that removes these important limitations: a probabilistic model of RNA structure that allows...... conformations for 9 out of 10 test structures, solely using coarse-grained base-pairing information. In conclusion, the method provides a theoretical and practical solution for a major bottleneck on the way to routine prediction and simulation of RNA structure and dynamics in atomic detail.......The increasing importance of non-coding RNA in biology and medicine has led to a growing interest in the problem of RNA 3-D structure prediction. As is the case for proteins, RNA 3-D structure prediction methods require two key ingredients: an accurate energy function and a conformational sampling...
Covariant Conformal Decomposition of Einstein Equations
Gourgoulhon, E.; Novak, J.
It has been shown1,2 that the usual 3+1 form of Einstein's equations may be ill-posed. This result has been previously observed in numerical simulations3,4. We present a 3+1 type formalism inspired by these works to decompose Einstein's equations. This decomposition is motivated by the aim of stable numerical implementation and resolution of the equations. We introduce the conformal 3-``metric'' (scaled by the determinant of the usual 3-metric) which is a tensor density of weight -2/3. The Einstein equations are then derived in terms of this ``metric'', of the conformal extrinsic curvature and in terms of the associated derivative. We also introduce a flat 3-metric (the asymptotic metric for isolated systems) and the associated derivative. Finally, the generalized Dirac gauge (introduced by Smarr and York5) is used in this formalism and some examples of formulation of Einstein's equations are shown.
A probabilistic model of RNA conformational space
Frellsen, Jes; Moltke, Ida; Thiim, Martin
2009-01-01
efficient sampling of RNA conformations in continuous space, and with associated probabilities. We show that the model captures several key features of RNA structure, such as its rotameric nature and the distribution of the helix lengths. Furthermore, the model readily generates native-like 3-D......, the discrete nature of the fragments necessitates the use of carefully tuned, unphysical energy functions, and their non-probabilistic nature impairs unbiased sampling. We offer a solution to the sampling problem that removes these important limitations: a probabilistic model of RNA structure that allows......The increasing importance of non-coding RNA in biology and medicine has led to a growing interest in the problem of RNA 3-D structure prediction. As is the case for proteins, RNA 3-D structure prediction methods require two key ingredients: an accurate energy function and a conformational sampling...
NMR spectroscopy: a tool for conformational analysis
Tormena, Claudio F.; Cormanich, Rodrigo A.; Rittner, Roberto; Freitas, Matheus P.
2011-01-01
The present review deals with the application of NMR data to the conformational analysis of simple organic compounds, together with other experimental methods like infrared spectroscopy and with theoretical calculations. Each sub-section describes the results for a group of compounds which belong to a given organic function like ketones, esters, etc. Studies of a single compound, even of special relevance, were excluded since the main goal of this review is to compare the results for a given function, where different substituents were used or small structural changes were introduced in the substrate, in an attempt to disclose their effects in the conformational equilibrium. Moreover, the huge amount of data available in the literature, on this research field, imposed some limitations which will be detailed in the Introduction, but it can be reminded in advance that these limitations include mostly the period when these results were published. (author)
Quantum critical phenomena and conformal invariance
Zhe Chang.
1995-05-01
We show that the Abelian bosonization of continuum limit of the 1D Hubbard model corresponds to the 2D explicitly conformal invariant Gaussian model at weak coupling limit. A universality argument is used to extend the equivalence to an entire segment of the critical line of the strongly correlated electron system. An integral equation satisfied by the mapping function between critical lines of the 1D Hubbard model and 2D Gaussian model is obtained and then solved in some limiting cases. By making use of the fact that the free Hubbard system reduces to four fermions and each of them is related to a c = 1/2 conformal field theory, we present exactly the partition function of the Hubbard model on a finite 1D lattice. (author). 16 refs
A proof of the conformal collider bounds
Hofman, Diego M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Li, Daliang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Meltzer, David [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Rejon-Barrera, Fernando [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2016-06-20
In this paper, we prove that the “conformal collider bounds” originally proposed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2008/05/012 hold for any unitary parity-preserving conformal field theory (CFT) with a unique stress tensor in dimensions d≥3. In particular this implies that the ratio of central charges for a unitary 4d CFT lies in the interval (31/18)≥(a/c)≥(1/3). For superconformal theories this is further reduced to (3/2)≥(a/c)≥(1/2). The proof relies only on CFT first principles — in particular, bootstrap methods — and thus constitutes the first complete field theory proof of these bounds. We further elaborate on similar bounds for non-conserved currents and relate them to results obtained recently from deep inelastic scattering.
Word Variant Identification in Old French
Peter Willett
1997-01-01
Full Text Available Increasing numbers of historical texts are available in machine-readable form, which retain the original spelling, which can be very different from the modern-day equivalents due to the natural evolution of a language, and because the concept of standardisation in spelling is comparatively modern. Among medieval vernacular writers, the same word could be spelled in different ways and the same author (or scribe might even use several alternative spellings in the same passage. Thus, we do not know,a priori, how many variant forms of a particular word there are in such texts, let alone what these variants might be. Searching on the modern equivalent, or even the commonest historical variant, of a particular word may thus fail to retrieve an appreciable number of occurrences unless the searcher already has an extensive knowledge of the language of the documents. Moreover, even specialist scholars may be unaware of some idiosyncratic variants. Here, we consider the use of computer methods to retrieve variant historical spellings.
Conformable Self-Healing Ballistic Armor
2011-06-28
public release, distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Patent No: US 7,966,923 B2 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...B2 5 Each unit of shell 10 of the ballistic annor of the subject invention further comprises fastening means 20 to attach each such shell IOta the...selectively affixing the conformable ballistic annor to the vehicle is a secure manner, both on a temporal)’ orpennanent basis. The ballistic
Conformally compactified homogeneous spaces (Possible Observable Consequences)
Budinich, P.
1995-01-01
Some arguments based on the possible spontaneous violation of the Cosmological Principles (represented by the observed large-scale structures of galaxies), the Cartan-geometry of simple spinors and on the Fock-formulation of hydrogen-atom wave-equation in momentum-space, are presented in favour of the hypothesis that space-time and momentum-space should be both conformally compactified and represented by the two four-dimensional homogeneous spaces of the conformal group, both isomorphic to (S 3 X S 1 )/Z 2 and correlated by conformal inversion. Within this framework, the possible common origin for the S0(4) symmetry underlying the geometrical structure of the Universe, of Kepler orbits and of the H-atom is discussed. On of the consequences of the proposed hypothesis could be that any quantum field theory should be naturally free from both infrared and ultraviolet divergences. But then physical spaces defined as those where physical phenomena may be best described, could be different from those homogeneous spaces. A simple, exactly soluble, toy model, valid for a two-dimensional space-time is presented where the conjecture conformally compactified space-time and momentum-space are both isomorphic to (S 1 X S 1 )/Z 2 , while the physical spaces are two finite lattice which are dual since Fourier transforms, represented by finite, discrete, sums may be well defined on them. Furthermore, a q-deformed SU q (1,1) may be represented on them if q is a root of unity. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs
Conformal potential in N dimensions (N>1)
Barucchi, G [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Istituto di Fisica Matematica dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy))
1977-07-21
The conformal invariant model of de Alfaro, Fubini and Furlan is studied in the case of potential V(Q) = g/2Q/sup 2/(Q/sup 2/ = ..sigma..sub(i=1)sup(N) Qsub(i)sup(2), N>1). By means of the invariance under projective transformations and the rotation symmetry of the system in configuration space, explicit solutions are obtained.
Boundary conditions in conformal and integrable theories
Petkova, V B
2000-01-01
The study of boundary conditions in rational conformal field theories is not only physically important. It also reveals a lot on the structure of the theory ``in the bulk''. The same graphs classify both the torus and the cylinder partition functions and provide data on their hidden ``quantum symmetry''. The Ocneanu triangular cells -- the 3j-symbols of these symmetries, admit various interpretations and make a link between different problems.
Conformal mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime
Galajinsky, Anton
2010-01-01
Conformal many-body mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime is studied within the framework of the Lagrangian formalism. Global symmetries and Noether charges are given in a form convenient for analyzing the flat space limit. N=2 superconformal extension is built and a new class on N=2 models related to simple Lie algebras is presented. A decoupling similarity transformation on N=2 quantum mechanics in Newton-Hooke spacetime is discussed.
Pyrrolidine nucleotide analogs with a tunable conformation
Poštová Slavětínská, Lenka; Rejman, Dominik; Pohl, Radek
2014-01-01
Roč. 10, Aug 22 (2014), s. 1967-1980 ISSN 1860-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : conformation * NMR * nucleic acids * nucleotide analog * phosphonic acid * pseudorotation * pyrrolidine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.762, year: 2014 http://www.beilstein-journals.org/bjoc/single/articleFullText.htm?publicId=1860-5397-10-205
Spacelike conformal Killing vectors and spacelike congruences
Mason, D.P.; Tsamparlis, M.
1985-01-01
Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for space-time to admit a spacelike conformal motion with symmetry vector parallel to a unit spacelike vector field n/sup a/. These conditions are expressed in terms of the shear and expansion of the spacelike congruence generated by n/sup a/ and in terms of the four-velocity of the observer employed at any given point of the congruence. It is shown that either the expansion or the rotation of this spacelike congruence must vanish if Dn/sup a//dp = 0, where p denotes arc length measured along the integral curves of n/sup a/, and also that there exist no proper spacelike homothetic motions with constant expansion. Propagation equations for the projection tensor and the rotation tensor are derived and it is proved that every isometric spacelike congruence is rigid. Fluid space-times are studied in detail. A relation is established between spacelike conformal motions and material curves in the fluid: if a fluid space-time admits a spacelike conformal Killing vector parallel to n/sup a/ and n/sub a/u/sup a/ = 0, where u/sup a/ is the fluid four-velocity, then the integral curves of n/sup a/ are material curves in an irrotational fluid, while if the fluid vorticity is nonzero, then the integral curves of n/sup a/ are material curves if and only if they are vortex lines. An alternative derivation, based on the theory of spacelike congruences, of some of the results of Collins [J. Math. Phys. 25, 995 (1984)] on conformal Killing vectors parallel to the local vorticity vector in shear-free perfect fluids with zero magnetic Weyl tensor is given
Group Cohesiveness, Deviation, Stress, and Conformity
1993-08-11
Cola number of cups, __ Chocolate, cocoa, wine, beer/ alcohol , decaffeinated coffee. Breads containing raisins, prunes, orange peel , banana , or...conforming in order to get the group to accept them. In a study using a similar procedure, Kiesler and Corbin (1965) found that commitment to continue as...second lession, we’ll have subjects actually interact in a group problem solving task , so you’ll get a first hand view of each other’s ways of
Splicing analysis of 14 BRCA1 missense variants classifies nine variants as pathogenic
Ahlborn, Lise B; Dandanell, Mette; Steffensen, Ane Y
2015-01-01
by functional analysis at the protein level. Results from a validated mini-gene splicing assay indicated that nine BRCA1 variants resulted in splicing aberrations leading to truncated transcripts and thus can be considered pathogenic (c.4987A>T/p.Met1663Leu, c.4988T>A/p.Met1663Lys, c.5072C>T/p.Thr1691Ile, c......Pathogenic germline mutations in the BRCA1 gene predispose carriers to early onset breast and ovarian cancer. Clinical genetic screening of BRCA1 often reveals variants with uncertain clinical significance, complicating patient and family management. Therefore, functional examinations are urgently...... needed to classify whether these uncertain variants are pathogenic or benign. In this study, we investigated 14 BRCA1 variants by in silico splicing analysis and mini-gene splicing assay. All 14 alterations were missense variants located within the BRCT domain of BRCA1 and had previously been examined...
Rényi entropy and conformal defects
Bianchi, Lorenzo; Meineri, Marco; Myers, Robert C.; Smolkin, Michael
2016-01-01
We propose a field theoretic framework for calculating the dependence of Rényi entropies on the shape of the entangling surface in a conformal field theory. Our approach rests on regarding the corresponding twist operator as a conformal defect and in particular, we define the displacement operator which implements small local deformations of the entangling surface. We identify a simple constraint between the coefficient defining the two-point function of the displacement operator and the conformal weight of the twist operator, which consolidates a number of distinct conjectures on the shape dependence of the Rényi entropy. As an example, using this approach, we examine a conjecture regarding the universal coefficient associated with a conical singularity in the entangling surface for CFTs in any number of spacetime dimensions. We also provide a general formula for the second order variation of the Rényi entropy arising from small deformations of a spherical entangling surface, extending Mezei’s results for the entanglement entropy.
Compact conformations of human protein disulfide isomerase.
Shang Yang
Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI composed of four thioredoxin-like domains a, b, b', and a', is a key enzyme catalyzing oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations starting from the crystal structures of human PDI (hPDI in the oxidized and reduced states were performed. The results indicate that hPDI adopts more compact conformations in solution than in the crystal structures, which are stabilized primarily by inter-domain interactions, including the salt bridges between domains a and b' observed for the first time. A prominent feature of the compact conformations is that the two catalytic domains a and a' can locate close enough for intra-molecular electron transfer, which was confirmed by the characterization of an intermediate with a disulfide between the two domains. Mutations, which disrupt the inter-domain interactions, lead to decreased reductase activity of hPDI. Our molecular dynamics simulations and biochemical experiments reveal the intrinsic conformational dynamics of hPDI and its biological impact.
Deep Inelastic Scattering in Conformal QCD
Cornalba, Lorenzo; Penedones, Joao
2010-01-01
We consider the Regge limit of a CFT correlation function of two vector and two scalar operators, as appropriate to study small-x deep inelastic scattering in N=4 SYM or in QCD assuming approximate conformal symmetry. After clarifying the nature of the Regge limit for a CFT correlator, we use its conformal partial wave expansion to obtain an impact parameter representation encoding the exchange of a spin j Reggeon for any value of the coupling constant. The CFT impact parameter space is the three-dimensional hyperbolic space H3, which is the impact parameter space for high energy scattering in the dual AdS space. We determine the small-x structure functions associated to the exchange of a Reggeon. We discuss unitarization from the point of view of scattering in AdS and comment on the validity of the eikonal approximation. We then focus on the weak coupling limit of the theory where the amplitude is dominated by the exchange of the BFKL pomeron. Conformal invariance fixes the form of the vector impact factor a...
Implications of conformal invariance in momentum space
Bzowski, Adam; McFadden, Paul; Skenderis, Kostas
2014-03-01
We present a comprehensive analysis of the implications of conformal invariance for 3-point functions of the stress-energy tensor, conserved currents and scalar operators in general dimension and in momentum space. Our starting point is a novel and very effective decomposition of tensor correlators which reduces their computation to that of a number of scalar form factors. For example, the most general 3-point function of a conserved and traceless stress-energy tensor is determined by only five form factors. Dilatations and special conformal Ward identities then impose additional conditions on these form factors. The special conformal Ward identities become a set of first and second order differential equations, whose general solution is given in terms of integrals involving a product of three Bessel functions (`triple- K integrals'). All in all, the correlators are completely determined up to a number of constants, in agreement with well-known position space results. In odd dimensions 3-point functions are finite without renormalisation while in even dimensions non-trivial renormalisation in required. In this paper we restrict ourselves to odd dimensions. A comprehensive analysis of renormalisation will be discussed elsewhere. This paper contains two parts that can be read independently of each other. In the first part, we explain the method that leads to the solution for the correlators in terms of triple- K integrals while the second part contains a self-contained presentation of all results. Readers interested only in results may directly consult the second part of the paper.
Boundary conditions in rational conformal field theories
Behrend, Roger E.; Pearce, Paul A.; Petkova, Valentina B.; Zuber, Jean-Bernard
2000-01-01
We develop further the theory of Rational Conformal Field Theories (RCFTs) on a cylinder with specified boundary conditions emphasizing the role of a triplet of algebras: the Verlinde, graph fusion and Pasquier algebras. We show that solving Cardy's equation, expressing consistency of a RCFT on a cylinder, is equivalent to finding integer valued matrix representations of the Verlinde algebra. These matrices allow us to naturally associate a graph G to each RCFT such that the conformal boundary conditions are labelled by the nodes of G. This approach is carried to completion for sl(2) theories leading to complete sets of conformal boundary conditions, their associated cylinder partition functions and the A-D-E classification. We also review the current status for WZW sl(3) theories. Finally, a systematic generalisation of the formalism of Cardy-Lewellen is developed to allow for multiplicities arising from more general representations of the Verlinde algebra. We obtain information on the bulk-boundary coefficients and reproduce the relevant algebraic structures from the sewing constraints
Rényi entropy and conformal defects
Bianchi, Lorenzo [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg,Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Meineri, Marco [Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Pisa,Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Smolkin, Michael [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2016-07-14
We propose a field theoretic framework for calculating the dependence of Rényi entropies on the shape of the entangling surface in a conformal field theory. Our approach rests on regarding the corresponding twist operator as a conformal defect and in particular, we define the displacement operator which implements small local deformations of the entangling surface. We identify a simple constraint between the coefficient defining the two-point function of the displacement operator and the conformal weight of the twist operator, which consolidates a number of distinct conjectures on the shape dependence of the Rényi entropy. As an example, using this approach, we examine a conjecture regarding the universal coefficient associated with a conical singularity in the entangling surface for CFTs in any number of spacetime dimensions. We also provide a general formula for the second order variation of the Rényi entropy arising from small deformations of a spherical entangling surface, extending Mezei’s results for the entanglement entropy.
Moduli spaces of unitary conformal field theories
Wendland, K.
2000-08-01
We investigate various features of moduli spaces of unitary conformal field theories. A geometric characterization of rational toroidal conformal field theories in arbitrary dimensions is presented and discussed in relation to singular tori and those with complex multiplication. We study the moduli space M 2 of unitary two-dimensional conformal field theories with central charge c = 2. All the 26 non-exceptional non-isolated irreducible components of M 2 are constructed that may be obtained by an orbifold procedure from toroidal theories. The parameter spaces and partition functions are calculated explicitly. All multicritical points and lines are determined, such that all but three of these 26 components are directly or indirectly connected to the space of toroidal theories in M 2 . Relating our results to those by Dixon, Ginsparg, Harvey on the classification of c = 3/2 superconformal field theories, we give geometric interpretations to all non-isolated orbifolds discussed by them and correct their statements on multicritical points within the moduli space of c = 3/2 superconformal field theories. In the main part of this work, we investigate the moduli space M of N = (4, 4) superconformal field theories with central charge c = 6. After a slight emendation of its global description we give generic partition functions for models contained in M. We explicitly determine the locations of various known models in the component of M associated to K3 surfaces
2D conformal field theories and holography
Freidel, Laurent; Krasnov, Kirill
2004-01-01
It is known that the chiral part of any 2D conformal field theory defines a 3D topological quantum field theory: quantum states of this TQFT are the CFT conformal blocks. The main aim of this paper is to show that a similar CFT/TQFT relation exists also for the full CFT. The 3D topological theory that arises is a certain 'square' of the chiral TQFT. Such topological theories were studied by Turaev and Viro; they are related to 3D gravity. We establish an operator/state correspondence in which operators in the chiral TQFT correspond to states in the Turaev-Viro theory. We use this correspondence to interpret CFT correlation functions as particular quantum states of the Turaev-Viro theory. We compute the components of these states in the basis in the Turaev-Viro Hilbert space given by colored 3-valent graphs. The formula we obtain is a generalization of the Verlinde formula. The later is obtained from our expression for a zero colored graph. Our results give an interesting 'holographic' perspective on conformal field theories in two dimensions
Development of conformal respirator monitoring technology
Shonka, J.J.; Weismann, J.J.; Logan, R.J.
1997-04-01
This report summarizes the results of a Small Business Innovative Research Phase II project to develop a modular, surface conforming respirator monitor to improve upon the manual survey techniques presently used by the nuclear industry. Research was performed with plastic scintillator and gas proportional modules in an effort to find the most conducive geometry for a surface conformal, position sensitive monitor. The respirator monitor prototype developed is a computer controlled, position-sensitive detection system employing 56 modular proportional counters mounted in molds conforming to the inner and outer surfaces of a commonly used respirator (Scott Model 801450-40). The molds are housed in separate enclosures and hinged to create a open-quotes waffle-ironclose quotes effect so that the closed monitor will simultaneously survey both surfaces of the respirator. The proportional counter prototype was also designed to incorporate Shonka Research Associates previously developed charge-division electronics. This research provided valuable experience into pixellated position sensitive detection systems. The technology developed can be adapted to other monitoring applications where there is a need for deployment of many traditional radiation detectors
Scale factor duality for conformal cyclic cosmologies
Silva, University Camara da; Lima, A.L. Alves; Sotkov, G.M. [Departamento de Física - CCE,Universidade Federal de Espirito Santo, 29075-900, Vitoria ES (Brazil)
2016-11-16
The scale factor duality is a symmetry of dilaton gravity which is known to lead to pre-big-bang cosmologies. A conformal time version of the scale factor duality (SFD) was recently implemented as a UV/IR symmetry between decelerated and accelerated phases of the post-big-bang evolution within Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. The problem investigated in the present paper concerns the employment of the conformal time SFD methods to the construction of pre-big-bang and cyclic extensions of these models. We demonstrate that each big-bang model gives rise to two qualitatively different pre-big-bang evolutions: a contraction/expansion SFD model and Penrose’s Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). A few examples of SFD symmetric cyclic universes involving certain gauged Kähler sigma models minimally coupled to Einstein gravity are studied. We also describe the specific SFD features of the thermodynamics and the conditions for validity of the generalized second law in the case of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) extension of these selected CCC models.
Scale factor duality for conformal cyclic cosmologies
Silva, University Camara da; Lima, A.L. Alves; Sotkov, G.M.
2016-01-01
The scale factor duality is a symmetry of dilaton gravity which is known to lead to pre-big-bang cosmologies. A conformal time version of the scale factor duality (SFD) was recently implemented as a UV/IR symmetry between decelerated and accelerated phases of the post-big-bang evolution within Einstein gravity coupled to a scalar field. The problem investigated in the present paper concerns the employment of the conformal time SFD methods to the construction of pre-big-bang and cyclic extensions of these models. We demonstrate that each big-bang model gives rise to two qualitatively different pre-big-bang evolutions: a contraction/expansion SFD model and Penrose’s Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). A few examples of SFD symmetric cyclic universes involving certain gauged Kähler sigma models minimally coupled to Einstein gravity are studied. We also describe the specific SFD features of the thermodynamics and the conditions for validity of the generalized second law in the case of Gauss-Bonnet (GB) extension of these selected CCC models.
An event-based account of conformity.
Kim, Diana; Hommel, Bernhard
2015-04-01
People often change their behavior and beliefs when confronted with deviating behavior and beliefs of others, but the mechanisms underlying such phenomena of conformity are not well understood. Here we suggest that people cognitively represent their own actions and others' actions in comparable ways (theory of event coding), so that they may fail to distinguish these two categories of actions. If so, other people's actions that have no social meaning should induce conformity effects, especially if those actions are similar to one's own actions. We found that female participants adjusted their manual judgments of the beauty of female faces in the direction consistent with distracting information without any social meaning (numbers falling within the range of the judgment scale) and that this effect was enhanced when the distracting information was presented in movies showing the actual manual decision-making acts. These results confirm that similarity between an observed action and one's own action matters. We also found that the magnitude of the standard conformity effect was statistically equivalent to the movie-induced effect. © The Author(s) 2015.
A Mediated Moderation Model of Conformative Peer Bullying
Cho, Yoonju; Chung, Ock-Boon
2012-01-01
We investigated the relationship between conformative peer bullying and issues of peer conformity among adolescents. This relationship is examined through the establishment of a mediated moderation model for conformative peer bullying using structural equation modeling in a sample of 391 second-year middle school students in Seoul, South Korea. We…
Conformal anomaly and elimination of infrared divergences in curved spacetime
Grib, A.A.; Nesteruk, A.V.; Pritomanov, S.A.
1984-01-01
The relation between the problem of eliminating the infrared divergences and the conformal anomaly of the regularized energy-momentum tensor is studied in homogeneous isotropic and anisotropic spacetime. It is shown that elimination of the infrared divergence by means of a cutoff or the introduction of a conformally invariant mass of the field leads to the absence of the conformal anomaly
{kappa}-deformed realization of D=4 conformal algebra
Klimek, M. [Technical Univ. of Czestochowa, Inst. of Mathematics and Computer Science, Czestochowa (Poland); Lukierski, J. [Universite de Geneve, Department de Physique Theorique, Geneve (Switzerland)
1995-07-01
We describe the generators of {kappa}-conformal transformations, leaving invariant the {kappa}-deformed d`Alembert equation. In such a way one obtains the conformal extension of-shell spin spin zero realization of {kappa}-deformed Poincare algebra. Finally the algebraic structure of {kappa}-deformed conformal algebra is discussed. (author). 23 refs.
Comments on conformal masses, asymptotic backgrounds and conservation laws
Deruelle, Nathalie; Katz, Joseph
2006-01-01
The 'conformal mass prescriptions' were used recently to calculate the mass of spacetimes in higher dimensional and higher curvature theories of gravity. These definitions are closely related to Komar integrals for spacetimes that are conformally flat at great distances from the sources. We derive these relations without using the conformal infinity formalism
Selective stimulation of conformational conversions in free molecules
Ismailzade, G.I.; Movsumov, I.Z.; Menzeleev, M.R.; Kazymova, S.B.
2014-01-01
Application of double-resonance (RF-MW, IR-MW, MW-MW) methods to enhance studies of unstable isomeric structures was discussed. The use of infrared pump radiation to excite conformational energy levels in order to stimulate selectively conformational conversions and to correct spectral line intensities of separate conformations was substantiated. (authors)
49 CFR 577.9 - Conformity to statutory requirements.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conformity to statutory requirements. 577.9 Section 577.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... NOTIFICATION § 577.9 Conformity to statutory requirements. A notification that does not conform to the...
40 CFR 89.105 - Certificate of conformity.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of conformity. 89.105... and Certification Provisions § 89.105 Certificate of conformity. Every manufacturer of a new nonroad compression-ignition engine must obtain a certificate of conformity covering the engine family, as described...
14 CFR 21.130 - Statement of conformity.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement of conformity. 21.130 Section 21... conformity. Each holder or licensee of a type certificate only, for a product manufactured in the United... Administrator a statement of conformity (FAA Form 317). This statement must be signed by an authorized person...
14 CFR 21.53 - Statement of conformity.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement of conformity. 21.53 Section 21... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.53 Statement of conformity. Link to an... conformity (FAA Form 317) to the Administrator for each aircraft engine and propeller presented to the...
40 CFR 90.106 - Certificate of conformity.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of conformity. 90.106... Standards and Certification Provisions § 90.106 Certificate of conformity. (a)(1) Except as provided in § 90... certificate of conformity covering such engines; however, engines manufactured during an annual production...